Science.gov

Sample records for raw material contract

  1. Future Sources of Organic Raw Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Irving S.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the need for industrial organization, academic institutions, and national governments to agree on cooperative roles in planning the future raw materials demands of the chemical industry. Political and social concerns, as well as technical and economic considerations, are important to the raw material future of the industry. (MA)

  2. New raw material for electrical porcelain

    SciTech Connect

    Khristoforov, K.K.; Portnova, I.G.; Omel'chenko, Yu.A.

    1986-09-01

    Research is described in finding new raw materials for the fabrication of porcelain electrical insulators for power transmission lines. The materials tested come from several deposits in the Soviet Union and include alumina minerals, quartz, feldspars, pegmatites, clays, and two kaolins, as well as waste materials recovered from porcelain production. Comparative electrical and mechanical properties, grain sizes, sinterabilities, and mineral compositions are tabulated for the candidate materials.

  3. Specialty glass raw materials: Status and developments

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, R.J.; Gray, S.L.

    1996-12-31

    The authors highlight several key raw materials used in the specialty glass industry. The focus here is to update changes and shifts underway in the worldwide availability and processes that will impact both costs and efficient use of these products. The glass types that use these materials generally are those other than container, float, and fiber glass. Those high-volume consumers of glass raw materials are discussed in a companion paper in this volume. In the specialty glass field, the batch materials involve minerals, and the chemicals derived from them, which are less readily available domestically. These are much more critically defined by specifications of assay, contamination, and particle size, resulting in their being more expensive. They are seldom commodity products. The scope of materials for this fragmented industry includes those for leads, borosilicates, aluminosilicates, opals, sealing and frit glasses, optical glass, ophthalmic glass, cathode ray tubes (CRTs) for TV and display, and glass-ceramics as major segments. They use lead oxides, nearly all the alkalies and alkaline earth portions of the periodic table, as well as rare earths, transition element oxides, phosphates, boron minerals and chemicals, zircon, zinc, most of the halogens, and many of the anions. They often require very special particle size specifications. The requirements for these batch materials are often based on chemistry, the absence of contaminants that impact melting, very wide ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum, glass homogeneity, and freedom from solid and gaseous inclusions down to ppm levels in both size and number.

  4. Hydrogenated cottonseed oil as raw material for biobased materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There has been a lot of recent interest in using vegetable oils as biodegradable and renewable raw materials for the syntheses of various biobased materials. Although most of the attention has been paid to soybean oil thus far, cottonseed oil is a viable alternative. An advantage of cottonseed oil...

  5. Aerospace Fuels from Nonpetroleum Raw Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, B. A.; Hepp, A. F.; Kulis, M. J.; Jaworske, D. A.

    2013-01-01

    Recycling human metabolic and plastic wastes minimizes cost and increases efficiency by reducing the need to transport consumables and return trash, respectively, from orbit to support a space station crew. If the much larger costs of transporting consumables to the Moon and beyond are taken into account, developing waste recycling technologies becomes imperative and possibly mission enabling. Reduction of terrestrial waste streams while producing energy and/or valuable raw materials is an opportunity being realized by a new generation of visionary entrepreneurs; several relevant technologies are briefly compared, contrasted and assessed for space applications. A two-step approach to nonpetroleum raw materials utilization is presented; the first step involves production of supply or producer gas. This is akin to synthesis gas containing carbon oxides, hydrogen, and simple hydrocarbons. The second step involves production of fuel via the Sabatier process, a methanation reaction, or another gas-to-liquid technology, typically Fischer- Tropsch processing. Optimization to enhance the fraction of product stream relevant to transportation fuels via catalytic (process) development at NASA GRC is described. Energy utilization is a concern for production of fuels whether for operation on the lunar or Martian surface, or beyond. The term "green" relates to not only mitigating excess carbon release but also to the efficiency of energy usage. For space, energy usage can be an essential concern. Other issues of great concern include minimizing impurities in the product stream(s), especially those that are potential health risks and/or could de-grade operations through catalyst poisoning or equipment damage; technologies being developed to remove heteroatom impurities are discussed. Alternative technologies to utilize waste fluids, such as a propulsion option called the resistojet, are discussed. The resistojet is an electric propulsion technology with a powered thruster to

  6. Aerospace Fuels From Nonpetroleum Raw Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Kulis, Michael J.; Jaworske, Donald A.

    2013-01-01

    Recycling human metabolic and plastic wastes minimizes cost and increases efficiency by reducing the need to transport consumables and return trash, respectively, from orbit to support a space station crew. If the much larger costs of transporting consumables to the Moon and beyond are taken into account, developing waste recycling technologies becomes imperative and possibly mission enabling. Reduction of terrestrial waste streams while producing energy and/or valuable raw materials is an opportunity being realized by a new generation of visionary entrepreneurs; several relevant technologies are briefly compared, contrasted and assessed for space applications. A two-step approach to nonpetroleum raw materials utilization is presented; the first step involves production of supply or producer gas. This is akin to synthesis gas containing carbon oxides, hydrogen, and simple hydrocarbons. The second step involves production of fuel via the Sabatier process, a methanation reaction, or another gas-to-liquid technology, typically Fischer-Tropsch processing. Optimization to enhance the fraction of product stream relevant to transportation fuels via catalytic (process) development at NASA Glenn Research Center is described. Energy utilization is a concern for production of fuels whether for operation on the lunar or Martian surface, or beyond. The term green relates to not only mitigating excess carbon release but also to the efficiency of energy usage. For space, energy usage can be an essential concern. Another issue of great concern is minimizing impurities in the product stream(s), especially those that are potential health risks and/or could degrade operations through catalyst poisoning or equipment damage; technologies being developed to remove heteroatom impurities are discussed. Alternative technologies to utilize waste fluids, such as a propulsion option called the resistojet, are discussed. The resistojet is an electric propulsion technology with a powered

  7. 7 CFR 58.735 - Quality specifications for raw materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Quality specifications for raw materials. 58.735... specifications for raw materials. (a) Cheddar colby, washed or soaked curd, granular or stirred curd cheese... removal of all packaging material and surface defects. The cheese shall at least meet the requirements...

  8. 7 CFR 58.735 - Quality specifications for raw materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Quality specifications for raw materials. 58.735... specifications for raw materials. (a) Cheddar colby, washed or soaked curd, granular or stirred curd cheese... removal of all packaging material and surface defects. The cheese shall at least meet the requirements...

  9. 7 CFR 58.735 - Quality specifications for raw materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Quality specifications for raw materials. 58.735... specifications for raw materials. (a) Cheddar colby, washed or soaked curd, granular or stirred curd cheese... removal of all packaging material and surface defects. The cheese shall at least meet the requirements...

  10. Regulatory considerations for raw materials used in biological products.

    PubMed

    Khan, A S

    2010-01-01

    Raw materials are critical components of product manufacture; these include source materials such as cell substrates, tissues, and biological fluids required for product manufacture, as well as biological materials required for cell growth, propagation, differentiation, and selection. Adventitious viruses are a major safety concern in biological raw materials. This paper discusses the specific concerns related to different types of biological materials and presents the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research's perspective on the qualification and management of raw materials for purposes of developing a safety program for the manufacture of biological products.

  11. 7 CFR 58.332 - Segregation of raw material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Segregation of raw material. 58.332 Section 58.332 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Procedures § 58.332 Segregation of raw material. The milk and cream received at the dairy plant shall...

  12. 7 CFR 58.332 - Segregation of raw material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Segregation of raw material. 58.332 Section 58.332 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Procedures § 58.332 Segregation of raw material. The milk and cream received at the dairy plant shall...

  13. 7 CFR 58.332 - Segregation of raw material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Segregation of raw material. 58.332 Section 58.332 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Procedures § 58.332 Segregation of raw material. The milk and cream received at the dairy plant shall...

  14. 7 CFR 58.332 - Segregation of raw material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Segregation of raw material. 58.332 Section 58.332 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Procedures § 58.332 Segregation of raw material. The milk and cream received at the dairy plant shall...

  15. Solvent-free synthesis of zeolites from solid raw materials.

    PubMed

    Ren, Limin; Wu, Qinming; Yang, Chengguang; Zhu, Longfeng; Li, Caijin; Zhang, Pengling; Zhang, Haiyan; Meng, Xiangju; Xiao, Feng-Shou

    2012-09-19

    As important industrial materials, microporous zeolites are necessarily synthesized in the presence of solvents such as in hydrothermal, solvothermal, and ionothermal routes. We demonstrate here a simple and generalized solvent-free route for synthesizing various types of zeolites by mixing, grinding, and heating solid raw materials. Compared with conventional hydrothermal route, the avoidance of solvents in the synthesis not only significantly reduces the waste production, but also greatly increases the yield of zeolite products. In addition, the use of starting solid raw materials remarkably enhances the synthesis efficiency and reduces the use of raw materials, energy, and costs.

  16. Tracing and control of raw materials sourcing for vaccine manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Faretra Peysson, Laurence

    2010-05-01

    The control of the raw materials used to manufacture vaccines is mandatory; therefore, a very clear process must be in place to guarantee that raw materials are traced. Those who make products or supplies used in vaccine manufacture (suppliers of culture media, diagnostic tests, etc.) must apply quality systems proving that they adhere to certain standards. ISO certification, Good Manufacturing Practices for production sites and the registration of culture media with a 'Certificate of Suitability' from the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and Healthcare are reliable quality systems pertaining to vaccine production. Suppliers must assure that each lot of raw materials used in a product that will be used in vaccine manufacture adheres to the level of safety and traceability required. Incoming materials must be controlled in a single 'Enterprise Resource Planning' system which is used to document important information, such as the assignment of lot number, expiration date, etc. Ingredients for culture media in particular must conform to certain specifications. The specifications that need to be checked vary according to the ingredient, based on the level of risk. The way a raw material is produced is also important, and any aspect relative to cross-contamination, such as the sanitary measures used in producing and storing the raw material must be checked as well. In addition, suppliers can reduce the risk of viral contamination of raw materials by avoiding purchases in countries where a relevant outbreak is currently declared.

  17. 7 CFR 58.332 - Segregation of raw material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Procedures § 58.332 Segregation of raw material. The milk and cream received at the dairy plant shall meet the quality specifications as indicated under § 58.322. The milk and cream should be segregated...

  18. 60. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE RAW MATERIALS BUILDING, LOOKING AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE RAW MATERIALS BUILDING, LOOKING AT THE POIDOMETER AND WEIGHING MACHINE. MAY 5, 1919. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  19. Rare earth elements exploitation, geopolitical implications and raw materials trading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemin, Marie-Charlotte

    2015-04-01

    , establishing a company in China can lower the production cost (since the company buys the products used in its production at a lower price). In the fifth session, they study the raw materials trading based on the futures contracts example. A producer, to avoid a rise in prices of raw materials used in his production can use derivative products on the financial market: futures contracts for instance. This product ensures a quantity and quality for a price and a delivery date agreed upon today. Actually, producers can use a method called Fix price hedging in order to fix the price of a specific product. The main idea is to balance out the "physical position" (spot market) and the "paper position" (futures market). Even if the REE are commercialized in form of a non-perishable's oxide, the flow of the stock must be guaranteed and this is why it is important for producers to secure their supply of raw materials. In the last session, students search local companies that use REE in their production process and study their strategy on the market.

  20. Raw material ‘criticality’—sense or nonsense?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenzel, M.; Kullik, J.; Reuter, M. A.; Gutzmer, J.

    2017-03-01

    The past decade has seen a resurgence of interest in the supply security of mineral raw materials. A key to the current debate is the concept of ‘criticality’. The present article reviews the criticality concept, as well as the methodologies used in its assessment, including a critical evaluation of their validity in view of classical risk theory. Furthermore, it discusses a number of risks present in global raw materials markets that are not captured by most criticality assessments. Proposed measures for the alleviation of these risks are also presented. We find that current assessments of raw material criticality are fundamentally flawed in several ways. This is mostly due to a lack of adherence to risk theory, and highly limits their applicability. Many of the raw materials generally identified as critical are probably not critical. Still, the flaws of current assessments do not mean that the general issue of supply security can simply be ignored. Rather, it implies that new assessments are required. While the basic theoretical framework for such assessments is outlined in this review, detailed method development will require a major collaborative effort between different disciplines along the raw materials value chain. In the opinion of the authors, the greatest longer-term challenge in the raw materials sector is to stop, or counteract the effects of, the escalation of unit energy costs of production. This issue is particularly pressing due to its close link with the renewable energy transition, requiring more metal and mineral raw materials per unit energy produced. The solution to this problem will require coordinated policy action, as well as the collaboration of scientists from many different fields—with physics, as well as the materials and earth sciences in the lead.

  1. Dielectric Loss Measurements on Raw Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwanje, J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes an experiment used to study dielectric properties of materials. Values of the dielectric loss tangent can be determined at low frequencies from Lissajous figures formed on an oscilloscope. Some mineral rock specimens show Debye-type relaxation peaks at frequencies in the region of 1 to 500 Hz. (Author/DS)

  2. Ethanol Production from Traditional and Emerging Raw Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolf, Andreas; Karhumaa, Kaisa; Hahn-Hägerdal, Bärbel

    The ethanol industry of today utilizes raw materials rich in saccharides, such as sugar cane or sugar beets, and raw materials rich in starch, such as corn and wheat. The concern about supply of liquid transportation fuels, which has brought the crude oil price above 100 /barrel during 2006, together with the concern about global warming, have turned the interest towards large-scale ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials, such as agriculture and forestry residues. Baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the preferred fermenting microorganism for ethanol production because of its superior and well-documented industrial performance. Extensive work has been made to genetically improve S. cerevisiae to enable fermentation of lignocellulosic raw materials. Ethanolic fermentation processes are conducted in batch, fed-batch, or continuous mode, with or without cell recycling, the relative merit of which will be discussed.

  3. Raw materials in the manufacture of biotechnology products: regulatory considerations.

    PubMed

    Cordoba-Rodriguez, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration's Pharmaceutical cGMPs for the 21st Century initiative emphasizes science and risk-based approaches in the manufacture of drugs. These approaches are reflected in the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidances ICH Q8, Q9, and Q10 and encourage a comprehensive assessment of the manufacture of a biologic, including all aspects of manufacture that have the potential to affect the finished drug product. Appropriate assessment and management of raw materials are an important part of this initiative. Ideally, a raw materials program should strive to assess and minimize the risk to product quality. With this in mind, risk-assessment concepts and control strategies will be discussed and illustrated by examples, with an emphasis on the impact of raw materials on cell substrates. Finally, the life cycle of the raw material will be considered, including its potential to affect the drug product life cycle. In this framework, the supply chain and the vendor-manufacturer relationship will be explored as important parts of an adequate raw materials control strategy.

  4. Water reservoir as resource of raw material for ceramic industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irie, M.; Tarhouni, J.

    2015-04-01

    The industries related to the ceramics such as construction bricks, pottery and tile are the important sectors that cover the large part of the working population in Tunisia. The raw materials, clay or silt are excavated from opencast site of limestone clay stratum. The opencast site give the negative impact on landscape and environment, risks of landslide, soil erosion etc. On the other hand, a most serious problem in water resource management, especially in arid land such as Tunisia, is sedimentation in reservoirs. Sediment accumulation in the reservoirs reduces the water storage capacity. The authors proposed the exploitation of the sediment as raw material for the ceramics industries in the previous studies because the sediment in Tunisia is fine silt. In this study, the potential of the water reservoirs in Tunisia as the resource of the raw material for the ceramics industries is estimated from the sedimentation ratio in the water reservoirs.

  5. Optimal purchasing of raw materials: A data-driven approach

    SciTech Connect

    Muteki, K.; MacGregor, J.F.

    2008-06-15

    An approach to the optimal purchasing of raw materials that will achieve a desired product quality at a minimum cost is presented. A PLS (Partial Least Squares) approach to formulation modeling is used to combine databases on raw material properties and on past process operations and to relate these to final product quality. These PLS latent variable models are then used in a sequential quadratic programming (SQP) or mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) optimization to select those raw-materials, among all those available on the market, the ratios in which to combine them and the process conditions under which they should be processed. The approach is illustrated for the optimal purchasing of metallurgical coals for coke making in the steel industry.

  6. Natural Radioactivity of Quarry raw Material in Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haquin, G.; Gazit-Yaari, N.; Yungreis, Z.; Braun, M.; Margaliot, M.

    2004-12-01

    During the past decade Natural Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) has been receiving growing attention by radiation protection agencies, including chronic exposure to radon and radiation from building materials. A new Israeli standard (5098) which limit the radionuclide concentration in building material entered into force in 2003. Building materials are often made of natural raw materials which contain natural radionuclides from the 238U-226Ra, 232Th decay series and 40K that occur naturally in the Earth's crust. The radionuclide concentration in the building material depends on the source of the raw material, manufacturing process and the addition of technically enhanced NORM (Te NORM) like fly ash, phospho-gypsum, etc. The aim of this study was to investigate the spatial variation of the natural radioactivity in quarries in Israel, the dependency on the type of quarried substance and to asses the raw materials by radiation protection criteria. The study covered a total of 25 quarries all over Israel that manufacture different types of quarried substances (Limestone, Dolomite, Basalt, Gypsum etc.). Each of the quarries was sampled for three different aggregate sizes. The quarries were selected according to geological-geographical criteria such that all types of quarried materials throughout Israel will be investigated. The radionuclide measurement was performed by Gamma spectrometry according to standard procedures. A simulation was carried out on different concrete mixtures to asses the individual effective dose from the building materials. Results indicate large variations in the radionuclide concentration of raw materials in Israel. An optimization based on radiation protection criteria is proposed to minimize radiation exposure from building material.

  7. Characterization of silica quartz as raw material in photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boussaa, S. Anas; Kheloufi, A.; Zaourar, N. Boutarek; Kefaifi, A.; Kerkar, F.

    2016-07-01

    Raw materials are essential for the functioning of modern societies, and access to these raw materials is vital to the world economy. Sustainable development, both globally level, raises important new challenges associated with access and efficient use of raw materials. High purity quartz, is consider as a critical raw material and it is a rare commodity that only forms under geological conditions where a narrow set of chemical and physical parameters is fulfilled. When identified and following special beneficiation techniques, high purity quartz obtains very attractive prices and is applied in high technology sectors that currently are under rapid expansion such as photovoltaic solar cells, silicon metal - oxide wafers in the semiconductor industry and long distance optical fibers that are used in communication networks. Crystalline silicon remains the principal material for photovoltaic technology. Metallurgical silicon is produced industrially by the reduction of silica with carbon in an electric arc furnace at temperatures higher than 2000 °C in the hottest parts, by a reaction that can be written ideally as: SiO2 + 2C = Si + 2CO. The aim of this study has been to test experimental methods for investigating the various physical and chemical proprieties of Hoggar quartz with different techniques: X Ray Fluorescence, infra-red spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Optic Microscopy, Carbon Analyzer and Vickers Hardness. The results show finally that the quartz has got good result in purity but need enrichment for the photovoltaic application.

  8. VIEW ALONG RAW MATERIAL CONVEYOR AT RIGHT WITH CRUSHED SHELL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW ALONG RAW MATERIAL CONVEYOR AT RIGHT WITH CRUSHED SHELL CONVEYOR ABOVE. ENGINE AND RADIATOR AT LOWER LEFT. - F. & H. Benning Company Oyster Mill, 14430 Solomons Island Road (moved from 1014 Benning Road, Galesville, Anne Arundel County, Maryland), Solomons, Calvert County, MD

  9. 7 CFR 58.735 - Quality specifications for raw materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Quality specifications for raw materials. 58.735 Section 58.735 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED)...

  10. Agaves as a raw material: recent technologies and applications.

    PubMed

    Narváez-Zapata, J A; Sánchez-Teyer, L F

    2009-01-01

    Agave plants are a valuable source of raw material due to its fibrous and complex sugar content of their leaves and core, and their bagasse waste can be use for several aims. This plant genus belongs to the Agavaceae family and until now more than 200 species have been described. A large number of Agave species are currently used as raw material in several biotechnological processes. This review shows the reported applications and patents on fields like alcoholic brewages with special reference to Tequila and Mezcal, the isolation and use of compounds such as saponins and agave fructans, and their potential biotechnological application on several human demands. The process to obtain fibers and cellulose, stock feeds, and several miscellaneous extractives are also reviewed. Some possibilities and problems of cultivation are discussed.

  11. [PCR detection of transgenic elements in feed raw material].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Yu, Dao-Jian; Kang, Lin; Zhang, Gui-Ming; Jin, Xian-Zhong; Yang, Wei-Dong; Huang, Pei-Qing; Wu, Qiong; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Chu, Cheng-Cai; Cheng, Ying-Hui

    2002-05-01

    Based on the heterogeneous genes usually used in transgenic crops, the PCR technique was performed with primers derived from CaMV 35S promoter (35S-promoter,originated from cauliflower mosaic virus), NOS terminator (nopaline synthase-terminator,derived from Agrobacterium tumefaciens), EPSPS (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) gene, and CryIA(b) (delta-endotoxin,evolved from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki) gene to detect transgenic agents from feed raw materials of soybean dregs and corn gluten meal, respectively. Endogenous corn Zein (a protein extracted from corn gluten) gene, soybean Lectin (chitin-binding protein) gene and negative, positive control were applied for avoiding false results. The method established here has been successfully applied in detecting transgenic elements in imported feed raw material.

  12. Examination of microbiological quality of pharmaceutical raw materials.

    PubMed

    Bomblies, L; Weiss, C; Beckmann, G

    2007-09-01

    With the ICH harmonisation of the chapters 'Microbiological examination of non-sterile products: microbial enumeration tests' 'Test for specified micro-organisms' and 'Microbiological quality of pharmaceutical preparations' between Ph. Eur., USP and JP, altered specifications and test methods for pharmaceutical preparations are applicable in Europe since 2007 From this results the necessity to check and, where appropriate, adapt microbiological limit values in the individual monographs of the Ph. Eur.- provided that they contain such values. The present examination, which gives an evaluation of 3387 examinations in the period from 1997 to 2006 of the microbiological quality of 40 different pharmaceutical raw materials, is to provide a database for this purpose. It was shown that the existing limit values were not exceeded for 93% of the examined raw materials. 5.5% of the examinations were within the specification after using the valid tolerance factor of 5 of the old methods. Only 1.5% of all examinations led to OOS results. In comparison an evaluation of these data against the new, harmonised limits is leading to an increase in OOS results to a total of 6%. Most raw materials were of the required microbiological quality but a few, predominantly of plant origin, exceeded the limits. Regular incoming goods inspections are indispensable here.

  13. Map of critical raw material deposits in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillaume, Bertrand

    2016-04-01

    Map of critical raw material deposits in Europe Guillaume BERTRAND1, Daniel CASSARD1, Nikolaos ARVANITIDIS2, Gerry STANLEY3 and the EuroGeoSurvey Mineral Resources Expert Group4. 1 - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM), Georesources Divison, 3 avenue Claude Guillemin, 45060 Orléans cedex 2, FRANCE. 2 - Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning (SGU), Box 670, SE-751 28, Uppsala, SWEDEN 3 - Geological Survey of Ireland (GSI), Beggars Bush, Haddington Road, Dublin D04 K7X4, IRELAND 4 - EuroGeoSurveys, Rue Joseph II 36-38, 1000 Brussels, BELGIUM The Critical Raw Material (CRM) Deposit Map of Europe, prepared by EuroGeoSurvey's Mineral Resources Expert Group (MREG), shows European mineral deposits from the ProMine Mineral Deposit database containing critical commodities, according to the 2014 list of critical raw materials of the European Commission. EuroGeoSurveys (EGS), The Geological Surveys of Europe, is a not-for-profit organization representing 37 National Geological Surveys and some regional Geological Surveys in Europe. It provides the European Institutions with expert, independent, balanced and practical pan-European advice and information as an aid to problem-solving, policy development, regulatory and programme formulation in areas such as natural resources, energy and geo-hazards. The EGS MREG is actively involved in contributing to policy and strategy-making processes aimed at identifying, characterizing and safeguarding resource potential, especially for critical raw materials through data provision, research, technological development and innovation. The European Union aspires to reducing the import dependency of raw materials, especially CRM, that are essential to Europe's industries. In this respect, mineral resource information, data sharing and networking by European Geological Surveys is crucial. The Strategic Implementation Plan of the European Innovation Partnership on Raw Materials highlights the need for establishing and maintaining a

  14. Investigation of thermal properties of raw materials of asphalt mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Géber, R.; Simon, A.; Kocserha, I.

    2017-02-01

    Asphalt mixtures are composite materials, which are made of different grades of mineral aggregates and bitumen. During the mixing process mineral materials were blended with bitumen at relatively high temperature (∼200 °C). As the binding process come off in these higher temperature range, thermal properties of asphaltic materials are important. The aim of this project is to reveal the thermal properties of raw materials. During our research two types of mineral aggregates were tested (limestone and dolomite) by different methods. Differential thermal analysis, thermal expansion and thermal conductivity were investigated at technologically important temperatures. The results showed that the structure of mineral materials did not change at elevated temperatures, expansion of samples was neglible, while thermal conductivity changed by temperature.

  15. Analytical techniques for characterization of raw materials in cell culture media.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Chandana; Drew, Barry; Head, Kevin; Pusuluri, Rani; Caple, Matthew V

    2011-01-01

    Raw materials are a critical part of any cell culture medium; therefore, it is of utmost importance to understand and characterize them for high-quality product. The raw material characterization (RMC) program at SAFC focuses on individual screening of raw materials both analytically and biologically. The goal of the program is to develop the best-in-class knowledge base of the raw materials used in SAFC's media formulations and their impact on performance of products.

  16. RECOVERY OF URANIUM VALUES FROM URANIUM BEARING RAW MATERIALS

    DOEpatents

    Michal, E.J.; Porter, R.R.

    1959-06-16

    Uranium leaching from ground uranium-bearing raw materials using MnO/sub 2/ in H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ is described. The MnO/sub 2/ oxidizes U to the leachable hexavalent state. The MnO/sub 2/ does not replace Fe normally added, because the Fe complexes P and catalyzes the MnO/sub 2/ reaction. Three examples of continuous processes are given, but batch operation is also possible. The use of MnO/sub 2/ makes possible recovery of very low U values. (T.R.H.)

  17. [Research progress of Chinese herbal medicine raw materials in cosmetics].

    PubMed

    Xie, Yan-jun; Kong, Wei-jun; Yang, Mei-hua; Yang, Shi-hai

    2015-10-01

    Advocating green, nature, environmental protection, safety and the pursuit of efficacy are the trends of cosmetics in the world. In recent years, more and more Chinese herbal extracts with mild, high safety and small irritation are applied to cosmetics as the natural additives. This has become a new hot spot. The recent application advances of Chinese medicine raw materials in cosmetics are overviewed according to their main functions. This review will provide useful references for the future development and application of Chinese medicinal herbs cosmetics.

  18. Methodology for Evaluating Raw Material Changes to RSRM Elastomeric Insulation Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mildenhall, Scott D.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) uses asbestos and silicon dioxide filled acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (AS-NBR) as the primary internal insulation to protect the case from heat. During the course of the RSRM Program, several changes have been made to the raw materials and processing of the AS-NBR elastomeric insulation material. These changes have been primarily caused by raw materials becoming obsolete. In addition, some process changes have been implemented that were deemed necessary to improve the quality and consistency of the AS-NBR insulation material. Each change has been evaluated using unique test efforts customized to determine the potential impacts of the specific raw material or process change. Following the evaluations, the various raw material and process changes were successfully implemented with no detectable effect on the performance of the AS-NBR insulation. This paper will discuss some of the raw material and process changes evaluated, the methodology used in designing the unique test plans, and the general evaluation results. A summary of the change history of RSRM AS-NBR internal insulation is also presented.

  19. Emergy analysis of biogas systems based on different raw materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Lin, Cong; Li, Jing; Duan, Na; Li, Xue; Fu, Yanyan

    2013-01-01

    Environmental pollution and energy crisis restrict the development of China, and the utilization of renewable technology is an effective strategy to alleviate the damage. Biogas engineering has rapidly developed attributes to solve environmental problems and create a renewable energy product biogas. In this paper, two different biogas plants' materials were analyzed by emergy method. One of them is a biogas project whose degraded material is feces (BPF system), and the other is the one whose degraded material is corn straw (BPC system). As a result, the ecological-economic values of BPF and BPC are $28,300/yr and $8,100/yr, respectively. Considering currency, environment, and human inputs, both of the biogas projects have the ability of disposing waste and potential for development. The proportion of biogas output is much more than fertilizer output; so, fertilizer utilization should be emphasized in the future. In comparison, BPF is better than BPC in the aspects of ecological-economic benefits, environmental benefits, and sustainability. The reason is the difficulty of corn straw seasonal collection and degradation. Thus it is proposed that BPC should be combined with the other raw materials.

  20. Characterization and evaluation of golpata fronds as pulping raw materials.

    PubMed

    Jahan, M Sarwar; Chowdhury, D A Nasima; Islam, M Khalidul

    2006-02-01

    The chemical, morphological and anatomical studies of golpata fronds have been discussed. The lignin, pentosan and alpha-cellulose in golpata fronds were comparable to some common nonwood and hardwood raw materials. The alkali, water and dichloromethane solubility were higher than wood and common nonwood. The fiber length 1.73 mm was observed, which is little bit shorter than softwood and longer than hardwood but fiber diameter was very short. The pulpability of golpata fronds has also been studied. The pulp yield was very low and Kappa number was high. The strength properties were better than that of some common nonwood pulps. FT-IR spectrum and alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation products showed that golpata fronds lignin mainly consist of syringyl (S) and guaiacyl units (V).

  1. 48 CFR 16.601 - Time-and-materials contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... contracts for certain commercial services. (1) Government surveillance. A time-and-materials contract... contracts for acquisition of commercial items. (e) Solicitation provisions. (1) The contracting officer... for supplies and incidental services for which there is not a labor category specified in the...

  2. Cross-laminated timber made of Hungarian raw materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marko, G.; Bejo, L.; Takats, P.

    2016-04-01

    Cross-laminated timber (CLT), generally made out of softwood, enjoys increasing popularity throughout Europe. This material offers a versatile, eco-friendly technology to create strong, lightweight and energy-efficient buildings. Unfortunately, the sites and climatic conditions in Hungary are not suitable for growing high-quality coniferous trees. Transporting raw materials from other countries (sometimes thousands of kilometres away) negates the environmental advantages of wood-based construction. Local options are definitely preferable from an ecological aspect. Poplar wood (populus spp.) is of great economic importance in Hungary. There are several relatively high density, high strength varieties growing in large quantities in Hungary, that may be used as alternatives to softwood, with comparable properties. There is an increasing interest in using poplar as a construction material, especially in regions were there is a shortage of traditional construction timber. This paper presents the results of a preliminary investigation to create CLT using poplar lumber. Laboratory-scale CLT specimens were created in a hot press, and tested for their loadbearing capacity. The MOR values of poplar CLT are comparable to, albeit somewhat lowerthan those of softwood CLT. Further investigations are required to establish the economic viability and technological conditions for the commercial production of poplar CLT.

  3. Multidisciplinary characterisation of raw materials used for 'ghiara

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barca, Donatella; Belfiore, Cristina M.; La Russa, Mauro F.; Pelle, Teresa; Pezzino, Antonio; Scarciglia, Fabio; Viccaro, Marco

    2010-05-01

    This work deals with new data on the raw materials used for the production of typical ghiara mortars, widely employed in historical buildings of Catania downtown (Eastern Sicily, Southern Italy). Ghiara aggregates are interpreted as the product of thermal transformation of soils rich in organic matter as a consequence of heating induced by the flowing lavas of Mt. Etna volcano on them. This process changes the original brown colour of the soil to reddish nuances. Aim of this study is a multidisciplinary investigation of such raw materials by comparing various ghiara samples from different ancient quarries located in areas covered by historic lava flows (both in the historic centre and the periphery of Catania) with a still-preserved, unburied and unburnt, volcanic soil profile presumably correlated with those affected by transformation. Relevant information about the compositional, physical, petrographic and mineralogical features is provided, mainly on the weathering degree, the patterns that affect the primary components and the newly-formed phases. This allows the acquisition of new elements on the ghiara genesis and its physical-chemical formation conditions. Several analytical techniques were used to characterise both the ghiara and soil samples from the same profile. Major and trace element patterns of ghiara and soil samples are very similar, supporting the hypothesis that the studied soil really represents the parent material of ghiara unaffected by the lava flow-induced transformation. Plagioclase, pyroxene and quartz grains of ghiara samples exhibit important corrosion features, often coupled with Si-Al and Si amorphous phases as well as Fe-oxides/hydroxides. Conversely, primary minerals are fairly fresh within the soil. The clay mineralogy of soil horizons consists of illite and kaolinite phyllosilicates (along with halloysite-7Å in one sample), whereas ghiara includes illite and hematite and/or goethite. Organic matter occurs in significant amounts

  4. Material characterization of microsphere-based scaffolds with encapsulated raw materials.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, BanuPriya; Mohan, Neethu; Berkland, Cory J; Detamore, Michael S

    2016-06-01

    "Raw materials," or materials capable of serving both as building blocks and as signals, which are often but not always natural materials, are taking center stage in biomaterials for contemporary regenerative medicine. In osteochondral tissue engineering, a field leveraging the underlying bone to facilitate cartilage regeneration, common raw materials include chondroitin sulfate (CS) for cartilage and β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) for bone. Building on our previous work with gradient scaffolds based on microspheres, here we delved deeper into the characterization of individual components. In the current study, the release of CS and TCP from poly(D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microsphere-based scaffolds was evaluated over a time period of 4 weeks. Raw material encapsulated groups were compared to 'blank' groups and evaluated for surface topology, molecular weight, and mechanical performance as a function of time. The CS group may have led to increased surface porosity, and the addition of CS improved the mechanical performance of the scaffold. The finding that CS was completely released into the surrounding media by 4 weeks has a significant impact on future in vivo studies, given rapid bioavailability. The addition of TCP seemed to contribute to the rough external appearance of the scaffold. The current study provides an introduction to degradation patterns of homogenous raw material encapsulated scaffolds, providing characterization data to advance the field of microsphere-based scaffolds in tissue engineering.

  5. 20. Raw Material for the Geographic Magazine. The mills of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Raw Material for the Geographic Magazine. The mills of the Champion International Company which make paper on which the National Geographic Magazine is printed are located in Lawrence, Mass. This picture shows great piles of pulp-wood ready for conversion into paper for the The Geographic. Parts of these wood piles are more than 50 feet high. The cars shown in the picture are on a trestle 21 feet high. The Geographic magazines mailed in a single year, if laid side by side, would reach from Quito, Ecuador, across Colombia and Caribbean, thence across the United States and Canada, through the North Pole, and across Siberia, China, and Siam to Bangkok. It takes 33,000 miles of wrappers to mail one year's edition. It would require a bookshelf more than three and a half miles long to hold all the copies of this month's issue of The Geographic. (p.235.) - Champion-International Paper Company, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  6. Plant development effects of biochars from different raw materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cely, Paola; Méndez, Ana; Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge; Gascó, Gabriel

    2015-04-01

    Biochar can provide multiple benefits in the ecosystem. However, the presence of phytotoxic compounds in some biochars is an important concern that needs to be addressed and that depends on the raw material and the pyrolysis conditions used in biochar production. For example, sewage sludge biochars can have elevated heavy metal contents as they were present in the feedstock and were enriched during pyrolysis. Also during carbonization, some phytotoxic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polyphenols or volatile organic compounds (VOCs) could be formed representing a risk of contamination to soils and crops. In this work we report the results from seed germination and plant development for three biochars prepared from wood, paper sludge plus wheat husks and sewage sludge. Five higher plant species (cress, lentils, cucumber, tomato and lettuce) were studied. Biochar from wood shows seed inhibition in several species and the paper sludge biochar on lettuce. For the rest, the effect on seed germination was positive. No inhibition of root growth was detected, but in some cases leaves and stems growth were inhibited. Our results are significant in terms of advancing or current understanding on the impacts of biochar on vegetative growth and linking those effects to biochar properties.

  7. Microalgae as a raw material for biofuels production.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Luisa; Oliveira, Ana Cristina

    2009-02-01

    Biofuels demand is unquestionable in order to reduce gaseous emissions (fossil CO(2), nitrogen and sulfur oxides) and their purported greenhouse, climatic changes and global warming effects, to face the frequent oil supply crises, as a way to help non-fossil fuel producer countries to reduce energy dependence, contributing to security of supply, promoting environmental sustainability and meeting the EU target of at least of 10% biofuels in the transport sector by 2020. Biodiesel is usually produced from oleaginous crops, such as rapeseed, soybean, sunflower and palm. However, the use of microalgae can be a suitable alternative feedstock for next generation biofuels because certain species contain high amounts of oil, which could be extracted, processed and refined into transportation fuels, using currently available technology; they have fast growth rate, permit the use of non-arable land and non-potable water, use far less water and do not displace food crops cultures; their production is not seasonal and they can be harvested daily. The screening of microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris, Spirulina maxima, Nannochloropsis sp., Neochloris oleabundans, Scenedesmus obliquus and Dunaliella tertiolecta) was done in order to choose the best one(s), in terms of quantity and quality as oil source for biofuel production. Neochloris oleabundans (fresh water microalga) and Nannochloropsis sp. (marine microalga) proved to be suitable as raw materials for biofuel production, due to their high oil content (29.0 and 28.7%, respectively). Both microalgae, when grown under nitrogen shortage, show a great increase (approximately 50%) in oil quantity. If the purpose is to produce biodiesel only from one species, Scenedesmus obliquus presents the most adequate fatty acid profile, namely in terms of linolenic and other polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, the microalgae Neochloris oleabundans, Nannochloropsis sp. and Dunaliella tertiolecta can also be used if associated with other

  8. Bioactive β-carbolines norharman and harman in traditional and novel raw materials for chicory coffee.

    PubMed

    Wojtowicz, Elżbieta; Zawirska-Wojtasiak, Renata; Przygoński, Krzysztof; Mildner-Szkudlarz, Sylwia

    2015-05-15

    The β-carboline compounds norharman and harman exhibit neuroactive activity in the human body. Chicory coffee has proved to be a source of β-carboline compounds. This study assessed the norharman and harman contents of traditional and novel raw materials for the production of chicory coffee, as well as in samples of chicory coffee with novel additives. The highest content of the β-carbolines among the traditional raw materials was recorded in roasted sugar beet (2.26 μg/g), while roasting the chicory caused a 25-fold increase in the content of norharman in this raw material (from 0.05 to 1.25 μg/g). In novel raw materials not subjected to the action of high temperature, β-carboline was not detected. Among the roasted novel raw materials, the highest contents of harman and norharman were found in artichokes. High harman levels were also recorded in roasted chokeberry.

  9. Novel class of eco-flame retardants based on the renewable raw materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakharov, A. M.; Sakharov, P. A.; Lomakin, S. M.; Zaikov, G. E.

    2012-07-01

    The present study is focused on development of environmentally friendly intumescent/char forming coatings for wood and polymeric materials. For this purpose we have developed the method of oxidation of raw materials: polysaccharides, seeds and lignin by oxygen in the presence of catalyst. The main products of oxidation of such substrates are the salts of polyoxy- and polyphenoxy acids. The efficiency of fireproofing action of novel surface protecting intumescent coating for wood and polymeric materials based on modified renewable raw materials was studied. Flammability tests of wood and polymers samples treated by oxidized raw materials confirm their high-performance fire protection.

  10. Determination of some radionucluides and heavy elements concentrations in concrete raw materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ElFaham, Mohamed M.; Khalil, Osama M.; Elhassan, Asmaa; Salama, S.

    2015-08-01

    The presence of natural radionuclides in raw materials used in cement manufacturing was determined by using analytical methods. The used Raw materials are limestone, clay, slag, and gypsum, which be used with different concentrations in cement production. Different analytical techniques such as Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique, Gamma spectroscopy, Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), in addition to X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) for phase identification of a crystalline material. The obtained data show that there is no significant radiological hazards arising from using the present cement components in the different applications. XRD data shows that there is no crystalline structures in the raw materials.

  11. Leveraging "raw materials" as building blocks and bioactive signals in regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Renth, Amanda N; Detamore, Michael S

    2012-10-01

    Components found within the extracellular matrix (ECM) have emerged as an essential subset of biomaterials for tissue engineering scaffolds. Collagen, glycosaminoglycans, bioceramics, and ECM-based matrices are the main categories of "raw materials" used in a wide variety of tissue engineering strategies. The advantages of raw materials include their inherent ability to create a microenvironment that contains physical, chemical, and mechanical cues similar to native tissue, which prove unmatched by synthetic biomaterials alone. Moreover, these raw materials provide a head start in the regeneration of tissues by providing building blocks to be bioresorbed and incorporated into the tissue as opposed to being biodegraded into waste products and removed. This article reviews the strategies and applications of employing raw materials as components of tissue engineering constructs. Utilizing raw materials holds the potential to provide both a scaffold and a signal, perhaps even without the addition of exogenous growth factors or cytokines. Raw materials contain endogenous proteins that may also help to improve the translational success of tissue engineering solutions to progress from laboratory bench to clinical therapies. Traditionally, the tissue engineering triad has included cells, signals, and materials. Whether raw materials represent their own new paradigm or are categorized as a bridge between signals and materials, it is clear that they have emerged as a leading strategy in regenerative medicine. The common use of raw materials in commercial products as well as their growing presence in the research community speak to their potential. However, there has heretofore not been a coordinated or organized effort to classify these approaches, and as such we recommend that the use of raw materials be introduced into the collective consciousness of our field as a recognized classification of regenerative medicine strategies.

  12. [Screening of compounds of nitrofuran in imported meat raw materials].

    PubMed

    Zakrevskii, V V; Leleko, S N

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the results of screening studies of quantification of the nitrofuran drugs imported in raw meat (turkey, beef pork, veal, lamb, chicken). Identification was carried out by the detection ofsuch nitrofurans metabolites as: 1-aminogidantoin (AGD), 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone (AOZ) and 3-amino-5-morpholinomethyl-2-oxazolidinone (AMOZ). There are analyzed the positive and negative effects of nitrofuran drugs. The data for the establishment of the potential risks to human health when using contaminated raw meat metabolites of nitrofurans are discussed. These drugs are prohibited in livestock in Europe since 1995 due to the adverse effects (carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic and toxic) on animals and the potential risk to humans. In the Russian Federation in accordance with SanPin 2.3.2.1078-01 01.01.2012 for the first time the was introduced rationing for nitrofurans (including furazolidone).

  13. Preparation of Al8B4C7 composite materials by using oxide raw materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, H. X.; Pan, C.; Deng, C. J.; Yuan, W. J.

    2011-10-01

    Al8B4C7 composites materials were prepared by using Al, B2O3 and C as raw materials. The effect of sintering temperature and different additives (Al and C) on Al8B4C7 composites materials were investigated. The Al8B4C7 composites materials were characterized from microstructure, apparent porosity, bulk density and compressive strength. The results demonstrated that the increasing of sintering temperatures could make the samples denser and improve compressive strength. The optimal sintering temperature was 1700 °C, and the main phase composition of Al8B4C7 composites materials were Al8B4C7 and Al2O3. Al additive could improve the properties while C additive played an harmful role. The Al8B4C7 grains were irregular flake and the size was 2~4 μm.

  14. INTRAW, the EU Observatory for raw materials: fostering international cooperation and developing new opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correia, Victor; Allington, Ruth; Keane, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    A secure supply of raw materials is a European priority that extends beyond country borders and national policies. Recent European initiatives have pioneered the development of an EU strategy on raw materials emphasizing the concept of the "added value chain", which continues to pursue the three pillar strategy to: (1) ensure the fair and sustainable supply of raw materials from international markets, promoting international cooperation with developed and developing countries; (2) foster sustainable supply of raw materials from European sources, and (3) reduce consumption of primary raw materials by increasing resource efficiency and promoting recycling. This contribution presents the Horizon 2020 funded project INTRAW, the objective of which is to establish the European Union's International Observatory for Raw Materials. The creation and maintenance of the European Union's International Observatory for Raw Materials is designed to have a strong impact in two dimensions: 1. To narrow the existing gap in aspects of the raw materials knowledge infrastructure in the EU by providing a link with the same knowledge infrastructure in technologically advanced reference countries. This should contribute to the harmonization of mineral policies all over the EU, by providing data that enables evidence-based policies and appropriate, cost-effective management, planning and adaptation decisions by the public sector. This will benefit businesses, industry and society. The Observatory will also provide to policy makers in the EU and its Member States the data they need to facilitate discussion in multilateral forums. 2. To enable a better alignment of the R&I activities among the individual EU members and international cooperation countries AND between the European Union and international cooperation countries by boosting synergies with international research and innovation programmes. This way the EU's role and scientific capabilities in the raw materials area will be

  15. 48 CFR 16.601 - Time-and-materials contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... contracting officer has not determined the price to be unreasonable. (3) Material handling costs. When included as part of material costs, material handling costs shall include only costs clearly excluded from the labor-hour rate. Material handling costs may include all appropriate indirect costs allocated...

  16. The U.S. Chemical Industry, the Raw Materials It Uses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1972

    1972-01-01

    The raw materials used by the industry are considered in this section of the annual chemical industry report, including data covering: natural gas, lead, mercury, phosphate rock, potash, salt, petroleum products including petrochemical feedstocks. (PR)

  17. Enhancement of efficiency of storage and processing of food raw materials using radiation technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gracheva, A. Yu.; Zav'yalov, M. A.; Ilyukhina, N. V.; Kukhto, V. A.; Tarasyuk, V. T.; Filippovich, V. P.; Egorkin, A. V.; Chasovskikh, A. V.; Pavlov, Yu. S.; Prokopenko, A. V.; Strokova, N. E.; Artem'ev, S. A.; Polyakova, S. P.

    2016-12-01

    The work is dedicated to improvement of efficiency of storage and processing of food raw materials using radiation technologies. International practice of radiation processing of food raw materials is presented and an increase in the consumption of irradiated food products is shown. The prospects of using radiation technologies for the processing of food products in Russia are discussed. The results of studies of radiation effects on various food products and packaging film by γ radiation and accelerated electrons are presented.

  18. 40 CFR 63.1343 - What standards apply to my kilns, clinker coolers, raw material dryers, and open clinker storage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., clinker coolers, raw material dryers, and open clinker storage piles? 63.1343 Section 63.1343 Protection... associated with that kiln, clinker cooler, raw material dryer, and open clinker storage pile. All D/F, HCl... Limits § 63.1343 What standards apply to my kilns, clinker coolers, raw material dryers, and open...

  19. 40 CFR 63.1343 - What standards apply to my kilns, clinker coolers, raw material dryers, and open clinker storage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., clinker coolers, raw material dryers, and open clinker storage piles? 63.1343 Section 63.1343 Protection... associated with that kiln, clinker cooler, raw material dryer, and open clinker storage pile. All D/F, HCl... Limits § 63.1343 What standards apply to my kilns, clinker coolers, raw material dryers, and open...

  20. Effect of Selected Alternative Fuels and Raw Materials on the Cement Clinker Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strigáč, Július

    2015-11-01

    The article deals with the study of the effects of alternative fuels and raw materials on the cement clinker quality. The clinker quality was expressed by the content of two principal minerals alite C3S and belite C2S. The additions of alternative fuels ashes and raw materials, in principle, always increased the belite content and conversely reduced the amount of alite. The alternative fuels with high ash content were used such as the meat-bone meal, sewage sludge from sewage treatment plants and paper sludge and the used alternative raw materials were metallurgical slags - granulated blastfurnace slag, air cooled blastfurnace slag and demetallized steel slag, fluidized bed combustion fly ash and waste glass. Meat-bone meal, sewage sludge from sewage treatment plants and paper sludge were evaluated as moderately suitable alternative fuels which can be added in the amounts of 2.8 wt. % addition of meat-bone meals ash, 3.64 wt. % addition of sewage sludge ash and 3.8 wt. % addition of paper sludge ash to the cement raw mixture. Demetallised steel slag is suitable for production of special sulphate resistant cement clinker for CEM I -SR cement with addition up to 5 wt. %. Granulated blastfurnace slag is a suitable alternative raw material with addition 4 wt. %. Air cooled blastfurnace slag is a suitable alternative raw material with addition 4.2 wt. %. Waste glass is not very appropriate alternative raw material with addition only 1.16 wt. %. Fluidized bed combustion fly ash appears not to be equally appropriate alternative raw material for cement clinker burning with less potential utilization in the cement industry and with addition 3.41 wt. %, which forms undesired anhydrite CaSO4 in the cement clinker.

  1. Resource selection of lithic raw materials in the Middle Palaeolithic in southern France.

    PubMed

    Browne, Constance L; Wilson, Lucy

    2011-11-01

    The work reported here uses several approaches to examine the costs and benefits associated with exploiting potential sources of lithic raw material in the Vaucluse, southern France, and then tests the results against the proportions of raw materials from various sources found in the lithic assemblage of a Middle Palaeolithic site, the Bau de l'Aubesier. A previously published equation designed to quantify the attractiveness of each source proves to be significantly correlated with source use, but the results show that it can be improved. We then individually test the components of the attractiveness equation (raw material quality, source extent, terrain difficulty, and the size and abundance of raw material pieces at the source) and additional variables (Calories expended to get from the source to the site using a straight-line route, Calories expended using a least-cost path, surface distance of the source from the site, and distance to the closest used source) using generalized linear models. Since very similar raw materials can be found at more than one source, we combine such similar sources into source areas, and test the area of the source area (AOSA) and the total area of sources within the source area (AOSISA), as two additional independent variables. The best model shows that raw material quality, source extent, abundance of large and very large rocks, and AOSISA, are positively correlated with use of sources, while terrain difficulty, abundance of small and medium rocks, Calories, and AOSA, are negatively correlated with source use. This shows that the hominins at the Bau de l'Aubesier optimized their raw material procurement to get the most good quality material that they could, while minimizing the time and energy spent getting and using it.

  2. Building Energy Efficiency and the Use of Raw Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Luo

    To become a country of energy saving, consumption reduction, low carbon emissions and life has become a national policy background, we need to convert conception of architectural aesthetics and make necessary adjustments and consciousness. Techniques and methods of support, or method of the research are still needed in the construction, building energy conservation, the environmental protection, low carbon and recycling methods are taken measures. Developing, finding and adopingt "native" and "primary" processed materials, or in which inject new technology to form new material is an effective approach to ensure more ways from environmental protection, energy-saving building and building materials in such ideas to implement.

  3. One step sintering of homogenized bauxite raw material and kinetic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Chang-he; Jiang, Peng; Li, Yong; Sun, Jia-lin; Zhang, Jun-jie; Yang, Huan-ying

    2016-10-01

    A one-step sintering process of bauxite raw material from direct mining was completed, and the kinetics of this process was analyzed thoroughly. The results show that the sintering kinetics of bauxite raw material exhibits the liquid-phase sintering behavior. A small portion of impurities existed in the raw material act as a liquid phase. After X-ray diffraction analyses, scanning electron microscopy observations, and kinetics calculations, sintering temperature and heating duration were determined as the two major factors contributing to the sintering process and densification of bauxite ore. An elevated heating temperature and longer duration favor the densification process. The major obstacle for the densification of bauxite material is attributed to the formation of the enclosed blowhole during liquid-phase sintering.

  4. Different drying technologies and alternation of mycobiots in the raw material of Hyssopus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Raila, Algirdas; Lugauskas, Albinas; Kemzūraite, Aurelija; Zvicevicius, Egidijus; Ragazinskiene, Ona; Railiene, Marija

    2009-01-01

    Contamination of medicinal plant mass with mycobiots is one of the negative factors deteriorating the quality of raw material. In order to evaluate the impact of the yield processing technologies upon the changes of mycobiots in raw material, the mycobiotic conditions of herb hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) raw material were evaluated under various regimes of active ventilation and optimization of the drying parameters. The impact of ventilation intensity and temperature of drying agent upon the changes and abundance of mycobiota species in medicinal raw material was determined. Irrespective of the temperature of the airflow, the strongest suppressive effect upon the mycobiotic contamination in Hyssopi herba was produced by the 5,000 m3 x (t x h)(-1) airflow. Analysis of the isolated fungi revealed the prevalence of Penicillium, Aspergillus, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Mucor, Rhizopus species in the raw material. In separate samples Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Aureobasidium pullulans, Chrysosporium merdarium, Cladorrhinum foecundissimum, Ulocladium consortiale, Trichoderma hamatum, T. harzianum, Gilmaniella humicola, Talaromyces flavus, Rhizomucor pusillus, Hansfordia ovalispora, Verticicladium trifi dum, Trichosporiella cerebriformis micromycetes were also rather abundant. Detection of the above-mentioned micromycetes in herb hyssop samples differed, and partially depended upon the medium used for their isolation.

  5. Data fusion-based assessment of raw materials in mammalian cell culture.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae Woo; Christie, Andrew; Xu, Jin; Yoon, Seongkyu

    2012-11-01

    In mammalian cell culture producing therapeutic proteins, one of the important challenges is the use of several complex raw materials whose compositional variability is relatively high and their influences on cell culture is poorly understood. Under these circumstances, application of spectroscopic techniques combined with chemometrics can provide fast, simple, and non-destructive ways to evaluate raw material quality, leading to more consistent cell culture performance. In this study, a comprehensive data fusion strategy of combining multiple spectroscopic techniques is investigated for the prediction of raw material quality in mammalian cell culture. To achieve this purpose, four different spectroscopic techniques of near-infrared, Raman, 2D fluorescence, and X-ray fluorescence spectra were employed for comprehensive characterization of soy hydrolysates which are commonly used as supplements in culture media. First, the different spectra were compared separately in terms of their prediction capability. Then, ensemble partial least squares (EPLS) was further employed by combining all of these spectral datasets in order to produce a more accurate estimation of raw material properties, and compared with other data fusion techniques. The results showed that data fusion models based on EPLS always exhibit best prediction accuracy among all the models including individual spectroscopic methods, demonstrating the synergetic effects of data fusion in characterizing the raw material quality.

  6. Vinasse organic matter quality and mineralization potential, as influenced by raw material, fermentation and concentration processes.

    PubMed

    Parnaudeau, V; Condom, N; Oliver, R; Cazevieille, P; Recous, S

    2008-04-01

    Both dilute and concentrated vinasse can be spread on agricultural fields or used as organic fertilizer. The effects of different characteristics of the original raw material on the biochemical composition of vinasse and their C and N mineralization in soil were investigated. Vinasse samples were obtained from similar industrial fermentation processes based on the growth of microorganisms on molasses from different raw material (sugar beet or sugar cane) and vinasse concentration (dilute or concentrated). The nature of the raw material used for fermentation had the greatest effect on the nature and size of the resistant organic pool. This fraction included aromatic compounds originating from the raw material or from complex molecules and seemed to be quantitatively related to acid-insoluble N. Samples derived from sugar beet were richer in N compounds and induced greater net N mineralization. The effect of evaporation varied with the nature of the raw material. Concentration led to a slight increase in the abundance of phenolic compounds, acid-insoluble fraction, and a slight decrease in the labile fraction of vinasses partly or totally derived from sugar beet. The effect of the dilute vinasse from sugar cane was greater. The concentrated vinasse had a smaller labile fraction, induced N immobilization at the beginning of incubation, and exhibited greater N concentration in the acid-insoluble fraction than the dilute vinasse.

  7. Sucrose: A Prospering and Sustainable Organic Raw Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Siegfried; Rose, Thomas; Moser, Matthias

    Sucrose (α-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-fructofuranoside) is an inexpensive chemical produced by sugar cane and sugar beet cultivation. Chemical and/or biochemical transformations convert it into highly valuable synthetic intermediates such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), bioethylene, 1,2-propylene glycol and levulinic acid. Sucrose can also be converted into biodegradable polymers such as polyesters and polyurethanes, as well as into novel carbohydrates such as isomaltulose, trehalulose, inulin, levan, Neo-amylose, and dextran, highly valuable additives for food and cosmetics and materials for separation and purification technologies.

  8. The potential of encapsulating "raw materials" in 3D osteochondral gradient scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Neethu; Gupta, Vineet; Sridharan, Banupriya; Sutherland, Amanda; Detamore, Michael S

    2014-04-01

    Scaffolds with continuous gradients in material composition and bioactive signals enable a smooth transition of properties at the interface. Components like chondroitin sulfate (CS) and bioactive glass (BG) in 3D scaffolds may serve as "raw materials" for synthesis of new extracellular matrix (ECM), and may have the potential to completely or partially replace expensive growth factors. We hypothesized that scaffolds with gradients of ECM components would enable superior performance of engineered constructs. Raw material encapsulation altered the appearance, structure, porosity, and degradation of the scaffolds. They allowed the scaffolds to better retain their 3D structure during culture and provided a buffering effect to the cells in culture. Following seeding of rat mesenchymal stem cells, there were several instances where glycosaminoglycan (GAG), collagen, or calcium contents were higher with the scaffolds containing raw materials (CS or BG) than with those containing transforming growth factor (TGF)-β3 or bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2. It was also noteworthy that a combination of both CS and TGF-β3 increased the secretion of collagen type II. Moreover, cells seeded in scaffolds containing opposing gradients of CS/TGF-β3 and BG/BMP-2 produced clear regional variations in the secretion of tissue-specific ECM. The study demonstrated raw materials have the potential to create a favorable microenvironment for cells; they can significantly enhance the synthesis of certain extracellular matrix (ECM) components when compared to expensive growth factors; either alone or in combination with growth factors they can enhance the secretion of tissue specific matrix proteins. Raw materials are promising candidates that can be used to either replace or be used in combination with growth factors. Success with raw materials in lieu of growth factors could have profound implications in terms of lower cost and faster regulatory approval for more rapid translation of

  9. Prospection of Portland cement raw material: A case study in the Marmara region of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özgüner, A. M.

    2014-09-01

    Representative sampling of the raw materials used to make Portland cement, correct calculations for the possible clinker mixtures, sufficient reserves of the raw materials and selection of the correct infrastructure for the location of a cement factory are essential to the protection of the great investment in the factory. The results of chemical analyses of pipe samples taken in the field at right angles to the strikes of favourable limestone, clay, shale, and marl outcrops were used in Kind's lime saturation formula for clinker calculations of the possible mixtures. The cement modulus values were calculated using the corresponding clinker oxide ratios and were confirmed to be within the standard intervals for positive cement raw material mixtures. The most promising raw material source, a double lithologic mixture of limestone and mudstone was found during the prospection in north of Bilecik Province, where rhyolitic tuff outcrops with pozzolanic properties also exist. Some marble quarries nearby have been inclined to dispose of their marble wastes for use in cement production to prevent polluting the environment with them. The nearby Gemlik fertiliser factory provides inexpensive waste gypsum that can be used as a cool cement mixing material. The limestone, mudstone and trass raw material reserves in this area were calculated to be sufficient for the factory's requirements for more than 100 years of operation as results of the detailed geological mapping. The regional infrastructure is most suitable for distribution and marketing of cement products. The cement factory described in this study has been producing cement for the last 3 years, after coring and testing of the raw material reserves.

  10. Chromatographic determination of amino acid enantiomers in beers and raw materials used for their manufacture.

    PubMed

    Erbe, T; Brückner, H

    2000-06-09

    Using gas chromatography (GC) on a chiral stationary phase, accompanied by high-performance liquid chromatography, beers and raw materials used for manufacturing (hops, barley grains, malts) were investigated for the pattern and quantities of amino acid enantiomers. Although L-amino acids were most abundant, certain D-amino acids were detected in all beers and most of the raw materials. Highest amounts of D-amino acids were detected in special beers such as Berliner Weisse that underwent bottle-conditioning with lactic cultures, and Belgian fruit beers produced by spontaneous fermentation. It is demonstrated that GC on chiral stationary phases is highly suitable for the quantitative determination of amino acid enantiomers in beers and raw materials used for their manufacture. Quantities, relative amounts and pattern of amino acid enantiomers can serve in particular as chiral markers for the authenticity of special beers.

  11. [Study on fluorescence sequencing typing technology identification of raw materials in liuwei dihuang pill].

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhan-Hu; Huang, Lu-Qi; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Min-Hui; Jiang, Chao; Zhou, Li-She

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, Liuwei Dihuang pill was used to study the identification of Chinese patent medicine by fluorescence sequencing typing technology. The DNA of Paeonia suffruticosa was used as template to amplify by five pair of FAM fluorescence labeling primers. Then, the amplified products were sequenced. The sequencing results were analyzed by GeneMarker V1.80 to screen the best fluorescence labeling primers. As a result, psbA-trnH fluorescence labeling primer was used to identify the raw materials of Liuwei Dihuang pill. The results showed that three kinds of raw plant medicinal materials in Liuwei Dihuang pill were able to be correctly identified by psbA-trnH fluorescence labeling primer. The fluorescence sequencing typing technology can stably and accurately distinguish raw medicinal materials in Chinese patent medicine.

  12. Cellulose acetate fibers prepared from different raw materials with rapid synthesis method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinghuan; Xu, Jikun; Wang, Kun; Cao, Xuefei; Sun, Runcang

    2016-02-10

    Transesterification is a mild process to prepare cellulose acetate (CA) as compared with the traditional method. In this study, CA fibers were produced from six cellulose raw materials based on a simple and rapid transesterification method. The properties of the CA solutions and the obtained CA fibers were investigated in detail. Results showed that all of the cellulose raw materials were esterified within 15 min, and spinning dopes could be obtained by concentrating the CA solutions via vacuum distillation. The XRD, FT-IR, (1)H, (13)C and HSQC NMR analysis confirmed the successful synthesis of CA. The degree of substitution (DS) of the obtained CA was significantly affected by the degree of polymerization (DP) of cellulose raw materials, which further influenced the viscosity of CA solutions as well as the structural, thermal and mechanical properties of the CA fibers.

  13. Solid and liquid residues as raw materials for biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Gallert, C; Winter, J

    2002-11-01

    In the past few decades huge amounts of solid and paste-like wastes of domestic and industrial origin have been deposited on sanitary landfills worldwide. Only a small proportion was incinerated, where incineration plants were available. Since primary resources, such as ores for metal production or crude oil for the production of gasoline, diesel, solvents and plastics, or coal and natural gas as sources for energy or chemicals are not available in unlimited quantities, and because the deposition of residues, wastes and worn-out commodities on sanitary landfills causes pollution of the atmosphere, the soil and the groundwater due to hazardous gaseous emissions and toxic leachates, wastes from households and from industry must be avoided or minimized at an early stage. Whenever waste material can be recycled it must be re-introduced into production processes and the non-recyclable fractions should be used as a fuel for energy recovery. After incineration, the highly toxic dust fractions of ashes and slags resulting from burning the wastes should be deposited on sanitary landfills, while the granulated mineral slag fractions could be used as a substitute for the sand in cement as a construction material. Here we review various processes for the treatment of organic fractions of differently composed wastes to upgrade them to more valuable, re-usable products or at least to recover their energy content. Upgrading processes of organic wastes include composting, biogas fermentation, production of organic acids and solvents, and biopolymer or biosurfactants production. We also include biological purification procedures for the most important components of wastes, such as chitin from the shells of Crustaceae. Typical examples from pilot-scale or full-scale studies are discussed for each process.

  14. Raw materials and technology fuel U.S. economic growth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    In 1900, the average U.S. citizen's average life span was 47 years. He traveled about 1,900 km (1,200 miles) in a lifetime and resided in a home with an icebox for food storage and oil or gas for lighting. He communicated by mail, telegraph and crude telephones with limited availability and range. By 2000, the average citizen's life span was 77 years. He traveled an average of 19,000 km/a (12,000 miles/ year) by automobile alone. He resided in a home with many electrical appliances, including refrigerators and electric lights. And the communicated almost instantaneously with any other part of the globe by several widely available means, including portable phones and e-mail. Technology, the application of knowledge about the Earth's materials, their extraction and fabrication into products, helped create this change. Throughout the 20th century, the United States was a leader in technology. Automobiles, refrigerators, electric lighting, telephones and personal computers are only a few examples of the products invented and improved or further developed by American technology (National Academy of Engineering, 2000).

  15. Ash from thermal power plants as secondary raw material.

    PubMed

    Cudić, Vladica; Kisić, Dragica; Stojiljković, Dragoslava; Jovović, Aleksandar

    2007-06-01

    The basic characteristic of thermal power plants in the Republic of Serbia is that they use low-grade brown coal (lignite) as a fuel. Depending on the location of coal mines, lignite may have different properties such as heating value, moisture, and mineral content, resulting in different residue upon combustion. Because of several million tonnes of ash and slag generated every year, their granularmetric particle size distribution, and transport and disposal methods, these plants have a negative impact on the environment. According to the waste classification system in the Republic of Serbia, ash and slag from thermal power plants are classified as hazardous waste, but with an option of usability. The proposed revision of waste legislation in Serbia brings a number of simple and modern solutions. A procedure is introduced which allows for end-of-waste criteria to be set, clarifying the point where waste ceases to be waste, and thereby introducing regulatory relief for recycled products or materials that represent low risk for the environment. The new proposal refocuses waste legislation on the environmental impacts of the generation and management of waste, taking into account the life cycle of resources, and develops new waste prevention programmes. Stakeholders, as well as the general public, should have the opportunity to participate in the drawing up of the programmes, and should have access to them.

  16. Raw material consumption of the European Union--concept, calculation method, and results.

    PubMed

    Schoer, Karl; Weinzettel, Jan; Kovanda, Jan; Giegrich, Jürgen; Lauwigi, Christoph

    2012-08-21

    This article presents the concept, calculation method, and first results of the "Raw Material Consumption" (RMC) economy-wide material flow indicator for the European Union (EU). The RMC measures the final domestic consumption of products in terms of raw material equivalents (RME), i.e. raw materials used in the complete production chain of consumed products. We employed the hybrid input-output life cycle assessment method to calculate RMC. We first developed a highly disaggregated environmentally extended mixed unit input output table and then applied life cycle inventory data for imported products without appropriate representation of production within the domestic economy. Lastly, we treated capital formation as intermediate consumption. Our results show that services, often considered as a solution for dematerialization, account for a significant part of EU raw material consumption, which emphasizes the need to focus on the full production chains and dematerialization of services. Comparison of the EU's RMC with its domestic extraction shows that the EU is nearly self-sufficient in biomass and nonmetallic minerals but extremely dependent on direct and indirect imports of fossil energy carriers and metal ores. This implies an export of environmental burden related to extraction and primary processing of these materials to the rest of the world. Our results demonstrate that internalizing capital formation has significant influence on the calculated RMC.

  17. Iterative dual energy material decomposition from spatial mismatched raw data sets.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xing; Hu, Jing-Jing; Zhao, Yun-Song; Zhang, Hui-Tao; Zhang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Today's clinical dual energy computed tomography (DECT) scanners generally measure different rays for different energy spectra and acquire spatial mismatched raw data sets. The deficits in clinical DECT technologies suggest that mainly image based material decomposition methods are in use nowadays. However, the image based material decomposition is an approximate technique, and beam hardening artifacts remain in decomposition results. A recently developed image based iterative method for material decomposition from inconsistent rays (MDIR) can achieve much better image quality than the conventional image based methods. Inspired by the MDIR method, this paper proposes an iterative method to indirectly perform raw data based DECT even with completely mismatched raw data sets. The iterative process is initialized by density images that were obtained from an image based material decomposition. Then the density images are iteratively corrected by comparing the estimated polychromatic projections and the measured polychromatic projections. Only three iterations of the method are sufficient to greatly improve the qualitative and quantitative information in material density images. Compared with the MDIR method, the proposed method needs not to perform additional water precorrection. The advantages of the method are verified with numerical experiments from inconsistent noise free and noisy raw data.

  18. Effect of the raw material composition of fabrics on the Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeler, S.; Ceric, B.

    1986-01-01

    The raw material composition of fabrics is one of the most important factors for LOI value. LOI value was determined in samples of varying composition composed of cellulose, protein, and synthetic fibers and their mixtures, based on ASTM D 2863-76. Cellulose fibers and their mixtures exhibited the lowest value, while synthetic fibers had the highest LOI value.

  19. Influence of raw material properties upon critical quality attributes of continuously produced granules and tablets.

    PubMed

    Fonteyne, Margot; Wickström, Henrika; Peeters, Elisabeth; Vercruysse, Jurgen; Ehlers, Henrik; Peters, Björn-Hendrik; Remon, Jean Paul; Vervaet, Chris; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Sandler, Niklas; Rantanen, Jukka; Naelapää, Kaisa; De Beer, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    Continuous manufacturing gains more and more interest within the pharmaceutical industry. The International Conference of Harmonisation (ICH) states in its Q8 'Pharmaceutical Development' guideline that the manufacturer of pharmaceuticals should have an enhanced knowledge of the product performance over a range of raw material attributes, manufacturing process options and process parameters. This fits further into the Process Analytical Technology (PAT) and Quality by Design (QbD) framework. The present study evaluates the effect of variation in critical raw material properties on the critical quality attributes of granules and tablets, produced by a continuous from-powder-to-tablet wet granulation line. The granulation process parameters were kept constant to examine the differences in the end product quality caused by the variability of the raw materials properties only. Theophylline-Lactose-PVP (30-67.5-2.5%) was used as model formulation. Seven different grades of theophylline were granulated. Afterward, the obtained granules were tableted. Both the characteristics of granules and tablets were determined. The results show that differences in raw material properties both affect their processability and several critical quality attributes of the resulting granules and tablets.

  20. 40 CFR 63.1346 - Standards for new or reconstructed raw material dryers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... THC in excess of 20 ppmv, on a dry basis as propane corrected to 7 percent oxygen if the source... demonstrate a 98 percent reduction in THC emissions from the exit of the raw materials dryer to discharge to... the THC limit is 50 ppmv, on a dry basis corrected to 7 percent oxygen. (b) New or reconstructed...

  1. Use of raw materials in the United States from 1900 through 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matos, Grecia R.

    2012-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 20th century, the types and quantities of raw materials used by U.S. manufacturers and consumers have changed over time. This fact sheet quantifies the amounts of those materials (other than food and fuel) that have been input into the U.S. economy annually for a period of 111 years, from 1900 through 2010. It provides a broad overview of all materials used but highlights the use and importance of raw nonfuel minerals in particular. This fact sheet supersedes U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2009–3008, which was published in April 2009 and covered the period 1900 through 2006. These data have been compiled to help the public and policymakers understand the flow of raw materials used in the United States in physical terms. Such information can be helpful in assessing the past and potential effects of the materials on the environment, evaluating the materials’ intensity of use, and examining the role that these materials play in the economy. It can also provide insight into what may happen to the materials at the end of their useful life.

  2. TGA-DTA and chemical composition study of raw material of Bikaner region for electrical porcelain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tak, S. K.; Shekhawat, M. S.; Mangal, R.

    2013-06-01

    Porcelains are vitrified and a fine grained ceramic product, used either glazed or unglazed and is often manufactured from a tri-axial body mix of clays, quartz and alkaline feldspar. Physical properties associated with porcelain include those of permeability, high strength, hardness, glassiness, durability, whiteness, translucence, resonance, brittleness, high resistance to the passage of electricity, high resistance to thermal shock and high elasticity[1,2]. Porcelain insulators are made from three raw materials; clay; feldspar and quartz. For porcelain manufacture the clay is categorized in two groups; ball clay and kaolin, each of which plays an important role, either in the preparation of the product or in the properties of the finished products. The following research highlights the importance that suits these materials for their contributions to the final properties of the product. Keeping this view a TGA-DTA and chemical composition of these raw materials were observed and these materials are found suitable for production of Electrical Porcelain.

  3. Environmental situation and development of mineral raw material base in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larikova, O. I.

    2003-04-01

    The necessity of the further development of mineral raw material base and exploration for new deposits in Russia, connected with the loss of traditional sources of mineral and raw material resources in the former USSR republics, let us to study several ecological problems of top priority: 1. To determine all natural factors that affect the development of mineral raw material base; to determine the availability of the Russian territory ranged according to the favorable conditions for the development of its mineral raw material base. 2. To determine all natural factors in order to find regions where natural environment is not capable of self-restoration and where additional burden resulted from deposits' development could cause irreversible environmental changes and ecological catastrophes. 3. To evaluate the main negative results arisen from deposits' development and to set up the complex of nature protection measures in order to reduce negative influence on the environment. To solve the first task, scientists from VIEMS and VNIIgeosystem have compiled the Atlas of electronic geo-ecological maps of Russia consisting of more than 20 digital geoecological maps grouped into 4 blocks: - natural factors, including continuous and discontinuous permafrost, seismological danger, avalanche and mudflow hazards, manifestation of exogenous geological processes; - unique natural resources and objects, including current and designed reservation parks, unique lake systems, areas used mainly by small-in-numbers peoples of the North; - hydro geological factors - rate of underground water resources in operation and provision of population with fresh underground water; - social and economic factors, including density and natural increase of population disease and mortality rates, the number of unemployed, etc. On the final map, the whole territory of Russia has been divided into 4 categories: - territories, where the law prohibits the exploration, - territories, those are adverse for

  4. [Analysis on formula raw materials application of health food containing Gardeniae fructus].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-guang; Tang, Shi-huan; Jia, Qiang; Meng, Fan-yun

    2014-11-01

    In this article we built formula database of health food containing Gardeniae Fructus with Traditional Chinese Medicine Inheritance Support System (V2.0). And on this basis, use data mining method such as association rules of the software, to analyze commonly used formula raw materials or materials combination of formula containing Gardeniae Fructus and raw material application having assisted function formula to protect chemical liver injury. The result shows that of the 71 health food formulas containing Gardeniae Fructus, most used materials are Gardeniae Fructus, Lycii Fructus, Angelica Sinensis Radix, Poria and so on. Commonly used materials combination mostly are Gardeniae Fructus and Lycii Fructus, Gardeniae Fructus and Angelica Sinensis Radix, Gardeniae Fructus and Poria, Gardeniae Fructus and Paeonia. There are nearly 18 healthcare functions of the health food containing Gardeniae Fructus, and most of these are assisted functions to protect chemical liver injury, and then immune modulating function. Of 23 formulas containing Gardeniae Fructus having assisted function formula to protect chemical liver injury, Gardeniae Fructus usually combined with traditional Chinese medicine which nourishs blood and liver such as Pueraria, Lycii Fructus, Hawthorn, Paeonia and Turnjujube. Analyzing formula raw materials application of health food containing Gardeniae Fructus contributes a lot to the further development and utilization.

  5. The properties of weft knitted fabric medical and preventive treatment action using eco-raw materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halavska, L.; Batrak, O.

    2016-07-01

    A new trend in the world is the clothing production using the new types of ecological raw materials application - milk, pineapple, coconut, hemp, banana, eucalyptus, clams, corn, bamboo, soya, nettle yarn. This makes it possible to create textile materials of new generation with unique antibacterial and antiseptic properties. Such materials have a positive preventive and sometimes therapeutic effect on people, and their health. Eco-raw materials clothing is able to protect the human body from the environment harmful effects: cold, heat, rain, dust, opportunely remove from underclothing layer the steam and gases, sweat; maintain in underclothing layer the necessary microclimate for normal organism functioning. Study of knitwear consumer properties, produced with eco-materials, is an urgent task of the world vector, directed on ecological environmental protection. This paper presents the research results of hygroscopicity and capillarity weft knitted fabrics, what knitted from different types of eco-raw materials: bamboo yarn, yarn containing soybean and nettle yarn. Character of influence of the liquid raising level changes depending on the experiment time and the knitting structure is revealed.

  6. Landfill mining: Development of a theoretical method for a preliminary estimate of the raw material potential of landfill sites.

    PubMed

    Wolfsberger, Tanja; Nispel, Jörg; Sarc, Renato; Aldrian, Alexia; Hermann, Robert; Höllen, Daniel; Pomberger, Roland; Budischowsky, Andreas; Ragossnig, Arne

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, the rising need for raw materials by emerging economies (e.g. China) has led to a change in the availability of certain primary raw materials, such as ores or coal. The accompanying rising demand for secondary raw materials as possible substitutes for primary resources, the soaring prices and the global lack of specific (e.g. metallic) raw materials pique the interest of science and economy to consider landfills as possible secondary sources of raw materials. These sites often contain substantial amounts of materials that can be potentially utilised materially or energetically. To investigate the raw material potential of a landfill, boreholes and excavations, as well as subsequent hand sorting have proven quite successful. These procedures, however, are expensive and time consuming as they frequently require extensive construction measures on the landfill body or waste mass. For this reason, this article introduces a newly developed, affordable, theoretical method for the estimation of landfill contents. The article summarises the individual calculation steps of the method and demonstrates this using the example of a selected Austrian sanitary landfill. To assess the practicality and plausibility, the mathematically determined raw material potential is compared with the actual results from experimental studies of excavated waste from the same landfill (actual raw material potential).

  7. Raw materials exploitation in Prehistory of Georgia: sourcing, processing and distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tushabramishvili, Nikoloz; Oqrostsvaridze, Avthandil

    2016-04-01

    Study of raw materials has a big importance to understand the ecology, cognition, behavior, technology, culture of the Paleolithic human populations. Unfortunately, explorations of the sourcing, processing and distribution of stone raw materials had a less attention until the present days. The reasons of that were: incomplete knowledge of the archaeologists who are doing the late period archaeology (Bronze Age-Medieval) and who are little bit far from the Paleolithic technology and typology; Ignorance of the stone artifacts made on different kind of raw-materials, except flint and obsidians. Studies on the origin of the stone raw materials are becoming increasingly important since in our days. Interesting picture and situation have been detected on the different sites and in different regions of Georgia. In earlier stages of Middle Paleolithic of Djruchula Basin caves the number of basalt, andesite, argillite etc. raw materials are quite big. Since 130 000 a percent of the flint raw-material is increasing dramatically. Flint is an almost lonely dominated raw-material in Western Georgia during thousand years. Since approximately 50 000 ago the first obsidians brought from the South Georgia, appeared in Western Georgia. Similar situation has been detected by us in Eastern Georgia during our excavations of Ziari and Pkhoveli open-air sites. The early Lower Paleolithic layers are extremely rich by limestone artifacts while the flint raw-materials are dominated in the Middle Paleolithic layers. Study of these issues is possible to achieve across chronologies, the origins of the sources of raw-materials, the sites and regions. By merging archaeology with anthropology, geology and geography we are able to acquire outstanding insights about those populations. New approach to the Paleolithic stone materials, newly found Paleolithic quarries gave us an opportunities to try to achieve some results for understanding of the behavior of Paleolithic populations, geology and

  8. Lime kiln dust as a potential raw material in portland cement manufacturing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M. Michael; Callaghan, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    In the United States, the manufacture of portland cement involves burning in a rotary kiln a finely ground proportional mix of raw materials. The raw material mix provides the required chemical combination of calcium, silicon, aluminum, iron, and small amounts of other ingredients. The majority of calcium is supplied in the form of calcium carbonate usually from limestone. Other sources including waste materials or byproducts from other industries can be used to supply calcium (or lime, CaO), provided they have sufficiently high CaO content, have low magnesia content (less than 5 percent), and are competitive with limestone in terms of cost and adequacy of supply. In the United States, the lime industry produces large amounts of lime kiln dust (LKD), which is collected by dust control systems. This LKD may be a supplemental source of calcium for cement plants, if the lime and cement plants are located near enough to each other to make the arrangement economical.

  9. The analysis of plant-based raw materials of unknown origin.

    PubMed

    Wasek, Marek; Wroczyński, Piotr; Sołobodowska, Sylwia; Lal, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    Chosen aspects of the safety of use of several herbs received from National Medicines Institute, which came from smuggling, have been examined. The analysis has been conducted in three different aspects: (1) Possibilities of contamination of plant-based raw materials by metals of heavy elements (As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb). (2) Conscious smuggling of intoxicating preparation or narcotics in plant-based raw materials. (3) Radioactive contamination originating mostly from 137Cs isotope. To solve the problem, analytical methods of GFAAS and ICP-MS, X-ray diffraction and high-distributive spectrometry of gamma-radiation have been applied. Determined concentration of arsenic in all analyzed samples and the concentration of lead in one sample exceeded allowable concentration recommended by WHO. In analyzed materials, no presence of narcotics or radioactive contamination of 137Cs isotope has been detected.

  10. Database of the radioactivity of norm used as industrial raw materials.

    PubMed

    Iwaoka, Kazuki; Yonehara, Hidenori

    2012-12-01

    Most ores used as industrial raw materials are imported mainly because Japan has poor natural resources. The activity concentrations in these materials should be investigated to evaluate the radiation exposure of workers. In this study, imported industrial raw materials were collected, and the activity concentrations in these resources were measured by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and gamma ray spectrometry. Furthermore,  a database of activity concentrations of NORMs was developed by referring to the measured results as well as referring to the literature, and a database on the web was published. The purpose of the database is to relieve anxieties among the general public and to provide extensive data regarding NORM for researchers and regulators. The database provides more than 900 activity concentrations in worldwide NORMs at no fee. (NORM database; http://www.nirs.go.jp/db/anzendb/NORMDB/ENG/index.php).

  11. Recycling of iron foundry sand and glass waste as raw material for production of whiteware.

    PubMed

    Bragança, Saulo R; Vicenzi, Juliane; Guerino, Kareline; Bergmann, Carlos P

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the production feasibility of triaxial whiteware using sand from cast iron moulds as a raw material instead of silica, and recycled glass in place of feldspar. Formulations were prepared using sand, glass waste, and white-firing clay such that only 50% of the composition was virgin material (clay). The ceramic bodies were formed by pressing and fired at different temperatures (between 1100 and 1300 degrees C). Specimens were characterized in terms of green density prior to firing; and their flexural strength, linear shrinkage, and water absorption were measured after firing. The microstructure was determined by scanning electron microscopy. Possible environmental impacts of this recycling process were also evaluated, through solubility and leaching tests, according to Brazilian standards. Gaseous emissions during the firing process were also analysed. The results showed that it is possible to produce triaxial ceramics by using such alternative raw materials.

  12. Quality assurance of herbal raw materials in supply chain: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Govindaraghavan, Suresh

    2008-01-01

    The herbal medicine industry is presently adopting modern scientific tools to substantiate the guarantee of efficacy that, in the past, rested only on anecdotal evidence derived from traditional knowledge systems. This is particularly true for the processes of identification of herbal raw materials adopting modern tools for phytochemical fingerprinting. The successful adaptation of available technologies and practices depends on an understanding of the phytochemical complexity and variability innate in biological material. It challenges the "mainstream medicinal mindset" that "tend(s) to reject …. therapies for which mechanisms of action do not fit within Newtonian, biochemical orientation" (Dumoff, 2003). The herbal medicinal industry is independently evolving its own rigid quality assurance and control systems using Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) and Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) guidelines, but it faces unique difficulties. These include lack of Good Agricultural and Collection Practice (GACP), lack of transparency in the raw material supply chain so as to preclude the use of unsafe practices, problems in the authentication of herbal raw materials, and a general lack of understanding of the need to reduce phytochemical variability in these materials. This paper explores these difficulties and outlines strategies to overcome them, but these strategies will require coordinated international government regulations to be fully effective.

  13. Estimation of raw material performance in mammalian cell culture using near infrared spectra combined with chemometrics approaches.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae Woo; Christie, Andrew; Liu, Jun Jay; Yoon, Seongkyu

    2012-01-01

    Understanding variability in raw materials and their impacts on product quality is of critical importance in the biopharmaceutical manufacturing processes. For this purpose, several spectroscopic techniques have been studied for raw material characterization, providing fast and nondestructive ways to measure quality of raw materials. However, investigations of correlation between spectra of raw materials and cell culture performance have been scarce due to their complexity and uncertainty. In this study, near-infrared spectra and bioassays of multiple soy hydrolysate lots manufactured by different vendors were analyzed using chemometrics approaches in order to address variability of raw materials as well as correlation between raw material properties and corresponding cell culture performance. Principal component analysis revealed that near-infrared spectra of different soy lots contain enough physicochemical information about soy hydrolysates to allow identification of lot-to-lot variability as well as vendor-to-vendor differences. The identified compositional variability was further analyzed in order to estimate cell growth and protein production of two mammalian cell lines under the condition of varying soy dosages using partial least square regression combined with optimal variable selection. The performance of the resulting models demonstrates the potential of near-infrared spectroscopy as a robust lot selection tool for raw materials while providing a biological link between chemical composition of raw materials and cell culture performance.

  14. 40 CFR 63.1343 - What standards apply to my kilns, clinker coolers, raw material dryers, and open clinker piles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., clinker cooler, and raw material dryer. All dioxin D/F, HCl, and total hydrocarbon (THC) emission limits are on a dry basis. The D/F, HCl and THC limits for kilns are corrected to 7 percent oxygen except during periods of startup and shutdown. The raw material dryer THC limits are corrected to 19...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1343 - What standards apply to my kilns, clinker coolers, raw material dryers, and open clinker piles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., clinker cooler, and raw material dryer. All dioxin D/F, HCl, and total hydrocarbon (THC) emission limits are on a dry basis. The D/F, HCl and THC limits for kilns are corrected to 7 percent oxygen except during periods of startup and shutdown. The raw material dryer THC limits are corrected to 19...

  16. Prospects of rice straw as a raw material for paper making.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Daljeet; Bhardwaj, Nishi Kant; Lohchab, Rajesh Kumar

    2017-02-01

    Pulp and paper mills are indispensable for any nation as far as the growth of the nation is concerned. Due to fast growth in population, urbanization and industrialization, the demand and consumption of paper has increased tremendously. These put high load on our natural resources and force the industry to look for alternative raw material. Rice straw is a lignocellulosic material abundantly available in wood short countries like China, India, Bangladesh, etc. and can be used as raw material for this industry. Open burning of rice straw releases noxious green house gases to the air and poses serious threats to global air chemistry and human health. So, it is a dual benefit option (for farmers and industries) to use rice straw as a raw material in pulp and paper industry. Organosolv pulping using acids are the prominent choices of researchers to convert this residue into valuable pulp but in developed countries only. Developing world favours the soda and soda-AQ processes as these are economical. As a virtue of less lignin content in comparison to wood, rice straw requires less harsh conditions for cooking and can be easily pulped. Bleaching is a crucial step of paper making but also responsible for causing water pollution. Many studies revealed that during the process more than 500 chlorinated compounds are released that are highly toxic, bioaccumulative and carcinogenic in nature. Most of the industries over the globe switch on to the elemental chlorine free short sequence bleaching methods using chlorine dioxide, hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide. This paper presented the effective need of ecofriendly, economically reliable pulping and bleaching sequences in case of rice straw to eliminate the problems of chlorinated compounds in wastewater of paper mills. Such approach of using waste as a raw material with its environmentally safe processing for making paper can prove to be valuable towards sustainable growth.

  17. Radioactivity and associated radiation hazards in ceramic raw materials and end products.

    PubMed

    Viruthagiri, G; Rajamannan, B; Suresh Jawahar, K

    2013-12-01

    Studies have been planned to obtain activity and associated radiation hazards in ceramic raw materials (quartz, feldspar, clay, zircon, kaolin, grog, alumina bauxite, baddeleyite, masse, dolomite and red mud) and end products (ceramic brick, glazed ceramic wall and floor tiles) as the activity concentrations of uranium, thorium and potassium vary from material to material. The primordial radionuclides in ceramic raw materials and end products are one of the sources of radiation hazard in dwellings made of these materials. By the determination of the activity level in these materials, the indoor radiological hazard to human health can be assessed. This is an important precautionary measure whenever the dose rate is found to be above the recommended limits. The aim of this work was to measure the activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in ceramic raw materials and end products. The activity of these materials has been measured using a gamma-ray spectrometry, which contains an NaI(Tl) detector connected to multichannel analyser (MCA). Radium equivalent activity, alpha-gamma indices and radiation hazard indices associated with the natural radionuclides are calculated to assess the radiological aspects of the use of the ceramic end products as decorative or covering materials in construction sector. Results obtained were examined in the light of the relevant international legislation and guidance and compared with the results of similar studies reported in different countries. The results suggest that the use of ceramic end product samples examined in the construction of dwellings, workplace and industrial buildings is unlikely to give rise to any significant radiation exposure to the occupants.

  18. The viscoelastic behaviour of raw and anaerobic digested sludge: strong similarities with soft-glassy materials.

    PubMed

    Baudez, Jean-Christophe; Gupta, Rahul K; Eshtiaghi, Nicky; Slatter, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Over the last few decades, municipal and industrial wastewater treatment activities have been confronted with a dramatically increasing flow of sewage sludge. To improve treatment efficiency, process and material parameters are needed but engineers are dealing with vast quantities of fundamentally poorly understood and unpredictable material Thus, accurate prediction of critically important, but analytically elusive process parameters is unattainable and is a matter of grave concern. Because engineers need reliable flow properties to simulate the process, this work is an attempt to approach sludge rheological behaviour with well-known materials which have similar characteristics. Sludge liquid-like behaviour is already well documented so, we have focused mainly on the solid-like behaviour of both raw and digested sludge by performing oscillatory measurements in the linear and non-linear regimes. We have shown that the viscoelastic behaviour of sludge presents strong similarities with soft-glassy materials but differences can be observed between raw and digested sludge. Finally, we confirm that colloidal glasses and emulsions may be used to model the rheological behaviour of raw and anaerobic digested sludge.

  19. The usage of plastic waste as a secondary raw material for the modification of sandcrete properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klovas, A.; Daukšys, M.; Venčkauskas, L.

    2015-03-01

    Recently the usage of various industry wastes as a secondary raw material tends to increase its relevancy. One of possible options to decrease the amount of waste is to use them to produce new products or materials. The operation of various secondary raw materials (tire rubber, tire cord, ground glass shards, ground ceramic waste products) during the concrete mixture preparation allows to change its as well as cured concrete properties. Recently polymer and steel fibers are used for concrete reinforcement. This study analyses the usage possibility of plastic shavings for the reinforcement of concrete. The technological properties of cement slurry (sand, fraction of 0/4 and 10 kg/m3, 15 kg/m3 and 20 kg/m3 of plastic shavings) as well as mechanical, physical and porosity properties of cured sandcrete were established during the experimental research. The geometric characteristics of mill-shredded plastic shavings were established. Experimental results revealed that the usage of plastic shavings decreased slurry slump and density. The minor decrease of cured sandcrete density (~2200 kg/m3) was noticed with the addition of plastic shavings within the limits of 10 - 20 kg/m3. The flexural strength of cured sandcrete increased from 36 % to 57 % compared with reference specimen (without plastic shavings). The dependence of flexural force and deflection was obtained. Study revealed that the residual strength after crack opening is bigger with the usage of plastic shavings as a secondary raw material compared with reference specimen.

  20. Fate of starch in food processing: from raw materials to final food products.

    PubMed

    Delcour, Jan A; Bruneel, Charlotte; Derde, Liesbeth J; Gomand, Sara V; Pareyt, Bram; Putseys, Joke A; Wilderjans, Edith; Lamberts, Lieve

    2010-01-01

    Starch, an essential component of an equilibrated diet, is present in cereals such as common and durum wheat, maize, rice, and rye, in roots and tubers such as potato and cassava, and in legumes such as peas. During food processing, starch mainly undergoes nonchemical transformations. Here, we focus on the occurrence of starch in food raw materials, its composition and properties, and its transformations from raw material to final products. We therefore describe a number of predominant food processes and identify research needs. Nonchemical transformations that are dealt with include physical damage to starch, gelatinization, amylose-lipid complex formation, amylose crystallization, and amylopectin retrogradation. A main focus is on wheat-based processes. (Bio)chemical modifications of starch by amylolytic enzymes are dealt with only in the context of understanding the starch component in bread making.

  1. Quantitative analysis of mebendazole polymorphs in pharmaceutical raw materials using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Vitor H; Gonçalves, Jacqueline L; Vasconcelos, Fernanda V C; Pimentel, M Fernanda; Pereira, Claudete F

    2015-11-10

    This work evaluates the feasibility of using NIR spectroscopy for quantification of three polymorphs of mebendazole (MBZ) in pharmaceutical raw materials. Thirty ternary mixtures of polymorphic forms of MBZ were prepared, varying the content of forms A and C from 0 to 100% (w/w), and for form B from 0 to 30% (w/w). Reflectance NIR spectra were used to develop partial least square (PLS) regression models using all spectral variables and the variables with significant regression coefficients selected by the Jack-Knife algorithm (PLS/JK). MBZ polymorphs were quantified with RMSEP values of 2.37% w/w, 1.23% w/w and 1.48% w/w for polymorphs A, B and C, respectively. This is an easy, fast and feasible method for monitoring the quality of raw pharmaceutical materials of MBZ according to polymorph purity.

  2. Economic and environmental assessment of propionic acid production by fermentation using different renewable raw materials.

    PubMed

    Tufvesson, Pär; Ekman, Anna; Sardari, Roya R R; Engdahl, Kristina; Tufvesson, Linda

    2013-12-01

    Production of propionic acid by fermentation of glycerol as a renewable resource has been suggested as a means for developing an environmentally-friendly route for this commodity chemical. However, in order to quantify the environmental benefits, life cycle assessment of the production, including raw materials, fermentation, upstream and downstream processing is required. The economic viability of the process also needs to be analysed to make sure that any environmental savings can be realised. In this study an environmental and economic assessment from cradle-to-gate has been conducted. The study highlights the need for a highly efficient bioprocess in terms of product titre (more than 100g/L and productivity more than 2g/(L · h)) in order to be sustainable. The importance of the raw materials and energy production for operating the process to minimize emissions of greenhouse gases is also shown.

  3. Validation of Simultaneous Volumetric and HPLC Methods for the Determination of Pridinol Mesylate in Raw Material

    PubMed Central

    Simionato, Laura D.; Ferello, Leonardo; Stamer, Sebastián; Zubata, Patricia D.; Segall, Adriana I.

    2013-01-01

    Simple, sensitive, and economical simultaneous volumetric and HPLC methods for the determination of pridinol mesylate in raw material have been developed. The volumetric method is based on the reaction of pridinol with sodium lauryl sulphate in diluted sulphuric acid. Dimethyl yellow was used as indicator to detect the end point of the titration in aqueous/organic layer. The HPLC method for the determination of pridinol mesylate employs a reverse phase C18 column at ambient temperature with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile: 0.05 M potassium dihydrogen phosphate, pH adjusted to 5.0 (1 : 2, v/v). The flow rate was 0.8 mL/min. Quantitation was achieved with UV detection at 258 nm based on peak area. Both methods were found to be suitable for the quality control of pridinol mesylate in raw material. PMID:24224103

  4. VIEW IN OPPOSITE DIRECTION AS MD1351 AND MD1352. RAW MATERIAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW IN OPPOSITE DIRECTION AS MD-135-1 AND MD-135-2. RAW MATERIAL CONVEYOR AT LEFT DEPOSITS SHELL INTO MILLING MACHINE AT LOWER LEFT. ENGINE IS AT LOWER RIGHT AND RADIATOR AT LOWER CENTER. ROLLER SORTER IS AT TOP OF CONVEYOR. - F. & H. Benning Company Oyster Mill, 14430 Solomons Island Road (moved from 1014 Benning Road, Galesville, Anne Arundel County, Maryland), Solomons, Calvert County, MD

  5. Utilization of flotation wastes of copper slag as raw material in cement production.

    PubMed

    Alp, I; Deveci, H; Süngün, H

    2008-11-30

    Copper slag wastes, even if treated via processes such as flotation for metal recovery, still contain heavy metals with hazardous properties posing environmental risks for disposal. This study reports the potential use of flotation waste of a copper slag (FWCS) as iron source in the production of Portland cement clinker. The FWCS appears a suitable raw material as iron source containing >59% Fe(2)O(3) mainly in the form of fayalite (Fe(2)SiO(4)) and magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)). The clinker products obtained using the FWCS from the industrial scale trial operations over a 4-month period were characterised for the conformity of its chemical composition and the physico-mechanical performance of the resultant cement products was evaluated. The data collected for the clinker products produced using an iron ore, which is currently used as the cement raw material were also included for comparison. The results have shown that the chemical compositions of all the clinker products including those of FWCS are typical of a Portland cement clinker. The mechanical performance of the standard mortars prepared from the FWCS clinkers were found to be similar to those from the iron ore clinkers with the desired specifications for the industrial cements e.g. CEM I type cements. Furthermore, the leachability tests (TCLP and SPLP) have revealed that the mortar samples obtained from the FWCS clinkers present no environmental problems while the FWCS could act as the potential source of heavy metal contamination. These findings suggest that flotation wastes of copper slag (FWCS) can be readily utilised as cement raw material due to its availability in large quantities at low cost with the further significant benefits for waste management/environmental practices of the FWCS and the reduced production and processing costs for cement raw materials.

  6. Non-invasive identification of incoming raw pharmaceutical materials using Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Matthew; Andrews, Darren; Loeffen, Paul; Tombling, Craig; York, Tim; Matousek, Pavel

    2013-03-25

    A new approach to verification of incoming raw materials through packaging in pharmaceutical manufacturing is proposed and demonstrated. The method is based around Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS) and permits a rapid chemical identity analysis of incoming materials to satisfy regulatory requirements but without the need to open the packaging. This dramatically increases the throughput of incoming raw materials into the pharmaceutical manufacturing chain and eliminates the need for a chemically safe sampling environment required for invasive inspection methods. Since the inspection is non-invasive the safety of the operators is ensured and the integrity of inspected material is not compromised by preventing exposure to the ambient atmosphere and cross contamination. The experiments presented here demonstrate the ability to accurately identify common pharmaceutical materials, typically in under 10s acquisition time, through a range of frequently used packaging, including translucent plastic and paper sacks and coloured glass bottles, which can be challenging for conventional Raman spectroscopy as well as other optical spectroscopy methods. With the exception of metallic containers and cardboard drums all the tested packaging materials proved to be amenable to this technique. This demonstrates the viability of this new rapid verification method for non-invasive materials identification in pharmaceutical manufacture.

  7. Activity concentration of natural radioactive nuclides in nonmetallic industrial raw materials in Japan.

    PubMed

    Iwaoka, Kazuki; Tabe, Hiroyuki; Yonehara, Hidenori

    2014-11-01

    Natural materials such as rock, ore, and clay, containing natural radioactive nuclides are widely used as industrial raw materials in Japan. If these are high concentrations, the workers who handle the material can be unknowingly exposed to radiation at a high level. In this study, about 80 nonmetallic natural materials frequently used as industrial raw materials in Japan were comprehensively collected from several industrial companies, and the activity concentrations of (238)U series, (232)Th series and (40)K in the materials was determined by ICP-MS (inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometer) and gamma ray spectrum analyses. Effective doses to workers handling them were estimated by using methods for dose estimation given in the RP 122. We found the activity concentrations to be lower than the critical values defined by regulatory requirements as described in the IAEA Safety Guide. The maximum estimated effective dose to workers handling these materials was 0.16 mSv y(-1), which was lower than the reference level (1-20 mSv y(-1)) for existing situation given in the ICRP Publ.103.

  8. Alumina-magnesia spinel for refractories synthesized from natural raw materials

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.E.; Monton, B.S. . Ceramic engineering Dept.)

    1993-03-01

    Spinel is proving to be a high quality refractory for specific applications. Synthesis of spinel in this study involved using either diaspore or bauxite in its raw form. The diaspore was obtained from a central Missouri deposit and the bauxites were obtained from China and Guyana. Diaspore and bauxite source materials need to have a low alkali content and a high alumina content in order to produce a stable refractory spinel. The raw materials are ground below 45 microns and combined with hardbured magnesia, also below 45 microns, in appropriate compositions to yield spinel. Dry mixing was used to obtain homogeneous mixtures of the raw materials and magnesia. Compacts of different compositions were fired at 1,600 C prior to the creep testing. Creep analysis was done to determine the load bearing capabilities and refractoriness. X-ray diffraction and microstructural analysis, including point count analysis and cathodoluminescence, was carried out to determine completeness of the reactions and morphologies of the reaction products.

  9. The influence of raw material contamination with mycotoxins on alcoholic fermentation indicators.

    PubMed

    Kłosowski, Grzegorz; Mikulski, Dawid; Grajewski, Jan; Błajet-Kosicka, Anna

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the research was to describe the influence of selected mycotoxins on major factors (alcohol concentration, productivity, yield and energy) that are characteristic of the fermentation process of maize mashes. Indicators of the alcoholic fermentation of mashes made from raw material with low contaminations levels were compared with mashes obtained from raw material that was selectively contaminated with mycotoxins on the following concentrations: aflatoxin B(1)-11.65 ppb, B(2)-12.60 ppb, G(1)-12.34 ppb, G(2)-12.04 ppb; ochratoxin A-177.5 ppb; zearalenone-352 ppb; deoxynivalenol-2274 ppb; fumonisin B(1)-1875 ppb, B(2)-609 ppb, B(3)-195 ppb. It was found that, apart from fumonisin, all mycotoxins substantially affected the course of subsequent fermentation phases, in particular the first and the main fermentation phases. The highest drop in alcohol concentration at the main stage of the process amounted to 1% v/v and it was achieved by contamination with zearalenone. The statistically significant drop in the final fermentation yield was observed; this was caused by raw material contaminated with all studied mycotoxins, except for fumonisin. The decrease in ethanol yield in reference to the control variant ranged from 1.42 to 3.20 dm(3) of absolute alcohol out of 100 kg of starch, depending on a toxin.

  10. Ochratoxin A in raw materials and cooked meat products made from OTA-treated pigs.

    PubMed

    Perši, Nina; Pleadin, Jelka; Kovačević, Dragan; Scortichini, Giampiero; Milone, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine ochratoxin A (OTA) concentrations in the raw materials and cooked meat products made from pigs sub-chronically exposed to OTA. The treated animal group (n=5) was administered with 300 μg OTA/kg of feed for 30 days, whereas the control group (n=5) was left untreated. OTA concentrations were quantified using immunoassay (ELISA) and high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD). OTA concentration was the highest in the kidney, followed by the lungs, liver, blood, spleen, heart, and adipose tissue. As for the final meat products, the highest average OTA concentration was detected in black pudding sausages (14.02±2.75 μg/kg), then in liver sausages (13.77±3.92 μg/kg), while the lowest was found in pâté (9.33±2.66 μg/kg). The results pointed out that a sub-chronic pig exposure leads to the accumulation of OTA in raw materials and consequently in meat products, whose level of contamination is directly dependent on OTA contents in raw materials used for their production.

  11. [Specific aspects for virus safety of raw materials for cellular-based medicinal products].

    PubMed

    Stühler, Albert; Blümel, J

    2015-11-01

    Virus safety of cell-based medicinal products is a particular challenge. These products are frequently manufactured using various human- or animal-derived starting and raw materials (serum and feeder-cells) in cell culture, which are possible sources for viral contamination. For living or proliferating cells, no methods for virus inactivation (such as heat or chemical treatment) can be used and the options for testing these medicinal products for all possible viral contaminations are very limited. As a consequence, other safety measures, in particular careful selection and testing of starting and raw materials, are very important. For raw materials, attention should be paid to cell-culture additives of biological origin, such as human and bovine serum and porcine trypsin. Whenever possible, manufacturing steps for inactivation and removal of viruses should be introduced as an additional safety measure. In addition, recombinant products from animal cell cultures (such as growth factors, monoclonal antibodies for cell sorting, viral vectors) are used and have to be tested for virus safety.

  12. Polymorphism in nimodipine raw materials: development and validation of a quantitative method through differential scanning calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Riekes, Manoela Klüppel; Pereira, Rafael Nicolay; Rauber, Gabriela Schneider; Cuffini, Silvia Lucia; de Campos, Carlos Eduardo Maduro; Silva, Marcos Antonio Segatto; Stulzer, Hellen Karine

    2012-11-01

    Due to the physical-chemical and therapeutic impacts of polymorphism, its monitoring in raw materials is necessary. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a quantitative method to determine the polymorphic content of nimodipine (NMP) raw materials based on differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The polymorphs required for the development of the method were characterized through DSC, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and Raman spectroscopy and their polymorphic identity was confirmed. The developed method was found to be linear, robust, precise, accurate and specific. Three different samples obtained from distinct suppliers (NMP 1, NMP 2 and NMP 3) were firstly characterized through XRPD and DSC as polymorphic mixtures. The determination of their polymorphic identity revealed that all samples presented the Modification I (Mod I) or metastable form in greatest proportion. Since the commercial polymorph is Mod I, the polymorphic characteristic of the samples analyzed needs to be investigated. Thus, the proposed method provides a useful tool for the monitoring of the polymorphic content of NMP raw materials.

  13. Analytical evaluation of natural radionuclides and their radioactive equilibrium in raw materials and by-products.

    PubMed

    Ji, Young-Yong; Chung, Kun Ho; Lim, Jong-Myoung; Kim, Chang-Jong; Jang, Mee; Kang, Mun Ja; Park, Sang Tae

    2015-03-01

    An investigation into the distribution of natural radionuclides and radioactive secular equilibrium in raw materials and by-products in a domestic distribution was conducted to deduce the optimum conditions for the analytical evaluation of natural radionuclides for (238)U, (226)Ra, and (232)Th using a gamma-ray spectrometer and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The range of the specific activities of natural radionuclides was first evaluated by analyzing (228)Ac and (214)Bi, which are (232)Th and (226)Ra indicators, respectively, in about 100 samples of raw materials and by-products through a gamma-ray spectrometer. From further experiments using several samples selected based on the results of the distribution of natural radionuclides, the validation of their analytical evaluations for the indirect measurements using a gamma-ray spectrometer and direct measurements using ICP-MS was assured by comparing their results. Chemically processed products from the raw materials, such as Zr sand and ceramic balls, were generally shown for the type of bead and particularly analyzed showing a definite disequilibrium with above a 50% difference between (238)U and (226)Ra in the uranium series and (232)Th and (228)Ra in the thorium series.

  14. [Hygienic evaluation of the occupational risk in working with Bulgarian bentonite raw material].

    PubMed

    Mikhaĭlova-Docheva, L; Buralkov, T; Kolev, K

    1986-01-01

    The use of bentonite in various branches of industry, and first of all, in foundry workshops, grows rapidly. The literature data on health injuries by bentonite dust are rather contradictory: due primarily, to the changeable mineralogical composition of the raw material from different deposits. That requires a specific hygienic assessment of each deposit in exploitation. The authors studied the mineral composition, quantitative ratio of the mineral components and morphology of the particles from the respirable fraction of aerosol in the extraction of Bulgarian bentonite. The microscopic mineralogical analysis in phase contrast, established a basic mass of clay minerals, confirmed by the X-ray structural analysis. The free silicic oxide is presented by low-temperature crystobalite and quartz, more rarely opal and chalcedony. Its quantity does not surpass 1-2%. The experimental studies on experimental animals confirmed fibrosis, degree I and II, according to Belt and King. The clinical studies on the workers established the presence of reticular changes in the lungs, type S and L, according to ILO-UC classification. The hygienic characteristic of the Bulgarian bentonite provided grounds for its broad application as a substitute for more dangerous raw materials, quartz sand in the foundries, in particular. Regardless of its advantages, bentonite is not harmless. The adherence to MAC for dustiness and periodic control of the quartz content in the raw material and aerosol in the working environment, are compulsory.

  15. Pyrolysis of municipal plastic wastes II: Influence of raw material composition under catalytic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, A.

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > ZSM-5 zeolite catalytic pyrolysis transforms municipal plastic waste into liquids and gases useful as fuels or source of chemicals. > The composition of the waste sample plays an important role on the catalyst activity and the products obtained. > ZSM-5 zeolite is somehow deactivated when high proportions of fine inorganic materials are present in the sample. > When the sample contains cellulose-based materials, the formation of a two-phase liquid fraction can be avoided by a low temperature step. - Abstract: In this work, the results obtained in catalytic pyrolysis of three plastic waste streams which are the rejects of an industrial packing wastes sorting plant are presented. The samples have been pyrolysed in a 3.5 dm{sup 3} reactor under semi-batch conditions at 440 {sup o}C for 30 min in nitrogen atmosphere. Commercial ZSM-5 zeolite has been used as catalyst in liquid phase contact. In every case, high HHV gases and liquids which can be useful as fuels or source of chemicals are obtained. A solid fraction composed of the inorganic material contained in the raw materials and some char formed in the pyrolysis process is also obtained. The zeolite has shown to be very effective to produce liquids with great aromatics content and C3-C4 fraction rich gases, even though the raw material was mainly composed of polyolefins. The characteristics of the pyrolysis products as well as the effect of the catalyst vary depending on the composition of the raw material. When paper rich samples are pyrolysed, ZSM-5 zeolite increases water production and reduces CO and CO{sub 2} generation. If stepwise pyrolysis is applied to such sample, the aqueous liquid phase can be separated from the organic liquid fraction in a first low temperature step.

  16. Beyond waste: new sustainable fillers from fly ashes stabilization, obtained by low cost raw materials.

    PubMed

    Rodella, N; Pasquali, M; Zacco, A; Bilo, F; Borgese, L; Bontempi, N; Tomasoni, G; Depero, L E; Bontempi, E

    2016-09-01

    A sustainable economy can be achieved only by assessing processes finalized to optimize the use of resources. Waste can be a relevant source of energy thanks to energy-from-waste processes. Concerns regarding the toxic fly ashes can be solved by transforming them into resource as recycled materials. The commitment to recycle is driven by the need to conserve natural resources, reduce imports of raw materials, save landfill space and reduce pollution. A new method to stabilize fly ash from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator (MSWI) at room temperature has been developed thanks to COSMOS-RICE LIFE+ project (www.cosmos-rice.csmt.eu). This process is based on a chemical reaction that occurs properly mixing three waste fly ashes with rice husk ash, an agricultural by-product. COSMOS inert can replace critical raw materials (i.e. silica, fluorspar, clays, bentonite, antimony and alumina) as filler. Moreover the materials employed in the stabilization procedure may be not available in all areas. This paper investigates the possibility of substituting silica fume with corresponding condensed silica fume and to substitute flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) residues with low-cost calcium hydroxide powder. The removal of coal fly ash was also considered. The results will be presented and a possible substitution of the materials to stabilize fly ash will be discussed.

  17. From hazardous waste to valuable raw material: hydrolysis of CCA-treated wood for the production of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Hakola, Maija; Kallioinen, Anne; Leskelä, Markku; Repo, Timo

    2013-05-01

    Solid wood, metal finnish: Instead of burning waste wood treated with chromated copper arsenite (CCA) or disposing of it in landfills, the CCA-treated wood can be used as a raw material for the production of chemicals. Catalytic or alkaline oxidation together with very mild sulfuric acid extraction produces an easily enzymatically hydrolyzable material. Usage as a raw material for the chemical industry in this manner demonstrates a sustainable and value-added waste management process.

  18. Physicochemical characterization of raw materials and co-products from the titanium dioxide industry.

    PubMed

    Gázquez, M J; Bolívar, J P; García-Tenorio, R; Vaca, F

    2009-07-30

    The present study was conducted to characterize several raw materials and co-products from the titanium dioxide industry in relation to their elemental composition (major, minor and trace elements), granulometry, mineralogy, microscopic morphology and physical composition. The main objective was to gain basic information for the future potential application of these co-products in fields such as agriculture, construction, civil engineering, etc. Microscopic studies were performed by applying scanning electron microscopy with X-ray microanalysis (SEM-XRMA) while the mineralogical compositions were analysed by means of the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The concentrations of major elements such as Na, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Fe, S and K were determined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), while heavy metals and other trace elements were determined by ICP-MS. The physicochemical characterization of the raw materials used in the titanium dioxide industry, in addition to the characterization of the co-products generated, has enabled the evaluation of the degree of fractionation of different elements and compounds between the different co-products, as well as the control of the possible variations in the physicochemical composition of the raw materials throughout the time and the study of the influence of these variations in the characteristics of the obtained co-products. As a main conclusion of our study, it is possible to indicate that the levels of the pollutant elements associated to the co-products analysed were, in general, within safe limits and, therefore, they could potentially be used in composites as fertilizers or for building materials in road construction, etc. Nevertheless, for the specific application of each of these co-products in agriculture, construction and civil engineering, additional studies need to be performed to evaluate their appropriateness for the proposed application, together with specific studies on their health and environmental impact.

  19. Analytical methods to characterize heterogeneous raw material for thermal spray process: cored wire Inconel 625

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, T.; Bonebeau, S.; Drehmann, R.; Grund, T.; Pawlowski, L.; Lampke, T.

    2016-03-01

    In wire arc spraying, the raw material needs to exhibit sufficient formability and ductility in order to be processed. By using an electrically conductive, metallic sheath, it is also possible to handle non-conductive and/or brittle materials such as ceramics. In comparison to massive wire, a cored wire has a heterogeneous material distribution. Due to this fact and the complex thermodynamic processes during wire arc spraying, it is very difficult to predict the resulting chemical composition in the coating with sufficient accuracy. An Inconel 625 cored wire was used to investigate this issue. In a comparative study, the analytical results of the raw material were compared to arc sprayed coatings and droplets, which were remelted in an arc furnace under argon atmosphere. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis were used to determine the chemical composition. The phase determination was performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results were related to the manufacturer specifications and evaluated in respect to differences in the chemical composition. The comparison between the feedstock powder, the remelted droplets and the thermally sprayed coatings allows to evaluate the influence of the processing methods on the resulting chemical and phase composition.

  20. Can hazardous waste become a raw material? The case study of an aluminium residue: a review.

    PubMed

    López-Delgado, Aurora; Tayibi, Hanan

    2012-05-01

    The huge number of research studies carried out during recent decades focused on finding an effective solution for the waste treatment, have allowed some of these residues to become new raw materials for many industries. Achieving this ensures a reduction in energy and natural resources consumption, diminishing of the negative environmental impacts and creating secondary and tertiary industries. A good example is provided by the metallurgical industry, in general, and the aluminium industry in this particular case. The aluminium recycling industry is a beneficial activity for the environment, since it recovers resources from primary industry, manufacturing and post-consumer waste. Slag and scrap which were previously considered as waste, are nowadays the raw material for some highly profitable secondary and tertiary industries. The most recent European Directive on waste establishes that if waste is used as a common product and fulfils the existing legislation for this product, then this waste can be defined as 'end-of-waste'. The review presented here, attempts to show several proposals for making added-value materials using an aluminium residue which is still considered as a hazardous waste, and accordingly, disposed of in secure storage. The present proposal includes the use of this waste to manufacture glass, glass-ceramic, boehmite and calcium aluminate. Thus the waste might effectively be recovered as a secondary source material for various industries.

  1. Discriminative illumination: per-pixel classification of raw materials based on optimal projections of spectral BRDF.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Gu, Jinwei

    2014-01-01

    Classifying raw, unpainted materials--metal, plastic, ceramic, fabric, and so on--is an important yet challenging task for computer vision. Previous works measure subsets of surface spectral reflectance as features for classification. However, acquiring the full spectral reflectance is time consuming and error-prone. In this paper, we propose to use coded illumination to directly measure discriminative features for material classification. Optimal illumination patterns--which we call "discriminative illumination"--are learned from training samples, after projecting to which the spectral reflectance of different materials are maximally separated. This projection is automatically realized by the integration of incident light for surface reflection. While a single discriminative illumination is capable of linear, two-class classification, we show that multiple discriminative illuminations can be used for nonlinear and multiclass classification. We also show theoretically that the proposed method has higher signal-to-noise ratio than previous methods due to light multiplexing. Finally, we construct an LED-based multispectral dome and use the discriminative illumination method for classifying a variety of raw materials, including metal (aluminum, alloy, steel, stainless steel, brass, and copper), plastic, ceramic, fabric, and wood. Experimental results demonstrate its effectiveness.

  2. [Determination of residual organic solvents in flunixin meglumine raw material by headspace gas chromatography].

    PubMed

    Hu, Huilian

    2012-01-01

    A method for the determination of five kinds of residual organic solvents in flunixin meglumine raw material was developed by headspace gas chromatography. An HP-FFAP capillary column (30 m x 0.32 mm x 1.0 microm), a flame ionization detector and the external standard method were used for the separation and quantitative analysis. The effects of equilibrium temperature and equilibrium time on the determination of residual organic solvents were investigated. The good results were obtained in the equilibrium temperature of 90 degrees C and equilibrium time of 30 min. The standard curves were linear in the range of 0.40-7.93 mg/L (r = 0.999 8) for ethyl acetate, 7.32-146.48 mg/L (r = 0.999 6) for methanol, 4.53-90.61 mg/L (r = 0.999 9) for isopropanol, 3.62-72.32 mg/L (r = 0.999 8) for ethanol and 2.31-46.24 mg/L (r = 0.999 6) for acetonitrile. The recoveries for the five residual organic solvents were between 95.96% and 100.31% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) (n = 6) of 1.97%-3.28%. The detection limits of ethyl acetate, methanol, isopropanol, ethanol and acetonitrile were 0.08, 0.9, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.3 mg/L, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to analyze the residual organic solvents in the real sample of flunixin meglumine raw material. The results showed that only isopropanol and ethanol were found in the sample with the contents of 177.44 microg/g and 69.32 microg/g, respectively. The method is rapid, sensitive and accurate for the content determination of residual solvents in flunixin meglumine raw material.

  3. Towards a dynamic assessment of raw materials criticality: linking agent-based demand--with material flow supply modelling approaches.

    PubMed

    Knoeri, Christof; Wäger, Patrick A; Stamp, Anna; Althaus, Hans-Joerg; Weil, Marcel

    2013-09-01

    Emerging technologies such as information and communication-, photovoltaic- or battery technologies are expected to increase significantly the demand for scarce metals in the near future. The recently developed methods to evaluate the criticality of mineral raw materials typically provide a 'snapshot' of the criticality of a certain material at one point in time by using static indicators both for supply risk and for the impacts of supply restrictions. While allowing for insights into the mechanisms behind the criticality of raw materials, these methods cannot account for dynamic changes in products and/or activities over time. In this paper we propose a conceptual framework intended to overcome these limitations by including the dynamic interactions between different possible demand and supply configurations. The framework integrates an agent-based behaviour model, where demand emerges from individual agent decisions and interaction, into a dynamic material flow model, representing the materials' stocks and flows. Within the framework, the environmental implications of substitution decisions are evaluated by applying life-cycle assessment methodology. The approach makes a first step towards a dynamic criticality assessment and will enhance the understanding of industrial substitution decisions and environmental implications related to critical metals. We discuss the potential and limitation of such an approach in contrast to state-of-the-art methods and how it might lead to criticality assessments tailored to the specific circumstances of single industrial sectors or individual companies.

  4. The Feasibility of Sugar Palm (Arenga pinnata) Trunk for Raw Material of Parquet (Wood Flooring)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuryawan, A.; Tarigan, A.; Hakim, L.

    2017-03-01

    In the market, parquet was made from high density wood such as teak, merbau, kempas, ulin, oak, lime, maple, or other high density wood. Parquet has been used for flooring in specific buildings, for instance sport hall, library, commercial building (i.e hotel lobby, hypermarket), and office building. Because of the scarcity of high density wood nowadays and in order to find out the alternative material for wood flooring, the utilization of sugar palm trunk was considered. In this contribution, unproductive sugar palm tree was cut down and divided into three sections using chain saw, namely bottom, middle, and tip. For each section, physical and mechanical samples testing were made according to British Standard 373:1957 for small clear specimen. Investigation of both properties was done in ambient temperature with at least three replications. Instron UTM (Universal Testing Machine) was used to evaluate the mechanical properties. Results of the physical testing (density, moisture content and tangential shrinkage) showed the entire trunk was suitable for raw material of parquet. However, the results of mechanical testing (hardness, MOE/modulus of elasticity, MOR/modulus of rupture, and compression perpendicular to grain) showed only bottom and middle parts were suitable for raw material of parquet while the upper part was vice versa.

  5. Mutagenicity studies in a tyre plant: in vitro activity of workers' urinary concentrates and raw materials.

    PubMed Central

    Crebelli, R; Paoletti, A; Falcone, E; Aquilina, G; Fabri, G; Carere, A

    1985-01-01

    The possible contribution to urinary mutagenicity of occupational exposures in the rubber industry was studied by assaying the urine concentrates of 72 workmen (44 smokers) employed in a tyre plant. Twenty three clerks (16 smokers) engaged in the administrative department of the same factory served as presumptive unexposed controls. XAD-2 resin concentrates of urine samples were assayed in the plate incorporation test and in the microtitre fluctuation assay with Salmonella typhimurium strains TA1535, TA98, and TA100. Furthermore, the in vitro mutagenicity of the major raw materials in use at the plant was determined in the plate incorporation assay with S typhimurium strains TA1535, TA1537, TA98, and TA100. The results obtained from the urinary mutagenicity study show that smoking habits, but not occupation, were statistically significantly related to the appearance of a urinary mutagenicity that was detectable with strain TA98. A possible synergistic effect of occupation with smoking was observed among tyre builders who were also smokers. The study of the raw materials showed that three technical grade materials were weakly active as mutagens in strain TA98 in the absence (poly-p-dinitrosobenzene) or in the presence of metabolic activation (mixed diaryl-p-phenylendiamines and tetramethyltiuram disulphide). The latter chemical was also weakly active in strain TA100. PMID:4015996

  6. Mullite-corundum ceramic used as a catalyst carrier in the pyrolysis of hydrocarbon raw materials

    SciTech Connect

    Andrianov, N.T.; Adel'son, S.V.; Tarkhanova, O.B.; Zhagfarov, F.G.; Zhandarov, V.Y.

    1986-07-01

    The authors develop a carrier for catalysing the pyrolysis of petroleum products which possesses outstanding catalytic properties. Granular ceramic was the carrier material; the main components are alumina and silica. The starting materials for making the carrier consist of granular electrocorundum and Prosyanovsk kaolin. The highest yield of ethylene and the lowest yield of coke were obtained on carriers made from corundum and mullite. The catalyst was made by preparing the carrier with impregnation of the active body KVO/sub 3/ and with the promoter H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/, dried at 90/sup 0/ C, and then calcined. 3 Analysis shows that the best properties are possessed by specimens of catalysts prepared on carriers with 20% kaolin. Industrial use of catalytic pyrolysis will significantly improve savings of raw materials as a result of increasing the ethylene yield 1.3-1.4 times.

  7. Study of the Physical and Energy Properties of Fuel Granules Based on a Thermomodified Wood Raw Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safin, R. R.; Khasanshin, R. R.; Timerbaeva, A. L.; Safina, A. V.

    2015-07-01

    The authors present the results of experimental studies of the basic properties of fuel granules that have been produced from wood raw material treated in different temperature regimes. The authors have established the influence of the temperature of pretreatment of the raw material on the hygroscopicity, swelling, flame-maintenance efficiency, and heat of combustion of fuel granules. A comparative analysis of the energy efficiency of torrefacted pellets and regular fuel granules has been made.

  8. Considering adaptation of electrical ovens with unit-type releasing to peculiarities of thermal energization of mineral raw materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zvezdin, A. V.; Bryanskikh, T. B.

    2017-01-01

    The paper gives a short overview of technologies of mineral raw material thermal treatment where application of electrical ovens with unit-type releasing is possible. Efficiency of such ovens for vermiculite concentrate and conglomerate roasting is proved by more than 13-years experience of their industrial operation. The paper furthermore considers alternative connections of energotechnological blocks of an oven in order to determine its efficient design for specific technology related to one or another mineral raw material.

  9. Relation between quality and production cost for pure biodiesel bases on the mixes of raw materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsanaktsidis, C. G.; Spinthiropoulos, K. G.; Guliyev, Fariz; Dimitriou, D.; Euthaltsidou, K.; Tzilantonis, G. T.

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays biodiesel has become more attractive because it is made from renewable resources. The main ingredients of industrial biodiesel are rap oil, sun oil, fat acid, olive oil cooked. In this study we verify that, the proportion of these components sets the qualitative composition and energy efficiency of the final product. Essential we link the raw materials (rap oil, sun oil, fat acid, olive oil cooked) used in the manufacture of industrial biodiesel the proportion of mixes, with the variation of physicochemical properties of biodiesel produced. According to the quantitative analysis we notice that the physiochemical properties which alter the value for example humidity, acidity, while a large number of physicochemical properties do not change their value depending on the ratio of raw materials in each mixture. The analysis of these changes seems that the presence of fat acids is negative for the quality of the mixture. From the analysis of the cost of the final mixtures that lower cost is achieved in the mixture was 10 and the highest cost was in the mixture 3. Based on a study of the cost of the mixtures can determine a basic relation between the quality and the cost of the final product.

  10. Contamination profiles and characterisation of Bacillus species in wheat bread and raw materials for bread production.

    PubMed

    Rosenkvist, H; Hansen, A

    1995-08-01

    The Bacillus counts in white and wholemeal wheat loaves produced without preservatives or sour dough were consistently 10(6) cfu/g after two days of storage at ambient summer temperatures (25-30 degree C). Identified species were B. subtilis (70%), B. licheniformis (24%), B. pumilus (2%) and B. cereus (2%). The dominance of B. subtilis in bread could be explained by the higher resistance to heat of this species as determined by inoculation studies. Among 14 species isolated from retail bread and wheat grains, B. subtilis was the only species associated with ropiness. Samples of raw materials, particularly bran, seeds and oat products, contained low levels (10(0) - 10(2) cfu/g) of Bacillus spores, surviving a heat treatment (100 degree C, 10 min) corresponding to a baking process. Even low spore levels in raw materials with the frequently isolated species, B. licheniformis (49%) and B. subtilis (10%), resulted in 10(7) Bacillus per g bread crumb in two days as determined by test bakings. The results indicate a need for controlling growth of Bacillus in bread.

  11. Solid-state evaluation and polymorphic quantification of venlafaxine hydrochloride raw materials using the Rietveld method.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Larissa S; Ferreira, Fábio F; Cuffini, Silvia L; Campos, Carlos E M; Monti, Gustavo A; Kuminek, Gislaine; Oliveira, Paulo R; Cardoso, Simone G

    2013-12-15

    Venlafaxine hydrochloride (VEN) is an antidepressant drug widely used for the treatment of depression. The purpose of this study was to carry out the preparation and solid state characterization of the pure polymorphs (Forms 1 and 2) and the polymorphic identification and quantification of four commercially-available VEN raw materials. These two polymorphic forms were obtained from different crystallization methods and characterized by X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD), Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform (DRIFT), Raman Spectroscopy (RS), liquid and solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR and ssNMR) spectroscopies, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques. The main differences were observed by DSC and XRPD and the latter was chosen as the standard technique for the identification and quantification studies in combination with the Rietveld method for the commercial raw materials (VEN1-VEN4) acquired from different manufacturers. Additionally Form 1 and Form 2 can be clearly distinguished from their (13)C ssNMR spectra. Through the analysis, it was possible to conclude that VEN1 and VEN2 were composed only of Form 1, while VEN3 and VEN4 were a mixture of Forms 1 and 2. Additionally, the Rietveld refinement was successfully applied to quantify the polymorphic ratio for VEN3 and VEN4.

  12. Scale-up of biopesticide production processes using wastewater sludge as a raw material.

    PubMed

    Yezza, A; Tyagi, R D; Valèro, J R; Surampalli, R Y; Smith, J

    2004-12-01

    Studies were conducted on the production of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-based biopesticides to ascertain the performance of the process in shake flasks, and in two geometrically similar fermentors (15 and 150 l) utilizing wastewater sludge as a raw material. The results showed that it was possible to achieve better oxygen transfer in the larger capacity fermentor. Viable cell counts increased by 38-55% in the bioreactor compared to shake flasks. As for spore counts, an increase of 25% was observed when changing from shake flask to fermentor experiments. Spore counts were unchanged in bench (15 l) and pilot scale (5.3-5.5 e(+08) cfu/ml; 150 l). An improvement of 30% in the entomotoxicity potential was obtained at pilot scale. Protease activity increased by two to four times at bench and pilot scale, respectively, compared to the maximum activity obtained in shake flasks. The maximum protease activity (4.1 IU/ml) was obtained in pilot scale due to better oxygen transfer. The Bt fermentation process using sludge as raw material was successfully scaled up and resulted in high productivity for toxin protein yield and a high protease activity.

  13. Effects of raw materials and bulking agents on the thermophilic composting process.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jing-Chun; Zhou, Qixing; Katayama, Arata

    2010-05-01

    Three typical biological solid wastes, animal manure, garbage, and sewage sludge, were compared with regard for the composting process and the changes in microbial community structure. The effect of different bulking agents such as rice straw, vermiculite, sawdust, and waste paper were compared in manure compost. The differences in the microbial community were characterized by the quinone profile method. The highest mass reduction was found in garbage composting (56.8%), compared to manure and sludge at 25% and 20.2%, respectively. A quinone content of 305.2 micromol/kg was observed in the late stage of garbage composting, although the diversity index of quinone profile was 9.7, lower than that in manure composting. The predominant quinone species were found to be MK-7, which corresponds to gram positive bacteria with low G+C content such as Bacillus. The predominance of MK-7 was especially found in garbage and sludge composting process, while the increase in quinones with partially saturated long side chain was shown in late composting process of manure, which corresponded to the proliferation of Actinobacteria. The effect of different bulking agents on the composting process was much smaller than the effect of different raw materials. High organic matter content in the raw materials results in a higher microbial biomass and activity, which was connected to the high mass reduction rate.

  14. Quantitative analysis of the 26 allergens for cosmetic labeling in fragrance raw materials and perfume oils.

    PubMed

    Leijs, Hans; Broekhans, Joost; van Pelt, Leon; Mussinan, Cynthia

    2005-07-13

    The adoption of the 7th amendment of the European Cosmetic Directive 76/768/EEC requires any cosmetic product containing any of 26 raw materials identified by the Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products intended for Consumers as likely to cause a contact allergy when present above certain trigger levels to be declared on the package label. Of these 26, 24 are volatile and can be analyzed by GC. This paper describes a method for the quantitative analysis of these volatile raw materials in perfume ingredients as well as complex perfume compositions. The method uses sequential dual-column GC-MS analysis. The full-scan data acquired minimize the false-positive and false-negative identifications that can be observed with alternate methods based on data acquired in the SIM mode. For each sample, allergen levels are determined on both columns sequentially, leading to two numerical results for each allergen. Quantification limits for each allergen in a perfume mixture based on the analysis of a standard are <4 mg/kg. This is well below the level that would trigger label declaration on the consumer good. Calibration curves for all allergens are linear (r > 0.999) and stable for multiple days. Studies on perfumes spiked with multiple allergens at 30, 50, and 70 mg/kg show recoveries close to nominal values.

  15. Current problems: Plant biomass as raw material for the production of olefins and motor fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Paushkin, Ya.M.; Lapidus, A.L.; Adel`son, S.V.

    1995-01-01

    Apart from petroleum, another reserve of energy that may be tapped is plant biomass - the primary source of life on Earth. Plant biomass is formed every year in the amount of 170-200 billion tonnes (calculated as dry weight), equivalent in energy to 70-80 billion tonnes of crude oil (compare with the world oil production of about 3 billion tonnes). A small percentage of the plant biomass is utilized by the human race (food, construction, fuel, industry) and by the animal world. Most of it vanishes without producing any benefits; it is decomposed and converted to carbon dioxide and water. With modern technology of growing and harvesting biomass, there is no doubt that at least 2.5-5% of the biomass can be utilized; this is equivalent in terms of energy to 2-4 billion tonnes of crude oil or more than 3-6 billion tonnes of coal. In the course of processing plant raw material in the forest industry, agriculture, and other activities, large amounts of organic wastes are formed; these can be utilized directly for energy production - either as solid fuel in the form of fuel briquets, in solid-waste disposal plants for the production of heat in the form of steam, or as a raw material for processing into liquid fuel means of newly developed technology.

  16. Waste glass from end-of-life fluorescent lamps as raw material in geopolymers.

    PubMed

    Novais, Rui M; Ascensão, G; Seabra, M P; Labrincha, J A

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays the stunning volume of generated wastes, the exhaustion of raw materials, and the disturbing greenhouse gases emission levels show that a paradigm shift is mandatory. In this context, the possibility of using wastes instead of virgin raw materials can mitigate the environmental problems related to wastes, while reducing the consumption of the Earth's natural resources. This innovative work reports the incorporation of unexplored waste glass coming from end-of-life fluorescent lamps into geopolymers. The influence of the waste glass incorporation level, NaOH molarity and curing conditions on the microstructure, physical and mechanical properties of the geopolymers was evaluated. Results demonstrate that curing conditions are the most influential factor on the geopolymer characteristics, while the NaOH molarity is less important. Geopolymers containing 37.5% (wt) waste glass were successfully produced, showing compressive strength of 14MPa (after 28days of curing), suggesting the possibility of their use in non-structural applications. Porous waste-based geopolymers for novel applications were also fabricated.

  17. Sequential parametric optimization of methane production from different sources of forest raw material

    PubMed Central

    Matsakas, Leonidas; Rova, Ulrika; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The increase in environmental problems and the shortage of fossil fuels have led to the need for action in the development of sustainable and renewable fuels. Methane is produced through anaerobic digestion of organic materials and is a biofuel with very promising characteristics. The success in using methane as a biofuel has resulted in the operation of several commercial-scale plants and the need to exploit novel materials to be used. Forest biomass can serve as an excellent candidate for use as raw material for anaerobic digestion. During this work, both hardwood and softwood species—which are representative of the forests of Sweden—were used for the production of methane. Initially, when untreated forest materials were used for the anaerobic digestion, the yields obtained were very low, even with the addition of enzymes, reaching a maximum of only 40 mL CH4/g VS when birch was used. When hydrothermal pretreatment was applied, the enzymatic digestibility improved up to 6.7 times relative to that without pretreatment, and the yield of methane reached up to 254 mL CH4/g VS. Then the effect of chemical/enzymatic detoxification was examined, where laccase treatment improved the methane yield from the more harshly pretreated materials while it had no effect on the more mildly pretreated material. Finally, addition of cellulolytic enzymes during the digestion improved the methane yields from spruce and pine, whereas for birch separate saccharification was more beneficial. To achieve high yields in spruce 30 filter paper units (FPU)/g was necessary, whereas 15 FPU/g was enough when pine and birch were used. During this work, the highest methane yields obtained from pine and birch were 179.9 mL CH4/g VS and 304.8 mL CH4/g VS, respectively. For mildly and severely pretreated spruce, the methane yields reached 259.4 mL CH4/g VS and 276.3 mL CH4/g VS, respectively. We have shown that forest material can serve as raw material for efficient production of methane. The

  18. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated waste paper--source of raw material for production of liquid biofuels.

    PubMed

    Brummer, Vladimir; Jurena, Tomas; Hlavacek, Viliam; Omelkova, Jirina; Bebar, Ladislav; Gabriel, Petr; Stehlik, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of waste paper is becoming a perspective way to obtain raw material for production of liquid biofuels. Reducing sugars solutions that arise from the process of saccharification are a precursors for following or simultaneous fermentation to ethanol. Different types of waste paper were evaluated, in terms of composition and usability, in order to select the appropriate type of the waste paper for the enzymatic hydrolysis process. Novozymes® enzymes NS50013 and NS50010 were used in a laboratory scale trials. Technological conditions, which seem to be the most suitable for hydrolysis after testing on cellulose pulp and filter paper, were applied to hydrolysis of widely available waste papers - offset paper, cardboard, recycled paper in two qualities, matte MYsol offset paper and for comparison again on model materials. The highest yields were achieved for the cardboard, which was further tested using various pretreatment combinations in purpose of increasing the hydrolysis yields.

  19. Chitinous materials inhibit nitric oxide production by activated RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Hwang, S M; Chen, C Y; Chen, S S; Chen, J C

    2000-04-29

    Chitinous materials have been studied in wound healing and artificial skin substitutes for many years. Nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to contribute to cytotoxicity in cell proliferation during inflammation of wound healing. In this study, we examined the effect of chitin and its derivatives on NO production by activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Chitin and chitosan showed a significantly inhibitory effect on NO production by the activated macrophages. Hexa-N-acetylchitohexaose and penta-N-acetylchitopentaose also inhibited NO production but with less potency. However, N-acetylchitotetraose, -triose, -biose, and monomer of chitin, N-acetylglucosamine and glucosamine had little effect on NO production by the activated cells. These results suggest that the promotive effect of chitinous material on wound healing be related, at least partly, to inhibit NO production by the activated macrophages.

  20. Use of natural raw material for the production of photochromic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Kiyan, V.I.; Artamonova, M.V.; Solinov, V.F.

    1986-07-01

    The authors investigated the possibility of using natural raw materials as replacements for soda and alumina for obtaining photochromic glasses and to determine their properties. Glasses of the sodium aluminoborosilicate system were studied. The characteristics of the batches and some of the properties of the glasses are given in a table. Sodium oxide was added to batches Nos. 1 and 2 as soda or borax. Composition Nos. 3, 4, and 5 were prepared using acid, basic, and neutral rocks by means of which the oxides of sodium and aluminum were added. The glasses were synthesized in SiC-heater furnaces. The differential thermal analysis of compositions Nos. 1 and 5 showed that the presence of natural materials leads to the formation of a liquid phase at lower temperatures which helps to intensify the processes of silicate- and glass-formation.

  1. Characterization of MSWI bottom ashes towards utilization as glass raw material.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, R C C; Figueiredo, C F; Alendouro, M S; Ferro, M C; Davim, E J R; Fernandes, M H V

    2008-01-01

    The characterization of the bottom ashes produced by two Portuguese municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) was performed with the aim of assessing the feasibility of using this waste as raw material in the production of glass that can be further processed as glass-ceramics for application in construction. Density and particle size distribution measurements were carried out for physical characterization. Chemical characterization revealed that SiO(2), a network glass former oxide, was present in a relatively high content (52-58wt%), indicating the suitability for this waste to be employed in the development of vitreous materials. CaO, Na(2)O and K(2)O, which act as fluxing agents, were present in various amounts (2-17wt%) together with several other oxides normally present in ceramic and glass raw materials. Mineralogical characterization revealed that the main crystalline phases were quartz (SiO(2)) and calcite (CaCO(3)) and that minor amounts of different alkaline and alkaline-earth aluminosilicate phases were also present. Thermal characterization showed that the decomposition of the different compounds occurred up to 1100 degrees C and that total weight loss was <10wt%. Heating both bottom ashes at 1400 degrees C for 2h resulted in a melt with suitable viscosity to be poured into a mould, and homogeneous black-coloured glasses with a smooth shiny surface were obtained after cooling. The vitrified bottom ashes were totally amorphous as confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The results from the present experimental work indicate that the examined bottom ashes can be a potential material to melt and to obtain a glass that can be further processed as glass-ceramics to be applied in construction.

  2. Characterization of MSWI bottom ashes towards utilization as glass raw material

    SciTech Connect

    Monteiro, R.C.C. Figueiredo, C.F.; Alendouro, M.S.; Ferro, M.C.; Davim, E.J.R.; Fernandes, M.H.V.

    2008-07-01

    The characterization of the bottom ashes produced by two Portuguese municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) was performed with the aim of assessing the feasibility of using this waste as raw material in the production of glass that can be further processed as glass-ceramics for application in construction. Density and particle size distribution measurements were carried out for physical characterization. Chemical characterization revealed that SiO{sub 2}, a network glass former oxide, was present in a relatively high content (52-58 wt%), indicating the suitability for this waste to be employed in the development of vitreous materials. CaO, Na{sub 2}O and K{sub 2}O, which act as fluxing agents, were present in various amounts (2-17 wt%) together with several other oxides normally present in ceramic and glass raw materials. Mineralogical characterization revealed that the main crystalline phases were quartz (SiO{sub 2}) and calcite (CaCO{sub 3}) and that minor amounts of different alkaline and alkaline-earth aluminosilicate phases were also present. Thermal characterization showed that the decomposition of the different compounds occurred up to 1100 deg. C and that total weight loss was <10 wt%. Heating both bottom ashes at 1400 deg. C for 2 h resulted in a melt with suitable viscosity to be poured into a mould, and homogeneous black-coloured glasses with a smooth shiny surface were obtained after cooling. The vitrified bottom ashes were totally amorphous as confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The results from the present experimental work indicate that the examined bottom ashes can be a potential material to melt and to obtain a glass that can be further processed as glass-ceramics to be applied in construction.

  3. Natural stone muds as secondary raw materials: towards a new sustainable recovery process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zichella, Lorena; Tori, Alice; Bellopede, Rossana; Marini, Paola

    2016-04-01

    The production of residual sludge is a topical issue, and has become essential to recover and reuse the materials, both for the economics and the environmental aspect. According to environmental EU Directives, in fact ,the stone cutting and processing should characterized by following objectives, targets and actions: the reduction of waste generated, the decreasing of use of critical raw material, the zero landfilling of sludge and decreasing in potential soil contamination, the prevention of transport of dangerous waste, the reduction of energy consumption, the zero impact on air pollution and the cost reduction . There are many industrial sector in which residual sludge have high concentrations of metals and/or elements deemed harmful and therefore hazardous waste. An important goal, for all industrial sectors, is an increase in productivity and a parallel reduction in costs. The research leads to the development of solutions with an always reduced environmental impact. The possibility to decrease the amount of required raw materials and at the same time the reduction in the amount of waste has become the aim for any industrial reality. From literature there are different approaches for the recovery of raw and secondary materials, and are often used for the purpose chemical products that separate the elements constituting the mud but at the same time make additional pollutants. The aim of the study is to find solutions that are environmentally sustainable for both industries and citizens. The present study is focused on three different Piedmont rocks: Luserna, Diorite from Traversella and Diorite from Vico, processed with three different stone machining technologies: cutting with diamond wire in quarry (blocks), in sawmill (slabs) and surface polishing. The steps are: chemical analysis, particle size analysis and mineralogical composition and characterization of the sludge obtained from the various machining operations for the recovery of the metal material by

  4. Study of flint properties for artefacts raw material sources detection in the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarina, Liga; Seglins, Valdis

    2014-05-01

    The natural diversity of flint and chert is extremely high and their changes in hypergenesis zone are relevant, as well the processes speed is high, which makes these natural silicates problematic in modern scientific studies. This is also evidenced by the numerous attempts to determine precise the flint chemical and physical properties that still are recognized only as indicative. At the same time, flint is one of the few natural raw materials, what people have used for making tools through thousands of years. Despite the many advances in ancient material culture studies, the raw material in relation to the development of these cultures can be localised sufficiently accurate only in some cases, but others have to be limited to the assumption that the raw material was obtained through an exchange. In the study was assessed the natural diversity of the flint in northern Europe and its characteristic properties. It was found that only a part of them are associated with secondary changes and relate mainly to the low purity of the flint, as well as to an external layer formation, less - to the individual layers of the nodules. Those cannot always be macroscopically evaluated, particularly in circumstances when the samples cover patina and the objects may be investigated only by non-destructive methods. The studies in ultraviolet light partially solved before mentioned. The internal structure of the objects is recognizable, and at the same time are evident also various inclusions, squares and diffuse, hidden cracks and other disparities, which often cover most of the research objects. This explains why so far determined flint properties are so very different and enable to mark the specific locations for the further composition research. These characteristic locations were studied under UV light and it is optimal apply excitation filters 340-380nm, 450-490nm and 515-560nm with corresponding emission zones from 425nm, 515nm and 590nm. The results show that it is possible

  5. Use of precalciners to remove alkali from raw materials in the cement industry. Final report, July 1978-July 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Gartner, E.M.

    1980-07-01

    The objective of this work was to develop an efficient means of removing alkali metal compounds (alkalies) from high-alkali aluminosilicate raw materials of the type commonly used as part of cement raw mixes in order to increase the energy efficiency of cement manufacture. The intention of this project was to determine whether the high-alkali raw materials could be pyroprocessed separately to remove the alkalies before they entered the rotary kiln, where they would be mixed with the other raw feed components. If this could be achieved, considerable savings could be made in the energy required to remove alkalies, compared to conventional methods in which the cement raw mix must be treated as a whole. Two different methods of alkali removal were examined, namely, vaporization of alkalies at relatively low temperatures; and alkali-rich melt separation at relativey high temperatures. The results showed that the removal of alkalies by pyroprocessing of high-alkali raw feed components separate from the other cement raw mix components is not likely to be a practical alternative to the best available conventional precalciner technology. (LCL)

  6. Change in raw material selection and subsistence behaviour through time at a Middle Palaeolithic site in southern France.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Lucy; Browne, Constance L

    2014-10-01

    We apply a resource selection model to the lithic assemblages from 11 archaeological layers at a Middle Palaeolithic site in southern France, the Bau de l'Aubesier. The model calculates how to weight each of 10 variables in order to best match the proportions of raw materials from various potential sources in the lithic assemblages. We then combine the variables into two sets of five each, those related to the characteristics of the raw materials themselves, and those related to the sources and the terrain around them. Running the model with each subset shows that the terrain variables always provide a better match to raw material use than do the raw material variables taken by themselves, but the best model is always the overall (10-variable) model. This means that terrain is most important in every case, but raw material properties also matter. Comparing the percentage contributions of each subset within the overall model, however, shows a clear change in emphasis in the upper layers versus the lower layers of the site. In the lower six layers, the percent contribution of the terrain variables is always greater than that of the raw material variables, but in the upper five layers the reverse is true: terrain still matters, but raw material becomes more important. We also look at faunal and basic tool typological data, which show a progressive change through time, as smaller prey become more important (and large prey less so), and tools and cores proportionally less abundant in the assemblages in the upper layers. We suggest that these results reflect a change in subsistence strategies at the time of a particularly harsh climate near the end of the Middle Pleistocene, and that hominin groups using this site continued to use this new approach throughout the rest of the Pleistocene.

  7. Investigations of physicochemical properties of bottom-ash materials for use them as secondary raw materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mal'chik, A. G.; Litovkin, S. V.; Rodionov, P. V.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper chemical content and particle size distribution of bottom-ash material are defined; results of differential thermal and X-ray analyzes are given; processes of phase transformations occurring during heating, are examined for possible use of the waste to produce ceramic products. Studies have shown that effective specific activity of radionuclides in the material under examination would have no effect on radiation safety of the finished product.

  8. Utilization of Savannah Harbor river sediment as the primary raw material in production of fired brick.

    PubMed

    Mezencevova, Andrea; Yeboah, Nortey N; Burns, Susan E; Kahn, Lawrence F; Kurtis, Kimberly E

    2012-12-30

    A laboratory-scale study was conducted to assess the feasibility of the production of fired bricks from sediments dredged from the Savannah Harbor (Savannah, GA, USA). The dredged sediment was used as the sole raw material, or as a 50% replacement for natural brick-making clay. Sediment bricks were prepared using the stiff mud extrusion process from raw mixes consisted of 100% dredged sediment, or 50% dredged sediment and 50% brick clay. The bricks were fired at temperatures between 900 and 1000 °C. Physical and mechanical properties of the dredged sediment brick were found to generally comply with ASTM criteria for building brick. Water absorption of the dredged sediment bricks was in compliance with the criteria for brick graded for severe (SW) or moderate (MW) weathering. Compressive strength of 100% dredged sediment bricks ranged from 8.3 to 11.7 MPa; the bricks sintered at 1000 °C met the requirements for negligible weathering (NW) building brick. Mixing the dredged sediment with natural clay resulted in an increase of the compressive strength. The compressive strength of the sediment-clay bricks fired at 1000 °C was 29.4 MPa, thus meeting the ASTM requirements for the SW grade building brick. Results of this study demonstrate that production of fired bricks is a promising and achievable productive reuse alternative for Savannah Harbor dredged sediments.

  9. Valorisation of food waste to produce new raw materials for animal feed.

    PubMed

    San Martin, D; Ramos, S; Zufía, J

    2016-05-01

    This study assesses the suitability of vegetable waste produced by food industry for use as a raw material for animal feed. It includes safety and nutritional viability, technical feasibility and environmental evaluation. Vegetable by-products were found to be nutritionally and sanitarily appropriate for use in animal feed. The drying technologies tested for making vegetable waste suitable for use in the animal feed market were pulse combustion drying, oven and microwave. The different meal prototypes obtained were found to comply with all the requirements of the animal feed market. An action plan that takes into account all the stages of the valorisation process was subsequently defined in agreement with local stakeholders. This plan was validated in a pilot-scale demonstration trial. Finally, the technical feasibility was studied and environmental improvement was performed. This project was funded by the European LIFE+ program (LIFE09 ENV/ES/000473).

  10. Evaluation of Dried Sweet Sorghum Stalks as Raw Material for Methane Production

    PubMed Central

    Matsakas, Leonidas; Rova, Ulrika; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The potential of utilizing dried sweet sorghum stalks as raw material for anaerobic digestion has been evaluated. Two different treatments were tested, a mild thermal and an enzymatic, alone or in combination. Thermal pretreatment was found to decrease the methane yields, whereas one-step enzymatic treatment resulted in a significant increase of 15.1% comparing to the untreated sweet sorghum. Subsequently, in order to increase the total methane production, the combined effect of enzyme load and I/S on methane yields from sweet sorghum was evaluated by employing response surface methodology. The obtained model showed that the maximum methane yield that could be achieved is 296 mL CH4/g VS at I/S ratio of 0.35 with the addition of 11.12 FPU/g sweet sorghum. PMID:25210715

  11. Isolation and identification of two unknown impurities from the raw material of clindamycin hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qiushi; Li, Yue; Qin, Li

    2014-10-01

    Clindamycin hydrochloride belongs to the antibiotic family of lincomycin. It has the same antibacterial spectrum as lincomycin, but the antibacterial activity is four to eight times stronger than that of lincomycin. There have been some adverse reactions in clinical use of clindamycin hydrochloride and its finished drug products. The impurities in drugs are directly related to their safety. In this study, two unknown impurities were isolated from the raw material of clindamycin hydrochloride through various chromatographic methods. Their structures were identified as clindamycin isomer (impurity 1) and dehydroclindamycin (impurity 2) by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. Both of them were found for the first time. The two impurities exhibit a similar but lower antibacterial activity compared with clindamycin hydrochloride.

  12. Foodborne outbreak of human brucellosis caused by ingested raw materials of fetal calf on Jeju Island.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jeong Rae; Heo, Sang Taek; Lee, Keun Hwa; Kim, Young Ree; Yoo, Seung Jin

    2015-02-01

    Since the first reported case of human brucellosis in 2002 in South Korea, its incidence has been increasing nationally. However, bovine brucellosis has not been present from 2005 to date on Jeju Island. Despite Jeju Island being considered a clean area for bovine brucellosis, we experienced an outbreak of human brucellosis between 2012 and 2013. Herein, we report cases with human brucellosis after ingestion of raw materials of fetal calf at a restaurant. Patients were identified by isolation of the Brucella abortus in their blood and joint tissue. Because all patients developed zoonosis by a faulty folk remedy, we emphasize the importance of educational programs to increase the awareness of zoonosis, and the need for active surveillance and detection of illegal distribution channels of the infected animal. After the outbreak, we took control of the involved restaurant and its illegal distribution channel, and there have been no further outbreaks.

  13. Mineralogy of Clay Raw Materials from Cote d'ivoire: Case of the Deposit from Katiola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kpangni, E. B.; Andji, Y. Y. J.; Adouby, K.; Oyetola, S.; Kra, G.; Yvon, J.

    This study deals with two clays referenced K1 and K2, used in the local and traditional manufacture of pottery ware at Katiola. Those samples were analysed by X-rays diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and thermal differential and chemical techniques. The results show that the samples (K1 and K2) are mainly composed of montmorillonite, kaolinite and illite. Only K1 is inter-stratified. The mineralogical balance achieved from the reflection (001) of the oriented film, indicate for K1: 74.5% of montmorillonite; 13.5% of inter-stratified clay; 7% of kaolinite and 5.4% of illite and for K2: 73.4% of montmorillonite; 23.5% of kaolinite and 3.1% of illite. The results also indicate that the raw material may not be use only for pottery. It can be consider in the protection of the environment, cosmetic industry, vegetable oil treatment, medicine etc.

  14. Influence of fatty acid composition of raw materials on biodiesel properties.

    PubMed

    Ramos, María Jesús; Fernández, Carmen María; Casas, Abraham; Rodríguez, Lourdes; Pérez, Angel

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was the study of the influence of the raw material composition on biodiesel quality, using a transesterification reaction. Thus, ten refined vegetable oils were transesterificated using potassium methoxide as catalyst and standard reaction conditions (reaction time, 1h; weight of catalyst, 1 wt.% of initial oil weight; molar ratio methanol/oil, 6/1; reaction temperature, 60 degrees C). Biodiesel quality was tested according to the standard [UNE-EN 14214, 2003. Automotive fuels. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) for diesel engines. Requirements and test methods]. Some critical parameters like oxidation stability, cetane number, iodine value and cold filter plugging point were correlated with the methyl ester composition of each biodiesel, according to two parameters: degree of unsaturation and long chain saturated factor. Finally, a triangular graph based on the composition in monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and saturated methyl esters was built in order to predict the critical parameters of European standard for whatever biodiesel, known its composition.

  15. Fly ash from cellulose industry as secondary raw material in autoclaved aerated concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Hauser, A.; Eggenberger, U.; Mumenthaler, T.

    1999-03-01

    Because fly ash from cellulose industries contains considerable amounts of free lime and sulfate, they are potential secondary raw materials for the production of autoclaved aerated concrete. Laboratory experiments were performed by replacing lime and sulfate in conventional autoclaved aerated concrete mixtures by fly ash. Compared to a reference series, samples with even higher compressive strength could be produced with lime-sulfate ash. At higher proportions of fly ash, the formation of calcium silicate hydrate phases is delayed and the presence of unreacted portlandite and newly formed scawtite produce a drop in strength and an increase in shrinkage. Low strength resulted by using Al-bearing ash with a lower amount of free CaO, which makes this type of ash not applicable in practice.

  16. Cost-effective defined medium for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates using agricultural raw materials.

    PubMed

    Suwannasing, Waranya; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Kaewkannetra, Pakawadee

    2015-10-01

    According to the cost of carbon substrate for producing biopolymer of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) still has a barrier to extend in an industrial scale. The aim of this work was to evaluate the defined PHAs media containing the agricultural raw materials of pineapple and sugarcane to produce PHAs by Bacillus strain. Batch fermentation was carried out in flask scale to compare the efficiency of defined media using statistical methodology. The defined medium 8 of pineapple was achieved the highest PHAs concentration and productivity (1.86 g/L and 0.077 g/Lh). The effect of pH and aeration was extensively studied in a fermentor. The results were revealed that PHAs production would be increased from the condition of uncontrolled pH and at higher aeration rate. The extracted PHAs clearly showed in a homopolymer structure of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) with melting temperature (Tm) of 172°C 54.39% crystallinity.

  17. Screening of halogenated aromatic compounds in some raw material lots for an aluminium recycling plant.

    PubMed

    Sinkkonen, Seija; Paasivirta, Jaakko; Lahtiperä, Mirja; Vattulainen, Antero

    2004-05-01

    Four samples of scrap raw materials for an aluminium recycling plant were screened for the occurrence of persistent halogenated aromatic compounds. The samples contained waste from handling of electric and electronic plastics, filter dust from electronic crusher, cyclone dust from electronic crusher and light fluff from car shredder. In our screening analyses, brominated flame retardants were observed in all samples. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) were identified in all samples in amounts of 245-67450 ng/g. The major PBDE congeners found were decabromo- and pentabromodiphenyl ethers. 1,1-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane, hexabromobenzene, ethyl-pentabromobenzene, tetrabromobisphenol-A, pentabromotoluene and dimethyl tetrabromobenzene were observed in all scrap samples. The concentrations of PCBs, PCNs (polychlorinated naphthalenes) and nona- to undecachlorinated terphenyls in some of these scrap samples were remarkably high.

  18. Chemistry Based on Renewable Raw Materials: Perspectives for a Sugar Cane-Based Biorefinery

    PubMed Central

    Villela Filho, Murillo; Araujo, Carlos; Bonfá, Alfredo; Porto, Weber

    2011-01-01

    Carbohydrates are nowadays a very competitive feedstock for the chemical industry because their availability is compatible with world-scale chemical production and their price, based on the carbon content, is comparable to that of petrochemicals. At the same time, demand is rising for biobased products. Brazilian sugar cane is a competitive feedstock source that is opening the door to a wide range of bio-based products. This essay begins with the importance of the feedstock for the chemical industry and discusses developments in sugar cane processing that lead to low cost feedstocks. Thus, sugar cane enables a new chemical industry, as it delivers a competitive raw material and a source of energy. As a result, sugar mills are being transformed into sustainable biorefineries that fully exploit the potential of sugar cane. PMID:21637329

  19. Steam Pyrolysis of Polyimides: Effects of Steam on Raw Material Recovery.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Shogo; Hosaka, Tomoyuki; Kameda, Tomohito; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

    2015-11-17

    Aromatic polyimides (PIs) have excellent thermal stability, which makes them difficult to recycle, and an effective way to recycle PIs has not yet been established. In this work, steam pyrolysis of the aromatic PI Kapton was performed to investigate the recovery of useful raw materials. Steam pyrolysis significantly enhanced the gasification of Kapton at 900 °C, resulting in 1963.1 mL g(-1) of a H2 and CO rich gas. Simultaneously, highly porous activated carbon with a high BET surface area was recovered. Steam pyrolysis increased the presence of polar functional groups on the carbon surface. Thus, it was concluded that steam pyrolysis shows great promise as a recycling technique for the recovery of useful synthetic gases and activated carbon from PIs without the need for catalysts and organic solvents.

  20. Microbial decontamination of cosmetic raw materials and personal care products by irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katušin-Ražem, Branka; Mihaljević, Branka; Ražem, Dušan

    2003-03-01

    Typical levels of sporadically occurring (dynamic) microbial contamination of cosmetic raw materials: pigments, abrasives and liposomes, as well as of final products for personal care: toothpaste, crayons, shampoos, cleansers and creams, were evaluated. In most cases the contamination was dominated by a single population of microorganisms, either Gram-negative bacteria or molds. The feasibility of microbial decontamination by irradiation was studied by determining the resistance to gamma radiation of contaminating microflora in situ. It was expressed as a dose required for the first 90% reduction, D first 90% red . The values in the range 1-2 kGy for molds and 0.1-0.6 kGy for Gram-negative bacteria were obtained. This relatively high susceptibility to irradiation allowed inactivation factors close to 6 to be achieved with doses generally not exceeding 3 kGy, and yielding endpoint contamination less than 10/g.

  1. Using Residence Time Distributions (RTDs) to Address the Traceability of Raw Materials in Continuous Pharmaceutical Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Engisch, William; Muzzio, Fernando

    Continuous processing in pharmaceutical manufacturing is a relatively new approach that has generated significant attention. While it has been used for decades in other industries, showing significant advantages, the pharmaceutical industry has been slow in its adoption of continuous processing, primarily due to regulatory uncertainty. This paper aims to help address these concerns by introducing methods for batch definition, raw material traceability, and sensor frequency determination. All of the methods are based on established engineering and mathematical principles, especially the residence time distribution (RTD). This paper introduces a risk-based approach to address content uniformity challenges of continuous manufacturing. All of the detailed methods are discussed using a direct compaction manufacturing line as the main example, but the techniques can easily be applied to other continuous manufacturing methods such as wet and dry granulation, hot melt extrusion, capsule filling, etc.

  2. Oil from hydrocracking as a raw material for the production of white oils

    SciTech Connect

    Potanina, V.A.; Dremova, T.I.; Ponomareva, T.P.; Zlotnikov, V.Z.

    1984-01-01

    This article investigates the feasibility of using distillate oil from hydrocracking for white oil production. A process technology has been developed in the USSR for the manufacture of high-quality oils by hydrocracking a heavy distillate feed in high-pressure equipment. The neutral and hydrocracked oil sample and a blend of these stocks were subjected to treatment with oleum, neutralization with 65% ethyl alcohol, and contact finishing to obtain white oils. The physicochemical properties of the white oils are given. It is determined that the hydrocracked oil can be used as the raw material in manufacturing perfume oil meeting the standard GOST 4225-76, and that the blends can be used to obtain pharmaceutical white oil meeting the standard GOST 3164-78.

  3. Comparison of biogas sludge and raw crop material as source of hydrolytic cultures for anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Weiß, Stefan; Somitsch, Walter; Klymiuk, Ingeborg; Trajanoski, Slave; Guebitz, Georg M

    2016-05-01

    Mixed fermentative/hydrolytic bacteria were enriched on lignocellulose substrates in minimal medium under semi-anaerobic mesophilic conditions in the presence or absence of natural zeolite as growth supporter to ultimately bioaugment non-adapted sludge and thereby enhance the overall anaerobic digestion (AD) of recalcitrant plant material. Desired enzyme activities, i.e. xylanases and cellulase were monitored during subsequent cultivation cycles. Furthermore, enriched microbial communities were characterized by 16S rRNA-based 454-Pyrosequencing, revealing Firmicutes, Bacteriodetes, Proteobacteria and Spirochaetes to be the predominant bacterial groups in cultures derived from anaerobic sludge and raw crop material, i.e. maple green cut and wheat straw as well. Enriched populations relevant for biopolymer hydrolysis were then compared in biological methane potential tests to demonstrate positive effects on the biogasification of renewable plant substrate material. A significant impact on methane productivity was observed with adapted mixed cultures when used in combination with clinoptilolite to augment and supplement non-adapted bioreactor sludge.

  4. Contractions

    MedlinePlus

    ... feel tightening of your uterus muscles at irregular intervals or a squeezing sensation in your lower abdomen ... beginning of childbirth. These contractions come at regular intervals, usually move from the back to the lower ...

  5. Radioactivity levels of limestone and gypsum used as building raw materials in Turkey and estimation of exposure doses.

    PubMed

    Turhan, Seref

    2010-08-01

    The natural radionuclide contents of limestone and gypsum samples used as building raw materials in Turkey were measured by means of gamma spectrometer system with HPGe detector. The measured activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K radionuclide were compared with the reported data from other countries. Radium equivalent activity and internal hazard index, absorbed gamma dose rate in indoor due to the external exposure and corresponding annual effective dose were determined to estimate the exposure risk arising due to the use of these raw materials. This study has shown that examined gypsum and limestone raw materials do not pose any excess radiological health problem and are safe for use in the construction of buildings.

  6. Aluminium content of some processed foods, raw materials and food additives in China by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Deng, Gui-Fang; Li, Ke; Ma, Jing; Liu, Fen; Dai, Jing-Jing; Li, Hua-Bin

    2011-01-01

    The level of aluminium in 178 processed food samples from Shenzhen city in China was evaluated using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Some processed foods contained a concentration of up to 1226 mg/kg, which is about 12 times the Chinese food standard. To establish the main source in these foods, Al levels in the raw materials were determined. However, aluminium concentrations in raw materials were low (0.10-451.5 mg/kg). Therefore, aluminium levels in food additives used in these foods was determined and it was found that some food additives contained a high concentration of aluminium (0.005-57.4 g/kg). The results suggested that, in the interest of public health, food additives containing high concentrations of aluminium should be replaced by those containing less. This study has provided new information on aluminium levels in Chinese processed foods, raw materials and a selection of food additives.

  7. Occurrence of Escherichia coli O157 in raw material and food in Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Lukásová, J; Abraham, B; Cupáková, S

    2004-03-01

    The study was carried out to investigate the incidence of Escherichia coli O157 in raw materials, foodstuffs and the agricultural environment. Of a total of 987 samples examined, 22 strains (2.2%) were identified as E. coli O157 and 10 of them as E. coli O157:H7. Cefixime-Tellurite MacConkey sorbitol agar (CT-SMAC) agar and Biosynth culture medium (BCM) E. coli O157:7 medium were used for the isolation. The virulence factors (stx1, stx2, eae, and ehxA genes) were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Most strains were isolated from the mechanically deboned poultry meat (nine), minced meat (six) and raw milk (four). One strain was isolated from beef carcass and two strains from waste water. No strains were were found in mass for sausages, refreshment salads, swabs of pork and poultry carcasses and faeces of cattle and pigs. Ten strains from the 22 identified proved to be positive for all factors of virulence. They were isolated from minced meat (four), raw milk (four), waste water (one) and swab from beef carcass (one). Sensitivity to the antimicrobial drugs ampicillin (AMS), ampicillin-sublactam (SAM), tetracycline (TET), ofloxacine (OFL), cefuroxime (CRX), chloramphenicol (CPM), gentamicine (GEN), colistin (COL), cephalozine (CLZ), cefoxitin (CXT), aztreonam (AZT), and sulphamethoxazole + trimethoprim (COT) was tested using the standard dilution technique and disc diffusion test. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) characteristics (MIC(50), MIC(90), MIC range) and inhibitory zone diameter were determined for each strain. As determined by MICs, the resistance to tested antibiotics in E. coli O157 isolates was found to AMS (90.9%), CLZ (81.8%), CRX (63.6%), CXT (72.7%), CPM (72.7%), TET (81.8%), SAM (59.1%), COT (9.1%), COL (63.61%), AZT (9%) and GEN (4.5%). The similar results were obtained using the disc diffusion method. The differences were found relating to SAM, CXT, CMO and TET. Resistance against one or more antibiotics was found in 95.4% of E

  8. 48 CFR 216.601 - Time-and-materials contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-Hour Proposal Requirements—Non-Commercial Item Acquisition with Adequate Price Competition, with 252... contract type for non-commercial items if the price is expected to be based on adequate competition. ... of the contract or order; establishing fixed prices for portions of the requirement); and...

  9. Total Flavonoids Content in the Raw Material and Aqueous Extractives from Bauhinia monandra Kurz (Caesalpiniaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Ana Josane Dantas; Ferreira, Magda Rhayanny Assunção; Randau, Karina Perrelli; de Souza, Tatiane Pereira; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the spectrophotometric methodology for determining the total flavonoid content (TFC) in herbal drug and derived products from Bauhinia monandra Kurz. Several analytical parameters from this method grounded on the complex formed between flavonoids and AlCl3 were evaluated such as herbal amount (0.25 to 1.25 g); solvent composition (ethanol 40 to 80%, v/v); as well as the reaction time and AlCl3 concentration (2 to 9%, w/v). The method was adjusted to aqueous extractives and its performance studied through precision, linearity and preliminary robustness. The results showed an important dependence of the method response from reaction time, AlCl3 concentration, sample amount, and solvent mixture. After choosing the optimized condition, the method was applied for the matrixes (herbal material and extractives), showing precision lower than 5% (for both parameters repeatability and intermediate precision), coefficient of determination higher than 0.99, and no important influence could be observed for slight variations from wavelength or AlCl3 concentration. Thus, it could be concluded that the evaluated analytical procedure was suitable to quantify the total flavonoid content in raw material and aqueous extractives from leaves of B. monandra. PMID:22701375

  10. Isoglucose production from raw starchy materials based on a two-stage enzymatic system.

    PubMed

    Gromada, Anna; Fiedurek, Jan; Szczodrak, Janusz

    2008-01-01

    A new low-cost glucoamylase preparation for liquefaction and saccharification of starchy raw materials in a one-stage system was developed and characterized. A non-purified biocatalyst with a glucoamylase activity of 3.11 U/mg, an alpha-amylase activity of 0.12 WU/mg and a protein content of 0.04 mg protein/mg was obtained from a shaken-flask culture of the strain Aspergillus niger C-IV-4. Factors influencing the enzymatic hydrolysis of starchy materials such as reaction time, temperature and enzyme and substrate concentration were standardized to maximize the yield of glucose syrup. Thus, a 90% conversion of 5% starch, a 67.5% conversion of 5% potato flour and a 55% conversion of 5% wheat flour to sweet syrups containing up to 87% glucose was reached in 3 h using 1.24 glucoamylase U/mg hydrolyzed substrate. The application of such glucoamylase preparation and a commercially immobilized glucose isomerase for the production of glucose-fructose syrup in a two-stage system resulted in high production of stable glucose/fructose blends with a fructose content of 50%. A high concentration of fructose in obtained sweet syrups was achieved when isomerization was performed both in a batch and repeated batch process.

  11. A hazardous waste from secondary aluminium metallurgy as a new raw material for calcium aluminate glasses.

    PubMed

    López-Delgado, Aurora; Tayibi, Hanan; Pérez, Carlos; Alguacil, Francisco José; López, Félix Antonio

    2009-06-15

    A solid waste coming from the secondary aluminium industry was successfully vitrified in the ternary CaO-Al(2)O(3)-SiO(2) system at 1500 degrees C. This waste is a complex material which is considered hazardous because of its behaviour in the presence of water or moisture. In these conditions, the dust can generate gases such as H(2), NH(3), CH(4), H(2)S, along with heat and potential aluminothermy. Only silica sand and calcium carbonate were added as external raw materials to complete the glasses formula. Different nominal compositions of glasses, with Al(2)O(3) ranging between 20% and 54%, were studied to determine the glass forming area. The glasses obtained allow the immobilisation of up to 75% of waste in a multicomponent oxide system in which all the components of the waste are incorporated. The microhardness Hv values varied between 6.05 and 6.62GPa and the linear thermal expansion coefficient, alpha, varied between (62 and 139)x10(-7)K(-1). Several glasses showed a high hydrolytic resistance in deionised water at 98 degrees C.

  12. Electrostatic painting residues as an alternative raw material for red clay industry.

    PubMed

    Basegio, Tania; Machado, Andréa; Bernardes, Andréa Moura; Bergmann, Carlos Pérez

    2006-12-01

    In this study, the viability of using electrostatic painting residues--paint sludge--as a raw material to the red clay industry was investigated. Red clay-based ceramic masses containing electrostatic paint residues were formulated during the study. The clays were obtained from the Rio do Rastro deposit, in Gravataí, and were of the standard formulation used in industry. Different ceramic mass formulations with additions of 0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 wt.% electrostatic painting residue in addition to a formulation with no residue addition (standard formulation), were evaluated. The samples were uniaxially pressed in a double-effect press and were fired in an electric oven at 900, 950 and 1000 degrees C. The firing at constant temperature lasted 8 h, and heating rate was 150 K h(-1). After processing the samples were characterized in terms of their physical and mechanical properties. Environmental compatibility was also considered by the evaluation of gaseous emissions and leaching and solubilization tests according to the Brazilian standards NBR 10.005 and NBR 10.006, respectively. The results showed that it was possible to produce ceramic materials containing electrostatic painting residues within their formulations.

  13. The effect of raw material contamination with mycotoxins on the composition of alcoholic fermentation volatile by-products in raw spirits.

    PubMed

    Kłosowski, Grzegorz; Mikulski, Dawid

    2010-12-01

    The effects of the mycotoxins, aflatoxin B(1), B(2), G(1), G(2) (AF), ochratoxin A, (OTA), zearalenone (ZEA), deoxynivalenol (DON), and fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) added to corn grain mashes on the composition of fermentation volatile by-products in raw spirits were determined. Except for FB(1), the mycotoxins increased acetaldehyde concentration in the obtained spirits from about 30% to 100% in relation to the control set (30.9+/-1.0mg of acetaldehyde/L EtOH). The largest effect was observed for OTA and AF contaminations (65.9+/-5.9 and 62.4+/-5.0mg/L EtOH, respectively). At the concentrations used (ppb): FB(1), 1875; FB(2), 609; FB(3), 195; DON, 2274; ZEA, 352; AFB(1), 11.65; AFB(2), 12.6; AFG(1), 12.34; AFG(2), 12.04; OTA, 177.5, the mycotoxins did not have a significant effect on the total level of higher alcohols in distillates. As compared to the control, contamination with OTA and FB(1) decreased the 3-methyl-1-butanol concentration by 11.2% and 12.6% respectively, whereas AF decreased the 2-methyl-1-butanol concentration by 14.9%. The mycotoxins AF, ZEA, FB(1), had no significant effect on the concentration of total esters. Whereas OTA caused twofold higher esters concentration in the distillates, DON lowered esters concentration by 32% as compared to control. Presented results show that quantitative changes in composition of volatile fermentation by-products in raw spirits can be related to the presence of increased level of mycotoxins in raw material, especially in the absence of other identifiable factors disturbing the normal course of process.

  14. 40 CFR Table N-1 to Subpart N of... - CO2 Emission Factors for Carbonate-Based Raw Materials

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false CO2 Emission Factors for Carbonate-Based Raw Materials N Table N-1 to Subpart N of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Glass Production...

  15. 40 CFR Table N-1 to Subpart N of... - CO2 Emission Factors for Carbonate-Based Raw Materials

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false CO2 Emission Factors for Carbonate-Based Raw Materials N Table N-1 to Subpart N of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Glass Production...

  16. 40 CFR Table N-1 to Subpart N of... - CO2 Emission Factors for Carbonate-Based Raw Materials

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false CO2 Emission Factors for Carbonate-Based Raw Materials N Table N-1 to Subpart N of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Glass Production...

  17. 40 CFR Table N-1 to Subpart N of... - CO2 Emission Factors for Carbonate-Based Raw Materials

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false CO2 Emission Factors for Carbonate-Based Raw Materials N Table N-1 to Subpart N of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Glass Production...

  18. Determination of lycopene in dietary supplements and raw materials by high-performance liquid chromatography: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Waysek, Edward H; Schierle, Joseph; Duesterloh, Andre; Deshpande, Jayant; Austad, John

    2010-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted to evaluate the interlaboratory performance of an LC method for lycopene in dietary supplements and the raw materials commonly used in their manufacture. Twelve laboratories from six countries agreed to participate in the study. Results from 10 laboratories were received and are reported. Five dietary supplements, including both tablets and a softgel capsule with a lycopene content ranging from 25 microg to 25 mg per unit, and three raw materials, including gelatin-based beadlets, vegetarian beadlets, and a suspension in oil ranging from 5 to 20% lycopene, were analyzed as blind duplicates. In addition to the commercial products, two positive controls and a negative control were included in the study. For the raw materials studied, the repeatability relative standard deviations (RSDr) ranged from 1.49 to 5.13% for total lycopene, and the reproducibility relative standard deviations (RSDR) ranged from 3.84 to 9.21% with HorRat values from 1.23 to 3.24. For finished products, the RSDr ranged from 1.31 to 4.62%, RSDR from 4.28 to 10.5%, and HorRat values from 0.79 to 2.07. Corresponding values for all-trans-lycopene were significantly higher. It is recommended that the method be considered for Official First Action for all-trans- and total lycopene in finished products and raw materials.

  19. Environmental assessment of sewage sludge as secondary raw material in cement production--a case study in China.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jinglan; Li, Xiangzhi

    2011-06-01

    A life cycle assessment was carried out to estimate the environmental impact of sewage sludge as secondary raw material in cement production. To confirm and add credibility to the study, uncertainty analysis was conducted. Results showed the impact generated from respiratory inorganics, terrestrial ecotoxicity, global warming, and non-renewable energy categories had an important contribution to overall environmental impact, due to energy, clinker, and limestone production stages. Also, uncertainty analysis results showed the technology of sewage sludge as secondary raw material in cement production had little or no effect on changing the overall environmental potential impact generated from general cement production. Accordingly, using the technology of sewage sludge as secondary raw material in cement production is a good choice for reducing the pressure on the environment from dramatically increased sludge disposal. In addition, increasing electricity recovery rate, choosing natural gas fired electricity generation technology, and optimizing the raw material consumption in clinker production are highly recommended to reduce the adverse effects on the environment.

  20. Evaluation of functional stability of quercetin as a raw material and in different topical formulations by its antilipoperoxidative activity.

    PubMed

    Casagrande, Rúbia; Georgetti, Sandra R; Verri, Waldiceu A; Jabor, José R; Santos, Antonio C; Fonseca, Maria J V

    2006-03-01

    The present study evaluates the antioxidant activity of the flavonol quercetin, and its functional stability as a raw material and when added in formulations. The iron-chelating activity was determined using the bathophenanthroline assay, and the functional stability was evaluated with the antilipoperoxidative assay. Raw material presented concentration-dependent antilipoperoxidative and iron-chelating activities. The initial antilipoperoxidative activity of the raw material, cream and gel-cream were 63%, 78%, and 69%, respectively. There was no detectable loss of activity during 182 days (6 months) of storage at all tested temperatures (4°C, room temperature [RT], 37°C, and 45°C) for the raw material. Considering the method variability of 10%, activity loss greater than 10% for nonionic cream was detected after 126 days at 4°C (20.1%), decreasing thereafter to 22.2% after 182 days. At 45°C, the loss of activity started after 182 days (13.2%). For the anionic gel-cream, activity loss started after 84 days (28.4%, 45°C), decreasing after 182 days to 40.3% at 45°C. At 37°C, activity loss was detected after 182 days (12%). In conclusion, the results suggest that the activity of quercetin depends on iron chelation, and its posible usefulness as a topical antioxidant to prevent oxidative stress-induced skin damage depends on maintaining its antilipoperoxidative activity stored at RT, which avoids special storage conditions.

  1. Inorganic raw materials economy and provenance of chipped industry in some stone age sites of northern and central Italy.

    PubMed

    Bietti, Amilcare; Boschian, Giovanni; Crisci, Gino Mirocle; Danese, Ermanno; De Francesco, Anna Maria; Dini, Mario; Fontana, Federica; Giampietri, Alessandra; Grifoni, Renata; Guerreschi, Antonio; Liagre, Jérémie; Negrino, Fabio; Radi, Giovanna; Tozzi, Carlo; Tykot, Robert

    2004-06-01

    An opportunistic and local choice of raw materials is typically attested in the Lower and Middle Paleolithic industries throughout Italy. The quality of the raw material usually affected the flaking technology and quality of the products. In the Upper Paleolithic and the Mesolithic, raw material procurement strategies were more complex. Flint was exploited both locally, in areas where abundant outcrops of raw materials were available (such as the Lessini mountains), and in distant localities, after which it was transported or exchanged over medium/long distances. Different routes of exchange were thus followed in the various periods; good reconstruction of these routes have been provided by a study of the Garfagnana sites in Northern Tuscany, and the Mesolithic deposit of Mondeval de Sora (Dolomites). An interesting example of a Late Upper Paleolithic flint quarry and workshop were found in Abruzzo, in the San Bartolomeo shelter. The extended trade of obsidian from Lipari, Palmarola and Sardinia to the Italian Peninsula is attested in the Neolithic, with some differences concerning the age and different areas.

  2. Quality assessment of baby food made of different pre-processed organic raw materials under industrial processing conditions.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Kathrin; Kahl, Johannes; Paoletti, Flavio; Birlouez, Ines; Busscher, Nicolaas; Kretzschmar, Ursula; Särkkä-Tirkkonen, Marjo; Seljåsen, Randi; Sinesio, Fiorella; Torp, Torfinn; Baiamonte, Irene

    2015-02-01

    The market for processed food is rapidly growing. The industry needs methods for "processing with care" leading to high quality products in order to meet consumers' expectations. Processing influences the quality of the finished product through various factors. In carrot baby food, these are the raw material, the pre-processing and storage treatments as well as the processing conditions. In this study, a quality assessment was performed on baby food made from different pre-processed raw materials. The experiments were carried out under industrial conditions using fresh, frozen and stored organic carrots as raw material. Statistically significant differences were found for sensory attributes among the three autoclaved puree samples (e.g. overall odour F = 90.72, p < 0.001). Samples processed from frozen carrots show increased moisture content and decrease of several chemical constituents. Biocrystallization identified changes between replications of the cooking. Pre-treatment of raw material has a significant influence on the final quality of the baby food.

  3. Production of Fused Portland Cement and Sulphur Gas from Sulphatic Phosphorus-Containing Raw Materials with Added Fluorine,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    was conducted to use this system to produce Portland cement clinker without having to employ huge rotary kilns. Studies were made of the process of...dissociation of CaSO4 in a molten Portland cement raw materials mix in oxidising and in slightly reducing media.

  4. Use of whole crop sorghums as a raw material in consolidated bioprocessing bioethanol production using Flammulina velutipes.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Ryoji; Ichinose, Hitomi; Honda, Mariko; Takabatake, Koji; Sotome, Itaru; Takai, Tomoyuki; Maehara, Tomoko; Okadome, Hiroshi; Isobe, Seiichiro; Gau, Mitsuru; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2009-07-01

    The possibility of using two kinds of sorghum as raw materials in consolidated bioprocessing bioethanol production using Flammulina velutipes was investigated. Enzymatic saccharification of sweet sorghum was not as high as in brown mid-rib (bmr) mutated sorghum, but the amount of ethanol production was higher. Ethanol production from bmr mutated sorghum significantly increased when saccharification enzymes were added to the culture.

  5. Perspectives for online analysis of raw material by pulsed neutron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bach, Pierre; Le Tourneur, P.; Poumarede, B.

    1997-02-01

    On-line analysis by pulsed neutron irradiation is an example of an advanced technology application of nuclear techniques, concerning real problems in the cement, mineral and coal industries. The most significant of these nuclear techniques is their capability of continuous measurement without contact and without sampling, which can lead to improved control of processes and resultant large financial savings. Compared to Californium neutron sources, the use of electrical pulsed neutron generators allows to obtain a higher signal/noise ratio for a more sensitive measurement, and allows to overcome a number of safety problems concerning transportation, installation and maintenance. An experiment related to a possible new on-line raw material analyzer is described, using a pulsed neutron generator. The key factors contributing to an accurate measurement are related to a suitable generator, to a high count rate gamma ray spectroscopy electronics, and to computational tools. Calculation and results for the optimization of the neutron irradiation time diagram are reported. One of the operational characteristics of such an equipment is related to neutron flux available: it is possible to adjust it to the requested accuracy, i.e. for a high accuracy during a few hours/day and for a lower accuracy the rest of the time. This feature allows to operate the neutron tube during a longer time, and then to reduce the cost of analysis.

  6. Prevalence of Clostridium botulinum in food raw materials used in REPFEDs manufactured in France.

    PubMed

    Carlin, Frédéric; Broussolle, Véronique; Perelle, Sylvie; Litman, Sonia; Fach, Patrick

    2004-03-01

    Food raw materials used in refrigerated processed foods of extended durability (REPFEDs) manufactured in France were surveyed for Clostridium botulinum types A, B and E using PCR-Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA) and mouse bioassay for detection respectively of cells and toxins in enrichment broth. Portions of 25 to 50 g of food were analysed. A total of 8 out of the 102 samples of fish and shellfish, 12 out of the 143 samples of meat and poultry, 1 out of the 62 samples of aroma, sauce and gravy, 4 out of the 25 samples of thickening agents, 3 out of the 26 samples of dehydrated dairy ingredients, and none of the 65 samples of spices, herbs and dehydrated mushroom were positive for C. botulinum in PCR-ELISA, i.e., 6.6% of all the samples tested. The 28 positive samples comprised 10 type A, 10 type B, 4 with both types A and B, and 4 undetermined by PCR typing. No sample positive for type E was detected. Of the 28 samples positive in PCR-ELISA, 15 were also positive in the mouse bioassay. The MPN count was between 1 and 3 C. botulinum/kg of food, which is similar to or in the lower range of values reported in the literature.

  7. Gamma activity of stream sediment feldspars as ceramic raw materials and their environmental impact.

    PubMed

    Aboelkhair, Hatem; Ibrahim, Tarek; Saad, Ahmed

    2012-08-01

    In situ gamma spectrometric measurements have been performed to characterise the natural radiation that emitted from the stream sediment feldspars in Wadi El Missikat and Wadi Homret El Gergab, Eastern Desert, Egypt. The measurements of potassium (K, %), equivalent uranium (eU, ppm) and equivalent thorium (eTh, ppm) were converted into specific activities and equivalent dose rate. The average specific activities were 1402 Bq kg(-1) for K, 113 Bq kg(-1) for eU and 108 Bq kg(-1) for eTh in Wadi El Missikat, while they were 1240, 104 and 185 Bq kg(-1) in Wadi Homret El Gergab. The calculated outdoor average effective dose rates was 1.1 mSv y(-1) in wadi El Missikat and 1.3 mSv y(-1) in Wadi Homret El Gergab. The terrestrial-specific activities and effective dose rate levels of the natural radioactivity in the two areas lie within the international recommended limits for occupational feldspar quarry workers. On the other hand, these results indicated that irradiation is higher than the allowable level for members of the public. Therefore, quarrying the feldspar sediments from these locations as ceramic raw materials may yield an undesired impact on the environment, especially through the indoor applications.

  8. Industrial wastes as alternative raw materials to produce eco-friendly fired bricks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Quero, V.; Maza-Ignacio, O. T.; Guerrero-Paz, J.; Campos-Venegas, K.

    2017-01-01

    This work focuses on the incorporation of sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) and silica fume (SF) wastes as an alternative raw material into clay bricks, replacing clay by up to 40 wt.%. Fly ash (FA) was used as reference. The plasticity of the batches was determined by Atterberg’s consistency limits. Bricks were produced by uniaxial pressing and fired a 900 and 1000°C. Physical properties (fired shrinkage, water absorption, apparent porosity and Initial water absorption rate) and mechanical properties (compressive strength and flexural strength) as function of the firing temperature and type waste were investigated. The results showed that wastes into clay body increase its global plasticity. 80%Clay-20%SCBA mixture has the lower linear shrinkage. After firing process, the brick produced with clay-SCBA show the higher water absorption and apparent porosity, regardless of the firing temperature. The brick produced with 60%clay-40%SF show the water absorption and apparent porosity similar to control bricks. The SCBA waste additions tend to decrease the mechanical strength of the clay bricks, therefore amounts of 40% SCBA waste should be avoided because it reduce the mechanical strength of the red fired bricks. The fired bricks with 40% SF, firing a 900°C show mechanical properties similar control bricks.

  9. Synthesis of steel slag ceramics: chemical composition and crystalline phases of raw materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Li-hua; Wei, Wei; Bai, Hao; Zhang, Xu; Cang, Da-qiang

    2015-03-01

    Two types of porcelain tiles with steel slag as the main raw material (steel slag ceramics) were synthesized based on the CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 and CaO-MgO-SiO2 systems, and their bending strengths up to 53.47 MPa and 99.84 MPa, respectively, were obtained. The presence of anorthite, α-quartz, magnetite, and pyroxene crystals (augite and diopside) in the steel slag ceramics were very different from the composition of traditional ceramics. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) results illustrated that the addition of steel slag reduced the temperature of extensive liquid generation and further decreased the firing temperature. The considerable contents of glass-modifying oxide liquids with rather low viscosities at high temperature in the steel slag ceramic adobes promoted element diffusion and crystallization. The results of this study demonstrated a new approach for extensive and effective recycling of steel slag.

  10. Staphylococcus xylosus fermentation of pork fatty waste: raw material for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Marques, Roger Vasques; Paz, Matheus Francisco da; Duval, Eduarda Hallal; Corrêa, Luciara Bilhalva; Corrêa, Érico Kunde

    2016-01-01

    The need for cleaner sources of energy has stirred research into utilising alternate fuel sources with favourable emission and sustainability such as biodiesel. However, there are technical constraints that hinder the widespread use of some of the low cost raw materials such as pork fatty wastes. Currently available technology permits the use of lipolytic microorganisms to sustainably produce energy from fat sources; and several microorganisms and their metabolites are being investigated as potential energy sources. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterise the process of Staphylococcus xylosus mediated fermentation of pork fatty waste. We also wanted to explore the possibility of fermentation effecting a modification in the lipid carbon chain to reduce its melting point and thereby act directly on one of the main technical barriers to obtaining biodiesel from this abundant source of lipids. Pork fatty waste was obtained from slaughterhouses in southern Brazil during evisceration of the carcasses and the kidney casing of slaughtered animals was used as feedstock. Fermentation was performed in BHI broth with different concentrations of fatty waste and for different time periods which enabled evaluation of the effect of fermentation time on the melting point of swine fat. The lowest melting point was observed around 46°C, indicating that these chemical and biological reactions can occur under milder conditions, and that such pre-treatment may further facilitate production of biodiesel from fatty animal waste.

  11. Novel Catalysts and Processing Technologies for Production of Aerospace Fuels from Non-Petroleum Raw Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, A. F.; Kulis, M. J.; Psarras, P. C.; Ball, D. W.; Timko, M. T.; Wong, H.-W.; Peck, J.; Chianelli, R. R.

    2014-01-01

    Transportation fuels production (including aerospace propellants) from non-traditional sources (gases, waste materials, and biomass) has been an active area of research and development for decades. Reducing terrestrial waste streams simultaneous with energy conversion, plentiful biomass, new low-cost methane sources, and/or extra-terrestrial resource harvesting and utilization present significant technological and business opportunities being realized by a new generation of visionary entrepreneurs. We examine several new approaches to catalyst fabrication and new processing technologies to enable utilization of these non-traditional raw materials. Two basic processing architectures are considered: a single-stage pyrolysis approach that seeks to basically re-cycle hydrocarbons with minimal net chemistry or a two-step paradigm that involves production of supply or synthesis gas (mainly carbon oxides and hydrogen) followed by production of fuel(s) via Sabatier or methanation reactions and/or Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Optimizing the fraction of product stream relevant to targeted aerospace (and other transportation) fuels via modeling, catalyst fabrication and novel reactor design are described. Energy utilization is a concern for production of fuels for either terrestrial or space operations; renewable sources based on solar energy and/or energy efficient processes may be mission enabling. Another important issue is minimizing impurities in the product stream(s), especially those potentially posing risks to personnel or operations through (catalyst) poisoning or (equipment) damage. Technologies being developed to remove (and/or recycle) heteroatom impurities are briefly discussed as well as the development of chemically robust catalysts whose activity are not diminished during operation. The potential impacts on future missions by such new approaches as well as balance of system issues are addressed.

  12. Novel Catalysts and Processing Technologies for Production of Aerospace Fuels from Non-Petroleum Raw Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Kulis, Michael J.; Psarras, Peter C.; Ball, David W.; Timko, Michael T.; Wong, Hsi-Wu; Peck, Jay; Chianelli, Russell R.

    2014-01-01

    Transportation fuels production (including aerospace propellants) from non-traditional sources (gases, waste materials, and biomass) has been an active area of research and development for decades. Reducing terrestrial waste streams simultaneous with energy conversion, plentiful biomass, new low-cost methane sources, and/or extra-terrestrial resource harvesting and utilization present significant technological and business opportunities being realized by a new generation of visionary entrepreneurs. We examine several new approaches to catalyst fabrication and new processing technologies to enable utilization of these nontraditional raw materials. Two basic processing architectures are considered: a single-stage pyrolysis approach that seeks to basically re-cycle hydrocarbons with minimal net chemistry or a two-step paradigm that involves production of supply or synthesis gas (mainly carbon oxides and H2) followed by production of fuel(s) via Sabatier or methanation reactions and/or Fischer-Tröpsch synthesis. Optimizing the fraction of product stream relevant to targeted aerospace (and other transportation) fuels via modeling, catalyst fabrication and novel reactor design are described. Energy utilization is a concern for production of fuels for either terrestrial or space operations; renewable sources based on solar energy and/or energy efficient processes may be mission enabling. Another important issue is minimizing impurities in the product stream(s), especially those potentially posing risks to personnel or operations through (catalyst) poisoning or (equipment) damage. Technologies being developed to remove (and/or recycle) heteroatom impurities are briefly discussed as well as the development of chemically robust catalysts whose activities are not diminished during operation. The potential impacts on future missions by such new approaches as well as balance of system issues are addressed.

  13. Energy and Raw Materials in the Selection of Technologies for Iron and Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortini, Otavio Macedo

    2016-09-01

    This paper discusses the selection of metal extraction technologies according to the regional availability of energy resources. The most important energy sources in iron and steel production are determined from a review of current technologies to inform possible future scenarios of capacity replacement or expansion according to geography. Alternative technologies are not discussed, considering that actual investment in capacity is most often dominated by high degrees of risk aversion. As such, only technologies proven at a reasonable scale are included in the selection matrix. Scenarios of capacity choice are defined in terms of actions from external agents, those which are not directly involved in the industry but have the capacity to regulate actions by metal producing players. Two extreme scenarios corresponding to closed and open economies are used to set bounds for future expectations. Among steelmaking processes under fully open trade conditions, it is found that EAF steelmaking with charge pre-heat should be the technology of choice in all regions of the world except for South America and Europe, where Integrated Steel Mills have a cost advantage. In fully closed exchange scenarios, Integrated Steel Mills would be the prevalent technology in South America, Sub-Saharan Africa, India, and the former USSR, EAF with scrap pre-heating prevailing in all other regions. On the other hand, HYL-ZR would be the iron making technology of choice in all regions under full exchange scenarios. Under fully closed exchange conditions, Mini-Blast Furnaces, COREX, and HYL-ZR would find regional applications. Increases in raw materials and energy costs of 38 pct in steelmaking and 63 pct in ironmaking are found in going from fully open to fully closed exchange regimes. It is also found that Southeast Asia is the most suitable region for deploying new steelmaking capacity, while Australia and Russia are the best selection for new iron making capacity.

  14. 43 CFR 3602.10 - Applying for a mineral materials sales contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applying for a mineral materials sales...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Applications § 3602.10 Applying for a mineral materials sales contract....

  15. 43 CFR 3602.10 - Applying for a mineral materials sales contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Applying for a mineral materials sales...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Applications § 3602.10 Applying for a mineral materials sales contract....

  16. 43 CFR 3602.10 - Applying for a mineral materials sales contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applying for a mineral materials sales...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Applications § 3602.10 Applying for a mineral materials sales contract....

  17. 43 CFR 3602.10 - Applying for a mineral materials sales contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applying for a mineral materials sales...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Applications § 3602.10 Applying for a mineral materials sales contract....

  18. Reduction of CO2 diffuse emissions from the traditional ceramic industry by the addition of Si-Al raw material.

    PubMed

    González, I; Barba-Brioso, C; Campos, P; Romero, A; Galán, E

    2016-09-15

    The fabrication of ceramics can produce the emission of several gases, denominated exhaust gases, and also vapours resulting from firing processes, which usually contain metals and toxic substances affecting the environment and the health of workers. Especially harmful are the diffuse emissions of CO2, fluorine, chlorine and sulphur from the ceramics industry, which, in highly industrialized areas, can suppose an important emission focus of dangerous effects. Concerning CO2, factories that use carbonate-rich raw materials (>30% carbonates) can emit high concentrations of CO2 to the atmosphere. Thus, carbonate reduction or substitution with other raw materials would reduce the emissions. In this contribution, we propose the addition of Al-shales to the carbonated ceramic materials (marls) for CO2 emission reduction, also improving the quality of the products. The employed shales are inexpensive materials of large reserves in SW-Spain. The ceramic bodies prepared with the addition of selected Al-shale to marls in variable proportions resulted in a 40%-65% CO2 emission reduction. In addition, this research underlines at the same time that the use of a low-price raw material can also contribute to obtaining products with higher added value.

  19. The heavy metals cadmium, lead and mercury in raw materials of animal origin: evaluation of data from practice.

    PubMed

    Busch, J; Knödler, M; Kühn, M; Lipinski, A; Steinhoff, B

    2015-01-01

    Raw materials from animal origin are widely used in homoeopathy. Due to the lack of dedicated limits, the quality requirements for herbal drugs of the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) and/or the German Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia (Homöopathisches Arzneibuch, HAB), including limits for heavy metals such as cadmium, lead and mercury, have been applied. A recent database evaluation shows that for some raw materials of animal origin the Ph. Eur. limits for herbal drugs cannot be met in practice. For this reason proposals for new limits for cadmium, lead and mercury are made based on recent experiences from the companies' daily practice. These specific limits are suggested to be included in the individual monographs of the Ph. Eur. or at least the German HAB, respectively, for Ambra grisea, Euspongia officinalis, Formica rufa and Sepia officinalis.

  20. On the usage of agricultural raw materials--energy or food? An assessment from an economics perspective.

    PubMed

    Lenk, Fabian; Bröring, Stefanie; Herzog, Philipp; Leker, Jens

    2007-12-01

    Bioenergies are promoted across the globe as the answer for global warming and the chance to reduce dependency from fossil energy sources. Despite the fact that renewable energy sources offer the opportunity to reduce CO2 emission and present a chance to increase agricultural incomes, they also come along with some drawbacks that have been mostly neglected in the current discussion. This paper seeks to build a basis for discussing the impacts of the growing subsidization of bioenergy and the resulting usage competition of agricultural raw materials between foods and energy. To assess the usage competition and the subsidization of bioenergy, this article employs a welfare economics perspective associated with an emphasize on the construct of externalities. This will help to foster the discussion on the further subsidization of bioenergy, where funding for R&D on new ways of using non-food raw materials ought to play a significant role.

  1. Optical and spectroscopic characterizations of Algerian silica raw material to predict high quality solar-grade silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheloufi, A.; Bobocioiu, E.; Kerkar, F.; Kefaifi, A.; Anas, S.; Medjahed, S. A.; Belkacem, Y.; Keffous, A.

    2017-03-01

    We assess the potential use as raw material for photovoltaics of Algerian silica samples from the quartz veins of the Tirek deposit and quartz sandstones of the Ain Barda deposit. With 97-98% purity, they all require enrichment before their industrial utilization. Acid leaching and gravimetric separation are used to remove the impurities at the grain boundaries and within the crystal lattice. We obtain course, middle, and fine products. The acid leaching process and the gravimetric separation increase the content of SiO2 up to 99.68%; the residue concentration of iron, alumina and zirconium is decreased to 70, 72 and 58 ppm respectively. These values are in agreement with requirements for silica as raw material destined for solar-grade silicon production.

  2. Solid residues from Italian municipal solid waste incinerators: A source for "critical" raw materials.

    PubMed

    Funari, Valerio; Braga, Roberto; Bokhari, Syed Nadeem Hussain; Dinelli, Enrico; Meisel, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    The incineration of municipal solid wastes is an important part of the waste management system along with recycling and waste disposal, and the solid residues produced after the thermal process have received attention for environmental concerns and the recovery of valuable metals. This study focuses on the Critical Raw Materials (CRM) content in solid residues from two Italian municipal waste incinerator (MSWI) plants. We sampled untreated bottom ash and fly ash residues, i.e. the two main outputs of common grate-furnace incinerators, and determined their total elemental composition with sensitive analytical techniques such as XRF and ICP-MS. After the removal of a few coarse metallic objects from bottom ashes, the corresponding ICP solutions were obtained using strong digestion methods, to ensure the dissolution of the most refractory components that could host significant amounts of precious metals and CRM. The integration of accurate chemical data with a substance flow analysis, which takes into account the mass balance and uncertainties assessment, indicates that bottom and fly ashes can be considered as a low concentration stream of precious and high-tech metals. The magnesium, copper, antimony and zinc contents are close to the corresponding values of a low-grade ore. The distribution of the elements flow between bottom and fly ash, and within different grain size fractions of bottom ash, is appraised. Most elements are enriched in the bottom ash flow, especially in the fine grained fractions. However, the calculated transfer coefficients indicate that Sb and Zn strongly partition into the fly ashes. The comparison with available studies indicates that the CRM concentrations in the untreated solid residues are comparable with those residues that undergo post-treatment beneficiations, e.g. separation between ferrous and non-ferrous fractions. The suggested separate collection of "fresh" bottom ash, which could be processed for further mineral upgrading, can

  3. Enzymatic production of DFA III from fresh dahlia tubers as raw material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budiwati, Thelma A.; Ratnaningrum, D.; Pudjiraharti, S.

    2017-01-01

    Dahlia is an annual ornamental plants and tubers that have not been widely used in Indonesia. Dahlia tubers contain nearly 70 per cent of the starch in the form of inulin. Inulin addition can be used as a food ingredient can also be used as a raw material for making DFA III (ie functional oligosaccharides), using inulin fructotransferase (IFTase) Nonomuraea sp. In this study conducted production of DFA III through enzymatic reactions and yeast fermentation, using inulin from fresh dahlia tubers and fresh dahlia tuber extract. Dahlia tubers which is one source of inulin, do blanching before extracted. Most dahlia tuber extract used directly for enzymatic reactions in the production of DFA III and some extracts are processed to produce inulin by precipitation using ethanol and then inulin is used for the enzymatic reaction. Syrup DFA III was measured volume and viscosity, and then do decolorization and then crystallization. The analysis was done of Thin Layer Chromatography (to see DFA III formed) and HPLC to see the purity of the product. The results showed that the average of inulin from precipitation with ethanol in the two batch of 113,5 g with an average water content of 7.41%, average whiteness degree 62.29% and an average yield 7.345% (w/w, wb dahlia tuber). From the average of DFA III liquid of 480 mL with density of 14.15%, the result of the average of DFA III crystal from enzyme reaction in the two reactor using inulin dahlia tubers as a substrate, was obtained of 55.4 g with an average whiteness degree of 93.8%, and the average of yield 3.56% w/w (wb dahlia tuber) or 48.89% w/w (db inulin). And then from the average of 475 mL with density of 16.85% was obtained an average DFA III crystals of 29 g from the enzyme reaction in the two reactor using fresh dahlia tuber extract as a substrate, with an average whiteness degree o 80.75% and the average of the yield of 1.86% w/w (wb dahlia tuber).

  4. Fungal contamination of raw materials of some herbal drugs and recommendation of Cinnamomum camphora oil as herbal fungitoxicant.

    PubMed

    Singh, Priyanka; Srivastava, Bhawana; Kumar, Ashok; Dubey, N K

    2008-10-01

    The paper explores fungal infection and aflatoxin B1 contamination of six medicinal plant samples viz. Adhatoda vasica Nees, Asparagus racemosus Linn., Evolvulus alsinoides Linn., Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn., Plumbago zeylanica Linn. and Terminalia chebula Retz. A total of 858 fungal isolates were detected from the raw materials. Maximum number of fungal isolates was detected from A. racemosus (228). The genus Aspergillus was found to be the most dominant genus causing infection to most of the raw materials. Among the 32 isolates of A. flavus tested, 13 isolates were found to be toxigenic elaborating aflatoxin B1. The highest elaboration of aflatoxin B1 was 394.95 ppb by the isolates of A. flavus from G. glabra. The essential oil of Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl showed efficacy in arresting aflatoxin B1 by the toxigenic strain. The growth of a toxigenic strain of A. flavus decreased progressively with increasing concentration of essential oil from leaves of C. camphora. The oil completely inhibited aflatoxin B1 production even at 750 ppm. Hence, the oil of C. camphora is recommended as herbal fungitoxicant against the fungal contamination of the raw materials.

  5. Comparison between leached metakaolin and leached diatomaceous earth as raw materials for the synthesis of ZSM-5.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Mamani, Wilson; García, Gustavo; Hedlund, Jonas; Mouzon, Johanne

    2014-01-01

    Inexpensive raw materials have been used to prepare ZSM-5 zeolites with SiO2/Al2O3 molar ratios in the range 20 - 40. Kaolin or Bolivian diatomaceous earth was used as aluminosilicate raw materials and sodium hydroxide and n-butylamine were used as mineralizing agents and template. Dealumination of the raw materials by acid leaching made it possible to reach appropriate SiO2/Al2O3 ratios and to reduce the amount of iron and other impurities. After mixing the components and aging, hydrothermal treatment was carried out and the products were recovered The results clearly show for the first time that well-crystallized ZSM-5 can be directly prepared from leached metakaolin or leached diatomaceous earth using sodium hydroxide and n-butylamine as mineralizing agents and template under appropriate synthesis conditions. A longer induction time prior to crystallization was observed for reaction mixtures prepared from leached diatomaceous earth, probably due to slower digestion of the fossilized diatom skeletons as compared with that for microporous leached metakaolin. The use of leached diatomaceous earth allowed higher yield of ZSM-5 crystals within comparable synthesis times. However, low amounts of Mordenite formed, which was related to the high calcium content of diatomaceous earth. Another considerable advantage of diatomaceous earth over kaolin is that diatomaceous earth does not require heat treatment at high temperature for metakaolinization.

  6. Chemometric analysis for identification of botanical raw materials for pharmaceutical use: a case study using Panax notoginseng.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jieqiang; Fan, Xiaohui; Cheng, Yiyu; Agarwal, Rajiv; Moore, Christine M V; Chen, Shaw T; Tong, Weida

    2014-01-01

    The overall control of the quality of botanical drugs starts from the botanical raw material, continues through preparation of the botanical drug substance and culminates with the botanical drug product. Chromatographic and spectroscopic fingerprinting has been widely used as a tool for the quality control of herbal/botanical medicines. However, discussions are still on-going on whether a single technique provides adequate information to control the quality of botanical drugs. In this study, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), capillary electrophoresis (CE) and near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) were used to generate fingerprints of different plant parts of Panax notoginseng. The power of these chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques to evaluate the identity of botanical raw materials were further compared and investigated in light of the capability to distinguishing different parts of Panax notoginseng. Principal component analysis (PCA) and clustering results showed that samples were classified better when UPLC- and HPLC-based fingerprints were employed, which suggested that UPLC- and HPLC-based fingerprinting are superior to CE- and NIR-based fingerprinting. The UPLC- and HPLC- based fingerprinting with PCA were able to correctly distinguish between samples sourced from rhizomes and main root. Using chemometrics and its ability to distinguish between different plant parts could be a powerful tool to help assure the identity and quality of the botanical raw materials and to support the safety and efficacy of the botanical drug products.

  7. Fermentanomics: Relating quality attributes of a monoclonal antibody to cell culture process variables and raw materials using multivariate data analysis.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Anurag S; Kumar Singh, Sumit; Pathak, Mili; Read, Erik K; Brorson, Kurt A; Agarabi, Cyrus D; Khan, Mansoor

    2015-01-01

    Fermentanomics is an emerging field of research and involves understanding the underlying controlled process variables and their effect on process yield and product quality. Although major advancements have occurred in process analytics over the past two decades, accurate real-time measurement of significant quality attributes for a biotech product during production culture is still not feasible. Researchers have used an amalgam of process models and analytical measurements for monitoring and process control during production. This article focuses on using multivariate data analysis as a tool for monitoring the internal bioreactor dynamics, the metabolic state of the cell, and interactions among them during culture. Quality attributes of the monoclonal antibody product that were monitored include glycosylation profile of the final product along with process attributes, such as viable cell density and level of antibody expression. These were related to process variables, raw materials components of the chemically defined hybridoma media, concentration of metabolites formed during the course of the culture, aeration-related parameters, and supplemented raw materials such as glucose, methionine, threonine, tryptophan, and tyrosine. This article demonstrates the utility of multivariate data analysis for correlating the product quality attributes (especially glycosylation) to process variables and raw materials (especially amino acid supplements in cell culture media). The proposed approach can be applied for process optimization to increase product expression, improve consistency of product quality, and target the desired quality attribute profile.

  8. Challenges for critical raw material recovery from WEEE - The case study of gallium.

    PubMed

    Ueberschaar, Maximilian; Otto, Sarah Julie; Rotter, Vera Susanne

    2017-02-01

    Gallium and gallium compounds are more frequently used in future oriented technologies such as photovoltaics, light diodes and semiconductor technology. In the long term the supply risk is estimated to be critical. Germany is one of the major primary gallium producer, recycler of gallium from new scrap and GaAs wafer producer. Therefore, new concepts for a resource saving handling of gallium and appropriate recycling strategies have to be designed. This study focus on options for a possible recycling of gallium from waste electric and electronic equipment. To identify first starting points, a substance flow analysis was carried out for gallium applied in integrated circuits applied on printed circuit boards and for LEDs used for background lighting in Germany in 2012. Moreover, integrated circuits (radio amplifier chips) were investigated in detail to deduce first approaches for a recycling of such components. An analysis of recycling barriers was carried out in order to investigate general opportunities and risks for the recycling of gallium from chips and LEDs. Results show, that significant gallium losses arose in primary production and in waste management. 93±11%, equivalent to 43,000±4700kg of the total gallium potential was lost over the whole primary production process until applied in electronic goods. The largest share of 14,000±2300kggallium was lost in the production process of primary raw materials. The subsequent refining process was related to additional 6900±3700kg and the chip and wafer production to 21,700±3200kg lost gallium. Results for the waste management revealed only low collection rates for related end-of-life devices. Not collected devices held 300 ± 200 kg gallium. Due to the fact, that current waste management processes do not recover gallium, further 80 ± 10 kg gallium were lost. A thermal pre-treatment of the chips, followed by a manual separation allowed an isolation of gallium rich fractions, with gallium mass fractions up to

  9. Development of a fluorescence resonance energy transfer peptide library technology for detection of protease contaminants in protein-based raw materials used in diagnostic assays.

    PubMed

    Kapprell, Hans-Peter; Maurer, Andreas; Kramer, Florian; Heinrich, Boris; Buenning, Carsten; Narvaez, Alfredo; Kalbacher, Hubert; Flad, Thomas

    2011-10-01

    Protease impurities in raw materials used in enzyme immunoassays can impair assay performance. This risk may be greatly decreased if incoming protein-based raw materials are controlled for protease impurities or if protease inhibitors are used in the assay formulations. As many different proteases might occur in protein raw materials, it is desirable to have a general test for protease contamination. With the help of a fluorescence resonance energy transfer peptide library containing about 2.5 million peptides, we have succeeded in establishing such a system, with sensitivity in the nanogram range for known proteases. Protease contamination was found to differ between different raw materials and was correlated with assay performance. Protease activity in contaminated raw materials could be suppressed to various degrees with different chemical inhibitors or by thermal treatment. This technology is suited for the control of incoming protein-based raw materials used for enzyme immunoassays, as well as for the optimization of the use of protein inhibitors or thermal treatment of protein-based raw materials for the inactivation of proteases.

  10. Combined effects of raw materials and solvent systems on the preparation and properties of regenerated cellulose fibers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinghuan; Guan, Ying; Wang, Kun; Zhang, Xueming; Xu, Feng; Sun, Runcang

    2015-09-05

    To investigate the combined effects of materials and solvents on the preparation, structural and mechanical properties of regenerated cellulose fibers, four cellulosic materials (microcrystalline cellulose, cotton linter pulp, bamboo pulp and bleached softwood sulfite dissolving pulp) and six non-derivative solvents (NaOH/urea aqueous solution, N,N-dimethylacetamide/lithium chloride, N-methyl-morpholine-N-oxide, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate) were used to prepare fibers with wet spinning method. The results showed that the dissolvability of solvent was the determining factor in cellulose dissolution, and the dissolving time was influenced by the raw materials' properties, such as molecular weight, exposed area and hemicellulose content. The crystallinity and elongation at break of the fibers were almost fixed and not affected by the materials and solvents. However, the tensile strength of the fibers was directly proportional to the molecular weight of the raw materials, and varied with the type of solvents through cellulose degradation.

  11. Sludge from paper mill effluent treatment as raw material to produce carbon adsorbents: An alternative waste management strategy.

    PubMed

    Jaria, Guilaine; Silva, Carla Patrícia; Ferreira, Catarina I A; Otero, Marta; Calisto, Vânia

    2017-03-01

    Pulp and paper industry produces massive amounts of sludge from wastewater treatment, which constitute an enormous environmental challenge. A possible management option is the conversion of sludge into carbon-based adsorbents to be applied in water remediation. For such utilization it is important to investigate if sludge is a consistent raw material originating reproducible final materials (either over time or from different manufacturing processes), which is the main goal of this work. For that purpose, different primary (PS) and biological sludge (BS) batches from two factories with different operation modes were sampled and subjected to pyrolysis (P materials) and to pyrolysis followed by acid washing (PW materials). All the materials were characterized by proximate analysis, total organic carbon (TOC) and inorganic carbon (IC), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and N2 adsorption isotherms (specific surface area (SBET)and porosity determination). Sludge from the two factories proved to have distinct physicochemical properties, mainly in what concerns IC. After pyrolysis, the washing step was essential to reduce IC and to considerably increase SBET, yet with high impact in the final production yield. Among the materials here produced, PW materials from PS were those having the highest SBET values (387-488 m(2) g(-1)). Overall, it was found that precursors from different factories might originate final materials with distinct characteristics, being essential to take into account this source of variability when considering paper mill sludge as a raw material. Nevertheless, for PS, low variability was found between batches, which points out to the reliability of such residues to be used as precursors of carbon adsorbents.

  12. Jamu Gendong, a kind of traditional medicine in Indonesia: the microbial contamination of its raw materials and endproduct.

    PubMed

    Limyati, D A; Juniar, B L

    1998-12-01

    An examination on the microbiological quality of seven kinds of Jamu Gendong (JG) and their raw materials has been conducted according to the requirements of microbial contamination in traditional medicine, issued by the Department of Health of Indonesia in 1986. Samples of JG and their raw materials were taken from producers in three districts of Surabaya. The samples were subject to the following examinations: total plate count (TPC), MPN coliform, the enumeration of molds and yeasts, the presence or absence of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella and Vibrio. Each time the JG samples were taken from different producers together with their raw materials. The results of this investigation showed that most of the JG samples were heavily contaminated with bacteria, yeasts and molds. For bacteria, taken from the TPC results, their numbers were ranging from 7.7 x 10(2) microorganisms/ml to too many to count (TMTC). For yeasts and molds the numbers showed variations from 0 microorganisms/ml to TMTC. Contamination with Coliform in 1 ml of JG were ranged from 0 to > 2.4 x 10(6) microorganisms. In most of the samples pathogenic Staphylococci, Salmonella sp. and Vibrio sp. were not detected, so that a conclusion can be drawn that most of the contamination in JG are saprophytic, only a few pathogenic. The results also show that it is possible to have JG which fulfill the government's requirements. Similar results were obtained with the plant material constituents of JG such as rhizomes, leaves, herbs and fruits of Piper nigrum and Piper retrofractum, with the exception of Piper betle leaves and P. retrofractum fruits, both showing low contamination of Coliform bacteria. However, the fruits of Citrus aurantifolia and Morinda citrifolia were less contaminated, just like seeds of Oryza sativa, Parkia roxburghii, bulbs of Allium sativum and the pulp of Tamarindus indica. With these plant constituents of JG, it might be of interest to screen their antibacterial and antifungal

  13. Potential use of pyrite cinders as raw material in cement production: results of industrial scale trial operations.

    PubMed

    Alp, I; Deveci, H; Yazici, E Y; Türk, T; Süngün, Y H

    2009-07-15

    Pyrite cinders, which are the waste products of sulphuric acid manufacturing plants, contain hazardous heavy metals with potential environmental risks for disposal. In this study, the potential use of pyrite cinders (PyCs) as iron source in the production of Portland cement clinker was demonstrated at the industrial scale. The chemical and mineralogical analyses of the PyC sample used in this study have revealed that it is essentially a suitable raw material for use as iron source since it contains >87% Fe(2)O(3) mainly in the form of hematite (Fe(2)O(3)) and magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)). The samples of the clinkers produced from PyC in the industrial scale trial operation of 6 months were tested for the conformity of their chemical composition and the physico-mechanical performance of the resultant cement products. The data were compared with the clinker products of the iron ore, which is used as the raw material for the production Portland cement clinker in the plant. The chemical compositions of all the clinker products of PyC appeared to conform to those of the iron ore clinker, and hence, a Portland cement clinker. The mechanical performance of the mortars prepared from the PyC clinker was found to be consistent with those of the industrial cements e.g. CEM I type cements. It can be inferred from the leachability tests (TCLP and SPLP) that PyC could be a potential source of heavy metal pollution while the mortar samples obtained from the PyC clinkers present no environmental problems. These findings suggest that the waste pyrite cinders can be readily used as iron source for the production of Portland cement. The availability of PyC in large quantities at low cost provides further significant benefits for the management/environmental practices of these wastes and for the reduction of mining and processing costs of cement raw materials.

  14. A 3-year hygiene and safety monitoring of a meat processing plant which uses raw materials of global origin.

    PubMed

    Manios, Stavros G; Grivokostopoulos, Nikolaos C; Bikouli, Vasiliki C; Doultsos, Dimitrios A; Zilelidou, Evangelia A; Gialitaki, Maria A; Skandamis, Panagiotis N

    2015-09-16

    A systematic approach in monitoring the hygiene of a meat processing plant using classical microbiological analyses combined with molecular characterization tools may assist in the safety of the final products. This study aimed: (i) to evaluate the total hygiene level and, (ii) to monitor and characterize the occurrence and spread of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in the environment and the final products of a meat industry that processes meat of global origin. In total, 2541 samples from the processing environment, the raw materials, and the final products were collected from a Greek meat industry in the period 2011-2013. All samples were subjected to enumeration of total viable counts (TVC), Escherichia coli (EC) and total coliforms (TCC) and the detection of Salmonella spp., while 709 of these samples were also analyzed for the presence L. monocytogenes. Pathogen isolates were serotyped and further characterized for their antibiotic resistance and subtyped by PFGE. Raw materials were identified as the primary source of contamination, while improper handling might have also favored the proliferation of the initial microbial load. The occurrence of Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes reached 5.5% and 26.9%, respectively. Various (apparent) cross-contamination or persistence trends were deduced based on PFGE analysis results. Salmonella isolates showed wide variation in their innate antibiotic resistance, contrary to L. monocytogenes ones, which were found susceptible to all antibiotics except for cefotaxime. The results emphasize the biodiversity of foodborne pathogens in a meat industry and may be used by meat processors to understand the spread of pathogens in the processing environment, as well as to assist the Food Business Operator (FBO) in establishing effective criteria for selection of raw materials and in improving meat safety and quality. This approach can limit the increase of microbial contamination during the processing steps observed in

  15. Separation, identification, quantification, and method validation of anthocyanins in botanical supplement raw materials by HPLC and HPLC-MS.

    PubMed

    Chandra, A; Rana, J; Li, Y

    2001-08-01

    A method has been established and validated for identification and quantification of individual, as well as total, anthocyanins by HPLC and LC/ES-MS in botanical raw materials used in the herbal supplement industry. The anthocyanins were separated and identified on the basis of their respective M(+) (cation) using LC/ES-MS. Separated anthocyanins were individually calculated against one commercially available anthocyanin external standard (cyanidin-3-glucoside chloride) and expressed as its equivalents. Amounts of each anthocyanin calculated as external standard equivalent were then multiplied by a molecular-weight correction factor to afford their specific quantities. Experimental procedures and use of a molecular-weight correction factors are substantiated and validated using Balaton tart cherry and elderberry as templates. Cyanidin-3-glucoside chloride has been widely used in the botanical industry to calculate total anthocyanins. In our studies on tart cherry and elderberry, its use as external standard followed by use of molecular-weight correction factors should provide relatively accurate results for total anthocyanins, because of the presence of cyanidin as their major anthocyanidin backbone. The method proposed here is simple and has a direct sample preparation procedure without any solid-phase extraction. It enables selection and use of commercially available anthocyanins as external standards for quantification of specific anthocyanins in the sample matrix irrespective of their commercial availability as analytical standards. It can be used as a template and applied for similar quantification in several anthocyanin-containing raw materials for routine quality control procedures, thus providing consistency in analytical testing of botanical raw materials used for manufacturing efficacious and true-to-the-label nutritional supplements.

  16. Evaluation of carbohydrates and lignocellulosic biomass from different wood species as raw material for the synthesis of 5-bromomethyfurfural.

    PubMed

    Bredihhin, Aleksei; Mäeorg, Uno; Vares, Lauri

    2013-06-28

    The influence of different parameters on the conversion of carbohydrates and biomass into the potential biofuel intermediate 5-bromomethylfurfural (BMF) has been studied. Our optimized conditions avoid the use of lithium salt additives, making this method cheaper and environmentally more benign compared to previously reported methods. Different wood species and their potential as a raw material in BMF and furfural production have also been evaluated. In addition, we report a very simple and efficient procedure for conversion of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) into BMF or 5-chloromethylfurfural (CMF).

  17. Determination of Phenolic Constituents in Echinacea Raw Materials and Dietary Supplements by HPLC-UV: Collaborative Study.

    PubMed

    Brown, Paula N; Mudge, Elizabeth M; Paley, Lori

    2016-09-01

    A collaborative study was conducted to evaluate an HPLC method for determining phenolic compounds in Echinacea spp. raw materials, powdered extracts, and tinctures. Eleven collaborating laboratories received three practice samples representing each matrix type, phenolic reference standards, eight test samples as blind duplicates, the validated analytical method, and instructions. Test samples included two raw materials, four extracts (including one in combination with astragalus and reishi), one ethanolic tincture in combination with goldenseal, and one glycerite tincture. Each material was extracted with a 60% methanol aqueous solution, separated on a C18 column, and detected at 330 nm. Results reported by laboratories for total phenolics in Echinacea roots, aerial parts, and extracts ranged from 9.5 to 62.9 mg/g with RSDR ranging from 3.64 and 7.95% and Horwitz ratio (HorRat) values ranging from 1.06 to 2.01. Total phenolics in the ethanolic tincture ranged from 4837 to 5962 μg/mL, with an RSDR of 6.35% and a HorRat value of 1.45. The glycerite tincture showed poor interlaboratory precision with a HorRat value of 3.32, an RSDR of 21.8%, and reported total phenolic values ranging from 257 to 539 μg/mL.

  18. [Study on identification of "Digeda" raw materials in Mongolian patent medicine by PCR amplification of specific alleles].

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhan-hu; Huang, Xian-zhang; Long, Ping; Zhang, Le; Zhao, Dong-dong; Wang, Ying-li; Li, Min-hui

    2015-03-01

    To explore a new method for identification of Mongolian patent medicine (MPM) by PCR amplification of specific alleles. Eight kinds of MPM were used to study the identification of "Digeda" raw materials. The total DNA of Lomatogonium rotatum and Corydalis bungeana samples were extracted through modified CTAB method, psbA-trnH sequence was amplified by PCR and sequenced directionally. Specific primer was designed. The DNA of 8 kinds of MPM also was extracted and purified by the commercial DNA purification kits. The rbcL and two pair of specific primers sequences were amplified. The specific amplified products were sequenced in forward directions. All specific sequences were aligned and were analyzed. The results indicated that L rotatum can be identified by specific primers from Digeda-4 Tang, Digeda-8 San, Digeda-4 San, and C. bungeana medicinal materials can be identified by specific primers from Li Dan Ba Wei San, Yi He Ha Ri-12 and A Ga Ri-35. PCR amplification of specific alleles can stably and accurately distinguish raw medicinal materials in MPM.

  19. 48 CFR 31.205-26 - Material costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Material costs. 31.205-26... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.205-26 Material costs. (a) Material costs include the costs of such items as raw materials,...

  20. 48 CFR 31.205-26 - Material costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Material costs. 31.205-26... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.205-26 Material costs. (a) Material costs include the costs of such items as raw materials,...

  1. 48 CFR 31.205-26 - Material costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Material costs. 31.205-26... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.205-26 Material costs. (a) Material costs include the costs of such items as raw materials,...

  2. 48 CFR 31.205-26 - Material costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Material costs. 31.205-26... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.205-26 Material costs. (a) Material costs include the costs of such items as raw materials,...

  3. 48 CFR 31.205-26 - Material costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Material costs. 31.205-26... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.205-26 Material costs. (a) Material costs include the costs of such items as raw materials,...

  4. End-product quality of composts produced under tropical and temperate climates using different raw materials: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Faverial, Julie; Boval, Maryline; Sierra, Jorge; Sauvant, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    A meta-analysis on end-product quality of 442 composts was performed to assess the effects of climate and raw materials on compost quality. The analysis was performed using an ANOVA including a mixed model with nested factors (climate, raw material and publication effect). Tropical composts presented lower carbon, nitrogen, potassium and soluble-carbon contents, and higher electrical conductivity. The results suggest that compost quality in the tropics was affected by weather conditions during composting (e.g. high temperature and rainfall), which induced high losses of carbon and nutrients. For most properties, industrial, sewage sludge and manure-based composts displayed the highest quality under both climates, while the contrary was found for household and municipal solid waste-based composts. The publication effect represented >50% of total variance, which was mainly due to the heterogeneity of the composting procedures. The meta-analysis was found to be a helpful tool to analyse the imbalanced worldwide database on compost quality.

  5. Simultaneous production of biopesticide and alkaline proteases by Bacillus thuringiensis using sewage sludge as a raw material.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, R D; Sikati Foko, V; Barnabe, S; Vidyarthi, A S; Valéro, J R; Surampalli, R Y

    2002-01-01

    The simultaneous production of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) based biopesticide and proteases was studied using synthetic medium and wastewater sludge as a raw material. The studies were conducted in shake flask and computer controlled 15-L capacity fermentors. Measuring viable cell and spore counts, entomotoxicity and protease activity monitored the progress of the biopesticide production process. A higher viable cell count and spore count was observed in synthetic Soya medium, however, higher entomotoxicity and protease activity were observed in wastewater sludge medium. Thus, the wastewater sludge is a better raw material than commercial Soya medium for the biopesticides and enzyme production. The maximum entomotoxicity and protease activity observed in the fermentor was 9,332 IU/microL and 4.58 IU/mL, respectively. The proteases produced by Bt were also characterised. Two types of proteases were detected; neutral proteases with pH optimum 7.0 and alkaline proteases with pH optimum 10-11. Further, two types of alkaline proteases were detected; one having a pH and temperature optimum at 10 and 50 degrees C while the other at 11 and 70 degrees C. The protease thermal stability was found to increase in the presence of CaCl2, indicating the proteases were metalloproteases.

  6. Effect of Raw Material, Pressing and Glycosidase on the Volatile Compound Composition of Wine Made From Goji Berries.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Guanshen; Ren, Jie; Ouyang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Liying; Wang, Mengze; Shen, Xiaodong; Zhang, Bolin; Zhu, Baoqing

    2016-10-02

    This study investigated the effect of raw material, pressing, and glycosidase on the aromatic profile of goji berry wine. The free-run and the pressed juice of dried and fresh goji berries were used for wine production, whereas glycosidase was applied to wine after fermentation. Dried goji berry fermented wine exhibited much stronger fruity, floral, caramel, and herbaceous odors due to higher levels of esters, β-ionone and methionol. However, fresh berry fermented wine possessed stronger chemical notes due to higher levels of 4-ethylphenol. Pressing treatment reduced the fruity and caramel odors in these fermented wines, and fresh berry free-run juice fermented wine exhibited the least floral aroma. Glycosidase addition did not alter the aromatic composition of wines. The principal component analysis indicated that goji raw material played a primary role in differentiating the aromatic profiles of the wines due to the difference on the content of 20 esters, nine benzenes, eight aldehydes/ketones, three acids, two alcohols and six other volatiles. The content differences on isopentyl alcohol, styrene, benzyl alcohol, 1-octanol, (E)-5-decen-1-ol, 1-hexanol, and β-cyclocitral resulted in the segregation of the wines with and without the pressing treatment, especially for fresh berry fermented wine.

  7. A new copper borophosphate with novel polymeric chains and its structural correlation with raw materials in molten hydrated flux synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Ruijing; Liu, Wei Cao, Lixin; Su, Ge; Xu, Hongmei; Zhao, Chenggong

    2014-02-15

    A novel copper borophosphate, Cu{sub 3}[B{sub 2}P{sub 3}O{sub 12}(OH){sub 3}] has been prepared by the molten hydrated flux method. Its crystal structure was determined by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction (monoclinic, Cc, a=6.1895 Å, b=13.6209 Å, c=11.9373 Å, β=97.62°, V=997.5 Å{sup 3}, Z=4). The three-dimensional framework of the titled compound, is composed by two kinds of polymeric chains and isolated PO{sub 4} tetrahedral. One novel 4-membered tetrahedral rings has been observed in borophosphates. Magnetic measurements indicate that the title compound exits antiferromagnetic interactions. Due to the special reaction medium created by the molten hydrated flux method, a possible structural correlation between the final solids and the raw materials has been noted. - Graphical abstract: The 3D structure consists of a framework composed of CuO{sub x} polyhedra, BO{sub 4} and PO{sub 4} tetrahedra. A intersection angle between the metal chains and borophosphate chains can be noted. Display Omitted - Highlights: • A novel copper borophosphate has been prepared by the molten hydrated flux method. • One novel 4-membered tetrahedral ring has been observed firstly in borophosphates. • A possible structural correlation between the final solids and the raw materials has been noted.

  8. 76 FR 44884 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Payments Under Time-and-Materials and Labor-Hour Contracts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ...; Sequence 1] RIN 9000-AM01 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Payments Under Time-and-Materials and Labor-Hour... authorization to use time-and-materials and labor-hour contract payment requirements. DATES: Interested parties... that made significant changes to the regulations for time-and- materials and labor-hour contracts:...

  9. 77 FR 43780 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Changes to Time-and-Materials and Labor-Hour Contracts and Orders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... raising the ceiling price or otherwise changing the scope of work for a time-and-materials (T&M) or labor... 52 RIN 9000-AM28 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Changes to Time-and-Materials and Labor-Hour... contract or order. FAR Case 2009-043, ``Time-and-Materials and Labor-Hour Contracts for Commercial...

  10. Characterization of pore and crystal structure of synthesized LiBOB with varying quality of raw materials as electrolyte for lithium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestariningsih, Titik; Ratri, Christin Rina; Wigayati, Etty Marty; Sabrina, Qolby

    2016-02-01

    Characterization of pore structure and crystal structure of the LiB(C2O4)2H2O or LIBOB compound has been performed in this study. These recent years, research regarding LiBOB electrolyte salt have been performed using analytical-grade raw materials, therefore this research was aimed to synthesized LiBOB electrolyte salt using the cheaper and abundant technical-grade raw materials. Lithium hydroxide (LiOH), oxalic acid dihydrate (H2C2O4.2H2O), and boric acid (H3BO3) both in technical-grade and analytical-grade quality were used as raw materials for the synthesis of LiBOB. Crystal structure characterization results of synthesized LiBOB from both technical-grade and analytical-grade raw materials have shown the existence of LiBOB and LiBOB hydrate phase with orthorombic structure. These results were also confirmed by FT-IR analysis, which showed the functional groups of LiBOB compounds. SEM analysis results showed that synthesized LiBOB has spherical structure, while commercial LiBOB has cylindrical structure. Synthesized LiBOB has a similar pore size of commercial LiBOB, i.e. 19 nm (mesoporous material). Surface area of synthesized LiBOB from analytical-grade raw materials and technical-grade materials as well as commercial LIBOB were 88.556 m2/g, 41.524 m2/g, and 108.776 m2/g, respectively. EIS analysis results showed that synthesized LiBOB from technical-grade raw materials has lower conductivity than synthesized LiBOB from analytical-grade raw materials.

  11. Valorisation of electric arc furnace steel slag as raw material for low energy belite cements.

    PubMed

    Iacobescu, R I; Koumpouri, D; Pontikes, Y; Saban, R; Angelopoulos, G N

    2011-11-30

    In this paper, the valorisation of electric arc furnace steel slag (EAFS) in the production of low energy belite cements is studied. Three types of clinkers were prepared with 0 wt.% (BC), 5 wt.% (BC5) and 10 wt.% (BC10) EAFS, respectively. The design of the raw mixes was based on the compositional indices lime saturation factor (LSF), alumina ratio (AR) and silica ratio (SR). The clinkering temperature was studied for the range 1280-1400°C; firing was performed at 1380°C based on the results regarding free lime and the evolution of microstructure. In order to activate the belite, clinkers were cooled fast by blown air and concurrent crushing. The results demonstrate that the microstructure of the produced clinkers is dominated by belite and alite crystals, with tricalcium aluminate and tetracalcium-alumino-ferrite present as micro-crystalline interstitial phases. The prepared cements presented low early strength development as expected for belite-rich compositions; however the 28-day results were 47.5 MPa, 46.6 MPa and 42.8 MPa for BC, BC5 and BC10, respectively. These values are comparable with OPC CEMI 32.5 N (32.5-52.5 MPa) according to EN 197-1. A fast setting behaviour was also observed, particularly in the case of BC10, whereas soundness did not exceed 1mm.

  12. Recrystallization of white slime (raw material for obtained Na-A zeolite)

    SciTech Connect

    Ganbarov, D.M.

    1986-03-01

    The authors show the possibility of using white slime (hydroxide cancrinite) as the starting material for obtaining Na-A zeolite. The effect of temperature, aging process, and structure of the starting material on the kinetics of Na-A zeolite crystallization is studied.

  13. Characterization of traditional raw materials used in housing construction in Huambo region - Angola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedro, Elsa; Duarte, Isabel; Varum, Humberto; Pinho, António; Norman, Antónia

    2016-04-01

    The sustainability of buildings associated to the use of raw earth has motivated the studies and the development of techniques and methods in the context of this type of construction. In the region of Huambo, Angola, these construction techniques are widely used, especially for low-income families who represent the majority of the population. Much of the buildings in Huambo province are built with adobe. Due to the climate in this region, subtropical, hot and humid, with altitudes above 1000 meters and extensive river system, these buildings are particularly vulnerable to the action of water and develop, in many situations, early degradation. The Huambo Province is located in central Angola, has 36 km2 area and approximately 2 million inhabitants. This work aims to evaluate, by conducting in-situ tests, physical and mechanical properties of adobe blocks typically used in the construction of those buildings. The methodology is based on field campaigns where in-situ expeditious tests were performed in soils (smell test, color, touch, brightness, sedimentation, ball, hardness, etc.) and tests on adobes blocks made with traditional procedures, particularly in terms of durability and erodibility (erosion test at Geelong method; evaluation test of wet / dry cycle, applying the New Zealand standards 4297: 1998; 4297: 1998 and 4297: 1999). The results will contribute to the characterization of the geomaterials and methods used in construction with earth in Huambo Province, contributing to the improvement of these sustainable solutions, with a strong presence in this region. The results of this study will also contribute to the proposal of constructive solutions with improved performance characteristics, comfort, safety and durability.

  14. Temperature dependent embryonic development of Trichuris suis eggs in a medicinal raw material.

    PubMed

    Vejzagić, Nermina; Kringel, Helene; Bruun, Johan Musaeus; Roepstorff, Allan; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Grossi, Anette Blak; Kapel, Christian M O

    2016-01-15

    The therapeutic potential of infective pig whipworm eggs, Trichuris suis ova (TSO), is currently tested in several clinical trials on immune-mediated diseases. This paper studied the embryonic development of TSO in a medicinal raw product, where the parasite eggs were suspended in sulphuric acid (pH1). Unembryonated T. suis egg batches were stored at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 40°C (±1°C) and examined at 2, 4, 8, and 14 weeks. Subsequently, sub-batches from each temperature were allowed to embryonate for additional 14 weeks at 25°C, and selected samples were tested for infectivity in Göttingen minipigs. Both male and female pigs were used to evaluate eventual gender specific infectivity. Storage at 30°C up to 14 weeks and subsequent embryonation for 14 weeks at 25°C did not significantly reduce the overall larval establishment in minipigs, as compared to storage at 5°C and subsequent embryonation at 25°C. As marked impairment of egg development was observed during storage at 40°C, a second set of unembryonated egg batches were incubated at 30, 32, 34, 36, 38, and 40°C (±1°C) for 1-8 weeks. The development of the eggs was repeatedly examined by manual light microscopy, multispectral analysis (OvaSpec), and an egg hatching assay prior to the final testing in minipigs (Trial 1). These methods showed that the development started earlier at higher temperatures, but the long-term storage at higher temperature affected the egg development. The present study further documents tolerance of the TSO to storage at temperature 5-15°C, at which temperature development of larvae is not initiated.

  15. Effects of the granularity of raw materials on the hydration and hardening process of calcium phosphate cement.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changsheng; Shao, Huifang; Chen, Feiyue; Zheng, Haiyan

    2003-10-01

    Effects of the granularity of the raw materials on the hydration and hardening process of calcium phosphate cement (CPC) composed of equimolar tetracalcium phosphate (TECP) and dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA) were investigated systematically. The variation of pH value in CPC slurry indicated that the control step of CPC hydration was the dissolution of DCPA under these experimental conditions. Reducing the particle size of DCPA could accelerate the hydration rate, and decreasing the particle size of TECP would expedite the dissolution of DCPA, which would obviously result in a faster hydration rate. The results of isothermal conduction calorimetry showed that reducing the particle size of TECP could increase the conversion ratio of starting materials to hydration products, which would lead to an increase in the compressive strength of the hardened body of CPC. The sample composed of the smallest particle size of DCPA and TECP obtained the compressive strength of 41 MPa, which would not attain the highest compressive strength, 49 MPa. The smaller the particle size of either DCPA or TECP, the shorter the setting time was. During the setting process of CPC, the microstructure progresses from a gel structure to an agglomeration-crystallization structure. The calculated values of setting time from the rheological model coincided with the experimental data very well. The parameters of AC impedance spectroscopy were closely correlated with the mean pore diameter and porosity of the CPC hardened body. The results of AC impedance spectroscopy further verified that a small particle size of raw materials could result in high hydration rate and the compressive strength of 49.1 MPa.

  16. Evaluation of lunar rocks and soils for resource utilization: Detailed image analysis of raw materials and beneficiated products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.; Chambers, John G.; Patchen, Allan; Jerde, Eric A.; Mckay, David S.; Graf, John; Oder, Robin R.

    1993-01-01

    The rocks and soils of the Moon will be the raw materials for fuels and construction needs at a lunar base. This includes sources of materials for the generation of hydrogen, oxygen, metals, and other potential construction materials. For most of the bulk material needs, the regolith, and its less than 1 cm fraction, the soil, will suffice. But for specific mineral resources, it may be necessary to concentrate minerals from rocks or soils, and it is not always obvious which is the more appropriate feedstock. Besides an appreciation of site geology, the mineralogy and petrography of local rocks and soils is important for consideration of the resources which can provide feedstocks of ilmenite, glass, agglutinates, anorthite, etc. In such studies, it is very time-consuming and practically impossible to correlate particle counts (the traditional method of characterizing lunar soil petrography) with accurate modal analyses and with mineral associations in multi-mineralic grains. But x ray digital imaging, using x rays characteristic of each element, makes all this possible and much more (e.g., size and shape analysis). An application of beneficiation image analysis, in use in our lab (Oxford Instr. EDS and Cameca SX-50 EMP), was demonstrated to study mineral liberation from lunar rocks and soils. Results of x ray image analysis are presented.

  17. Cork - a renewable raw material: forecast of industrial potential and development priorities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Ana; Bordado, João

    2015-02-01

    This article aims to report the main applications of cork material from ancient times until nowadays, describing its industrial potential for other applications under study. It is also described the cork origin, the extraction process and the relationship between composition and cellular structure with properties.

  18. Agricultural wastes as a resource of raw materials for developing low-dielectric glass-ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danewalia, Satwinder Singh; Sharma, Gaurav; Thakur, Samita; Singh, K.

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural waste ashes are used as resource materials to synthesize new glass and glass-ceramics. The as-prepared materials are characterized using various techniques for their structural and dielectric properties to check their suitability in microelectronic applications. Sugarcane leaves ash exhibits higher content of alkali metal oxides than rice husk ash, which reduces the melting point of the components due to eutectic reactions. The addition of sugarcane leaves ash in rice husk ash promotes the glass formation. Additionally, it prevents the cristobalite phase formation. These materials are inherently porous, which is responsible for low dielectric permittivity i.e. 9 to 40. The presence of less ordered augite phase enhances the dielectric permittivity as compared to cristobalite and tridymite phases. The present glass-ceramics exhibit lower losses than similar materials synthesized using conventional minerals. The dielectric permittivity is independent to a wide range of temperature and frequency. The glass-ceramics developed with adequately devitrified phases can be used in microelectronic devices and other dielectric applications.

  19. Agricultural wastes as a resource of raw materials for developing low-dielectric glass-ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Danewalia, Satwinder Singh; Sharma, Gaurav; Thakur, Samita; Singh, K.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural waste ashes are used as resource materials to synthesize new glass and glass-ceramics. The as-prepared materials are characterized using various techniques for their structural and dielectric properties to check their suitability in microelectronic applications. Sugarcane leaves ash exhibits higher content of alkali metal oxides than rice husk ash, which reduces the melting point of the components due to eutectic reactions. The addition of sugarcane leaves ash in rice husk ash promotes the glass formation. Additionally, it prevents the cristobalite phase formation. These materials are inherently porous, which is responsible for low dielectric permittivity i.e. 9 to 40. The presence of less ordered augite phase enhances the dielectric permittivity as compared to cristobalite and tridymite phases. The present glass-ceramics exhibit lower losses than similar materials synthesized using conventional minerals. The dielectric permittivity is independent to a wide range of temperature and frequency. The glass-ceramics developed with adequately devitrified phases can be used in microelectronic devices and other dielectric applications. PMID:27087123

  20. Agricultural wastes as a resource of raw materials for developing low-dielectric glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Danewalia, Satwinder Singh; Sharma, Gaurav; Thakur, Samita; Singh, K

    2016-04-18

    Agricultural waste ashes are used as resource materials to synthesize new glass and glass-ceramics. The as-prepared materials are characterized using various techniques for their structural and dielectric properties to check their suitability in microelectronic applications. Sugarcane leaves ash exhibits higher content of alkali metal oxides than rice husk ash, which reduces the melting point of the components due to eutectic reactions. The addition of sugarcane leaves ash in rice husk ash promotes the glass formation. Additionally, it prevents the cristobalite phase formation. These materials are inherently porous, which is responsible for low dielectric permittivity i.e. 9 to 40. The presence of less ordered augite phase enhances the dielectric permittivity as compared to cristobalite and tridymite phases. The present glass-ceramics exhibit lower losses than similar materials synthesized using conventional minerals. The dielectric permittivity is independent to a wide range of temperature and frequency. The glass-ceramics developed with adequately devitrified phases can be used in microelectronic devices and other dielectric applications.

  1. Cotton: a sustainable raw material for value-added nonwoven textiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainability of the materials and services we use today and protection of our environment are very strong initiatives, worldwide. Cotton is an annually renewable cash crop that is critically important to national economies of many countries, including the United States which is the 3rd largest pr...

  2. Effect of the Ratio of Raw Material Components on the Physico-chemical Characteristics of Emulsion-type Pork Sausages

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Ha, So-Ra; Hur, Sun-Jin; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of raw material ratio on the physicochemical characteristics of emulsion-type pork sausages. Experiment design was divided into 12 treatments, based on protein level (P), fat level (3P, 3.5P, and 4P), and water level (4P+10, 4P+15, 4P+20, and 4P+25). The pH and shear force values were significantly higher in T7 (3.5P fat and 4P+20 water) than those of other treatments. The lightness and redness were greatly reduced by increasing the quantity of water. The treatments containing 3P fat and 4P+20 water had the highest values of cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess, and chewiness. On the whole, when the protein (P) and fat (3P, 3.5P, 4P) levels were fixed, an increase over the appropriate moisture level deteriorated many physicochemical characteristics. PMID:26732451

  3. Purification of Al(OH)3 synthesized by Bayer process for preparation of high purity alumina as sapphire raw material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, No-Kuk; Choi, Hee-Young; Kim, Do-Hyeong; Lee, Tae Jin; Kang, Misook; Lee, Won Gun; Kim, Heun Duk; Park, Joon Woo

    2013-06-01

    To produce high purity alumina as the raw material for sapphire growth, gibbsite, which is the precursor for the synthesis of alumina, was synthesized by the Bayer process, and treated with an acid solution to remove the sodium component. In this study, the digestion process was carried out under the following conditions: an Al/Na ratio of 0.9 with a 5 N NaOH solution and a temperature of 140 °C. Bauxite containing 75 wt% alumina was converted to a sodium aluminate solution, and 60 wt% of the dissolved aluminate was crystallized to gibbsite. The sodium content in the gibbsite, which was measured by inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectroscopy, was reduced by approximately 5700 ppm and below 2900 ppm after the water washing and acid treatments, respectively. The sodium content decreased with increasing acid concentration in the solution, temperature and acid treatment time.

  4. Proteomics method to quantify the percentage of cow, goat, and sheep milks in raw materials for dairy products.

    PubMed

    Chen, Q; Ke, X; Zhang, J S; Lai, S Y; Fang, F; Mo, W M; Ren, Y P

    2016-12-01

    Fraud in milk and dairy products occurs when cow milk is added to sheep and goat milk for economic reasons. No reliable, selective, and sensitive method exists for quantifying the milk percentage of different species. This work reports the development and validation of a proteomics-based method for the qualitative detection and quantitative determination of cow, sheep, and goat milks in the raw materials used for dairy products. β-Lactoglobulin was selected as the protein marker because it is a major protein in milk and whey powder. The tryptic peptides LSFNPTQLEEQCHI and LAFNPTQLEGQCHV were used as signature peptides for cow milk and for sheep and goat milks, respectively. The winged peptides LKALPMHIRLSFNPTQL*EEQCHI* and LKALPMHIRLAFNPTQL*EGQCHV* were designed and synthesized as internal standards. Validation of the method showed that it has good sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, precision, and accuracy. This method is easily applicable in routine laboratory analysis without intensive proteomics background.

  5. Proposed program for and present status of the Geological Survey's investigation of domestic resources of radioactive raw materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bulter, A.P.; Killeen, P.L.; Page, G.B.; Rubey, W.W.

    1983-01-01

    This interim report is designed to show the present status of the Geological Survey's information and the parts of a comprehensive program necessary to improve our information about the raw material resources of uranium and thorium. Rarely in geologic work has it been necessary. to determine so completely a nation's resources of useful minerals in so brief a span of time. Ordinarily, information on mineral resources Is accumulated during a long period of years. However, uranium and thorium were suddenly thrust from a position of subsidiary economic interest into one of great strategic importance. Information concerning their occurrence must, therefore, be obtained as rapidly as reliable methods of investigation will permit. Accordingly the program must be at once comprehensive and carried out over an area more extensive than is usual in the search for and appraisal of most other mineral resources.

  6. Utilization of sludge waste from natural rubber manufacturing process as a raw material for clay-ceramic production.

    PubMed

    Vichaphund, S; Intiya, W; Kongkaew, A; Loykulnant, S; Thavorniti, P

    2012-12-01

    The possibility of utilization of the sludge waste obtained from the natural rubber manufacturing process as a raw material for producing clay ceramics was investigated. To prepared clay-based ceramic, the mixtures of traditional clay and sludge waste (10-30 wt%) were milled, uniaxilly pressed and sintered at a temperature between 1000 and 1200 degrees C. The effect of sludge waste on the properties of clay-based ceramic products was examined. The results showed that the amount of sludge waste addition had an effect on both sinterability and properties of the clay ceramics. Up to 30 wt% of sludge waste can be added into the clay ceramics, and the sintered samples showed good properties.

  7. Hydrogeological and hydrochemical investigation for below-sea-level quarrying at cement raw material site (Kocaeli-Darica, Turkey).

    PubMed

    Doyuran, Vedat; Karahanoğlu, Nurkan; Camur, Zeki; Topal, Tamer; Süzen, M Lütfi; Yeşilnacar, Ertan

    2003-08-01

    A research has been carried out to investigate the effects of below sea level mining on the cement raw material quality of a limestone quarry located adjacent to the shoreline near Darica-Kocaeli-Turkey. Field studies involved rock mass characterization through discontinuity surveys performed at the working benches of the quarry as well as on the core samples, monitoring of groundwater levels, performance of water pressure tests, and in-situ hydrochemical measurements. Hydrogeological data suggest that the carbonate sequence forms a poor unconfined aquifer having hydraulic conductivity values ranging between 10(-6) m/s and 10(-8) m/s. In the quarry, water seepages can only be observed at the shear zones. Electrical conductivity profiles taken from the boreholes located at various distances from the shore line indicated the present position of the salt water wedge.

  8. Assessment of screening methods for the identification of genetically modified potatoes in raw materials and finished products.

    PubMed

    Jaccaud, Etienne; Höhne, Michaela; Meyer, Rolf

    2003-01-29

    Qualitative polymerase chain reaction methods for the detection of genetically modified potatoes have been investigated that can be used for screening purposes and identification of insect-resistant and virus-resistant potatoes in food. The presence of the nos terminator from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and the antibiotic marker gene nptII (neomycin-phosphotransferase II) was demonstrated in three commercialized Bt-potato lines (Monsanto Co., St. Louis, MO, USA) and one noncommercial GM-potato product (high amylopectin starch, AVEBE, Veendam, The Netherlands) and allows for general screening in foods. For further identification, specific primers for the FMV promoter derived from the figwort mosaic virus, the CryIIIA gene (delta-endotoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis), potato leafroll virus replicase gene, and the potato virus Y coat protein gene, were designed. The methods described were successfully applied to processed potato raw materials (dehydrated potato powders and flakes), starch samples, and finished products.

  9. Inoculation of Pichia kudriavzevii RB1 degrades the organic acids present in raw compost material and accelerates composting.

    PubMed

    Nakasaki, Kiyohiko; Araya, Shogo; Mimoto, Hiroshi

    2013-09-01

    In this study, the yeast strain Pichia kudriavzevii RB1 was used as an inoculum to accelerate organic matter degradation of rabbit food with added organic acids, which was used as a model food waste for composting. The RB1 strain rapidly degraded the organic acids present in the raw compost material, leading to an increase in pH beyond the neutral level, within 2 days. Both mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria proliferated faster in the compost with RB1 inoculation than in that without inoculation. Although the yeast died with the increase in compost temperature, it affected the early stages of composting prior to the thermophilic stage and accelerated the composting process by 2 days by eliminating the initial lag phase seen in the growth of other microorganisms. Moreover, populations of Bacillus thermoamylovorans, Bacillus foraminis, and Bacillus coagulans became dominant during the thermophilic stages of both composting with and without RB1 inoculation.

  10. Sustainable bioethanol production combining biorefinery principles using combined raw materials from wheat undersown with clover-grass.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Haugaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2008-05-01

    To obtain the best possible net energy balance of the bioethanol production the biomass raw materials used need to be produced with limited use of non-renewable fossil fuels. Intercropping strategies are known to maximize growth and productivity by including more than one species in the crop stand, very often with legumes as one of the components. In the present study clover-grass is undersown in a traditional wheat crop. Thereby, it is possible to increase input of symbiotic fixation of atmospheric nitrogen into the cropping systems and reduce the need for fertilizer applications. Furthermore, when using such wheat and clover-grass mixtures as raw material, addition of urea and other fermentation nutrients produced from fossil fuels can be reduced in the whole ethanol manufacturing chain. Using second generation ethanol technology mixtures of relative proportions of wheat straw and clover-grass (15:85, 50:50, and 85:15) were pretreated by wet oxidation. The results showed that supplementing wheat straw with clover-grass had a positive effect on the ethanol yield in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation experiments, and the effect was more pronounced in inhibitory substrates. The highest ethanol yield (80% of theoretical) was obtained in the experiment with high fraction (85%) of clover-grass. In order to improve the sugar recovery of clover-grass, it should be separated into a green juice (containing free sugars, fructan, amino acids, vitamins and soluble minerals) for direct fermentation and a fibre pulp for pretreatment together with wheat straw. Based on the obtained results a decentralized biorefinery concept for production of biofuel is suggested emphasizing sustainability, localness, and recycling principles.

  11. Recycled waste paper-A new source of raw material for electric double-layer capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalpana, D.; Cho, S. H.; Lee, S. B.; Lee, Y. S.; Misra, Rohit; Renganathan, N. G.

    For the first time, a new carbon-carbon composite electrode material for supercapacitors is prepared by simple KOH activation of waste newspaper. The amorphous nature and surface morphology of the carbon composite are investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N 2 adsorption/desorption and scanning electron microscopy. The surface area and pore diameter are 416 m 2 g -1 and 5.9 nm, respectively. Electrochemical characteristics are evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and charge-discharge tests in 6.0 M KOH at a 1 mA cm -2 current density. The CV results reveal a maximum specific capacitance of 180 F g -1 at a 2 mV s -1 scan rate and the data explore a development of new use for waste paper into a valuable energy storage material.

  12. Characterization of a wollastonite glass-ceramic material prepared using sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) as one of the raw materials

    SciTech Connect

    Teixeira, Silvio R.; Souza, Agda E.; Carvalho, Claudio L.; Reynoso, Victor C.S.; Romero, Maximina; Rincón, Jesús Ma.

    2014-12-15

    Glass-ceramic material prepared with sugar cane bagasse ash as one of the raw materials was characterized to determine some important properties for its application as a coating material. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that wollastonite-2M (CaSiO{sub 3}) was the major glass-ceramic phase. The Rietveld method was used to quantify the crystalline (60 wt.%) and vitreous (40 wt.%) phases in the glass-ceramic. The microstructure (determined by scanning electron microscopy) of this material had a marble appearance, showing a microporous network of elongated crystals with some areas with dendritic, feather-like ordering. Microhardness data gave a mean hardness value of 564.4 HV (Vickers-hardness), and light microscopy disclosed a greenish brown colored material with a vitreous luster. - Highlights: • We studied the properties of a glass-ceramic material obtained from sugarcane ash. • This material has the appearance and hardness of natural stones. • A refining method gave information about its amorphous and crystalline phases. • This material has potential to be used as coating plates for buildings.

  13. Re-cycling of sugar-ash: a raw feed material for rotary kilns.

    PubMed

    Kantiranis, Nikolaos

    2004-01-01

    Large amounts of sugar-ash, a material rich in calcium carbonate, are produced as a by-product in the Greek Sugar Industry. This work explores the possibility of re-cycling sugar-ash for use in the lime industry. A representative sample of sugar-ash from the Plati Imathias sugar plant was studied by PXRD, TG/DTG, calcination experiments at temperatures between 650 and 1150 degrees C and experiments to determine the quality of the quicklime produced at temperatures between 850 and 1150 degrees C following methods described in ASTM C110 standard. The sugar-ash was found to consist of 90 wt% calcium rich minerals (calcite and monohydrocalcite) and 10 wt% amorphous material. Traces of quartz were also detected. The quicklime of highest quality was produced at 950 degrees C. It is concluded that this "useless" material (sugar-ash) can be re-cycled for use in rotary kilns in the lime industry at calcination temperatures up to 950-1000 degrees C.

  14. Ni-MH spent batteries: a raw material to produce Ni-Co alloys.

    PubMed

    Lupi, Carla; Pilone, Daniela

    2002-01-01

    Ni-MH spent batteries are heterogeneous and complex materials, so any kind of metallurgical recovery process needs a mechanical pre-treatment at least to separate irony materials and recyclable plastic materials (like ABS) respectively, in order to get additional profit from this saleable scrap, as well as minimize waste arising from the braking separation process. Pyrometallurgical processing is not suitable to treat Ni-MH batteries mainly because of Rare Earths losses in the slag. On the other hand, the hydrometallurgical method, that offers better opportunities in terms of recovery yield and higher purity of Ni, Co, and RE, requires several process steps as shown in technical literature. The main problems during leach liquor purification are the removal of elements such as Mn, Zn, Cd, dissolved during the leaching step, and the separation of Ni from Co. In the present work, the latter problem is overcome by co-deposition of a Ni-35/40%w Co alloy of good quality. The experiments carried out in a laboratory scale pilot-plant show that a current efficiency higher than 91% can be reached in long duration electrowinning tests performed at 50 degrees C and 4.3 catholyte pH.

  15. Aromatic resin characterisation by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Raw and archaeological materials.

    PubMed

    Modugno, Francesca; Ribechini, Erika; Colombini, Maria Perla

    2006-11-17

    An analytical procedure based on alkaline hydrolysis, solvent extraction and trimethyl-silylation followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was used to study the chemical composition of benzoe and storax resins, water-insoluble exudates of trees of the Styrax and Liquidambar genus. They are chemically characterised by having aromatic acids, alcohols and esters as their main components and are thus known as aromatic and/or balsamic resins. This analytical procedure allowed us to characterise the main components of the two resins and, even though cinnamic acid is the main component of both the resins, the presence of other characteristic aromatic compounds and triterpenes permitted us to distinguish between the two materials. All the compounds identified in benzoe resin were detected in an archaeological organic residue from an Egyptian ceramic censer (fifth to seventh centuries a.d.), thus proving that this resin was used as one of the components of the mixture of organic materials burned as incense. These results provide the first chemical evidence of the presence of benzoe resin in an archaeological material from Mediterranean area.

  16. Permittivity Investigations of the Road Construction Raw Materials for Purposes of GPR Data Interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krysiński, Lech

    2014-05-01

    Permittivity is the major material property governing the formation of GPR response signal in diagnostic measurements. Every quantitative interpretation refers explicitly or implicitly to discussion of permittivity values. Thus, the recognition of permittivity for materials typical of the given technological area is necessary to make use of diagnostic measurements. Collection of several tens of stone cores representing different outcrops was investigated in order to obtain cross-sectional view of permittivity for stone materials being in use in Polish road construction industry as components of stone-asphalt mixtures. The main task was to estimate the typical permittivity values for stone materials treated as representation of several major petrological types. The capacimetry (at 50 MHz) was used as major and very efficient method of permittivity assessment and formation of the samples was subordinated to demands of this method. This method allows for determination of permittivity variability on the lateral surface of the cylindrical sample, giving the insight into the major features of the permittivity spatial distribution characteristic for the given rock. For the most homogeneous samples (in terms of permittivity distribution) the permittivity was measured also on the core top at frequency 2 GHz using impulse GPR reflectometry. No clear proofs for considerable permittivity frequency dependence were found (in the frame of the two methods precision) for these rocks. This conclusion can be related generally to major rock-forming minerals at least in dry igneous rocks. Only solid rocks obtained from regular massive outcrops were included to this first cross-sectional sampling, while artificial synthetic materials and natural gravels of postglacial origin were omitted since additional problems occur in these cases. This first experience allowed to recognize practical problems related to the sampling procedure. The collected data allow for provisional identification

  17. A polyethylene glycol-assisted carbothermal reduction method to synthesize LiFePO4 using industrial raw materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fey, George Ting-Kuo; Huang, Kai-Pin; Kao, Hsien-Ming; Li, Wen-Hsien

    2011-03-01

    Olivine LiFePO4 is synthesized by a carbothermal reduction method (CTR) using industrial raw materials with polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a reductive agent and carbon source. A required amount of acetone is added to the starting materials for the ball milling process and the precursor is sintered at 973 K for 8 h to form crystalline phase LiFePO4. The structure and morphology of the LiFePO4/C composite samples have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and magnetic susceptibility. Electrochemical measurements show that the LiFePO4/C composite cathode delivers an initial discharge capacity of 150 mAh g-1 at a 0.2C-rate between 4.0 and 2.8 V, and almost no capacity loss is observed for up to 50 cycles. Remarkably, the cell can sustain a 30C-rate between 4.6 and 2.0 V, and this rate capability is equivalent to charge or discharge in 2 min. The simple technique, low-cost starting materials, and excellent electrochemical performance make this process easier to commercialize than other synthesized methods.

  18. ODS steel raw material local structure analysis using X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cintins, A.; Anspoks, A.; Purans, J.; Kuzmin, A.; Timoshenko, J.; Vladimirov, P.; Gräning, T.; Hoffmann, J.

    2015-03-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels are promising materials for fusion power reactors, concentrated solar power plants, jet engines, chemical reactors as well as for hydrogen production from thermolysis of water. In this study we used X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Fe and Cr K-edges as a tool to get insight into the local structure of ferritic and austenitic ODS steels around Fe and Cr atoms and its transformation during mechanical alloying process. Using the analysis of X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) we found that for austenitic samples a transformation of ferritic steel to austenitic steel is detectable after 10 hours of milling and proceeds till 40 hours of milling; only small amount of a-phase remains after 80 hours of milling. We found that the Cr K-edge EXAFS can be used to observe distortions inside the material and to get an impression on the formation of chromium clusters. In-situ EXAFS experiments offer a reliable method to investigate the ferritic to austenitic transformation.

  19. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from a new raw lignocellulosic material: flamboyant (Delonix regia) pods.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Alexandro M M; Cazetta, André L; Garcia, Clarice A; Moraes, Juliana C G; Nogami, Eurica M; Lenzi, Ervim; Costa, Willian F; Almeida, Vitor C

    2011-01-01

    Activated carbons were prepared from flamboyant pods by NaOH activation at three different NaOH:char ratios: 1:1 (AC-1), 2:1 (AC-2), and 3:1 (AC-3). The properties of these carbons, including BET surface area, pore volume, pore size distribution, and pore diameter, were characterized from N(2) adsorption isotherms. The activated carbons obtained were essentially microporous and had BET surface area ranging from 303 to 2463 m(2) g(-1).(13)C (CP/MAS and MAS) solid-state NMR shows that the lignocellulosic structures were completely transformed into a polycyclic material after activation process, thermogravimetry shows a high thermal resistance, Boehm titration and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy allowed characterizing the presence of functional groups on the surface of activated carbons. Scanning electron microscopy images showed a high pore development. The experimental results indicated the potential use of flamboyant pods as a precursor material in the preparation of activated carbon.

  20. Mineralogical composition and phase-to-phase relationships in natural hydraulic lime and/or natural cement - raw materials and burnt products revealed by scanning electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlovcev, Petr; Přikryl, Richard; Racek, Martin; Přikrylová, Jiřina

    2016-04-01

    In contrast to modern process of production of cement clinker, traditional burning of natural hydraulic lime below sintering temperature relied on the formation of new phases from ion migration between neighbouring mineral grains composing raw material. The importance of the mineralogical composition and spatial distribution of rock-forming minerals in impure limestones used as a raw material for natural hydraulic lime presents not well explored issue in the scientific literature. To fill this gap, the recent study focuses in detailed analysis of experimentally burnt impure limestones (mostly from Barrandian area, Bohemian Massif). The phase changes were documented by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS) coupled with x-ray elemental mapping. The latest allowed for visualization of distribution of elements within raw materials and burnt products. SEM/EDS study brought valuable data on the presence of transitional and/or minor phases, which were poorly detectable by other methods.

  1. Hydrothermolysis of biomass-production of raw material for alcohol fermentation and other motor fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Bobleter, O.; Bonn, G.; Concin, R.

    1980-12-01

    This paper deals with the hydrothermolysis of pure cellulose (filter paper), wood and waste paper. These materials were degraded with water at elevated temperature and pressure in an apparatus with a 0.5 liter autoclave constructed for this purpose. With filter paper a conversion rate to glucose of 68% was obtained. The highest glucose concentration in the degradation effluent amounted to 12 mg/ml. The same experiments with waste paper showed much lower glucose yields. The hydrothermolysis of wood was carried out in 2 reaction steps. At a temperature of 180/sup 0/C the hemicellulose and part of the lignin were brought into solution and at 265/sup 0/C the cellulose was converted. Only about 5% of the initial amount of wood remain as residue in the autoclave.

  2. Large and small scale ethyl alcohol manufacturing processes from agricultural raw materials

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, J.K.

    1980-01-01

    This volume provides the reader with process descriptions and economic evaluations for ethyl alcohol manufacturing plants with capacities ranging from 25 gallons per hour to 100 million gallons per year. Most fully described are the 50 million gallon per year and 25 gallon per hour facilities. The book is divided into four parts. Each part details a specific sized system from a particular starting material, with possible excursions on additional sized systems. Part 1: Alcohol manufacture from corn on a 50 million gallon per year scale, with excursions to 10 and 100 million gallons per year. Part 2: Wheat straw conversion via enzymatic hydrolysis for a 25 million gallon per year facility. Part 3: Molasses fermentation to produce 14 million gallons per year. Part 4: A guide to small scale (25 gallons per hour) production. Also included are discussions of legislation and permit information pertinent to alcohol plant operation, environmental considerations, plus lists of resource people and organizations involved in alcohol promotion.

  3. Detection of trace melamine in raw materials used for protein pharmaceutical manufacturing using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) with gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zai-Qing; Li, Guiyang; Ren, Da

    2011-05-01

    Melamine, a nitrogen-rich molecule, was found as an adulterant in pet foods in 2007 in North America and in milk products in 2008 in China. These scandalous abuses of melamine have alarmed the biopharmaceutical industry and the FDA and alerted them to potential adulteration and contamination of melamine in raw materials used to make protein therapeutics. Highly sensitive analytical methods are needed to screen melamine adulteration and contamination in raw materials. We conducted surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) experiments to test trace melamine spiked in three raw materials commonly used for protein pharmaceutical formulation and purification, including sucrose, urea, and arginine, with a portable Raman device and gold nanoparticles. The detection limit of 10 ppb in raw material dissolved in 30:70% water/acetonitrile is equivalent to 0.5 ppm in solid raw material. It has excellent linearity in the concentration range measured. The cross-validation regression coefficient R(2) and the standard error of prediction (SEP) are 0.960 and 7.18 ppb, respectively, in sucrose. The R(2) and SEP are 0.958 and 9.15 ppb in urea. It has a relatively lower R(2) = 0.630 and a SEP of 35.0 ppb in arginine, which could be due to the competitive adsorption of arginine molecules to the surfaces of gold nanoparticles. The detection of melamine using the SERS technique is rapid (within 3 minutes), convenient, and requires no extraction procedure, offering an alternative method for screening melamine in raw materials at biopharmaceutical manufacture sites.

  4. Alkaline and ultrasound assisted alkaline pretreatment for intensification of delignification process from sustainable raw-material.

    PubMed

    Subhedar, Preeti B; Gogate, Parag R

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline and ultrasound-assisted alkaline pretreatment under mild operating conditions have been investigated for intensification of delignification. The effect of NaOH concentration, biomass loading, temperature, ultrasonic power and duty cycle on the delignification has been studied. Most favorable conditions for only alkaline pretreatment were alkali concentration of 1.75 N, solid loading of 0.8% (w/v), temperature of 353 K and pretreatment time of 6 h and under these conditions, 40.2% delignification was obtained. In case of ultrasound-assisted alkaline approach, most favorable conditions obtained were alkali concentration of 1N, paper loading of 0.5% (w/v), sonication power of 100 W, duty cycle of 80% and pretreatment time of 70 min and the delignification obtained in ultrasound-assisted alkaline approach under these conditions was 80%. The material samples were characterized by FTIR, SEM, XRD and TGA technique. The lignin was recovered from solution by precipitation method and was characterized by FTIR, GPC and TGA technique.

  5. Poultry manure as raw material for mercury adsorbents in gas applications

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson, K.T.; Lima, I.M.; Boihem, L.L.

    2009-09-30

    The quantity of poultry manure generated each year is large, and technologies that take advantage of the material should be explored. At the same time, increased emphasis on the reduction of mercury emissions from coal-fired electric power plants has resulted in environmental regulations that may, in the future, require application of activated carbons as mercury sorbents. The sorbents could be injected into the flue gas stream, where they could adsorb the mercury. The sorbents (now containing mercury) would be removed via filtration or other means from the flue gas. Our preliminary work has demonstrated that activated carbon made from poultry manure can adsorb mercury from air with good efficiency. In laboratory experiments, an activated carbon made from turkey cake manure removed the majority of elemental mercury from a hot air stream. Other activated carbons made from chicken and turkey litter manure were also efficient. In general, unwashed activated carbons made from poultry manure were more efficient in removing mercury than their acid-washed counterparts. The results suggest that the adsorption of mercury was mainly due to chemisorption on the surface of the carbon. Other potential uses for the activated carbons are the removal of mercury from air and natural gas.

  6. X-ray Powder Diffraction for Characterization of Raw Materials in Banknotes.

    PubMed

    Marabello, Domenica; Benzi, Paola; Lombardozzi, Antonietta; Strano, Morela

    2017-01-25

    We report about the X-ray powder diffraction characterization of crystalline materials used to produce genuine and counterfeit banknotes, performed with a single-crystal diffractometer that permits fast and nondestructive measurements in different 0.5-mm sized areas; 20-euro denomination genuine banknotes were analyzed, and results were compared with counterfeit banknotes. The analysis shows that the papers used to print real banknotes are composed, as expected, of cotton-based cellulose and titanium dioxide as crystalline additive, but different polymorphs of TiO2 for different emission countries are evidenced. The counterfeit banknotes are composed of cellulose based on wood pulp; moreover, an unexpected significant quantity of TiO2 was found to be mixed with calcite, indicating that the paper employed by forgers is not simply a common low-cost type. The crystalline index and intensity ratios between the peaks attributable to cellulose and fillers can provide additional information to trace back paper suppliers for forensic purposes.

  7. Prospecting for Energy-Rich Renewable Raw Materials: Agave Leaf Case Study.

    PubMed

    Corbin, Kendall R; Byrt, Caitlin S; Bauer, Stefan; DeBolt, Seth; Chambers, Don; Holtum, Joseph A M; Karem, Ghazwan; Henderson, Marilyn; Lahnstein, Jelle; Beahan, Cherie T; Bacic, Antony; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Betts, Natalie S; Burton, Rachel A

    2015-01-01

    Plant biomass from different species is heterogeneous, and this diversity in composition can be mined to identify materials of value to fuel and chemical industries. Agave produces high yields of energy-rich biomass, and the sugar-rich stem tissue has traditionally been used to make alcoholic beverages. Here, the compositions of Agave americana and Agave tequilana leaves are determined, particularly in the context of bioethanol production. Agave leaf cell wall polysaccharide content was characterized by linkage analysis, non-cellulosic polysaccharides such as pectins were observed by immuno-microscopy, and leaf juice composition was determined by liquid chromatography. Agave leaves are fruit-like--rich in moisture, soluble sugars and pectin. The dry leaf fiber was composed of crystalline cellulose (47-50% w/w) and non-cellulosic polysaccharides (16-22% w/w), and whole leaves were low in lignin (9-13% w/w). Of the dry mass of whole Agave leaves, 85-95% consisted of soluble sugars, cellulose, non-cellulosic polysaccharides, lignin, acetate, protein and minerals. Juice pressed from the Agave leaves accounted for 69% of the fresh weight and was rich in glucose and fructose. Hydrolysis of the fructan oligosaccharides doubled the amount of fermentable fructose in A. tequilana leaf juice samples and the concentration of fermentable hexose sugars was 41-48 g/L. In agricultural production systems such as the tequila making, Agave leaves are discarded as waste. Theoretically, up to 4000 L/ha/yr of bioethanol could be produced from juice extracted from waste Agave leaves. Using standard Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains to ferment Agave juice, we observed ethanol yields that were 66% of the theoretical yields. These data indicate that Agave could rival currently used bioethanol feedstocks, particularly if the fermentation organisms and conditions were adapted to suit Agave leaf composition.

  8. Natural radioactivity measurement in pumice samples used raw materials in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Turhan, S; Yücel, H; Gündüz, L; Sahin, S; Vural, M; Parmaksiz, A; Demircioglu, B

    2007-03-01

    The activity concentrations of 232Th, 226Ra, and 40K in different pumice samples have been determined by high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry using a 110% HpGe detector. The radium equivalent activities (Raeq), external hazard index (Hex), and internal hazard index (Hin) associated with the natural radionuclides and representative level index (Igamma r) are calculated to assess the radiation hazard of the natural radioactivity in the pumice samples. The mean values of the measured radioactivity concentrations of 232Th, 226Ra, and 40K for pumice samples from the region of lakes (ROL) are 232.4+/-8.0, 196.9+/-7.8, and 1325.8+/-20.4 Bqkg(-1) and for pumice samples from Cukurova region (CR) 16.3+/-4.0, 16.1+/-4.9, and 479.7+/-170.4 Bqkg(-1), respectively. The calculated Raeq values vary from 435.9+/-12.5 to 883.6+/-41.5 Bqkg(-1) with a mean of 630.9+/-20.2 Bqkg(-1) for the ROL samples and from 49.7+/-3.3 to 101.9+/-7.2 Bqkg(-1) with a mean of 76.3+/-23.7 Bqkg(-1) for the CR samples. For the ROL samples, Raeq are above the limit of 370 Bqkg(-1), equivalent to external gamma dose of 1.5 mSv yr(-1), recommended for the safe use of construction materials by NEA-OECD, while for the CR samples, Raeq values are lower than the limit.

  9. Prospecting for Energy-Rich Renewable Raw Materials: Agave Leaf Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Corbin, Kendall R.; Byrt, Caitlin S.; Bauer, Stefan; DeBolt, Seth; Chambers, Don; Holtum, Joseph A. M.; Karem, Ghazwan; Henderson, Marilyn; Lahnstein, Jelle; Beahan, Cherie T.; Bacic, Antony; Fincher, Geoffrey B.; Betts, Natalie S.; Burton, Rachel A.

    2015-01-01

    Plant biomass from different species is heterogeneous, and this diversity in composition can be mined to identify materials of value to fuel and chemical industries. Agave produces high yields of energy-rich biomass, and the sugar-rich stem tissue has traditionally been used to make alcoholic beverages. Here, the compositions of Agave americana and Agave tequilana leaves are determined, particularly in the context of bioethanol production. Agave leaf cell wall polysaccharide content was characterized by linkage analysis, non-cellulosic polysaccharides such as pectins were observed by immuno-microscopy, and leaf juice composition was determined by liquid chromatography. Agave leaves are fruit-like—rich in moisture, soluble sugars and pectin. The dry leaf fiber was composed of crystalline cellulose (47–50% w/w) and non-cellulosic polysaccharides (16–22% w/w), and whole leaves were low in lignin (9–13% w/w). Of the dry mass of whole Agave leaves, 85–95% consisted of soluble sugars, cellulose, non-cellulosic polysaccharides, lignin, acetate, protein and minerals. Juice pressed from the Agave leaves accounted for 69% of the fresh weight and was rich in glucose and fructose. Hydrolysis of the fructan oligosaccharides doubled the amount of fermentable fructose in A. tequilana leaf juice samples and the concentration of fermentable hexose sugars was 41–48 g/L. In agricultural production systems such as the tequila making, Agave leaves are discarded as waste. Theoretically, up to 4000 L/ha/yr of bioethanol could be produced from juice extracted from waste Agave leaves. Using standard Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains to ferment Agave juice, we observed ethanol yields that were 66% of the theoretical yields. These data indicate that Agave could rival currently used bioethanol feedstocks, particularly if the fermentation organisms and conditions were adapted to suit Agave leaf composition. PMID:26305101

  10. A membrane-integrated fermentation reactor system: its effects in reducing the amount of sub-raw materials for D-lactic acid continuous fermentation by Sporolactobacillus laevolacticus.

    PubMed

    Mimitsuka, Takashi; Na, Kyungsu; Morita, Ken; Sawai, Hideki; Minegishi, Shinichi; Henmi, Masahiro; Yamada, Katsushige; Shimizu, Sakayu; Yonehara, Tetsu

    2012-01-01

    Continuous fermentation by retaining cells with a membrane-integrated fermentation reactor (MFR) system was found to reduce the amount of supplied sub-raw material. If the amount of sub-raw material can be reduced, continuous fermentation with the MFR system should become a more attractive process for industrialization, due to decreased material costs and loads during the refinement process. Our findings indicate that the production rate decreased when the amount of the sub-raw material was reduced in batch fermentation, but did not decrease during continuous fermentation with Sporolactobacillus laevolacticus. Moreover, continuous fermentation with a reduced amount of sub-raw material resulted in a productivity of 11.2 g/L/h over 800 h. In addition, the index of industrial process applicability used in the MFR system increased by 6.3-fold as compared with the conventional membrane-based fermentation reactor previously reported, suggesting a potential for the industrialization of this D-lactic acid continuous fermentation process.

  11. Neutron activation analysis of sources of raw material of Emperor Qin Shi Huang's Terracotta Warriors and Horses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhengyao; Zhao, Weijuan; Li, Guoxia; Xie, Jianzhong; Han, Guohe; Feng, Songlin; Fan, Dongyu; Zhang, Ying; Chai, Zhifang; Li, Rongwu; Zhang, Zhongli; Zhu, Junxiao

    2003-02-01

    There have been selected 83 samples of terracotta warriors and horses of Emperor Qin Shi Huang’s Mausoleum, 20 samples of clays taken from around Qin’s Mausoleum and 2 samples of Yaozhou porcelain bodies. All these samples have been measured by instrument neutron activation analysis (INAA) and as many as 32 kinds of element contents of each sample are measured. The following conclusion has been reached when fuzzy cluster analysis is conducted to element contents of all these samples: (i) The samples are roughly classified into five categories: namely, samples from pits No. 1 and No. 2; samples from pit No. 3; loam layers; the mixture of loam and loess; and Yaozhou porcelain bodies. (ii) The terracotta warriors and horses in pits No. 1, No. 2 and No. 3 are relatively independent from one another. The clays from which they were made are not entirely identical. We have found that samples in pit No. 3 are very closely related and their clay sources are comparatively concentrated. Samples in pits No. 1 and No. 2 are less related and their clay sources are comparatively scattered. (iii) The clays from which the terracotta warriors and horses were made are closely related to the loam layer near Qin’s Mausoleum, particularly to the loam layer of Zaoyuan village and Gaoxing village, but they are not so related to loess layers there, nor to the loam layers of Anhoubao, even less related to Yaozhou porcelain bodies. A rational deduction thus drawn is that the raw material of clays from which the terracotta warriors and horses were made might probably be taken from loam layers around Zaoyuan and Gaoxing, or loam layers near Qin’s Mausoleum whose properties are identical with those of loam layers of Zaoyuan and Gaoxing, rather than loess layers around the above places. Since the raw material of the terracotta warriors and horses was taken from loam near Qin’s Mausoleum, it could be deducted that the kiln sites might be located in around Qin’s Mausoleum.

  12. Metabolic Noise, Vestigial Metabolites or the Raw Material of Ecological Adaptation? Opportunitistic Enzymes, Catalytic Promiscuity and the Evolution of chemodiversity in Nature (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    Noel, Joseph

    2016-07-12

    Joseph Noel from the Salk Institute on "Metabolic Noise, Vestigial Metabolites or the Raw Material of Ecological Adaptation? Enzymes, Catalytic Promiscuity and the Evolution of Chemodiversity in Nature" on March 26, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  13. Transfer of aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1 from naturally contaminated raw materials to beer during an industrial brewing process.

    PubMed

    Pietri, A; Bertuzzi, T; Agosti, B; Donadini, G

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the fate of aflatoxins (AFs) and fumonisins (FBs) naturally occurring in raw materials (maize grit and malted barley) during four industrial brewing processes. The aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) level in raw materials varied from 0.31 to 14.85 microg kg(-1), while the fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) level (only in maize grit) varied from 1146 to 3194 microg kg(-1). The concentration in finished beer ranged from 0.0015 to 0.022 microg l(-1) for AFB(1) and from 37 to 89 microg l(-1) for FB(1); the other aflatoxins and fumonisin B(2) were not found in beer samples. The average percentage of toxins recovered in finished beer, referring to the amounts contained in raw materials, were 1.5% +/- 0.8% for AFB(1) and 50.7% +/- 4.7% for FB(1). These results were mainly due to the different solubility of the two mycotoxins during the mashing process. If raw materials comply with the limits fixed by European Commission Regulations, the contribution of a moderate daily consumption of beer to AFB(1) and FB(1) intake does not contribute significantly to the exposure of the consumer.

  14. A powerful methodological approach combining headspace solid phase microextraction, mass spectrometry and multivariate analysis for profiling the volatile metabolomic pattern of beer starting raw materials.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, João L; Figueira, José A; Rodrigues, Fátima P; Ornelas, Laura P; Branco, Ricardo N; Silva, Catarina L; Câmara, José S

    2014-10-01

    The volatile metabolomic patterns from different raw materials commonly used in beer production, namely barley, corn and hop-derived products - such as hop pellets, hop essential oil from Saaz variety and tetra-hydro isomerized hop extract (tetra hop), were established using a suitable analytical procedure based on dynamic headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by thermal desorption gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry detection (GC-qMS). Some SPME extraction parameters were optimized. The best results, in terms of maximum signal recorded and number of isolated metabolites, were obtained with a 50/30 μm DVB/CAR/PDMS coating fiber at 40 °C for 30 min. A set of 152 volatile metabolites comprising ketones (27), sesquiterpenes (26), monoterpenes (19), aliphatic esters (19), higher alcohols (15), aldehydes (11), furan compounds (11), aliphatic fatty acids (9), aliphatic hydrocarbons (8), sulphur compounds (5) and nitrogen compounds (2) were positively identified. Each raw material showed a specific volatile metabolomic profile. Monoterpenes in hop essential oil and corn, sesquiterpenes in hop pellets, ketones in tetra hop and aldehydes and sulphur compounds in barley were the predominant chemical families in the targeted beer raw materials. β-Myrcene was the most dominant volatile metabolite in hop essential oil, hop pellets and corn samples while, in barley, the predominant volatile metabolites were dimethyl sulphide and 3-methylbutanal and, in tetra hop, 6-methyl-2-pentanone and 4-methyl-2-pentanone. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed natural sample grouping among beer raw materials.

  15. Metabolic Noise, Vestigial Metabolites or the Raw Material of Ecological Adaptation? Opportunitistic Enzymes, Catalytic Promiscuity and the Evolution of chemodiversity in Nature (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, Joseph

    2010-03-26

    Joseph Noel from the Salk Institute on "Metabolic Noise, Vestigial Metabolites or the Raw Material of Ecological Adaptation? Enzymes, Catalytic Promiscuity and the Evolution of Chemodiversity in Nature" on March 26, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  16. Influence of malting conditions on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) as a raw material for fermented beverages.

    PubMed

    Hassani, Ahmed; Zarnkow, Martin; Becker, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    There has been recently increased interest in sorghum to substitute the gluten containing cereals in the diet of people suffering from celiac disease. The response surface methodology was used to determine the influence of malting parameters (degree of steeping, germination temperature and time) on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). Each parameter was varied at three levels. Malting attributes, considered important to produce high quality malt for the production of lactic acid fermented beverages, were analyzed. The optimized conditions were: degree of steeping 41%, germination temperature 27℃ after 7 days of germination. Under these conditions, the following values of the studied attributes can be obtained: α-amylase 139 U/g, β-amylase 60 U/g, extract 83.8%, free amino nitrogen 117.8 mg/100 g, Kolbach index 26.6%, water-extractable arabinoxylan 0.3 g/L and vitamin B2 114.9 µg/L. Among the tested parameters, the germination time had the highest effect on malting attributes. Although the activity of amylolytic enzymes α- and β-amylase were low, the value of extract was high and comparable to that of barley malt. The obtained results showed that sorghum malt is a promising raw material for the production of lactic acid fermented beverages.

  17. PCR-free quantitative detection of genetically modified organism from raw materials. An electrochemiluminescence-based bio bar code method.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Debin; Tang, Yabing; Xing, Da; Chen, Wei R

    2008-05-15

    A bio bar code assay based on oligonucleotide-modified gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) provides a PCR-free method for quantitative detection of nucleic acid targets. However, the current bio bar code assay requires lengthy experimental procedures including the preparation and release of bar code DNA probes from the target-nanoparticle complex and immobilization and hybridization of the probes for quantification. Herein, we report a novel PCR-free electrochemiluminescence (ECL)-based bio bar code assay for the quantitative detection of genetically modified organism (GMO) from raw materials. It consists of tris-(2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium (TBR)-labeled bar code DNA, nucleic acid hybridization using Au-NPs and biotin-labeled probes, and selective capture of the hybridization complex by streptavidin-coated paramagnetic beads. The detection of target DNA is realized by direct measurement of ECL emission of TBR. It can quantitatively detect target nucleic acids with high speed and sensitivity. This method can be used to quantitatively detect GMO fragments from real GMO products.

  18. About Prospects of Enrichment of Mineral Raw Materials and Chemical Activation of Water Suspensions by Electroexplosive Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordunov, S. V.; Galtseva, O. V.

    2016-01-01

    A series of experiments is conducted on laboratory and pilot-production installation for the application of high-voltage pulsed discharge in the processes of enrichment of goldbearing mineral raw materials with a relatively low energy electrical discharge in the pulse of 120 J. At the same time the conglomerates of clay components are breaking down to micron and submicron sizes completely. Solid minerals such as quartz are simultaneously destroyed by defects and grains and withdrawn from the installation with water, thus increasing degree of enrichment of concentrate. The results of the processing by high-voltage pulsed discharges of building sand from the Ob riverbed are given. Discharge energy is 45 J. Relations of fractions in the original sand and in the sand after electroexplosive process show the uniform crushing of sand particles with splitting off particles with size of less than 0.045 mm. A content of chipped particles is 18%. The results of particle-size and X-ray structural analyses are shown.

  19. Rapid densitometric method for simultaneous analysis of umbelliferone, psoralen, and eugenol in herbal raw materials using HPTLC.

    PubMed

    Dhalwal, Kamlesh; Shinde, Vaibhav M; Mahadik, Kakasaheb R; Namdeo, Ajay G

    2007-08-01

    The term 'phenolics' refers to a vast array of biologically active compounds ubiquitous in plants, many of which have been used in traditional medicine for thousands of years. Umbelliferone, psoralen, and eugenol are widely occurring phenolic compounds of plant origin, for which many biological activities against chronic diseases have been reported. A simple HPTLC method has been developed for the simultaneous quantification of umbelliferone, psoralen, and eugenol. These three compounds were quantified in the dried fruit pulp of Aegle marmelos and in the fruit of Trachyspermum ammi and Foeniculam vulgare. The technique enables rapid and sensitive simultaneous analysis in different samples. The method was validated for precision, repeatability, and accuracy in accordance with ICH guidelines. The accuracy of the method was checked by a recovery study conducted at three different levels and the average percentage recovery was found to be 98.88% for umbelliferone, 100.104% for psoralen, and 99.33% for eugenol. The proposed HPTLC method for the simultaneous quantification of umbelliferone, psoralen, and eugenol was found to be simple, precise, specific, sensitive, and accurate. It can be used for routine quality control of herbal raw materials as well as formulations containing any or all of these compounds.

  20. Laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for direct profiling and imaging of small molecules from raw biological materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, Sangwon

    2008-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization(MALDI) mass spectrometry(MS) has been widely used for analysis of biological molecules, especially macromolecules such as proteins. However, MALDI MS has a problem in small molecule (less than 1 kDa) analysis because of the signal saturation by organic matrixes in the low mass region. In imaging MS (IMS), inhomogeneous surface formation due to the co-crystallization process by organic MALDI matrixes limits the spatial resolution of the mass spectral image. Therefore, to make laser desorption/ionization (LDI) MS more suitable for mass spectral profiling and imaging of small molecules directly from raw biological tissues, LDI MS protocols with various alternative assisting materials were developed and applied to many biological systems of interest. Colloidal graphite was used as a matrix for IMS of small molecules for the first time and methodologies for analyses of small metabolites in rat brain tissues, fruits, and plant tissues were developed. With rat brain tissues, the signal enhancement for cerebroside species by colloidal graphite was observed and images of cerebrosides were successfully generated by IMS. In addition, separation of isobaric lipid ions was performed by imaging tandem MS. Directly from Arabidopsis flowers, flavonoids were successfully profiled and heterogeneous distribution of flavonoids in petals was observed for the first time by graphite-assisted LDI(GALDI) IMS.

  1. Mycotoxin occurrence in feed and feed raw materials worldwide: long-term analysis with special focus on Europe and Asia.

    PubMed

    Streit, Elisabeth; Naehrer, Karin; Rodrigues, Inês; Schatzmayr, Gerd

    2013-09-01

    During an 8-year period, 17 316 samples of feed and feed raw materials from all over the world were analysed for contamination with aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol and fumonisins. Overall, 72% of the samples tested positive for at least one mycotoxin and 38% were found to be co-contaminated. Mycotoxin concentrations were generally low and the majority of the samples were compliant with the most stringent EU guidance values or maximum levels for mycotoxins in feed. However, in their present state these regulations do not address co-contamination and associated risks. Long-term trends are difficult to establish as strong yearly variations were observed regarding mycotoxin prevalence and contamination levels. In some cases unusual weather conditions can be linked with high observed mycotoxin loads. An exception to this rule is South-East Asia, where a steady increase of aflatoxin prevalence has been observed. The percentage of aflatoxin-positive samples in this region rose from 32% in 2005 to 71% in 2011.

  2. Lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production from waste activated bleaching earth as raw material in a pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Park, Enoch Y; Sato, Masayasu; Kojima, Seiji

    2008-05-01

    The production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) from waste activated bleaching earth (ABE) discarded by the crude oil refining industry using lipase from Candida cylindracea was investigated in a 50-L pilot plant. Diesel oil or kerosene was used as an organic solvent for the transesterification of triglycerides embedded in the waste ABE. When 1% (w/w) lipase was added to waste ABE, the FAME content reached 97% (w/w) after reaction for 12 h at 25 degrees C with an agitation rate of 30 rpm. The FAME production rate was strongly dependent upon the amount of enzyme added. Mixtures of FAME and diesel oil at ratios of 45:55 (BDF-45) and 35:65 (BDF-35) were assessed and compared with the European specifications for biodiesel as automotive diesel fuel, as defined by pr EN 14214. The biodiesel quality of BDF-45 met the EN 14214 standard. BDF-45 was used as generator fuel, and the exhaust emissions were compared with those of diesel oil. The CO and SO2 contents were reduced, but nitrogen oxide emission increased by 10%. This is the first report of a pilot plant study of lipase-catalyzed FAME production using waste ABE as a raw material. This result demonstrates a promising reutilization method for the production of FAME from industrial waste resources containing vegetable oils for use as a biodiesel fuel.

  3. The Effect of Micro/Nano-metrics Size on the Interaction of Jordanian Aluminosilicate Raw Materials with High pH Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldabsheh, Islam; Garcia-Valles, Maite; Martinez, Salvador

    2014-05-01

    Environmental preservation has become a driving force behind the search for new sustainable and environmentally friendly composites to replace conventional concrete produced from ordinary Portland cement (OPC). Current researches concentrate on developing building products (geopolymers) through geopolymerization. The goal is to produce low cost construction materials for green housing. Geopolymerization is the process of polymerizing minerals with high silica and alumina at low temperature by the use of alkali solutions. Dissolution is the most important process for supplying the high initial Al and Si concentrations to produce the gel phase that is responsible for geopolymerization. This study has been focused on the influence of different micrometric particle sizes of three Jordanian raw materials on their dissolution behavior in sodium hydroxide solution. The samples are kaolinite, volcanic tuff and silica sand. The dissolution properties of each material, alone and mixed with the other two materials were studied in different concentrations (5 and 10 M) using (NaOH) at 25ºC, and shaking time for 24 and 168 h. To better understand the dissolution process, the alkaline solution was renewed after the desired time in order to know if the Al-Si raw material is completely dissolved or not. Different analytical techniques were used to characterize raw materials physically, mineralogically, chemically and thermally. All processed samples either centrifuged solutions or solid residues were fully characterized. The leached concentrations of Al and Si were determined by inductively coupled plasma (ICP). X-ray Diffraction Technique (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) were used to evaluate the solid residue characterization compared with the original ones. The three aluminosilicate raw materials have indicated variable degrees of solubility under highly alkaline conditions. The method for the size reduction of the used raw

  4. Portable near-infrared instruments: Application for quality control of polymorphs in pharmaceutical raw materials and calibration transfer.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Vitor Hugo; da Silva, Jailson José; Pereira, Claudete Fernandes

    2017-02-05

    This work presents an evaluation of the analytical performance of three different portable near-infrared (NIR) instruments (denominated Port.1, Port.2 and Port.3) for quantifying mebendazole polymorphs (A, B and C) in pharmaceutical raw materials using multivariate calibration models. The performance of the portable instruments was compared with a benchtop one (FT-NIR Frontier spectrometer). In addition, calibration transfer between the benchtop and one of the portable instruments was also performed. For polymorph A, the Port.1 presented the lowest RMSEP value (1.01% w/w) even when compared to the FT-NIR instrument. For polymorphs B and C, the same Port.1 instrument presented RMSEP values of 2.09% w/w and 2.41% w/w, respectively, which were statistically similar to those obtained with the benchtop instrument. The LOD ranges (3.9-5.5 for polymorph A, 3.6-5.1 for polymorph B and 5.7-7.7 for polymorph C) obtained with the Port.1 was higher than those achieved with the benchtop NIR instrument, with high spectral resolution, signal-to-noise ratio and better wavelength reproducibility. Calibration transfer was performed between the benchtop NIR and Port.1 instruments. According to the results, the transferability of models is possible. The results obtained for complete recalibration of the portable instrument and those for the benchtop are comparable. The methods developed demonstrated a flexible, easy, cheap and fast way for quality control of MBZ polymorphs in incoming material, mainly in pharmaceutical laboratory chains.

  5. Determination of coenzyme Q10 content in raw materials and dietary supplements by high-performance liquid chromatography-UV: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Lunetta, Steven; Roman, Mark

    2008-01-01

    An international collaborative study was conducted of a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC)-UV method for the determination of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, ubidecarenone) in raw materials and dietary supplements. Ten collaborating laboratories determined the total CoQ10 content in 8 blind duplicate samples. Sample materials included CoQ10 raw material and 4 finished product dietary supplements representing softgels, hardshell gelatin capsules, and chewable wafers. In addition, collaborating laboratories received a negative control and negative control spiked with CoQ10 at low and high levels to determine recovery. Materials were extracted with an acetonitrile-tetrahydrofuran-water mixture. Ferric chloride was added to the test solutions to ensure all CoQ10 was in the oxidized form. The HPLC analyses were performed on a C18 column using UV detection at 275 nm. Repeatability relative standard deviations (RSDr) ranged from 0.94 to 5.05%. Reproducibility relative standard deviations (RSDR) ranged from 3.08 to 17.1%, with HorRat values ranging from 1.26 to 5.17. Recoveries ranged from 74.0 to 115%. Based on these results, the method is recommended for Official First Action for determination of CoQ10 in raw materials and dietary supplement finished products containing CoQ10 at a concentration of >100 mg CoQ10/g test material.

  6. 78 FR 13766 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Changes to Time-and-Materials and Labor-Hour Contracts and Orders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... 52 RIN 9000-AM28 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Changes to Time-and-Materials and Labor-Hour... raising the ceiling price or otherwise changing the scope of work for a time-and-materials (T&M) or labor... summarized as follows: In finalizing FAR rule 2009-043 Time-and-Materials and Labor- Hour Contracts...

  7. Investigation of Usability as Industrial Raw Material of Olivine Occurrences: A Case Study from Gelendost - Isparta, Southwestern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cengiz, Oya; Kurşunluoğlu, Mustafa

    2016-10-01

    Olivine occurrences are located in the northwest of Madenli and Eğirler villages in Gelendost-Isparta, Southwestern Turkey. The aim of this study is to investigate usability as an industrial raw material of olivine formations in the peridotite. For this purpose, geological, mineralogical and geochemical properties of olivine-rich rocks outcropping in the field were examined. Allochthonous units belonging to Beyşehir-Hoyran Nappes are formed in the Upper Eocene settlement aged Şarkikaraağaç Ophiolites, the Upper Cretaceous Eğirler Formation that contains wild flysch, and the Upper Triassic Deliktaş Formation that consists of recrystallized massive limestone. The Anamas-Akseki Autochthonous units are the Jurassic-Cretaceous Hacıalabaz formation, which consists of dolomite and limestone, the Neogene deposits and the Quaternary alluvium. Harzburgite and dunite are observed in peridotite at the bottom of Şarkikaraağaç Ophiolite. They are dominant rocks of olivine occurrences in the field and include mainly olivine, enstatite, stockwork and vein magnesite, and locally chromite. The concentrations of major oxides for harzburgite samples vary between 41.98 and 44.59% SiO2, between 41.32 to 45.74% MgO, and between 8.75 and 9.82% Fe2O3. The samples ranged from 0.1-4.50% loss on ignition of significance for their usability. Major oxide contents and loss on ignition values of olivine-rich harzburgite samples in the study area partly comply with the standard values that have been determined to be suitable for usage in industry. Consequently, olivine occurrences in the study area are used as olivine sand in industry.

  8. The thermal transformation of Man Made Vitreous Fibers (MMVF) and safe recycling as secondary raw materials (SRM).

    PubMed

    Gualtieri, A F; Foresti, E; Lesci, I G; Roveri, N; Gualtieri, M Lassinantti; Dondi, M; Zapparoli, M

    2009-03-15

    This work describes the high temperature reaction sequence of commercial Man Made Vitreous Fibers (MMVF) Cerafiber, Superwool, Rock wool and Glass wool which may be used as substitute for asbestos in some industrial applications. Knowledge of the reaction path and transformation sequence is very important to assess whether carcinogenic crystalline phases are formed during devitrification, which may occur when used as insulators. In addition, knowledge about the nature of the phases formed at high temperature is mandatory to assess if thermally transformed MMVF can be safely recycled as secondary raw material (SRM). In this scenario, this study provides useful information for the optimization of the industrial annealing process aimed to attain a safe, recyclable product. The results of this work show that one of the high-temperature products of Cerafiber and Superwool is cristobalite which is classified as a carcinogenic. It was possible to define the temperature interval at which Cerafiber and Superwool fibers can be safely used as thermal insulators (e.g. insulators in tunnel and/or roller kilns, etc.). As cristobalite is formed in both synthetic fiber products at temperatures higher than 1200 degrees C, their use should be limited to devices operating at lower temperatures. Rock and Glass wool melt upon thermal treatment. As far as the industrial process of inertization is concerned, a maximum firing temperature of 1100 and 600 degrees C is required to melt Rock wool and Glass wool, respectively, with the high-temperature products that can be safely recycled as SRM. Recycling of these products in stoneware tile mixtures were subsequently attempted. The addition of 1-2 wt.% of the melts of Rock and Glass wool gave promising results in terms of viscous sintering reactions and resistance to staining with the only weak characteristic being the color properties of the fired bodies which tend to worsen.

  9. Sustainable Sourcing of Global Agricultural Raw Materials: Assessing Gaps in Key Impact and Vulnerability Issues and Indicators.

    PubMed

    Springer, Nathaniel P; Garbach, Kelly; Guillozet, Kathleen; Haden, Van R; Hedao, Prashant; Hollander, Allan D; Huber, Patrick R; Ingersoll, Christina; Langner, Megan; Lipari, Genevieve; Mohammadi, Yaser; Musker, Ruthie; Piatto, Marina; Riggle, Courtney; Schweisguth, Melissa; Sin, Emily; Snider, Sara; Vidic, Nataša; White, Aubrey; Brodt, Sonja; Quinn, James F; Tomich, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how to source agricultural raw materials sustainably is challenging in today's globalized food system given the variety of issues to be considered and the multitude of suggested indicators for representing these issues. Furthermore, stakeholders in the global food system both impact these issues and are themselves vulnerable to these issues, an important duality that is often implied but not explicitly described. The attention given to these issues and conceptual frameworks varies greatly--depending largely on the stakeholder perspective--as does the set of indicators developed to measure them. To better structure these complex relationships and assess any gaps, we collate a comprehensive list of sustainability issues and a database of sustainability indicators to represent them. To assure a breadth of inclusion, the issues are pulled from the following three perspectives: major global sustainability assessments, sustainability communications from global food companies, and conceptual frameworks of sustainable livelihoods from academic publications. These terms are integrated across perspectives using a common vocabulary, classified by their relevance to impacts and vulnerabilities, and categorized into groups by economic, environmental, physical, human, social, and political characteristics. These issues are then associated with over 2,000 sustainability indicators gathered from existing sources. A gap analysis is then performed to determine if particular issues and issue groups are over or underrepresented. This process results in 44 "integrated" issues--24 impact issues and 36 vulnerability issues--that are composed of 318 "component" issues. The gap analysis shows that although every integrated issue is mentioned at least 40% of the time across perspectives, no issue is mentioned more than 70% of the time. A few issues infrequently mentioned across perspectives also have relatively few indicators available to fully represent them. Issues in the

  10. Sustainable Sourcing of Global Agricultural Raw Materials: Assessing Gaps in Key Impact and Vulnerability Issues and Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Nathaniel P.; Garbach, Kelly; Guillozet, Kathleen; Haden, Van R.; Hedao, Prashant; Hollander, Allan D.; Huber, Patrick R.; Ingersoll, Christina; Langner, Megan; Lipari, Genevieve; Mohammadi, Yaser; Musker, Ruthie; Piatto, Marina; Riggle, Courtney; Schweisguth, Melissa; Sin, Emily; Snider, Sara; Vidic, Nataša; White, Aubrey; Brodt, Sonja; Quinn, James F.; Tomich, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how to source agricultural raw materials sustainably is challenging in today’s globalized food system given the variety of issues to be considered and the multitude of suggested indicators for representing these issues. Furthermore, stakeholders in the global food system both impact these issues and are themselves vulnerable to these issues, an important duality that is often implied but not explicitly described. The attention given to these issues and conceptual frameworks varies greatly—depending largely on the stakeholder perspective—as does the set of indicators developed to measure them. To better structure these complex relationships and assess any gaps, we collate a comprehensive list of sustainability issues and a database of sustainability indicators to represent them. To assure a breadth of inclusion, the issues are pulled from the following three perspectives: major global sustainability assessments, sustainability communications from global food companies, and conceptual frameworks of sustainable livelihoods from academic publications. These terms are integrated across perspectives using a common vocabulary, classified by their relevance to impacts and vulnerabilities, and categorized into groups by economic, environmental, physical, human, social, and political characteristics. These issues are then associated with over 2,000 sustainability indicators gathered from existing sources. A gap analysis is then performed to determine if particular issues and issue groups are over or underrepresented. This process results in 44 “integrated” issues—24 impact issues and 36 vulnerability issues —that are composed of 318 “component” issues. The gap analysis shows that although every integrated issue is mentioned at least 40% of the time across perspectives, no issue is mentioned more than 70% of the time. A few issues infrequently mentioned across perspectives also have relatively few indicators available to fully represent them

  11. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from aqueous solution by raw and modified plant residue materials as biosorbents.

    PubMed

    Xi, Zemin; Chen, Baoliang

    2014-04-01

    Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), e.g., naphthalene, acenaphthene, phenanthrene and pyrene, from aqueous solution by raw and modified plant residues was investigated to develop low cost biosorbents for organic pollutant abatement. Bamboo wood, pine wood, pine needles and pine bark were selected as plant residues, and acid hydrolysis was used as an easily modification method. The raw and modified biosorbents were characterized by elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The sorption isotherms of PAHs to raw biosorbents were apparently linear, and were dominated by a partitioning process. In comparison, the isotherms of the hydrolyzed biosorbents displayed nonlinearity, which was controlled by partitioning and the specific interaction mechanism. The sorption kinetic curves of PAHs to the raw and modified plant residues fit well with the pseudo second-order kinetics model. The sorption rates were faster for the raw biosorbents than the corresponding hydrolyzed biosorbents, which was attributed to the latter having more condensed domains (i.e., exposed aromatic core). By the consumption of the amorphous cellulose component under acid hydrolysis, the sorption capability of the hydrolyzed biosorbents was notably enhanced, i.e., 6-18 fold for phenanthrene, 6-8 fold for naphthalene and pyrene and 5-8 fold for acenaphthene. The sorption coefficients (Kd) were negatively correlated with the polarity index [(O+N)/C], and positively correlated with the aromaticity of the biosorbents. For a given biosorbent, a positive linear correlation between logKoc and logKow for different PAHs was observed. Interestingly, the linear plots of logKoc-logKow were parallel for different biosorbents. These observations suggest that the raw and modified plant residues have great potential as biosorbents to remove PAHs from wastewater.

  12. Investigation of the mineral components of porcelain raw material and their phase evolution during a firing process by using a Rietveld quantitative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jaegyeom; Heo, Eunae; Kim, Seung-Joo; Kim, Jong-Young

    2016-01-01

    A ceramic raw material for white porcelain and its phase evolution during a firing process were investigated by using Rietveld method based on powder X-ray diffraction data. The raw material was mainly composed of five mineral phases: quartz (SiO2), microcline (KAlSi3O8), albite (NaAlSi3O8), muscovite (KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2), and kaolinite (Al2Si2O5(OH)4). The amount of each mineral phase could be determined by using Rietveld quantitative phase analyses. During the firing process, the microcline, albite, muscovite and kaolinite phases started to react with each other to produce the mullite phase embedded in an amorphous matrix. The amount of quartz remained nearly unchanged until a temperature above 1200 °C; then, it converted to an amorphous phase at higher temperatures.

  13. Determination of hydrastine and berberine in goldenseal raw materials, extracts, and dietary supplements by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Brown, Paula N; Roman, Mark C

    2008-01-01

    A multilaboratory collaborative study was conducted on a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method utilizing UV detection, previously validated using AOAC single-laboratory validation guidelines for determination of hydrastine and berberine in goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis L.) raw materials, extracts, and dietary supplements at levels ranging from 0.4 to 6% (w/w). Nine collaborating laboratories determined the hydrastine and berberine content in 8 blind samples. Sample materials included powdered botanical raw materials, whole root material, and 4 finished product dietary supplements containing either goldenseal powdered root material or extract. The materials were extracted with an acidified water and acetonitrile solution. HPLC analyses of the extracts were performed on a C18 column using UV detection at 230 nm. Results for powdered root material and capsule products ranged from about 0.2% (w/w) for each alkaloid to about 4% (w/w) for each alkaloid. Liquid tincture results were approximately 4000-5000 microg/mL for each alkaloid. Reproducibility relative standard deviations (RSDR) for hydrastine ranged from 2.68 to 6.65%, with HorRat values ranging from 0.77 to 1.89. RSDR for berberine ranged from 5.66 to 7.68%, with HorRat values ranging from 1.32 to 2.12. All finished products containing goldenseal extract yielded HorRat values <2.0. Based on these results, the method is recommended for Official First Action for determination of hydrastine and berberine in goldenseal raw materials and dietary supplement finished products containing powdered goldenseal and goldenseal extract.

  14. Multiscale Modeling of the Effects of Salt and Perfume Raw Materials on the Rheological Properties of Commercial Threadlike Micellar Solutions.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xueming; Zou, Weizhong; Koenig, Peter H; McConaughy, Shawn D; Weaver, Mike R; Eike, David M; Schmidt, Michael J; Larson, Ronald G

    2017-03-23

    We link micellar structures to their rheological properties for two surfactant body-wash formulations at various concentrations of salts and perfume raw materials (PRMs) using molecular simulations and micellar-scale modeling, as well as traditional surfactant packing arguments. The two body washes, namely, BW-1EO and BW-3EO, are composed of sodium lauryl ethylene glycol ether sulfate (SLEnS, where n is the average number of ethylene glycol repeat units), cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB), ACCORD (which is a mixture of six PRMs), and NaCl salt. BW-3EO is an SLE3S-based body wash, whereas BW-1EO is an SLE1S-based body wash. Additional PRMs are also added into the body washes. The effects of temperature, salt, and added PRMs on micellar lengths, breakage times, end-cap free energies, and other properties are obtained from fits of the rheological data to predictions of the "Pointer Algorithm" [ Zou , W. ; Larson , R.G. J. Rheol. 2014 , 58 , 1 - 41 ], which is a simulation method based on the Cates model of micellar dynamics. Changes in these micellar properties are interpreted using the Israelachvili surfactant packing argument. From coarse-grained molecular simulations, we infer how salt modifies the micellar properties by changing the packing between the surfactant head groups, with the micellar radius remaining nearly constant. PRMs do so by partitioning to different locations within the micelles according to their octanol/water partition coefficient POW and chemical structures, adjusting the packing of the head and/or tail groups, and by changing the micelle radius, in the case of a large hydrophobic PRM. We find that relatively hydrophilic PRMs with log POW < 2 partition primarily to the head group region and shrink micellar length, decreasing viscosity substantially, whereas more hydrophobic PRMs, with log POW between 2 and 4, mix with the hydrophobic surfactant tails within the micellar core and slightly enhance the viscosity and micelle length, which is

  15. 48 CFR 952.245-5 - Government property (cost-reimbursement, time-and-materials, or labor-hour contracts.)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Provisions and Clauses 952.245-5 Government property (cost-reimbursement, time-and-materials, or labor-hour... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Government property (cost-reimbursement, time-and-materials, or labor-hour contracts.) 952.245-5 Section 952.245-5 Federal...

  16. 48 CFR 952.245-5 - Government property (cost-reimbursement, time-and-materials, or labor-hour contracts.)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Provisions and Clauses 952.245-5 Government property (cost-reimbursement, time-and-materials, or labor-hour... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Government property (cost-reimbursement, time-and-materials, or labor-hour contracts.) 952.245-5 Section 952.245-5 Federal...

  17. 48 CFR 952.245-5 - Government property (cost-reimbursement, time-and-materials, or labor-hour contracts.)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Provisions and Clauses 952.245-5 Government property (cost-reimbursement, time-and-materials, or labor-hour... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Government property (cost-reimbursement, time-and-materials, or labor-hour contracts.) 952.245-5 Section 952.245-5 Federal...

  18. 48 CFR 952.245-5 - Government property (cost-reimbursement, time-and-materials, or labor-hour contracts.)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Provisions and Clauses 952.245-5 Government property (cost-reimbursement, time-and-materials, or labor-hour... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government property (cost-reimbursement, time-and-materials, or labor-hour contracts.) 952.245-5 Section 952.245-5 Federal...

  19. 48 CFR 952.245-5 - Government property (cost-reimbursement, time-and-materials, or labor-hour contracts.)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Provisions and Clauses 952.245-5 Government property (cost-reimbursement, time-and-materials, or labor-hour... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Government property (cost-reimbursement, time-and-materials, or labor-hour contracts.) 952.245-5 Section 952.245-5 Federal...

  20. Optimization of substrate preparation for oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) cultivation by studying different raw materials and substrate preparation conditions (composting: phases I and II).

    PubMed

    Vieira, Fabrício Rocha; de Andrade, Meire Cristina Nogueira

    2016-11-01

    In recent years, oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) has become one of the most cultivated mushrooms in the world, mainly in Brazil. Among many factors involved in a mushroom production, substrate preparation is the most critical step, which can be influenced by composting management techniques. Looking forward to optimizing the substrate preparation process, were tested different composting conditions (7 and 14 days of composting with or without conditioning), potential raw materials (decumbens grass, brizantha grass and sugarcane straw) and nitrogen supplementation (with or without wheat bran) on oyster mushroom yield and biological efficiency (BE). The substrate composted for 7 days with conditioning showed higher yield and biological efficiency of mushroom (24.04 and 100.54 %, respectively). Substrates without conditioning (7 and 14 days of composting) showed smaller mushroom yield and biological efficiency. Among the raw materials tested, brizantha grass showed higher mushroom yield followed by decumbens grass, sugarcane straw and wheat straw (28.5, 24.32, 23.5 and 19.27 %, respectively). Brizantha grass also showed higher biological efficiency followed by sugarcane straw, decumbens grass and wheat straw (123.95, 103.70, 96.90 and 86.44 %, respectively). Supplementation with wheat bran improved yield and biological efficiency in all substrate formulations tested; thus, oyster mushroom yield and biological efficiency were influenced by substrate formulation (raw materials), supplementation and composting conditions.

  1. Analysis of chlorthalidone polymorphs in raw materials and tablets and the effect of forms I and II on the dissolution properties of drug products.

    PubMed

    Bonfilio, Rudy; Leal, Jockastta S; Santos, Olímpia M M; Pereira, Gislaine R; Doriguetto, Antônio C; de Araújo, Magali B

    2014-01-01

    Chlorthalidone (CTD) is an antihypertensive drug and exhibits four crystalline forms: I, II, III and IV. In this paper, the incidence of CTD polymorphs in raw materials and in tablets as well as the solubility and dissolution properties of forms I and II have been studied. Raw materials were named as A, B, C, D, and E and tablets as Reference, G1, G2 and S. Using powder X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy analyses we found that A, B, E, Reference and G1 contain CTD form I; C, D and S contain predominantly form II; and G2 contain a mixture of both forms. Solubility experiments showed that form II is up to 49% more soluble than form I and dissolution studies showed a significantly effect of the polymorphism on the dissolution of CTD from tablets. Based on these results, it was concluded that only the CTD form I is acceptable for preparation of tablet form. Moreover, we proposed the polymorphic quality control of CTD raw materials and tablets.

  2. Strategy to Overcome Effect of Raw Materials on Enzymatic Process of Biodiesel from Non-edible Oils Using Candida sp. 99-125 Lipase.

    PubMed

    Nie, Kaili; Wang, Fang; Tan, Tianwei; Liu, Luo

    2015-11-01

    Non-edible oils are preferred raw materials for biodiesel production. However, the properties of raw materials significantly affect the synthesis process, leading to difficulties to design one process suitable for any kind of raw material. In this study, the composition of five typical non-edible oils was analyzed. The major difference was the content of free fatty acids, reflected from their acid values. The influence of different oils was investigated by using lipase from Candida sp. 99-125. At low lipase dosage and low water content, the conversion was found proportional to the acid value. However, by increasing the water content or lipase dosage, we observed that the conversions for all kinds of oils used in this study could exceed 80%. Time course analysis indicates that the lipase used in this study catalyzed hydrolysis followed by esterification, rather than direct transesterification. Accumulation of free fatty acids at the very beginning was necessary. A high water content facilitated the hydrolysis of oils with low acid value. This lipase showed capability to transform all the oils by controlling the water content.

  3. Present investigations of radioactive raw materials by the Geological Survey and a recommended program for future work

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, A.P.; Stead, F.W.

    1947-01-01

    The Geological Survey's program of investigation of radioactive raw materials is presented herewith under present investigations, plans for future investigations, plan of operation, and cost of operation. This report was prepared at the request of the Atomic Energy Commission. Present investigations are summarized to show the scope of the present Trace Elements program, grouping individual projects into related types of investigations. Plans for future investigations on an expanded scale are outlined. These should provide sufficient data and knowledge of the occurrence and availability of uranium, thorium, and related elements, to permit a more complete evaluation of domestic resources. Reconnaissance projects are designed to discover possible new sources of uranium and thorium and to select areas and materials warranting further investigation. Typical projects leading to the estimation of reserves are the investigation of the carnotite ores of the Colorado Plateau by geologic mapping, exploratory drilling, and related research, and investigation of asphaltic sandstone in Emery County, Utah. Extensive research will be undertaken to establish the principles governing the geological and geochemical relations of uranium, thorium, and associated elements as an essential guide in appraising domestic resources. Particular emphasis will be placed on phosphatic rocks and black shales which offer ultimate resources of uranium far greater than carnotite ores. All the foregoing investigations will be accompanied by chemical, gephysical, and mineralogical research and analytical work. Under plan of operation is discussed the organization of the Trace Elements Unit, space requirements for laboratory and office, the scheduling of investigations, and other related problems. The proposed scheduling of work calls for approximately 109, 173, and 203 man years in fiscal years 1948, 1949, and 1950 respectively. Definite plans have been formulated only for the next three fiscal years

  4. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry based fingerprinting analysis and mass profiling of Euterpe oleracea (açaí) dietary supplement raw materials.

    PubMed

    Mulabagal, Vanisree; Calderón, Angela I

    2012-09-15

    Chemical fingerprinting and mass profiling methods to identify biologically active compounds in botanical dietary supplements is gaining much attention in recent years. Euterpe oleracea (açaí) has been reported to be rich in health-beneficial chemical constituents. We have developed LC/MS based fingerprinting and mass profiling methods to identify fatty acids, anthocyanins and non-anthocyanin polyphenols in three processed raw materials; non-organic açaí powder (ADSR-1), raw-organic açaí powder (ADSR-2) and freeze-dried açaí powder (ADSR-3) that are used in the preparation of botanical dietary supplements. For LC/MS analysis of fatty acids and non-anthocyanin polyphenols, the açaí samples were extracted sequentially with dichloromethane followed by methanol. To study fingerprinting analysis of anthocyanins, açaí samples were extracted with acidic methanol-water. The LC separation of fatty acids, non-anthocyanin polyphenols and anthocyanins in açaí raw materials was achieved using a C18 column with a gradient mobile phase consisting of solvents A (0.1% formic acid in water), and B (0.1% formic acid in methanol). MS experiments were carried out with negative and positive mode electrospray ionization. LC/MS analysis of dichloromethane extracts of (ADSR-1), (ADSR-2) and (ADSR-3) açaí powders have shown to contain fatty acids, γ-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, palmitic acid, and oleic acid. Whereas, the fingerprinting analysis of methanol extracts of ADSR-1, ADSR-2 and ADSR-3 led to the identification of phenolic acids, anthocyanin and non-anthocyanin polyphenols. The results from our study may be useful for the authentication and quality assessment of açaí dietary supplement raw materials.

  5. Estimating raw material equivalents on a macro-level: comparison of multi-regional input-output analysis and hybrid LCI-IO.

    PubMed

    Schoer, Karl; Wood, Richard; Arto, Iñaki; Weinzettel, Jan

    2013-12-17

    The mass of material consumed by a population has become a useful proxy for measuring environmental pressure. The "raw material equivalents" (RME) metric of material consumption addresses the issue of including the full supply chain (including imports) when calculating national or product level material impacts. The RME calculation suffers from data availability, however, as quantitative data on production practices along the full supply chain (in different regions) is required. Hence, the RME is currently being estimated by three main approaches: (1) assuming domestic technology in foreign economies, (2) utilizing region-specific life-cycle inventories (in a hybrid framework), and (3) utilizing multi-regional input-output (MRIO) analysis to explicitly cover all regions of the supply chain. While the first approach has been shown to give inaccurate results, this paper focuses on the benefits and costs of the latter two approaches. We analyze results from two key (MRIO and hybrid) projects modeling raw material equivalents, adjusting the models in a stepwise manner in order to quantify the effects of individual conceptual elements. We attempt to isolate the MRIO gap, which denotes the quantitative impact of calculating the RME of imports by an MRIO approach instead of the hybrid model, focusing on the RME of EU external trade imports. While, the models give quantitatively similar results, differences become more pronounced when tracking more detailed material flows. We assess the advantages and disadvantages of the two approaches and look forward to ways to further harmonize data and approaches.

  6. [Simultaneous separation and detection of principal component isomer and related substances of raw material drug of ammonium glycyrrhizinate by RP-HPLC and structure confirmation].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan-Yan; Liu, Li-Yan; Han, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Yue-Qiu; Wang, Yan; Shi, Min-Jian

    2013-08-01

    A simple, fast and sensitive analytical method for the simultaneous separation and detection of 18alpha-glycyrrhizinic acid, 18beta-glycyrrhizinic acid, related substance A and related substance B by RP-HPLC and drug quality standard was established. The structures of principal component isomer and related substances of raw material drug of ammonium glycyrrhizinate have been confirmed. Reference European Pharmacopoeia EP7.0 version, British Pharmacopoeia 2012 version, National Drug Standards of China (WS 1-XG-2002), domestic and international interrelated literature were referred to select the composition of mobile phase. The experimental parameters including salt concentration, pH, addition quantities of organic solvent, column temperature and flow rate were optimized. Finally, the assay was conducted on a Durashell-C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) with 0.01 mol x mL(-1) ammonium perchlorate (add ammonia to adjust the pH value to 8.2) -methanol (48 : 52) as mobile phase at the flow rate of 0.8 mL x min(-1), and the detection wavelength was set at 254 nm. The column temperature was 50 degrees C and the injection volume was 10 microL. The MS, NMR, UV and RP-HPLC were used to confirm the structures of principal component isomer and related substances of raw material drug of ammonium glycyrrhizinate. Under the optimized separation conditions, the calibration curves of 18 alpha-glycyrrhizinic acid, 18beta-glycyrrhizinic acid, related substance A and related substance B showed good linearity within the concentration of 0.50-100 microg x mL(-1) (r = 0.999 9). The detection limits for 18alpha-glycyrrhizinic acid, 18beta-glycyrrhizinic acid, related substance A and related substance B were 0.15, 0.10, 0.10, 0.15 microg x mL(-1) respectively. The method is sensitive, reproducible and the results are accurate and reliable. It can be used for chiral resolution of 18alpha-glycyrrhizinic acid, 18Pbeta-glycyrrhizinic acid, and detection content of principal component and

  7. Determination of major phenolic compounds in Echinacea spp. raw materials and finished products by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection: single-laboratory validation matrix extension.

    PubMed

    Brown, Paula N; Chan, Michael; Paley, Lori; Betz, Joseph M

    2011-01-01

    A method previously validated to determine caftaric acid, chlorogenic acid, cynarin, echinacoside, and cichoric acid in echinacea raw materials has been successfully applied to dry extract and liquid tincture products in response to North American consumer needs. Single-laboratory validation was used to assess the repeatability, accuracy, selectivity, LOD, LOQ, analyte stability (ruggedness), and linearity of the method, with emphasis on finished products. Repeatability precision for each phenolic compound was between 1.04 and 5.65% RSD, with HorRat values between 0.30 and 1.39 for raw and dry extract finished products. HorRat values for tinctures were between 0.09 and 1.10. Accuracy of the method was determined through spike recovery studies. Recovery of each compound from raw material negative control (ginseng) was between 90 and 114%, while recovery from the finished product negative control (maltodextrin and magnesium stearate) was between 97 and 103%. A study was conducted to determine if cichoric acid, a major phenolic component of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench and E. angustifolia DC, degrades during sample preparation (extraction) and HPLC analysis. No significant degradation was observed over an extended testing period using the validated method.

  8. Determination of Major Phenolic Compounds in Echinacea spp. Raw Materials and Finished Products by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Ultraviolet Detection: Single-Laboratory Validation Matrix Extension

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Paula N.; Chan, Michael; Paley, Lori; Betz, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    A method previously validated to determine caftaric acid, chlorogenic acid, cynarin, echinacoside, and cichoric acid in echinacea raw materials has been successfully applied to dry extract and liquid tincture products in response to North American consumer needs. Single-laboratory validation was used to assess the repeatability, accuracy, selectivity, LOD, LOQ, analyte stability (ruggedness), and linearity of the method, with emphasis on finished products. Repeatability precision for each phenolic compound was between 1.04 and 5.65% RSD, with HorRat values between 0.30 and 1.39 for raw and dry extract finished products. HorRat values for tinctures were between 0.09 and 1.10. Accuracy of the method was determined through spike recovery studies. Recovery of each compound from raw material negative control (ginseng) was between 90 and 114%, while recovery from the finished product negative control (maltodextrin and magnesium stearate) was between 97 and 103%. A study was conducted to determine if cichoric acid, a major phenolic component of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench and E. angustifolia DC, degrades during sample preparation (extraction) and HPLC analysis. No significant degradation was observed over an extended testing period using the validated method. PMID:22165004

  9. Characteristics of a hydrocyclone with raw material input along the central axis: a new design for the separation of coal from heavier materials such as pyritic sulfur. Final report, July 1, 1983-June 30, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, P.K.

    1985-01-01

    The characteristics of a hydrocyclone with raw material input along the central axis were studied. The impetus for this study lies in the need for an economical method to recover the usable coal fines from the many acres of gob piles around old mine sites. The design and flow variables were first identified, and then a dimensional analysis was performed to guide the experiments. Initially, spheres of appropriate densities simulating particles of coal, shale, sandstone and pyrite, for example, were color coded and used to model the solid raw materials. Later, samples of gob were used. Two methods of input of the raw materials were tested: (1) auger or screw feed through a tube extending up through the underflow, and (2) hydraulic feed through a tube extending up through the underflow. The auger did not work as well as expected and consequently this design was discarded. It is anticipated that another disadvantage of the auger feed in continuous operation using gob would be a high rate of wear. The hydraulic feed design, however, proved to be successful in the laboratory and it is believed that feeding the gob hydraulically is feasible in a continuous operation in the field. In regard to whether or not a hydrocyclone with the raw solid material fed centrally along the axis can separate the coal fines from the waste materials with less energy consumption than with a conventional hydrocyclone, the data look encouraging, but more data should be taken than was possible in this project. However, the effect of centrally feeding the raw material into the hydrocyclone was not found to be as pronounced as had been expected. 3 references, 5 figures, 4 tables.

  10. Overview of the ARPA/WL Smart Structures and Materials Development-Smart Wing contract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudva, Jayanth N.; Jardine, A. Peter; Martin, Christopher A.; Appa, Kari

    1996-05-01

    While the concept of an adaptive aircraft wing, i.e., a wing whose shape parameters such as camber, wing twist, and thickness can be varied to optimize the wing shape for various flight conditions, has been extensively studied, the complexity and weight penalty of the actuation mechanisms have precluded their practical implementation. Recent development of sensors and actuators using smart materials could potentially alleviate the shortcomings of prior designs, paving the way for a practical, `smart' adaptive wing which responds to changes in flight and environmental conditions by modifying its shape to provide optimal performance. This paper presents a summary of recent work done on adaptive wing designs under an on-going ARPA/WL contract entitled `Smart Structures and Materials Development--Smart Wing.' Specifically, the design, development and planned wind tunnel testing of a 16% model representative of a fighter aircraft wing and incorporating the following features, are discussed: (1) a composite wing torque box whose span-wise twist can be varied by activating built-in shape memory alloy (SMA) torque tubes to provide increased lift and enhanced maneuverability at multiple flight conditions, (2) trailing edge control surfaces deployed using composite SMA actuators to provide smooth, hingeless aerodynamic surfaces, and (3) a suite of fiber optic sensors integrated into the wing skin which provide real-time strain and pressure data to a feedback control system.

  11. Promoting Effect of Sodium Chloride on the Solubilization and Depolymerization of Cellulose from Raw Biomass Materials in Water.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhicheng; Yi, Jian; Li, Jianmei; He, Ting; Hu, Changwei

    2015-06-08

    The development of a green system to solubilize cellulose from raw biomass is important, yet it is challenging because of the insolubility of cellulose in most solvents. Herein, a green NaCl-H2 O system is developed in which NaCl significantly enhances the dissolution and depolymerisation of cellulose from raw biomass. Nearly all the cellulose in the selected biomass types was dissolved and degraded into oligomers with molecular weights of 200-400 Da under relatively mild conditions. Cl(-) could interact strongly with the end OH group of the glucose unit in a 1:1 ratio, which resulted in the enhanced breaking of both inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonds. In particular, the intermolecular hydrogen bond with an FTIR band at approximately v=3200 cm(-1) was disrupted significantly by Cl(-) . The FTIR band for a hydrogen bond between hemicellulose and lignin might appear at v=1636 cm(-1) , whereas this bond could be almost totally broken under hydrothermal conditions at 220 °C.

  12. Multipronged approach to managing beta-glucan contaminants in the downstream process: control of raw materials and filtration with charge-modified nylon 6,6 membrane filters.

    PubMed

    Gefroh, Eva; Hewig, Art; Vedantham, Ganesh; McClure, Megan; Krivosheyeva, Alla; Lajmi, Ajay; Lu, Yuefeng

    2013-01-01

    (1→3)-β-D-Glucans (beta-glucans) have been found in raw materials used in the manufacture of recombinant therapeutics. Because of their biological activity, beta-glucans are considered process contaminants and consequently their level in the product needs to be controlled. Although beta-glucans introduced into the cell culture process can readily be removed by bind-and-elute chromatography process steps, beta-glucans can also be introduced into the purification process through raw materials containing beta-glucans as well as leachables from filters made from cellulose. This article reports a multipronged approach to managing the beta-glucan contamination in the downstream process. Raw material screening and selection can be used to effectively limit the level of beta-glucan introduced into the downstream process. Placement of a cellulosic filter upstream of the last bind-and-elute column step or effective preuse flushing can also limit the level of contaminant introduced. More importantly, this article reports the active removal of beta-glucan from the downstream process when necessary. It was discovered that the Posidyne(®) filter, a charge-modified nylon 6,6 membrane filter, was able to effectively remove beta-glucans from buffers at relatively low pH and salt concentrations. An approach of using low beta-glucan buffer components combined with filtration of the buffer with a Posidyne membrane has been successfully demonstrated at preparative scale. Additionally, the feasibility of active removal of beta-glucan from in-process product pools by Posidyne membrane filtration has also been demonstrated. Based on the data presented, a mechanism for binding is proposed, as well as a systematic approach for sizing of the Posidyne filter.

  13. Development and validation of a capillary electrophoresis method for determination of enantiomeric purity and related substances of esomeprazole in raw material and pellets.

    PubMed

    Estevez, Pablo; Flor, Sabrina; Boscolo, Oriana; Tripodi, Valeria; Lucangioli, Silvia

    2014-03-01

    A capillary electrophoresis method using CDs for quality control of esomeprazole (ESO) in terms of enantiomeric purity and related substances in raw material and pellets was developed. ESO is the S-enantiomer of omeprazole (OMZ). Several parameters were evaluated, including type and concentration of buffer and CD, concentration of additives and electrolyte pH. Resolution between the enantiomers of OMZ obtained for each parameter tested was calculated and the presence of the main related substance such as OMZ sulfone was carefully monitored. The optimized system consisted of 100 mM Tris-phosphate buffer pH 2.5 with 20 mM 2-hydroxypropyl-β-CD, 1 mM sodium dithionite, temperature at 15°C, voltage at 28 kV, and UV detection at 301 nm. Once optimized, the electrophoretic system was validated according to ICH guidelines. The limits of detection and quantification for R-OMZ were 0.6 μg/mL (0.06% w/w of ESO) and 2.0 μg/mL (0.2% w/w of ESO), respectively. A mean concentration of R-OMZ <0.2% limit established by the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) was found in the raw material and six-pellet samples of ESO. No other impurities were found in the samples under these conditions. Therefore, the developed method was found to be appropriate not only for enantiomeric quality control of ESO but also for the analysis of ESO and the main related substance in raw material and pharmaceutical formulations as well as for stability indicating studies.

  14. A GC-FID validated method for the quality control of Eucalyptus globulus raw material and its pharmaceutical products, and gc-ms fingerprinting of 12 Eucalyptus species.

    PubMed

    Buenoa, Paula Carolina Pires; Junior, Milton Groppo; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp

    2014-12-01

    In this work we have validated a method to standardize and control the quality of Eucalyptus globulus raw material and phytomedicines containing either the essential oil or the fluid extract of this plant in the final formulation. Internal standardization provided a simple, fast, and reproducible GC-FID analytical method that accurately quantified 1,8-cineol in different E. globulus sub-products, such as its essential oil, dried leaves, fluid extract, and syrup. In addition, GC-MS identification of the main compounds ofE. globulus species afforded fingerprints for the qualitative analysis of different Eucalyptus species.

  15. Human plasma-derived material with clonidine displacing substance (CDS)-like properties contracts the isolated rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Synetos, D; Manolopoulos, V G; Atlas, D; Pipili-Synetos, E

    1991-12-01

    1. The biological activity of a plasma-derived, clonidine displacing substance (CDS)-like material was tested on isolated rat aortic rings and compared to that of clonidine, an imidazoline with alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist properties. 2. The CDS-like material was partially purified from expired human blood. This product inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the binding of [3H]-clonidine to rat brain membranes with a ki of 0.87 +/- 0.4 u ml-1, without affecting the binding of the alpha 1-antagonist, [3H]-WB4101. 3. When the CDS-like material (0.14-6 u ml-1) was applied to the bathing medium of isolated rat aortic rings, it caused dose-dependent contractions with an EC50 of 1.0 +/- 0.18 u ml-1. Clonidine also dose-dependently contracted rat aortic rings (EC50, 1.1 +/- 0.24 x 10(-7) M). The maximal tension developed in response to clonidine, however, was higher (1.37 +/- 0.15 g) compared to that developed in response to the CDS-like material (0.92 +/- 0.12 g). 4. Contractions induced by both CDS-like material and clonidine were antagonized by 5 x 10(-7) M rauwolscine, an alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist. Prazosin, an alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist, at 10(-8) M, greatly reduced contractions caused by clonidine while leaving those caused by CDS-like material unaffected. 5. The CDS-like material failed to alter the tension of intact or endothelium-denuded rat aortic rings which had been precontracted with methoxamine. Clonidine on the other hand, caused dose-dependent relaxations in intact, though not in denuded, precontracted rat aortic rings.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Risks and benefits of compost-like materials prepared by the thermal treatment of raw scallop hepatopancreas for supplying cadmium and the growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Ushijima, Kensuke; Fukushima, Masami; Kanno, Shinya; Kanno, Itoko; Ohnishi, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Scallop hepatopancreas, fishery waste, contains relatively high levels of Cd and organic nitrogen compounds, the latter of which represent a fertilizer. In this study, raw scallop hepatopancreas tissue was thermally treated with sawdust and red loam in the presence of an iron catalyst to produce compost-like materials (CLMs). Two CLM samples were prepared by varying the content of raw scallop hepatopancreas tissue: 46 wt.% for CLM-1 and 18 wt.% for CLM-2. Mixtures of control soil (CTL) and CLMs (CLM content: 10 and 25 wt.%) were examined for the growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) to evaluate the risks and benefits of using this material for fertilization. The Cd content in shoots and roots of alfalfa, that were grown in the presence of CLMs, was significantly higher than those for the plants grown in the CTL, indicating that Cd had accumulated in the plants from CLMs. The accumulation of Cd in the alfalfa roots was quite high in the case of the 25% CLM-1 sample. However, alfalfa growth was significantly promoted in the presence of 10% CLM-1. This can be attributed to the higher levels of nitrogen and humic substances, which serve as fertilizer components. Although the fertilization effect in case of CLM-1showed a potential benefit, the accumulation of Cd in alfalfa was clearly increased in the presence of both CLMs. In conclusion, the use of CLMs produced from raw scallop hepatopancreas tissue can be considered to have a desirable benefit from standpoint of its use as fertilizer, but is accompanied by a risk of the accumulation of Cd in alfalfa plants.

  17. Development and validation of a simple method for routine analysis of ractopamine hydrochloride in raw material and feed additives by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Freire, Ellen Figueiredo; Borges, Keyller Bastos; Tanimoto, Hélio; Nogueira, Raquel Tassara; Bertolini, Lucimara Cristiane Toso; de Gaitani, Cristiane Masetto

    2009-01-01

    A simple method was optimized and validated for determination of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) in raw material and feed additives by HPLC for use in quality control in veterinary industries. The best-optimized conditions were a C8 column (250 x 4.6 mm id, 5.0 microm particle size) at room temperature with acetonitrile-100 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.0; 75 + 25, v/v) mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and UV detection at 275 nm. With these conditions, the retention time of RAC was around 5.2 min, and standard curves were linear in the concentration range of 160-240 microg/mL (correlation coefficient > or = 0.999). Validation parameters, such as selectivity, linearity, limit of detection (ranged from 1.60 to 2.05 microg/mL), limit of quantification (ranged from 4.26 to 6.84 microg/mL), precision (relative standard deviation < or = 1.87%), accuracy (ranged from 96.97 to 100.54%), and robustness, gave results within acceptable ranges. Therefore, the developed method can be successfully applied for the routine quality control analysis of raw material and feed additives.

  18. Method for the determination of lycopene in supplements and raw material by reversed-phase liquid chromatography: single-laboratory validation.

    PubMed

    Miller, André; Pietsch, Bernd; Faccin, Nicole; Schierle, Joseph; Waysek, Edward H

    2008-01-01

    A single-laboratory validation study was conducted for a liquid chromatographic (LC) method for the determination of total and all-trans-lycopene in a variety of dietary supplements and raw materials. Gelatin-based and other water-dispersible beadlets, or tablets, capsules, and softgels containing such product forms, were digested with protease. Alginate formulations and the respective applications were treated with an alkaline sodium EDTA acetate buffer to release lycopene from the matrix. Lycopene and other carotenoids were extracted from the resulting aqueous suspensions with dichloromethane and ethanol. Oily product forms were directly dissolved in dichloromethane and ethanol. The extracts were chromatographed on an isocratic high-performance LC system using a C16 alkylamide modified silica column that provided satisfactory resolution of all-trans-lycopene from its predominant cis-isomers and separated the lycopene isomers from other carotenoids such as alpha- and beta-carotene, cryptoxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin. The within-day precision relative standard deviation (RSD) for the determination of total lycopene ranged from 0.9 to 5.7% over concentration ranges of 50-200 g/kg for raw materials and 0.3-24 g/kg for dietary supplements. The intermediate precision RSD (total RSD) ranged from 0.8 to 8.9%. Recoveries obtained for beadlet and tablet material for the different extraction variants ranged from 95.0 to 102.1% at levels of 0.02-20 g/kg for tablets and from 95.0 to 101.1% at levels of 1-200 g/kg for beadlet material.

  19. Statistical Analyses of Raw Material Data for MTM45-1/CF7442A-36% RW: CMH Cure Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coroneos, Rula; Pai, Shantaram, S.; Murthy, Pappu

    2013-01-01

    This report describes statistical characterization of physical properties of the composite material system MTM45-1/CF7442A, which has been tested and is currently being considered for use on spacecraft structures. This composite system is made of 6K plain weave graphite fibers in a highly toughened resin system. This report summarizes the distribution types and statistical details of the tests and the conditions for the experimental data generated. These distributions will be used in multivariate regression analyses to help determine material and design allowables for similar material systems and to establish a procedure for other material systems. Additionally, these distributions will be used in future probabilistic analyses of spacecraft structures. The specific properties that are characterized are the ultimate strength, modulus, and Poisson??s ratio by using a commercially available statistical package. Results are displayed using graphical and semigraphical methods and are included in the accompanying appendixes.

  20. Mesophilic hydrogen production in acidogenic packed-bed reactors (APBR) using raw sugarcane vinasse as substrate: Influence of support materials.

    PubMed

    Nunes Ferraz Júnior, Antônio Djalma; Etchebehere, Claudia; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2015-08-01

    Bio-hydrogen production from sugarcane vinasse in anaerobic up-flow packed-bed reactors (APBR) was evaluated. Four types of support materials, expanded clay (EC), charcoal (Ch), porous ceramic (PC), and low-density polyethylene (LDP) were tested as support for biomass attachment. APBR (working volume - 2.3 L) were operated in parallel at a hydraulic retention time of 24 h, an organic loading rate of 36.2 kg-COD m(-3) d(-1), at 25 °C. Maximum volumetric hydrogen production values of 509.5, 404, 81.4 and 10.3 mL-H2 d(-1) L(-1)reactor and maximum yields of 3.2, 2.6, 0.4 and 0.05 mol-H2 mol(-1) carbohydrates total, were observed during the monitoring of the reactors filled with LDP, EC, Ch and PC, respectively. Thus, indicating the strong influence of the support material on H2 production. LDP was the most appropriate material for hydrogen production among the materials evaluated. 16S rRNA gene by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the selection of different microbial populations. 454-pyrosequencing performed on samples from APBR filled with LDP revealed the presence of hydrogen-producing organisms (Clostridium and Pectinatus), lactic acid bacteria and non-fermentative organisms.

  1. Determination of catechins and caffeine in camillia sinensis raw materials, extracts, and dietary supplements by HPLC-uv: single-laboratory validation.

    PubMed

    Roman, Mark C

    2013-01-01

    A rapid method has been developed to quantify seven catechins and caffeine in green tea (Camillia sinensis) raw material and powdered extract, and dietary supplements containing green tea extract. The method utilizes RP HPLC with a phenyl-based stationary phase and gradient elution. Detection is by UV absorbance. The total run time, including column re-equilibration, is 13 min. Single-laboratory validation (SLV) has been performed on the method to determine the repeatability, accuracy, selectivity, LOD, LOQ, ruggedness, and linearity for (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epicatechin gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin, (-)-gallocatechin gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, and (+)-gallocatechin, as well as caffeine. Repeatability precision and recovery results met AOAC guidelines for SLV studies for all catechins and caffeine down to a level of approximately 20 mg/g. Finished products containing high concentrations of minerals require the use of EDTA to prevent decomposition of the catechins.

  2. Enzyme-based lignocellulose hydrolyzation--Sauter mean diameter of raw materials as a basis for cellulase performance characterization and yield prediction.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Robert

    2015-11-20

    The characterization of cellulase performance for industrial-scale processes holds special challenges. A huge gap exists between the enzyme characterization in a laboratory and large-scale process performances. Common cellulase mixtures from Novozymes and enzymes provided by Moscow State University were used to hydrolyze wheat straw, grass, pine wood, and aspen wood. Glucose yields from the enzymatic hydrolysis of the raw materials were investigated as a function of cellulase enzyme loading and of particle sizes with different solid loading. The particle size had a significant effect on glucose yield, while the used enzyme concentration had a much smaller effect. Hydrolyses of sets of wheat straw particles were used to introduce a substrate-specific kinetic enzyme unit. The data were also used to generate an empirical model in order to predict the glucose yield on the basis of the Sauter mean diameter of the feedstocks.

  3. [Evaluating exposure of population to dust, with consideration of components and dispersion contents of industrial discharges from enterprise extracting and processing mineral raw materials (discussion)].

    PubMed

    Mai, I V; Zagorodnov, S Iu; Popova, E V

    2014-01-01

    The article covers results of study concerning disperse content of solid components of discharges from main dust- generating technologic operations in extraction and processing of mineral raw materials (pouring ore to conveyor, drying with combustion gas in fluid-bed, pouring of end product, sorting ore on riddle, drying on vibration dry and cool device, etc). Findings are that fractions under 10 and 2.5 micrometers approach 50% in general structure of dust discharges. Maximal share of low-disperse dust enters ambient air from vibraion dry and cool devices, riddles and pouring places. Exceeded reference values for acute and chronic exposure are registered on TSP and PM10 at a sanitary protection zone border and in the nearest living area points--that can forecast intolerable risks for health of population exposed and necessitate instrumental confirmation of the detected jeopardy level.

  4. Simultaneous determination of major type B trichothecenes and deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside in animal feed and raw materials using improved DSPE combined with LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhiyong; Rao, Qinxiong; Song, Suquan; Liu, Na; Han, Zheng; Hou, Jiafa; Wu, Aibo

    2014-07-15

    A simple and reliable method for simultaneous determination of deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside and major type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, fusarenon X, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol and deepoxy-deoxynivalenol) in animal feed and raw materials has been developed and validated in this study. The method was based on an improved dispersive solid-phase extraction (DSPE) followed by analysis using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Also, matrix-matched calibration curve (R(2)>0.99) was employed to minimize matrix effects and ensure accurate quantification. The recoveries during sample preparation process (including extraction and clean-up) ranged from 79.03% to 118.39%, with intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviation lower than 20% for all the analytes. The limit of quantification ranged from 5.0 μg/kg for deoxynivalenol to 13.6 μg/kg for fusarenon X. The validated method was successfully applied to the analysis of animal feed and corn. The pilot study showed that 37 out of 41 samples were contaminated with deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside at the levels of 6.0-121.0 μg/kg. Most of the type B trichothecenes were also found with the exception of fusarenon X, at the contaminated levels of 10.0-1,382 μg/kg. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first scientific report on the co-occurrence of masked deoxynivalenol and type B trichothecenes in animal feed and raw materials.

  5. Comparative physicochemical and biological characterization of NIST Interim Reference Material PM2.5 and SRM 1648 in human A549 and mouse RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Mitkus, Robert J; Powell, Jan L; Zeisler, Rolf; Squibb, Katherine S

    2013-12-01

    The epidemiological association between exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and adverse health effects is well-known. Here we report the size distribution, metals content, endotoxin content, and biological activity of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Interim Reference Material (RM) PM2.5. Biological activity was measured in vitro by effects on cell viability and the release of four inflammatory immune mediators, from human A549 alveolar epithelial cells or murine RAW264.7 monocytes. A dose range covering three orders of magnitude (1-1000μg/mL) was tested, and biological activity was compared to an existing Standard Reference Material (SRM) for urban PM (NIST SRM 1648). Robust release of IL-8 and MCP-1 from A549 cells was observed in response to IRM PM2.5 exposures. Significant TNF-α, but not IL-6, secretion from RAW264.7 cells was observed in response to both IRM PM2.5 and SRM 1648 particle types. Cytokine or chemokine release at high doses often occurred in the presence of cytotoxicity, likely as a result of externalization of preformed mediator. Our results are consistent with a local cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory mechanism of response to exposure to inhaled ambient PM2.5 and reinforce the continued relevance of in vitro assays for mechanistic research in PM toxicology. Our study furthers the goal of developing reference samples of environmentally relevant particulate matter of various sizes that can be used for hypothesis testing by multiple investigators.

  6. Occurrence and ecological distribution of Heat Resistant Moulds Spores (HRMS) in raw materials used by food industry and thermal characterization of two Talaromyces isolates.

    PubMed

    Tranquillini, Roberta; Scaramuzza, Nicoletta; Berni, Elettra

    2017-02-02

    In this study, screening of some raw materials used to produce pasteurized products was carried out to determine the occurrence and ecological distribution of heat-resistant fungi. The search for Heat Resistant Mould Spores (HRMS) resulted in the isolation of a limited number of fungal genera: Arthrinium, Aspergillus with either Eurotium-type or Neosartorya-type ascoma, Byssochlamys, Hyphodermella, Monascus, Penicillium, Rasamsonia, Talaromyces and Thermoascus. Sexual aspergilli constituted an overwhelming percentage of the mycobiota, totaling 93.5% of the heat-resistant fungi detected, and being the only fungi to be simultaneously detected in discrete concentrations on almost all matrices found positive for HRMS. Talaromyces spp., Penicillium spp. and Monascus sp. occurred at low percentages (up to 2.1%), though they were the most commonly occurring genera in lemon cells (Talaromyces, Monascus) and blueberries (Penicillium spp.). Among these isolates, two Talaromyces spp. (T. trachyspermus and T. bacillisporus) were tested for heat-resistance in both blueberry and grape juice or in buffered glucose solution, in order to assess their D- and z-values. Data obtained from thermal death curves and statistical elaboration of raw data showed that D-values of T. trachyspermus ranged between 50.0 and 90.9min at 75°C; 13.6 and 20.8min at 78°C; 5.1 and 12.4min at 80°C; 1.6 and 2.6min at 82°C. D values of T. bacillisporus ranged between 44.4 and 60.9min at 82°C; 11.9 and 15.5min at 85°C; 2.7 and 4.1min at 88°C and were equal to 1.2min at 91°C, depending on the medium. The heating times needed for inactivation were comparable to those applied to most heat-resistant species, but significantly lower than those applied to Talaromyces macrosporus or less common ascospore-forming fungal species such as Hamigera avellanea and Thermoascus crustaceus. Therefore, a traditional pasteurization process would be insufficient to avoid potential spoilage problems with T

  7. Sorption of estrogens and pesticides from aqueous solution by a humic acid and raw and processed plant materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loffredo, Elisabetta; Taskin, Eren

    2016-04-01

    The huge number of organic contaminants released in water as a consequence of anthropogenic activities have detrimental effects to environmental systems and human health. Industrial products and byproducts, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, detergents and so on impose increasing costs for wastewater decontamination. Adsorption techniques can be successfully used for the treatment of wastewaters to remove contaminants of various nature. Humic acids (HA) have well-known adsorptive capacities towards hydrophilic and, especially, hydrophobic compounds. In the recent years, alternative low-cost adsorbents, especially originated from agricultural wastes and food industries residues, such as wood chips, almond and coconut shells, peanut and rice husks, are under investigation. Biochar is also considered a promising and relatively low-cost adsorbent, even if there are still knowledge gaps about the influence of feedstock type, pyrolysis conditions, physical and chemical properties on its potential and safe use. In the present work, a HA from a green compost was used along with three other materials of plant origin to remove two estrogens, 4-tert-octylphenol and 17-β-estradiol, and two pesticides, carbaryl and fenuron, from an aqueous solution. The four molecules were spiked in water each at a concentration of 1 mg L-1. The materials were: a biochar obtained from 100% red spruce pellet pyrolysed at 550 °C, spent coffee grounds and spent tea leaves. Kinetics curves and adsorption isotherms studies were performed using a batch equilibrium method. Adsorption data obtained for each compound were fitted to a linear equation and non-linear Freundlich and Langmuir models. Kinetics data of the four compounds onto all adsorbents showed an initial very rapid adsorption which was completed in few hours when it reached equilibrium. The two estrogens were adsorbed onto all materials more quickly than the two less hydrophobic pesticides. Significant differences among adsorbents and the

  8. Determination of ubidecarenone (coenzyme Q10, ubiquinol-10) in raw materials and dietary supplements by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection: single-laboratory validation.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Debra; Skamarack, Jules; Reins, Kelly; Titlow, Barry; Lunetta, Steve; Li, Fang; Roman, Mark

    2007-01-01

    A method based on high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection has been developed to quantify ubidecarenone [coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10)] in raw materials and dietary supplements. Single-laboratory validation has been performed on the method to determine repeatability, accuracy, selectivity, limits of detection and quantification (LOQ), ruggedness, and linearity for CoQ10. As CoQ10 can exist as the biologically active reduced form, the application of an oxidizing agent, ferric chloride, drives the equilibrium mechanics to the fully oxidized state and allows for exact quantification of total CoQ10 in the sample. This method was found to be fit and linear for the testing of materials containing CoQ10 in the range of approximately equal 50-1000 mg/g. Repeatability precision for CoQ10 was between 2.15 and 5.00% relative standard deviation. Observed recovery of CoQ10 was found to be between 93.8 and 100.9%. LOQ was found to be 9 microg/mL. Further, limited studies showed that some adulterants and degraded material could be satisfactorily separated from CoQ10 and identified.

  9. Determination of synephrine in bitter orange raw materials, extracts, and dietary supplements by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection: single-laboratory validation.

    PubMed

    Roman, Mark C; Betz, Joseph M; Hildreth, Jana

    2007-01-01

    A method has been developed to quantify synephrine in bitter orange raw material, extracts, and dietary supplements. Single-laboratory validation has been performed on the method to determine the repeatability, accuracy, selectivity, limit of detection/limit of quantification (LOQ), ruggedness, and linearity for p-synephrine and 5 other biogenic amines: octopamine, phenylephrine (m-synephrine), tyramine, N-methyltyramine, and hordenine, which may be present in bitter orange. p-Synephrine was found to be the primary biogenic amine present in all materials tested, accounting for >80% of the total biogenic amine content in all samples except a finished product. Repeatability precision for synephrine was between 1.48 and 3.55% RSD. Synephrine recovery was between 97.5 and 104%. The minor alkaloids were typically near the LOQ of the method (300-900 microg/g) in the test materials, and between-day precision for the minor compounds was poor because interferences could sometimes be mistakenly identified as one of the minor analytes. Recoveries of the minor components ranged from 99.1 to 103% at approximately 6000 microg/g spike level, to 90.7 to 120% at 300 microg/g spike level.

  10. Investigation of the impacts of selected nanotechnology products with view to their demand for raw materials and energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, M.; Diesner, M.; Manhart, A.; Küppers, P.; Spieth-Achtnich, A.; Pistner, C.

    2014-08-01

    In the study presented here qualitative and quantitative life-cycle considerations were employed to assess the potential material and energy savings that might be achieved through nanoenabled applications. Ten nanotechnology application fields with broad market coverage and immediate impact to either the generation of renewable energies or the use of critical resources were analyzed. Organic photovoltaic modules (solar cells that essentially consist of organic materials) and electronically dimmable windows (electrochromic laminated glass, which can be adjusted to conform to the ambient light conditions) as two very promising nano-enabled applications were quantitatively analyzed. Eight further products including neodymium magnets were evaluated on a qualitative basis. All assessments contain classical indicators such as energy efficiency, product carbon footprint, and resource consumption. In addition, pollutant aspects (exposure and toxicology) as well as other sustainability aspects (such as user benefits) were taken into account in the framework of a so-called "hot spot analysis". Furthermore, drivers behind the innovation as well as associated rebound effects were identified. The results highlight the importance of product specific analyses based on a life-cycle thinking approach.

  11. Determination of Aloin A and Aloin B in Aloe vera Raw Materials and Finished Products by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography: Single-Laboratory Validation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Paula N; Yu, Ronan; Kuan, Chiow Hui; Finley, Jamie; Mudge, Elizabeth M; Dentali, Steven

    2014-01-01

    A single-laboratory validation (SLV) was conducted on an HPLC method for the detection and quantification of aloin A and aloin B in Aloe vera raw materials and finished products. An extraction procedure using sonication with an acidified solvent was used for solid test materials while liquid test materials only required dilution, if necessary, prior to filtration and analysis. Separation was achieved using a fused core C18 column in 18 min under isocratic elution conditions allowing for a single analyte (aloin A) calibration curve to quantify both aloins. Adequate chromatographic resolution (Rs ≥ 1) was achieved for aloin A and aloin B. The calibration curves for aloin A exhibited coefficients of determination (r(2)) of ≥ 99.9% over the linear range of 0.3-50 μg/mL. The LOD values were 0.092 and 0.087 μg/mL, and LOQ 0.23 and 0.21 μg/mL for aloin A and aloin B, respectively. Repeatability studies were performed on nine test materials on each of 3 separate days, with five of the test materials determined to be above the LOQ having repeatability RSD (RSDr) values ranging from 0.61 to 6.30%. Method accuracy was determined through a spike recovery study on both liquid and solid matrixes at three different levels: low, medium, and high. For both aloins, the recovery in the liquid matrix ranged from 92.7 to 106.3% with an RSDr of 0.15 to 4.30%, while for the solid matrix, the recovery ranged from 84.4 to 108.9% with an RSDr of 0.23 to 3.84%. Based on the results of the SLV study, it is recommended that this method be evaluated for reproducibility through a collaborative study.

  12. A low-cost gradient system for high-performance liquid chromatography. Quantitation of complex pharmaceutical raw materials.

    PubMed

    Erni, F; Frei, R W

    1976-09-29

    A device is described that makes use of an eight-port motor valve to generate step gradients on the low-pressure side of a piston pump with a low dead volume. Such a gradient device with an automatic control unit, which also permits repetition of previous steps, can be built for about half the cost of a gradient system with two pumps. Applications of this gradient unit to the separation of complex mixtures of glycosides and alkaloids are discussed and compared with separations systems using two high-pressure pumps. The gradients that are used on reversed-phase material with solvent mixtures of water and completely miscible organic solvents are suitable for quantitative routine control of pharmaceutical products. The reproducibility of retention data is excellent over several months and, with the use of loop injectors, major components can be determined quantitatively with a reproducibility of better than 2% (relative standard deviation). The step gradient selector valve can also be used as an introduction system for very large sample volumes. Up to 11 can be injected and samples with concentrations of less than 1 ppb can be determined with good reproducibilities.

  13. Single-laboratory validation of a method for the determination of c-phycocyanin and allophycocyanin in Spirulina (Arthrospira) supplements and raw materials by spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Noritaka; Belay, Amha

    2008-01-01

    A single-laboratory validation study was conducted for a 2-wavelength spectrophotometric method for the determination of c-phycocyanin (cPC) and allophycocyanin (aPC) in Spirulina supplements and raw materials. The absorption maxima of cPC and aPC are at 620 and 650 nm, respectively. The concentrations of the analytes were calculated from measurement of absorbance at 2 wavelengths. This method provided linear responses for cPC and aPC in the range of 25-250 microg/mL. Duplicate determinations of cPC and aPC in 4 different test materials on 5 different days resulted in relative standard deviations of 0.3-1.0 and 1.0-1.5% for cPC and aPC, respectively. Recoveries were 99.2-102.4 and 100.0-104.0% for cPC and aPC, respectively. The results were satisfactory for the determination of cPC and aPC in Spirulina supplements.

  14. Estimation of radioactivity level and associated radiological hazards of limestone and gypsum used as raw building materials in Rawalpindi/Islamabad region of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Gul, Rahmat; Ali, Safdar; Hussain, Manzur

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to asses the radioactivity level of limestone and gypsum and its associated radiological hazard due to the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials. Representative samples of limestone and gypsum were collected from cement factories located in the Rawalpindi/Islamabad region of Pakistan and were analysed by using an N-type high-purity germanium detector of 80 % relative efficiency. The average activity concentration of (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th were 60.22±3.47, 29.25±5.23 and 4.07±3.31 Bq kg(-1), respectively, in limestone and 70.86±4.1, 5.01±2.10 and 4.49±3.1 Bq kg(-1), respectively, in gypsum. The radiological hazard parameters radium equivalent activities, absorbed dose rate in air, external hazard index, internal hazard index, annual effective dose equivalent, gamma index and alpha index were computed. The results of the average activity concentrations of (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th and radiological hazard parameters were within the range of the reported average worldwide/United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effect of Atomic Radiation values. It is concluded that limestone and gypsum used in the Rawalpindi/Islamabad region does not pose any excessive radiological health hazard as a building raw materials and in industrial uses.

  15. Quantitative determination of total L-carnitine in infant formula, follow-up formula, and raw materials by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nadaoka, Isao; Hatakeyama, Emi; Tanada, Chihiro; Sakamoto, Tasuku; Fukaya, Shinichi; Akiba, Takashi; Inoue, Koichi; Yamano, Yutaka; Toyo'oka, Toshimasa

    2014-01-01

    We developed a rapid and useful routine screening assay for total L-carnitine content in various infant formulas and materials by liquid chromatography coupled with a tandem mass spectrometric method (LC-MS/MS) and alkaline hydrolysis. For separation of L-carnitine, a multi-mode octadecylsilane (ODS) column was used that contained ODS ligands, anion ligands, and cation ligands to avoid using ion-pairing agents. The stable isotope L-carnitine-d3 (m/z 165 → 103/85) was used in electrospray MS/MS in the multiple reaction monitoring mode with the ion transitions of m/z 162 → 103/85 for detection and quantitation of L-carnitine. Alkaline hydrolysis of short/medium chain (C2 - C15) acyl-L-carnitines in infant formula was analyzed by LC with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF-MS). The majority of short/medium chain acyl-L-carnitines were hydrolyzed to free L-carnitine. The overall standard deviations for L-carnitine in infant formula, follow-up formula and raw materials ranged from 2.1 to 4.0. The overall mean recoveries ranged from 90.2 to 94.2%.

  16. Determination of campesterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol in saw palmetto raw materials and dietary supplements by gas chromatography: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Sorenson, Wendy R; Sullivan, Darryl

    2007-01-01

    An interlaboratory study was conducted to evaluate a method for the determination of campesterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol in saw palmetto raw materials and dietary supplements at levels >1.00 mg/100 g based on a 2-3 g sample. Test samples were saponified at high temperature with ethanolic KOH solution. The unsaponifiable fraction containing phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol) was extracted with toluene. Phytosterols were derivatized to trimethylsilyl ethers and then quantified by gas chromatography with hydrogen flame ionization detection. Twelve blind duplicates, one of which was fortified, were successfully analyzed by 10 collaborators. Recoveries were obtained for the sample that was fortified. The results were 99.8, 111, and 111% for campesterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol, respectively. For repeatability, the relative standard deviation (RSDr) ranged from 3.93 to 17.3% for campesterol, 3.56 to 22.7% for stigmasterol, and 3.70 to 43.9% for beta-sitosterol. For reproducibility, the RSDR ranged from 7.97 to 22.6%, 0 to 26.7%, and 5.27 to 43.9% for campesterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol, respectively. Overall, the Study Director approved 5 materials with acceptable HorRat values for campesterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol ranging from 1.02 to 2.16.

  17. Mössbauer studies of raw materials from Misti volcano of Arequipa (Peru) for its potential application in the ceramic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustamante, Angel; Capel, Francisco; Barba, Flora; Callejas, Pío; Guzmán, Rivalino; Trujillo, Alejandro

    2009-04-01

    We would like to introduce, the study of two different colour “sillar” samples: white and pink, belonging to the Añashuayco quarry in the Arequipa Region (Peru). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicates the presence of several mineralogical phases, such as feldpars and biotite for the both white and pink “sillar” whereas cristobalite and quartz are detected only in the first sample and amorphous phase in the second one. In room temperature, Mössbauer spectroscopy, the presence of hematite (α-Fe2O3) was detected as the main phase for both samples, this was not detected in the XRD measurements. Moreover, corresponding doublets in the Mössbauer spectra indicate the presence of iron in the aluminium-silicate minerals. The rates Fe2 + /Fe3 + are 0.0752 and 0.0526 to the white and pink samples respectively. The minerals composing the white tuff form a heterogeneous aggregate of uniform aspect. Mining of these materials generates a great amount of waste in the form of lumps of varying size and which are raw materials studied in the present work for potential application in the ceramic field.

  18. Environmental and technical assessments of the potential utilization of sewage sludge ashes (SSAs) as secondary raw materials in construction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Maozhe; Blanc, Denise; Gautier, Mathieu; Mehu, Jacques; Gourdon, Rémy

    2013-05-01

    Ashes produced by thermal treatments of sewage sludge exhibit common properties with cement. For example, major elements present in SSA are the same of major elements of cement. Hydraulic properties of SSA are quite the same of cement ones. They may therefore be used to substitute part of cement in concrete or other cementitious materials, provided that technical prescriptions are satisfied and that environmental risks are not significantly increased. The objective of the present study was to determine the appropriate substitution ratios to satisfy both technical and environmental criteria. In a first step, the elemental composition and particle size distribution of the ashes were measured. Then the ashes were used along with Portland cement and sand at different ratios of substitution to produce mortar and concrete which were cured for up to 90 days into parallelepipedic or cylindrical monoliths. The mechanical properties of the monoliths were measured using standard procedures for flexural and compressive strengths, and compared to blanks containing no ashes. The environmental criteria were assessed using leaching tests conducted according to standard protocols both on the ashes and the monoliths, and compared to the blanks. Results showed that the characteristics of the ashes ranged between those of cement and sand because of their larger particle size and higher content in SiO2 as compared to cement. The monoliths made with the highest substitution ratios exhibited a significant decrease in flexural and compressive strengths. However, when the ashes were used in partial substitution of cement at appropriate ratios, the concrete monoliths exhibited similar compressive strengths as the blank samples. The most appropriate ratios were found to be 10% substitution of cement and 2% substitution of sand. The leaching tests conducted on the ashes in their powdery form revealed that amongst the potential contaminants analyzed only Mo and Se were leached at

  19. Environmental and technical assessments of the potential utilization of sewage sludge ashes (SSAs) as secondary raw materials in construction

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Maozhe; Blanc, Denise; Gautier, Mathieu; Mehu, Jacques; Gourdon, Rémy

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► We used sewage sludge ashes in ready-mix concrete recipe. ► SSAs were used as a substitution of cement. ► Compressive strength of ready-mix concrete incorporating SSAs were similar as blank one. ► Contaminants leaching from concrete monoliths were above threshold limits. - Abstract: Ashes produced by thermal treatments of sewage sludge exhibit common properties with cement. For example, major elements present in SSA are the same of major elements of cement. Hydraulic properties of SSA are quite the same of cement ones. They may therefore be used to substitute part of cement in concrete or other cementitious materials, provided that technical prescriptions are satisfied and that environmental risks are not significantly increased. The objective of the present study was to determine the appropriate substitution ratios to satisfy both technical and environmental criteria. In a first step, the elemental composition and particle size distribution of the ashes were measured. Then the ashes were used along with Portland cement and sand at different ratios of substitution to produce mortar and concrete which were cured for up to 90 days into parallelepipedic or cylindrical monoliths. The mechanical properties of the monoliths were measured using standard procedures for flexural and compressive strengths, and compared to blanks containing no ashes. The environmental criteria were assessed using leaching tests conducted according to standard protocols both on the ashes and the monoliths, and compared to the blanks. Results showed that the characteristics of the ashes ranged between those of cement and sand because of their larger particle size and higher content in SiO{sub 2} as compared to cement. The monoliths made with the highest substitution ratios exhibited a significant decrease in flexural and compressive strengths. However, when the ashes were used in partial substitution of cement at appropriate ratios, the concrete monoliths exhibited similar

  20. Laboratory-scale experimental burning of selected Palaeozoic limestones from the Barrandian area (Prague Basin, Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic): re-evaluation of properties of historical raw material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlovcev, Petr; Prikryl, Richard; Stastna, Aneta

    2013-04-01

    Palaeozoic limestones from the Barrandian area (Prague Basin, Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic) have been quarried and utilized, among others, for manufacturing of inorganic binders. Certain beds, e.g. Devonian dvorecko-prokopské limestones were historically burnt for high quality hydraulic lime which is not produced recently. Aiming to evaluate potential of this specific raw material for small-scale production of restoration hydraulic lime, we have conducted some laboratory experimental burning tests in an electrical furnace up to 1200°C. Prior to the burning, all studied lithotypes (4 in total) have been examined for their mineralogy (optical microscopy, cathodoluminescence study, X-ray diffraction of insoluble residue) and geochemistry (wet chemical analyses). Studied biomicritic limestones can be classified as wackstones to packstones. Carbonate content varies from 80 to 90 %, the rest is due to dominant illite and silica, and subordinate kaolinite, feldspars, and/or chlorite. Specific composition of non-carbonate component (specifically high content of illite and silica) positively influences formation of CS, Ca, and/or CAS phases when burnt at calcination temperatures from 850 to 1200°C (in steps of 50°C). In the products formed during firing, mineral phases typical for hydraulic lime, such as larnite, brownmillerite, and gehlenite, along with free lime, quartz and silica phases, and portlandite were identified by X-ray diffraction. The amount of the dominant hydraulic phase, larnite, increased with higher firing temperature. On the other hand, content of free lime, quartz and silica decreased. The amount of portlandite was almost independent of the firing temperature. Higher amounts of larnite and other hydraulic phase were detected during the peak firing temperature of 1200°C in specimens containing higher amount of insoluble residue. From the study performed, it is evident that studied dvorecko-prokopské limestone, which included favourable amount of

  1. Raw liquid waste treatment process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, Marshall F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A raw sewage treatment process is disclosed in which substantially all the non-dissolved matter, which is suspended in the sewage water is first separated from the water, in which at least organic matter is dissolved. The non-dissolved material is pyrolyzed to form an activated carbon and ash material without the addition of any conditioning agents. The activated carbon and ash material is added to the water from which the non-dissolved matter was removed. The activated carbon and ash material absorbs organic matter and heavy metal ions, it is believed, are dissolved in the water and is thereafter supplied in a counter current flow direction and combined with the incoming raw sewage to facilitate the separation of the non-dissolved settleable materials from the sewage water. The used carbon and ash material together with the non-dissolved matter which was separated from the sewage water are pyrolyzed to form the activated carbon and ash material.

  2. Rock magnetic evidence of non-random raw material selection criteria in Cerro Toledo Obsidian Artifacts from Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregovich, A.; Feinberg, J. M.; Steffen, A.; Sternberg, R. S.

    2014-12-01

    Stone tools are one of the most enduring forms of ancient human behavior available to anthropologists. The geologic materials that comprise stone tools are a reflection of the rocks that were available locally or through trade, as are the intended use of the tools and the knapping technology needed to produce them. Investigation of the rock magnetic and geochemical characteristics of the artifacts and the geological source materials provides a baseline to explore these past behaviors. This study uses rock magnetic properties to explore the raw material selection criteria involved in the production of obsidian tools in the region around Valles Caldera in northern New Mexico. Obsidian is locally abundant and was traded by tribes across the central United States. Here we compare the rock magnetic properties of a sample of obsidian projectile points (N =25) that have been geochemically sourced to the Cerro Toledo obsidian flow with geological samples collected from four sites within the same flow (N =135). This collection of archaeological artifacts, albeit small, contains representatives of at least 8 different point styles that were used over 6000 years from the Archaic into the Late Prehistoric. Bulk rock hysteresis parameters (Mr, Ms, Bc, and Bcr) and low-field susceptibility (Χ) measurements show that the projectile points generally contain a lower concentration of magnetic minerals than the geologic samples. For example, the artifacts' median Ms value is 2.9 x 10-3 Am2kg-1, while that of the geological samples is 6.5 x 10-3 Am2kg-1. The concentration of magnetic minerals in obsidian is a proxy for the concentration of microlites in general, and this relationship suggests that although obsidian was locally abundant, toolmakers employed non-random selection criteria resulting in generally lower concentrations of microlites in their obsidian tools.

  3. Screening food raw materials for the presence of the world's most frequent clinical cases of Shiga toxin-encoding Escherichia coli O26, O103, O111, O145 and O157.

    PubMed

    Perelle, Sylvie; Dilasser, Françoise; Grout, Joël; Fach, Patrick

    2007-02-15

    This work aims to provide a strategy for rapidly screening food raw materials of bovine origin for the presence of the most frequent O-serogroups of Shiga toxin-encoding Escherichia coli (STEC) involved in food poisoning outbreaks. The prevalence of highly pathogenic serogroups of STEC was surveyed in 25 g portions of minced meat and raw milk using PCR-ELISA and multiplex real-time PCR assays. The prevalence of STEC in raw milk (n=205) and meat samples (n=300) was 21% and 15%, respectively. Contamination by the main pathogenic E. coli O-serogroups representing a major public health concern, including O26, O103, O111, O145, and O157, was potentially around 2.6% in minced meat and 4.8% in raw milk. The MPN values showed an overall contamination ranging from 1 to 2 MPN cells from highly pathogenic serogroups/kg. This survey would indicate that the human pathogenic potential of STEC present in these samples probably remains limited. No conclusion can be drawn at the moment concerning a potential risk for consumers. This rapid screening approach for evaluating the potential presence of highly pathogenic serogroups of STEC in food raw materials should help to improve risk assessment of food poisoning outbreaks.

  4. Pharmaceutical Raw Material Identification Using Miniature Near-Infrared (MicroNIR) Spectroscopy and Supervised Pattern Recognition Using Support Vector Machine

    PubMed Central

    Hsiung, Chang; Pederson, Christopher G.; Zou, Peng; Smith, Valton; von Gunten, Marc; O’Brien, Nada A.

    2016-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy as a rapid and non-destructive analytical technique offers great advantages for pharmaceutical raw material identification (RMID) to fulfill the quality and safety requirements in pharmaceutical industry. In this study, we demonstrated the use of portable miniature near-infrared (MicroNIR) spectrometers for NIR-based pharmaceutical RMID and solved two challenges in this area, model transferability and large-scale classification, with the aid of support vector machine (SVM) modeling. We used a set of 19 pharmaceutical compounds including various active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and excipients and six MicroNIR spectrometers to test model transferability. For the test of large-scale classification, we used another set of 253 pharmaceutical compounds comprised of both chemically and physically different APIs and excipients. We compared SVM with conventional chemometric modeling techniques, including soft independent modeling of class analogy, partial least squares discriminant analysis, linear discriminant analysis, and quadratic discriminant analysis. Support vector machine modeling using a linear kernel, especially when combined with a hierarchical scheme, exhibited excellent performance in both model transferability and large-scale classification. Hence, ultra-compact, portable and robust MicroNIR spectrometers coupled with SVM modeling can make on-site and in situ pharmaceutical RMID for large-volume applications highly achievable. PMID:27029624

  5. Determination of Mitragynine in Mitragyna speciosa Raw Materials and Finished Products by Liquid Chromatography with UV Detection: Single-Laboratory Validation.

    PubMed

    Mudge, Elizabeth M; Brown, Paula N

    2016-10-08

    Mitragyna speciosa (kratom) is a tree indigenous to Southeast Asia, and its leaves are used in herbal formulations because they contain indole alkaloids mitragynine and 7-hydroxy (7-OH) mitragynine. An HPLC method was developed, optimized, and validated using single-laboratory validation guidelines to quantify mitragynine in kratom raw materials and finished products. The method optimization evaluated several extraction parameters including solvent type, solvent volume, time, and extraction method. The separation of the mitragynine alkaloids was achieved in 18 min with a fused-core C18 EVO column using gradient separation with ammonium bicarbonate (pH 9.5) and acetonitrile. The calibration range for mitragynine was 1.0-500 μg/mL with correlation coefficients of ≥99.9% throughout method development and validation. The method detection limit and LOQ were 0.2 and 0.6 μg/mL, respectively for mitragynine. Eight test samples were obtained to evaluate method repeatability. RSDr ranged from 0.4 to 1.0%, whereas intermediate precision ranged from 3.7 to 7.3%, with HorRat values from 0.68 to 1.96. 7-OH mitragynine was below the LOQ for all samples, therefore, spikes repeatability sample RSD values were <1%. The validation data presented meet the Standard Method Performance Requirements as specified by the AOAC INTERNATIONAL Kratom Working Group.

  6. Truly Absorbed Microbial Protein Synthesis, Rumen Bypass Protein, Endogenous Protein, and Total Metabolizable Protein from Starchy and Protein-Rich Raw Materials: Model Comparison and Predictions.

    PubMed

    Parand, Ehsan; Vakili, Alireza; Mesgaran, Mohsen Danesh; van Duinkerken, Gert; Yu, Peiqiang

    2015-07-29

    This study was carried out to measure truly absorbed microbial protein synthesis, rumen bypass protein, and endogenous protein loss, as well as total metabolizable protein, from starchy and protein-rich raw feed materials with model comparisons. Predictions by the DVE2010 system as a more mechanistic model were compared with those of two other models, DVE1994 and NRC-2001, that are frequently used in common international feeding practice. DVE1994 predictions for intestinally digestible rumen undegradable protein (ARUP) for starchy concentrates were higher (27 vs 18 g/kg DM, p < 0.05, SEM = 1.2) than predictions by the NRC-2001, whereas there was no difference in predictions for ARUP from protein concentrates among the three models. DVE2010 and NRC-2001 had highest estimations of intestinally digestible microbial protein for starchy (92 g/kg DM in DVE2010 vs 46 g/kg DM in NRC-2001 and 67 g/kg DM in DVE1994, p < 0.05 SEM = 4) and protein concentrates (69 g/kg DM in NRC-2001 vs 31 g/kg DM in DVE1994 and 49 g/kg DM in DVE2010, p < 0.05 SEM = 4), respectively. Potential protein supplies predicted by tested models from starchy and protein concentrates are widely different, and comparable direct measurements are needed to evaluate the actual ability of different models to predict the potential protein supply to dairy cows from different feedstuffs.

  7. Determination of campesterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol in saw palmetto raw materials and dietary supplements by gas chromatography: single-laboratory validation.

    PubMed

    Sorenson, Wendy R; Sullivan, Darryl

    2006-01-01

    In conjunction with an AOAC Presidential Task Force on Dietary Supplements, a method was validated for measurement of 3 plant sterols (phytosterols) in saw palmetto raw materials, extracts, and dietary supplements. AOAC Official Method 994.10, "Cholesterol in Foods," was modified for purposes of this validation. Test samples were saponified at high temperature with ethanolic potassium hydroxide solution. The unsaponifiable fraction containing phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol) was extracted with toluene. Phytosterols were derivatized to trimethylsilyl ethers and then quantified by gas chromatography with a hydrogen flame ionization detector. The presence of the phytosterols was detected at concentrations greater than or equal to 1.00 mg/100 g based on 2-3 g of sample. The standard curve range for this assay was 0.00250 to 0.200 mg/mL. The calibration curves for all phytosterols had correlation coefficients greater than or equal to 0.995. Precision studies produced relative standard deviation values of 1.52 to 7.27% for campesterol, 1.62 to 6.48% for stigmasterol, and 1.39 to 10.5% for beta-sitosterol. Recoveries for samples fortified at 100% of the inherent values averaged 98.5 to 105% for campesterol, 95.0 to 108% for stigmasterol, and 85.0 to 103% for beta-sitosterol.

  8. Preparation and characterization of new dental porcelains, using K-feldspar and quartz raw materials. Effect of B2O3 additions on sintering and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Harabi, Abdelhamid; Guerfa, Fatiha; Harabi, Esma; Benhassine, Mohamed-Tayeb; Foughali, Lazhar; Zaiou, Soumia

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the effect of temperature and boric oxide (B2O3) addition on sintering and mechanical properties of a newly developed dental porcelain (DP) prepared from local Algerian raw materials. Based on a preliminary work, the new selected composition was 75wt.% feldspar, 20wt.% quartz and 5wt.% kaolin. It was prepared by sintering the mixture at different temperatures (1100-1250°C). The optimum sintering conditions gave a relatively higher density (2.47g/cm(3)) and excellent mechanical properties. The three point flexural strength (3PFS) and Martens micro-hardness of dental porcelains were 149MPa and 2600MPa, respectively. This obtained 3PFS value is more than four times greater than that of hydroxyapatite (HA) value (about 37MPa) sintered under the same conditions. However, the sintering temperature was lowered by about 25 and 50°C for 3 and 5wt.% B2O3 additions, respectively. But, it did not improve furthermore the samples density and their mechanical properties. It has also been found that B2O3 additions provoke a glass matrix composition variation which delays the leucite formation during sintering.

  9. Lactic acid production by Lactobacillus sp. RKY2 in a cell-recycle continuous fermentation using lignocellulosic hydrolyzates as inexpensive raw materials.

    PubMed

    Wee, Young-Jung; Ryu, Hwa-Won

    2009-09-01

    Continuous lactic acid fermentations were conducted using lignocellulosic hydrolyzates and corn steep liquor as inexpensive raw materials. Lactic acid concentrations decreased with increases in the dilution rate, whereas the residual substrate concentrations increased. However, lactic acid yields were maintained at more than 0.90 g g(-1) over all cases experimented. The cell-recycle cultivation system exerted positive effects on fermentation efficiency, including volumetric productivity, which is attributable to the retention of cells in the bioreactor. The cell-recycle continuous fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolyzates yielded a lactic acid productivity of 6.7 g l(-1) h(-1) for a dilution rate of 0.16 h(-1) using 30 g l(-1) of corn steep liquor and 1.5 g l(-1) of yeast extract as nutrients. The productivity (6.7 g l(-1) h(-1)) acquired by the cell-recycle continuous fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolyzates was 1.6 times higher than the lactic acid productivity yielded in the continuous fermentation without cell-recycle system.

  10. [Development of a new hydrocarbon extract from the medicinal raw material of Circassian walnut (Juglans regia) and study of its antiparasitic activity].

    PubMed

    Streliaeva, A V; Polzikov, V V; Prokina, E S; Kurilov, D V; Chebyshev, N V; Shcheglova, T A; Gasparian, É R; Sadykov, V M

    2011-01-01

    The authors developed a technology for preparing a hydrocarbon extract from the medicinal raw material of Circassian walnut (Juglans regia), including its green fruits, green leaves, and fresh roots. To prepare the preparation, they obtained for the first time a new extragent called petroleum Russia that was found to contain more than hundred chemical compounds by chromatography mass spectrometry. The new agent was named irillen. Experiments on albino mice and albino rats established that the new agent was low toxic. The lethal doses of irillen were calculated: LD50 was 16377 +/- 457.5 mg/kg; LD16 = 12986.4 mg/kg; LD84 was 18976.6 mg/kg for albino mice; LD50 was 16998.0 +/- 535.4 mg/kg; LD16 = 12875.3 mg/ kg; LD84 = 18583.4 mg/kg for albino rats. The irillen prepared by the authors should be referred to as a low toxic and practically nontoxic agent (Toxicity Class IV and V). Irillen has a broad spectrum of antiparasitic activity. It is effective in treating toxocariasis in dogs, larval alveolar echinococcosis, ascaridiasis, and eimeriasis in chickens, and siphachiasis.

  11. PCR detection of Salmonella typhimurium in pharmaceutical raw materials and products contaminated with a mixed bacterial culture using the BAX system.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, L; Scalici, C; Smalls, S; Bosko, Y; Ignar, R

    2001-01-01

    The BAX system, a PCR-based assay, was evaluated for detecting Salmonella typhimurium in pharmaceutical raw materials and products contaminated with mixed bacterial cultures of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella typhimurium. Artificially contaminated samples were preenriched in lactose broth with and without Tween 20. After preenrichment, samples were analyzed by PCR and standard methods. Ten of 25 samples did not show presence of the specific Salmonella spp. 740-base pair DNA fragment. However, S. typhimurium was isolated and identified by standard methods from all 25 samples. To optimize S. typhimurium detection in PCR negative samples, lactose broth was replaced by buffered peptone water (BPW) as the preenrichment broth. When BPW was used, all 10 samples were PCR positive. BPW enrichments increased S. typhimurium growth resulting in rapid PCR detection. The presence of non-Salmonella bacteria influenced the performance of the PCR-based assay. Optimization of S. typhimurium PCR detection in mixed culture required the use of different preenrichment broths. However, the BAX system detected S. typhimurium within 27 hours while standard methods required 5-7 days.

  12. Detection of bovine central nervous system tissue as bovine spongiform encephalopathy risk material by real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR in raw and cooked beef products.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xi-Ju; Ma, Gui-Ping; Li, Bing-Ling; Yang, Jin-Liang; Yu-Wang; Li, Yan-Xin; Liu, Xu-Hui; Liu, Quan-Guo

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of the association of the new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (nvCJD) in humans with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle. Many countries established legislation of banning central nervous system (CNS) tissues, which are regarded as BSE-specified risk materials (SRM), in human food supply because of the potential transmission of BSE to humans. A real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR assay using the bovine glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) mRNA template for the detection of CNS tissues in raw and cooked beef products was developed in this study. The results showed that (1) this method can detect CNS tissues from bovine and ovine origins, but not from porcine and avian ones; (2) GFAP mRNA can only be detected from brain and spinal cords rather than other tissues; (3) the GFAP mRNA was detectable in CNS tissues even after dilution to 0.001%; and (4) the assay was unaffected by heat treatment at 100 degrees C for 30 min or storage at room temperature for 4 days, and at 4 degrees C for at least 15 days.

  13. Development and validation of a micellar high-performance liquid chromatographic method for determination of risedronate in raw material and in a pharmaceutical formulation: application to stability studies.

    PubMed

    Walash, Mohamed; Metwally, Mohamed; Eid, Manal; El-Shaheny, Rania

    2010-01-01

    A micellar HPLC method was developed for analysis of the antiosteoporosis drug risedronate. The analysis was carried out using a 250 x 4.6 mm id, 5 microm particle size C18 Waters Symmetry column. The mobile phase consisted of 0.02 M sodium dodecyl sulfate + 0.3% triethylamine + 10% n-propanol, prepared in 0.02 M orthophosphoric acid. The pH of the mobile phase was adjusted to pH 6.0, and it was pumped at a flow rate of 0.7 mL/min with UV detection at 262 nm. The method showed good linearity in the range of 2-80 microg/mL, with an LOD of 0.40 microg/mL (1.31 x 10(-6) M) and an LOQ of 1.21 microg/mL. The suggested method was successfully applied for the analysis of risedronate in raw material and a tablet formulation, with average recoveries of 99.91 +/- 1.30 and 101.52 +/- 0.30%, respectively. The stability-indicating capability of the proposed method was proved using forced degradation. By changing the pH of the mobile phase to 4.0, the oxidative degradation product could be separated from risedronate.

  14. Evaluation of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds from a cement plant using carbide slag from chlor-alkali industry as the major raw material.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuyang; Zhan, Jiayu; Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Jin, Rong; Yang, Lili; Hao, Liwei; Wu, Xiaolin; Zhang, Xian; Wang, Pu

    2017-05-15

    Carbide slag produced from chlor-alkali industry contains high amounts of calcium compounds and can potentially be used as raw material for cement production; however, it contains large amounts of chlorine so it is essential to evaluate the emissions of chlorinated organic pollutants, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). A field study of the emission profiles of these pollutants in a cement plant using such slag was performed. The average concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PCNs in stack gases collected at the kiln back end were 6.31, 1.07, and 31.89pg TEQ m(-3), respectively. PCDFs dominated over PCDDs in particulate samples. Di- to pentachlorinated biphenyls were dominant homologs in the particulate samples. MonoCBs were the dominant homolog in stack gases from the kiln back end, and homolog concentrations decreased with increasing chlorine numbers. Mono- and diCNs accounted for 48-98% of PCNs. The estimated toxic equivalents of stack gas emissions of PCNs, classified as new persistent organic pollutants under Stockholm Convention, were unexpectedly higher than those of PCDD/Fs and PCBs. A mass balance indicated that all of the toxic equivalents were reduced by this cement kiln system. The highest 2,3,7,8-PCDD/F output is with clinker.

  15. Lignin as renewable raw material.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Flores, Francisco García; Dobado, José A

    2010-11-22

    Lignin is by far the most abundant substance based on aromatic moieties in nature, and the largest contributor to soil organic matter. Millions of tonnes of several lignin preparations are produced by the paper industry every year, and a minimal amount of lignin is isolated by direct extraction of lignin from plants. Lignin is used either directly or chemically modified, as a binder, dispersant agent for pesticides, emulsifier, heavy metal sequestrant, or component for composites and copolymers. For value-added applications of lignin to be improved, medium- and long-term conversion technologies must be developed, especially for the preparation of low-molecular-weight compounds as an alternative to the petrochemical industry.

  16. 43 CFR 3602.21 - What payment terms apply to my mineral materials sales contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What payment terms apply to my mineral... Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Administration of Sales § 3602.21 What payment...

  17. 43 CFR 3602.21 - What payment terms apply to my mineral materials sales contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What payment terms apply to my mineral... Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Administration of Sales § 3602.21 What payment...

  18. 43 CFR 3602.21 - What payment terms apply to my mineral materials sales contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What payment terms apply to my mineral... Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Administration of Sales § 3602.21 What payment...

  19. 43 CFR 3602.21 - What payment terms apply to my mineral materials sales contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What payment terms apply to my mineral... Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Administration of Sales § 3602.21 What payment...

  20. Water and salt distribution in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) studied by low-field 1H NMR, 1H and 23Na MRI and light microscopy: effects of raw material quality and brine salting.

    PubMed

    Aursand, Ida G; Veliyulin, Emil; Böcker, Ulrike; Ofstad, Ragni; Rustad, Turid; Erikson, Ulf

    2009-01-14

    The effect of different Atlantic salmon raw materials (prerigor, postrigor and frozen/thawed) on water mobility and salt uptake after brine salting was investigated by using LF 1H NMR T2 relaxation,1H and 23Na MRI and light microscopy. Distributed exponential analysis of the T2 relaxation data revealed two main water pools in all raw materials, T21 and T22, with relaxation times in the range of 20-100 ms and 100-300 ms, respectively. Raw material differences were reflected in the T2 relaxation data. Light microscopy demonstrated structural differences between unsalted and salted raw materials. For prerigor fillets, salting induced a decrease in T21 population coupled with a more open microstructure compared to unsalted fillets, whereas for frozen/thawed fillets, an increase in T21 population coupled with salt-induced swelling of myofibers was observed. The result implies that the T21 population was directly affected by the density of the muscle myofiber lattice. MR imaging revealed significant differences in salt uptake between raw materials, prerigor salted fillets gained least salt (1.3-1.6% NaCl), whereas the frozen/thawed fillets gained most salt (2.7-2.9% NaCl), and obtained the most even salt distribution due to the more open microstructure. This study demonstrates the advantage of LF NMR T2 relaxation and 1H and 23Na MRI as effective tools for understanding of the relationship between the microstructure of fish muscle, its water mobility and its salt uptake.

  1. Testing the limits of freedom of contract: the commercialization of reproductive materials and services.

    PubMed

    Trebilcock, M; Martin, M; Lawson, A; Lewis, P

    1994-01-01

    This article examines the cases for and against commercializing, or "commodifying," reproductive materials and services. Using a supply/demand third-party framework, three basic scenarios in which commercial-exchange relationships may be possible--exchange of gametes and zygotes, exchange of gestational services, and exchange of fetal material--and the major parties of interest, or stakeholders, are identified. The study sketches the liberal, essentialist, and radical contingency theories that shape the debate over the commercialization of reproductive materials and services. The article then attempts to derive some basic governing principles that reflect as much common ground as possible amongst these various normative perspectives, while recognizing that complete reconciliation is impossible. Taken together, these principles are designed to reflect a strategy of "constrained commodification," where commercialization or commodification, that is, financial remuneration, plays a relatively neutral role in the utilization of reproductive materials and services. In light of these principles, the article concludes by sketching legal and regulatory regimes with respect to the exchange of gametes and zygotes, gestational services, and fetal tissue.

  2. Utilization starch of jackfruit seed (Artocarpus heterophyllus) as raw material for bioplastics manufacturing using sorbitol as plasticizer and chitosan as filler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubis, M.; Harahap, M. B.; Manullang, A.; Alfarodo; Ginting, M. H. S.; Sartika, M.

    2017-01-01

    Starch is a natural polymer that can be used for the production of bioplastics because its source is abundant, renewable and easily degraded. Jackfruit seeds can be used as raw material for bioplastics because its contains starch. The aim of this study to determine the characteristics of jackfruit seeds and determine the effect of chitosan and sorbitol on the physicochemical properties of bioplastics from jackfruit seeds. Starch is extracted from jackfruit seeds were then characterized to determine its chemical composition. In the manufacture of bioplastics starch composition jackfruit seeds - chitosan used was 7: 3, 8: 2 and 9: 1 (g/g), while the concentration of sorbitol used was 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, and 40% by weight dry ingredients. From the analysis of jackfruit seed starch obtained water content of 6.04%, ash content of 1.08%, the starch content of 70.22%, 16.39% amylose content, amylopectin content of 53.83%, 4.68% protein content, fat content 0.54%. The best conditions of starch bioplastics jackfruit seeds obtained at a ratio of starch: chitosan (w/w) = 8: 2 and the concentration of plasticizer sorbitol 25% with tensile strength 13.524 MPa. From the results of FT-IR analysis indicated an increase for the OH group and the group NH on bioplastics due to the addition of chitosan and sorbitol. The results of mechanical tests is further supported by analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showing jackfruit seed starch has a small granule size with the size of 7.6 μm and in bioplastics with chitosan filler and plasticizer sorbitol their fracture surface is smooth and slightly hollow compared bioplastics without fillers chitosan and plasticizer sorbitol.

  3. Dredging Operations Technical Support Program: Guidance for Contracting Biological and Chemical Evaluations of Dredged Material

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    to allowing disposal of dredged material in waters of the United States. Compli- ance requires the avoidance of "unacceptable adverse effects " to the...costs. This may result in increases in cost- effectiveness , although this varies greatly and cannot be assumed. The private firm, which operates at a...BAA is published annually by the US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) and remains in effect until superseded by the latest edition. The

  4. Replacement and Original Magnet Engineering Options (ROMEOs): A European Seventh Framework Project to Develop Advanced Permanent Magnets Without, or with Reduced Use of, Critical Raw Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mcguiness, P.; Akdogan, O.; Asali, A.; Bance, S.; Bittner, F.; Coey, J. M. D.; Dempsey, N. M.; Fidler, J.; Givord, D.; Gutfleisch, O.; Katter, M.; Le Roy, D.; Sanvito, S.; Schrefl, T.; Schultz, L.; Schwöbl, C.; Soderžnik, M.; Šturm, S.; Tozman, P.; Üstüner, K.; Venkatesan, M.; Woodcock, T. G.; Žagar, K.; Kobe, S.

    2015-06-01

    Tb, two of the most critical raw materials identified by the European Commission. Overall, the ROMEO project has demonstrated that rapid progress can be achieved when experts in a specific area are brought together to focus on a particular challenge. With more than half a year of the ROMEO project remaining, further progress and additional breakthroughs can be expected.

  5. Gneiss wastes as secondary raw material for the ceramic industry: an example from the Verbano Cusio Ossola district (Piedmont, north-western Alps, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallo, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    -feldspathic rocks (i.e. Serizzo and Beola), are potential sources of secondary raw materials for the ceramic industry. To assess the feasibility of a reuse of these waste materials, an extensive sampling was performed on the main quarry dumps. The waste rocks were characterized by polarized light optical microscopy (OM) on thin sections, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), quantitative X-ray powder diffraction (XRD-QPA with the Rietveld method), electron microprobe (WDS and EDS) and whole-rock geochemistry (ICP-AES, ICP-MS and LECO®). The performed analyzes show a marked mineralogical and chemical heterogeneity (e.g. highly variable content of phyllosilicates, FeOtot content between 0.39 and 6.99 wt.%), as well as important textural and granulometric differences. On the other hand, the composition of feldspars is quite homogeneous, with the plagioclase ranging from almost pure albite to oligoclase (An 25 - 30%). Some varieties of Serizzo and Beola (Serizzo Sempione, Serizzo Formazza and Beola Bianca) are preferable because of their relatively low FeOtot content, but granulometric and textural factors should never be overlooked, as they have an important feedback in the efficiency and feasibility of the industrial treatments (e.g. magnetic separation). Specifically, some Beola varieties with particularly fine grain size and mylonitic texture, are poorly-suited to industrial ore treatments. On the contrary, the Serizzo varieties, although with a generally higher FeOtot content, have a coarser and homogeneous (and therefore preferable) grain size. Waste materials with different composition could be mixed properly until reaching the desired "ideal" compositions for the following industrial treatments. In any case, an accurate characterization of the waste materials from each of quarry dump is of fundamental importance.

  6. Determination of Chondroitin Sulfate Content in Raw Materials and Dietary Supplements by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with UV Detection After Enzymatic Hydrolysis: Single-Laboratory Validation First Action 2015.11

    PubMed Central

    Brunelle, Sharon L.

    2016-01-01

    A previously validated method for determination of chondroitin sulfate in raw materials and dietary supplements was submitted to the AOAC Expert Review Panel (ERP) for Stakeholder Panel on Dietary Supplements Set 1 Ingredients (Anthocyanins, Chondroitin, and PDE5 Inhibitors) for consideration of First Action Official MethodsSM status. The ERP evaluated the single-laboratory validation results against AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirements 2014.009. With recoveries of 100.8–101.6% in raw materials and 105.4–105.8% in finished products and precision of 0.25–1.8% RSDr within-day and 1.6–4.72% RSDr overall, the ERP adopted the method for First Action Official Methods status and provided recommendations for achieving Final Action status. PMID:26821980

  7. Determination of Chondroitin Sulfate Content in Raw Materials and Dietary Supplements by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with UV Detection After Enzymatic Hydrolysis: Single-Laboratory Validation First Action 2015.11.

    PubMed

    Brunelle, Sharon L

    2016-01-01

    A previously validated method for determination of chondroitin sulfate in raw materials and dietary supplements was submitted to the AOAC Expert Review Panel (ERP) for Stakeholder Panel on Dietary Supplements Set 1 Ingredients (Anthocyanins, Chondroitin, and PDE5 Inhibitors) for consideration of First Action Official Methods(SM) status. The ERP evaluated the single-laboratory validation results against AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirements 2014.009. With recoveries of 100.8-101.6% in raw materials and 105.4-105.8% in finished products and precision of 0.25-1.8% RSDr within-day and 1.6-4.72% RSDr overall, the ERP adopted the method for First Action Official Methods status and provided recommendations for achieving Final Action status.

  8. 48 CFR 3016.603 - Letter contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Letter contracts. 3016.603... ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) CONTRACT METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Time-and-Materials, Labor-Hour, and Letter Contracts 3016.603 Letter contracts....

  9. 48 CFR 3416.603 - Letter contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Letter contracts. 3416.603... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Time-and-Materials, Labor-Hour, and Letter Contracts 3416.603 Letter contracts....

  10. SMART GROUND Project: SMART data collection and inteGRation platform to enhance availability and accessibility of data and infOrmation in the EU territory on SecoNDary Raw Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossetti, Piergiorgio; Antonella Dino, Giovanna; de la Feld, Marco; Pizza, Antonietta; Coulon, Frederic; Wagland, Stuart; Gomes, Diogo

    2016-04-01

    The issue of resource security has come to the forefront of the debate over recent years, partly due to considerable concern over the security of supply of the so called 'critical' materials, with rare earths attracting the greatest attention in the press. Their supply is fundamental to maintain and develop EU economy and its industries relied on a steady supply of Raw Materials. Thus considering the increasing scarcity and raising prices of both, energy raw materials and other raw materials, such as metals and minerals, the recycling and recovery of these materials from anthropogenic deposits such as landfills is of increasing relevance. Europe has somewhere between 150,000 and 500,000 landfill sites, with an estimated 90% of them being "non-sanitary" pre-dating the EU Landfill Directive of 1999. Thus historical background makes the numerous old waste dumps as possible sources of critical and secondary raw materials (SRM and CRM). However, to date there is no inventory available of SRM and CRM present in EU landfills, and best management practices to recover SRM from landfill activities are inefficient. In this context, the EU SMART GROUND (SG) project (Grant Agreement No 641988) intends to foster resource recovery in landfills by improving both the availability and the accessibility of data and information on SRM in the EU and creating synergies among the different stakeholders involved in the SRM value chain. To do so, the project aims to collect and integrate in a single EU databank (SMART GROUND Data Bank) all the data from existing databases and new information retrieved during project activities. Such data will be collected from the different waste streams including municipal, industrial and mining wastes across EU landfills. It will improve data gathering on SRM from different types of waste, by defining new and integrated data acquisition methods and standards. At last, but not least, the project will also improve the SRM economic and employment potential

  11. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  12. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  13. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  14. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1348 - Standards for affected sources other than kilns; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers; new and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... than kilns; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers; new and reconstructed raw material dryers; and raw... Industry Emission Standards and Operating Limits § 63.1348 Standards for affected sources other than kilns; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers; new and reconstructed raw material dryers; and raw...

  16. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents

    SciTech Connect

    2009-05-01

    Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents provides materials that clarify the authority for Federal agencies to enter into utility energy services contracts (UESCs), as well as sample documents and resources to ease utility partnership contracting.

  17. Single Laboratory Validation of a Method for Determination of Glucosamine in Raw Materials and Dietary Supplements Containing Glucosamine Sulfate and/or Glucosamine Hydrochloride by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with FMOC-Su Derivatization

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Joseph ZiQi; Waszkuc, Ted; Mohammed, Felicia

    2008-01-01

    Single laboratory validation of a method for determination of glucosamine in raw materials and dietary supplements containing glucosamine sulfate and/or glucosamine hydrochloride by with high-performance liquid Chromatography FMOC-Su derivatization. Tests with 2 blank matrixes containing SAMe, vitamin C, citric acid, chondroitin sulfates, methylsulfonylmethane, lemon juice concentrate, and other potential interferents showed the method to be selective and specific. Eight calibration curves prepared over 7 working days indicated excellent reproducibility with the linear range at least over 2.0–150 μg/mL, and determination coefficients >0.9999. Average spike recovery from the blank matrix (n = 8 over 2 days) was 93.5, 99.4, and 100.4% at respective spike levels of 15,100, and 150%, and from the sample matrix containing glucosamine (n = 3) was 99.9 and 102.8% at respective levels of 10 and 40%, with relative standard deviations <0.9%. The method was also applied to 12 various glucosamine finished products and raw materials. The stability tests confirmed that glucosamine–FMOC-Su derivative once formed is stable at room temperature for at least 5 days. Limit of quantitation was 1 μg/mL and limit of detection was 0.3 μg/mL. The method is ready to proceed for the collaborative study. PMID:15493664

  18. Selective and simultaneous determination of phosphate and silicate ions in leaching process waters for ceramics glaze raw materials of narutal origin by ion-exclusion chromatography coupled with UV-detection after postcolumn derivatization.

    PubMed

    Ikedo, Mikaru; Mori, Masanobu; Kurachi, Kazumasa; Hu, Wenzhi; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2006-01-01

    The selective and simultaneous ion-exclusion chromatography (IEC) with UV-detection on a weakly acidic cation-exchange resin column in the H+ -form (TSKgel Super IC-A/C) was developed and applied for the simultaneous determination of phosphate and silicate ions as the water quality parameters required for optimizing the water-leaching process for ceramics glaze raw materials of natural origin including feldspar, woods-ash, and straw-ash. Phosphate and silicate ions in these water-leaching process water samples were separated selectively from the coexisting anions such as sulfate, chloride, nitrate and carbonate ions, based on the ion-exclusion separation mechanism. They were detected selectively and simultaneously by a postcolumn derivatization with molybdenum-yellow using the UV-detector. Under the optimized separation and detection conditions (eluent, 0-1 mM sulfuric acid; reactant, 10 mM sodium molybdate-25 mM sulfuric acid; detector, UV at 370 nm; temperature, 45 degrees C), the linearity of calibration was in the range 0.1 - 10 ppm for both phosphate and silicate ions, and the detection limits at S/N = 3 were 2.58 ppb for silicate ions and 4.75 ppb for phosphate ions. The effectiveness of this method was demonstrated in practical applications to the water-leaching process for some ceramics glaze raw materials.

  19. 48 CFR 316.603 - Letter contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Letter contracts. 316.603 Section 316.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Time-and-Materials, Labor-Hour, and Letter Contracts 316.603...

  20. 48 CFR 16.603 - Letter contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Letter contracts. 16.603 Section 16.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Time-and-Materials, Labor-Hour, and Letter Contracts...

  1. Requirements for canisters used for delivery of spent nuclear fuel and associated materials to DOE (Department of Energy) under standard disposal contracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is studying prospective changes to the waste acceptance criteria contained in the Standard Contract which involve consideration of the possible acceptance of failed fuel, consolidated fuel rods, compacted structural parts resulting from at reactor consolidation operations, and other non-fuel bearing materials on the same scheduling basis as used for standard fuel under the existing Standard Contract. During the course of these studies it has become clear that all such forms of spent fuel and related wastes would have to be delivered to DOE (and stored at the reactor) in a container having an envelope about the same as the fuel assemblies from which the fuel forms originated. Thus, the first objective of the DOE effort has been to develop draft requirements for canisters to be used by utilities (and others) to deliver the foregoing forms of spent fuel and related wastes. These draft requirements have been completed and are included in this paper.

  2. Raw Liquid Waste Treatment System and Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A raw sewage treatment process is disclosed in which substantially all the non-dissolved matter, suspended in the sewage water is first separated from the water, in which at least organic matter remains dissolved. The non-dissolved material is pyrolyzed to form an activated carbon and ash material without the addition of any conditioning agents. The activated carbon and ash material is added to the water from which the non-dissolved matter was removed. The activated carbon and ash material adsorbs the organic matter dissolved in the water and is thereafter supplied in a counter flow direction and combined with the incoming raw sewage to at least facilitate the separation of the non-dissolved settleable materials from the sewage water. Carbon and ash material together with the non-dissolved matter which was separated from the sewage water are pyrolyzed to form the activated carbon and ash material.

  3. 48 CFR 3016.603-4 - Contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Contract clauses. 3016.603..., HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) CONTRACT METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Time-and-Materials, Labor-Hour, and Letter Contracts 3016.603-4 Contract clauses. The contracting...

  4. RAW to UIMF Converter

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-09

    The RAW to Unified Ion Mobility File (UIMF) converter is a software application that takes LC MS scans from a Thermo RAW file and translates them into ion mobility scans compatible with the UIMF file format. The converter calculates the number of points to generate for the UIMF format by estimating the coefficients of a power function, which models the way in which FTMS data is collected. Once the coefficients are estimated (using a standard Gauss-Newton solver), an m/z mesh is created using standard m/z ppm calculations. This mesh is then used as a basis for translating the m/z intensity pairs from the Thermo RAW file to the UIMF format. Due to non-uniform spacing of m/z values in RAW spectra, a simple linear interpolation is applied to the UIMF format after assigning all m/z values in the mesh in order to fill in gaps. Finally, the converter can perform singly or doubly demultiplexing of encoded ion mobility chromtograms, depending on user selected options during the conversion process. This operation is performed after the UIMF file has been generated.

  5. 48 CFR 3023.303 - Contract clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Contract clause. 3023.303... Material Safety Data 3023.303 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at (HSAR) 48... solicitations and contracts involving the removal or disposal of hazardous waste material....

  6. 7 CFR 1717.606 - Standard forms of construction contracts, and engineering and architectural services contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... engineering and architectural services contracts. 1717.606 Section 1717.606 Agriculture Regulations of the... Standard forms of construction contracts, and engineering and architectural services contracts. All..., materials, equipment, engineering services, and architectural services, regardless of the source of...

  7. 7 CFR 1717.606 - Standard forms of construction contracts, and engineering and architectural services contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... engineering and architectural services contracts. 1717.606 Section 1717.606 Agriculture Regulations of the... Standard forms of construction contracts, and engineering and architectural services contracts. All..., materials, equipment, engineering services, and architectural services, regardless of the source of...

  8. 7 CFR 1717.606 - Standard forms of construction contracts, and engineering and architectural services contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... engineering and architectural services contracts. 1717.606 Section 1717.606 Agriculture Regulations of the... Standard forms of construction contracts, and engineering and architectural services contracts. All..., materials, equipment, engineering services, and architectural services, regardless of the source of...

  9. 7 CFR 1717.606 - Standard forms of construction contracts, and engineering and architectural services contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... engineering and architectural services contracts. 1717.606 Section 1717.606 Agriculture Regulations of the... Standard forms of construction contracts, and engineering and architectural services contracts. All..., materials, equipment, engineering services, and architectural services, regardless of the source of...

  10. 7 CFR 1717.606 - Standard forms of construction contracts, and engineering and architectural services contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... engineering and architectural services contracts. 1717.606 Section 1717.606 Agriculture Regulations of the... Standard forms of construction contracts, and engineering and architectural services contracts. All..., materials, equipment, engineering services, and architectural services, regardless of the source of...

  11. Chemical profiling and quantification of monacolins and citrinin in red yeast rice commercial raw materials and dietary supplements using liquid chromatography-accurate QToF mass spectrometry: Chemometrics application.

    PubMed

    Avula, Bharathi; Cohen, Pieter A; Wang, Yan-Hong; Sagi, Satyanarayanaraju; Feng, Wei; Wang, Mei; Zweigenbaum, Jerry; Shuangcheng, Ma; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2014-11-01

    Red yeast rice (RYR) is prepared by fermenting rice with various strains of the yeast Monascus spp of the Aspergillaceae family. Depending on the Monascus strains and the fermentation conditions, the products may contain monacolins, pigments and citrinin as secondary metabolites. Authentic and commercial RYR samples were analyzed using UHPLC-DAD-QToF-MS for monacolins, pigments and citrinin. A separation by UHPLC was achieved using a reversed-phase column and a gradient of water/acetonitrile each containing formic acid as the mobile phase. Accurate mass QToF spectrometry was used to distinguish isobaric monacolins. Principle component analysis (PCA), a chemometric technique was used to discriminate between authentic RYR, commercial RYR raw materials and dietary supplements. Three authentic RYR samples, 31 commercial RYR raw materials and 14 RYR dietary supplements were analyzed. Monacolin K content in 600mg of authentic RYR samples ranged from 1.2mg to 1.38mg. Amounts of monacolin K in dietary supplements labeled as containing 600mg of RYR varied more than 40-fold from 0.03mg to 2.18mg. Monacolin K content of dietary supplements labeled as containing 1200mg RYR varied more than 20-fold from 0.22mg to 5.23mg. In addition to large variations in quantity of monacolin K found in dietary supplements, RYR dietary supplements contained ratios of monacolins that differed significantly from authentic samples. The results indicated that RYR commercial products are of variable quality and the analytical method is suitable for quality control testing of a variety of RYR products.

  12. Teff (Eragrostis tef) as a raw material for malting, brewing and manufacturing of gluten-free foods and beverages: a review.

    PubMed

    Gebremariam, Mekonnen Melaku; Zarnkow, Martin; Becker, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    The demand for gluten-free foods is certainly increasing. Interest in teff has increased noticeably due to its very attractive nutritional profile and gluten-free nature of the grain, making it a suitable substitute for wheat and other cereals in their food applications as well as foods for people with celiac disease. The main objective of this article is to review researches on teff, evaluate its suitability for different food applications, and give direction for further research on its applications for health food market. Teff is a tropical low risk cereal that grows in a wider ecology and can tolerate harsh environmental conditions where most other cereals are less viable. It has an excellent balance of amino acid composition (including all 8 essential amino acids for humans) making it an excellent material for malting and brewing. Because of its small size, teff is made into whole-grain flour (bran and germ included), resulting in a very high fiber content and high nutrient content in general. Teff is useful to improve the haemoglobin level in human body and helps to prevent malaria, incidence of anaemia and diabetes. The nutrient composition of teff grain indicates that it has a good potential to be used in foods and beverages worldwide. The high levels of simple sugars and α-amino acids as a result of breakdown of starch and protein, respectively, are essential for fermentation and beer making.

  13. Architect's Contract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Board of Education, Columbus.

    An actual contract form used for architectural services is presented. Fees, duties, and services are included. Services are listed in the following phases--(1) schematic design, (2) design development, (3) contract document, and (4) construction. Extra services are listed, and owner's responsibility with regard to cost estimates is given.…

  14. Study of in vitro bioactivity and mechanical properties of diopside nano-bioceramic synthesized by a facile method using eggshell as raw material.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Amirhossein; Abdellahi, Majid; Khajeh-Sharafabadi, Armina; Khandan, Amirsalar; Ozada, Neriman

    2017-02-01

    In this study, diopside bioceramic was synthesized using a mechanical milling process and subsequent heat treatment. The simplicity of experiments and also the high energy available in ball milling lead to rapid synthesis of the products in comparison with other synthesis methods. Magnesium oxide (MgO), silicon dioxide (SiO2) and eggshell (as the calcium source) powders were weighted in stoichiometric conditions and milled to initial activation of the surface of the powder's mixture. Then a sintering process was conducted to complete formation of diopside nanopowder and also evaluates its thermal stability. The mechanisms occurred during the synthesis of this bioceramic were carefully investigated. X-Ray diffraction analysis (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetry (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) were used for gathering and analyzing data. The ability and rate of apatite formation on the sample surface were evaluated by Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) test, a method that is well recognized to characterize the in vitro bioactivity of ceramic materials. According to the results obtained, the diopside samples had a significant potential to form apatite layer on their surface during soaking in the SBF solution. Besides, the bonding strength of this bioceramic was about 350±7MPa which was almost more than three times of that reported for hydroxyapatite. An excellent fracture toughness of 4±0.3MPam(0.5) was also obtained for this ceramic which was higher than that of previously reported works.

  15. TN International and ITS operational feedback regarding the decommissioning of obsolete casks dedicated to the transport and/or storage of nuclear raw materials, fuel and used fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Blachet, L.; Bimet, F.; Rennesson, N.

    2008-07-01

    Within the AREVA group, TN International is a major actor regarding the design of casks and transportation for the nuclear cycle. In the early 2005, TN International has started the project of decommissioning some of its own equipment and was hence the first company ever in the AREVA Group to implement this new approach. In order to do so, TN International has based this project by taking into account the AREVA Sustainable Development Charter, the French regulatory framework, the ANDRA (Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs - National Agency for the radioactive waste management) requirements and has deployed a step by step methodology such as radiological characterization following a logical route. The aim was to define a standardized process with optimized solutions regarding the diversity of the cask's fleet. As a general matter, decommissioning of nuclear casks is a brand new field as the nuclear field is more familiar with the dismantling of nuclear facilities and/or nuclear power plant. Nevertheless existing workshops, maintenance facilities, measurements equipments and techniques have been exploited and adapted by TN International in order to turn an ambitious project into a permanent and cost-effective activity. The decommissioning of the nuclear casks implemented by TN International regarding its own needs and the French regulatory framework is formalized by several processes and is materialized for instance by the final disposal of casks as they are or in ISO container packed with cut-off casks and big bags filled with crushed internal cask equipments, etc. The first part of this paper aims to describe the history of the project that started with a specific environmental analysis which took into account the values of AREVA as regards the Sustainable Development principles that were at the time and are still a topic of current concern in the world. The second part will deal with the definition, the design and the implementation of the

  16. Quantitative Analysis of Aloins and Aloin-Emodin in Aloe Vera Raw Materials and Finished Products Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography: Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2016.09.

    PubMed

    Kline, David; Ritruthai, Vicha; Babajanian, Silva; Gao, Quanyin; Ingle, Prashant; Chang, Peter; Swanson, Gary

    2017-02-28

    A single-laboratory validation study is described for a method of quantitative analysis of aloins (aloins A and B) andaloe-emodin in aloe vera raw materials and finished products. This method used HPLC coupled with UV detection at 380 nm for the aloins and 430 nm for aloe-emodin. The advantage of this test method is that the target analytes are concentrated from the sample matrix (either liquid or solid form) using stepwise liquid-liquid extraction (water-ethyl acetate-methanol), followed by solvent evaporation and reconstitution. This sample preparation process is suitable for different forms of products. The concentrating step for aloins and aloe-emodin has enhanced the method quantitation level to 20 parts per billion (ppb). Reversed-phase chromatography using a 250 × 4.6 mm column under gradient elution conditions was used. Mobile phase A is 0.1% acetic acid in water and mobile phase B is 0.1% acetic acid in acetonitrile. The HPLC run starts with a 20% mobile phase B that reaches 35% at 13 min. From 13 to 30 min, mobile phase B is increased from 35 to 100%. From 30 to 40 min, mobile phase B is changed from 100% back to the initial condition of 20% forre-equilibration. The flow rate is 1 mL/min, with a 100 μL injection volume. Baseline separation (Rs > 2.0) for aloins A and B and aloe-emodin was observed under this chromatographic condition. This test method was validated with raw materials of aloe vera 5× (liquid) and aloe vera 200× (powder) and finished products of aloe concentrate (liquid) and aloe (powder). The linearity of the method was studied from 10 to 500 ppb for aloins A and B and aloe-emodin, with correlation coefficients of 0.999964, 0.999957, and 0.999980, respectively. The test method was proven to be specific, precise, accurate, rugged, and suitable for the intended quantitative analysis of aloins and aloe-emodin in raw materials and finished products. The S/N for aloins A and B and aloe-emodin at 10 ppb level were 12, 10, and 8

  17. 48 CFR 1223.303 - Contract clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Hazardous Material Identification and Material Safety Data 1223.303 Contract...

  18. 48 CFR 23.303 - Contract clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Hazardous Material Identification and Material Safety Data 23.303 Contract...

  19. 48 CFR 23.303 - Contract clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Hazardous Material Identification and Material Safety Data 23.303 Contract...

  20. 48 CFR 1223.303 - Contract clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Hazardous Material Identification and Material Safety Data 1223.303 Contract...

  1. 75 FR 59195 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Time-and-Materials (T&M) and Labor-Hour (LH) Contracts for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 48 CFR Parts 8, 12, and 16 RIN: 9000-AL74 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Time-and-Materials (T&M) and Labor-Hour (LH)...

  2. RAW WATER STORAGE TANK ON NORTH SIDE OF WATER PUMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    RAW WATER STORAGE TANK ON NORTH SIDE OF WATER PUMP HOUSE, TRA-619. INTERIOR. INL NEGATIVE NO. 2489. Unknown Photographer, 6/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. 48 CFR 1223.303 - Contract clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 1223.303... DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Hazardous Material Identification and Material Safety Data 1223.303 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at (TAR) 48 CFR 1252.223-70, Removal or Disposal...

  4. 48 CFR 11.304 - Contract clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract clause. 11.304... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Acceptable Material 11.304 Contract clause. Insert the clause at 52.211-5, Material Requirements, in solicitations and contracts for supplies that are not commercial items....

  5. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Karen; Vasquez, Deb

    2017-01-01

    The Federal Energy Management Program's 'Utility Energy Service Contracts: Enabling Documents' provide legislative information and materials that clarify the authority for federal agencies to enter into utility energy service contracts, or UESCs.

  6. 7 CFR 1726.18 - Preloan contracting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES General § 1726.18 Preloan contracting. Borrowers must consult with RUS prior to entering into any contract for material, equipment, or...

  7. Bacterial spores in silage and raw milk.

    PubMed

    te Giffel, M C; Wagendorp, A; Herrewegh, A; Driehuis, F

    2002-08-01

    Spore-forming bacteria can survive food-processing treatments. In the dairy industry, Bacillus and Clostridium species determine the shelf-life of a variety of heat-treated milk products, mainly if the level of post-process contamination is low. In order to minimize problems caused by bacterial spores in foods and food production processes a chain management approach, from raw materials, ingredients and environmental sources to final product storage conditions, is most effective. Silage is considered to be a significant source of contamination of raw milk with spores. PCR-RAPD fingerprinting and heat resistance studies of populations of aerobic spore-formers isolated from grass and maize silage and from raw milk confirmed this assumption. Prevention of outgrowth of aerobic spores in silage will contribute to reduction of the total spore load of raw milk. Therefore, it is important that the silage fermentation process is controlled. Application of cultures of lactic acid bacteria or chemical additives can aid silage fermentation and improve aerobic stability.

  8. 48 CFR 16.603-4 - Contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract clauses. 16.603-4 Section 16.603-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Time-and-Materials, Labor-Hour, and Letter Contracts...

  9. Russian Contract Procurement Document

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J G

    2010-03-29

    This contract supports the enhancement of physical protection or nuclear material control and accounting systems at institutes or enterprises of the newly independent states under the material protection control and accounting (MPC&A) program. The contract is entered into pursuant to the MPC&A Program, a gratuitous technical assistance program, in accordance with the bilateral Agreements between the Russian Federation and the United States of America concerning the Safe and Secure Transportation, Storage and Destruction of Weapons and the Prevention of Weapons Proliferation of June 1992, as extended and amended by Protocol signed of June 1999, Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation regarding Cooperation in the Area of Nuclear Materials Physical Protection, Control and Accounting of October 1999 and the Russian Federation law of May 1999 on the taxation exemption of gratuitous technical assistance with Russian Federation under registration No.DOE001000.

  10. Diphyllobothriasis after eating raw salmon.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, J W; Bass, J W; Demers, D M; Myers, G B

    1997-07-01

    An 11-year-old boy in Hawaii passed mucus and a moving object in his stool. The object was identified as a segment of the fish tapeworm Diphyllobothrium species which is not indigenous to Hawaii. Diphyllobothrium ova were also found in the stool. The only raw fish he recalled eating in previous months were tuna sushi and lomi-lomi salmon which usually contains raw but previously frozen salmon. Of these two fish, only salmon which is not native to Hawaiian waters, has been incriminated as a significant source of diphyllobothrium fish tapeworm infection. Freezing kills this parasite, however, we speculate that the raw fish in the lomi-lomi salmon that our patient had eaten had not been pre-frozen or was not adequately pre-frozen. Eating raw salmon without certainty that it has been adequately pre-frozen carries the risk of diphyllobothriasis or fish tapeworm infection.

  11. Food Safety and Raw Milk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Learn more WATCH THIS: Real Stories About the Dangers of Raw Milk “My daughter turned into a ... yogurt–are safe if they come from healthy animals. No, even the healthiest animals can carry pathogens, ...

  12. 48 CFR 1843.205 - Contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT MODIFICATIONS Change Orders 1843.205 Contract clauses. As authorized in the prefaces of clauses FAR 52.243-1, Changes—Fixed Price; FAR 52.243-2, Changes—Cost Reimbursement; and FAR 52.243-4, Changes; and in the prescription at 43.205(c) for FAR 52.243-3, Changes—Time-and-Material...

  13. 48 CFR 1843.205 - Contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT MODIFICATIONS Change Orders 1843.205 Contract clauses. As authorized in the prefaces of clauses FAR 52.243-1, Changes—Fixed Price; FAR 52.243-2, Changes—Cost Reimbursement; and FAR 52.243-4, Changes; and in the prescription at 43.205(c) for FAR 52.243-3, Changes—Time-and-Material...

  14. 36 CFR 701.4 - Contracting Officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Contracting Officers. 701.4... Contracting Officers. While the Librarian of Congress may sign any agreement, certain other offices of the Library have been delegated authority to contract for materials and services on behalf of the Library...

  15. 48 CFR 1846.674 - Contract clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contract clause. 1846.674 Section 1846.674 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Material Inspection and Receiving Reports 1846.674 Contract...

  16. 48 CFR 1846.674 - Contract clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract clause. 1846.674 Section 1846.674 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Material Inspection and Receiving Reports 1846.674 Contract...

  17. 48 CFR 242.7204 - Contract clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Management and Accounting System 242.7204 Contract clause. Use the clause at 252.242-7004, Material Management and Accounting System, in all solicitations and contracts exceeding the simplified acquisition... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contract clause....

  18. Conversion of raw carbonaceous fuels

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.

    2007-08-07

    Three configurations for an electrochemical cell are utilized to generate electric power from the reaction of oxygen or air with porous plates or particulates of carbon, arranged such that waste heat from the electrochemical cells is allowed to flow upwards through a storage chamber or port containing raw carbonaceous fuel. These configurations allow combining the separate processes of devolatilization, pyrolysis and electrochemical conversion of carbon to electric power into a single unit process, fed with raw fuel and exhausting high BTU gases, electric power, and substantially pure CO.sub.2 during operation.

  19. Thermal highly porous insulation materials made of mineral raw materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mestnikov, A.

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the study is to create insulating foam based on modified mineral binders with rapid hardening. The results of experimental studies of the composition and properties of insulating foam on the basis of rapidly hardening Portland cement (PC) and gypsum binder composite are presented in the article. The article proposes technological methods of production of insulating foamed concrete and its placement to the permanent shuttering wall enclosures in monolithic-frame construction and individual energy-efficient residential buildings, thus reducing foam shrinkage and improving crack-resistance.

  20. 48 CFR 23.602 - Contract clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Notice of Radioactive Material 23.602 Contract clause. The contracting officer... regulations issued pursuant to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; or (b) radioactive material not...

  1. 48 CFR 23.602 - Contract clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Notice of Radioactive Material 23.602 Contract clause. The contracting officer... regulations issued pursuant to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; or (b) radioactive material not...

  2. 48 CFR 23.602 - Contract clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Notice of Radioactive Material 23.602 Contract clause. The contracting officer... regulations issued pursuant to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; or (b) radioactive material not...

  3. Review of laser micromachining in contract manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogura, Glenn; Gu, Bo

    1998-06-01

    This paper explores the wide range of laser micromachining applications used in contract manufacturing. Contract manufacturing is used in several key industries such as microelectronics packaging, semiconductor, data storage, medical devices, communications, peripherals, automobiles and aerospace. Material types includes plastics, metals, ceramics, inorganics and composites. However laser micromachining is just one available technology for micromachining and other methods will be reviewed. Contract manufacturing offers two important glimpses of the future. Firstly prototype work for new applications often beings in contract manufacturing. Secondly, contract manufacturing can be an economic springboard to allow laser systems to be installed in a production environment.

  4. 48 CFR 1316.601-70 - Contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 1316.601-70 Section 1316.601-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING....601-70 Contract clauses. Insert clause 1352.216-77, Ceiling Price, in all time-and-materials contracts....

  5. Plesiomonas shigelloides Periprosthetic Knee Infection After Consumption of Raw Oysters.

    PubMed

    Hustedt, Joshua W; Ahmed, Sarim

    Periprosthetic infections are a leading cause of morbidity after total joint arthroplasty. Common pathogens include Staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus, enterococcus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, there are many cases in which rare bacteria are isolated. This case report describes a periprosthetic knee infection caused by Plesiomonas shigelloides. In the United States, P shigelloides and 2 other Vibrionaceae family members, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, are most often contracted from eating raw oysters and shellfish. P shigelloides usually causes a self-limiting watery diarrhea, but in immunosuppressed people it can cause septicemia. In this case report, a chemically and biologically immunosuppressed man consumed raw oysters and developed P shigelloides septicemia and acute periprosthetic knee infection that required surgical intervention.

  6. Toxicities of raw Alocasia odora.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jeong Mi; Lee, Byeong Kook; Chun, Byeong Jo

    2011-10-01

    Alocasia, the Araceae family, is a genus of more than 100 species of perennial, herbaceous, diminutive to extremely large, usually robust herbs with a clear-to-milky latex. They are distributed throughout subtropical and tropical Asia and in the tropical western pacific as well as eastern Australia. Despite easy access to A odora, there have been no published reports in English regarding the toxic symptoms following the ingestion of raw A odora. Here, the clinical manifestations of 2 patients that ingested raw A odora are described. Two patients experienced oral numbness and intractable tongue pain, and 1 patient required endotracheal intubation because of upper respiratory tract obstruction. Although conservative treatment is the primary approach to A odora poisoning, physicians should be aware of the potential for upper respiratory obstruction in patients exposed to A odora, as well as the need for controlling tongue pain.

  7. GENERAL VIEW OF CENTRAL COMPLEX SHOWING STICK BINS FOR RAW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF CENTRAL COMPLEX SHOWING STICK BINS FOR RAW MATERIALS IN FOREGROUND, FOUR LARGE BOILER UNITS, AND STOVES AND THE #2 BLAST FURNACE WITH SKIP HOIST IN BACKGROUND. VIEW FROM THE EAST. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  8. RAW COPPER SLABS USED IN CASTING OPERATIONS AT BUFFALO PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    RAW COPPER SLABS USED IN CASTING OPERATIONS AT BUFFALO PLANT OF AMERICAN BRASS COMPANY. MATERIALS STORAGE FOR THE CAST SHOP NOW OCCUPIES A PORTION OF THE ORIGINAL BRASS MILL BUILT BY THE BUFFALO COPPER AND BRASS ROLLING MILL IN 1906-07 AND EXPANDED IN 1911. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  9. Potent odorants characterize the aroma quality of leaves and stalks in raw and boiled celery.

    PubMed

    Kurobayashi, Yoshiko; Kouno, Emi; Fujita, Akira; Morimitsu, Yasujiro; Kubota, Kikue

    2006-04-01

    The raw and boiled odors of celery leaves and stalks were investigated. Among 12 compounds identified as potent odorants, 3-n-butylphthalide 1, sedanenolide 2, and trans- and cis-sedanolides 3, 4 were assessed to be most contributive to the overall odor of celery. These three phthalides, (3E,5Z)-1,3,5-undecatriene, myrcene, and (E)-2-nonenal were common to both raw and boiled materials. Two compounds, ((Z)-3-hexenal and (Z)-3-hexenol), were dominant in raw materials and four compounds, (2-methylbutanoic acid, sotolon, beta-damascenone, and beta-ionone), were dominant in boiled materials. Sensory evaluations were performed on natural celery odor and a series of reconstructed model aromas by assigning each intensity ratings for a set of seven odor qualities which aptly describe the odors of raw and boiled celery. According to the evaluation results, six common components contributed to the moderate odor of raw celery, two components dominant in raw materials enhanced the raw celery character, and four components dominant in boiled materials reduced the raw celery character and enhanced the boiled celery character. It was clarified that boiling-induced changes in celery odor were not affected by the amounts of phthalides, but by thermally generated compounds such as sotolon, beta-damascenone, and beta-ionone, which reduce the "green spicy" note.

  10. Leveraging “Raw Materials” as Building Blocks and Bioactive Signals in Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Renth, Amanda N.

    2012-01-01

    Components found within the extracellular matrix (ECM) have emerged as an essential subset of biomaterials for tissue engineering scaffolds. Collagen, glycosaminoglycans, bioceramics, and ECM-based matrices are the main categories of “raw materials” used in a wide variety of tissue engineering strategies. The advantages of raw materials include their inherent ability to create a microenvironment that contains physical, chemical, and mechanical cues similar to native tissue, which prove unmatched by synthetic biomaterials alone. Moreover, these raw materials provide a head start in the regeneration of tissues by providing building blocks to be bioresorbed and incorporated into the tissue as opposed to being biodegraded into waste products and removed. This article reviews the strategies and applications of employing raw materials as components of tissue engineering constructs. Utilizing raw materials holds the potential to provide both a scaffold and a signal, perhaps even without the addition of exogenous growth factors or cytokines. Raw materials contain endogenous proteins that may also help to improve the translational success of tissue engineering solutions to progress from laboratory bench to clinical therapies. Traditionally, the tissue engineering triad has included cells, signals, and materials. Whether raw materials represent their own new paradigm or are categorized as a bridge between signals and materials, it is clear that they have emerged as a leading strategy in regenerative medicine. The common use of raw materials in commercial products as well as their growing presence in the research community speak to their potential. However, there has heretofore not been a coordinated or organized effort to classify these approaches, and as such we recommend that the use of raw materials be introduced into the collective consciousness of our field as a recognized classification of regenerative medicine strategies. PMID:22462759

  11. The dynamics of contract plasma fractionation.

    PubMed

    Farrugia, Albert; Scaramuccia, Daniela

    2017-03-01

    Plasma Derived Medicinal Products (PMDPs) are an essential component of the modern therapeutic armamentarium. They are differentiated from most other medicines in several ways, particularly the unique nature of the raw material used for their manufacture. Human plasma has been fractionated to PDMPs for the past 75 years, and the economics of manufacturing requires currently that as many products are harvested from each litre as is feasible and reflective of clinical needs. PDMPs may be purchased on the open market from the various commercial and not-for-profit (NFP) manufacturers. They may also be manufactured under contract (CM) from plasma supplied by government and similar agencies as a product of blood transfusion services. Clients for CM aspire to make full use of donated plasma, hence maximizing the donors' gift after the standard components of transfusion have been harvested. Many such countries also aspire to making their national clinical needs self-sufficient in PDMPs, attempting to acquire strategic independence from the vagaries of the commercial open market. The increasing commercial imperatives operating in the PMDP sector generate a tension with such ethical aspirations which are not easily resolved. In particular, the need to harvest as many proteins as possible may generate products which are surplus to national needs, necessitating an ethical paradigm for the optimal provision of such products. In addition, traditional relationships between blood services and domestic fractionation agencies may come under stress as a result of the competitive processes underpinning such transactions, which are now subject to international norms of free trade. Blood services engaged in the supply of hospital transfusion components are detached from the pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) culture needed for the production of plasma for CM, while the generation of such plasma through extraction from whole blood donations deflects the focus from that of

  12. Contract grading in clinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Schoolcraft, V; Delaney, C

    1982-01-01

    The use of contracts in grading clinical performance has provided faculty with a solution to two important problems. One has been how to ensure that students are graded consistently among the various faculty who are grading the same clinical component of a course. The second has been to increase the opportunity for individualized attention to student learning needs. We have been pleased to see all the faculty members increase their input and involvement in the continuing modifications of the contract. Although we have taken the major responsibility for the semi-annual revisions of the contract, other faculty members have been increasingly more explicit in their evaluations and suggestions as their experience with the contract has expanded. Their confidence in this method of clinical evaluation has increased with each semester of use. We plan to continue in the refinement of the instrument and will develop materials for the use of other faculty groups who are interested in developing similar contracts. We are also designing a survey to attempt to discover how widespread is the use of contract grading in clinical areas.

  13. 48 CFR 3052.242-71 - Dissemination of contract information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... performance of this contract, without the prior written consent of the Contracting Officer. An electronic or printed copy of any material proposed to be published or distributed shall be submitted to the...

  14. Water Resources Management In Support Of Raw Region Based On Decoupling Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesin, Yu V.; Fedulova, E. A.; Akulov, A. O.; Vik, S. V.; Korchagin, R. L.

    2017-01-01

    It determines the presence of the decoupling effect in the Russians raw regions materials by using water. Developed models that explain the relationship between the gross regional product and water intake. It proved no effect on the growth of water consumption in most regions of the reference commodity. Recommendations for the decoupling effect development in support of Russians raw regions.

  15. Curriculum Materials Developed Under a Contract with the New York State Department of Education, A Report and Appendices A-R.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slotkin, Herman

    Developed for use in a manpower development and training program, these curriculum materials include: (1) occupationally-related language arts and mathematics courses of study (Appendixes A-J), (2) occupationally-related remedial lesson materials for native born illiterates and non-English speaking trainees (Appendixes K-O), and (3) discussion…

  16. Raw Sewage Harbors Diverse Viral Populations

    PubMed Central

    Cantalupo, Paul G.; Calgua, Byron; Zhao, Guoyan; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Wier, Adam D.; Katz, Josh P.; Grabe, Michael; Hendrix, Roger W.; Girones, Rosina; Wang, David; Pipas, James M.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT At this time, about 3,000 different viruses are recognized, but metagenomic studies suggest that these viruses are a small fraction of the viruses that exist in nature. We have explored viral diversity by deep sequencing nucleic acids obtained from virion populations enriched from raw sewage. We identified 234 known viruses, including 17 that infect humans. Plant, insect, and algal viruses as well as bacteriophages were also present. These viruses represented 26 taxonomic families and included viruses with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), positive-sense ssRNA [ssRNA(+)], and dsRNA genomes. Novel viruses that could be placed in specific taxa represented 51 different families, making untreated wastewater the most diverse viral metagenome (genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples) examined thus far. However, the vast majority of sequence reads bore little or no sequence relation to known viruses and thus could not be placed into specific taxa. These results show that the vast majority of the viruses on Earth have not yet been characterized. Untreated wastewater provides a rich matrix for identifying novel viruses and for studying virus diversity. Importance At this time, virology is focused on the study of a relatively small number of viral species. Specific viruses are studied either because they are easily propagated in the laboratory or because they are associated with disease. The lack of knowledge of the size and characteristics of the viral universe and the diversity of viral genomes is a roadblock to understanding important issues, such as the origin of emerging pathogens and the extent of gene exchange among viruses. Untreated wastewater is an ideal system for assessing viral diversity because virion populations from large numbers of individuals are deposited and because raw sewage itself provides a rich environment for the growth of diverse host species and thus their viruses. These studies suggest that

  17. Eosinophilic meningitis risk associated with raw Ampullarium canaliculatus snails consumption.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiun-Jye; Chung, Li-Yu; Lin, Rong-Jyh; Lee, June-Der; Lin, Chaio-Wen; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2011-05-01

    In Taiwan, Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection has been reported in foreign laborers who had consumed raw Ampullarium canaliculatus snails. This study analyzed three foreign laborers who had contracted enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-confirmed A cantonensis infection while working in Taiwan. All three workers had consumed either roasted snails or raw snails flavored with seasoning while drinking wine. This study investigated possible risk factors for A cantonensis, including naturally occurring A cantonensis in A canaliculatus snails, viability of third-stage A cantonensis larvae in raw seasoned snails and in roasted snails, infectivity of larvae, and effects of alcohol while consuming snails. Positive infection rates in snails from five different irrigation canals in south Taiwan ranged from 12.3% to 29.4% and the average number of motile larvae per infected snail ranged from 36 to 65. The number of motile and coiled larvae in snail meat after 120 minutes seasoning was 93 (27.7%) and 233 (69.3%), respectively. After 20 minutes of roasting, most larvae in the snail meat were dead. The infectivities of motile and coiled larvae from snail meat after 60 minutes seasoning were 53.2% and 33.2%, respectively, and those from snail meat after 5 minutes roasting were 33.2% and 7.0%, respectively. Eating Taiwan A canaliculatus snails raw is extremely risky given their high infection rates and infection intensities. Even after 120 minutes seasoning or after 20 minutes roasting, snail meat should be considered unsafe for human consumption. Finally, experimental rodent studies indicated that consuming alcohol while ingesting larvae does not significantly reduced infectivity.

  18. Mechanical Treatment of Raw Waste Lumber an Effective Way to Preserve the Ecology and Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomin, Anatoly A.; Gusev, Vladimir G.; Yudin, Roman V.; Timerbaev, Nail F.; Retyunskiy, Oleg Yu

    2016-08-01

    Alternative process flowsheet machining of the machining of raw waste lumber were analysed, and it was implemented in a real machine model based on the chosen scheme. The forming process of the treated surface of the stock material was examined, and consequently the mathematical models of the geometric errors in terms of independent factors of the profile milling process were defined. Based on these models is possible to construct a treatment process of the raw waste lumber with minimal errors on the surfaces which were treated. The manufacturing of products from raw waste lumber allows to reduce the volume of deforestation and helps to preserve the ecology and economize the material resources.

  19. Multiple Option Grade Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partin, Ronald L.

    1979-01-01

    A flexible, point contract system is described which maximizes the advantages of a criterion-referenced contract system while eliminating some of the disadvantages of standard grade contracts. This model has been used by the author in a variety of high school and college courses. (Author/SJL)

  20. Teaching about Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froman, Michael; Kosnoff, Kathy

    1978-01-01

    Presents teaching strategies for introducing high school students to contract law. Offers as a case study a contract agreement between pro football players and team owners. Stresses basic elements of contracts (offer, acceptance, consideration, and understanding the bargaining process). Journal available from the American Bar Association, 1155…

  1. 7 CFR 29.6033 - Raw.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Raw. 29.6033 Section 29.6033 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6033 Raw. Tobacco as it appears between the time of harvesting and...

  2. 48 CFR 204.470-3 - Contract clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Protocol, in solicitations and contracts for research and development or major defense acquisition programs...) Other radiological source materials; or (c) Technologies directly related to nuclear power...

  3. Materialism.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    Materialism is nearly universally assumed by cognitive scientists. Intuitively, materialism says that a person's mental states are nothing over and above his or her material states, while dualism denies this. Philosophers have introduced concepts (e.g., realization and supervenience) to assist in formulating the theses of materialism and dualism with more precision, and distinguished among importantly different versions of each view (e.g., eliminative materialism, substance dualism, and emergentism). They have also clarified the logic of arguments that use empirical findings to support materialism. Finally, they have devised various objections to materialism, objections that therefore serve also as arguments for dualism. These objections typically center around two features of mental states that materialism has had trouble in accommodating. The first feature is intentionality, the property of representing, or being about, objects, properties, and states of affairs external to the mental states. The second feature is phenomenal consciousness, the property possessed by many mental states of there being something it is like for the subject of the mental state to be in that mental state. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:281-292. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1174 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  4. FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS. RAW MATERIAL SELECTION INFLUENCES POLARIZATION BUT IS NOT A SINGLE CONTROLLING FACTOR. AVAILABLE...DATA INDICATES THAT AN INTERRELATIONSHIP OF POROSITY, AVERAGE PORE VOLUME, AND PERMEABILITY CONTRIBUTES TO ELECTRODE FUEL CELL BEHAVIOR.

  5. 40 CFR 63.1345 - Emissions limits for affected sources other than kilns; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Emissions limits for affected sources other than kilns; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers; new and reconstructed raw material dryers... for affected sources other than kilns; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers; new and...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1345 - Emissions limits for affected sources other than kilns; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emissions limits for affected sources other than kilns; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers; new and reconstructed raw material dryers... for affected sources other than kilns; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers; new and...

  7. The recycling of incinerated sewage sludge ash as a raw material for CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-P2O5 glass-ceramic production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Lei; Yin, Yulei; Liang, Xuanye; Li, Aimin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the recycling of incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) into glass-ceramic materials by a two-stage sintering cycle of nucleation stage and crystallization stage without any pressure and binder is presented. The parent glasses were subjected to the following nucleation/crystallization temperature and time level: (A) 790°C, 1.0 h/870°C, 1.0-3.0 h; (B) 790°C, 1.0 h/945°C, 1.0-3.0 h and (C) 790°C, 1.0 h/1065°C, 1.0-3.0 h. X-ray power diffraction analysis results revealed that multiple crystalline phases coexisted in the glass-ceramic materials and the crystalline phase compositions were more affected by crystallization temperature than crystallization time. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed an interlocking microstructure of glass phases and crystals with different sizes and spatial distribution. The glass-ceramics crystallized at 945°C for 2.0 h exhibited optimal properties of density of 2.88±0.08 g/cm3, compression strength of 247±12 MPa, bending strength of 118±14 MPa and water absorption of 0.42±0.04. The leaching concentrations of heavy metals were far lower than the limits required by the regulatory standard of EPA. This paper provides a feasible, low-cost and promising method to produce ISSA-based glass-ceramics and highlights the principal characteristics that must be taken into account to use ISSA correctly in glass-ceramics.

  8. [Inhibition of premature uterine contractions].

    PubMed

    Troszyński, M; Leibschang, J; Chazan, B; Adamowicz, R; Brankowska, J

    1979-01-01

    Various drugs used to stop premature uterine contractions are discussed in the paper. Particular attention is paid to beta-mimetic drugs. The results of ming Partusisten, one of beta-mimetic drugs, is presented on the material of 104 patients with threatening immature and premature labour. Partusisten was administered in the form of intravenous drip infusion or tablets. During treatment monitoring of the uterine contractility and of foetal heart rate took place. Inhibition of the uterine contraction activity was successful in 100 per cent of cases. In 60,9 per cent in the group of threatening immature labour and in 38,1 per cent in the group threatening premature labour, the delay of delivery was more then 28 days. The delay of delivery by 48 hours was 87 per cent and 84 per cent in both groups respectively. Tachycardia was one of the first side effects observed in 15,2 per cent of cases. There is also presented an example of pregnancy when delivery was delayed by 21 days in spite of premature outflow of amniotic fluid (at a high rupture of membrane). The authors are of the opinion that Partusisten is very effective and gives little side effects, preventing premature uterine contractions. Dosage should be individualized according to the case and labour advancement, and should be based on topographic evaluation of uterine contraction. Negative influence of the drug on foetuses was not observed.

  9. Use of commercial limestone and other commercially available raw materials in the lime-soda sinter process for the extraction of alumina from a sub-bituminous western coal fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    El-Hout, A.A.

    1981-10-01

    The study of commercial limestone in the Lime-Soda Sinter process has shown that high alumina recoveries are possible using high grade limestones. High recovery sinter compositions using limestone appear to be in the same region as those performed with calcium carbonate reagent, and thus the results demonstrate that high grade limestone can be used as a substitute. Magnesium oxide is a relatively inert material in the sinter reactions. Dolomitic limestones can be used but only the calcium carbonate portion of the rock is reactive. Potassium carbonate is reactive and can replace soda ash; therefore, it is expected that credit can be taken for both Na/sub 2/O and K/sub 2/O contained in fly ashes, limestones, kiln dusts, etc., to decrease the amount of soda ash which must be added to sinter mixtures. Sodium chloride cannot substitute for sodium carbonate; the chloride ion is probably detrimental in the sinter reaction. Synthetic Trona was shown to be an excellent substitute for sodium carbonate. Kiln dust can be used as a suitable lime substitute. The particle size of the limestone is an important factor in the investigation of the maximum yield of aluminum.

  10. Issues in physician contracting.

    PubMed

    Fanburg, John D; Leone, Alyson M

    2005-09-01

    Dermatologists will enter into a number of different contracts during their professional careers. It is important that in each agreement they enter, dermatologists reap the benefits that they aspire for and understand the consequences of each provision. This article addresses just a few of the different issues that arise in physician contracting, such as choosing the appropriate form of business entity; the importance of a writing; term and termination of the contract; compensation models; benefits, vacation and other time off included in the contract; malpractice insurance; and restrictive covenants. Each provision should be carefully analyzed to ensure that it will protect the best interests of the dermatologist in that situation.

  11. Food fears and raw-milk cheese.

    PubMed

    West, Harry G

    2008-07-01

    This paper examines the debate over the safety of raw-milk cheese. Departing from Nestle's categories of "science-based" and "value-based" approaches to risk assessment, the author argues that raw-milk cheese advocates, as well as proponents of pasteurisation, invoke science to support their positions, and measure risk against potential costs and benefits. Additionally, the author argues, each position is animated by, albeit differing, values and their attendant fears. While artisan cheesemakers associations have successfully averted bans on raw-milk cheesemaking in various contexts in recent years, the author concludes that they remain vulnerable to future food scares unless consumer interest in raw-milk cheese is sustained.

  12. Our Finished Product--Industry's Raw Product

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, L. Myron

    1978-01-01

    Comparing students in agribusiness sales, supply, and service courses to raw products in need of development, the author discusses the backgrounds of these students and their developing maturity through supervised occupational experience. (BM)

  13. Tying the Contract Knot.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Kimberly

    2001-01-01

    An informal survey of state superintendent associations and lawyers representing superintendents reveals little change in top executives' contracts over the past decade. Mandatory evaluations and renewable (non-"evergreen") contracts are becoming common; pay-for-performance measures are emerging, yet limited. Contractual and job-leaving…

  14. Contract Teachers in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goyal, Sangeeta; Pandey, Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we use non-experimental data from government schools in Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, two of the largest Indian states, to present average school outcomes by contract status of teachers. We find that contract teachers are associated with higher effort than civil service teachers with permanent tenures, before as well as after…

  15. The New Employment Contract?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, David I.

    2002-01-01

    In the classic employment contract, especially at large companies, wages were not strongly responsive to the labor market. Instead, individual companies had distinctive company wage levels and patterns. An exhaustive study of employers and employees in the United States and Japan examined whether the "old employment contract" has been…

  16. Weighing the Contract Option.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dervarics, Charles

    1993-01-01

    Contracting for noneducational services is standard operating procedure in many school districts. Private contractors are involved in transportation, food service, maintenance, and even, in rare cases, instruction. Before deciding to contract out, school boards should examine improvement to school-run operations before making a final decision.…

  17. 48 CFR 316.603-71 - Approval for modifications to letter contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval for modifications to letter contracts. 316.603-71 Section 316.603-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Time-and-Materials,...

  18. Managing the Contract Closeout Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    also fulfilled its obligations (Ref. l:p. 267]. The closeout process completes all the individual actions started during earlier segments of the...taught as a segment in the Management of Defense Acquisition Contracts (MDAC) Advanced Contract Administration course. There is no separate course for... segment ir the Management of Defense Acquisiticn Contracts (MDAC) Advanced Contract Administration course. The National Contract Management Association

  19. Strategic Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    to meet their obligations. Competition requires maintaining a lean cost structure, managing raw material requirements, improving the quality of products and...competitive reputations in the market through the quality of products and the ability to meet defense ballistic performance specifications and delivery

  20. 48 CFR 3042.7000 - Contract clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Contracting Officer's Technical Representative 3042.7000 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at (HSAR) 48 CFR 3052.242-72, Contracting Officer's Technical Representative,...

  1. Clay: An important raw material for prehistoric man

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, U.; Gebhard, R.; Grosse, G.; Hutzelmann, T.; Murad, E.; Riederer, J.; Shimada, I.; Wagner, F. E.

    1998-12-01

    Early techniques of making pottery can be investigated by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. Iron is generally present in unpurified clays in concentrations of several percent. During firing, the iron undergoes characteristic changes of its chemical and physical state, depending on the kiln atmosphere and on the maximum firing temperature reached. These changes can be followed by Mössbauer spectroscopy. Firing techniques can often be reconstructed when spectra of laboratory and field fired samples are compared with those observed in ancient sherds.

  2. Raw material preparation for ultra high production rate sintering

    SciTech Connect

    Kortmann, H.A.; Ritz, V.J.; Cappel, F.; Weisel, H.; Richter, G.

    1995-12-01

    An R and D program in pot grate sintering showed, that an intensive preparation of ores, additives and coke breeze improves the sintering capacity. The tests were conducted using an ore mixture composed of typical ores imported to Europe. The highest capacities were attained up to 63.8 t/m{sup 2} {times} 24 h maximum for a sinter which well fulfills the high requirements on chemical, physical and metallurgical properties.

  3. Engineered Plants Make Potential Precursor to Raw Material for Plastics

    ScienceCinema

    Shanklin, John

    2016-10-19

    In a first step toward achieving industrial-scale green production, scientists from BNL and collaborators at Dow AgroSciences report engineering a plant that produces industrially relevant levels of chemicals that could potentially be used to make plastics.

  4. Engineered Plants Make Potential Precursor to Raw Material for Plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Shanklin, John

    2010-11-02

    In a first step toward achieving industrial-scale green production, scientists from BNL and collaborators at Dow AgroSciences report engineering a plant that produces industrially relevant levels of chemicals that could potentially be used to make plastics.

  5. Food Acquisition: Food Ingredients, Raw Materials and Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheat, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    The kind of food supply system that will serve the space station in coming years is considered. The direction and rate of evolution of space food service systems is also considered and what is needed to supply appropriate food to space station crews. Innovations in food sourcing, recipe development, pre-preparation, packaging, preservation, presentation, consumption and waste disposal are discussed. The development and validation of preparation systems and ingredients which minimize demands on crew time and provide maximum eating enjoyment is outlined.

  6. Abundant raw material for cis-regulatory evolution in humans.

    PubMed

    Rockman, Matthew V; Wray, Gregory A

    2002-11-01

    Changes in gene expression and regulation--due in particular to the evolution of cis-regulatory DNA sequences--may underlie many evolutionary changes in phenotypes, yet little is known about the distribution of such variation in populations. We present in this study the first survey of experimentally validated functional cis-regulatory polymorphism. These data are derived from more than 140 polymorphisms involved in the regulation of 107 genes in Homo sapiens, the eukaryote species with the most available data. We find that functional cis-regulatory variation is widespread in the human genome and that the consequent variation in gene expression is twofold or greater for 63% of the genes surveyed. Transcription factor-DNA interactions are highly polymorphic, and regulatory interactions have been gained and lost within human populations. On average, humans are heterozygous at more functional cis-regulatory sites (>16,000) than at amino acid positions (<13,000), in part because of an overrepresentation among the former in multiallelic tandem repeat variation, especially (AC)(n) dinucleotide microsatellites. The role of microsatellites in gene expression variation may provide a larger store of heritable phenotypic variation, and a more rapid mutational input of such variation, than has been realized. Finally, we outline the distinctive consequences of cis-regulatory variation for the genotype-phenotype relationship, including ubiquitous epistasis and genotype-by-environment interactions, as well as underappreciated modes of pleiotropy and overdominance. Ordinary small-scale mutations contribute to pervasive variation in transcription rates and consequently to patterns of human phenotypic variation.

  7. Abundant raw material for cis-regulatory evolution in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rockman, Matthew V.; Wray, Gregory A.

    2002-01-01

    Changes in gene expression and regulation--due in particular to the evolution of cis-regulatory DNA sequences--may underlie many evolutionary changes in phenotypes, yet little is known about the distribution of such variation in populations. We present in this study the first survey of experimentally validated functional cis-regulatory polymorphism. These data are derived from more than 140 polymorphisms involved in the regulation of 107 genes in Homo sapiens, the eukaryote species with the most available data. We find that functional cis-regulatory variation is widespread in the human genome and that the consequent variation in gene expression is twofold or greater for 63% of the genes surveyed. Transcription factor-DNA interactions are highly polymorphic, and regulatory interactions have been gained and lost within human populations. On average, humans are heterozygous at more functional cis-regulatory sites (>16,000) than at amino acid positions (<13,000), in part because of an overrepresentation among the former in multiallelic tandem repeat variation, especially (AC)(n) dinucleotide microsatellites. The role of microsatellites in gene expression variation may provide a larger store of heritable phenotypic variation, and a more rapid mutational input of such variation, than has been realized. Finally, we outline the distinctive consequences of cis-regulatory variation for the genotype-phenotype relationship, including ubiquitous epistasis and genotype-by-environment interactions, as well as underappreciated modes of pleiotropy and overdominance. Ordinary small-scale mutations contribute to pervasive variation in transcription rates and consequently to patterns of human phenotypic variation.

  8. 7 CFR 58.735 - Quality specifications for raw materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... objectionable flavors, and shall be obtained from milk which complies with the quality requirements as specified in § 58.132 of this subpart. (f) Nonfat dry milk. Nonfat dry milk used in officially identified... in excess of that specified for the particular grade. (g) Whey. Condensed or dry whey used...

  9. Production of a raw material for energy production in agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellstroem, G.

    1980-04-01

    The total amount of energy in products produced by Swedish agriculture was estimated to 80 TWH: 30 TWh for cereals, 15 TWh for grass and leguminosae, and 35 TWh for straw and other agricultural wastes. Of this production a large part will be used as food even in the future. New plants that would produce more energy than the ones traditionally grown in Sweden are discussed. Also other types of energy from agriculture are discussed such as methane from manure, methanol from gasification processes, and ethanol from fermentative processes. Costs were estimated from different alternatives.

  10. Grown organic matter as a fuel raw material resource

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roller, W. L.; Keener, H. M.; Kline, R. D.; Mederski, H. J.; Curry, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    An extensive search was made on biomass production from the standpoint of climatic zones, water, nutrients, costs and energy requirements for many species. No exotic species were uncovered that gave hope for a bonanza of biomass production under culture, location, and management markedly different from those of existing agricultural concepts. A simulation analysis of biomass production was carried out for six species using conventional production methods, including their production costs and energy requirements. These estimates were compared with data on food, fiber, and feed production. The alternative possibility of using residues from food, feed, or lumber was evaluated. It was concluded that great doubt must be cast on the feasibility of producing grown organic matter for fuel, in competition with food, feed, or fiber. The feasibility of collecting residues may be nearer, but the competition for the residues for return to the soil or cellulosic production is formidable.

  11. Methane as raw material in synthetic chemistry: the final frontier.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Ana; Pérez, Pedro J

    2013-12-07

    In spite of its large availability in natural or shale gas deposits, the use of methane in the chemical industry as feedstock from a synthetic point of view yet constitutes a challenge in modern chemistry. Only the production of the so-called syngas, a mixture of CO and H2 derived from the complete cleavage of the methane molecule, operates at the industrial level. The relevance of methane in the current industry, mainly toward methanol production, is described in this Tutorial. The methanol economy has been already proposed as an alternative to current fuel sources. Methanol synthesis directly from methane would imply the activation of the latter. Toward this end, the different methodologies reported to activate methane with transition metal complexes as well as the few examples of the catalytic functionalization of methane are presented.

  12. Marine Corps Contingency Contracting MCI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    unfamiliar, such as, foreign business practices, cultures, and language barriers . The importance of having a trained contingency contracting officer...practices, cultures, and language barriers . D. WHO PERFORMS CONTINGENCY CONTRACTING The individuals who perform contingency contracting within the

  13. Crystallographic raw data, education and refereeing.

    PubMed

    Helliwell, John R

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the preservation of raw diffraction data, then addresses the impact on future plans in the education and training of our community with respect to raw diffraction data and its potential reuse, and, thirdly presents the issue of referee access to the underpinning diffraction data and coordinates, as well as the Protein Data Bank Validation Report, in the review process of structural biology articles submitted for publication. Overall I pay tribute to the scientific achievements of Alex Wlodawer, who is also an ardent advocate of the importance of experimental data.

  14. Drafting the Superintendent's Contract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, James F.

    1983-01-01

    A superintendent's contract should be individually designed and negotiated; however, necessary characteristics are suggested in the areas of duration, certification and responsibilities, compensation, vacation and fringe benefits, liability and indemnification, medical examination, evaluation, renewal and nonrenewal, termination, and a…

  15. Negotiating managed care contracts.

    PubMed

    Beckman, P A; Fischer, T J

    1997-08-01

    Physicians currently have a major opportunity to help guide the rapid evolution of managed care in the United States. General principles on how physicians can successfully negotiate a managed care contract are discussed.

  16. Superfund Contract Laboratory Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Contract Laboratory Program (CLP) is a national network of EPA personnel, commercial laboratories, and support contractors whose primary mission is to provide data of known and documented quality to the Superfund program.

  17. Mechanics of Vorticella Contraction

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Gaurav; Dickinson, Richard B.; Ladd, Anthony J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Vorticella convallaria is one of a class of fast-moving organisms that can traverse its body size in less than a millisecond by rapidly coiling a slender stalk anchoring it to a nearby surface. The stalk houses a fiber called the spasmoneme, which winds helically within the stalk and rapidly contracts in response to calcium signaling. We have developed a coupled mechanical-chemical model of the coiling process, accounting for the coiling of the elastic stalk and the binding of calcium to the protein spasmin. Simulations of the model describe the contraction and recovery processes quantitatively. The stalk-spasmoneme system is shown to satisfy geometric constraints, which explains why the cell body sometimes rotates during contraction. The shape of the collapsing and recovering stalk bounds its effective bending stiffness. Simulations suggest that recovery from the contracted state is driven by the stalk at a rate controlled by dissociation of calcium from spasmin. PMID:20550905

  18. Mechanics of Vorticella contraction.

    PubMed

    Misra, Gaurav; Dickinson, Richard B; Ladd, Anthony J C

    2010-06-16

    Vorticella convallaria is one of a class of fast-moving organisms that can traverse its body size in less than a millisecond by rapidly coiling a slender stalk anchoring it to a nearby surface. The stalk houses a fiber called the spasmoneme, which winds helically within the stalk and rapidly contracts in response to calcium signaling. We have developed a coupled mechanical-chemical model of the coiling process, accounting for the coiling of the elastic stalk and the binding of calcium to the protein spasmin. Simulations of the model describe the contraction and recovery processes quantitatively. The stalk-spasmoneme system is shown to satisfy geometric constraints, which explains why the cell body sometimes rotates during contraction. The shape of the collapsing and recovering stalk bounds its effective bending stiffness. Simulations suggest that recovery from the contracted state is driven by the stalk at a rate controlled by dissociation of calcium from spasmin.

  19. Premature Ventricular Contractions (PVCs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the body that may be caused by caffeine, tobacco, exercise or anxiety Injury to the heart ... may increase your risk of premature ventricular contractions: Caffeine, tobacco and alcohol Exercise High blood pressure (hypertension) ...

  20. 3 CFR - Government Contracting

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... contract oversight could reduce such sums significantly. Government outsourcing for services also raises... governmental functions. Agencies and departments must operate under clear rules prescribing when outsourcing is... oversee acquisitions appropriately; and (4) clarify when governmental outsourcing for services is and...

  1. Advanced Contract Administration. First Week

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-14

    administration. Keywords: Contracting/administrative contracting officer relations Financial management; Production management , Quality assurance; Subcontracting; Claims; Government property; Ethics data sources and modifications.

  2. Joint Contingency Contracting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    Cdr (Head of Contracting Activity - HCA)FISC - Sigonella 5th Fleet AOR NAVSUP FISC Site - Dubai FISC Det-Bahrain Bahrain Seychelles CJOA Afghanistan...Services’ individual approaches for the accession of COs (and contracting specialists) is inconsistent and creates disparities between the breadth...and temperatures ranging from 130 degrees to below freezing. J42 AAdmin Clerk (Navy E-5) J4221 Fuels Ops Officer Navy

  3. Availability of Ice and Frozen Stored Dusky Spinefoot as Raw Masterials for Kamaboko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Akane; Hamada, Yuki; Osako, Kazufumi; Tachibana, Katsuyasu; Nozaki, Yukinori

    The gel forming properties and low temperature torelance of dusky spinefoot as raw materials of kamaboko were evaluated during contact icing and frozen storage ( -25°C ) in round. Kamaboko was prepared at definite periods, and its jelly strength ( J. S. ) water holding capacity and whiteness, and Ca-ATPase activity of the myofibrils of the fish were analyzed. As a result of this study, it was considered That dusky spinefoot meat immeadiately after catch is suitable for raw materials of kamaboko making. However, J.S. and Ca-ATPase activity decreased with the extention of storage period. The limits for the icing and frozen storage periods of the round fish as raw materials of kamaboko were two days and one day, respectively. This suggests that more study should be necessary for long term low temperature storage.

  4. Ash-Based Ceramic Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This patent discloses a ceramic material made from raw coal fly ash or raw municipal solid waste fly ash and (1) sodium tetraborate or (2) a mixture of sodium tetraborate and a calcium containing material that is triple superphosphate, lime, dolomite lime, or mixtures thereof.

  5. Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaessgen, Edward H.; Schoeppner, Gregory A.

    2006-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has successfully developed an electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) process, a rapid metal deposition process that works efficiently with a variety of weldable alloys. The EBF3 process can be used to build a complex, unitized part in a layer-additive fashion, although the more immediate payoff is for use as a manufacturing process for adding details to components fabricated from simplified castings and forgings or plate products. The EBF3 process produces structural metallic parts with strengths comparable to that of wrought product forms and has been demonstrated on aluminum, titanium, and nickel-based alloys to date. The EBF3 process introduces metal wire feedstock into a molten pool that is created and sustained using a focused electron beam in a vacuum environment. Operation in a vacuum ensures a clean process environment and eliminates the need for a consumable shield gas. Advanced metal manufacturing methods such as EBF3 are being explored for fabrication and repair of aerospace structures, offering potential for improvements in cost, weight, and performance to enhance mission success for aircraft, launch vehicles, and spacecraft. Near-term applications of the EBF3 process are most likely to be implemented for cost reduction and lead time reduction through addition of details onto simplified preforms (casting or forging). This is particularly attractive for components with protruding details that would require a significantly large volume of material to be machined away from an oversized forging, offering significant reductions to the buy-to-fly ratio. Future far-term applications promise improved structural efficiency through reduced weight and improved performance by exploiting the layer-additive nature of the EBF3 process to fabricate tailored unitized structures with functionally graded microstructures and compositions.

  6. Minimization of Salmonella Contamination on Raw Poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many reviews have discussed Salmonella in poultry and suggested best practices to minimize this organism on raw poultry meat. Despite years of research and conscientious control efforts by industry and regulatory agencies, human salmonellosis rates have declined only modestly and Salmonella is stil...

  7. Upgrading of raw oil into advanced fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The overall objective of the research effort is the determination of the minimum processing requirements to produce high energy density fuels (HEDF) having acceptable fuel specifications. The program encompasses assessing current technology capability; selecting acceptable processing and refining schemes; and generating samples of advanced test fuels. The Phase I Baseline Program is intended to explore the processing alternatives for producing advanced HEDF from two raw synfuel feedstocks, one from Mild Coal Gasification as exemplified by the COALITE process and one from Colorado shale oil. Eight key tasks have been identified as follows: (1) Planning and Environmental Permitting; (2) Transporting and Storage of Raw Fuel Sources and Products; (3) Screening of Processing and Upgrading Schemes; (4) Proposed Upgrading Schemes for Advanced Fuel; (5) Upgrading of Raw Oil into Advanced Fuel (6) Packaging and Shipment of Advanced Fuels; (7) Updated Technical and Economic Assessment; and, (8) Final Report of Phase I Efforts. This topical report summarizes the operations and results of the Phase I Task 5 sample preparation program. The specific objectives of Task 5 were to: Perform laboratory characterization tests on the raw COALITE feed, the intermediate liquids to the required hydroprocessing units and final advanced fuels and byproducts; and produce a minimum of 25-gal of Category I test fuel for evaluation by DOE and its contractors.

  8. Quality aspects of raw milk cheeses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cheese has been a part of the human diet for thousands of years and over the centuries cheesemakers have relied on the indigenous microflora and enzymes in raw milk to create the signature quality traits for the many different varieties of cheese found around the world. Although most of the cheese i...

  9. Affine Contractions on the Plane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celik, D.; Ozdemir, Y.; Ureyen, M.

    2007-01-01

    Contractions play a considerable role in the theory of fractals. However, it is not easy to find contractions which are not similitudes. In this study, it is shown by counter examples that an affine transformation of the plane carrying a given triangle onto another triangle may not be a contraction even if it contracts edges, heights or medians.…

  10. Energetics of contraction.

    PubMed

    Barclay, C J

    2015-04-01

    Muscles convert energy from ATP into useful work, which can be used to move limbs and to transport ions across membranes. The energy not converted into work appears as heat. At the start of contraction heat is also produced when Ca(2+) binds to troponin-C and to parvalbumin. Muscles use ATP throughout an isometric contraction at a rate that depends on duration of stimulation, muscle type, temperature and muscle length. Between 30% and 40% of the ATP used during isometric contraction fuels the pumping Ca(2+) and Na(+) out of the myoplasm. When shortening, muscles produce less force than in an isometric contraction but use ATP at a higher rate and when lengthening force output is higher than the isometric force but rate of ATP splitting is lower. Efficiency quantifies the fraction of the energy provided by ATP that is converted into external work. Each ATP molecule provides 100 zJ of energy that can potentially be converted into work. The mechanics of the myosin cross-bridge are such that at most 50 zJ of work can be done in one ATP consuming cycle; that is, the maximum efficiency of a cross-bridge is ∼50%. Cross-bridges in tortoise muscle approach this limit, producing over 90% of the possible work per cycle. Other muscles are less efficient but contract more rapidly and produce more power.

  11. 7 CFR 1726.251 - Prior approved contract modification related to price escalation on transmission equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... escalation on transmission equipment, generation equipment, and generation construction contracts. 1726.251... escalation on transmission equipment, generation equipment, and generation construction contracts. (a... firm price on transmission equipment or generation equipment, materials or construction,...

  12. 7 CFR 1755.28 - Notice and publication of listed contract forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.28 Notice and publication of listed contract forms. (a) Notice... exceptions and alternatives, will be sent by regular or electronic mail to the borrower's address...

  13. 7 CFR 1755.29 - Promulgation of new or revised contract forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.29 Promulgation of new or revised contract forms. RUS may... send, by regular or electronic mail, a copy of each such Federal Register document to all borrowers....

  14. 48 CFR 223.7103 - Contract clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Storage and Disposal of Toxic and Hazardous Materials 223.7103 Contract clause. (a) Use the clause at 252.223-7006, Prohibition on Storage and...

  15. 48 CFR 225.7503 - Contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Balance of Payments Program 225.7503 Contract clauses. Unless the entire acquisition is exempt from the Balance of Payments Program— (a)(1) Use the clause at 252.225-7044, Balance of Payments Program—Construction Material, in solicitations and...

  16. 48 CFR 225.7503 - Contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Balance of Payments Program 225.7503 Contract clauses. Unless the entire acquisition is exempt from the Balance of Payments Program— (a)(1) Use the clause at 252.225-7044, Balance of Payments Program—Construction Material, in solicitations and...

  17. 48 CFR 225.7503 - Contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Balance of Payments Program 225.7503 Contract clauses. Unless the entire acquisition is exempt from the Balance of Payments Program— (a)(1) Use the clause at 252.225-7044, Balance of Payments Program—Construction Material, in solicitations and...

  18. 48 CFR 225.7503 - Contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Balance of Payments Program 225.7503 Contract clauses. Unless the entire acquisition is exempt from the Balance of Payments Program— (a)(1) Use the clause at 252.225-7044, Balance of Payments Program—Construction Material, in solicitations and...

  19. 48 CFR 225.7503 - Contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Balance of Payments Program 225.7503 Contract clauses. Unless the entire acquisition is exempt from the Balance of Payments Program— (a) Use the clause at 252.225-7044, Balance of Payments Program—Construction Material, in solicitations and...

  20. 48 CFR 1523.303 - Contract clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contract clause. 1523.303 Section 1523.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENTAL, CONSERVATION, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Hazardous Material...