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Sample records for raw mix designing

  1. Mixing, tensile and pasting properties of wheat flour mixed with raw and enzyme treated rice bran.

    PubMed

    Teng, Yuefei; Liu, Chunying; Bai, Jing; Liang, Jianfen

    2015-05-01

    Rice bran is a potential fiber and minerals source for nutrients enhancement of cereals food. For evaluation of rice bran applied in bread making, mixing properties, tensile and pasting properties of wheat flour dough with raw (RB) or enzymes treated rice bran (ERB) were investigated. Farinogram with two peaks, which was observed in the dough with 40 % ERB, was reported. For mixing properties, addition of RB and ERB significantly decreased water absorption and stability of wheat dough. Dough development time of mixed flour with ERB was longer than that with RB. Water absorption, stability time of the dough and farinograph quality number is negatively correlated with addition of RB and ERB. The alveograph tests indicated that extensibility of dough decreased remarkably with increased RB or ERB addition and RB had more negative effects than that of the ERB. Results of pasting behaviors predicted that addition of RB or ERB, could slow down starch retrogradation and delay bread staling. In general, wheat flour mixed with 20 % RB or ERB was fit for bread making and the later expects better sensory and nutritional values.

  2. Mixed voltage VLSI design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panwar, Ramesh; Rennels, David; Alkalaj, Leon

    1993-01-01

    A technique for minimizing the power dissipated in a Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) chip by lowering the operating voltage without any significant penalty in the chip throughput even though low voltage operation results in slower circuits. Since the overall throughput of a VLSI chip depends on the speed of the critical path(s) in the chip, it may be possible to sustain the throughput rates attained at higher voltages by operating the circuits in the critical path(s) with a high voltage while operating the other circuits with a lower voltage to minimize the power dissipation. The interface between the gates which operate at different voltages is crucial for low power dissipation since the interface may possibly have high static current dissipation thus negating the gains of the low voltage operation. The design of a voltage level translator which does the interface between the low voltage and high voltage circuits without any significant static dissipation is presented. Then, the results of the mixed voltage design using a greedy algorithm on three chips for various operating voltages are presented.

  3. Design for the Environment Products (Raw Data)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This dataset contains a list of products that carry the Design for the Environment (DfE) label. This mark enables consumers to quickly identify and choose products that can help protect the environment and are safer for families. When you see the DfE logo on a product it means that the DfE scientific review team has screened each ingredient for potential human health and environmental effects and that-based on currently available information, EPA predictive models, and expert judgment-the product contains only those ingredients that pose the least concern among chemicals in their class. Product manufacturers who become DfE partners, and earn the right to display the DfE logo on recognized products, have invested heavily in research, development and reformulation to ensure that their ingredients and finished product line up on the green end of the health and environmental spectrum while maintaining or improving product performance. EPA's Design for the Environment Program (DfE) has allowed use of their logo on over 2500 products. These products are formulated from the safest possible ingredients and have reduced the use of chemicals of concern by hundreds of millions of pounds. A Spanish version of this dataset is available for download at http://www.epa.gov/dfe/pubs/products/list_of_labeled_products.html

  4. Prediction of tablet hardness based on near infrared spectra of raw mixed powders by chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Makoto; Yamane, Ikuro

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to elucidate the effect of lubricant mixing on tablet hardness by near-infrared (NIR) chemometrics as a basic study of process analytical technology. Formulation cellulose (F-C) consisted of sulpyrine (SP), microcrystalline cellulose (MC), and magnesium stearate (MgSt). Formulation lactose/starch (F-L) consisted of SP bulk drug powder, spray-dried lactose (SL), corn starch (CS), and MgSt. First, F-L and F-C without MgSt were mixed in a twin-shell mixer for 60 min. MgSt was added to the mixed powder, and was mixed for various mixing times, after which the mixed powders were compressed by 8-mm diameter punch and die. NIR spectra of raw mixed powders of F-L and F-C were taken using a reflection type of Fourier transform NIR spectra spectrometer, and chemometric analysis was performed using principal component regression (PCR). The tablet hardnesses of F-L and F-C decreased with increasing mixing time. All NIR spectra of the mixed powders of F-L and F-C fluctuated depending on mixing time. In order to predict tablet hardness before tablet compression, NIR spectra of F-L and F-C mixed powders were analyzed and evaluated for hardness by PCR. The minimum standard error of cross-validation values could be realized by using five- and six-principal component models, respectively. In the cases of F-L and F-C, the relationships between the actual and predicted tablet hardnesses showed straight lines, respectively. In the regression vectors of F-L and FC, the peaks related to hydrogen groups of SP, CS, and MC appeared as positive peaks. In contrast, the peaks related to hydrocarbon due to MgSt appeared as negative peaks in the regression vectors. The calibration models to evaluate the tablet hardness were obtained based on NIR spectra of raw mixed powders by PCR. This approach to predicting tablet hardness prior to compression could be used as a routine test to indicate the quality of the final product without spending time and energy to produce

  5. Ammonia removal from raw manure digestate by means of a turbulent mixing stripping process.

    PubMed

    Limoli, Alice; Langone, Michela; Andreottola, Gianni

    2016-07-01

    In this study, ammonia stripping by means of a turbulent mixing process followed by pH neutralization was investigated as a simple and cost-effective ammonia removal technique to treat raw manure digestate. Batch tests conducted using CaO, NaOH and H2O2 to control pH and temperature and combinations thereof showed that sodium hydroxide was the most suitable chemical, as it is easy to handle, minimizes treatment time and costs, does not increase the solid content of the sludge and allows to easily control the stripping process. NaOH dosage mainly depended on buffering capacity rather than on total solid content. The analysis of the ammonia stripping process indicated that ammonia removal was strongly dependent on pH, and ammonia removal rate followed the pseudo-first-order kinetics. Total solid content slightly influenced TAN removal efficiency. When NaOH was applied to treat raw digestate at pH 10 and mean temperature of 23 ± 2 °C, TAN removal efficiency reached 88.7% after 24 h of turbulent mixing stripping, without reaching inhibitory salinity levels. Moreover, pH neutralization with sulfuric acid following the stripping process improved raw digestate dewaterability.

  6. Relation between quality and production cost for pure biodiesel bases on the mixes of raw materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsanaktsidis, C. G.; Spinthiropoulos, K. G.; Guliyev, Fariz; Dimitriou, D.; Euthaltsidou, K.; Tzilantonis, G. T.

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays biodiesel has become more attractive because it is made from renewable resources. The main ingredients of industrial biodiesel are rap oil, sun oil, fat acid, olive oil cooked. In this study we verify that, the proportion of these components sets the qualitative composition and energy efficiency of the final product. Essential we link the raw materials (rap oil, sun oil, fat acid, olive oil cooked) used in the manufacture of industrial biodiesel the proportion of mixes, with the variation of physicochemical properties of biodiesel produced. According to the quantitative analysis we notice that the physiochemical properties which alter the value for example humidity, acidity, while a large number of physicochemical properties do not change their value depending on the ratio of raw materials in each mixture. The analysis of these changes seems that the presence of fat acids is negative for the quality of the mixture. From the analysis of the cost of the final mixtures that lower cost is achieved in the mixture was 10 and the highest cost was in the mixture 3. Based on a study of the cost of the mixtures can determine a basic relation between the quality and the cost of the final product.

  7. Design Packing to Safely Mail Raw Spaghetti. Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, Erik; Ryan, Emily; Swift, Charles

    This activity is designed to build creative skills based on an everyday problem. The scenario that sometimes packages are dropped and letters get bent is used. How can a special delivery be protected from such unfortunate mishaps? Students use their creative skills to determine a way to mail raw spaghetti. A way to safely package the raw spaghetti…

  8. Mixed Methods Research Designs in Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, William E.; Creswell, John W.; Clark, Vicki L. Plano; Petska, Kelly S.; Creswell, David J.

    2005-01-01

    With the increased popularity of qualitative research, researchers in counseling psychology are expanding their methodologies to include mixed methods designs. These designs involve the collection, analysis, and integration of quantitative and qualitative data in a single or multiphase study. This article presents an overview of mixed methods…

  9. Designing a Mixed Reality Intergenerational Entertainment System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoo, Eng Tat; Merritt, Tim; Cheok, Adrian David

    This chapter presents steps for designing an intergenerational mixed reality entertainment system, which focuses on physical and social interactions using a mixed reality floor system. The main design goals include the following: facilitating interactions between users with varied levels of skill in utilizing technology, utilizing the familiar physical motions from other activities to make an intuitive physical interface, and encouraging social interactions among families and friends. Detailed implementation of these steps is presented in the design of our intergenerational entertainment system, Age Invaders. Our design process is based on user-centered design. The results of the study help to focus the refinements of the existing platform from a usability standpoint and also aid in the development of new physical entertainment and interactive applications. This study provides insights into user issues including how users interact in a complex mixed reality experience.

  10. Suitability of a new mixed-strain starter for manufacturing uncooked raw ewe's milk cheeses.

    PubMed

    Feutry, Fabienne; Torre, Paloma; Arana, Ines; Garcia, Susana; Pérez Elortondo, Francisco J; Berthier, Françoise

    2016-06-01

    Most raw milk Ossau-Iraty cheeses are currently manufactured on-farm using the same commercial streptococcal-lactococcal starter (S1). One way to enhance the microbial diversity that gives raw milk its advantages for cheese-making is to formulate new starters combining diverse, characterized strains. A new starter (OI) combining 6 raw milk strains of lactococci, recently isolated and characterized, was tested in parallel with the current starter by making 12 Ossau-Iraty raw milk cheeses at 3 farmhouses under the conditions prevailing at each farm. Compliance of the sensory characteristics with those expected by the Ossau-Iraty professionals, physicochemical parameters and coliforms were quantified at key manufacturing steps. The new starter OI gave cheeses having proper compliance but having lower compliance than the S1 cheeses under most manufacturing conditions, while managing coliform levels equally well as starter S1. This lower compliance relied more on the absence of Streptococcus thermophilus in starter OI, than on the nature of the lactoccocal strains present in starter OI. The study also shows that variations in 5 technological parameters during the first day of manufacture, within the range of values applied in the 3 farmhouses, are powerful tools for diversifying the scores for the sensory characteristics investigated.

  11. Mixed-mode resins: taking shortcut in downstream processing of raw-starch digesting α-amylases.

    PubMed

    Lončar, Nikola; Šokarda Slavić, Marinela; Vujčić, Zoran; Božić, Nataša

    2015-10-23

    Bacillus licheniformis 9945a α-amylase is known as a potent enzyme for raw starch hydrolysis. In this paper, a mixed mode Nuvia cPrime™ resin is examined with the aim to improve the downstream processing of raw starch digesting amylases and exploit the hydrophobic patches on their surface. This resin combines hydrophobic interactions with cation exchange groups and as such the presence of salt facilitates hydrophobic interactions while the ion-exchange groups enable proper selectivity. α-Amylase was produced using an optimized fed-batch approach in a defined media and significant overexpression of 1.2 g L(-1) was achieved. This single step procedure enables simultaneous concentration, pigment removal as well as purification of amylase with yields of 96% directly from the fermentation broth.

  12. Flow characteristics of the raw sewage for the design of sewage-source heat pump systems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Wu, Yuebin; Sun, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    The flow characteristics of raw sewage directly affect the technical and economic performance of sewage-source heat pump systems. The purpose of this research is to characterize the flow characteristics of sewage by experimental means. A sophisticated and flexible experimental apparatus was designed and constructed. Then the flow characteristics of the raw sewage were studied through laboratorial testing and theoretical analyses. Results indicated that raw sewage could be characterized as a power-law fluid with the rheological exponent n being 0.891 and the rheological coefficient k being 0.00175. In addition, the frictional loss factor formula in laminar flow for raw sewage was deduced by theoretical analysis of the power-law fluid. Furthermore, an explicit empirical formula for the frictional loss factor in turbulent flow was obtained through curve fitting of the experimental data. Finally, the equivalent viscosity of the raw sewage is defined in order to calculate the Reynolds number in turbulent flow regions; it was found that sewage had two to three times the viscosity of water at the same temperature. These results contributed to appropriate parameters of fluid properties when designing and operating sewage-source heat pump systems.

  13. Psychometric Properties of Raw and Scale Scores on Mixed-Format Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolen, Michael J.; Lee, Won-Chan

    2011-01-01

    This paper illustrates that the psychometric properties of scores and scales that are used with mixed-format educational tests can impact the use and interpretation of the scores that are reported to examinees. Psychometric properties that include reliability and conditional standard errors of measurement are considered in this paper. The focus is…

  14. Automated mixed traffic vehicle design AMTV 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, A. R.; Marks, R. A.; Cassell, P. L.

    1982-01-01

    The design of an improved and enclosed Automated Mixed Traffic Transit (AMTT) vehicle is described. AMTT is an innovative concept for low-speed tram-type transit in which suitable vehicles are equipped with sensors and controls to permit them to operate in an automated mode on existing road or walkway surfaces. The vehicle chassis and body design are presented in terms of sketches and photographs. The functional design of the sensing and control system is presented, and modifications which could be made to the baseline design for improved performance, in particular to incorporate a 20-mph capability, are also discussed. The vehicle system is described at the block-diagram-level of detail. Specifications and parameter values are given where available.

  15. The application of mixed methods designs to trauma research.

    PubMed

    Creswell, John W; Zhang, Wanqing

    2009-12-01

    Despite the use of quantitative and qualitative data in trauma research and therapy, mixed methods studies in this field have not been analyzed to help researchers designing investigations. This discussion begins by reviewing four core characteristics of mixed methods research in the social and human sciences. Combining these characteristics, the authors focus on four select mixed methods designs that are applicable in trauma research. These designs are defined and their essential elements noted. Applying these designs to trauma research, a search was conducted to locate mixed methods trauma studies. From this search, one sample study was selected, and its characteristics of mixed methods procedures noted. Finally, drawing on other mixed methods designs available, several follow-up mixed methods studies were described for this sample study, enabling trauma researchers to view design options for applying mixed methods research in trauma investigations.

  16. Demystifying Mixed Methods Research Design: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruth, Gail D.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods research evolved in response to the observed limitations of both quantitative and qualitative designs and is a more complex method. The purpose of this paper was to examine mixed methods research in an attempt to demystify the design thereby allowing those less familiar with its design an opportunity to utilize it in future research.…

  17. What Can Mixed Methods Designs Offer Professional Development Program Evaluators?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Victoria; Nevin, Ann

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the authors describe the benefits and pitfalls of mixed methods designs. They argue that mixed methods designs may be preferred when evaluating professional development programs for p-K-12 education given the new call for accountability in making data-driven decisions. They summarize and critique the studies in terms of limitations…

  18. Improvements in Mixing Time and Mixing Uniformity in Devices Designed for Studies of Protein Folding Kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Shuhuai; Bakajin, Olgica

    2007-08-01

    Using a microfluidic laminar flow mixer designed for studies of protein folding kinetics, we demonstrate a mixing time of 1 +/- 1 micros with sample consumption on the order of femtomoles. We recognize two limitations of previously proposed designs: (1) size and shape of the mixing region, which limits mixing uniformity and (2) the formation of Dean vortices at high flow rates, which limits the mixing time. We address these limitations by using a narrow shape-optimized nozzle and by reducing the bend of the side channel streamlines. The final design, which combines both of these features, achieves the best performance. We quantified the mixing performance of the different designs by numerical simulation of coupled Navier-Stokes and convection-diffusion equations and experiments using fluorescence resonance energy-transfer (FRET)-labeled DNA.

  19. Mixed Methodology Research Design in Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Muthu

    2007-01-01

    In recent times many educational researchers have moved away from the traditional purist approach of strictly adopting either a qualitative or quantitative approach to conducting research. Instead they have attempted an eclectic mix of both methods in their research inquiry, combining aspects of both the traditions at various stages of their…

  20. Teaching the Mixed Model Design: A Flowchart to Facilitate Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Jamie D.

    2005-01-01

    The Mixed Model (MM) design, sometimes known as a Split-Plot design, is very popular in educational research. This model can be used to examine the effects of several independent variables on a dependent variable and it offers a more powerful alternative to the completely randomized design. The MM design considers both a between-subjects factor,…

  1. Design and analysis of biorefineries based on raw glycerol: addressing the glycerol problem.

    PubMed

    Posada, John A; Rincón, Luis E; Cardona, Carlos A

    2012-05-01

    Glycerol as a low-cost by-product of the biodiesel industry can be considered a renewable building block for biorefineries. In this work, the conversion of raw glycerol to nine added-value products obtained by chemical (syn-gas, acrolein, and 1,2-propanediol) or bio-chemical (ethanol, 1,3-propanediol, d-lactic acid, succinic acid, propionic acid, and poly-3-hydroxybutyrate) routes were considered. The technological schemes for these synthesis routes were designed, simulated, and economically assessed using Aspen Plus and Aspen Icarus Process Evaluator, respectively. The techno-economic potential of a glycerol-based biorefinery system for the production of fuels, chemicals, and plastics was analyzed using the commercial Commercial Sale Price/Production Cost ratio criteria, under different production scenarios. More income can be earned from 1,3-propanediol and 1,2-propanediol production, while less income would be obtained from hydrogen and succinic acid. This analysis may be useful mainly for biodiesel producers since several profitable alternatives are presented and discussed.

  2. Designing, Teaching, and Evaluating Two Complementary Mixed Methods Research Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Thomas W.

    2009-01-01

    Teaching mixed methods research is difficult. This longitudinal explanatory study examined how two classes were designed, taught, and evaluated. Curriculum, Research, and Teaching (EDCS-606) and Mixed Methods Research (EDCS-780) used a research proposal generation process to highlight the importance of the purpose, research question and…

  3. RBCC Mixing Studies: Ejector Ramjet Design Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The research project reported herein extended over a period from October 1997 through August 1999. The research resulted in three technical papers presented at the AIAA/SAE/ASME/ASEE 35th Joint Propulsion Conference in Los Angeles in July 1999. These three papers are attached to this Executive Summary to constitute the final report. Objective: The objective of this research was to determine the mixing characteristics between the primary rocket jets and the turbine exhaust stream in a simulated Rocket Based Combined Cycle propulsion concept operating in the air augmented rocket mode.

  4. Fixed-Order Mixed Norm Designs for Building Vibration Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whorton, Mark S.; Calise, Anthony J.

    2000-01-01

    This study investigates the use of H2, mu-synthesis, and mixed H2/mu methods to construct full order controllers and optimized controllers of fixed dimensions. The benchmark problem definition is first extended to include uncertainty within the controller bandwidth in the form of parametric uncertainty representative of uncertainty in the natural frequencies of the design model. The sensitivity of H2 design to unmodeled dynamics and parametric uncertainty is evaluated for a range of controller levels of authority. Next, mu-synthesis methods are applied to design full order compensators that are robust to both unmodeled dynamics and to parametric uncertainty. Finally, a set of mixed H2/mu compensators are designed which are optimized for a fixed compensator dimension. These mixed norm designs recover the H2 design performance levels while providing the same levels of robust stability as the mu designs. It is shown that designing with the mixed norm approach permits higher levels of controller authority for which the H2 designs are destabilizing. The benchmark problem is that of an active tendon system. The controller designs are all based on the use of acceleration feedback.

  5. A Mixed Methods Investigation of Mixed Methods Sampling Designs in Social and Health Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Jiao, Qun G.

    2007-01-01

    A sequential design utilizing identical samples was used to classify mixed methods studies via a two-dimensional model, wherein sampling designs were grouped according to the time orientation of each study's components and the relationship of the qualitative and quantitative samples. A quantitative analysis of 121 studies representing nine fields…

  6. Guidance for using mixed methods design in nursing practice research.

    PubMed

    Chiang-Hanisko, Lenny; Newman, David; Dyess, Susan; Piyakong, Duangporn; Liehr, Patricia

    2016-08-01

    The mixed methods approach purposefully combines both quantitative and qualitative techniques, enabling a multi-faceted understanding of nursing phenomena. The purpose of this article is to introduce three mixed methods designs (parallel; sequential; conversion) and highlight interpretive processes that occur with the synthesis of qualitative and quantitative findings. Real world examples of research studies conducted by the authors will demonstrate the processes leading to the merger of data. The examples include: research questions; data collection procedures and analysis with a focus on synthesizing findings. Based on experience with mixed methods studied, the authors introduce two synthesis patterns (complementary; contrasting), considering application for practice and implications for research.

  7. Mixed methods research design for pragmatic psychoanalytic studies.

    PubMed

    Tillman, Jane G; Clemence, A Jill; Stevens, Jennifer L

    2011-10-01

    Calls for more rigorous psychoanalytic studies have increased over the past decade. The field has been divided by those who assert that psychoanalysis is properly a hermeneutic endeavor and those who see it as a science. A comparable debate is found in research methodology, where qualitative and quantitative methods have often been seen as occupying orthogonal positions. Recently, Mixed Methods Research (MMR) has emerged as a viable "third community" of research, pursuing a pragmatic approach to research endeavors through integrating qualitative and quantitative procedures in a single study design. Mixed Methods Research designs and the terminology associated with this emerging approach are explained, after which the methodology is explored as a potential integrative approach to a psychoanalytic human science. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods are reviewed, as well as how they may be used in Mixed Methods Research to study complex human phenomena.

  8. Some Human Factors Considerations for Designing Mixed Reality Interfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    the viewer’s eyes must converge at one distance, VSG , but must accommodate at another, fSG. Such a conflict causes the viewer to reconcile the two...the binocular fDV fSG p disparity vSG Right-eye View Left-eye View Some Human Factors Considerations for Designing Mixed Reality Interfaces RTO-MP

  9. Thermal design of multi-fluid mixed-mixed cross-flow heat exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roetzel, W.; Luo, X.

    2010-11-01

    A fast analytical calculation method is developed for the thermal design and rating of multi-fluid mixed-mixed cross-flow heat exchangers. Temperature dependent heat capacities and heat transfer coefficients can iteratively be taken into account. They are determined at one or two special reference temperatures. Examples are given for the application of the method to the rating of special multi-fluid multi-pass shell-and-tube heat exchangers and multi-fluid cross-flow plate-fin heat exchangers. The accuracy of the method is tested against numerical calculations with good results.

  10. Testing effects in mixed- versus pure-list designs.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Christopher A; Littrell-Baez, Megan K; Sensenig, Amanda E; DeLosh, Edward L

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, we investigated the role of list composition in the testing effect. Across three experiments, participants learned items through study and initial testing or study and restudy. List composition was manipulated, such that tested and restudied items appeared either intermixed in the same lists (mixed lists) or in separate lists (pure lists). In Experiment 1, half of the participants received mixed lists and half received pure lists. In Experiment 2, all participants were given both mixed and pure lists. Experiment 3 followed Erlebacher's (Psychological Bulletin, 84, 212-219, 1977) method, such that mixed lists, pure tested lists, and pure restudied lists were given to independent groups. Across all three experiments, the final recall results revealed significant testing effects for both mixed and pure lists, with no reliable difference in the magnitude of the testing advantage across list designs. This finding suggests that the testing effect is not subject to a key boundary condition-list design-that impacts other memory phenomena, including the generation effect.

  11. PCR detection of Salmonella typhimurium in pharmaceutical raw materials and products contaminated with a mixed bacterial culture using the BAX system.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, L; Scalici, C; Smalls, S; Bosko, Y; Ignar, R

    2001-01-01

    The BAX system, a PCR-based assay, was evaluated for detecting Salmonella typhimurium in pharmaceutical raw materials and products contaminated with mixed bacterial cultures of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella typhimurium. Artificially contaminated samples were preenriched in lactose broth with and without Tween 20. After preenrichment, samples were analyzed by PCR and standard methods. Ten of 25 samples did not show presence of the specific Salmonella spp. 740-base pair DNA fragment. However, S. typhimurium was isolated and identified by standard methods from all 25 samples. To optimize S. typhimurium detection in PCR negative samples, lactose broth was replaced by buffered peptone water (BPW) as the preenrichment broth. When BPW was used, all 10 samples were PCR positive. BPW enrichments increased S. typhimurium growth resulting in rapid PCR detection. The presence of non-Salmonella bacteria influenced the performance of the PCR-based assay. Optimization of S. typhimurium PCR detection in mixed culture required the use of different preenrichment broths. However, the BAX system detected S. typhimurium within 27 hours while standard methods required 5-7 days.

  12. Achieving integration in mixed methods designs-principles and practices.

    PubMed

    Fetters, Michael D; Curry, Leslie A; Creswell, John W

    2013-12-01

    Mixed methods research offers powerful tools for investigating complex processes and systems in health and health care. This article describes integration principles and practices at three levels in mixed methods research and provides illustrative examples. Integration at the study design level occurs through three basic mixed method designs-exploratory sequential, explanatory sequential, and convergent-and through four advanced frameworks-multistage, intervention, case study, and participatory. Integration at the methods level occurs through four approaches. In connecting, one database links to the other through sampling. With building, one database informs the data collection approach of the other. When merging, the two databases are brought together for analysis. With embedding, data collection and analysis link at multiple points. Integration at the interpretation and reporting level occurs through narrative, data transformation, and joint display. The fit of integration describes the extent the qualitative and quantitative findings cohere. Understanding these principles and practices of integration can help health services researchers leverage the strengths of mixed methods.

  13. Impact of chemistry on Standard High Solids Vessel Design mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.

    2016-03-02

    The plan for resolving technical issues regarding mixing performance within vessels of the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Pretreatment Facility directs a chemical impact study to be performed. The vessels involved are those that will process higher (e.g., 5 wt % or more) concentrations of solids. The mixing equipment design for these vessels includes both pulse jet mixers (PJM) and air spargers. This study assesses the impact of feed chemistry on the effectiveness of PJM mixing in the Standard High Solids Vessel Design (SHSVD). The overall purpose of this study is to complement the Properties that Matter document in helping to establish an acceptable physical simulant for full-scale testing. The specific objectives for this study are (1) to identify the relevant properties and behavior of the in-process tank waste that control the performance of the system being tested, (2) to assess the solubility limits of key components that are likely to precipitate or crystallize due to PJM and sparger interaction with the waste feeds, (3) to evaluate the impact of waste chemistry on rheology and agglomeration, (4) to assess the impact of temperature on rheology and agglomeration, (5) to assess the impact of organic compounds on PJM mixing, and (6) to provide the technical basis for using a physical-rheological simulant rather than a physical-rheological-chemical simulant for full-scale vessel testing. Among the conclusions reached are the following: The primary impact of precipitation or crystallization of salts due to interactions between PJMs or spargers and waste feeds is to increase the insoluble solids concentration in the slurries, which will increase the slurry yield stress. Slurry yield stress is a function of pH, ionic strength, insoluble solids concentration, and particle size. Ionic strength and chemical composition can affect particle size. Changes in temperature can affect SHSVD mixing through its effect on properties such as viscosity, yield stress, solubility

  14. Design and calibration of the mixing layer and wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, James H.; Mehta, Rabindra D.

    1989-01-01

    A detailed account of the design, assembly and calibration of a wind tunnel specifically designed for free-shear layer research is contained. The construction of this new facility was motivated by a strong interest in the study of plane mixing layers with varying initial and operating conditions. The Mixing Layer Wind tunnel is located in the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory at NASA Ames Research Center. The tunnel consists of two separate legs which are driven independently by centrifugal blowers connected to variable speed motors. The blower/motor combinations are sized such that one is smaller than the other, giving maximum flow speeds of about 20 and 40 m/s, respectively. The blower speeds can either be set manually or via the Microvax II computer. The two streams are allowed to merge in the test section at the sharp trailing edge of a slowly tapering splitter plate. The test section is 36 cm in the cross-stream direction, 91 cm in the spanwise direction and 366 cm in length. One test section side-wall is slotted for probe access and adjustable so that the streamwise pressure gradient may be controlled. The wind tunnel is also equipped with a computer controlled, three-dimensional traversing system which is used to investigate the flow fields with pressure and hot-wire instrumentation. The wind tunnel calibration results show that the mean flow in the test section is uniform to within plus or minus 0.25 pct and the flow angularity is less than 0.25 deg. The total streamwise free-stream turbulence intensity level is approximately 0.15 pct. Currently the wind tunnel is being used in experiments designed to study the three-dimensional structure of plane mixing layers and wakes.

  15. Photobioreactor design: Mixing, carbon utilization, and oxygen accumulation.

    PubMed

    Weissman, J C; Goebel, R P; Benemann, J R

    1988-03-01

    Photobioreactor design and operation are discussed in terms of mixing, carbon utilization, and the accumulation of photosynthetically produced oxygen. The open raceway pond is the primary type of reactor considered; however small diameter (1-5 cm) horizontal glass tubular reactors are compared to ponds in several respects. These are representative of the diversity in photobioreactor design: low capital cost, open systems and high capital cost, closed systems. Two 100-m(2) raceways were operated to provide input data and to validate analytical results. With a planktonic Chlorella sp., no significant difference in productivity was noted between one pond mixed at 30 cm/s and another mixed from 1 to 30 cm/s. Thus, power consumption or CO(2) outgassing limits maximal mixing velocities. Mixing power inputs measured in 100-m(2) ponds agreed fairly well with those calculated by the use of Manning's equation. A typically configured tubular reactor flowing full (1 cm diameter, 30 cm/s) consumes 10 times as much energy as a typical pond (20 cm deep flowing at 20 cm/s). Tubular reactors that flow only partially full would be limited by large hydraulic head losses to very short sections (as little as 2 m length at 30 cm/s flow) or very low flow velocities. Open ponds have greater CO(2) storage capacity than tubular reactors because of their greater culture volume per square meter (100-300 L/m(2) vs. 8-40 L/m(2) for 1-5-cm tubes). However, after recarbonation, open ponds tend to desorb CO(2) to the atmosphere. Thus ponds must be operated at higher pH and lower alkalinity than would be possible with tubular reactors if cost of carbon is a constraint. The mass transfer coefficient, K(L), for CO(2) release through the surface of a 100-m(2) pond was determined to be 0.10 m/h. Oxygen buildup would be a serious problem with any enclosed reactor, especially small-diameter tubes. At maximal rates of photosynthesis, a 1-cm tubular reactor would accumulate 8-10 mg O(2)/L/min. This may

  16. Mixed transportation network design under a sustainable development perspective.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jin; Ni, Ling-lin; Shi, Feng

    2013-01-01

    A mixed transportation network design problem considering sustainable development was studied in this paper. Based on the discretization of continuous link-grade decision variables, a bilevel programming model was proposed to describe the problem, in which sustainability factors, including vehicle exhaust emissions, land-use scale, link load, and financial budget, are considered. The objective of the model is to minimize the total amount of resources exploited under the premise of meeting all the construction goals. A heuristic algorithm, which combined the simulated annealing and path-based gradient projection algorithm, was developed to solve the model. The numerical example shows that the transportation network optimized with the method above not only significantly alleviates the congestion on the link, but also reduces vehicle exhaust emissions within the network by up to 41.56%.

  17. An Algorithm for the Mixed Transportation Network Design Problem.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinyu; Chen, Qun

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an optimization algorithm, the dimension-down iterative algorithm (DDIA), for solving a mixed transportation network design problem (MNDP), which is generally expressed as a mathematical programming with equilibrium constraint (MPEC). The upper level of the MNDP aims to optimize the network performance via both the expansion of the existing links and the addition of new candidate links, whereas the lower level is a traditional Wardrop user equilibrium (UE) problem. The idea of the proposed solution algorithm (DDIA) is to reduce the dimensions of the problem. A group of variables (discrete/continuous) is fixed to optimize another group of variables (continuous/discrete) alternately; then, the problem is transformed into solving a series of CNDPs (continuous network design problems) and DNDPs (discrete network design problems) repeatedly until the problem converges to the optimal solution. The advantage of the proposed algorithm is that its solution process is very simple and easy to apply. Numerical examples show that for the MNDP without budget constraint, the optimal solution can be found within a few iterations with DDIA. For the MNDP with budget constraint, however, the result depends on the selection of initial values, which leads to different optimal solutions (i.e., different local optimal solutions). Some thoughts are given on how to derive meaningful initial values, such as by considering the budgets of new and reconstruction projects separately.

  18. An Algorithm for the Mixed Transportation Network Design Problem

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinyu; Chen, Qun

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an optimization algorithm, the dimension-down iterative algorithm (DDIA), for solving a mixed transportation network design problem (MNDP), which is generally expressed as a mathematical programming with equilibrium constraint (MPEC). The upper level of the MNDP aims to optimize the network performance via both the expansion of the existing links and the addition of new candidate links, whereas the lower level is a traditional Wardrop user equilibrium (UE) problem. The idea of the proposed solution algorithm (DDIA) is to reduce the dimensions of the problem. A group of variables (discrete/continuous) is fixed to optimize another group of variables (continuous/discrete) alternately; then, the problem is transformed into solving a series of CNDPs (continuous network design problems) and DNDPs (discrete network design problems) repeatedly until the problem converges to the optimal solution. The advantage of the proposed algorithm is that its solution process is very simple and easy to apply. Numerical examples show that for the MNDP without budget constraint, the optimal solution can be found within a few iterations with DDIA. For the MNDP with budget constraint, however, the result depends on the selection of initial values, which leads to different optimal solutions (i.e., different local optimal solutions). Some thoughts are given on how to derive meaningful initial values, such as by considering the budgets of new and reconstruction projects separately. PMID:27626803

  19. Bivalve fouling of nuclear power plant service-water systems. Volume 1. Correlation of bivalve biological characteristics and raw-water system design

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, D.A.; Johnson, K.I.; Page, T.L.; Young, J.S.; Daling, P.M.

    1984-12-01

    Fouling of raw-water systems in nuclear power plants in the US can affect the safe operation of a power plant. This report describes correlations between the biology of bivalve organisms and the design and operation of power plants that allow bivalves to enter and reside in nuclear power plants. Discussions are focused on safety-related raw-water systems subject to fouling by the Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea), the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), and the American oyster (Crassostrea virginica). Score sheets to rate fouling potential of power plant systems and components are provided.

  20. The study of mixing of reagents within a droplet in various designs of microfluidic chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filatov, N. A.; Belousov, K. I.; Bukatin, A. S.; Kukhtevich, I. V.; Evstrapov, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to determine a design of a microfluidic droplet generator which provides the best mixing of two components within a droplet during its formation. Simulation of droplets’ formation in various designs of microfluidic generators was performed. Dependences of a mixing index from a capillary number and a viscosity of continuous phase were obtained for each design. The mixing index was determined directly after the formation of the droplet. It was found that the small capillary numbers correspond to the lower mixing index due to increase of the droplets diameter. The high viscosity of the continuous phase provides vortex flows in the area of droplet formation which leads to an increase in the mixing index for asymmetric designs, but has no significant effect on the mixing in conventional symmetric flow focusing. So for the asymmetric droplet generator designs the mixing index increases up to 1.5 as compared with the conventional flow focusing designs.

  1. A Preliminary Rubric Design to Evaluate Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    With the increase in frequency of the use of mixed methods, both in research publications and in externally funded grants there are increasing calls for a set of standards to assess the quality of mixed methods research. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to conduct a multi-phase analysis to create a preliminary rubric to evaluate mixed…

  2. Increasing the Transparency of Stated Choice Studies for Policy Analysis: Designing Experiments to Produce Raw Response Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sur, Dipika; Cook, Joseph; Chatterjee, Susmita; Deen, Jacqueline; Whittington, Dale

    2007-01-01

    We believe a lack of transparency undermines both the credibility of, and interest in, stated choice studies among policy makers. Unlike articles reporting the results of contingent valuation studies, papers in the stated choice literature rarely present simple tabulations of raw response data (that is, a table or graph showing the percentage of…

  3. Interactive tools designed to study mix in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Welser-sherrill, Leslie; Cooley, James H; Wilson, Doug C

    2008-01-01

    Graphical user interface tools have been built in IDL to study mix in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosion cores. FLAME (Fall-Line Analysis Mix Evaluator), a code which investigates yield degradation due to mix , was designed to post-process 1D hydrodynamic simulation output by implementing a variety of mix models. Three of these mix models are based on the physics of the fall-line. In addition, mixing data from other sources can be incorporated into the yield degradation analysis. Two independent tools called HAME (Haan Analysis Mix Evaluator) and YAME (Youngs Analysis Mix Evaluator) were developed to calculate the spatial extent of the mix region according to the Haan saturation model and Youngs' phenomenological model, respectively. FLAME facilitates a direct comparison to experimental data. The FLAME, HAME, and YAME interfaces are user-friendly, flexible, and platform-independent.

  4. Mixing temperature design and properties evaluation for SMA-13 mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X. Y.; Li, B. Y.

    2017-01-01

    The mixing temperature of hot asphalt mixture could be reduced by adding WMA additive Sasobit, as well as reducing smoke emissions and energy construction during the mixing construction and paving. The reasonable mixing temperature were investigated in this paper. In addition, high temperature stability, water stability and low-temperature performance of warm asphalt mixture were evaluaterd. The test results indicate that the mixing temperature of SMA-13 with WMA additive Sasobit may reduce 15-20°C at the same energy (compaction times). the dynamic stability were improved after adding WMA additive Sasobit, and the Water stability and low-temperature performance of mixture decreased, while all kinds of asphalt mixture properties can meet the requirements.

  5. Single-Case Designs and Qualitative Methods: Applying a Mixed Methods Research Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitchcock, John H.; Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Summerville, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this conceptual paper is to describe a design that mixes single-case (sometimes referred to as single-subject) and qualitative methods, hereafter referred to as a single-case mixed methods design (SCD-MM). Minimal attention has been given to the topic of applying qualitative methods to SCD work in the literature. These two…

  6. Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Insights into Design and Analysis Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieber, Eli

    2009-01-01

    This article describes and discusses issues related to research design and data analysis in the mixing of qualitative and quantitative methods. It is increasingly desirable to use multiple methods in research, but questions arise as to how best to design and analyze the data generated by mixed methods projects. I offer a conceptualization for such…

  7. A Proposed Model of Retransformed Qualitative Data within a Mixed Methods Research Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palladino, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Most models of mixed methods research design provide equal emphasis of qualitative and quantitative data analyses and interpretation. Other models stress one method more than the other. The present article is a discourse about the investigator's decision to employ a mixed method design to examine special education teachers' advocacy and…

  8. Engineering scale mixing system tests for MWTF title II design

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.C.

    1994-10-10

    Mixing tests for the Multifunction Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) were conducted in 1/25 and 1/10 scale test tanks with different slurry levels, solids concentrations, different jet mixers and with simulated in-tank structures. The same test procedure was used as in the Title I program, documented in WHC-SD-W236A-ER-005. The test results support the scaling correlation derived previously in the Title I program. The tests also concluded that a partially filled tank requires less mixing power, and horizontal and angled jets in combination (H/A mixer) are significantly more effective than the two horizontal jet mixers (H/H mixer) when used for mixing slurry with a high solids concentrations.

  9. The Mixed Waste Management Facility. Design basis integrated operations plan (Title I design)

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    The Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) will be a fully integrated, pilotscale facility for the demonstration of low-level, organic-matrix mixed waste treatment technologies. It will provide the bridge from bench-scale demonstrated technologies to the deployment and operation of full-scale treatment facilities. The MWMF is a key element in reducing the risk in deployment of effective and environmentally acceptable treatment processes for organic mixed-waste streams. The MWMF will provide the engineering test data, formal evaluation, and operating experience that will be required for these demonstration systems to become accepted by EPA and deployable in waste treatment facilities. The deployment will also demonstrate how to approach the permitting process with the regulatory agencies and how to operate and maintain the processes in a safe manner. This document describes, at a high level, how the facility will be designed and operated to achieve this mission. It frequently refers the reader to additional documentation that provides more detail in specific areas. Effective evaluation of a technology consists of a variety of informal and formal demonstrations involving individual technology systems or subsystems, integrated technology system combinations, or complete integrated treatment trains. Informal demonstrations will typically be used to gather general operating information and to establish a basis for development of formal demonstration plans. Formal demonstrations consist of a specific series of tests that are used to rigorously demonstrate the operation or performance of a specific system configuration.

  10. Removal of anionic dye Congo red from aqueous solution by raw pine and acid-treated pine cone powder as adsorbent: equilibrium, thermodynamic, kinetics, mechanism and process design.

    PubMed

    Dawood, Sara; Sen, Tushar Kanti

    2012-04-15

    Pine cone a natural, low-cost agricultural by-product in Australia has been studied for its potential application as an adsorbent in its raw and hydrochloric acid modified form. Surface study of pine cone and treated pine cone was investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The modification process leads to increases in the specific surface area and decreases mean particle sizes of acid-treated pine cone when compared to raw pine cone biomass. Batch adsorption experiments were performed to remove anionic dye Congo red from aqueous solution. It was found that the extent of Congo red adsorption by both raw pine cone biomass and acid-treated biomass increased with initial dye concentration, contact time, temperature but decreased with increasing solution pH and amount of adsorbent of the system. Overall, kinetic studies showed that the dye adsorption process followed pseudo-second-order kinetics based on pseudo-first-order and intra-particle diffusion models. The different kinetic parameters including rate constant, half-adsorption time, and diffusion coefficient were determined at different physico-chemical conditions. Equilibrium data were best represented by Freundlich isotherm model among Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. It was observed that the adsorption was pH dependent and the maximum adsorption of 32.65 mg/g occurred at pH of 3.55 for an initial dye concentration of 20 ppm by raw pine cone, whereas for acid-treated pine cone the maximum adsorption of 40.19 mg/g for the same experimental conditions. Freundlich constant 'n' also indicated favourable adsorption. Thermodynamic parameters such as ∆G(0), ∆H(0), and ∆S(0) were calculated. A single-stage batch absorber design for the Congo red adsorption onto pine cone biomass also presented based on the Freundlich isotherm model equation.

  11. Swarm intelligence for mixed-variable design optimization.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chuang-Xin; Hu, Jia-Sheng; Ye, Bin; Cao, Yi-Jia

    2004-07-01

    Many engineering optimization problems frequently encounter continuous variables and discrete variables which adds considerably to the solution complexity. Very few of the existing methods can yield a globally optimal solution when the objective functions are non-convex and non-differentiable. This paper presents a hybrid swarm intelligence approach (HSIA) for solving these nonlinear optimization problems which contain integer, discrete, zero-one and continuous variables. HSIA provides an improvement in global search reliability in a mixed-variable space and converges steadily to a good solution. An approach to handle various kinds of variables and constraints is discussed. Comparison testing of several examples of mixed-variable optimization problems in the literature showed that the proposed approach is superior to current methods for finding the best solution, in terms of both solution quality and algorithm robustness.

  12. Using mixed methods effectively in prevention science: designs, procedures, and examples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wanqing; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu

    2014-10-01

    There is growing interest in using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods to generate evidence about the effectiveness of health prevention, services, and intervention programs. With the emerging importance of mixed methods research across the social and health sciences, there has been an increased recognition of the value of using mixed methods for addressing research questions in different disciplines. We illustrate the mixed methods approach in prevention research, showing design procedures used in several published research articles. In this paper, we focused on two commonly used mixed methods designs: concurrent and sequential mixed methods designs. We discuss the types of mixed methods designs, the reasons for, and advantages of using a particular type of design, and the procedures of qualitative and quantitative data collection and integration. The studies reviewed in this paper show that the essence of qualitative research is to explore complex dynamic phenomena in prevention science, and the advantage of using mixed methods is that quantitative data can yield generalizable results and qualitative data can provide extensive insights. However, the emphasis of methodological rigor in a mixed methods application also requires considerable expertise in both qualitative and quantitative methods. Besides the necessary skills and effective interdisciplinary collaboration, this combined approach also requires an open-mindedness and reflection from the involved researchers.

  13. Design and synthesis of mixed oxides nanoparticles for biofuel applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Senniang

    2010-05-15

    The work in this dissertation presents the synthesis of two mixed metal oxides for biofuel applications and NMR characterization of silica materials. In the chapter 2, high catalytic efficiency of calcium silicate is synthesized for transesterfication of soybean oil to biodisels. Chapter 3 describes the synthesis of a new Rh based catalyst on mesoporous manganese oxides. The new catalyst is found to have higher activity and selectivity towards ethanol. Chapter 4 demonstrates the applications of solid-state Si NMR in the silica materials.

  14. Advanced Off-Gas Control System Design For Radioactive And Mixed Waste Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Soelberg

    2005-09-01

    Treatment of radioactive and mixed wastes is often required to destroy or immobilize hazardous constituents, reduce waste volume, and convert the waste to a form suitable for final disposal. These kinds of treatments usually evolve off-gas. Air emission regulations have become increasingly stringent in recent years. Mixed waste thermal treatment in the United States is now generally regulated under the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards. These standards impose unprecedented requirements for operation, monitoring and control, and emissions control. Off-gas control technologies and system designs that were satisfactorily proven in mixed waste operation prior to the implementation of new regulatory standards are in some cases no longer suitable in new mixed waste treatment system designs. Some mixed waste treatment facilities have been shut down rather than have excessively restrictive feed rate limits or facility upgrades to comply with the new standards. New mixed waste treatment facilities in the U. S. are being designed to operate in compliance with the HWC MACT standards. Activities have been underway for the past 10 years at the INL and elsewhere to identify, develop, demonstrate, and design technologies for enabling HWC MACT compliance for mixed waste treatment facilities. Some specific off-gas control technologies and system designs have been identified and tested to show that even the stringent HWC MACT standards can be met, while minimizing treatment facility size and cost.

  15. Mixed-Methods Design in Biology Education Research: Approach and Uses

    PubMed Central

    Warfa, Abdi-Rizak M.

    2016-01-01

    Educational research often requires mixing different research methodologies to strengthen findings, better contextualize or explain results, or minimize the weaknesses of a single method. This article provides practical guidelines on how to conduct such research in biology education, with a focus on mixed-methods research (MMR) that uses both quantitative and qualitative inquiries. Specifically, the paper provides an overview of mixed-methods design typologies most relevant in biology education research. It also discusses common methodological issues that may arise in mixed-methods studies and ways to address them. The paper concludes with recommendations on how to report and write about MMR. PMID:27856556

  16. Supplemental design requirements document enhanced radioactive and mixed waste storage Phase V Project W-112

    SciTech Connect

    Ocampo, V.P.; Boothe, G.F.; Greager, T.M.; Johnson, K.D.; Kooiker, S.L.; Martin, J.D.

    1994-11-01

    This document provides additional and supplemental information to WHC-SD-W112-FDC-001, Project W-112 for radioactive and mixed waste storage. It provides additional requirements for the design and summarizes Westinghouse Hanford Company key design guidance and establishes the technical baseline agreements to be used for definitive design of the Project W-112 facilities.

  17. Mixed mode missions - Designing payloads to match flight opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noblitt, B. G.; Kissin, K.; Moke, R.; Mcannally, R.

    1980-01-01

    Shuttle missions have usually been viewed as being devoted to a single mission mode. But full utilization of the STS capabilities as a platform for space research dictates a flexible strategy toward payload integration and mission design. Simple interfaces, single disciplines, and large design and resource margins point the way toward larger payload integration and operation costs. Payloads for early missions (i.e., OSTA-1, OSS-1, and MEA) are used as illustrations to support this argument. The implications of this approach for future NASA plans as well as for new STS operational concepts are considered.

  18. Conflicts Management Model in School: A Mixed Design Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogan, Soner

    2016-01-01

    The object of this study is to evaluate the reasons for conflicts occurring in school according to perceptions and views of teachers and resolution strategies used for conflicts and to build a model based on the results obtained. In the research, explanatory design including quantitative and qualitative methods has been used. The quantitative part…

  19. Adaptive Pareto Set Estimation for Stochastic Mixed Variable Design Problems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    Improved Feature Extraction, Feature Selection, and Identification Techniques that Create a Fast Unsupervised Hyperspectral Target Detection Algorithm...optional): ______________________________________ General Category / Classification : [ ] core values [ ] command [ ] strategy...Optimization, 8(3), 631-657. 125 23. Davis, M. (2009). Using Multiple Robust Parameter Design Techniques to Improve Hyperspectral Anomaly

  20. Design of turbulent tangential micro-mixers that mix liquids on the nanosecond time scale.

    PubMed

    Mitic, Sandra; van Nieuwkasteele, Jan W; van den Berg, Albert; de Vries, Simon

    2015-01-15

    Unravelling (bio)chemical reaction mechanisms and macromolecular folding pathways on the (sub)microsecond time scale is limited by the time resolution of kinetic instruments for mixing reactants and observation of the progress of the reaction. To improve the mixing time resolution, turbulent four- and two-jet tangential micro-mixers were designed and characterized for their mixing and (unwanted) premixing performances employing acid-base reactions monitored by a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye. The mixing performances of the micro-mixers were determined after the mixing chamber in a free-flowing jet. The premixing behavior in the vortex chamber was assessed in an optically transparent glass-silicon replica of a previously well-characterized stainless-steel four-jet tangential micro-mixer. At the highest flow rates, complete mixing was achieved in 160ns with only approximately 9% premixing of the reactants. The mixing time of 160ns is at least 50 times shorter than estimated for other fast mixing devices. Key aspects to the design of ultrafast turbulent micro-mixers are discussed. The integration of these micro-mixers with an optical flow cell would enable the study of the very onset of chemical reactions in general and of enzyme catalytic reactions in particular.

  1. Improved Efficient, Nearly Orthogonal, Nearly Balanced Mixed Designs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    been widely used for computational experiments ( Sacks et al. 1989). They tend to have good space-filling and orthogonality behavior if n p, but when n...Fisher, R. A. 2000. Statistical methods for research workers. Edinburgh, Scotland: Oliver and Boyd. Hedayat, A. S., N. J. Sloane, and J. Stufken. 1999...methods. 2nd ed. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley. Sacks , J., W. J. Welch, T. J. Mitchell, and H. P. Wynn. 1989. Design and analysis of computer experiments

  2. Zero-Release Mixed Waste Process Facility Design and Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Richard D. Boardman; John A. Deldebbio; Robert J. Kirkham; Martin K. Clemens; Robert Geosits; Ping Wan

    2004-02-01

    A zero-release offgas cleaning system for mixed-waste thermal treatment processes has been evaluated through experimental scoping tests and process modeling. The principles can possibly be adapted to a fluidized-bed calcination or stream reforming process, a waste melter, a rotarykiln process, and possibly other waste treatment thermal processes. The basic concept of a zero-release offgas cleaning system is to recycle the bulk of the offgas stream to the thermal treatment process. A slip stream is taken off the offgas recycle to separate and purge benign constituents that may build up in the gas, such as water vapor, argon, nitrogen, and CO2. Contaminants are separated from the slip stream and returned to the thermal unit for eventual destruction or incorporation into the waste immobilization media. In the current study, a standard packed-bed scrubber, followed by gas separation membranes, is proposed for removal of contaminants from the offgas recycle slipstream. The scrub solution is continuously regenerated by cooling and precipitating sulfate, nitrate, and other salts that reach a solubility limit in the scrub solution. Mercury is also separated by the scrubber. A miscible chemical oxidizing agent was shown to effectively oxidize mercury and also NO, thus increasing their removal efficiency. The current study indicates that the proposed process is a viable option for reducing offgas emissions. Consideration of the proposed closed-system offgas cleaning loop is warranted when emissions limits are stringent, or when a reduction in the total gas emissions volume is desired. Although the current closed-loop appears to be technically feasible, economical considerations must be also be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

  3. Mixing, Noise and Thrust Benefits Using Corrugated Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Morris H., III; Gilinsky, Mikhail M.

    2000-01-01

    These projects are directed toward the analysis of several concepts for nozzle and inlet performance improvement and noise reduction from jet exhausts. Currently. The FM&AL also initiates new joint research between the HU/FM&AL, the Hyper-X Program Team at the LaRC, and the Central Institute of Aviation Motors (CIAM), Moscow, Russia in the field of optimization of fuel injection and mixing in air-breathing propulsion systems. The main results of theoretical, numerical simulation and experimental tests obtained in the previous research are in the papers and patents. The goals of the 14U/FM&AL programs are twofold: 1) to improve the working efficiency of the HU/FM&AL team in generating new innovative ideas and in conducting research in the field of fluid dynamics and acoustics, basically for improvement of supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines, and 2) to attract promising minority students to this research and training and, in cooperation with other HU departments, to teach them basic knowledge in Aerodynamics, Gas Dynamics, and Theoretical and Experimental Methods in Aeroacoustics and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The research at the HU/FM&AL supports reduction schemes associated with the emission of en 'ne pollutants for commercial aircraft and concepts for reduction of 91 observables for military aircraft. These research endeavors relate to the goals of the NASA Strategic Enterprise in Aeronautics concerning the development of environmentally acceptable aircraft. It is in this precise area, where the US aircraft industry, academia, and Government are in great need of trained professionals and which is a high priority goal of the Minority University Research and Education (MLTREP) Program, that the HU/FM&AL can make its most important contribution.

  4. Design Case Summary. Production of Mixed Alcohols from Municipal Solid Waste via Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Valkenburg, C.; Zhu, Y.; Walton, C. W.; Thompson, B. L.; Gerber, M. A.; Jones, S. B.; Stevens, D. J.

    2010-03-01

    The Biomass Program develops design cases to understand the current state of conversion technologies and to determine where improvements need to take place in the future. This design case establishes cost targets for converting MSW to ethanol and other mixed alcohols via gasification.

  5. Curiosity and Pedagogy: A Mixed-Methods Study of Student Experiences in the Design Studio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Korydon H.

    2010-01-01

    Curiosity is often considered the foundation of learning. There is, however, little understanding of how (or if) pedagogy in higher education affects student curiosity, especially in the studio setting of architecture, interior design, and landscape architecture. This study used mixed-methods to investigate curiosity among design students in the…

  6. Establishing Interpretive Consistency When Mixing Approaches: Role of Sampling Designs in Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this chapter is to recommend quality criteria to guide evaluators' selections of sampling designs when mixing approaches. First, we contextualize our discussion of quality criteria and sampling designs by discussing the concept of interpretive consistency and how it impacts sampling decisions. Embedded in this discussion are…

  7. A Typology of Mixed Methods Sampling Designs in Social Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a framework for developing sampling designs in mixed methods research. First, we present sampling schemes that have been associated with quantitative and qualitative research. Second, we discuss sample size considerations and provide sample size recommendations for each of the major research designs for quantitative and…

  8. Panel Design Variations in the Multistage Test Using the Mixed-Format Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jiseon; Chung, Hyewon; Dodd, Barbara G.; Park, Ryoungsun

    2012-01-01

    This study compared various panel designs of the multistage test (MST) using mixed-format tests in the context of classification testing. Simulations varied the design of the first-stage module. The first stage was constructed according to three levels of test information functions (TIFs) with three different TIF centers. Additional computerized…

  9. Phase Evolution and Nucleus Growth Observation of Solid-State BaTiO3 Powder Prepared by High-Energy Bead Milling for Raw Material Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ting-Tai; Huang, Chi-Yuen; Chang, Che-Yuan; Lin, Shih-Pin; Su, Che-Yi; Lee, Chun-Te; Fujimoto, Masayuki

    2011-09-01

    The solid-state synthesis, phase evolution, and nucleus growth of the barium titanate (BaTiO3, BT) powder were investigated in this study. Rapid nucleus growth and precursor phase formation of BT were observed at a relatively low temperature of 600 °C by mixing BaCO3 (2 m2/g) and TiO2 (7 m2/g) with a high-energy bead mill. The decomposition of BaCO3 and the formation of the Ba2TiO4 phase were identified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). On the basis of this observation, the weight loss observed at 600 °C in the derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) curve could also be explained. Furthermore, with increasing calcination temperature, single cubic BT with less than 80 nm fine nuclei/crystallites was observed at 900 °C, and tetragonal BT (c/a > 1.008) with an average particle size of 0.4 µm was obtained at 1000 °C. With regard to the dielectric properties of sintered ceramics, the relative permittivity (ɛr) increased with calcination temperature, and the Curie point also shifted to a progressively higher temperature. However, BT nucleus samples (with low calcination temperatures of 800 and 900 °C) could not satisfy the X7R requirement (Electric Industries Association Standard, the tolerance of capacitance from -55 to +125 °C is ±15%) until calcination temperature increased to 1000 °C.

  10. Miniaturized LED primary optics design used for short-distance color mixing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tsung-Xian; Tsai, Meng-Che; Chang, Shuo-Chieh; Liu, Kuei-Chun

    2016-11-10

    Color-tunable LED light fixtures generally change colors by controlling LEDs of multiple colors. This type of light source requires additional secondary optics and light-mixing distances to deliver color-mixing functions and perform high color uniformity. However, the color-mixing elements increase the optics size, resulting in more difficulties in making tiny lighting fixtures. Therefore, in this study, we introduce a LED primary optics design method that retains standard LED package size while featuring a color-mixing chamber. This method combines a lens having a rotational symmetry with a freeform profile and a zigzag structure by using double total internal reflection to disperse light uniformly. In contrast to a typical hemispherical lens, our design effectively lowers the weighted average color difference from 0.03 to 0.0035, and maintains optical efficiency of at least 90% without using any optical diffuser.

  11. Homotopy Algorithm for Fixed Order Mixed H2/H(infinity) Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whorton, Mark; Buschek, Harald; Calise, Anthony J.

    1996-01-01

    Recent developments in the field of robust multivariable control have merged the theories of H-infinity and H-2 control. This mixed H-2/H-infinity compensator formulation allows design for nominal performance by H-2 norm minimization while guaranteeing robust stability to unstructured uncertainties by constraining the H-infinity norm. A key difficulty associated with mixed H-2/H-infinity compensation is compensator synthesis. A homotopy algorithm is presented for synthesis of fixed order mixed H-2/H-infinity compensators. Numerical results are presented for a four disk flexible structure to evaluate the efficiency of the algorithm.

  12. The Design of Useful Mix Characterization Experiments for the LLNL Reshock Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Tanim

    2015-11-01

    The NIF Re-shock platform has been extensively engineered to minimize boundary effects and polluting shocks. It is capable of comprehensively and reproducibly exploring a large parameter space important in mix experiments: strength and timing of shocks and reshocks; the amplitude and wavelength of Richtmyer-Meshkov-unstable interfaces; the Atwood number of these mixing layers; and using a technique developed with experiments at the Omega laser, the simultaneous visualization of spike and bubble fronts. In this work, I explore multimodal and roughened surface designed, and combinations of light and heavy materials, that may illuminate our understanding of mix in plasmas.

  13. Compound parabolic concentrator design for red, green, blue, and white LED light mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, An-Chi; Lo, Shih-Chieh; Hung, Pei-Fang; Lee, Ju-Yi; Yeh, Hong-Yih; Huang, Hong-Cheng; Li, Chia-Ming

    2016-08-01

    A light-mixing module consisting of a compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) and a fiber for mixing light from red, green, blue, and white (RGBW) LEDs was proposed. The design principle was investigated and a design prototype was demonstrated in a simulation. The simulated results showed that the chromatic nonuniformity was reduced to 1/10 when the fiber length was 40 times the core width, and the module efficiencies were more than 80% and more than 60% when the fiber lengths were 350 mm and 5 m, respectively. The proposed module is suitable for solar lighting compensation or indoor lighting, such as plant-factory lighting.

  14. Taking Advantage of Model-Driven Engineering Foundations for Mixed Interaction Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauffre, Guillaume; Dubois, Emmanuel

    New forms of interactive systems, hereafter referred to as Mixed Interactive Systems (MIS), are based on the use of physical artefacts present in the environment. Mixing the digital and physical worlds affects the development of interactive systems, especially from the point of view of the design resources which need to express new dimensions. Consequently, there is a crucial need to clearly describe the content and utility of the recent models associated to these new interaction forms. Based on existing initiatives in the field of HCI, this chapter first highlights the interest of using a Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) approach for the design of MIS. Then, this chapter retraces the application of a MDE approach on a specific Mixed Interaction design resource. The resulted contribution is a motivated, explicit, complete and standardized definition of the ASUR model, a model for mixed interaction design. This definition constitutes a basis to promote the use of this model, to support its diffusion and to derive design tools from this model. The model-driven development of a flexible ASUR editor is finally introduced, thus facilitating the insertion of model extensions and articulations.

  15. Facility design consideration for continuous mix production of class 1.3 propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, K. L.; Schirk, P. G.

    1994-01-01

    In November of 1989, NASA awarded the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) contract to Lockheed Missiles and Space Company (LMSC) for production of advanced solid rocket motors using the continuous mix process. Aerojet ASRM division (AAD) was selected as the facility operator and RUST International Corporation provided the engineering, procurement, and construction management services. The continuous mix process mandates that the mix and cast facilities be 'close-coupled' along with the premix facilities, creating unique and challenging requirements for the facility designer. The classical approach to handling energetic materials-division into manageable quantities, segregation, and isolation-was not available due to these process requirements and quantities involved. This paper provides a description of the physical facilities, the continuous mix process, and discusses the monitoring and detection techniques used to mitigate hazards and prevent an incident.

  16. Designing photonic crystal waveguides for broadband four-wave mixing applications.

    PubMed

    Kanakis, Panagiotis; Kamalakis, Thomas; Sphicopoulos, Thomas

    2015-03-15

    We present photonic crystal waveguide designs which exhibit large four-wave mixing efficiencies over a wide wavelength region. These designs are identified using an optimization process taking into account sophisticated figure-of-merits that depend on the pump bandwidth and the signal/pump tunability. The obtained designs achieve up to -18.9  dB conversion efficiency, tunable over a 10 nm tunability range. We also present alternative designs that are less efficient but have smaller power requirements and are far more compact.

  17. DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF A TURBULENT MIXING CONDENSATION NUCLEI COUNTER. (R826654)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The design and optimization of operation parameters of a Turbulent Mixing Condensation Nuclei Counter (TMCNC) are discussed as well as its performance using dibutylphthalate (DBP) as the working fluid. A detection limit of 3 nm has been achieved at a flow rate of 2.8 lmin-1<...

  18. Detecting Low Incidents Effects: The Value of Mixed Methods Research Designs in Low-N Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Isadore; Ridenour, Carolyn S.; Newman, Carole; Smith, Shannon; Brown, Russell C.

    2013-01-01

    Many important educational situations such as traumatic brain injury among preschoolers, school gun violence, preadolescent eating disorders, and adolescent suicide happen relatively infrequently. In this article, the authors explain why mixed methods research designs offer more meaningful empirical results than do qualitative or quantitative…

  19. A Mixed-Methods Social Networks Study Design for Research on Transnational Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardi, Laura

    2011-01-01

    This paper advocates the adoption of a mixed-methods research design to describe and analyze ego-centered social networks in transnational family research. Drawing on the experience of the "Social Networks Influences on Family Formation" project (2004-2005; see Bernardi, Keim, & von der Lippe, 2007a, 2007b), I show how the combined…

  20. Evidence on "What Works": An Argument for Extended-Term Mixed-Method (ETMM) Evaluation Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterji, Madhabi

    2005-01-01

    Federal policy tools for gathering evidence on "What Works" in education, such as the What Works Clearinghouse's (WWC) standards, emphasize randomized field trials as the preferred method for generating scientific evidence on the effectiveness of educational programs. This article argues instead for extended-term mixed-method (ETMM) designs.…

  1. Design sensitivity and mixing uniformity of a micro-fluidic mixer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivorra, Benjamin; López Redondo, Juana; Ramos, Angel M.; Santiago, Juan G.

    2016-01-01

    We consider a particular hydrodynamic focusing microfluidic mixer used to initiate the folding process of individual proteins, which has been designed in a previous work and exhibited a mixing time of 0.1 μs. The aim of the current paper is twofold. First, we explore the sensitivity of mixing time to key geometric and flow parameters. In particular, we study the angle between inlets, the shape of the channel intersections, channel widths, mixer depth, mixer symmetry, inlet velocities, working fluid physical properties, and denaturant concentration thresholds. Second, we analyze the uniformity of mixing times as a function of inlet flow streamlines. We find the shape of the intersection, channel width, inlet velocity ratio, and asymmetries have strong effects on mixing time; while inlet angles, mixer depth, fluid properties, and concentration thresholds have weaker effects. Also, the uniformity of the mixing time is preserved for most of the inlet flow and distances of down to within about 0.4 μm of the mixer wall. We offer these analyses of sensitivities to imperfections in mixer geometry and flow conditions as a guide to experimental efforts which aim to fabricate and use these types of mixers. Our study also highlights key issues and provides a guide to the optimization and practical design of other microfluidic devices dependent on both geometry and flow conditions.

  2. Optimal clinical trial design based on a dichotomous Markov-chain mixed-effect sleep model.

    PubMed

    Steven Ernest, C; Nyberg, Joakim; Karlsson, Mats O; Hooker, Andrew C

    2014-12-01

    D-optimal designs for discrete-type responses have been derived using generalized linear mixed models, simulation based methods and analytical approximations for computing the fisher information matrix (FIM) of non-linear mixed effect models with homogeneous probabilities over time. In this work, D-optimal designs using an analytical approximation of the FIM for a dichotomous, non-homogeneous, Markov-chain phase advanced sleep non-linear mixed effect model was investigated. The non-linear mixed effect model consisted of transition probabilities of dichotomous sleep data estimated as logistic functions using piecewise linear functions. Theoretical linear and nonlinear dose effects were added to the transition probabilities to modify the probability of being in either sleep stage. D-optimal designs were computed by determining an analytical approximation the FIM for each Markov component (one where the previous state was awake and another where the previous state was asleep). Each Markov component FIM was weighted either equally or by the average probability of response being awake or asleep over the night and summed to derive the total FIM (FIM(total)). The reference designs were placebo, 0.1, 1-, 6-, 10- and 20-mg dosing for a 2- to 6-way crossover study in six dosing groups. Optimized design variables were dose and number of subjects in each dose group. The designs were validated using stochastic simulation/re-estimation (SSE). Contrary to expectations, the predicted parameter uncertainty obtained via FIM(total) was larger than the uncertainty in parameter estimates computed by SSE. Nevertheless, the D-optimal designs decreased the uncertainty of parameter estimates relative to the reference designs. Additionally, the improvement for the D-optimal designs were more pronounced using SSE than predicted via FIM(total). Through the use of an approximate analytic solution and weighting schemes, the FIM(total) for a non-homogeneous, dichotomous Markov-chain phase

  3. A PC-based inverse design method for radial and mixed flow turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skoe, Ivar Helge

    1991-01-01

    An Inverse Design Method suitable for radial and mixed flow turbomachinery is presented. The codes are based on the streamline curvature concept; therefore, it is applicable for current personal computers from the 286/287 range. In addition to the imposed aerodynamic constraints, mechanical constraints are imposed during the design process to ensure that the resulting geometry satisfies production consideration and that structural considerations are taken into account. By the use of Bezier Curves in the geometric modeling, the same subroutine is used to prepare input for both aero and structural files since it is important to ensure that the geometric data is identical to both structural analysis and production. To illustrate the method, a mixed flow turbine design is shown.

  4. Design evaluation and optimisation in crossover pharmacokinetic studies analysed by nonlinear mixed effects models.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thu Thuy; Bazzoli, Caroline; Mentré, France

    2012-05-20

    Bioequivalence or interaction trials are commonly studied in crossover design and can be analysed by nonlinear mixed effects models as an alternative to noncompartmental approach. We propose an extension of the population Fisher information matrix in nonlinear mixed effects models to design crossover pharmacokinetic trials, using a linearisation of the model around the random effect expectation, including within-subject variability and discrete covariates fixed or changing between periods. We use the expected standard errors of treatment effect to compute the power for the Wald test of comparison or equivalence and the number of subjects needed for a given power. We perform various simulations mimicking crossover two-period trials to show the relevance of these developments. We then apply these developments to design a crossover pharmacokinetic study of amoxicillin in piglets and implement them in the new version 3.2 of the r function PFIM.

  5. Design and simulation of adaptive optics controller based on mixed sensitivity H∞ control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Dingan; Li, Xinyang; Peng, Zhenming

    2016-10-01

    Optical systems such as telescopes are very complex, and their model usually with the uncertainty. To deal with the uncertainty of adaptive optics system and improve system robust stability, the mixed sensitivity H-infinity control has been introduced to design system controller. In order to testify the validity, wavefront aberration correction capability, as well as the robust stability, has been compared between the mixed sensitivity H-infinity controller and the classic integral controller. The computer simulation results demonstrate that the system with the mixed sensitivity H-infinity controller, while can't guarantee a better correction performance, has greater robust stability than the one with the classic integral controller. That is to say, greater robust stability is achieved at the expense of the correction capability in the system with H-infinity controller. Moreover, the greater the uncertainty is, the more proceeds the mixed sensitivity H-infinity controller will produce. It proves the efficiency of the mixed sensitivity H-infinity controller in dealing with the uncertainty of adaptive optics system.

  6. Nevada test site low-level and mixed waste repository design in the unsaturated zone

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, T.A.; Warren, D.M.; USDOE Nevada Operations Office, Las Vegas, NV )

    1989-01-01

    The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is used for shallow land disposal of Low-Level Radioactive (LLW) and for retrievable disposal of Mixed Wastes (MW) from various Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The site is situated in southern Nevada, one of the most arid regions of the United States. Design considerations include vadose zone monitoring in lieu of groundwater monitoring, stringent waste acceptance and packaging criteria, a waste examination and real-time radiography facility, and trench design. 4 refs.

  7. Designing slow-light photonic crystal waveguides for four-wave mixing applications.

    PubMed

    Kanakis, Panagiotis; Kamalakis, Thomas; Sphicopoulos, Thomas

    2014-02-15

    We discuss the optimization of photonic crystal waveguides for four-wave mixing (FWM) applications, taking into account linear loss and free-carrier effects. Suitable figures of merit are introduced in order to guide us through the choice of practical, high-efficiency designs requiring relatively low pump power and small waveguide length. In order to realistically perform the waveguide optimization process, we propose and validate an approximate expression for the FWM efficiency, which significantly alleviates our numerical calculations. Promising waveguide designs are identified by means of an exhaustive search, altering some structural parameters. Our approach aims to optimize the waveguides for nonlinear signal-processing applications based on the FWM.

  8. Characteristics of a hydrocyclone with raw material input along the central axis: a new design for the separation of coal from heavier materials such as pyritic sulfur. Final report, July 1, 1983-June 30, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, P.K.

    1985-01-01

    The characteristics of a hydrocyclone with raw material input along the central axis were studied. The impetus for this study lies in the need for an economical method to recover the usable coal fines from the many acres of gob piles around old mine sites. The design and flow variables were first identified, and then a dimensional analysis was performed to guide the experiments. Initially, spheres of appropriate densities simulating particles of coal, shale, sandstone and pyrite, for example, were color coded and used to model the solid raw materials. Later, samples of gob were used. Two methods of input of the raw materials were tested: (1) auger or screw feed through a tube extending up through the underflow, and (2) hydraulic feed through a tube extending up through the underflow. The auger did not work as well as expected and consequently this design was discarded. It is anticipated that another disadvantage of the auger feed in continuous operation using gob would be a high rate of wear. The hydraulic feed design, however, proved to be successful in the laboratory and it is believed that feeding the gob hydraulically is feasible in a continuous operation in the field. In regard to whether or not a hydrocyclone with the raw solid material fed centrally along the axis can separate the coal fines from the waste materials with less energy consumption than with a conventional hydrocyclone, the data look encouraging, but more data should be taken than was possible in this project. However, the effect of centrally feeding the raw material into the hydrocyclone was not found to be as pronounced as had been expected. 3 references, 5 figures, 4 tables.

  9. Method of analysis for compressible flow through mixed-flow centrifugal impellers of arbitrary design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrick, Joseph T; Ginsburg, Ambrose; Osborn, Walter M

    1952-01-01

    A method is presented for analysis of the compressible flow between the hub and the shroud of mixed-flow impellers of arbitrary design. Axial symmetry was assumed, but the forces in the meridional (hub to shroud) plane, which are derived from tangential pressure gradients, were taken into account. The method was applied to an experimental mixed-flow impeller. The analysis of the flow in the meridional plane of the impeller showed that the rotational forces, the blade curvature, and the hub-shroud profile can introduce severe velocity gradients along the hub and the shroud surfaces. Choked flow at the impeller inlet as determined by the analysis was verified by experimental results.

  10. Robust Control for Microgravity Vibration Isolation using Fixed Order, Mixed H2/Mu Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whorton, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Many space-science experiments need an active isolation system to provide a sufficiently quiescent microgravity environment. Modern control methods provide the potential for both high-performance and robust stability in the presence of parametric uncertainties that are characteristic of microgravity vibration isolation systems. While H2 and H(infinity) methods are well established, neither provides the levels of attenuation performance and robust stability in a compensator with low order. Mixed H2/H(infinity), controllers provide a means for maximizing robust stability for a given level of mean-square nominal performance while directly optimizing for controller order constraints. This paper demonstrates the benefit of mixed norm design from the perspective of robustness to parametric uncertainties and controller order for microgravity vibration isolation. A nominal performance metric analogous to the mu measure, for robust stability assessment is also introduced in order to define an acceptable trade space from which different control methodologies can be compared.

  11. Design and performance of family of diffusing scrolls with mixed-flow impeller and vaneless diffuser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W Byron; Bradshaw, Guy R

    1949-01-01

    A family of diffusing scrolls was designed for use with a mixed-flow impeller and a small-diameter vaneless diffuser. The design theory, intended to maintain a uniform pressure around the scroll inlet, permits determination of the position of scroll cross sections of preassigned area by considering the radial variation in fluid density and the effects of friction along the scroll. Inasmuch as the design method leaves the cross-sectional shape undetermined, the effect of certain variations in scroll shape was investigated by studying scrolls having angles of divergence (of the scroll walls downstream of the entrance section) of 24 degrees, 40 degrees, and 80 degrees. A second 80 degree scroll was of asymmetrical construction and a third was plaster-cast instead of sand-cast. Each scroll was tested as a compressor component at actual impeller tip speeds of 700 to 1300 feet per second from full throttle to surge.

  12. Detailed design of a lattice composite fuselage structure by a mixed optimization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D.; Lohse-Busch, H.; Toropov, V.; Hühne, C.; Armani, U.

    2016-10-01

    In this article, a procedure for designing a lattice fuselage barrel is developed. It comprises three stages: first, topology optimization of an aircraft fuselage barrel is performed with respect to weight and structural performance to obtain the conceptual design. The interpretation of the optimal result is given to demonstrate the development of this new lattice airframe concept for the fuselage barrel. Subsequently, parametric optimization of the lattice aircraft fuselage barrel is carried out using genetic algorithms on metamodels generated with genetic programming from a 101-point optimal Latin hypercube design of experiments. The optimal design is achieved in terms of weight savings subject to stability, global stiffness and strain requirements, and then verified by the fine mesh finite element simulation of the lattice fuselage barrel. Finally, a practical design of the composite skin complying with the aircraft industry lay-up rules is presented. It is concluded that the mixed optimization method, combining topology optimization with the global metamodel-based approach, allows the problem to be solved with sufficient accuracy and provides the designers with a wealth of information on the structural behaviour of the novel anisogrid composite fuselage design.

  13. Statistical efficiency and optimal design for stepped cluster studies under linear mixed effects models.

    PubMed

    Girling, Alan J; Hemming, Karla

    2016-06-15

    In stepped cluster designs the intervention is introduced into some (or all) clusters at different times and persists until the end of the study. Instances include traditional parallel cluster designs and the more recent stepped-wedge designs. We consider the precision offered by such designs under mixed-effects models with fixed time and random subject and cluster effects (including interactions with time), and explore the optimal choice of uptake times. The results apply both to cross-sectional studies where new subjects are observed at each time-point, and longitudinal studies with repeat observations on the same subjects. The efficiency of the design is expressed in terms of a 'cluster-mean correlation' which carries information about the dependency-structure of the data, and two design coefficients which reflect the pattern of uptake-times. In cross-sectional studies the cluster-mean correlation combines information about the cluster-size and the intra-cluster correlation coefficient. A formula is given for the 'design effect' in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. An algorithm for optimising the choice of uptake times is described and specific results obtained for the best balanced stepped designs. In large studies we show that the best design is a hybrid mixture of parallel and stepped-wedge components, with the proportion of stepped wedge clusters equal to the cluster-mean correlation. The impact of prior uncertainty in the cluster-mean correlation is considered by simulation. Some specific hybrid designs are proposed for consideration when the cluster-mean correlation cannot be reliably estimated, using a minimax principle to ensure acceptable performance across the whole range of unknown values. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Design considerations for an intelligent mobile robot for mixed-waste inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Sias, F.R.; Dawson, D.M.; Schalkoff, R.J.; Byrd, J.S.; Pettus, R.O.

    1993-06-01

    Large quantities of low-level radioactive waste are stored in steel drums at various Department of Energy (DOE) sites in the United States. Much of the stored waste qualifies as mixed waste and falls under Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations that require periodic inspection. A semi-autonomous mobile robot is being developed during Phase 1 of a DOE contract to perform the inspection task and consequently reduce the radiation exposure of inspection personnel to ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable). The nature of the inspection process, the resulting robot design requirements, and the current status of the project are the subjects of this paper.

  15. Attitudes of dental students towards using computers in education--a mixed design study.

    PubMed

    El Tantawi, M M A; Saleh, S M

    2008-01-01

    This mixed design study explored attitudes of dental students towards use of computers. It employed quantitative analyses of a questionnaire answered by 979 students and qualitative analysis of suggestions by a subgroup of 339. Positive attitudes towards computers were predicted by "computer use for > 1 year" and "year of study". Qualitative analysis of students' suggestions confirmed these findings and brought up new issues such as the need for establishing a website for the faculty. The results indicate that careful planning is needed to improve students' skills and incorporate computer applications in educational curricula.

  16. [Mixed design for the evaluation of the Mesoamerica Health 2015 initiative].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo; Téllez-Rojo, Marta María; Torres, Pilar; Romero, Martín; Bertozzi, Stefano M

    2011-01-01

    Since the Salud Mesoamerica 2015 initiative (SM-2015) aim is to improve health and nutrition conditions of those most vulnerable in Mesoamerica, the goal of the evaluation is to generate evidence of the joint effectiveness of a package of interventions designed to improve the health conditions. We propose a mix design for the evaluation, which will allow to know the magnitude of changes attributable to the interventions, as well as the meanings of these changes for the target population, taking into account the specificities of each country. The main axis of this design is a locality panel where information about individuals, households, and health facilities (first and second level) will also be collected. The evaluation design described in this paper was developed between June and December, 2009, and it was integrated during workshops in Cuernavaca (Mexico), Managua (Nicaragua), and San Jose (Costa Rica). The proposed design will allow to generate evidence about the joint effectiveness of the package of interventions proposed for the SM-2015. The success of this design rests on the political commitment of countries and donors.

  17. Radiation hardness by design for mixed signal infrared readout circuit applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaalema, Stephen; Gates, James; Dobyns, David; Pauls, Greg; Wall, Bruce

    2013-09-01

    Readout integrated circuits (ROICs) to support space-based infrared detection applications often have severe radiation tolerance requirements. Radiation hardness-by-design (RHBD) significantly enhances the radiation tolerance of commercially available CMOS and custom radiation hardened fabrication techniques are not required. The combination of application specific design techniques, enclosed gate architecture nFETs and intrinsic thin oxide radiation hardness of 180 nm process node commercial CMOS allows realization of high performance mixed signal circuits. Black Forest Engineering has used RHBD techniques to develop ROICs with integrated A/D conversion that operate over a wide range of temperatures (40K-300K) to support infrared detection. ROIC radiation tolerance capability for 256x256 LWIR area arrays and 1x128 thermopile linear arrays is presented. The use of 130 nm CMOS for future ROIC RHBD applications is discussed.

  18. Mixed transition-metal oxides: design, synthesis, and energy-related applications.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Changzhou; Wu, Hao Bin; Xie, Yi; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2014-02-03

    A promising family of mixed transition-metal oxides (MTMOs) (designated as Ax B3-x O4 ; A, B=Co, Ni, Zn, Mn, Fe, etc.) with stoichiometric or even non-stoichiometric compositions, typically in a spinel structure, has recently attracted increasing research interest worldwide. Benefiting from their remarkable electrochemical properties, these MTMOs will play significant roles for low-cost and environmentally friendly energy storage/conversion technologies. In this Review, we summarize recent research advances in the rational design and efficient synthesis of MTMOs with controlled shapes, sizes, compositions, and micro-/nanostructures, along with their applications as electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors, and efficient electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction in metal-air batteries and fuel cells. Some future trends and prospects to further develop advanced MTMOs for next-generation electrochemical energy storage/conversion systems are also presented.

  19. Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project melter system preliminary design technical review meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, T.L.; Raivo, B.D.; Soelberg, N.R.; Wiersholm, O.

    1995-02-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project sponsored a plasma are melter technical design review meeting to evaluate high-temperature melter system configurations for processing heterogeneous alpha-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (ALLW). Thermal processing experts representing Department of Energy contractors, the Environmental Protection Agency, and private sector companies participated in the review. The participants discussed issues and evaluated alternative configurations for three areas of the melter system design: plasma torch melters and graphite arc melters, offgas treatment options, and overall system configuration considerations. The Technical Advisory Committee for the review concluded that graphite arc melters are preferred over plasma torch melters for processing ALLW. Initiating involvement of stakeholders was considered essential at this stage of the design. For the offgas treatment system, the advisory committee raised the question whether to a use wet-dry or a dry-wet system. The committee recommended that the waste stream characterization, feed preparation, and the control system are essential design tasks for the high-temperature melter treatment system. The participants strongly recommended that a complete melter treatment system be assembled to conduct tests with nonradioactive surrogate waste material. A nonradioactive test bed would allow for inexpensive design and operational changes prior to assembling a system for radioactive waste treatment operations.

  20. Optimal design of mixed-effects PK/PD models based on differential equations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Eskridge, Kent M; Nadarajah, Saralees

    2012-01-01

    There is a vast literature on the analysis of optimal design of nonlinear mixed-effects models (NLMMs) described by ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with analytic solution. However, much less has been published on the design of trials to fit such models with nonanalytic solution. In this article, we use the "direct" method to find parameter sensitivities, which are required during the optimization of models defined as ODEs, and apply them to find D-optimal designs for various specific situations relevant to population pharmacokinetic studies using a particular model with first-order absorption and elimination. In addition, we perform two simulation studies. The first one aims to show that the criterion computed from the development of the Fisher information matrix expression is a good measure to compare and optimize population designs, thus avoiding a large number of simulations; In the second one, a sensitivity analysis with respect to parameter misspecification allows us to compare the robustness of different population designs constructed in this article.

  1. Implosion Dynamics and Mix in Double-Shell ICF Capsule Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunderson, Mark; Daughton, William; Simakov, Andrei; Wilson, Douglas; Watt, Robert; Delamater, Norman; Montgomery, David

    2015-11-01

    From an implosion dynamics perspective, double-shell ICF capsule designs have several advantages over the single-shell NIF ICF capsule point design. Double shell designs do not require precise shock sequencing, do not rely on hot spot ignition, have lower peak implosion speed requirements, and have lower convergence ratio requirements. However, there are still hurdles that must be overcome. The timing of the two main shocks in these designs is important in achieving sufficient compression of the DT fuel. Instability of the inner gold shell due to preheat from the hohlraum environment can disrupt the implosion of the inner pill. Mix, in addition to quenching burn in the DT fuel, also decreases the transfer of energy between the beryllium ablator and the inner gold shell during collision thus decreasing the implosion speed of the inner shell along with compression of the DT fuel. Herein, we will discuss practical implications of these effects on double-shell design we carry out in preparation for the NIF double-shell campaign. Work performed under the auspices of DOE by LANL under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  2. Design and Performance of South Ukraine Nuclear Power Plant Mixed Cores

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullayev, A. M.; Baydulin, V.; Zhukov, A. I.; Latorre, Richard

    2011-09-24

    In 2010, 42 Westinghouse fuel assemblies (WFAs) were loaded into the core of South Ukraine Nuclear Power Plant (SUNPP) Unit 3 after four successful cycles with 6 Westinghouse Lead Test Assemblies. The scope of safety substantiating documents required for the regulatory approval of this mixed core was extended considerably, particularly with development and implementation of new methodologies and 3-D kinetic codes. Additional verification for all employed codes was also performed. Despite the inherent hydraulic non-uniformity of a mixed core, it was possible to demonstrate that all design and operating restrictions for three different types of fuel (TVS-M, TVSA and WFA) loaded in the core were conservatively met. This paper provides the main results from the first year of operation of the core loaded with 42 WFAs, the predicted parameters for the transition and equilibrium cycles with WFAs, comparisons of predicted versus measured core parameters, as well as the acceptable margin evaluation results for reactivity accidents using the 3-D kinetic codes. To date WFA design parameters have been confirmed by operation experience.

  3. Design of an electromagnetic accelerator for turbulent hydrodynamic mix studies. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Susoeff, A.R.; Hawke, R.S.; Morrison, J.J.; Dimonte, G.; Remington, B.A.

    1994-03-01

    An electromagnetic accelerator in the form of a linear electric motor (LEM) has been designed to achieve controlled acceleration profiles of a carriage containing hydrodynamically unstable fluids for the investigation of the development of turbulent mix. Key features of the design include: (1) independent control of acceleration, deceleration and augmentation currents to provide a variety of acceleration-time profiles, (2) a robust support structure to minimized deflection and dampen vibration which could create artifacts in the data interfering with the intended study and (3) a compliant, non-arcing solid armature allowing optimum electrical contact. Electromagnetic modeling codes were used to optimize the rail and augmentation coil positions within the support structure framework. Design of the driving armature and the dynamic electromagnetic braking system is based on results of contemporary studies for non-arcing sliding contact of solid armatures. A 0.6MJ electrolytic capacitor bank is used for energy storage to drive the LEM. This report will discuss a LEM and armature design which will accelerate masses of up to 3kg to a maximum of about 3000g{sub o}, where g{sub o} is acceleration due to gravity.

  4. Automatic Design of Synthetic Gene Circuits through Mixed Integer Non-linear Programming

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Linh; Kececioglu, John; Köppe, Matthias; Tagkopoulos, Ilias

    2012-01-01

    Automatic design of synthetic gene circuits poses a significant challenge to synthetic biology, primarily due to the complexity of biological systems, and the lack of rigorous optimization methods that can cope with the combinatorial explosion as the number of biological parts increases. Current optimization methods for synthetic gene design rely on heuristic algorithms that are usually not deterministic, deliver sub-optimal solutions, and provide no guaranties on convergence or error bounds. Here, we introduce an optimization framework for the problem of part selection in synthetic gene circuits that is based on mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP), which is a deterministic method that finds the globally optimal solution and guarantees convergence in finite time. Given a synthetic gene circuit, a library of characterized parts, and user-defined constraints, our method can find the optimal selection of parts that satisfy the constraints and best approximates the objective function given by the user. We evaluated the proposed method in the design of three synthetic circuits (a toggle switch, a transcriptional cascade, and a band detector), with both experimentally constructed and synthetic promoter libraries. Scalability and robustness analysis shows that the proposed framework scales well with the library size and the solution space. The work described here is a step towards a unifying, realistic framework for the automated design of biological circuits. PMID:22536398

  5. A proposed through-flow inverse method for the design of mixed-flow pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borges, Joao Eduardo

    1991-01-01

    A through-flow (hub-to-shroud) truly inverse method is proposed and described. It uses an imposition of mean swirl, i.e., radius times mean tangential velocity, given throughout the meridional section of the turbomachine as an initial design specification. In the present implementation, it is assumed that the fluid is inviscid, incompressible, and irrotational at inlet and that the blades are supposed to have zero thickness. Only blade rows that impart to the fluid a constant work along the space are considered. An application of this procedure to design the rotor of a mixed-flow pump is described in detail. The strategy used to find a suitable mean swirl distribution and the other design inputs is also described. The final blade shape and pressure distributions on the blade surface are presented, showing that it is possible to obtain feasible designs using this technique. Another advantage of this technique is the fact that it does not require large amounts of CPU time.

  6. Automatic design of synthetic gene circuits through mixed integer non-linear programming.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Linh; Kececioglu, John; Köppe, Matthias; Tagkopoulos, Ilias

    2012-01-01

    Automatic design of synthetic gene circuits poses a significant challenge to synthetic biology, primarily due to the complexity of biological systems, and the lack of rigorous optimization methods that can cope with the combinatorial explosion as the number of biological parts increases. Current optimization methods for synthetic gene design rely on heuristic algorithms that are usually not deterministic, deliver sub-optimal solutions, and provide no guaranties on convergence or error bounds. Here, we introduce an optimization framework for the problem of part selection in synthetic gene circuits that is based on mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP), which is a deterministic method that finds the globally optimal solution and guarantees convergence in finite time. Given a synthetic gene circuit, a library of characterized parts, and user-defined constraints, our method can find the optimal selection of parts that satisfy the constraints and best approximates the objective function given by the user. We evaluated the proposed method in the design of three synthetic circuits (a toggle switch, a transcriptional cascade, and a band detector), with both experimentally constructed and synthetic promoter libraries. Scalability and robustness analysis shows that the proposed framework scales well with the library size and the solution space. The work described here is a step towards a unifying, realistic framework for the automated design of biological circuits.

  7. RAW to UIMF Converter

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-09

    The RAW to Unified Ion Mobility File (UIMF) converter is a software application that takes LC MS scans from a Thermo RAW file and translates them into ion mobility scans compatible with the UIMF file format. The converter calculates the number of points to generate for the UIMF format by estimating the coefficients of a power function, which models the way in which FTMS data is collected. Once the coefficients are estimated (using a standard Gauss-Newton solver), an m/z mesh is created using standard m/z ppm calculations. This mesh is then used as a basis for translating the m/z intensity pairs from the Thermo RAW file to the UIMF format. Due to non-uniform spacing of m/z values in RAW spectra, a simple linear interpolation is applied to the UIMF format after assigning all m/z values in the mesh in order to fill in gaps. Finally, the converter can perform singly or doubly demultiplexing of encoded ion mobility chromtograms, depending on user selected options during the conversion process. This operation is performed after the UIMF file has been generated.

  8. Design, implementation and testing of extended and mixed precisionBLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X.S.; Demmel, J.W.; Bailey, D.H.; Henry, G.; Hida, Y.; Iskandar, J.; Kahan, W.; Kapur, A.; Martin, M.C.; Tung, T.; Yoo, D.J.

    2000-10-20

    This article describes the design rationale, a C implementation, and conformance testing of a subset of the new Standard for the BLAS (Basic Linear Algebra Subroutines): Extended and Mixed Precision BLAS. Permitting higher internal precision and mixed input/output types and precisions allows us to implement some algorithms that are simpler, more accurate, and sometimes faster than possible without these features. The new BLAS are challenging to implement and test because there are many more subroutines than in the existing Standard, and because we must be able to assess whether a higher precision is used for internal computations than is used for either input or output variables. We have therefore developed an automated process of generating and systematically testing these routines. Our methodology is applicable to languages besides C. In particular, our algorithms used in the testing code will be valuable to all other BLAS implementors. Our extra precision routines achieve excellent performance--close to half of the machine peak Megaflop rate even for the Level 2 BLAS, when the data access is stride one.

  9. Optimal design of mixed-media packet-switching networks - Routing and capacity assignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, D.; Kuo, F. F.; Kobayashi, H.

    1977-01-01

    This paper considers a mixed-media packet-switched computer communication network which consists of a low-delay terrestrial store-and-forward subnet combined with a low-cost high-bandwidth satellite subnet. We show how to route traffic via ground and/or satellite links by means of static, deterministic procedures and assign capacities to channels subject to a given linear cost such that the network average delay is minimized. Two operational schemes for this network model are investigated: one is a scheme in which the satellite channel is used as a slotted ALOHA channel; the other is a new multiaccess scheme we propose in which whenever a channel collision occurs, retransmission of the involved packets will route through ground links to their destinations. The performance of both schemes is evaluated and compared in terms of cost and average packet delay tradeoffs for some examples. The results offer guidelines for the design and optimal utilization of mixed-media networks.

  10. "Vogue," 1892-1928: An Historical Look at the Evolution of One Magazine's Editorial-Advertising-Design Mix.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prior, Marcia R.

    The careful integration of editorial content, graphic design, and advertising to create a successful magazine package is not a phenomenon of the last half of the twentieth century. As early as the 1890s, the first publishers of "Vogue" magazine had established an editorial-advertising-design mix in the fashion magazine that was…

  11. Rational design of metallic nanocavities for resonantly enhanced four-wave mixing

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Euclides; Prior, Yehiam

    2015-01-01

    Optimizing the shape of nanostructures and nano-antennas for specific optical properties has evolved to be a very fruitful activity. With modern fabrication tools a large variety of possibilities is available for shaping both nanoparticles and nanocavities; in particular nanocavities in thin metal films have emerged as attractive candidates for new metamaterials and strong linear and nonlinear optical systems. Here we rationally design metallic nanocavities to boost their Four-Wave Mixing response by resonating the optical plasmonic resonances with the incoming and generated beams. The linear and nonlinear optical responses as well as the propagation of the electric fields inside the cavities are derived from the solution of Maxwell’s equations by using the 3D finite-differences time domain method. The observed conversion-efficiency of near-infrared to visible light equals or surpasses that of BBO of equivalent thickness. Implications to further optimization for efficient and broadband ultrathin nonlinear optical materials are discussed. PMID:25974175

  12. Freely designable optical frequency conversion in Raman-resonant four-wave-mixing process

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jian; Katsuragawa, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear optical processes are governed by the relative-phase relationships among the relevant electromagnetic fields in these processes. In this Report, we describe the physics of arbitrary manipulation of Raman-resonant four-wave-mixing process by artificial control of relative phases. As a typical example, we show freely designable optical-frequency conversions to extreme spectral regions, mid-infrared and vacuum-ultraviolet, with near-unity quantum efficiencies. Furthermore, we show that such optical-frequency conversions can be realized by using a surprisingly simple technology where transparent plates are placed in a nonlinear optical medium and their positions and thicknesses are adjusted precisely. In a numerical simulation assuming practically applicable parameters in detail, we demonstrate a single-frequency tunable laser that covers the whole vacuum-ultraviolet spectral range of 120 to 200 nm. PMID:25748023

  13. Rational design of metallic nanocavities for resonantly enhanced four-wave mixing.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Euclides; Prior, Yehiam

    2015-05-14

    Optimizing the shape of nanostructures and nano-antennas for specific optical properties has evolved to be a very fruitful activity. With modern fabrication tools a large variety of possibilities is available for shaping both nanoparticles and nanocavities; in particular nanocavities in thin metal films have emerged as attractive candidates for new metamaterials and strong linear and nonlinear optical systems. Here we rationally design metallic nanocavities to boost their Four-Wave Mixing response by resonating the optical plasmonic resonances with the incoming and generated beams. The linear and nonlinear optical responses as well as the propagation of the electric fields inside the cavities are derived from the solution of Maxwell's equations by using the 3D finite-differences time domain method. The observed conversion-efficiency of near-infrared to visible light equals or surpasses that of BBO of equivalent thickness. Implications to further optimization for efficient and broadband ultrathin nonlinear optical materials are discussed.

  14. Mixed culture optimization for marigold flower ensilage via experimental design and response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Navarrete-Bolaños, José Luis; Jiménez-Islas, Hugo; Botello-Alvarez, Enrique; Rico-Martínez, Ramiro

    2003-04-09

    Endogenous microorganisms isolated from the marigold flower (Tagetes erecta) were studied to understand the events taking place during its ensilage. Studies of the cellulase enzymatic activity and the ensilage process were undertaken. In both studies, the use of approximate second-order models and multiple lineal regression, within the context of an experimental mixture design using the response surface methodology as optimization strategy, determined that the microorganisms Flavobacterium IIb, Acinetobacter anitratus, and Rhizopus nigricans are the most significant in marigold flower ensilage and exhibit high cellulase activity. A mixed culture comprised of 9.8% Flavobacterium IIb, 41% A. anitratus, and 49.2% R. nigricans used during ensilage resulted in an increased yield of total xanthophylls extracted of 24.94 g/kg of dry weight compared with 12.92 for the uninoculated control ensilage.

  15. Interdisciplinary Concepts for Design and Implementation of Mixed Reality Interactive Neurorehabilitation Systems for Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Lehrer, Nicole; Duff, Margaret; Venkataraman, Vinay; Turaga, Pavan; Ingalls, Todd; Rymer, W. Zev; Wolf, Steven L.; Rikakis, Thanassis

    2015-01-01

    Interactive neurorehabilitation (INR) systems provide therapy that can evaluate and deliver feedback on a patient's movement computationally. There are currently many approaches to INR design and implementation, without a clear indication of which methods to utilize best. This article presents key interactive computing, motor learning, and media arts concepts utilized by an interdisciplinary group to develop adaptive, mixed reality INR systems for upper extremity therapy of patients with stroke. Two INR systems are used as examples to show how the concepts can be applied within: (1) a small-scale INR clinical study that achieved integrated improvement of movement quality and functionality through continuously supervised therapy and (2) a pilot study that achieved improvement of clinical scores with minimal supervision. The notion is proposed that some of the successful approaches developed and tested within these systems can form the basis of a scalable design methodology for other INR systems. A coherent approach to INR design is needed to facilitate the use of the systems by physical therapists, increase the number of successful INR studies, and generate rich clinical data that can inform the development of best practices for use of INR in physical therapy. PMID:25425694

  16. Interdisciplinary concepts for design and implementation of mixed reality interactive neurorehabilitation systems for stroke.

    PubMed

    Baran, Michael; Lehrer, Nicole; Duff, Margaret; Venkataraman, Vinay; Turaga, Pavan; Ingalls, Todd; Rymer, W Zev; Wolf, Steven L; Rikakis, Thanassis

    2015-03-01

    Interactive neurorehabilitation (INR) systems provide therapy that can evaluate and deliver feedback on a patient's movement computationally. There are currently many approaches to INR design and implementation, without a clear indication of which methods to utilize best. This article presents key interactive computing, motor learning, and media arts concepts utilized by an interdisciplinary group to develop adaptive, mixed reality INR systems for upper extremity therapy of patients with stroke. Two INR systems are used as examples to show how the concepts can be applied within: (1) a small-scale INR clinical study that achieved integrated improvement of movement quality and functionality through continuously supervised therapy and (2) a pilot study that achieved improvement of clinical scores with minimal supervision. The notion is proposed that some of the successful approaches developed and tested within these systems can form the basis of a scalable design methodology for other INR systems. A coherent approach to INR design is needed to facilitate the use of the systems by physical therapists, increase the number of successful INR studies, and generate rich clinical data that can inform the development of best practices for use of INR in physical therapy.

  17. Development of ORIGEN Libraries for Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Assembly Designs

    DOE PAGES

    Mertyurek, Ugur; Gauld, Ian C.

    2015-12-24

    In this research, ORIGEN cross section libraries for reactor-grade mixed oxide (MOX) fuel assembly designs have been developed to provide fast and accurate depletion calculations to predict nuclide inventories, radiation sources and thermal decay heat information needed in safety evaluations and safeguards verification measurements of spent nuclear fuel. These ORIGEN libraries are generated using two-dimensional lattice physics assembly models that include enrichment zoning and cross section data based on ENDF/B-VII.0 evaluations. Using the SCALE depletion sequence, burnup-dependent cross sections are created for selected commercial reactor assembly designs and a representative range of reactor operating conditions, fuel enrichments, and fuel burnup.more » The burnup dependent cross sections are then interpolated to provide problem-dependent cross sections for ORIGEN, avoiding the need for time-consuming lattice physics calculations. The ORIGEN libraries for MOX assembly designs are validated against destructive radiochemical assay measurements of MOX fuel from the MALIBU international experimental program. This program included measurements of MOX fuel from a 15 × 15 pressurized water reactor assembly and a 9 × 9 boiling water reactor assembly. The ORIGEN MOX libraries are also compared against detailed assembly calculations from the Phase IV-B numerical MOX fuel burnup credit benchmark coordinated by the Nuclear Energy Agency within the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Finally, the nuclide compositions calculated by ORIGEN using the MOX libraries are shown to be in good agreement with other physics codes and with experimental data.« less

  18. Development of ORIGEN Libraries for Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Assembly Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Mertyurek, Ugur; Gauld, Ian C.

    2015-12-24

    In this research, ORIGEN cross section libraries for reactor-grade mixed oxide (MOX) fuel assembly designs have been developed to provide fast and accurate depletion calculations to predict nuclide inventories, radiation sources and thermal decay heat information needed in safety evaluations and safeguards verification measurements of spent nuclear fuel. These ORIGEN libraries are generated using two-dimensional lattice physics assembly models that include enrichment zoning and cross section data based on ENDF/B-VII.0 evaluations. Using the SCALE depletion sequence, burnup-dependent cross sections are created for selected commercial reactor assembly designs and a representative range of reactor operating conditions, fuel enrichments, and fuel burnup. The burnup dependent cross sections are then interpolated to provide problem-dependent cross sections for ORIGEN, avoiding the need for time-consuming lattice physics calculations. The ORIGEN libraries for MOX assembly designs are validated against destructive radiochemical assay measurements of MOX fuel from the MALIBU international experimental program. This program included measurements of MOX fuel from a 15 × 15 pressurized water reactor assembly and a 9 × 9 boiling water reactor assembly. The ORIGEN MOX libraries are also compared against detailed assembly calculations from the Phase IV-B numerical MOX fuel burnup credit benchmark coordinated by the Nuclear Energy Agency within the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Finally, the nuclide compositions calculated by ORIGEN using the MOX libraries are shown to be in good agreement with other physics codes and with experimental data.

  19. Mixed waste landfill monitoring prototype test design for Los Alamos National Laboratory. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this contract is to design the prototype tests necessary for the verification of the measurement methods proposed for the Mixed Waste Disposal Facility. The design is limited to the hydrological performance of the measurement methods. It does not include the mechanical testing of the methods proposed. The test site is to be selected and when approved, construction drawings provided. The contract also includes testing of vitrified clay pipe as the liner of choice for the passages under the landfill. The tests are to be done of both he hydrologic and the mechanical capability of the pipe. The test bed construction is to be supervised as it is being done by the construction contractor monitored by LANL. This contract does not include the logical subsequent work of performance of the measurements in the test bed. Since this contract was received by September 15, with the work to be completed by September 30, only that work possible in the short time was performed. That included the design of the test bed, the purchase of the vitrified clay pipe and the mechanical tests of the pipe, and the purchase of the SEAMIST systems for testing in the clay pipe. None of those could be delivered in time for flow tests to be done on the clay pipe. The mechanical tests were done as part of the pipe purchase and are reported here. The contract was not extended beyond September 30 for lack of funds. This report is therefore limited to the preliminary design of the test bed and to the specification of the orders for the materials. The hope is that funding will be restored to the program for the completion of the design and measurement effort.

  20. Investigating Appropriate Sampling Design for Estimating Above-Ground Biomass in Bruneian Lowland Mixed Dipterocarp Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Lee, D.; Abu Salim, K.; Yun, H. M.; Han, S.; Lee, W. K.; Davies, S. J.; Son, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Mixed tropical forest structure is highly heterogeneous unlike plantation or mixed temperate forest structure, and therefore, different sampling approaches are required. However, the appropriate sampling design for estimating the above-ground biomass (AGB) in Bruneian lowland mixed dipterocarp forest (MDF) has not yet been fully clarified. The aim of this study was to provide supportive information in sampling design for Bruneian forest carbon inventory. The study site was located at Kuala Belalong lowland MDF, which is part of the Ulu Tembulong National Park, Brunei Darussalam. Six 60 m × 60 m quadrats were established, separated by a distance of approximately 100 m and each was subdivided into quadrats of 10 m × 10 m, at an elevation between 200 and 300 m above sea level. At each plot all free-standing trees with diameter at breast height (dbh) ≥ 1 cm were measured. The AGB for all trees with dbh ≥ 10 cm was estimated by allometric models. In order to analyze changes in the diameter-dependent parameters used for estimating the AGB, different quadrat areas, ranging from 10 m × 10 m to 60 m × 60 m, were used across the study area, starting at the South-West end and moving towards the North-East end. The derived result was as follows: (a) Big trees (dbh ≥ 70 cm) with sparse distribution have remarkable contribution to the total AGB in Bruneian lowland MDF, and therefore, special consideration is required when estimating the AGB of big trees. Stem number of trees with dbh ≥ 70 cm comprised only 2.7% of all trees with dbh ≥ 10 cm, but 38.5% of the total AGB. (b) For estimating the AGB of big trees at the given acceptable limit of precision (p), it is more efficient to use large quadrats than to use small quadrats, because the total sampling area decreases with the former. Our result showed that 239 20 m × 20 m quadrats (9.6 ha in total) were required, while 15 60 m × 60 m quadrats (5.4 ha in total) were required when estimating the AGB of the trees

  1. Prioritizing the mHealth Design Space: A Mixed-Methods Analysis of Smokers’ Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    BlueSpruce, June; Catz, Sheryl L; McClure, Jennifer B

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking remains the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States. Therefore, researchers are constantly exploring new ways to promote smoking cessation. Mobile health (mHealth) technologies could be effective cessation tools. Despite the availability of commercial quit-smoking apps, little research to date has examined smokers’ preferred treatment intervention components (ie, design features). Honoring these preferences is important for designing programs that are appealing to smokers and may be more likely to be adopted and used. Objective The aim of this study was to understand smokers’ preferred design features of mHealth quit-smoking tools. Methods We used a mixed-methods approach consisting of focus groups and written surveys to understand the design preferences of adult smokers who were interested in quitting smoking (N=40). Focus groups were stratified by age to allow differing perspectives to emerge between older (>40 years) and younger (<40 years) participants. Focus group discussion included a “blue-sky” brainstorming exercise followed by participant reactions to contrasting design options for communicating with smokers, providing social support, and incentivizing program use. Participants rated the importance of preselected design features on an exit survey. Qualitative analyses examined emergent discussion themes and quantitative analyses compared feature ratings to determine which were perceived as most important. Results Participants preferred a highly personalized and adaptive mHealth experience. Their ideal mHealth quit-smoking tool would allow personalized tracking of their progress, adaptively tailored feedback, and real-time peer support to help manage smoking cravings. Based on qualitative analysis of focus group discussion, participants preferred pull messages (ie, delivered upon request) over push messages (ie, sent automatically) and preferred interaction with other smokers through closed social

  2. Designing cost-effective biopharmaceutical facilities using mixed-integer optimization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Songsong; Simaria, Ana S; Farid, Suzanne S; Papageorgiou, Lazaros G

    2013-01-01

    Chromatography operations are identified as critical steps in a monoclonal antibody (mAb) purification process and can represent a significant proportion of the purification material costs. This becomes even more critical with increasing product titers that result in higher mass loads onto chromatography columns, potentially causing capacity bottlenecks. In this work, a mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model was created and applied to an industrially relevant case study to optimize the design of a facility by determining the most cost-effective chromatography equipment sizing strategies for the production of mAbs. Furthermore, the model was extended to evaluate the ability of a fixed facility to cope with higher product titers up to 15 g/L. Examination of the characteristics of the optimal chromatography sizing strategies across different titer values enabled the identification of the maximum titer that the facility could handle using a sequence of single column chromatography steps as well as multi-column steps. The critical titer levels for different ratios of upstream to dowstream trains where multiple parallel columns per step resulted in the removal of facility bottlenecks were identified. Different facility configurations in terms of number of upstream trains were considered and the trade-off between their cost and ability to handle higher titers was analyzed. The case study insights demonstrate that the proposed modeling approach, combining MINLP models with visualization tools, is a valuable decision-support tool for the design of cost-effective facility configurations and to aid facility fit decisions. 2013.

  3. On Mixed Data and Event Driven Design for Adaptive-Critic-Based Nonlinear $H∞ Control.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ding; Mu, Chaoxu; Liu, Derong; Ma, Hongwen

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, based on the adaptive critic learning technique, the H∞ control for a class of unknown nonlinear dynamic systems is investigated by adopting a mixed data and event driven design approach. The nonlinear H∞ control problem is formulated as a two-player zero-sum differential game and the adaptive critic method is employed to cope with the data-based optimization. The novelty lies in that the data driven learning identifier is combined with the event driven design formulation, in order to develop the adaptive critic controller, thereby accomplishing the nonlinear H∞ control. The event driven optimal control law and the time driven worst case disturbance law are approximated by constructing and tuning a critic neural network. Applying the event driven feedback control, the closed-loop system is built with stability analysis. Simulation studies are conducted to verify the theoretical results and illustrate the control performance. It is significant to observe that the present research provides a new avenue of integrating data-based control and event-triggering mechanism into establishing advanced adaptive critic systems.

  4. Fault Protection Design and Testing for the Cassini Spacecraft in a "Mixed" Thruster Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, David; Lee, Allan; Meakin, Peter; Weitl, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Cassini Spacecraft, launched on October 15th, 1997 and arrived at Saturn on June 30th, 2004, is the largest and most ambitious interplanetary spacecraft in history. In order to meet the challenging attitude control and navigation requirements of the orbit profile at Saturn, Cassini is equipped with a monopropellant thruster based Reaction Control System (RCS), a bipropellant Main Engine Assembly (MEA) and a Reaction Wheel Assembly (RWA). In 2008, after 11 years of reliable service, several RCS thrusters began to show signs of end of life degradation, which led the operations team to successfully perform the swap from the A-branch to the B-branch RCS system. If similar degradation begins to occur on any of the B-branch thrusters, Cassini might have to assume a "mixed" thruster configuration, where a subset of both A and B branch thrusters will be designated as prime. The Cassini Fault Protection FSW was recently updated to handle this scenario. The design, implementation, and testing of this update is described in this paper.

  5. Mixed coherent states in coupled chaotic systems: Design of secure wireless communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigneshwaran, M.; Dana, S. K.; Padmanaban, E.

    2016-12-01

    A general coupling design is proposed to realize a mixed coherent (MC) state: coexistence of complete synchronization, antisynchronization, and amplitude death in different pairs of similar state variables of the coupled chaotic system. The stability of coupled system is ensured by the Lyapunov function and a scaling of each variable is also separately taken care of. When heterogeneity as a parameter mismatch is introduced in the coupled system, the coupling function facilitates to retain its coherence and displays the global stability with renewed scaling factor. Robust synchronization features facilitated by a MC state enable to design a dual modulation scheme: binary phase shift key (BPSK) and parameter mismatch shift key (PMSK), for secure data transmission. Two classes of decoders (coherent and noncoherent) are discussed, the noncoherent decoder shows better performance over the coherent decoder, mostly a noncoherent demodulator is preferred in biological implant applications. Both the modulation schemes are demonstrated numerically by using the Lorenz oscillator and the BPSK scheme is demonstrated experimentally using radio signals.

  6. Mix design and pollution control potential of pervious concrete with non-compliant waste fly ash.

    PubMed

    Soto-Pérez, Linoshka; Hwang, Sangchul

    2016-07-01

    Pervious concrete mix was optimized for the maximum compressive strength and the desired permeability at 7 mm/s with varying percentages of water-to-binder (W/B), fly ash-to-binder (FA/B), nano-iron oxide-to-binder (NI/B) and water reducer-to-binder (WR/B). The mass ratio of coarse aggregates in sizes of 4.75-9.5 mm to the binder was fixed at 4:1. Waste FA used in the study was not compliant with a standard specification for use as a mineral admixture in concrete. One optimum pervious concrete (Opt A) targeting high volume FA utilization had a 28-day compressive strength of 22.8 MPa and a permeability of 5.6 mm/s with a mix design at 36% W/B, 35% FA/B, 6% NI/B and 1.2% WR/B. The other (Opt B) targeting a less use of admixtures had a 28-day compressive strength and a permeability of 21.4 MPa and 7.6 mm/s, respectively, at 32% W/B, 10% FA/B, 0.5% NI/B and 0.8% WR/B. During 10 loads at a 2-h contact time each, the Opt A and Opt B achieved the average fecal coliform removals of 72.4% and 77.9% and phosphorus removals of 49.8% and 40.5%, respectively. Therefore, non-compliant waste FA could be utilized for a cleaner production of pervious concrete possessing a greater structural strength and compatible hydrological property and pollution control potential, compared to the ordinary pervious concrete.

  7. Large-scale bi-level strain design approaches and mixed-integer programming solution techniques.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joonhoon; Reed, Jennifer L; Maravelias, Christos T

    2011-01-01

    The use of computational models in metabolic engineering has been increasing as more genome-scale metabolic models and computational approaches become available. Various computational approaches have been developed to predict how genetic perturbations affect metabolic behavior at a systems level, and have been successfully used to engineer microbial strains with improved primary or secondary metabolite production. However, identification of metabolic engineering strategies involving a large number of perturbations is currently limited by computational resources due to the size of genome-scale models and the combinatorial nature of the problem. In this study, we present (i) two new bi-level strain design approaches using mixed-integer programming (MIP), and (ii) general solution techniques that improve the performance of MIP-based bi-level approaches. The first approach (SimOptStrain) simultaneously considers gene deletion and non-native reaction addition, while the second approach (BiMOMA) uses minimization of metabolic adjustment to predict knockout behavior in a MIP-based bi-level problem for the first time. Our general MIP solution techniques significantly reduced the CPU times needed to find optimal strategies when applied to an existing strain design approach (OptORF) (e.g., from ∼10 days to ∼5 minutes for metabolic engineering strategies with 4 gene deletions), and identified strategies for producing compounds where previous studies could not (e.g., malate and serine). Additionally, we found novel strategies using SimOptStrain with higher predicted production levels (for succinate and glycerol) than could have been found using an existing approach that considers network additions and deletions in sequential steps rather than simultaneously. Finally, using BiMOMA we found novel strategies involving large numbers of modifications (for pyruvate and glutamate), which sequential search and genetic algorithms were unable to find. The approaches and solution

  8. The Design and Construction of the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Harrop, G.

    2003-02-27

    The Advanced Mixed Treatment Project (AMWTP) privatized contract was awarded to BNFL Inc. in December 1996 and construction of the main facility commenced in August 2000. The purpose of the advanced mixed waste treatment facility is to safely treat plutonium contaminated waste, currently stored in drums and boxes, for final disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The plant is being built at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Construction was completed in 28 months, to satisfy the Settlement Agreement milestone of December 2002. Commissioning of the related retrieval and characterization facilities is currently underway. The first shipment of pre-characterized waste is scheduled for March 2003, with AMWTP characterized and certified waste shipments from June 2003. To accommodate these challenging delivery targets BNFL adopted a systematic and focused construction program that included the use of a temporary structure to allow winter working, proven design and engineering principles and international procurement policies to help achieve quality and schedule. The technology involved in achieving the AMWTP functional requirements is primarily based upon a BNFL established pedigree of plant and equipment; applied in a manner that suits the process and waste. This technology includes the use of remotely controlled floor mounted and overhead power manipulators, a high power shredder and a 2000-ton force supercompactor with the attendant glove box suite, interconnections and automated material handling. The characterization equipment includes real-time radiography (RTR) units, drum and box assay measurement systems, drum head space gas sampling / analysis and drum venting, drum coring and sampling capabilities. The project adopted a particularly stringent and intensive pre-installation testing philosophy to ensure that equipment would work safely and reliably at the required throughput. This testing included the complete off site

  9. Development of a crumb rubber modified (CRM) asphalt concrete mix design. Final report, June 1993-May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, M.; Swartz, S.E.; Hoque, M.E.; Funk, L.P.

    1995-05-01

    The objective of this project was to develop an asphalt mix design method incorporating crumb rubber and using the `Wet` or `Dry` method of producing Crumb Rubber Modified Asphalt (CRM). Several resurfacing projects have been constructed using both the `Wet` and `Dry` methods. Based on this study, KDOT could use CRM mixes with a binder content between 7.5% and 9.0% depending on the percent air voids, with 19% to 22% rubber content. In this study, it was observed that using 24% rubber produced mixed were too sticky to manage. With a rubber content of less than 18% combined with AC-5 it was difficult to satisfy the minimum requirements. Fracture tests can be used as a basis to determine the optimum binder content for any asphalt-rubber mix.

  10. Designing mixed metal halide ammines for ammonia storage using density functional theory and genetic algorithms.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Peter Bjerre; Lysgaard, Steen; Quaade, Ulrich J; Vegge, Tejs

    2014-09-28

    Metal halide ammines have great potential as a future, high-density energy carrier in vehicles. So far known materials, e.g. Mg(NH3)6Cl2 and Sr(NH3)8Cl2, are not suitable for automotive, fuel cell applications, because the release of ammonia is a multi-step reaction, requiring too much heat to be supplied, making the total efficiency lower. Here, we apply density functional theory (DFT) calculations to predict new mixed metal halide ammines with improved storage capacities and the ability to release the stored ammonia in one step, at temperatures suitable for system integration with polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). We use genetic algorithms (GAs) to search for materials containing up to three different metals (alkaline-earth, 3d and 4d) and two different halides (Cl, Br and I) - almost 27,000 combinations, and have identified novel mixtures, with significantly improved storage capacities. The size of the search space and the chosen fitness function make it possible to verify that the found candidates are the best possible candidates in the search space, proving that the GA implementation is ideal for this kind of computational materials design, requiring calculations on less than two percent of the candidates to identify the global optimum.

  11. The Design, Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationship of Mixed Serotonin, Norepinephrine and Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhengming; Yang, Ji; Skolnick, Phil

    The evolution of antidepressants over the past four decades has involved the replacement of drugs with a multiplicity of effects (e.g., TCAs) by those with selective actions (i.e., SSRIs). This strategy was employed to reduce the adverse effects of TCAs, largely by eliminating interactions with certain neurotransmitters or receptors. Although these more selective compounds may be better tolerated by patients, selective drugs, specifically SSRIs, are not superior to older drugs in treating depressed patients as measured by response and remission rates. It may be an advantage to increase synaptic levels of both serotonin and norepinephrine, as in the case of dual uptake inhibitors like duloxetine and venlafaxine. An important recent development has been the emergence of the triple-uptake inhibitors (TUIs/SNDRIs), which inhibit the uptake of the three neurotransmitters most closely linked to depression: serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. Preclinical studies and clinical trials indicate that a drug inhibiting the reuptake of all three of these neurotransmitters could produce more rapid onset of action and greater efficacy than traditional antidepressants. This review will detail the medicinal chemistry involved in the design, synthesis and discovery of mixed serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine transporter uptake inhibitors.

  12. Effects of auditing patient safety in hospital care: design of a mixed-method evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Auditing of patient safety aims at early detection of risks of adverse events and is intended to encourage the continuous improvement of patient safety. The auditing should be an independent, objective assurance and consulting system. Auditing helps an organisation accomplish its objectives by bringing a systematic, disciplined approach to evaluating and improving the effectiveness of risk management, control, and governance. Audits are broadly conducted in hospitals, but little is known about their effects on the behaviour of healthcare professionals and patient safety outcomes. This study was initiated to evaluate the effects of patient safety auditing in hospital care and to explore the processes and mechanisms underlying these effects. Methods and design Our study aims to evaluate an audit system to monitor and improve patient safety in a hospital setting. We are using a mixed-method evaluation with a before-and-after study design in eight departments of one university hospital in the period October 2011–July 2014. We measure several outcomes 3 months before the audit and 15 months after the audit. The primary outcomes are adverse events and complications. The secondary outcomes are experiences of patients, the standardised mortality ratio, prolonged hospital stay, patient safety culture, and team climate. We use medical record reviews, questionnaires, hospital administrative data, and observations to assess the outcomes. A process evaluation will be used to find out which components of internal auditing determine the effects. Discussion We report a study protocol of an effect and process evaluation to determine whether auditing improves patient safety in hospital care. Because auditing is a complex intervention targeted on several levels, we are using a combination of methods to collect qualitative and quantitative data about patient safety at the patient, professional, and department levels. This study is relevant for hospitals that want to

  13. Evidence on "What Works": An Argument for Extended-Term Mixed-Method (ET MM) Evaluation Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterji, Madhabi

    2004-01-01

    Federal policy tools for gathering evidence on "What Works" in education, such as the What Works Clearinghouse's (WWC) standards, emphasize randomized field trials as the preferred method for generating scientific evidence on the effectiveness of educational programs. This article argues instead for extended-term mixed-method (ETMM) designs.…

  14. Quality and Antioxidant Activity of Buckwheat-Based Cookies Designed for a Raw Food Vegan Diet as Affected by Moderate Drying Temperature.

    PubMed

    Brožková, Iveta; Dvořáková, Veronika; Michálková, Kateřina; Červenka, Libor; Velichová, Helena

    2016-12-01

    Buckwheat cookies with various ingredients for raw food vegan diet are usually prepared by soaking them in water at ambient temperature followed by drying at moderate temperature. The aim of this study was to examine the temperature effect on the microbiological quality, antioxidant properties and oxidative stability of lipids of final dried samples. The mixture of ingredients was soaked for 20 h in distilled water, and then cookies were formed and dried in air-forced oven at constant temperature in the range from 40 to 60 °C. Total viable counts, fungi, yeasts, coliform and aerobic spore-forming bacteria counts were evaluated in dried samples and were found to decrease during drying at 50 and 60 °C. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS assays, and the former showed the highest value at 40 °C. Superoxide dismutase activity was also higher at 40 °C in comparison with that at 60 °C. The percentage of lipid peroxidation inhibition increased with the increase in drying temperature until 4th day of incubation. While peroxide value was significantly higher in samples dried at 40 °C, TBARS values did not show significant changes during the drying process. The results of this study suggest that drying buckwheat-based cookies at 40 °C retained their good antioxidant properties but represent a potentially serious microbial hazard.

  15. No Middle Ground, but Many Mansions: Design Features of Effective Mixed Mode Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, D. D.

    2007-01-01

    In this account a model of communicative functions is used in an attempt to clarify the nature of mixed mode learning delivery. Formulated in research on communication in written mode, the model can be seen to offer insights into the nature of hypermedia communication, as well as helping to identify some key features of effective mixed mode course…

  16. Pushered single shell capsule design for the study of high Z mix on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacks, Ryan; Baker, Kevin; Casey, Daniel; Dewald, Edward; Graziani, Frank; MacLaren, Stephan; Nikroo, Abass; Pino, Jesse; Ralph, Joseph; Remington, Bruce; Salmonson, Jay; Smalyuk, Vladimir; Tipton, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Alternative ignition scenarios on the NIF such as double shells require an understanding of the mix between high-Z capsule shell and DT gas. By utilizing the two-shock platform, which has been shown to be a robust, symmetric, and near 1-D implosion, a new design is developed to explore high Z mix. Through the addition of a Ge doped pusher layer on the inner surface of the capsule, mixing of non-fully ionized material can be measured using x-ray emission, nuclear yield diagnostics developed during the CD mix experiments, and characterization of the central core. Using the two-shock design allows for the results to be separated from possible implosion asymmetries, allowing differences in performance between capsules with and without Ge to be attributed to high Z material mixing. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC. IM number LLNL-ABS-697758.

  17. Impairment-constrained network design in mixed line rate and flexible-grid optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Weisheng

    Mixed line rate (MLR) and flexible-grid optical networks are two promising network paradigms for next generation optical networks. In MLR optical networks, different optical channels may operate at different line rates and use the same amount of spectrum. In flexible-grid optical networks, besides different line rates, different optical channels can use different amount of spectrum. In both MLR and flexible-grid optical networks, the physical layer impairments will impact the signal reachability and will require regenerator placement to restore the signal quality. Different line rates and modulation formats suffer from different levels of impairments, and thus have different reachabilities. In this dissertation, we study multiple network design problems with impairment constraints for both MLR and flexible-grid optical networks. We first study regenerator site (RS) selection problems in MLR optical networks. Given a network topology, set of requests, and different line rates' reachabilities, the problem is to select the minimum number of nodes in the network as RSs. We divide the topic into two separate research problems depending on whether routing is fixed or flexible. Energy efficiency is an important factor that will impact the operational expenditure of a telecom network. When designing the routing and wavelength assignment approach for a set of connection requests, the placement of regenerators needs to be considered in order to increase energy efficiency. In this work, we study how to place the minimum number of regenerators in MLR optical networks, while satisfying all the requests. Virtual optical network (VON) mapping plays a vital role in optical network virtualization. When mapping VONs, it is necessary to provision backup resources to guarantee survivability. Thus, we consider how to map VONs that can survive single link failures in flexible-grid optical networks. The objective is to minimize network equipment cost, including regenerators. We also

  18. Solvent-free synthesis of zeolites from solid raw materials.

    PubMed

    Ren, Limin; Wu, Qinming; Yang, Chengguang; Zhu, Longfeng; Li, Caijin; Zhang, Pengling; Zhang, Haiyan; Meng, Xiangju; Xiao, Feng-Shou

    2012-09-19

    As important industrial materials, microporous zeolites are necessarily synthesized in the presence of solvents such as in hydrothermal, solvothermal, and ionothermal routes. We demonstrate here a simple and generalized solvent-free route for synthesizing various types of zeolites by mixing, grinding, and heating solid raw materials. Compared with conventional hydrothermal route, the avoidance of solvents in the synthesis not only significantly reduces the waste production, but also greatly increases the yield of zeolite products. In addition, the use of starting solid raw materials remarkably enhances the synthesis efficiency and reduces the use of raw materials, energy, and costs.

  19. Examination of the Relation between TEOG Score of Turkish Revolution History and Kemalism Course and Reading Comprehension Skill (An Example of Explanatory Sequential Mixed Design)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuvaci, Ibrahim; Demir, Selçuk Besir

    2016-01-01

    This paper is aimed to determine the relation between reading comprehension skill and TEOG success. In this research, a mixed research method, sequential explanatory mixed design, is utilized to examine the relation between reading comprehension skills and TEOG success of 8th grade students throughly. In explanatory sequential mixed design…

  20. Development of high-strength concrete mix designs in support of the prestressed concrete reactor vessel design for a HTGR steam cycle/cogeneration plant

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.

    1985-01-01

    Design optimization studies indicate that a significant reduction in the size of the PCRV for a 2240 MW(t) HTGR plant can be effected through utilization of high-strength concrete in conjunction with large capacity prestressing systems. A three-phase test program to develop and evaluate high-strength concretes (>63.4 MPa) is described. Results obtained under Phase I of the investigation related to materials selection-evaluation and mix design development are presented. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Mixed convective low flow pressure drop in vertical rod assemblies: I---Predictive model and design correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, K.Y.; Todreas, N.E.; Rohsenow, W.M. )

    1989-11-01

    A predicative theory has been developed for rod bundle frictional pressure drop characteristics under laminar and transitional mixed convection conditions on the basis of the intraassembly and intrasubchannel flow redistributions due to buoyancy for a wide spectrum of radial power profiles and for the geometric arrangements of practical design interest. Both the individual subchannel correlations and overall bundle design correlations have been formulated as multipliers applied to the isothermal friction factors at the same Reynolds numbers. Standard and modified subchannel friction factors have been obtained to be used with spatial-average and bulk-mean densities, respectively. A correlating procedure has been proposed to assess the effects of interacting subchannel flows, developing mixed convective flow, wire wrapping, power skew, rod number, and transition from laminar flow. In contrast to forced convection behavior, a strong rod number effect is present under mixed convection conditions in bundle geometries. The results of this study are of design importance in natural circulation conditions becasue the mixed convection frictional pressure losses exceed the corresponding isothermal values at the same Reynolds numbers.

  2. 40 CFR 90.414 - Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... family to engine family. (c) Mixing chamber. The exhaust mixing chamber is located in the exhaust system between the muffler and the sample probe. The mixing chamber is an optional component of the raw gas sampling equipment. (1) The internal volume of the mixing chamber may not be less than ten times...

  3. Mixed enrichment core design for the NC State University PULSTAR Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Mayo, C.W.; Verghese, K.; Huo, Y.G.

    1997-12-01

    The North Carolina State University PULSTAR Reactor license was renewed for an additional 20 years of operation on April 30, 1997. The relicensing period added additional years to the facility operating time through the end of the second license period, increasing the excess reactivity needs as projected in 1988. In 1995, the Nuclear Reactor Program developed a strategic plan that addressed the future maintenance, development, and utilization of the facility. Goals resulting from this plan included increased academic utilization of the facility in accordance with its role as a university research facility, and increased industrial service use in accordance with the mission of a land grant university. The strategic plan was accepted, and it is the intent of the College of Engineering to operate the PULSTAR Reactor as a going concern through at least the end of the current license period. In order to reach the next relicensing review without prejudice due to low excess reactivity, it is desired to maintain sufficient excess reactivity so that, if relicensed again, the facility could continue to operate without affecting users until new fuel assistance was provided. During the NC State University license renewal, the operation of the PULSTAR Reactor at the State University of New York at Buffalo (SUNY Buffalo) was terminated. At that time, the SUNY Buffalo facility had about 240 unused PULSTAR Reactor fuel pins with 6% enrichment. The objective of the work reported here was to develop a mixed enrichment core design for the NC State University PULSTAR reactor which would: (1) demonstrate that 6% enriched SUNY buffalo fuel could be used in the NC State University PULSTAR Reactor within the existing technical specification safety limits for core physics parameters; (2) show that use of this fuel could permit operating the NC State University PULSTAR Reactor to 2017 with increased utilization; and (3) assure that the decision whether or not to relicense the facility would

  4. Probing the Chemical Stability of Mixed Ferrites: Implications for Magnetic Resonance Contrast Agent Design

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz-Sikma, Elise A.; Joshi, Hrushikesh M.; Ma, Qing; MacRenaris, Keith W.; Eckermann, Amanda L.; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Meade, Thomas J.

    2011-09-16

    Nanomaterials with mixed composition, in particular magnetic spinel ferrites, are emerging as efficient contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. Many factors, including size, composition, atomic structure, and surface properties, are crucial in the design of such nanoparticle-based probes because of their influence on the magnetic properties. Silica-coated iron oxide (IO-SiO{sub 2}) and cobalt ferrite (CoIO-SiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles were synthesized using standard high-temperature thermal decomposition and base-catalyzed water-in-oil microemulsion techniques. Under neutral aqueous conditions, it was found that 50-75% of the cobalt content in the CoIO-SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles leached out of the core structure. Leaching caused a 7.2-fold increase in the longitudinal relaxivity and an increase in the saturation magnetization from {approx}48 to {approx}65 emu/g of the core. X-ray absorption fine structure studies confirmed that the atomic structure of the ferrite core was altered following leaching, while transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering confirmed that the morphology and size of the nanoparticle remained unchanged. The CoIO-SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles converted from a partially inverted spinel cation arrangement (unleached state) to an inverse spinel arrangement (leached state). The control IO-SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles remained stable with no change in the structure and negligible changes in the magnetic behavior. This detailed analysis highlights how important understanding the properties of nanomaterials is in the development of reliable agents for diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

  5. Evaluation of tubular reactor designs for supercritical water oxidation of U.S. Department of Energy mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, C.M.

    1994-12-01

    Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is an emerging technology for industrial waste treatment and is being developed for treatment of the US Department of Energy (DOE) mixed hazardous and radioactive wastes. In the SCWO process, wastes containing organic material are oxidized in the presence of water at conditions of temperature and pressure above the critical point of water, 374 C and 22.1 MPa. DOE mixed wastes consist of a broad spectrum of liquids, sludges, and solids containing a wide variety of organic components plus inorganic components including radionuclides. This report is a review and evaluation of tubular reactor designs for supercritical water oxidation of US Department of Energy mixed waste. Tubular reactors are evaluated against requirements for treatment of US Department of Energy mixed waste. Requirements that play major roles in the evaluation include achieving acceptable corrosion, deposition, and heat removal rates. A general evaluation is made of tubular reactors and specific reactors are discussed. Based on the evaluations, recommendations are made regarding continued development of supercritical water oxidation reactors for US Department of Energy mixed waste.

  6. Quasi-three dimensional hydraulic design and performance calculation of high specific speed mixed-flow pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, M.; Zhang, Y. X.; Zhang, J. Y.; Hou, H. C.

    2016-05-01

    According to the basic parameters of 211-80 high specific speed mixed-flow pump, based on the quasi-three dimensional flow theory, the hydraulic design of impeller and its matching spaced guide vanes for high specific speed mixed flow pump was completed, in which the iterative calculation of S 1, S 2 stream surfaces was employed to obtain meridional flow fields and the point-by-point integration method was employed to draw blade camber lines. Blades are thickened as well as blade leading edges are smoothed in the conformal mapping surface. Subsequently the internal fields of the whole flow passage of the designed pump were simulated by using RANS equations with RNG k-ε two-equation turbulent model. The results show that, compared with the 211-80 model, the hydraulic efficiency of the designed pump at the optimal flow rate increases 9.1%. The hydraulic efficiency of designed pump in low flow rate condition (78% designed flow rate) increases 6.46%. The hydraulic efficiency in high flow rate areas increases obviously and there is no bad phenomenon of suddenly decrease of hydraulic efficiency in model pump. From the distributions of velocity and pressure fields, it can be seen that the flow in impeller is uniform and the increase of pressure is gentle. There are no obvious impact phenomenon on impeller inlet and obvious wake shedding vortex phenomenon from impeller outlet to guide vanes inlet.

  7. Innovative Mixed-Methods Research: Moving beyond Design Technicalities to Epistemological and Methodological Realizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riazi, A. Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Mixed-methods research (MMR), as an inter-discourse (quantitative and qualitative) methodology, can provide applied linguistics researchers the opportunity to draw on and integrate the strengths of the two research methodological approaches in favour of making more rigorous inferences about research problems. In this article, the argument is made…

  8. Triangulation and Mixed Methods Designs: Data Integration with New Research Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielding, Nigel G.

    2012-01-01

    Data integration is a crucial element in mixed methods analysis and conceptualization. It has three principal purposes: illustration, convergent validation (triangulation), and the development of analytic density or "richness." This article discusses such applications in relation to new technologies for social research, looking at three…

  9. Using Mixed-Method Design and Network Analysis to Measure Development of Interagency Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Jennifer Eileen; Dickmann, Ellyn; Newman-Gonchar, Rebecca; Fagan, Jesse Michael

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing attention to the importance of interagency collaboration for improving community well-being, environmental and public health, and educational outcomes. This article uses a mixed-methods approach including network analysis to examine the changes in interagency collaboration in one site funded by the Safe…

  10. A two-reservoir, hollow-fiber bioreactor for the study of mixed-population dynamics: design aspects and validation of the approach.

    PubMed

    Manjarrez, E S; Albasi, C; Riba, J P

    2000-08-20

    A two-reservoir, membrane bioreactor for carrying out studies of mixed-population dynamics in batch fermentations is presented. Mixing requirements and design aspects for the validity of the approach are given and discussed. Equations describing mixing times between the reservoirs are presented and compared to the experimental results. The validity of the approach is demonstrated by the study of an amensalistic-type interaction, the protein-mediated killer phenomenon between two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. The validation consisted in the comparison between the results obtained in actual mixed culture and the results obtained by keeping the strains separated. A good agreement was found which demonstrates the viability of the designed bioreactor.

  11. Orthogonal decomposition as a design tool: With application to a mixing impeller

    SciTech Connect

    Sloan, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Digital manufacturing eliminates the expense and time required to develop custom products. By utilizing this technology, designers can quickly create a customized product specifically for their performance needs. But the timescale and expense from the engineering design workflows used to develop these customized products have not been adapted from the workflows used in mass production. In many cases these customized designs build upon already successful mass-produced products that were developed using conventional engineering design workflows. Many times as part of this conventional design process significant time is spent creating and validating high fidelity models that accurately predict the performance of the final design. These existing validated high fidelity models used for the mass-produced design can be reused for analysis and design of unknown products. This thesis explores the integration of reduced order modeling and detailed analysis into the engineering design workflow developing a customized design using digital manufacturing. Specifically, detailed analysis is coupled with proper orthogonal decomposition to enable the exploration of the design space while simultaneously shaping the model representing the design. This revised workflow is examined using the design of a laboratory scale overhead mixer impeller. The case study presented here is compared with the design of the Kar Dynamic Mixer impeller developed by The Dow Chemical Company. The result of which is a customized design for a refined set of operating conditions with improved performance.

  12. Multidisciplinary and Multiobjective Optimization in Conceptual Design for Mixed-Stream Turbofan Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-12-01

    AFIT/GAE/ENY/96D-6 Abstract Despite major advances in design tools such as engine cycle analysis software and computer-aided design, conceptual gas...Ratio of specific heat for turbine flow etaAB = =iAB Efficiency of afterburner etab = 1lb = Efficiency of burner etacprime = l, = Efficiency of fan...ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) Despite major advances in design tools such as engine cycle analysis software and computer-aided design, conceptual gas

  13. Design a freeform microlens array module for any arbitrary-shape collimated beam shaping and color mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Enguo; Wu, Rengmao; Guo, Tailiang

    2014-06-01

    Collimated beam shaping with freeform surface usually employs a predefined mapping to tailor one or multiple freeform surfaces. Limitation on those designs is that the source, the freeform optics and the target are in fixed one-to-one correspondence with each other. To overcome this drawback, this paper presents a kind of freeform microlens array module integrated with an ultra-thin freeform microlens array and a condenser lens to reshape any arbitrary-shape collimated beam into a prescribed uniform rectangular illumination and achieve color mixing. The design theory is explicitly given, and some key issues are addressed. Several different application examples are given, and the target is obtained with high uniformity and energy efficiency. This freeform microlens array module, which shows better flexibility and practicality than the regular designs, can be used not only to reshape any arbitrary-shape collimated beam (or a collimated beam integrated with several sub-collimated beams), but also most importantly to achieve color mixing. With excellent optical performance and ultra-compact volume, this optical module together with the design theory can be further introduced into other applications and will have a huge market potential in the near future.

  14. How and Why Do IT Entrepreneurs Leave Their Salaried Employment to Start a SME? A Mixed Methods Research Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourmant, Gaëtan

    This method paper addresses an untapped but important type of IT turnover: IT entrepreneurship. We seek to develop a mixed methods research (MMR) design to understand the factors and processes that influence turnover behavior of prospective (nascent) IT entrepreneurs. To do this, we review two prior streams of research: the entrepreneurship literature and IT employee turnover. We incorporate the results of this literature review into a conceptual framework describing how the relevant factors leading to entrepreneurial and turnover behavior change over time, either gradually or suddenly, in response to specific events. In addition, we also contribute to the research by arguing that mixed methods research (MMR) is appropriate to bridge the gap between entrepreneurial literature and the IT turnover literature. A third important contribution is the design of the MMR, combining a longitudinal approach with a retrospective approach; a qualitative with a quantitative approach and, the exploratory design with the triangulation design [1]. Finally, we discuss practical implications for IT managers and IT entrepreneurs.

  15. The eXperience Induction Machine: A New Paradigm for Mixed-Reality Interaction Design and Psychological Experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardet, Ulysses; Bermúdez I Badia, Sergi; Duff, Armin; Inderbitzin, Martin; Le Groux, Sylvain; Manzolli, Jônatas; Mathews, Zenon; Mura, Anna; Väljamäe, Aleksander; Verschure, Paul F. M. J.

    The eXperience Induction Machine (XIM) is one of the most advanced mixed-reality spaces available today. XIM is an immersive space that consists of physical sensors and effectors and which is conceptualized as a general-purpose infrastructure for research in the field of psychology and human-artifact interaction. In this chapter, we set out the epistemological rational behind XIM by putting the installation in the context of psychological research. The design and implementation of XIM are based on principles and technologies of neuromorphic control. We give a detailed description of the hardware infrastructure and software architecture, including the logic of the overall behavioral control. To illustrate the approach toward psychological experimentation, we discuss a number of practical applications of XIM. These include the so-called, persistent virtual community, the application in the research of the relationship between human experience and multi-modal stimulation, and an investigation of a mixed-reality social interaction paradigm.

  16. Low-voltage and low-power circuit design for mixed analog/digital systems in portable equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuzawa, Akira

    1994-04-01

    This paper describes low-voltage and low-power (LV/LP) circuit design for both analog LSI's and digital LSI's which are used in mixed analog/digital systems in portable equipment. We review some LV/LP circuits used in digital LSI's, such as general logic gate, DSP, and DRAM, and others used in analog LSI's, such as operational amplifiers, video-signal processing circuits, A/D and D/A converters, filters, and RF circuits, along with a wide range of items used in recently developed LSI's. Since analog circuits have fundamental difficulties for reducing the operating voltage and the power consumption, in spite of recent progress in LV/LP circuit techniques, these difficulties will be a major issue for decreasing the total power consumption of some mixed analog/digital systems used in portable equipment.

  17. Supplemental design requirements document enhanced radioactive and mixed waste storage: Phase 5, Project W-113

    SciTech Connect

    Ocampo, V.P.

    1994-11-01

    This Supplemental Design Requirements Document (SDRD) is used to communicate Project W-113 specific plant design information from Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the cognizant Architect Engineer (A/E). The SDRD is prepared after the completion of the project Conceptual Design report (CDR) and prior to the initiation of definitive design. Information in the SDRD serves two purposes: to convey design requirements that are too detailed for inclusion in the Functional Design Criteria (FDC) report and to serve as a means of change control for design commitments in the Title I and Title II design. The Solid Waste Retrieval Project (W-113) SDRD has been restructured from the equipment based outline used in previous SDRDs to a functional systems outline. This was done to facilitate identification of deficiencies in the information provided in the initial draft SDRD and aid design confirmation. The format and content of this SDRD adhere as closely as practicable to the requirements of WHC-CM-6-1, Standard Engineering Practices for Functional Design Criteria.

  18. Integrated model for assessing the cost and CO2 emission (IMACC) for sustainable structural design in ready-mix concrete.

    PubMed

    Hong, Taehoon; Ji, Changyoon; Park, Hyoseon

    2012-07-30

    Cost has traditionally been considered the most important factor in the decision-making process. Recently, along with the consistent interest in environmental problems, environmental impact has also become a key factor. Accordingly, there is a need to develop a method that simultaneously reflects the cost and environmental impact in the decision-making process. This study proposed an integrated model for assessing the cost and CO(2) emission (IMACC) at the same time. IMACC is a model that assesses the cost and CO(2) emission of the various structural-design alternatives proposed in the structural-design process. To develop the IMACC, a standard on assessing the cost and CO(2) emission generated in the construction stage was proposed, along with the CO(2) emission factors in the structural materials, based on such materials' strengths. Moreover, using the economic and environmental scores that signify the cost and CO(2) emission reduction ratios, respectively, a method of selecting the best design alternative was proposed. To verify the applicability of IMACC, practical application was carried out. Structural designs were assessed, each of which used 21, 24, 27, and 30 MPa ready-mix concrete (RMC). The use of IMACC makes it easy to verify what the best design is. Results show the one that used 27 MPa RMC was the best design. Therefore, the proposed IMACC can be used as a tool for supporting the decision-making process in selecting the best design alternative.

  19. Diphyllobothriasis after eating raw salmon.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, J W; Bass, J W; Demers, D M; Myers, G B

    1997-07-01

    An 11-year-old boy in Hawaii passed mucus and a moving object in his stool. The object was identified as a segment of the fish tapeworm Diphyllobothrium species which is not indigenous to Hawaii. Diphyllobothrium ova were also found in the stool. The only raw fish he recalled eating in previous months were tuna sushi and lomi-lomi salmon which usually contains raw but previously frozen salmon. Of these two fish, only salmon which is not native to Hawaiian waters, has been incriminated as a significant source of diphyllobothrium fish tapeworm infection. Freezing kills this parasite, however, we speculate that the raw fish in the lomi-lomi salmon that our patient had eaten had not been pre-frozen or was not adequately pre-frozen. Eating raw salmon without certainty that it has been adequately pre-frozen carries the risk of diphyllobothriasis or fish tapeworm infection.

  20. Food Safety and Raw Milk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Learn more WATCH THIS: Real Stories About the Dangers of Raw Milk “My daughter turned into a ... yogurt–are safe if they come from healthy animals. No, even the healthiest animals can carry pathogens, ...

  1. Implementing Quality Criteria in Designing and Conducting a Sequential Quan [right arrow] Qual Mixed Methods Study of Student Engagement with Learning Applied Research Methods Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivankova, Nataliya V.

    2014-01-01

    In spite of recent methodological developments related to quality assurance in mixed methods research, practical examples of how to implement quality criteria in designing and conducting sequential QUAN [right arrow] QUAL mixed methods studies to ensure the process is systematic and rigorous remain scarce. This article discusses a three-step…

  2. Double-shell target design for the NIF: Noncryogenic ignition and nonlinear mix studies for Stockpile Stewardship

    SciTech Connect

    Amendt, P

    2004-02-10

    Double-shell ignition is complementary to the baseline approach by virtue of not requiring: (1) cryogenic preparation and fielding, (2) high-contrast pulse-shaping for shock-timing, and (3) demanding x-ray flux symmetry control. The use of simpler low-contrast pulse-shaping potentially allows more benign hohlraum conditions by reducing the risk of laser backscatter. In addition, the associated higher laser fluence threshold for optics damage initiation allows the possibility of more routine high-fluence shots with 2{omega} on the NIF. Based on LDRD-sponsored research in FY01-03 on NIF double-shell ignition target designs, the feasibility of this approach was advanced through both a highly successful implosion campaign on the Omega laser facility and a variety of design improvements for mitigating instability. The double-shell implosion campaign on Omega achieved the important milestone of repeatably demonstrating dominant primary (2.45 MeV) neutron production from the mix-susceptible compressional phase of a double-shell implosion, using fall-line design optimization and exacting fabrication standards. Showing effective control of fuel-pusher mix during final compression is an essential element for achieving ignition. In our studies to control mix by reducing hydrodynamic instability a new pathway for destructive Rayleigh-Taylor growth on the outer surface of the inner shell at ignition scales was identified. However, highly resolved multi-mode simulations showed that with use of a graded dopant in the inner shell and material-matching with an exterior metallic foam, this instability was significantly reduced. In addition, the resulting density-gradient stabilization was seen to quench small-wavelength growth, thereby avoiding the computationally challenging turbulent regime. A major goal of future research for realizing double-shell ignition on the NIF is experimental validation of this instability mitigation approach using the Omega laser facility.

  3. Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Temperate and Mixed Climates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Renewable Energy Lab. (DOE), Golden, CO.

    The U.S. Department of Energy's EnergySmart Schools provides school boards, administrators, and design staff with guidance to help them make informed decisions about energy and environmental issues important to school systems and communities. The design guidelines presented in this document outline high performance principles for the new or…

  4. Suppression of secondary flows in a mixed-flow pump impeller by application of three-dimensional inverse design method. Part 1: Design and numerical validation

    SciTech Connect

    Zangeneh, M.; Goto, A.; Takemura, T.

    1996-07-01

    This paper describes the design of the blade geometry of a medium specific speed mixed flow pump impeller by using a three-dimensional inverse design method in which the blade circulation (or rV{sub {theta}}) is specified. The design objective is the reduction of impeller exit flow nonuniformity by reducing the secondary flows on the blade suction surface. The paper describes in detail the aerodynamic criteria used for the suppression of secondary flows with reference to the loading distribution and blade stacking condition used in the design. The flow through the designed impeller is computed by Dawes` viscous code, which indicates that the secondary flows are well suppressed on the suction surface. Comparison between the predicted exit flow field of the inverse designed impeller and a corresponding conventional impeller indicates that the suppression of secondary flows has resulted in substantial improvement in the exit flow field. Experimental comparison of the flow fields inside and at exit from the conventional and the inverse designed impeller is made in Part 2 of the paper.

  5. Water balance relationships in four alternative cover designs for radioactive and mixed waste landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, R.W.; Hakonson, T.E.; Trujillo, G.

    1994-08-01

    Preliminary results are presented from a field study to evaluate the relative hydrologic performance of various landfill capping technologies installed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory at Hill Air Force Base, Utah. Four cover designs (two Los Alamos capillary barrier designs, one modified EPA RCRA design, and one conventional design) were installed in large lysimeters instrumented to monitor the fate of natural precipitation between 01 January 1990 and 20 September 1993. After 45 months of study, results showed that the cover designs containing barrier layers were effective in reducing deep percolation as compared to a simple soil cap design. The RCRA cover, incorporating a clay hydraulic barrier, was the most effective of all cover designs in controlling percolation but was not 100% effective. Over 90% of all percolation and barrier lateral flow occurred during the months of February through May of each year, primarily as a result of snow melt, early spring rains and low evapotranspiration. Gravel mulch surface treatments (70--80% coverage) were effective in reducing runoff and erosion. The two plots receiving gravel mulch treatments exhibited equal but enhanced amounts of evapotranspiration despite the fact that one plot was planted with additional shrubs.

  6. Quantifying suspended sediment flux in a mixed-land-use urbanizing watershed using a nested-scale study design.

    PubMed

    Zeiger, Sean; Hubbart, Jason A

    2016-01-15

    Suspended sediment (SS) remains the most pervasive water quality problem globally and yet, despite progress, SS process understanding remains relatively poor in watersheds with mixed-land-use practices. The main objective of the current work was to investigate relationships between suspended sediment and land use types at multiple spatial scales (n=5) using four years of suspended sediment data collected in a representative urbanized mixed-land-use (forest, agriculture, urban) watershed. Water samples were analyzed for SS using a nested-scale experimental watershed study design (n=836 samples×5 gauging sites). Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's post-hoc multiple comparison tests were used to test for significant differences (CI=95%, p<0.05) in SS levels between gauging sites. Climate extremes (high precipitation/drought) were observed during the study period. Annual maximum SS concentrations exceeded 2387.6 mg/L. Median SS concentrations decreased by 60% from the agricultural headwaters to the rural/urban interface, and increased by 98% as urban land use increased. Multiple linear regression analysis results showed significant relationships between SS, annual total precipitation (positive correlate), forested land use (negative correlate), agricultural land use (negative correlate), and urban land use (negative correlate). Estimated annual SS yields ranged from 16.1 to 313.0 t km(-2) year(-1) mainly due to differences in annual total precipitation. Results highlight the need for additional studies, and point to the need for improved best management practices designed to reduce anthropogenic SS loading in mixed-land-use watersheds.

  7. Toward compositional design of reticular type porous films by mixing and coating titania-based frameworks with silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, T.

    2015-12-01

    A recently developed reticular type porous structure, which can be fabricated as the film through the soft colloidal block copolymer (e.g., PS-b-PEO) templating, is very promising as the porous platform showing high-performance based on its high surface area as well as high diffusivity of targeted organic molecules and effective accommodation of bulky molecules, but the compositional design of oxide frameworks has not been developed so enough to date. Here, I report reliable synthetic methods of the reticular type porous structure toward simple compositional variations. Due to the reproducibility of reticular type porous titania films from titanium alkoxide (e.g., TTIP; titanium tetraisopropoxide), a titania-silica film having similar porous structure was obtained by mixing silicon alkoxide (e.g., tetraethoxysilane) and TTIP followed by their pre-hydrolysis, and the mixing ratio of Ti to Si composition was easily reached to 1.0. For further compositional design, a concept of surface coating was widely applicable; the reticular type porous titania surfaces can be coated with other oxides such as silica. Here, a silica coating was successfully achieved by the simple chemical vapor deposition of silicon alkoxide (e.g., tetramethoxysilane) without water (with water at the humidity level), which was also utilized for pore filling with silica by the similar process with water.

  8. Definitive design report: Design report project W-025, Radioactive Mixed Waste (RMW) Land Disposal Facility NON-DRAG-OFF. Revision 1, Volume 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Roscha, V.

    1994-11-29

    The purpose of this report is to describe the definitive design of the Radioactive Mixed Waste (RMW) Non-Drag-Off disposal facility, Project W-025. This report presents a n of the major landfill design features and a discussion of how each of the criteria is addressed in the design. The appendices include laboratory test results, design drawings, and individual analyses that were conducted in support of the design. Revision 1 of this document incorporates design changes resulting from an increase in the required operating life of the W-025 landfill from 2 to 20 years. The rationale for these design changes is described in Golder Associates Inc. 1991a. These changes include (1) adding a 1.5-foot-thick layer of compacted admix directory-under the primary FML on the floor of the landfill to mitigate the effects of possible stress cracking in the primary flexible membrane liner (FML), and (2) increasing the operations layer thickness from two to three feet over the entire landfill area, to provide additional protection for the secondary admix layer against mechanical damage and the effects of freezing and desiccation. The design of the W-025 Landfill has also been modified in response to the results of the EPA Method 9090 chemical compatibility testing program (Golder Associates Inc. 1991b and 1991c), which was completed after the original design was prepared. This program consisted of testing geosynthetic materials and soil/bentonite admix with synthetic leachate having the composition expected during the life of the W-025 Landfill., The results of this program indicated that the polyester geotextile originally specified for the landfill might be susceptible to deterioration. On this basis, polypropylene geotextiles were substituted as a more chemically-resistant alternative. In addition, the percentage of bentonite in the admix was increased to provide sufficiently low permeability to the expected leachate.

  9. Design and Testing of a Boron Carbide Capsule for Spectral Tailoring in Mixed-Spectrum Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Wittman, Richard S.; Pierson, Bruce D.; Metz, Lori A.; Payne, Rosara F.; Finn, Erin C.; Friese, Judah I.

    2012-03-01

    A boron carbide capsule has been designed and used for spectral-tailoring experiments at the TRIGA reactor at Washington State University. Irradiations were conducted in pulsed mode and in continuous operation for up to 4 hours. A cadmium cover was used to reduce thermal heating. The neutron spectrum calculated with MCNP was found to be in good agreement with reactor dosimetry measurements using the STAY'SL computer code. The neutron spectrum resembles that of a fast reactor. Design of a capsule using boron carbide enriched in {sup 10}B shows that it is possible to produce a neutron spectrum similar to {sup 235}U fission.

  10. Development of minimized mixing molecular orbital method for designing organic ferromagnets.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xun; Aoki, Yuriko

    2015-06-15

    Predicting the high spin stability of organic radicals correctly for designing organic ferromagnets remains a significant challenge. We have developed a method with an index (L(min)) for predicting the high spin stability of conjugated organic radicals at the restricted open-shell Hartree-Fock level. Unitary transformations were performed for localizing the coefficients of nonbonding molecular orbitals, and subsequently the localized coefficients were used to calculate L(min) that indicates the high spin stability of conjugated organic radicals. This method can be combined with the elongation method to treat huge high spin open-shell systems. Thus, this method is useful for designing organic ferromagnets.

  11. Designing Health Websites Based on Users’ Web-Based Information-Seeking Behaviors: A Mixed-Method Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Patrick Cheong-Iao; Verspoor, Karin; Pearce, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Background Laypeople increasingly use the Internet as a source of health information, but finding and discovering the right information remains problematic. These issues are partially due to the mismatch between the design of consumer health websites and the needs of health information seekers, particularly the lack of support for “exploring” health information. Objective The aim of this research was to create a design for consumer health websites by supporting different health information–seeking behaviors. We created a website called Better Health Explorer with the new design. Through the evaluation of this new design, we derive design implications for future implementations. Methods Better Health Explorer was designed using a user-centered approach. The design was implemented and assessed through a laboratory-based observational study. Participants tried to use Better Health Explorer and another live health website. Both websites contained the same content. A mixed-method approach was adopted to analyze multiple types of data collected in the experiment, including screen recordings, activity logs, Web browsing histories, and audiotaped interviews. Results Overall, 31 participants took part in the observational study. Our new design showed a positive result for improving the experience of health information seeking, by providing a wide range of information and an engaging environment. The results showed better knowledge acquisition, a higher number of page reads, and more query reformulations in both focused and exploratory search tasks. In addition, participants spent more time to discover health information with our design in exploratory search tasks, indicating higher engagement with the website. Finally, we identify 4 design considerations for designing consumer health websites and health information–seeking apps: (1) providing a dynamic information scope; (2) supporting serendipity; (3) considering trust implications; and (4) enhancing interactivity

  12. Path programmable logic: A structured design method for digital and/or mixed analog integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, B.

    1990-01-01

    The design of Integrated Circuits has evolved past the black art practiced by a few semiconductor companies to a world wide community of users. This was basically accomplished by the development of computer aided design tools which were made available to this community. As the tools matured into different components of the design task they were accepted into the community at large. However, the next step in this evolution is being ignored by the large tool vendors hindering the continuation of this process. With system level definition and simulation through the logic specification well understood, why is the physical generation so blatantly ignored. This portion of the development is still treated as an isolated task with information being passed from the designer to the layout function. Some form of result given back but it severely lacks full definition of what has transpired. The level of integration in I.C.'s for tomorrow, whether through new processes or applications will require higher speeds, increased transistor density, and non-digital performance which can only be achieved through attention to the physical implementation.

  13. Engineering and Design: Use of Petroleum Contaminated Soil in Cold-Mix Asphalt Stabilized Base Course

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    1110-3-487 1 Mar 98 A-1 APPENDIX A REFERENCES ER 1110-345-100. Design Policy for Military Construction American Petroleum Institute (API...fuel. Other sources of test procedures are the American Petroleum Institute and several states which have developed test methods of their own. c

  14. Internet, Phone, Mail, and Mixed-Mode Surveys: The Tailored Design Method, 4th Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillman, Don A.; Smyth, Jolene D.; Christian, Lean Melani

    2014-01-01

    For over two decades, Dillman's classic text on survey design has aided both students and professionals in effectively planning and conducting mail, telephone, and, more recently, Internet surveys. The new edition is thoroughly updated and revised, and covers all aspects of survey research. It features expanded coverage of mobile phones, tablets,…

  15. Applying a Mixed Method Design to Evaluate Training Seminars within an Early Childhood Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; Zachopoulou, Evridiki; Tsangaridou, Niki; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Pickup, Ian

    2008-01-01

    The body of research relating to assessment in education suggests that professional developers and seminar administrators have generally paid little attention to evaluation procedures. Scholars have also been critical of evaluations which use a single data source and have favoured the use of a multiple method design to generate a complete picture…

  16. Model of Values-Based Management Process in Schools: A Mixed Design Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogan, Soner

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the school administrators' values-based management behaviours according to the teachers' perceptions and opinions and, accordingly, to build a model of values-based management process in schools. The study was conducted using explanatory design which is inclusive of both quantitative and qualitative methods.…

  17. Design of vanadium mixed-ligand complexes as potential anti-protozoa agents.

    PubMed

    Benítez, Julio; Guggeri, Lucía; Tomaz, Isabel; Arrambide, Gabriel; Navarro, Maribel; Pessoa, João Costa; Garat, Beatriz; Gambino, Dinorah

    2009-04-01

    In the search for new therapeutic tools against Chagas' disease (American Trypanosomiasis) four novel mixed-ligand vanadyl complexes, [V(IV)O(L(2)-2H)(L(1))], including a bidentate polypyridyl DNA intercalator (L(1)) and a tridentate salycylaldehyde semicarbazone derivative (L(2)) as ligands were synthesized, characterized by a combination of techniques, and in vitro evaluated. EPR suggest a distorted octahedral geometry with the tridentate semicarbazone occupying three equatorial positions and the polypyridyl ligand coordinated in an equatorial/axial mode. Both complexes including dipyrido[3,2-a: 2',3'-c]phenazine (dppz) as polypyridyl coligand showed IC(50) values in the muM range against Dm28c strain (epimastigotes) of Trypanosoma cruzi, causative agent of the disease, being as active as the anti-trypanosomal reference drug Nifurtimox. To get an insight into the trypanocidal mechanism of action of these compounds, DNA was evaluated as a potential parasite target and EPR, and (51)V NMR experiments were also carried out upon aging aerated solutions of the complexes. Data obtained by electrophoretic analysis suggest that the mechanism of action of these complexes could include DNA interactions.

  18. Mixing console design for telematic applications in live performance and remote recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samson, David J.

    The development of a telematic mixing console addresses audio engineers' need for a fully integrated system architecture that improves efficiency and control for applications such as distributed performance and remote recording. Current systems used in state of the art telematic performance rely on software-based interconnections with complex routing schemes that offer minimal flexibility or control over key parameters needed to achieve a professional workflow. The lack of hardware-based control in the current model limits the full potential of both the engineer and the system. The new architecture provides a full-featured platform that, alongside customary features, integrates (1) surround panning capability for motorized, binaural manikin heads, as well as all sources in the included auralization module, (2) self-labelling channel strips, responsive to change at all remote sites, (3) onboard roundtrip latency monitoring, (4) synchronized remote audio recording and monitoring, and (5) flexible routing. These features combined with robust parameter automation and precise analog control will raise the standard for telematic systems as well as advance the development of networked audio systems for both research and professional audio markets.

  19. Application of orthogonal test method in mix proportion design of recycled lightweight aggregate concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhanshan; An, Le; Zhang, Yijing; Yuan, Jie

    2017-03-01

    Recycled lightweight aggregate concrete was made with construction waste and ceramsite brick mainly including brick. Using the orthogonal test method, the mix proportion of recycled lightweight aggregate concrete was studied, and the Influence regularity and significance of water binder ratio, fly ash, sand ratio, the amount of recycled aggregate proportion on the compressive strength of concrete, the strong influence of mass ratio, slump expansion degree was studied. Through the mean and range analysis of the test results, the results show that the water binder ratio has the greatest influence on the 28d intensity of recycled lightweight aggregate concrete. Secondly, the fly ash content, the recycled aggregate replacement rate and the sand ratio have little influence. For the factors of expansion: the proportion of fly ash = water binder ratio sand >sand rate> recycled aggregate replacement rate. When the content of fly ash is about 30%, the expanded degree of recycled lightweight aggregate concrete is the highest, and the workability of that is better and the strength of concrete with 28d and 56d are the highest. When the content of brickbat is about 40% brick particles, the strength of concrete reaches the highest.

  20. Receiver design for SPAD-based VLC systems under Poisson-Gaussian mixed noise model.

    PubMed

    Mao, Tianqi; Wang, Zhaocheng; Wang, Qi

    2017-01-23

    Single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) is a promising photosensor because of its high sensitivity to optical signals in weak illuminance environment. Recently, it has drawn much attention from researchers in visible light communications (VLC). However, existing literature only deals with the simplified channel model, which only considers the effects of Poisson noise introduced by SPAD, but neglects other noise sources. Specifically, when an analog SPAD detector is applied, there exists Gaussian thermal noise generated by the transimpedance amplifier (TIA) and the digital-to-analog converter (D/A). Therefore, in this paper, we propose an SPAD-based VLC system with pulse-amplitude-modulation (PAM) under Poisson-Gaussian mixed noise model, where Gaussian-distributed thermal noise at the receiver is also investigated. The closed-form conditional likelihood of received signals is derived using the Laplace transform and the saddle-point approximation method, and the corresponding quasi-maximum-likelihood (quasi-ML) detector is proposed. Furthermore, the Poisson-Gaussian-distributed signals are converted to Gaussian variables with the aid of the generalized Anscombe transform (GAT), leading to an equivalent additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel, and a hard-decision-based detector is invoked. Simulation results demonstrate that, the proposed GAT-based detector can reduce the computational complexity with marginal performance loss compared with the proposed quasi-ML detector, and both detectors are capable of accurately demodulating the SPAD-based PAM signals.

  1. Conversion of raw carbonaceous fuels

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.

    2007-08-07

    Three configurations for an electrochemical cell are utilized to generate electric power from the reaction of oxygen or air with porous plates or particulates of carbon, arranged such that waste heat from the electrochemical cells is allowed to flow upwards through a storage chamber or port containing raw carbonaceous fuel. These configurations allow combining the separate processes of devolatilization, pyrolysis and electrochemical conversion of carbon to electric power into a single unit process, fed with raw fuel and exhausting high BTU gases, electric power, and substantially pure CO.sub.2 during operation.

  2. Crested wheatgrass-cheatgrass seedling competition in a mixed-density design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francis, Mark G.; Pyke, David A.

    1996-01-01

    Plant competition experiments have historically used designs that are difficult to interpret due to confounding problems. Recently, designs based on a 'response function' approach have been proposed and tested in various plant mixture settings. For this study, 3 species were used that are important in current revegetation practices in the Intermountain West. 'Nordan' (Agropyron desertorum [Fish. ex Link] Shult.) and 'Hycrest' (A. cristatum [L.] Gaertn. x desertorum) crested wheatgrass are commonly-used revegetation species on rangelands susceptible to cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) invasion, although little quantitative data exist that compare their competitive abilities. We evaluated the competitive ability of Hycrest and Nordan seedlings in 2-species mixtures with cheatgrass in a greenhouse study. Linear and nonlinear models were developed for a range of densities (130- 520 seeds m-2) for each species to predict median above-ground biomass and tiller numbers and to further test the usefulness of this design for evaluating species to rehabilitate rangelands. In both experiments, increasing Hycrest and Nordan densities reduced their own biomass and tiller production while increasing Hycrest densities reduced cheatgrass biomass and tiller production. Nordan did not affect cheatgrass biomass and tiller production. However, increasing cheatgrass densities reduced Hycrest and Nordan biomass and tiller production, and its own biomass and tiller production. The competition index i.e. substitution rate, indicated that Hycrest seedlings were better competitors with cheatgrass than Nordan, although in all mixtures, cheatgrass plants were the superior competitors. Further field research using this design, where environmental inputs are less optimal and diverse, is needed to validate these results and to further evaluate the use of this approach in examining effects of intra- and interspecific competition.

  3. Image processing algorithm design and implementation for real-time autonomous inspection of mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Schalkoff, R.J.; Shaaban, K.M.; Carver, A.E.

    1996-12-31

    The ARIES {number_sign}1 (Autonomous Robotic Inspection Experimental System) vision system is used to acquire drum surface images under controlled conditions and subsequently perform autonomous visual inspection leading to a classification as `acceptable` or `suspect`. Specific topics described include vision system design methodology, algorithmic structure,hardware processing structure, and image acquisition hardware. Most of these capabilities were demonstrated at the ARIES Phase II Demo held on Nov. 30, 1995. Finally, Phase III efforts are briefly addressed.

  4. Optimal purchasing of raw materials: A data-driven approach

    SciTech Connect

    Muteki, K.; MacGregor, J.F.

    2008-06-15

    An approach to the optimal purchasing of raw materials that will achieve a desired product quality at a minimum cost is presented. A PLS (Partial Least Squares) approach to formulation modeling is used to combine databases on raw material properties and on past process operations and to relate these to final product quality. These PLS latent variable models are then used in a sequential quadratic programming (SQP) or mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) optimization to select those raw-materials, among all those available on the market, the ratios in which to combine them and the process conditions under which they should be processed. The approach is illustrated for the optimal purchasing of metallurgical coals for coke making in the steel industry.

  5. A Comparison of Student Teachers' Beliefs from Four Different Science Teaching Domains Using a Mixed Methods Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markic, Silvija; Eilks, Ingo

    2012-03-01

    The study presented in this paper integrates data from four combined research studies, which are both qualitative and quantitative in nature. The studies describe freshman science student teachers' beliefs about teaching and learning. These freshmen intend to become teachers in Germany in one of four science teaching domains (secondary biology, chemistry, and physics, respectively, as well as primary school science). The qualitative data from the first study are based on student teachers' drawings of themselves in teaching situations. It was formulated using Grounded Theory to test three scales: Beliefs about Classroom Organisation, Beliefs about Teaching Objectives, and Epistemological Beliefs. Three further quantitative studies give insight into student teachers' curricular beliefs, their beliefs about the nature of science itself, and about the student- and/or teacher-centredness of science teaching. This paper describes a design to integrate all these data within a mixed methods framework. The aim of the current study is to describe a broad, triangulated picture of freshman science student teachers' beliefs about teaching and learning within their respective science teaching domain. The study reveals clear tendencies between the sub-groups. The results suggest that freshman chemistry and-even more pronouncedly-freshman physics student teachers profess quite traditional beliefs about science teaching and learning. Biology and primary school student teachers express beliefs about their subjects which are more in line with modern educational theory. The mixed methods approach towards the student teachers' beliefs is reflected upon and implications for science education and science teacher education are discussed.

  6. Mixed inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme and enkephalinase: Rational design, properties, and potential cardiovascular applications of glycopril and alatriopril

    SciTech Connect

    Gros, C.; Noel, N.; Souque, A.; Schwartz, J.C. ); Danvy, D.; Plaquevent, J.C.; Duhamel, L.; Duhamel, P. ); Lecomte, J.M. ); Bralet, J. )

    1991-05-15

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and enkephalinase, two cell surface metallopeptidases, are responsible for angiotensin II formation and atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) degradation, respectively, and thereby play a critical role in the metabolism of hormonal peptides exerting essentially opposite actions in cardiovascular regulations. To affect simultaneously both hormonal systems by a single molecular structure, the authors designed glycoprilat and alatrioprilat {l brace}(S)-N-(3-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-(mercaptomethyl)-1-oxopropyl)glycine and -alanine, respectively{r brace}. In vitro the two compounds inhibit both ACE and enkephalinase activities with similar, nanomolar potencies, and in vivo, glycopril and alatriopril, the corresponding diester prodrugs, occupy the two enzyme molecules in lung at similar low dosages. The high potency of these compounds is attributable to interaction of the methylenedioxy group with the S{sub 1} subsite of ACE and of the aromatic ring with the S{prime}{sub 1} subsite of enkephalinase. In rodents, low doses of these mixed inhibitors exert typical actions of ACE inhibitors--i.e., prevention of angiotensin I-induced hypertension-as well as of enkephalinase inhibitors--i.e., protection from {sup 125}I-ANF degradation or enhancement of diuresis and natriuresis following acute extracellular volume expansion. In view of the known counterbalanced physiological actions of the two hormonal peptides, whose metabolism is controlled by ACE and enkephalinase, mixed inhibitors of the two peptidases show promise for the treatment of various cardiovascular and salt-retention disorders.

  7. Design of a very-low-bleed Mach 2.5 mixed-compression inlet with 45 percent internal contraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasserbauer, J. F.; Shaw, R. J.; Neumann, H. E.

    1975-01-01

    A full-scale, mixed-compression inlet was designed for operation with the TF30-P-3 turbofan engine and tested at Mach numbers of 2.5 and 2.0. The two-cone axisymmetric inlet had minimum internal contraction consistent with high total pressure recovery and low cowl drag. At Mach 2.5, inlet recovery was 0.906 with only 0.021 centerbody bleed mass-flow ratio and no cowl bleed. Increased centerbody bleed gave a maximum inlet unstart angle of attack of 6.85 deg. At Mach 2.0, inlet recovery was 0.94 with only 0.014 centerbody bleed mass-flow ratio and no cowl bleed. Inlet performance and angle-of-attack tolerance is presented for operation at Mach numbers of 2.5 and 2.0.

  8. MiRTE: Mixed Reality Triage and Evacuation game for Mass Casualty information systems design, testing and training.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xunyi; Ganz, Aura

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a Mixed Reality Triage and Evacuation game, MiRTE, that is used in the development, testing and training of Mass Casualty Incident (MCI) information systems for first responders. Using the Source game engine from Valve software, MiRTE creates immersive virtual environments to simulate various incident scenarios, and enables interactions between multiple players/first responders. What distinguishes it from a pure computer simulation game is that it can interface with external mass casualty incident management systems, such as DIORAMA. The game will enable system developers to specify technical requirements of underlying technology, and test different alternatives of design. After the information system hardware and software are completed, the game can simulate various algorithms such as localization technologies, and interface with an actual user interface on PCs and Smartphones. We implemented and tested the game with the DIORAMA system.

  9. Design and methodology of a mixed methods follow-up study to the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Staveteig, Sarah; Aryeetey, Richmond; Anie-Ansah, Michael; Ahiadeke, Clement; Ortiz, Ladys

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The intended meaning behind responses to standard questions posed in large-scale health surveys are not always well understood. Systematic follow-up studies, particularly those which pose a few repeated questions followed by open-ended discussions, are well positioned to gauge stability and consistency of data and to shed light on the intended meaning behind survey responses. Such follow-up studies require extensive coordination and face challenges in protecting respondent confidentiality during the process of recontacting and reinterviewing participants. Objectives: We describe practical field strategies for undertaking a mixed methods follow-up study during a large-scale health survey. Methods: The study was designed as a mixed methods follow-up study embedded within the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS). The study was implemented in 13 clusters. Android tablets were used to import reference data from the parent survey and to administer the questionnaire, which asked a mixture of closed- and open-ended questions on reproductive intentions, decision-making, and family planning. Results: Despite a number of obstacles related to recontacting respondents and concern about respondent fatigue, over 92 percent of the selected sub-sample were successfully recontacted and reinterviewed; all consented to audio recording. A confidential linkage between GDHS data, follow-up tablet data, and audio transcripts was successfully created for the purpose of analysis. Conclusions: We summarize the challenges in follow-up study design, including ethical considerations, sample size, auditing, filtering, successful use of tablets, and share lessons learned for future such follow-up surveys. PMID:28145817

  10. Design of Mixed Batch Reactor and Column Studies at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Weimin; Criddle, Craig S.

    2015-11-16

    We (the Stanford research team) were invited as external collaborators to contribute expertise in environmental engineering and field research at the ORNL IFRC, Oak Ridge, TN, for projects carried out at the Argonne National Laboratory and funded by US DOE. Specifically, we assisted in the design of batch and column reactors using ORNL IFRC materials to ensure the experiments were relevant to field conditions. During the funded research period, we characterized ORNL IFRC groundwater and sediments in batch microcosm and column experiments conducted at ANL, and we communicated with ANL team members through email and conference calls and face-to-face meetings at the annual ERSP PI meeting and national meetings. Microcosm test results demonstrated that U(VI) in sediments was reduced to U(IV) when amended with ethanol. The reduced products were not uraninite but unknown U(IV) complexes associated with Fe. Fe(III) in solid phase was only partially reduced. Due to budget reductions at ANL, Stanford contributions ended in 2011.

  11. Mixed matrix membrane application for olive oil wastewater treatment: process optimization based on Taguchi design method.

    PubMed

    Zirehpour, Alireza; Rahimpour, Ahmad; Jahanshahi, Mohsen; Peyravi, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) is a concentrated effluent with a high organic load. It has high levels of organic chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phenolic compounds. This study presents a unique process to treat OMW. The process uses ultrafiltration (UF) membranes modified by a functionalized multi wall carbon nano-tube (F-MWCNT). The modified tube has an inner diameter of 15-30 nm and is added to the OMW treatment process to improve performance of the membrane. Tests were done to evaluate the following operating parameters of the UF system; pressure, pH and temperature; also evaluated parameters of permeate flux, flux decline, COD removal and total phenol rejection. The Taguchi robust design method was applied for an optimization evaluation of the experiments. Variance (ANOVA) analysis was used to determine the most significant parameters affecting permeate flux, flux decline, COD removal and total phenols rejection. Results demonstrated coagulation and pH as the most important factors affecting permeate flux of the UF. Moreover, pH and F-MWCNT UF had significant positive effects on flux decline, COD removal and total phenols rejection. Based on the optimum conditions determined by the Taguchi method, evaluations for permeate flux tests; flux decline, COD removal and total phenols rejection were about 21.2 (kg/m(2) h), 12.6%, 72.6% and 89.5%, respectively. These results were in good agreement with those predicted by the Taguchi method (i.e.; 22.8 (kg/m(2) h), 11.9%, 75.8 and 94.7%, respectively). Mechanical performance of the membrane and its application for high organic wastewater treatment were determined as strong.

  12. Exploring the bases for a mixed reality stroke rehabilitation system, Part II: Design of Interactive Feedback for upper limb rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Few existing interactive rehabilitation systems can effectively communicate multiple aspects of movement performance simultaneously, in a manner that appropriately adapts across various training scenarios. In order to address the need for such systems within stroke rehabilitation training, a unified approach for designing interactive systems for upper limb rehabilitation of stroke survivors has been developed and applied for the implementation of an Adaptive Mixed Reality Rehabilitation (AMRR) System. Results The AMRR system provides computational evaluation and multimedia feedback for the upper limb rehabilitation of stroke survivors. A participant's movements are tracked by motion capture technology and evaluated by computational means. The resulting data are used to generate interactive media-based feedback that communicates to the participant detailed, intuitive evaluations of his performance. This article describes how the AMRR system's interactive feedback is designed to address specific movement challenges faced by stroke survivors. Multimedia examples are provided to illustrate each feedback component. Supportive data are provided for three participants of varying impairment levels to demonstrate the system's ability to train both targeted and integrated aspects of movement. Conclusions The AMRR system supports training of multiple movement aspects together or in isolation, within adaptable sequences, through cohesive feedback that is based on formalized compositional design principles. From preliminary analysis of the data, we infer that the system's ability to train multiple foci together or in isolation in adaptable sequences, utilizing appropriately designed feedback, can lead to functional improvement. The evaluation and feedback frameworks established within the AMRR system will be applied to the development of a novel home-based system to provide an engaging yet low-cost extension of training for longer periods of time. PMID:21899779

  13. Performance of a low cost interdigitated flow design on a 1 kW class all vanadium mixed acid redox flow battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, David; Thomsen, Edwin; Li, Bin; Wang, Wei; Nie, Zimin; Koeppel, Brian; Sprenkle, Vincent

    2016-02-01

    Three flow designs were operated in a 3-cell 1 kW class all vanadium mixed acid redox flow battery. The influence of electrode surface area and flow rate on the coulombic, voltage, and energy efficiency and the pressure drop in the flow circuit will be discussed and correlated to the flow design. Material cost associated with each flow design will also be discussed.

  14. Performance of a low cost interdigitated flow design on a 1 kW class all vanadium mixed acid redox flow battery

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, David; Thomsen, Edwin; Li, Bin; Wang, Wei; Nie, Zimin; Koeppel, Brian; Sprenkle, Vincent

    2016-02-01

    Three flow designs were operated in a 3-cell 1 kW class all vanadium mixed acid redox flow battery. The influence of electrode surface area and flow rate on the coulombic, voltage, and energy efficiency and the pressure drop in the flow circuit will be discussed and correlated to the flow design. Material cost associated with each flow design will also be discussed.

  15. Raw liquid waste treatment process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, Marshall F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A raw sewage treatment process is disclosed in which substantially all the non-dissolved matter, which is suspended in the sewage water is first separated from the water, in which at least organic matter is dissolved. The non-dissolved material is pyrolyzed to form an activated carbon and ash material without the addition of any conditioning agents. The activated carbon and ash material is added to the water from which the non-dissolved matter was removed. The activated carbon and ash material absorbs organic matter and heavy metal ions, it is believed, are dissolved in the water and is thereafter supplied in a counter current flow direction and combined with the incoming raw sewage to facilitate the separation of the non-dissolved settleable materials from the sewage water. The used carbon and ash material together with the non-dissolved matter which was separated from the sewage water are pyrolyzed to form the activated carbon and ash material.

  16. Toxicities of raw Alocasia odora.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jeong Mi; Lee, Byeong Kook; Chun, Byeong Jo

    2011-10-01

    Alocasia, the Araceae family, is a genus of more than 100 species of perennial, herbaceous, diminutive to extremely large, usually robust herbs with a clear-to-milky latex. They are distributed throughout subtropical and tropical Asia and in the tropical western pacific as well as eastern Australia. Despite easy access to A odora, there have been no published reports in English regarding the toxic symptoms following the ingestion of raw A odora. Here, the clinical manifestations of 2 patients that ingested raw A odora are described. Two patients experienced oral numbness and intractable tongue pain, and 1 patient required endotracheal intubation because of upper respiratory tract obstruction. Although conservative treatment is the primary approach to A odora poisoning, physicians should be aware of the potential for upper respiratory obstruction in patients exposed to A odora, as well as the need for controlling tongue pain.

  17. Reliable Attention Network Scores and Mutually Inhibited Inter-network Relationships Revealed by Mixed Design and Non-orthogonal Method.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Feng; Jing, Xiu-Juan; Liu, Feng; Li, Mei-Ling; Long, Zhi-Liang; Yan, Jin H; Chen, Hua-Fu

    2015-05-21

    The attention system can be divided into alerting, orienting, and executive control networks. The efficiency and independence of attention networks have been widely tested with the attention network test (ANT) and its revised versions. However, many studies have failed to find effects of attention network scores (ANSs) and inter-network relationships (INRs). Moreover, the low reliability of ANSs can not meet the demands of theoretical and empirical investigations. Two methodological factors (the inter-trial influence in the event-related design and the inter-network interference in orthogonal contrast) may be responsible for the unreliability of ANT. In this study, we combined the mixed design and non-orthogonal method to explore ANSs and directional INRs. With a small number of trials, we obtained reliable and independent ANSs (split-half reliability of alerting: 0.684; orienting: 0.588; and executive control: 0.616), suggesting an individual and specific attention system. Furthermore, mutual inhibition was observed when two networks were operated simultaneously, indicating a differentiated but integrated attention system. Overall, the reliable and individual specific ANSs and mutually inhibited INRs provide novel insight into the understanding of the developmental, physiological and pathological mechanisms of attention networks, and can benefit future experimental and clinical investigations of attention using ANT.

  18. Social cohesion through football: a quasi-experimental mixed methods design to evaluate a complex health promotion program

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The complexity of the Football United program poses challenges for measurement, and requires the study design to be responsive to the dynamic nature of the program and context. Assessment of change is needed at multiple levels, drawing on mixed methods and multidisciplinary approaches in implementation and evaluation. Attention to these challenges has underpinned the design and methods in the Social Cohesion through Football study, which will use a unique and innovative combination of measures that have not been applied together previously in social inclusion/cohesion and sport and social inclusion/cohesion program research. PMID:20920361

  19. Studies on monolayers. Part 2. Design monolayer assemblies of mixed films of surface-active azo dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Heesemann, J.

    1980-03-26

    This work is concerned with designed self-organization of surfactants to highly organized monomolecular layers, which may be used for molecular engineering. The monolayer properties of 2-component and 3-component films are studied at the air-water and air-glass interface. The 2-component films consist of the chromophoric diglyceride and the chromophoric triglyceride (one fatty acid residue was substituted by n-(4'nitro-1'-phenylazo-P-phe methylaminopropionic acid). The Pi-Alpha curves of the mixed films showed marked deviations from the addivity rule. For the mole fraction 0.35 of the diglyceride component the surface pressure-area isotherm shows the characteristics of an eutectic film. The results of absorbance spectra and surface pressure-area isotherms suggest that the close-packed monolayer of the eutectic mixture consist of molecules in the stretched conformation with the chromophores in a card-pack-like arrangement (H aggregates). The 3-component films consists of stearic acid, stearylamine, and 12-(4'nitro-4- dimethylaminoazobenzene-3'-car acid. Neutral 3-component films are deposited onto glass slides and absorbance spectra are measured with polarized light.

  20. Using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis in a Mixed Methods Research Design to Explore Music in the Lives of Mature Age Amateur Keyboard Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the use of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) in a mixed methods research design with reference to five recent publications about music in the lives of mature age amateur keyboard players. It explores the links between IPA and the data-gathering methods of "Rivers of Musical Experience",…

  1. Evaluation and improvement of micro-surfacing mix design method and modelling of asphalt emulsion mastic in terms of filler-emulsion interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robati, Masoud

    This Doctorate program focuses on the evaluation and improving the rutting resistance of micro-surfacing mixtures. There are many research problems related to the rutting resistance of micro-surfacing mixtures that still require further research to be solved. The main objective of this Ph.D. program is to experimentally and analytically study and improve rutting resistance of micro-surfacing mixtures. During this Ph.D. program major aspects related to the rutting resistance of micro-surfacing mixtures are investigated and presented as follow: 1) evaluation of a modification of current micro-surfacing mix design procedures: On the basis of this effort, a new mix design procedure is proposed for type III micro-surfacing mixtures as rut-fill materials on the road surface. Unlike the current mix design guidelines and specification, the new mix design is capable of selecting the optimum mix proportions for micro-surfacing mixtures; 2) evaluation of test methods and selection of aggregate grading for type III application of micro-surfacing: Within the term of this study, a new specification for selection of aggregate grading for type III application of micro-surfacing is proposed; 3) evaluation of repeatability and reproducibility of micro-surfacing mixture design tests: In this study, limits for repeatability and reproducibility of micro-surfacing mix design tests are presented; 4) a new conceptual model for filler stiffening effect on asphalt mastic of micro-surfacing: A new model is proposed, which is able to establish limits for minimum and maximum filler concentrations in the micro-surfacing mixture base on only the filler important physical and chemical properties; 5) incorporation of reclaimed asphalt pavement and post-fabrication asphalt shingles in micro-surfacing mixture: The effectiveness of newly developed mix design procedure for micro-surfacing mixtures is further validated using recycled materials. The results present the limits for the use of RAP and RAS

  2. Investigating the effect of mixing ratio on molar mass distributions of synthetic polymers determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry using design of experiments.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Heike; Ehmann, Thomas; Otto, Matthias

    2010-11-01

    It is well known that the mixing ratio affects the molar mass distribution of synthetic polymers determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Surely, the molar mixing ratio determines whether a mass spectrum will be obtained or not. However, depending on the mass range, several effects such as multimer formation occur, which might be a source of errors in molar mass distribution calculations. In this study, the effect of mixing ratio was investigated for several synthetic polymers, including polystyrene (PS), poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) using statistical designs of experiments. The 2(3) full factorial design was found to be suitable in the study of more than 1000 samples. The obtained MALDI mass spectra as well as the ANOVA statistics show that the mixing ratio affects the molar mass distribution. The optimal mixing ratio for a defined synthetic polymer depends on the studied combination (matrix, cationization reagent, solvent).

  3. Scan patterns and accuracy of a Radar Wind Sensor (RAWS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Shuxian; Beh, Beng; Moore, Richard K.

    1995-01-01

    The Radar Wind Sensor (RAWS) was proposed as a complement to laser wind sensors, allowing coverage in cloudy regions excluded from laser coverage. Previous University of Kansas studies showed the feasibility of the wind measurement at various levels in the atmosphere and indicated that RAWS can also measure rain rates and ocean-surface winds. Here we discuss measurement of the wind vector in terms of the scan patterns for a conically scanned antenna. By using many measurements from cells about 66 km square and 132 km square, a least-squares algorithm gives results that are reasonable for insertion into global atmospheric models. For RAWS to be used successfully as a complement to a laser wind sensor, the design of the two sensors should be integrated and radial velocity measurements in a given atmospheric cell should be combined to get the most accurate results.

  4. Mixed jamming method for SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hong-feng; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Yong-sheng

    2007-11-01

    The mixed jamming method of synthetic aperture radar is analyzed and discussed. The methods of active noise and deception jamming and the signal model of transmitting is described. The raw echo signal of SAR and the model of jammed echo signal are expatiated, the characteristic of SAR and the evaluating method of jamming effect are established. Finally, the mixed jamming imaging of SAR is simulated.

  5. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 9: Mixed Alcohols From Syngas -- State of Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    This deliverable is for Task 9, Mixed Alcohols from Syngas: State of Technology, as part of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Award ACO-5-44027, ''Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup and Oxygen Separation Equipment''. Task 9 supplements the work previously done by NREL in the mixed alcohols section of the 2003 technical report Preliminary Screening--Technical and Economic Assessment of Synthesis Gas to Fuels and Chemicals with Emphasis on the Potential for Biomass-Derived Syngas.

  6. Power and sample size for the S:T repeated measures design combined with a linear mixed-effects model allowing for missing data.

    PubMed

    Tango, Toshiro

    2017-02-13

    Tango (Biostatistics 2016) proposed a new repeated measures design called the S:T repeated measures design, combined with generalized linear mixed-effects models and sample size calculations for a test of the average treatment effect that depend not only on the number of subjects but on the number of repeated measures before and after randomization per subject used for analysis. The main advantages of the proposed design combined with the generalized linear mixed-effects models are (1) it can easily handle missing data by applying the likelihood-based ignorable analyses under the missing at random assumption and (2) it may lead to a reduction in sample size compared with the simple pre-post design. In this article, we present formulas for calculating power and sample sizes for a test of the average treatment effect allowing for missing data within the framework of the S:T repeated measures design with a continuous response variable combined with a linear mixed-effects model. Examples are provided to illustrate the use of these formulas.

  7. Design of a prospective cohort study to assess ethnic inequalities in patient safety in hospital care using mixed methods

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While US studies show a higher risk of adverse events (AEs) for ethnic minorities in hospital care, in Europe ethnic inequalities in patient safety have never been analysed. Based on existing literature and exploratory research, our research group developed a conceptual model and empirical study to increase our understanding of the role ethnicity plays in patient safety. Our study is designed to (1) assess the risk of AEs for hospitalised patients of non-Western ethnic origin in comparison to ethnic Dutch patients; (2) analyse what patient-related determinants affect the risk of AEs; (3) explore the mechanisms of patient-provider interactions that may increase the risk of AEs; and (4) explore possible strategies to prevent inequalities in patient safety. Methods We are conducting a prospective mixed methods cohort study in four Dutch hospitals, which began in 2010 and is running until 2013. 2000 patients (1000 ethnic Dutch and 1000 of non-Western ethnic origin, ranging in age from 45-75 years) are included. Survey data are collected to capture patients’ explanatory variables (e.g., Dutch language proficiency, health literacy, socio-economic status (SES)-indicators, and religion) during hospital admission. After discharge, a two-stage medical record review using a standardized instrument is conducted by experienced reviewers to determine the incidence of AEs. Data will be analysed using multilevel multivariable logistic regression. Qualitative interviews with providers and patients will provide insight into the mechanisms of AEs and potential prevention strategies. Conclusion This study uses a robust study plan to quantify the risk difference of AEs between ethnic minority and Dutch patients in hospital care. In addition we are developing an in-depth description of the mechanisms of excess risk for some groups compared to others, while identifying opportunities for more equitable distributions of patient safety for all. PMID:23217088

  8. Describing the Situational Contexts of Sweetened Product Consumption in a Middle Eastern Canadian Community: Application of a Mixed Method Design

    PubMed Central

    Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Cargo, Margaret; Receveur, Olivier; Daniel, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the situational contexts in which individuals consume processed sources of dietary sugars. This study aimed to describe the situational contexts associated with the consumption of sweetened food and drink products in a Catholic Middle Eastern Canadian community. A two-stage exploratory sequential mixed-method design was employed with a rationale of triangulation. In stage 1 (n = 62), items and themes describing the situational contexts of sweetened food and drink product consumption were identified from semi-structured interviews and were used to develop the content for the Situational Context Instrument for Sweetened Product Consumption (SCISPC). Face validity, readability and cultural relevance of the instrument were assessed. In stage 2 (n = 192), a cross-sectional study was conducted and exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the structure of themes that emerged from the qualitative analysis as a means of furthering construct validation. The SCISPC reliability and predictive validity on the daily consumption of sweetened products were also assessed. In stage 1, six themes and 40-items describing the situational contexts of sweetened product consumption emerged from the qualitative analysis and were used to construct the first draft of the SCISPC. In stage 2, factor analysis enabled the clarification and/or expansion of the instrument's initial thematic structure. The revised SCISPC has seven factors and 31 items describing the situational contexts of sweetened product consumption. Initial validation of the instrument indicated it has excellent internal consistency and adequate test-retest reliability. Two factors of the SCISPC had predictive validity for the daily consumption of total sugar from sweetened products (Snacking and Energy demands) while the other factors (Socialization, Indulgence, Constraints, Visual Stimuli and Emotional needs) were rather associated to occasional consumption of these products. PMID:23028597

  9. The German Young Olympic Athletes' Lifestyle and Health Management Study (GOAL Study): design of a mixed-method study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In order to perform at top levels, elite athletes have to both protect and risk their health at the same time. Adolescent elite athletes have the additional challenge of coping with substantial physical, psychological and social transformations. The contradictory phenomenon of protecting and risking the adolescent athletes' health in sports challenges the development of health promotion and protection strategies. The GOAL Study (German Young Olympic Athletes' Lifestyle and Health Management Study) analyzes the individual and organizational management of health in adolescent elite sports. Methods/design We combine quantitative and qualitative approaches in a mixed-method study. This allows us to gather a broad range of representative information on squad athletes from all Olympic disciplines as well as in-depth information on four selected Olympic disciplines (artistic gymnastics, biathlon, handball and wrestling). Within the quantitative section we attempt to identify the young athletes' health and nutrition behavior, their subjective health state and their lay health representations, health-related social networks, and structures of medical attendance. 1138 national team level athletes born between 1992 and 1995 from 51 Olympic disciplines responded to the questionnaire (response rate: 61,75%). The qualitative section investigates the meaning and relevance of health and nutrition within the athletes' sports specific surroundings, the impact of biographic backgrounds on individual health behavior, and sports specific cultures of health, nutrition and risk. We interviewed 24 athletes and 28 coaching and medical experts, and carried out 14 multi-day participant observations at training sessions and competitions. Conclusions The studies' results will serve as the basis for developing tailored health promotion strategies to be in cooperation with German elite sports associations. PMID:21627777

  10. Describing the situational contexts of sweetened product consumption in a Middle Eastern Canadian community: application of a mixed method design.

    PubMed

    Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Cargo, Margaret; Receveur, Olivier; Daniel, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the situational contexts in which individuals consume processed sources of dietary sugars. This study aimed to describe the situational contexts associated with the consumption of sweetened food and drink products in a Catholic Middle Eastern Canadian community. A two-stage exploratory sequential mixed-method design was employed with a rationale of triangulation. In stage 1 (n = 62), items and themes describing the situational contexts of sweetened food and drink product consumption were identified from semi-structured interviews and were used to develop the content for the Situational Context Instrument for Sweetened Product Consumption (SCISPC). Face validity, readability and cultural relevance of the instrument were assessed. In stage 2 (n = 192), a cross-sectional study was conducted and exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the structure of themes that emerged from the qualitative analysis as a means of furthering construct validation. The SCISPC reliability and predictive validity on the daily consumption of sweetened products were also assessed. In stage 1, six themes and 40-items describing the situational contexts of sweetened product consumption emerged from the qualitative analysis and were used to construct the first draft of the SCISPC. In stage 2, factor analysis enabled the clarification and/or expansion of the instrument's initial thematic structure. The revised SCISPC has seven factors and 31 items describing the situational contexts of sweetened product consumption. Initial validation of the instrument indicated it has excellent internal consistency and adequate test-retest reliability. Two factors of the SCISPC had predictive validity for the daily consumption of total sugar from sweetened products (Snacking and Energy demands) while the other factors (Socialization, Indulgence, Constraints, Visual Stimuli and Emotional needs) were rather associated to occasional consumption of these products.

  11. Asymmetric antiproton debuncher: No bad mixing, more good mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Visnjic, V.

    1994-07-01

    An asymmetric lattice for the Fermilab Antiproton Debuncher is designed. The lattice has zero mixing between the pickups and the kickers (bad mixing) while the mixing in the rest of the machine (good mixing) can be varied (even during the operation of the machine) in order to optimize the stochastic cooling. As an example, a lattice with zero bad mixing and twice the good mixing is presented. The betatron cooling rate in this lattice is twice its present value.

  12. Use of precalciners to remove alkali from raw materials in the cement industry. Final report, July 1978-July 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Gartner, E.M.

    1980-07-01

    The objective of this work was to develop an efficient means of removing alkali metal compounds (alkalies) from high-alkali aluminosilicate raw materials of the type commonly used as part of cement raw mixes in order to increase the energy efficiency of cement manufacture. The intention of this project was to determine whether the high-alkali raw materials could be pyroprocessed separately to remove the alkalies before they entered the rotary kiln, where they would be mixed with the other raw feed components. If this could be achieved, considerable savings could be made in the energy required to remove alkalies, compared to conventional methods in which the cement raw mix must be treated as a whole. Two different methods of alkali removal were examined, namely, vaporization of alkalies at relatively low temperatures; and alkali-rich melt separation at relativey high temperatures. The results showed that the removal of alkalies by pyroprocessing of high-alkali raw feed components separate from the other cement raw mix components is not likely to be a practical alternative to the best available conventional precalciner technology. (LCL)

  13. An Immunoassay for Quantification of Contamination by Raw Meat Juice on Food Contact Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fur-Chi; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Edgar

    2016-11-01

    Raw chicken products often are contaminated with Salmonella and Campylobacter , which can be transmitted from packages to contact surfaces. Raw meat juices from these packages also provide potential media for cross-contamination. There are limited quantitative data on the levels of consumer exposure to raw meat juice during shopping for and handling of chicken products. An exposure assessment is needed to quantify the levels of transmission and to assess the risk. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed and validated for quantitative detection of raw meat juice on hands and various food contact surfaces. Analytical procedures were designed to maximize the recovery of raw meat juice from various surfaces: hands, plastic, wood, stainless steel, laminated countertops, glass, and ceramics. The ELISA was based on the detection of a soluble muscle protein, troponin I (TnI), in the raw meat juice. The assay can detect levels as low as 1.25 ng of TnI, which is equivalent to less than 1 μl of the raw meat juice. The concentrations of TnI in the raw meat juices from 10 retail chicken packages, as determined by ELISA, were between 0.46 and 3.56 ng/μl, with an average of 1.69 ng/μl. The analytical procedures, which include swabbing, extraction, and concentration, enable the detection of TnI from various surfaces. The recoveries of raw meat juice from surfaces of hands were 92%, and recoveries from other tested surfaces were from 55% on plastic cutting boards to 75% on laminated countertops. The ELISA developed has been used for monitoring the transfer of raw meat juice during shopping for and handling of raw chicken products in our studies. The assay also can be applied to other raw meat products, such as pork and beef.

  14. 7 CFR 29.6033 - Raw.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Raw. 29.6033 Section 29.6033 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6033 Raw. Tobacco as it appears between the time of harvesting and...

  15. Future Sources of Organic Raw Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Irving S.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the need for industrial organization, academic institutions, and national governments to agree on cooperative roles in planning the future raw materials demands of the chemical industry. Political and social concerns, as well as technical and economic considerations, are important to the raw material future of the industry. (MA)

  16. Winchester/Camberley Homes New Construction Test House Design, Construction, and Short-Term Testing in a Mixed-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Mallay, D.; Wiehagen, J.; Wood, A.

    2012-10-01

    The NAHB Research Center partnered with production builder Winchester/Camberley Homes to build a new construction test house in the mixed-humid climate zone of Silver Spring, MD in June 2011. The goal for this house was to improve energy efficiency by 30% over the Building America B10 benchmark through an optimized energy solutions package design that could be constructed on a production basis. This report outlines the features of this house, discusses the energy efficient design, and reports on short-term testing results.

  17. Data Collection Design for Equivalent Groups Equating: Using a Matrix Stratification Framework for Mixed-Format Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbella, Kinge Keka

    2012-01-01

    Mixed-format assessments are increasingly being used in large scale standardized assessments to measure a continuum of skills ranging from basic recall to higher order thinking skills. These assessments are usually comprised of a combination of (a) multiple-choice items which can be efficiently scored, have stable psychometric properties, and…

  18. Design and optimization of highly nonlinear low-dispersion crystal fiber with high birefringence for four-wave mixing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-Ni; Ren, Li-Yong; Gong, Yong-Kang; Li, Xiao-Hui; Wang, Lei-Ran; Sun, Chuan-Dong

    2010-06-01

    We have proposed a novel type of photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with low dispersion and high nonlinearity for four-wave mixing. This type of fiber is composed of a solid silica core and a cladding with a squeezed hexagonal lattice elliptical airhole along the fiber length. Its dispersion and nonlinearity coefficient are investigated simultaneously by using the full vectorial finite element method. Numerical results show that the proposed highly nonlinear low-dispersion fiber has a total dispersion as low as +/-2.5 ps nm(-1) km(-1) over an ultrabroad wavelength range from 1.43 to 1.8 microm, and the corresponding nonlinearity coefficient and birefringence are about 150 W(-1) km(-1) and 2.5x10(-3) at 1.55 microm, respectively. The proposed PCF with low ultraflattened dispersion, high nonlinearity, and high birefringence can have important application in four-wave mixing.

  19. 40 CFR 90.414 - Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.414 Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and... exit of the mixing chamber. The probe must pass through the approximate center and must extend across at least 80 percent of the diameter of the exit. The exact position of the probe may vary from...

  20. Design and Critical Appraisal of an Accelerated Integration Procedure for Atmospheric GCM/Mixed-Layer Ocean Models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlesinger, Michael E.; Zhao, Zong-Cl; Vickers, Dean

    1989-07-01

    An accelerated integration procedure (AIP) is developed for the OSU atmospheric GCM/mixed-layer ocean model. In this AIP the depth of the mixed-layer ocean is reduced by an acceleration factor fe=12 from 60 m to 5 m and the length of a solar cycle is correspondingly reduced to eliminate the increase in the amplitude of the annual cycle of oceanic temperature which would otherwise occur. Furthermore, the ground bulk heat capacity, ground water field capacity and heat of fusion for sea ice and for snow on sea ice are reduced by fa to accelerate the equilibration of the ground temperature, soil water and sea ice, respectively.The AIP was used for 1 × CO2 and 2 × CO2 simulations with the OSU AGCM/mixed-layer Oman model. The AIP attained the equilibrium climates in these simulations with the computer-time equivalent of about 2.5 unaccelerated solar cycles, but after the switch from the AIP to the normal unaccelerated integration procedure (NIP), the temperatures increased to new equilibrium values. Although additional computer time was required to achieve these new equilibria, the overall 1 × CO2 and 2 × CO2 simulations with the AIP/NIP required respectively only 55% and 28% of the computer time which would have been required with the NIP alone. Thus the AIP was successful in saying a significant amount of computer time.The success of the AIP notwithstanding, an analysis was undertakes to determine the cause of the change in the equilibrium climate following the AIP/NIP switch. Diagnosis of the 1 × CO2 simulation by the OSU AGCM/mixed-layer. ocean model and tests with a latitudinally dependent energy balance model show that it is the increase in the amplitude of the annual cycle of atmospheric temperature from the AIP to the NIP which, acting through the ice-albedo/temperature feedback mechanism, causes the change in the equilibrium climate following the AIP/NIP switch.It is therefore concluded that while the AIP can save a significant amount of computer time in

  1. Suppression of secondary flows in a mixed-flow pump impeller by application of three-dimensional inverse design method. Part 2: Experimental validation

    SciTech Connect

    Goto, A.; Takemura, T.; Zangeneh, M.

    1996-07-01

    In Part 1 of this paper, a mixed-flow pump impeller was designed by a fully three-dimensional inverse design method, aimed at suppressing the secondary flows on the blade suction surface. In this part, the internal flow fields of the impeller are investigated experimentally, using flow visualization and phase-locked measurements of the impeller exit flow, in order to validate the effects of secondary flow suppression. The flow fields are compared with those of a conventional impeller, and it is confirmed that the secondary flows on the blade suction surface are well suppressed and the uniformity of the exit flow fields is improved substantially, in both circumferential and spanwise directions. The effects of tip clearance and the number of blades for the inverse designed impeller are also investigated experimentally and numerically.

  2. Implementation and effects of an individual stress management intervention for family caregivers of an elderly relative living at home: a mixed research design.

    PubMed

    Ducharme, Francine; Lebel, Paule; Lachance, Lise; Trudeau, Denise

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate the implementation and effects of a stress management intervention for family caregivers of elderly persons. The intervention was implemented through an action research design with the collaboration of case managers working in community health centers. A total of 81 caregivers participated in the study. The quasi-experimental design used to test the effects of the intervention showed significant effects on perceived challenge associated with caregiver role, control by self, use of social support, and use of problem solving. Qualitative data demonstrate caregiver empowerment with respect to the caregiving role. This study illustrates the relevance of using a mixed research design in order to provide evidence for changes in practice.

  3. Phage inhibition of Escherichia coli in ultrahigh-temperature-treated and raw milk.

    PubMed

    McLean, Sarah K; Dunn, Louise A; Palombo, Enzo A

    2013-11-01

    Escherichia coli can contaminate raw milk during the milking process or via environmental contamination in milk-processing facilities. Three bacteriophages, designated EC6, EC9, and EC11, were investigated for their ability to inhibit the growth of three strains of E. coli in ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) treated and raw bovine milk. A cocktail of the three phages completely inhibited E. coli ATCC 25922 and E. coli O127:H6 in UHT milk at 25 °C and under refrigeration temperatures (5-9 °C). The phage cocktail produced similar results in raw milk; however, E. coli ATCC 25922 and O127:H6 in raw milk controls also declined to below the level of detection at both temperatures. This observation indicated that competition by the raw milk microbiota might have contributed to the decline in viable E. coli cells. A cocktail containing EC6 and EC9 completely inhibited E. coli O5:H-, an enterohemorrhagic strain, in UHT milk at both temperatures. In raw milk, the phage cocktail initially inhibited growth of E. coli O5:H- but regrowth occurred following incubation for 9 h at 25 °C and 144 h at 5-9 °C. In contrast to the other E. coli strains, O5:H- was not inhibited in the raw milk controls. This study demonstrates that bacteriophages are effective biocontrol agents against E. coli host strains in UHT and raw bovine milk at various storage temperatures.

  4. Food fears and raw-milk cheese.

    PubMed

    West, Harry G

    2008-07-01

    This paper examines the debate over the safety of raw-milk cheese. Departing from Nestle's categories of "science-based" and "value-based" approaches to risk assessment, the author argues that raw-milk cheese advocates, as well as proponents of pasteurisation, invoke science to support their positions, and measure risk against potential costs and benefits. Additionally, the author argues, each position is animated by, albeit differing, values and their attendant fears. While artisan cheesemakers associations have successfully averted bans on raw-milk cheesemaking in various contexts in recent years, the author concludes that they remain vulnerable to future food scares unless consumer interest in raw-milk cheese is sustained.

  5. Our Finished Product--Industry's Raw Product

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, L. Myron

    1978-01-01

    Comparing students in agribusiness sales, supply, and service courses to raw products in need of development, the author discusses the backgrounds of these students and their developing maturity through supervised occupational experience. (BM)

  6. Effects of egg consumption on carotenoid absorption from co-consumed, raw vegetables12

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Eun; Gordon, Susannah L; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Campbell, Wayne W

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dietary lipids are one of the most effective stimulators of carotenoid absorption, but very limited data exist on the impact of endogenous food sources of lipids to enhance carotenoid absorption. The co-consumption of whole egg with carotenoid-rich foods may increase overall carotenoid absorption via lipid-rich egg yolk. Objective: We designed this study to assess the effects of egg consumption on carotenoid absorption from a carotenoid-rich, raw mixed-vegetable salad. Design: Healthy young men (n = 16) consumed the same salad (all served with 3 g canola oil) with no egg (control), 75 g scrambled whole eggs (1.5 eggs) [low egg (LE)], and 150 g scrambled whole eggs (3 eggs) [high egg (HE)] (a randomized crossover design). Control, LE, and HE meals contained 23 mg, 23.4 mg (0.4 mg from eggs), and 23.8 mg (0.8 mg from eggs) total carotenoids and 3 g, 10.5 g (7.5 g from eggs), and 18 g (15 g from eggs) total lipids, respectively. Blood was collected hourly for 10 h, and the triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fraction was isolated. Total and individual carotenoid contents, including lutein, zeaxanthin , α-carotene, β-carotene, and lycopene in TRL were analyzed, and composite areas under the curve (AUCs) were calculated. Results: The total mean (±SE) carotenoid AUC0–10h in TRL was higher for the HE meal than for LE and control meals [125.7 ± 19.4a compared with 44.8 ± 9.2b compared with 14.9 ± 5.2b nmol/L · 10 h, respectively (values without a common superscript letter differ); P < 0.0001]. The TRL AUC0–10h of lutein and zeaxanthin increased 4–5-fold (P < 0.001), and the TRL AUC0–10h of carotenoid not present in eggs, including α-carotene, β-carotene, and lycopene, increased 3–8-fold (P < 0.01) for the HE meal compared with the control meal. Conclusion: These findings support the claim that co-consuming cooked whole eggs is an effective way to enhance carotenoid absorption from other carotenoid-rich foods such as a raw mixed

  7. The Obstacles for the Teaching of 8th Grade TR History of Revolution and Kemalism Course According to the Constructivist Approach (An Example of Exploratory Sequential Mixed Method Design)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karademir, Yavuz; Demir, Selcuk Besir

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to ascertain the problems social studies teachers face in the teaching of topics covered in 8th grade TRHRK Course. The study was conducted in line with explanatory sequential mixed method design, which is one of the mixed research method, was used. The study involves three phases. In the first step, exploratory process…

  8. Mixed-linker approach in designing porous zirconium-based metal-organic frameworks with high hydrogen storage capacity.

    PubMed

    Naeem, Ayesha; Ting, Valeska P; Hintermair, Ulrich; Tian, Mi; Telford, Richard; Halim, Saaiba; Nowell, Harriott; Hołyńska, Małgorzata; Teat, Simon J; Scowen, Ian J; Nayak, Sanjit

    2016-06-14

    Three highly porous Zr(iv)-based metal-organic frameworks, UBMOF-8, UBMOF-9, and UBMOF-31, were synthesized by using 2,2'-diamino-4,4'-stilbenedicarboxylic acid, 4,4'-stilbenedicarboxylic acid, and combination of both linkers, respectively. The mixed-linker UBMOF-31 showed excellent hydrogen uptake of 4.9 wt% and high selectivity for adsorption of CO2 over N2 with high thermal stability and moderate water stability with permanent porosity and surface area of 2552 m(2) g(-1).

  9. Usability of a Runtime Environment for the Use of IMS Learning Design in Mixed Mode Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klebl, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Starting from the first public draft of IMS Learning Design in November 2002, a research project at the Catholic University Eichstaett-Ingolstadt in Germany was dedicated to the conceptual examination and empirical review of IMS Learning Design Level A. A prototypical runtime environment called "lab005" was developed. It was built based…

  10. Use of computational fluid dynamics as a tool for establishing process design space for mixing in a bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Rathore, A S; Sharma, C; Persad, And A

    2012-01-01

    The concept of "design space" plays an integral part in implementation of quality by design for pharmaceutical products. ICH Q8 defines design space as "the multidimensional combination and interaction of input variables (e.g., material attributes) and process parameters that have been demonstrated to provide assurance of quality. Working within the design space is not considered as a change. Movement out of the design space is considered to be a change and would normally initiate a regulatory post-approval change process. Design space is proposed by the applicant and is subject to regulatory assessment and approval." Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is increasingly being used as a tool for modeling of hydrodynamics and mass transfer. In this study, a laboratory-scale aerated bioreactor is modeled using CFD. Eulerian-Eulerian multiphase model is used along with dispersed k-ε turbulent model. Population balance model is incorporated to account for bubble breakage and coalescence. Multiple reference frame model is used for the rotating region. We demonstrate the usefulness of CFD modeling for evaluating the effects of typical process parameters like impeller speed, gas flow rate, and liquid height on the mass transfer coefficient (k(L)a). Design of experiments is utilized to establish a design space for the above mentioned parameters for a given permissible range of k(L)a.

  11. PIMR: Parallel and Integrated Matching for Raw Data

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhenghao; Yang, Junying; Zhao, Jiaduo; Han, Peng; Chai, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    With the trend of high-resolution imaging, computational costs of image matching have substantially increased. In order to find the compromise between accuracy and computation in real-time applications, we bring forward a fast and robust matching algorithm, named parallel and integrated matching for raw data (PIMR). This algorithm not only effectively utilizes the color information of raw data, but also designs a parallel and integrated framework to shorten the time-cost in the demosaicing stage. Experiments show that compared to existing state-of-the-art methods, the proposed algorithm yields a comparable recognition rate, while the total time-cost of imaging and matching is significantly reduced. PMID:26729132

  12. Efficient one-stationary bistatic synthetic aperture radar raw data generation based on Fourier analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yulin; Wu, Junjie; Li, Zhongyu; Yang, Haiguang; Yang, Jianyu

    2016-01-01

    Raw data generation for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is very powerful for designing systems and testing imaging algorithms. In this paper, a raw data generation method based on Fourier analysis for one-stationary bistatic SAR is presented. In this mode, two-dimensional (2-D) spatial variation is the major problem faced by the fast Fourier transform-based raw data generation. To deal with this problem, a 2-D linearization followed by a 2-D frequency transformation is employed in this method. This frequency transformation can reflect the 2-D spatial variation. Residual phase compensation is also discussed. Numerical simulation verifies the method.

  13. Process Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Thermochemical Pathway by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, A.; Talmadge, M.; Hensley, J.; Worley, M.; Dudgeon, D.; Barton, D.; Groendijk, P.; Ferrari, D.; Stears, B.; Searcy, E. M.; Wright, C. T.; Hess, J. R.

    2011-05-01

    This design report describes an up-to-date benchmark thermochemical conversion process that incorporates the latest research from NREL and other sources. Building on a design report published in 2007, NREL and its subcontractor Harris Group Inc. performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for a biomass-to-ethanol process via indirect gasification. The conceptual design presented herein considers the economics of ethanol production, assuming the achievement of internal research targets for 2012 and nth-plant costs and financing. The design features a processing capacity of 2,205 U.S. tons (2,000 metric tonnes) of dry biomass per day and an ethanol yield of 83.8 gallons per dry U.S. ton of feedstock. The ethanol selling price corresponding to this design is $2.05 per gallon in 2007 dollars, assuming a 30-year plant life and 40% equity financing with a 10% internal rate of return and the remaining 60% debt financed at 8% interest. This ethanol selling price corresponds to a gasoline equivalent price of $3.11 per gallon based on the relative volumetric energy contents of ethanol and gasoline.

  14. Designing Mixed Species Tree Plantations for the Tropics: Balancing Ecological Attributes of Species with Landholder Preferences in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Huong; Lamb, David; Herbohn, John; Firn, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    A mixed species reforestation program known as the Rainforestation Farming system was undertaken in the Philippines to develop forms of farm forestry more suitable for smallholders than the simple monocultural plantations commonly used then. In this study, we describe the subsequent changes in stand structure and floristic composition of these plantations in order to learn from the experience and develop improved prescriptions for reforestation systems likely to be attractive to smallholders. We investigated stands aged from 6 to 11 years old on three successive occasions over a 6 year period. We found the number of species originally present in the plots as trees >5 cm dbh decreased from an initial total of 76 species to 65 species at the end of study period. But, at the same time, some new species reached the size class threshold and were recruited into the canopy layer. There was a substantial decline in tree density from an estimated stocking of about 5000 trees per ha at the time of planting to 1380 trees per ha at the time of the first measurement; the density declined by a further 4.9% per year. Changes in composition and stand structure were indicated by a marked shift in the Importance Value Index of species. Over six years, shade-intolerant species became less important and the native shade-tolerant species (often Dipterocarps) increased in importance. Based on how the Rainforestation Farming plantations developed in these early years, we suggest that mixed-species plantations elsewhere in the humid tropics should be around 1000 trees per ha or less, that the proportion of fast growing (and hence early maturing) trees should be about 30–40% of this initial density and that any fruit tree component should only be planted on the plantation margin where more light and space are available for crowns to develop. PMID:24751720

  15. Designing mixed species tree plantations for the tropics: balancing ecological attributes of species with landholder preferences in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huong; Lamb, David; Herbohn, John; Firn, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    A mixed species reforestation program known as the Rainforestation Farming system was undertaken in the Philippines to develop forms of farm forestry more suitable for smallholders than the simple monocultural plantations commonly used then. In this study, we describe the subsequent changes in stand structure and floristic composition of these plantations in order to learn from the experience and develop improved prescriptions for reforestation systems likely to be attractive to smallholders. We investigated stands aged from 6 to 11 years old on three successive occasions over a 6 year period. We found the number of species originally present in the plots as trees >5 cm dbh decreased from an initial total of 76 species to 65 species at the end of study period. But, at the same time, some new species reached the size class threshold and were recruited into the canopy layer. There was a substantial decline in tree density from an estimated stocking of about 5000 trees per ha at the time of planting to 1380 trees per ha at the time of the first measurement; the density declined by a further 4.9% per year. Changes in composition and stand structure were indicated by a marked shift in the Importance Value Index of species. Over six years, shade-intolerant species became less important and the native shade-tolerant species (often Dipterocarps) increased in importance. Based on how the Rainforestation Farming plantations developed in these early years, we suggest that mixed-species plantations elsewhere in the humid tropics should be around 1000 trees per ha or less, that the proportion of fast growing (and hence early maturing) trees should be about 30-40% of this initial density and that any fruit tree component should only be planted on the plantation margin where more light and space are available for crowns to develop.

  16. A New Long-Term Care Facilities Model in Nova Scotia, Canada: Protocol for a Mixed Methods Study of Care by Design

    PubMed Central

    Boudreau, Michelle Anne; Jensen, Jan L; Edgecombe, Nancy; Clarke, Barry; Burge, Frederick; Archibald, Greg; Taylor, Anthony; Andrew, Melissa K

    2013-01-01

    Background Prior to the implementation of a new model of care in long-term care facilities in the Capital District Health Authority, Halifax, Nova Scotia, residents entering long-term care were responsible for finding their own family physician. As a result, care was provided by many family physicians responsible for a few residents leading to care coordination and continuity challenges. In 2009, Capital District Health Authority (CDHA) implemented a new model of long-term care called “Care by Design” which includes: a dedicated family physician per floor, 24/7 on-call physician coverage, implementation of a standardized geriatric assessment tool, and an interdisciplinary team approach to care. In addition, a new Emergency Health Services program was implemented shortly after, in which specially trained paramedics dedicated to long-term care responses are able to address urgent care needs. These changes were implemented to improve primary and emergency care for vulnerable residents. Here we describe a comprehensive mixed methods research study designed to assess the impact of these programs on care delivery and resident outcomes. The results of this research will be important to guide primary care policy for long-term care. Objective We aim to evaluate the impact of introducing a new model of a dedicated primary care physician and team approach to long-term care facilities in the CDHA using a mixed methods approach. As a mixed methods study, the quantitative and qualitative data findings will inform each other. Quantitatively we will measure a number of indicators of care in CDHA long-term care facilities pre and post-implementation of the new model. In the qualitative phase of the study we will explore the experience under the new model from the perspectives of stakeholders including family doctors, nurses, administration and staff as well as residents and family members. The proposed mixed method study seeks to evaluate and make policy recommendations related

  17. The Mixed Proportion of Business Knowledge Courses and English Language Courses in Business English Curriculum Design in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Wenzhong; Liu, Xuyang

    2014-01-01

    Business English in China has evolved into a degree programme from an ESP teaching programme in the past decades. The degree programme of Business English major intends to cultivate multi-skilled talents of foreign language to better satisfy the real needs of society and economy through curriculum design and teaching method innovation activities.…

  18. Orchestrating Proactive and Reactive Mechanisms for Filtering Distracting Information: Brain-Behavior Relationships Revealed by a Mixed-Design fMRI Study.

    PubMed

    Marini, Francesco; Demeter, Elise; Roberts, Kenneth C; Chelazzi, Leonardo; Woldorff, Marty G

    2016-01-20

    Given the information overload often imparted to human cognitive-processing systems, suppression of irrelevant and distracting information is essential for successful behavior. Using a hybrid block/event-related fMRI design, we characterized proactive and reactive brain mechanisms for filtering distracting stimuli. Participants performed a flanker task, discriminating the direction of a target arrow in the presence versus absence of congruent or incongruent flanking distracting arrows during either Pure blocks (distracters always absent) or Mixed blocks (distracters on 80% of trials). Each Mixed block had either 20% or 60% incongruent trials. Activations in the dorsal frontoparietal attention network during Mixed versus Pure blocks evidenced proactive (blockwise) recruitment of a distraction-filtering mechanism. Sustained activations in right middle frontal gyrus during 60% Incongruent blocks correlated positively with behavioral indices of distraction-filtering (slowing when distracters might occur) and negatively with distraction-related behavioral costs (incongruent vs congruent trials), suggesting a role in coordinating proactive filtering of potential distracters. Event-related analyses showed that incongruent trials elicited greater reactive activations in 20% (vs 60%) Incongruent blocks for counteracting distraction and conflict, including in the insula and anterior cingulate. Context-related effects in occipitoparietal cortex consisted of greater target-evoked activations for distracter-absent trials (central-target-only) in Mixed versus Pure blocks, suggesting enhanced attentional engagement. Functional-localizer analyses in V1/V2/V3 revealed less distracter-processing activity in 60% (vs 20%) Incongruent blocks, presumably reflecting tonic suppression by proactive filtering mechanisms. These results delineate brain mechanisms underlying proactive and reactive filtering of distraction and conflict, and how they are orchestrated depending on distraction

  19. Novel real-time PCR method to detect Escherichia coli O157:H7 in raw milk cheese and raw ground meat.

    PubMed

    Miszczycha, Stéphane D; Ganet, Sarah; Duniere, Lysiane; Rozand, Christine; Loukiadis, Estelle; Thevenot-Sergentet, Delphine

    2012-08-01

    Raw milk, raw milk cheeses, and raw ground meat have been implicated in Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks. Developing methods to detect these bacteria in raw milk and meat products is a major challenge for food safety. The aim of our study was to develop a real-time PCR assay to detect E. coli O157:H7 in raw milk cheeses and raw ground meat. Well-known primers targeting a mutation at position +93 of the uidA gene in E. coli O157:H7 were chosen, and a specific TaqMan-minor groove binder probe was designed. This probe targets another mutation, at position +191 of the uidA gene in E. coli O157:H7. The first step in the study was to evaluate the specificity of this probe with 156 different O157:H7/NM strains and 48 non-O157:H7/NM strains of E. coli. The sensitivity of the method was evaluated by pre- and postinoculation of cheeses and meat enrichments with different E. coli O157:H7 strains. All the E. coli O157:H7 isolates tested were positive, and none of the other bacteria were detected. Our results indicate that this method is sensitive enough to detect 10(2) E. coli O157:H7 isolates per ml of cheese or meat enrichment broth (24 h at 41.5° C) and is more sensitive than the International Organization for Standardization reference method. We can conclude that this new real-time PCR protocol is a useful tool for rapid, specific, and sensitive detection of E. coli O157:H7 in raw milk and raw ground meat products.

  20. Design in nonlinear mixed effects models: optimization using the Fedorov-Wynn algorithm and power of the Wald test for binary covariates.

    PubMed

    Retout, Sylvie; Comets, Emmanuelle; Samson, Adeline; Mentré, France

    2007-12-10

    We extend the methodology for designs evaluation and optimization in nonlinear mixed effects models with an illustration of the decrease of human immunodeficiency virus viral load after antiretroviral treatment initiation described by a bi-exponential model. We first show the relevance of the predicted standard errors (SEs) given by the computation of the population Fisher information matrix using the R function PFIM, in comparison to those computed with the stochastic approximation expectation-maximization algorithm, implemented in the Monolix software. We then highlight the usefulness of the Fedorov-Wynn (FW) algorithm for designs optimization compared to the Simplex algorithm. From the predicted SE of PFIM, we compute the predicted power of the Wald test to detect a treatment effect as well as the number of subjects needed to achieve a given power. Using the FW algorithm, we investigate the influence of the design on the power and show that, for optimized designs with the same total number of samples, the power increases when the number of subjects increases and the number of samples per subject decreases. A simulation study is also performed with the nlme function of R to confirm this result and show the relevance of the predicted powers compared to those observed by simulation.

  1. Winchester/Camberley Homes New Construction Test House Design, Construction, and Short-Term Testing in a Mixed-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Mallav, D.; Wiehagen, J.; Wood, A.

    2012-10-01

    The NAHB Research Center partnered with production builder Winchester/Camberley Homes to build a DOE Building America New Construction Test House (NCTH). This single family, detached house, located in the mixed-humid climate zone of Silver Spring, MD, was completed in June 2011. The primary goal for this house was to improve energy efficiency by 30% over the Building America B10 benchmark by developing and implementing an optimized energy solutions package design that could be cost effectively and reliably constructed on a production basis using quality management practices. The intent of this report is to outline the features of this house, discuss the implementation of the energy efficient design, and report on short-term testing results. During the interactive design process of this project, numerous iterations of the framing, air sealing, insulation, and space conditioning systems were evaluated for energy performance, cost, and practical implementation. The final design featured numerous advanced framing techniques, high levels of insulation, and the HVAC system entirely within conditioned space. Short-term testing confirmed a very tight thermal envelope and efficient and effective heating and cooling. In addition, relevant heating, cooling, humidity, energy, and wall cavity moisture data will be collected and presented in a future long-term report.

  2. Design and testing of a boron carbide capsule for spectral-tailoring in mixed-spectrum reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, L.R.; Wittman, R.; Pierson, B.P.; Metz, L.A.; Payne, R.; Finn, E.C.; Friese, J.I.

    2011-07-01

    A boron carbide capsule has been designed and used for spectral-tailoring experiments at the TRIGA reactor at Washington State Univ.. Irradiations were conducted in pulsed mode and in continuous operation for up to 4 h. A cadmium cover was used to reduce thermal heating. The neutron spectrum calculated with the Monte Carlo N-particle transport code was found to be in good agreement with reactor dosimetry measurements using the STAY'SL computer code. The neutron spectrum resembles that of a fast reactor. The design of a capsule using boron carbide fully enriched in {sup 10}B shows that it is possible to produce a neutron spectrum similar to that of {sup 235}U fission. (authors)

  3. Crystallographic raw data, education and refereeing.

    PubMed

    Helliwell, John R

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the preservation of raw diffraction data, then addresses the impact on future plans in the education and training of our community with respect to raw diffraction data and its potential reuse, and, thirdly presents the issue of referee access to the underpinning diffraction data and coordinates, as well as the Protein Data Bank Validation Report, in the review process of structural biology articles submitted for publication. Overall I pay tribute to the scientific achievements of Alex Wlodawer, who is also an ardent advocate of the importance of experimental data.

  4. User-generated quality standards for youth mental health in primary care: a participatory research design using mixed methods

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Tanya; Rose, Diana; Murray, Joanna; Ashworth, Mark; Tylee, André

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To develop user-generated quality standards for young people with mental health problems in primary care using a participatory research model. Methods 50 young people aged 16–25 from community settings and primary care participated in focus groups and interviews about their views and experiences of seeking help for mental health problems in primary care, cofacilitated by young service users and repeated to ensure respondent validation. A second group of young people also aged 16–25 who had sought help for any mental health problem from primary care or secondary care within the last 5 years were trained as focus groups cofacilitators (n=12) developed the quality standards from the qualitative data and participated in four nominal groups (n=28). Results 46 quality standards were developed and ranked by young service users. Agreement was defined as 100% of scores within a two-point region. Group consensus existed for 16 quality standards representing the following aspects of primary care: better advertising and information (three); improved competence through mental health training and skill mix within the practice (two); alternatives to medication (three); improved referral protocol (three); and specific questions and reassurances (five). Alternatives to medication and specific questions and reassurances are aspects of quality which have not been previously reported. Conclusions We have demonstrated the feasibility of using participatory research methods in order to develop user-generated quality standards. The development of patient-generated quality standards may offer a more formal method of incorporating the views of service users into quality improvement initiatives. This method can be adapted for generating quality standards applicable to other patient groups. PMID:24920648

  5. Investigation of thermal properties of raw materials of asphalt mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Géber, R.; Simon, A.; Kocserha, I.

    2017-02-01

    Asphalt mixtures are composite materials, which are made of different grades of mineral aggregates and bitumen. During the mixing process mineral materials were blended with bitumen at relatively high temperature (∼200 °C). As the binding process come off in these higher temperature range, thermal properties of asphaltic materials are important. The aim of this project is to reveal the thermal properties of raw materials. During our research two types of mineral aggregates were tested (limestone and dolomite) by different methods. Differential thermal analysis, thermal expansion and thermal conductivity were investigated at technologically important temperatures. The results showed that the structure of mineral materials did not change at elevated temperatures, expansion of samples was neglible, while thermal conductivity changed by temperature.

  6. Solid propellant processing factor in rocket motor design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The ways are described by which propellant processing is affected by choices made in designing rocket engines. Tradeoff studies, design proof or scaleup studies, and special design features are presented that are required to obtain high product quality, and optimum processing costs. Processing is considered to include the operational steps involved with the lining and preparation of the motor case for the grain; the procurement of propellant raw materials; and propellant mixing, casting or extrusion, curing, machining, and finishing. The design criteria, recommended practices, and propellant formulations are included.

  7. Research design for hydrologic response to watershed treatments in the mixed conifer zone of California's Sierra Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battles, J.; Bales, R.; Conklin, M.; Saksa, P.; Martin, S.

    2008-12-01

    Water quantity response to forest management is of great interest in California's Sierra Nevada, owing to shifts in the rain-snow transition elevation associated with climate change, increasing value of hydropower from high-elevation dams, and the re-examination of adaptive management strategies for wildfire mitigation. In 2006 we initiated a multi-disciplinary research program to inform adaptive management for Forest Service lands in the Sierra Nevada. The forest treatment approach is based on disconnected, overlapping fuel treatment patches (forest thinning) to reduce the rate and intensity of fire. As little as 30% of the area in a given catchment will be treated. Controlling for confounding influences is particularly challenging when the experimental unit is a whole landscape and the inferential reference is an entire region. To isolate water and ecosystem impacts related to forest thinning, we are using a Before After Control Impact (BACI) design in conjunction with mechanistic modeling. BACI compensates for the sparse replication (2 sites) and the non- random assignment of the treatments by providing robust longitudinal controls. BACI design defines two treatments, a control and an impact. For modeling fire and wildlife response we chose subdivided the region into two 40-km2 sub-firesheds; within each is a 1-km2 hydrologic study catchment. The control site in this a measure of natural variation rather than a true control. Meta-replication using parallel studies in the Sierra Nevada with different approaches is also an important component and involves a creative combination of data from multiple sources. Rather than statistical comparisons or traditional hypothesis testing, we will measure the support in the data for our a priori expectations using mechanistic models. We are currently evaluating how to extend this research design to private forest lands with a wider range of management options.

  8. Design of photonic crystal fibers with highly nonlinear glasses for four-wave-mixing based telecom applications.

    PubMed

    Kanka, Jiri

    2008-12-08

    A fully-vectorial mode solver based on the finite element method is employed in a combination with the downhill simplex method the dispersion optimization of photonic crystal fibers made from highly nonlinear glasses. The nonlinear fibers are designed for telecom applications such as parametric amplification, wavelength conversion, ultra-fast switching and regeneration of optical signals. The optimization is carried in terms of the zero dispersion wavelength, dispersion magnitude and nonlinear coefficient and confinement loss in the wavelength range around 1.55 microm. We restrict our work to the index-guiding fiber structures a small number of hexagonally arrayed air holes.

  9. Design and Testing of a 10B4C Capsule for Spectral-Tailoring in Mixed-Spectrum Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Wittman, Richard S.; Metz, Lori A.; Finn, Erin C.; Friese, Judah I.

    2014-04-11

    A boron carbide capsule highly enriched in 10B has been designed and used for spectral-tailoring experiments at the TRIGA reactor at Washington State University. New experiments show that enriching the boron to 96% B-10 results in additional absorption of neutrons in the resonance region thereby producing a neutron spectrum that is much closer to a pure 235U fission spectrum. A cadmium outer cover was used to reduce thermal heating. The neutron spectrum calculated with MCNP was found to be in very good agreement with measured activation rates from neutron fluence monitors.

  10. Mesoscopic spatial designs of nano- and microfiber meshes for tissue-engineering matrix and scaffold based on newly devised multilayering and mixing electrospinning techniques.

    PubMed

    Kidoaki, Satoru; Kwon, Il Kuen; Matsuda, Takehisa

    2005-01-01

    To design a mesoscopically ordered structure of the matrices and scaffolds composed of nano- and microscale fiber meshes for artificial and tissue-engineering devices, two new electrospinning techniques are proposed: multilayering electrospinning and mixing electrospinning. First, the following four kinds of component polymers were individually electrospun to determine the conditions for producing stable nano- and microfibers by optimizing the formulation parameters (solvent and polymer concentration) and operation parameters (voltage, air gap, and flow rate) for each polymer: (a) type I collagen, (b) styrenated gelatin (ST-gelatin), (c) segmented polyurethane (SPU), and (d) poly(ethylene oxide). A trilayered electrospun mesh, in which individual fiber meshes (type I collagen, ST-gelatin, and SPU) were deposited layer by layer, was formed by sequential electrospinning; this was clearly visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The mixed electrospun-fiber mesh composed of SPU and PEO was prepared by simultaneous electrospinning on a stainless-steel mandrel with high-speed rotation and traverse movement. A bilayered tubular construct composed of a thick SPU microfiber mesh as an outer layer and a thin type I collagen nanofiber mesh as an inner layer was fabricated as a prototype scaffold of artificial grafts, and visualized by scanning electron microscopy.

  11. Molecular tectonics of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs): a rational design strategy for unusual mixed-connected network topologies.

    PubMed

    Du, Miao; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Tang, Liang-Fu; Wang, Xiu-Guang; Zhao, Xiao-Jun; Batten, Stuart R

    2007-01-01

    To systematically explore the higher-dimensional network structures with mixed connectivity, a series of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with unusual (3,6)-connected net topologies are presented. These crystalline materials include [{[Mn(btza)2(H2O)2].2 H2O}n] (1), [{[Zn(btza)2(H2O)2].2 H2O}n] (2), [{[Cu(btza)2].H2O}n] (3), and [{[Cd(btza)2].3 H2O}n] (4), which have been successfully assembled through a predesigned three-connected organic component bis(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)acetate (btza) with a variety of octahedral metal cores based on the modular synthetic methodology. The topological paradigms shown in this work cover the 2D CdCl2, 3D (4(2).6)2(4(4).6(2).8(7).10(2)), and pyrite (pyr) types. That is, when properly treated with the familiar first-row divalent metal ions, btza may perfectly furnish the coordination spheres for effective connectivity to result in diverse (3,6)-connected nets. Beyond this, a detailed analysis of network topology for all known 3D (3,6)-connected frameworks in both inorganic and inorganic-organic hybrid materials is described. Specific network connectivity of these MOFs indicates that the metal centers represent the most significant and alterable factor in structural assembly, although they show reliable and similar geometries. In this context, the combination of the distinct d10 AgI ion with btza in different solvents affords two isomorphous MOFs [{[Ag(btza)].glycol}n] (5) and [{[Ag(btza)]CH3OH}n] (6) with a binodal 4-connected 3D SrAl2 (sra) topology. The network structures of MOFs 1-3 and 5 turn out to be more complicated and interesting if one considers the hydrogen bonding between the host coordination frameworks and the intercalated solvent molecules. Furthermore, the role of the included solvents in the generation and stabilization of MOFs 1-6 is also investigated.

  12. Design, synthesis, characterisation and chemical reactivity of mixed-ligand platinum(II) oxadiazoline complexes with potential cytotoxic properties.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Gabriele; Marchant, Anthony; Sayer, James

    2010-09-07

    A series of mixed ligand platinum(II) oxadiazoline complexes bearing 7-nitro-1,3,5-triazaadamantane (7-NO(2)TAA) as a labile and reactive nitrogen ligand has been synthesised from easily accessible starting materials. [2+3] cycloaddition of nitrones R(1)R(2)C-N(+)(Me)O(-) to only one of the nitrile ligands in trans-[PtX(2)(PhCN)(2)] (X = Cl, Br) results in the selective formation of mono-oxadiazoline complexes trans-[PtX(2)(PhCN){N=C(Ph)-O-N(Me)-CR(1)R(2)}] from which the remaining nitrile can be replaced by 7-NO(2)TAA. The resulting complexes trans-[PtX(2)(7-NO(2)TAA) {N=C(Ph)-O-N(Me)-CR(1)R(2)}] and their precursors were characterised by elemental analysis, IR and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy.The suitability of the target complexes as anticancer agents was extrapolated from their general chemical reactivity. They are stable in DMSO, but react with thiols and undergo aquation of a chloro ligand. In the absence of a competing ligand, the coordinated 7-NO(2)TAA ligand slowly hydrolyses in an aqueous medium under release of formaldehyde, and this could induce bioactivity independent of the one typically found with platinum compounds. With nitrogen heterocycles such as pyridine a slow exchange of the 7-NO(2)TAA ligand occurs. A combined DFT/AIM study confirms the reaction observed in the experiment and predicts that other nitrogen heterocycles such as DNA nucleobases should react in the same way. Moreover, the 7-NO(2)TAA should be even more labile in an aqueous medium where protonation of the remaining amines can occur. A PM6 molecular modelling study suggests that the PtCl(oxadiazoline) fragment formed after release of one chloro and the labile 7-NO(2)TAA ligand fits well into the DNA groove and is able to form d(GpG) intrastrand crosslinks similar to the ones observed with cisplatin.

  13. Minimization of Salmonella Contamination on Raw Poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many reviews have discussed Salmonella in poultry and suggested best practices to minimize this organism on raw poultry meat. Despite years of research and conscientious control efforts by industry and regulatory agencies, human salmonellosis rates have declined only modestly and Salmonella is stil...

  14. Upgrading of raw oil into advanced fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The overall objective of the research effort is the determination of the minimum processing requirements to produce high energy density fuels (HEDF) having acceptable fuel specifications. The program encompasses assessing current technology capability; selecting acceptable processing and refining schemes; and generating samples of advanced test fuels. The Phase I Baseline Program is intended to explore the processing alternatives for producing advanced HEDF from two raw synfuel feedstocks, one from Mild Coal Gasification as exemplified by the COALITE process and one from Colorado shale oil. Eight key tasks have been identified as follows: (1) Planning and Environmental Permitting; (2) Transporting and Storage of Raw Fuel Sources and Products; (3) Screening of Processing and Upgrading Schemes; (4) Proposed Upgrading Schemes for Advanced Fuel; (5) Upgrading of Raw Oil into Advanced Fuel (6) Packaging and Shipment of Advanced Fuels; (7) Updated Technical and Economic Assessment; and, (8) Final Report of Phase I Efforts. This topical report summarizes the operations and results of the Phase I Task 5 sample preparation program. The specific objectives of Task 5 were to: Perform laboratory characterization tests on the raw COALITE feed, the intermediate liquids to the required hydroprocessing units and final advanced fuels and byproducts; and produce a minimum of 25-gal of Category I test fuel for evaluation by DOE and its contractors.

  15. Quality aspects of raw milk cheeses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cheese has been a part of the human diet for thousands of years and over the centuries cheesemakers have relied on the indigenous microflora and enzymes in raw milk to create the signature quality traits for the many different varieties of cheese found around the world. Although most of the cheese i...

  16. Bacterial spores in silage and raw milk.

    PubMed

    te Giffel, M C; Wagendorp, A; Herrewegh, A; Driehuis, F

    2002-08-01

    Spore-forming bacteria can survive food-processing treatments. In the dairy industry, Bacillus and Clostridium species determine the shelf-life of a variety of heat-treated milk products, mainly if the level of post-process contamination is low. In order to minimize problems caused by bacterial spores in foods and food production processes a chain management approach, from raw materials, ingredients and environmental sources to final product storage conditions, is most effective. Silage is considered to be a significant source of contamination of raw milk with spores. PCR-RAPD fingerprinting and heat resistance studies of populations of aerobic spore-formers isolated from grass and maize silage and from raw milk confirmed this assumption. Prevention of outgrowth of aerobic spores in silage will contribute to reduction of the total spore load of raw milk. Therefore, it is important that the silage fermentation process is controlled. Application of cultures of lactic acid bacteria or chemical additives can aid silage fermentation and improve aerobic stability.

  17. A Fast Synthetic Aperture Radar Raw Data Simulation Using Cloud Computing.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhixin; Su, Dandan; Zhu, Haijiang; Li, Wei; Zhang, Fan; Li, Ruirui

    2017-01-08

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) raw data simulation is a fundamental problem in radar system design and imaging algorithm research. The growth of surveying swath and resolution results in a significant increase in data volume and simulation period, which can be considered to be a comprehensive data intensive and computing intensive issue. Although several high performance computing (HPC) methods have demonstrated their potential for accelerating simulation, the input/output (I/O) bottleneck of huge raw data has not been eased. In this paper, we propose a cloud computing based SAR raw data simulation algorithm, which employs the MapReduce model to accelerate the raw data computing and the Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS) for fast I/O access. The MapReduce model is designed for the irregular parallel accumulation of raw data simulation, which greatly reduces the parallel efficiency of graphics processing unit (GPU) based simulation methods. In addition, three kinds of optimization strategies are put forward from the aspects of programming model, HDFS configuration and scheduling. The experimental results show that the cloud computing based algorithm achieves 4_ speedup over the baseline serial approach in an 8-node cloud environment, and each optimization strategy can improve about 20%. This work proves that the proposed cloud algorithm is capable of solving the computing intensive and data intensive issues in SAR raw data simulation, and is easily extended to large scale computing to achieve higher acceleration.

  18. A Fast Synthetic Aperture Radar Raw Data Simulation Using Cloud Computing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhixin; Su, Dandan; Zhu, Haijiang; Li, Wei; Zhang, Fan; Li, Ruirui

    2017-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) raw data simulation is a fundamental problem in radar system design and imaging algorithm research. The growth of surveying swath and resolution results in a significant increase in data volume and simulation period, which can be considered to be a comprehensive data intensive and computing intensive issue. Although several high performance computing (HPC) methods have demonstrated their potential for accelerating simulation, the input/output (I/O) bottleneck of huge raw data has not been eased. In this paper, we propose a cloud computing based SAR raw data simulation algorithm, which employs the MapReduce model to accelerate the raw data computing and the Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS) for fast I/O access. The MapReduce model is designed for the irregular parallel accumulation of raw data simulation, which greatly reduces the parallel efficiency of graphics processing unit (GPU) based simulation methods. In addition, three kinds of optimization strategies are put forward from the aspects of programming model, HDFS configuration and scheduling. The experimental results show that the cloud computing based algorithm achieves 4× speedup over the baseline serial approach in an 8-node cloud environment, and each optimization strategy can improve about 20%. This work proves that the proposed cloud algorithm is capable of solving the computing intensive and data intensive issues in SAR raw data simulation, and is easily extended to large scale computing to achieve higher acceleration. PMID:28075343

  19. Microfluidic Mixing: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chia-Yen; Chang, Chin-Lung; Wang, Yao-Nan; Fu, Lung-Ming

    2011-01-01

    The aim of microfluidic mixing is to achieve a thorough and rapid mixing of multiple samples in microscale devices. In such devices, sample mixing is essentially achieved by enhancing the diffusion effect between the different species flows. Broadly speaking, microfluidic mixing schemes can be categorized as either “active”, where an external energy force is applied to perturb the sample species, or “passive”, where the contact area and contact time of the species samples are increased through specially-designed microchannel configurations. Many mixers have been proposed to facilitate this task over the past 10 years. Accordingly, this paper commences by providing a high level overview of the field of microfluidic mixing devices before describing some of the more significant proposals for active and passive mixers. PMID:21686184

  20. Valorisation of electric arc furnace steel slag as raw material for low energy belite cements.

    PubMed

    Iacobescu, R I; Koumpouri, D; Pontikes, Y; Saban, R; Angelopoulos, G N

    2011-11-30

    In this paper, the valorisation of electric arc furnace steel slag (EAFS) in the production of low energy belite cements is studied. Three types of clinkers were prepared with 0 wt.% (BC), 5 wt.% (BC5) and 10 wt.% (BC10) EAFS, respectively. The design of the raw mixes was based on the compositional indices lime saturation factor (LSF), alumina ratio (AR) and silica ratio (SR). The clinkering temperature was studied for the range 1280-1400°C; firing was performed at 1380°C based on the results regarding free lime and the evolution of microstructure. In order to activate the belite, clinkers were cooled fast by blown air and concurrent crushing. The results demonstrate that the microstructure of the produced clinkers is dominated by belite and alite crystals, with tricalcium aluminate and tetracalcium-alumino-ferrite present as micro-crystalline interstitial phases. The prepared cements presented low early strength development as expected for belite-rich compositions; however the 28-day results were 47.5 MPa, 46.6 MPa and 42.8 MPa for BC, BC5 and BC10, respectively. These values are comparable with OPC CEMI 32.5 N (32.5-52.5 MPa) according to EN 197-1. A fast setting behaviour was also observed, particularly in the case of BC10, whereas soundness did not exceed 1mm.

  1. INTRAW, the EU Observatory for raw materials: fostering international cooperation and developing new opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correia, Victor; Allington, Ruth; Keane, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    A secure supply of raw materials is a European priority that extends beyond country borders and national policies. Recent European initiatives have pioneered the development of an EU strategy on raw materials emphasizing the concept of the "added value chain", which continues to pursue the three pillar strategy to: (1) ensure the fair and sustainable supply of raw materials from international markets, promoting international cooperation with developed and developing countries; (2) foster sustainable supply of raw materials from European sources, and (3) reduce consumption of primary raw materials by increasing resource efficiency and promoting recycling. This contribution presents the Horizon 2020 funded project INTRAW, the objective of which is to establish the European Union's International Observatory for Raw Materials. The creation and maintenance of the European Union's International Observatory for Raw Materials is designed to have a strong impact in two dimensions: 1. To narrow the existing gap in aspects of the raw materials knowledge infrastructure in the EU by providing a link with the same knowledge infrastructure in technologically advanced reference countries. This should contribute to the harmonization of mineral policies all over the EU, by providing data that enables evidence-based policies and appropriate, cost-effective management, planning and adaptation decisions by the public sector. This will benefit businesses, industry and society. The Observatory will also provide to policy makers in the EU and its Member States the data they need to facilitate discussion in multilateral forums. 2. To enable a better alignment of the R&I activities among the individual EU members and international cooperation countries AND between the European Union and international cooperation countries by boosting synergies with international research and innovation programmes. This way the EU's role and scientific capabilities in the raw materials area will be

  2. Lime kiln dust as a potential raw material in portland cement manufacturing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M. Michael; Callaghan, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    In the United States, the manufacture of portland cement involves burning in a rotary kiln a finely ground proportional mix of raw materials. The raw material mix provides the required chemical combination of calcium, silicon, aluminum, iron, and small amounts of other ingredients. The majority of calcium is supplied in the form of calcium carbonate usually from limestone. Other sources including waste materials or byproducts from other industries can be used to supply calcium (or lime, CaO), provided they have sufficiently high CaO content, have low magnesia content (less than 5 percent), and are competitive with limestone in terms of cost and adequacy of supply. In the United States, the lime industry produces large amounts of lime kiln dust (LKD), which is collected by dust control systems. This LKD may be a supplemental source of calcium for cement plants, if the lime and cement plants are located near enough to each other to make the arrangement economical.

  3. Why peer assessment helps to improve clinical performance in undergraduate physical therapy education: a mixed methods design

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Peer Assessment (PA) in health professions education encourages students to develop a critical attitude towards their own and their peers’ performance. We designed a PA task to assess students’ clinical skills (including reasoning, communication, physical examination and treatment skills) in a role-play that simulated physical therapy (PT) practice. Students alternately performed in the role of PT, assessor, and patient. Oral face-to-face feedback was provided as well as written feedback and scores. This study aims to explore the impact of PA on the improvement of clinical performance of undergraduate PT students. Methods The PA task was analyzed and decomposed into task elements. A qualitative approach was used to explore students’ perceptions of the task and the task elements. Semi-structured interviews with second year students were conducted to explore the perceived impact of these task elements on performance improvement. Students were asked to select the elements perceived valuable, to rank them from highest to lowest learning value, and to motivate their choices. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed, using a phenomenographical approach and following template analysis guidelines. A quantitative approach was used to describe the ranking results. Results Quantitative analyses showed that the perceived impact on learning varied widely. Performing the clinical task in the PT role, was assigned to the first place (1), followed by receiving expert feedback (2), and observing peer performance (3). Receiving peer feedback was not perceived the most powerful task element. Qualitative analyses resulted in three emerging themes: pre-performance, true-performance, and post-performance triggers for improvement. Each theme contained three categories: learning activities, outcomes, and conditions for learning. Intended learning activities were reported, such as transferring prior learning to a new application context and unintended learning

  4. Multi-objective Mixed Integer Programming approach for facility layout design by considering closeness ratings, material handling, and re-layout cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purnomo, Muhammad Ridwan Andi; Satrio Wiwoho, Yoga

    2016-01-01

    Facility layout becomes one of production system factor that should be managed well, as it is designated for the location of production. In managing the layout, designing the layout by considering the optimal layout condition that supports the work condition is essential. One of the method for facility layout optimization is Mixed Integer Programming (MIP). In this study, the MIP is solved using Lingo 9.0 software and considering quantitative and qualitative objectives to be achieved simultaneously: minimizing material handling cost, maximizing closeness rating, and minimizing re-layout cost. The research took place in Rekayasa Wangdi as a make to order company, focusing on the making of concrete brick dough stirring machine with 10 departments involved. The result shows an improvement in the new layout for 333,72 points of objective value compared with the initial layout. As the conclusion, the proposed MIP is proven to be used to model facility layout problem under multi objective consideration for a more realistic look.

  5. RAWS: The spaceborne radar wind sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Richard K.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of the Radar Wind Sounder (RAWS) is discussed. The goals of the RAWS is to estimate the following three qualities: the echo power, to determine rain rate and surface wind velocity; the mean Doppler frequency, to determine the wind velocity in hydrometers; and the spread of the Doppler frequency, to determine the turbulent spread of the wind velocity. Researchers made significant progress during the first year. The feasibility of the concept seems certain. Studies indicate that a reasonably sized system can measure in the presence of ice clouds and dense water clouds. No sensitivity problems exist in rainy environments. More research is needed on the application of the radar to the measurement of rain rates and winds at the sea surface.

  6. RAWS: The spaceborne radar wind sounder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Richard K.

    1991-09-01

    The concept of the Radar Wind Sounder (RAWS) is discussed. The goals of the RAWS is to estimate the following three qualities: the echo power, to determine rain rate and surface wind velocity; the mean Doppler frequency, to determine the wind velocity in hydrometers; and the spread of the Doppler frequency, to determine the turbulent spread of the wind velocity. Researchers made significant progress during the first year. The feasibility of the concept seems certain. Studies indicate that a reasonably sized system can measure in the presence of ice clouds and dense water clouds. No sensitivity problems exist in rainy environments. More research is needed on the application of the radar to the measurement of rain rates and winds at the sea surface.

  7. Raw Liquid Waste Treatment System and Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A raw sewage treatment process is disclosed in which substantially all the non-dissolved matter, suspended in the sewage water is first separated from the water, in which at least organic matter remains dissolved. The non-dissolved material is pyrolyzed to form an activated carbon and ash material without the addition of any conditioning agents. The activated carbon and ash material is added to the water from which the non-dissolved matter was removed. The activated carbon and ash material adsorbs the organic matter dissolved in the water and is thereafter supplied in a counter flow direction and combined with the incoming raw sewage to at least facilitate the separation of the non-dissolved settleable materials from the sewage water. Carbon and ash material together with the non-dissolved matter which was separated from the sewage water are pyrolyzed to form the activated carbon and ash material.

  8. Pre-Test CFD for the Design and Execution of the Enhanced Injection and Mixing Project at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drozda, Tomasz G.; Axdahl, Erik L.; Cabell, Karen F.

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing costs of physics experiments and simultaneous increase in availability and maturity of computational tools it is not surprising that computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is playing an increasingly important role, not only in post-test investigations, but also in the early stages of experimental planning. This paper describes a CFD-based effort executed in close collaboration between computational fluid dynamicists and experimentalists to develop a virtual experiment during the early planning stages of the Enhanced Injection and Mixing project at NASA Langley Research Center. This projects aims to investigate supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) fuel injection and mixing physics, improve the understanding of underlying physical processes, and develop enhancement strategies and functional relationships relevant to flight Mach numbers greater than 8. The purpose of the virtual experiment was to provide flow field data to aid in the design of the experimental apparatus and the in-stream rake probes, to verify the nonintrusive measurements based on NO-PLIF, and to perform pre-test analysis of quantities obtainable from the experiment and CFD. The approach also allowed for the joint team to develop common data processing and analysis tools, and to test research ideas. The virtual experiment consisted of a series of Reynolds-averaged simulations (RAS). These simulations included the facility nozzle, the experimental apparatus with a baseline strut injector, and the test cabin. Pure helium and helium-air mixtures were used to determine the efficacy of different inert gases to model hydrogen injection. The results of the simulations were analyzed by computing mixing efficiency, total pressure recovery, and stream thrust potential. As the experimental effort progresses, the simulation results will be compared with the experimental data to calibrate the modeling constants present in the CFD and validate simulation fidelity. CFD will also be used to

  9. New raw material for electrical porcelain

    SciTech Connect

    Khristoforov, K.K.; Portnova, I.G.; Omel'chenko, Yu.A.

    1986-09-01

    Research is described in finding new raw materials for the fabrication of porcelain electrical insulators for power transmission lines. The materials tested come from several deposits in the Soviet Union and include alumina minerals, quartz, feldspars, pegmatites, clays, and two kaolins, as well as waste materials recovered from porcelain production. Comparative electrical and mechanical properties, grain sizes, sinterabilities, and mineral compositions are tabulated for the candidate materials.

  10. Iron absorption in raw and cooked bananas: a field study using stable isotopes in women

    PubMed Central

    García, Olga P.; Martínez, Mara; Romano, Diana; Camacho, Mariela; de Moura, Fabiana F.; Abrams, Steve A.; Khanna, Harjeet K.; Dale, James L.; Rosado, Jorge L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Banana is a staple food in many regions with high iron deficiency and may be a potential vehicle for iron fortification. However, iron absorption from bananas is not known. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate total iron absorption from raw and cooked bananas. Design Thirty women (34.9±6.6 years) from rural Mexico were randomly assigned to one of two groups each consuming: 1) 480 g/day of raw banana for 6 days, or 2) 500 g/day of cooked banana for 4 days. Iron absorption was measured after extrinsically labeling with 2 mg of 58Fe and a reference dose of 6 mg 57Fe; analysis was done using ICP-MS. Results Iron content in cooked bananas was significantly higher than raw bananas (0.53 mg/100 g bananas vs. 0.33 mg/100 mg bananas, respectively) (p<0.001). Percent iron absorption was significantly higher in raw bananas (49.3±21.3%) compared with cooked banana (33.9±16.2%) (p=0.035). Total amount of iron absorbed from raw and cooked bananas was similar (0.77±0.33 mg vs. 0.86±0.41 mg, respectively). Conclusion Total amount of absorbed iron is similar between cooked and raw bananas. The banana matrix does not affect iron absorption and is therefore a potential effective target for genetic modification for iron biofortification. PMID:25660254

  11. Food safety hazards associated with consumption of raw milk.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Stephen P; Boor, Kathryn J; Murphy, Steven C; Murinda, Shelton E

    2009-09-01

    An increasing number of people are consuming raw unpasteurized milk. Enhanced nutritional qualities, taste, and health benefits have all been advocated as reasons for increased interest in raw milk consumption. However, science-based data to substantiate these claims are limited. People continue to consume raw milk even though numerous epidemiological studies have shown clearly that raw milk can be contaminated by a variety of pathogens, some of which are associated with human illness and disease. Several documented milkborne disease outbreaks occurred from 2000-2008 and were traced back to consumption of raw unpasteurized milk. Numerous people were found to have infections, some were hospitalized, and a few died. In the majority of these outbreaks, the organism associated with the milkborne outbreak was isolated from the implicated product(s) or from subsequent products made at the suspected dairy or source. In contrast, fewer milkborne disease outbreaks were associated with consumption of pasteurized milk during this same time period. Twenty nine states allow the sale of raw milk by some means. Direct purchase, cow-share or leasing programs, and the sale of raw milk as pet food have been used as means for consumers to obtain raw milk. Where raw milk is offered for sale, strategies to reduce risks associated with raw milk and products made from raw milk are needed. Developing uniform regulations including microbial standards for raw milk to be sold for human consumption, labeling of raw milk, improving sanitation during milking, and enhancing and targeting educational efforts are potential approaches to this issue. Development of pre- and postharvest control measures to effectively reduce contamination is critical to the control of pathogens in raw milk. One sure way to prevent raw milk-associated foodborne illness is for consumers to refrain from drinking raw milk and from consuming dairy products manufactured using raw milk.

  12. Bounding Estimate for the 'Hot' Channel Temperature and Preliminary Calculation of Mixing in the Lower Plenum for the NGNP Point Design Using CFD

    SciTech Connect

    Richard W. Johnson; R. R. Schultz

    2004-12-01

    The power density in the core of the block next generation nuclear power plant (NGNP) will not be uniform due to geometry, core layout and fuel pin design. Recent calculations performed to optimize the core design indicate that the maximum radial variation will be 1.25 times the average. This significant radial variation in the local power density will create a variation in the temperature of the helium coolant as it cools the core. The coolant channel with the highest outlet temperature is referred to as the ‘hot’ channel. The concern is that the high temperature channels, which exit into the lower plenum as jets, called ‘hot streaking,’ will adversely affect materials in the lower plenum, the exit duct and the turbine, as well as affect the performance of the turbine. The objective of the present study is to determine or bound the maximum exit temperature of the ‘hot’ channel. The maximum hot channel temperature depends on the total coolant flow rate, which has not yet been fixed. Experiments need to be designed to capture the complex physics of the lower-plenum flow to allow assessment and validation of numerical simulations. While preliminary CFD simulations are not yet validated, they can be of use in the planning of the experiments, particularly in estimating where there are regions of high and low turbulence intensity. Mixing of the coolant is related to the turbulence intensity as well as to the overall nature of the mean flow. The purpose of the present task is to provide preliminary flow calculations of the coolant in the lower plenum to examine flow patterns and turbulence intensity.

  13. Atomization and Mixing Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrenberg, A.; Hunt, K.; Duesberg, J.

    1985-01-01

    The primary objective was the obtainment of atomization and mixing performance data for a variety of typical liquid oxygen/hydrocarbon injector element designs. Such data are required to establish injector design criteria and to provide critical inputs to liquid rocket engine combustor performance and stability analysis, and computational codes and methods. Deficiencies and problems with the atomization test equipment were identified, and action initiated to resolve them. Test results of the gas/liquid mixing tests indicated that an assessment of test methods was required. A series of 71 liquid/liquid tests were performed.

  14. Production of Fused Portland Cement and Sulphur Gas from Sulphatic Phosphorus-Containing Raw Materials with Added Fluorine,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    was conducted to use this system to produce Portland cement clinker without having to employ huge rotary kilns. Studies were made of the process of...dissociation of CaSO4 in a molten Portland cement raw materials mix in oxidising and in slightly reducing media.

  15. Mixed Dementia

    MedlinePlus

    ... with Lewy bodies , What Is Alzheimer's? NIA-Funded Memory & Aging Project Reveals Mixed Dementia Common Data from ... commonly with Alzheimer's disease. For example, in the Memory and Aging Project study involving long-term cognitive ...

  16. Narrative exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder associated with repeated interpersonal trauma in patients with severe mental illness: a mixed methods design

    PubMed Central

    Mauritz, Maria W.; Van Gaal, Betsie G. I.; Jongedijk, Ruud A.; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.; Goossens, Peter J. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background In the Netherlands, most patients with severe mental illness (SMI) receive flexible assertive community treatment (FACT) provided by multidisciplinary community mental health teams. SMI patients with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are sometimes offered evidence-based trauma-focused treatment like eye movement desensitization reprocessing or prolonged exposure. There is a large amount of evidence for the effectiveness of narrative exposure therapy (NET) within various vulnerable patient groups with repeated interpersonal trauma. Some FACT-teams provide NET for patients with comorbid PTSD, which is promising, but has not been specifically studied in SMI patients. Objectives The primary aim is to evaluate NET in SMI patients with comorbid PTSD associated with repeated interpersonal trauma to get insight into whether (1) PTSD and dissociative symptoms changes and (2) changes occur in the present SMI symptoms, care needs, quality of life, global functioning, and care consumption. The second aim is to gain insight into patients’ experiences with NET and to identify influencing factors on treatment results. Methods This study will have a mixed methods convergent design consisting of quantitative repeated measures and qualitative semi-structured in-depth interviews based on Grounded Theory. The study population will include adult SMI outpatients (n=25) with comorbid PTSD and receiving NET. The quantitative study parameters will be existence and severity of PTSD, dissociative, and SMI symptoms; care needs; quality of life; global functioning; and care consumption. In a longitudinal analysis, outcomes will be analyzed using mixed models to estimate the difference in means between baseline and repeated measurements. The qualitative study parameters will be experiences with NET and perceived factors for success or failure. Integration of quantitative and qualitative results will be focused on interpreting how qualitative results enhance the

  17. 19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.22 Estimated duties on raw sugar. Estimated duties shall be taken on raw sugar, as...

  18. 19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.22 Estimated duties on raw sugar. Estimated duties shall be taken on raw sugar, as...

  19. 19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.22 Estimated duties on raw sugar. Estimated duties shall be taken on raw sugar, as...

  20. 19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.22 Estimated duties on raw sugar. Estimated duties shall be taken on raw sugar, as...

  1. 19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.22 Estimated duties on raw sugar. Estimated duties shall be taken on raw sugar, as...

  2. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  3. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  4. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  5. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  6. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section 161.176 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with...

  7. Tylosin production by Streptomyces fradiae using raw cornmeal in airlift bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dubok; Choi, On You; Shin, Hyun-Jae; Chung, Dong-Ok; Shin, Dae-Yewn

    2007-07-01

    Using a 50-l airlift bioreactor, for the effective production of tylosin from Streptomyces fradiae TM-224 using raw cornmeal as the energy source, various environmental factors were studied in flask cultures. The maximum tylosin concentration was obtained at 32 degrees C and pH between 7.0 and 7.5. When seed was inoculated after 24 h of culture, the maximum tylosin concentration, 5.7 g/l, was obtained after 4 days of culture. Various concentrations of raw cornmeal were tested to investigate the optimum initial concentration for the tylosin production. An initial raw cornmeal concentration of 80 g/l gave the highest tylosin concentration, 5.8 g/l, after 5 days of culture. Of the various nitrogen sources, soybean meal and fish meal were found to be the most effective for the production of tylosin. In particular, with the optimal mixing ratio, 12 g/l of soybean meal to 14 g/l of fish meal, 7.2 g/l of tylosin was obtained after 5 days of culture. To compare raw cornmeal and glucose for the production oftylosin in the 50-1 airlift bioreactor for 10 days, fed-batch cultures were carried out under the optimum culture conditions. When raw corn meal was used as the energy source, the tylosin production increased with increasing culture time. The maximum tylosin concentration after 10 days of culture was 13.5 g/l, with a product yield from raw cornmeal of 0.123 g/g of consumed carbon source, which was about 7.2 times higher than that obtained when glucose was used as the carbon source.

  8. Prospection of Portland cement raw material: A case study in the Marmara region of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özgüner, A. M.

    2014-09-01

    Representative sampling of the raw materials used to make Portland cement, correct calculations for the possible clinker mixtures, sufficient reserves of the raw materials and selection of the correct infrastructure for the location of a cement factory are essential to the protection of the great investment in the factory. The results of chemical analyses of pipe samples taken in the field at right angles to the strikes of favourable limestone, clay, shale, and marl outcrops were used in Kind's lime saturation formula for clinker calculations of the possible mixtures. The cement modulus values were calculated using the corresponding clinker oxide ratios and were confirmed to be within the standard intervals for positive cement raw material mixtures. The most promising raw material source, a double lithologic mixture of limestone and mudstone was found during the prospection in north of Bilecik Province, where rhyolitic tuff outcrops with pozzolanic properties also exist. Some marble quarries nearby have been inclined to dispose of their marble wastes for use in cement production to prevent polluting the environment with them. The nearby Gemlik fertiliser factory provides inexpensive waste gypsum that can be used as a cool cement mixing material. The limestone, mudstone and trass raw material reserves in this area were calculated to be sufficient for the factory's requirements for more than 100 years of operation as results of the detailed geological mapping. The regional infrastructure is most suitable for distribution and marketing of cement products. The cement factory described in this study has been producing cement for the last 3 years, after coring and testing of the raw material reserves.

  9. On the Challenge of Keeping ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Raw Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiskaridze, V. K.

    2012-08-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) for the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is currently taking data with proton-proton collisions. The TileCal read-out system was initially designed to reconstruct the data in real-time and to store for each channel the signal amplitude, time and quality factor at the required high rate. This approach implied discarding 80% of the raw data that correspond to noise or small signals. Practical experience operating in this scheme with increasing rate have led to several modifications and understanding that some kind of data compression is helpful during data processing and storing. An alternate approach is to use online reconstruction for Level 2 triggering only and to implement a data flow lossless compression scheme for further offiine analysis. A new version of the lossless compression algorithm is proposed which allows to both save the complete raw data and to feed the trigger with the reconstructed signal amplitude and time. It does not increase the data flow as compared to the existing approach and the size of the data fragments transmitted is more stable. We will describe the lossless compression algorithm as a possible upgrade of the Tile data acquisition and highlight some details of the implementation. We will report on its testing and validation and on the overall performance measured on high rate tests, calibration and √ {s} = 7 TeV proton-proton collisions runs.

  10. Design, Development, and Optimization of Sterculia Gum-Based Tablet Coated with Chitosan/Eudragit RLPO Mixed Blend Polymers for Possible Colonic Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Nath, Bipul; Nath, Lila Kanta

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the possible applicability of Sterculia urens gum as a novel carrier for colonic delivery system of a sparingly soluble drug, azathioprine. The study involves designing a microflora triggered colon-targeted drug delivery system (MCDDS) which consists of a central polysaccharide core and is coated to different film thicknesses with blends of chitosan/Eudragit RLPO, and is overcoated with Eudragit L00 to provide acid and intestinal resistance. The microflora degradation property of gum was investigated in rat caecal medium. Drug release study in simulated colonic fluid revealed that swelling force of the gum could concurrently drive the drug out of the polysaccharide core due to the rupture of the chitosan/Eudargit coating in microflora-activated environment. Chitosan in the mixed film coat was found to be degraded by enzymatic action of the microflora in the colon. Release kinetic data revealed that the optimized MCDDS was fitted well into first-order model, and apparent lag time was found to be 6 hours, followed by Higuchi release kinetics. In vivo study in rabbits shows delayed T max, prolonged absorption time, decreased C max, and absorption rate constant (Ka), indicating a reduced systemic toxicity of the drug as compared to other dosage forms.

  11. Design, Development, and Optimization of Sterculia Gum-Based Tablet Coated with Chitosan/Eudragit RLPO Mixed Blend Polymers for Possible Colonic Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Bipul; Nath, Lila Kanta

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the possible applicability of Sterculia urens gum as a novel carrier for colonic delivery system of a sparingly soluble drug, azathioprine. The study involves designing a microflora triggered colon-targeted drug delivery system (MCDDS) which consists of a central polysaccharide core and is coated to different film thicknesses with blends of chitosan/Eudragit RLPO, and is overcoated with Eudragit L00 to provide acid and intestinal resistance. The microflora degradation property of gum was investigated in rat caecal medium. Drug release study in simulated colonic fluid revealed that swelling force of the gum could concurrently drive the drug out of the polysaccharide core due to the rupture of the chitosan/Eudargit coating in microflora-activated environment. Chitosan in the mixed film coat was found to be degraded by enzymatic action of the microflora in the colon. Release kinetic data revealed that the optimized MCDDS was fitted well into first-order model, and apparent lag time was found to be 6 hours, followed by Higuchi release kinetics. In vivo study in rabbits shows delayed Tmax, prolonged absorption time, decreased Cmax, and absorption rate constant (Ka), indicating a reduced systemic toxicity of the drug as compared to other dosage forms. PMID:26555985

  12. Ion mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matteson, S.; Nicolet, M.-A.

    1983-01-01

    Recent experimental studies of the ion-mixing phenomenon are summarized. Ion mixing is differentiated from ion implantation and shown to be a useful technique for overcoming the sputter-dependent limitations of implantation processes. The fundamental physical principles of ion/solid interactions are explored. The basic experimental configurations currently in use are characterized: bilayered samples, multilayered samples, and samples with a thin marker layer. A table listing the binary systems (metal-semiconductor or metal-metal) which have been investigated using each configuration is presented. Results are discussed, and some sample data are plotted. The prospects for future application of ion mixing to the alteration of solid surface properties are considered. Practical applications are seen as restricted by economic considerations to the production of small, expensive components or to fields (such as the semiconductor industry) which already have facilities for ion implantation.

  13. Handling 78,000 drums of mixed-waste sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.B.; Harrington, E.S.; Mattus, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now known as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) closed two mixed-waste surface impoundments by removing the sludge and contaminated pond-bottom clay and attempting to process it into durable, nonleachable, concrete monoliths. Interim, controlled, above-ground storage included delisting the stabilized sludge from hazardous to nonhazardous and disposing of the delisted monoliths as Class 1 radioactive waste. Because of schedule constraints and process design and control deficiencies, {approximately}46,000 drums of material in various stages of solidification and {approximately}32,000 barrels of unprocessed sludge are stored. The abandoned treatment facility still contains {approximately}16,000 gal of raw sludge. Such storage of mixed waste does not comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) guidelines. This paper describes actions that are under way to bring the storage of {approximately}78,000 drums of mixed waste into compliance with RCRA. Remediation of this problem by treatment to meet regulatory requirements is the focus of the discussion. 3 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potentials of soils amended with raw and carbonized swine solids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research is to study the greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potentials of the soils amended with raw swine solids and swine biochars made from different thermochemical conditions. Triplicate sets of small pots were designed: 1) control soil with a 50/50 mixture o...

  15. Raw material consumption of the European Union--concept, calculation method, and results.

    PubMed

    Schoer, Karl; Weinzettel, Jan; Kovanda, Jan; Giegrich, Jürgen; Lauwigi, Christoph

    2012-08-21

    This article presents the concept, calculation method, and first results of the "Raw Material Consumption" (RMC) economy-wide material flow indicator for the European Union (EU). The RMC measures the final domestic consumption of products in terms of raw material equivalents (RME), i.e. raw materials used in the complete production chain of consumed products. We employed the hybrid input-output life cycle assessment method to calculate RMC. We first developed a highly disaggregated environmentally extended mixed unit input output table and then applied life cycle inventory data for imported products without appropriate representation of production within the domestic economy. Lastly, we treated capital formation as intermediate consumption. Our results show that services, often considered as a solution for dematerialization, account for a significant part of EU raw material consumption, which emphasizes the need to focus on the full production chains and dematerialization of services. Comparison of the EU's RMC with its domestic extraction shows that the EU is nearly self-sufficient in biomass and nonmetallic minerals but extremely dependent on direct and indirect imports of fossil energy carriers and metal ores. This implies an export of environmental burden related to extraction and primary processing of these materials to the rest of the world. Our results demonstrate that internalizing capital formation has significant influence on the calculated RMC.

  16. Specialty glass raw materials: Status and developments

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, R.J.; Gray, S.L.

    1996-12-31

    The authors highlight several key raw materials used in the specialty glass industry. The focus here is to update changes and shifts underway in the worldwide availability and processes that will impact both costs and efficient use of these products. The glass types that use these materials generally are those other than container, float, and fiber glass. Those high-volume consumers of glass raw materials are discussed in a companion paper in this volume. In the specialty glass field, the batch materials involve minerals, and the chemicals derived from them, which are less readily available domestically. These are much more critically defined by specifications of assay, contamination, and particle size, resulting in their being more expensive. They are seldom commodity products. The scope of materials for this fragmented industry includes those for leads, borosilicates, aluminosilicates, opals, sealing and frit glasses, optical glass, ophthalmic glass, cathode ray tubes (CRTs) for TV and display, and glass-ceramics as major segments. They use lead oxides, nearly all the alkalies and alkaline earth portions of the periodic table, as well as rare earths, transition element oxides, phosphates, boron minerals and chemicals, zircon, zinc, most of the halogens, and many of the anions. They often require very special particle size specifications. The requirements for these batch materials are often based on chemistry, the absence of contaminants that impact melting, very wide ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum, glass homogeneity, and freedom from solid and gaseous inclusions down to ppm levels in both size and number.

  17. Biogenic Amines in Raw and Processed Seafood

    PubMed Central

    Visciano, Pierina; Schirone, Maria; Tofalo, Rosanna; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    The presence of biogenic amines (BAs) in raw and processed seafood, associated with either time/temperature conditions or food technologies is discussed in the present paper from a safety and prevention point of view. In particular, storage temperature, handling practices, presence of microbial populations with decarboxylase activity and availability of free amino acids are considered the most important factors affecting the production of BAs in raw seafood. On the other hand, some food technological treatments such as salting, ripening, fermentation, or marination can increase the levels of BAs in processed seafood. The consumption of high amount of BAs, above all histamine, can result in food borne poisoning which is a worldwide problem. The European Regulation established as maximum limits for histamine, in fishery products from fish species associated with high histidine amounts, values ranging from 100 to 200 mg/kg, while for products which have undergone enzyme maturation treatment in brine, the aforementioned limits rise to 200 and 400 mg/kg. Preventive measures and emerging methods aiming at controlling the production of BAs are also reported for potential application in seafood industries. PMID:22675321

  18. Resource selection of lithic raw materials in the Middle Palaeolithic in southern France.

    PubMed

    Browne, Constance L; Wilson, Lucy

    2011-11-01

    The work reported here uses several approaches to examine the costs and benefits associated with exploiting potential sources of lithic raw material in the Vaucluse, southern France, and then tests the results against the proportions of raw materials from various sources found in the lithic assemblage of a Middle Palaeolithic site, the Bau de l'Aubesier. A previously published equation designed to quantify the attractiveness of each source proves to be significantly correlated with source use, but the results show that it can be improved. We then individually test the components of the attractiveness equation (raw material quality, source extent, terrain difficulty, and the size and abundance of raw material pieces at the source) and additional variables (Calories expended to get from the source to the site using a straight-line route, Calories expended using a least-cost path, surface distance of the source from the site, and distance to the closest used source) using generalized linear models. Since very similar raw materials can be found at more than one source, we combine such similar sources into source areas, and test the area of the source area (AOSA) and the total area of sources within the source area (AOSISA), as two additional independent variables. The best model shows that raw material quality, source extent, abundance of large and very large rocks, and AOSISA, are positively correlated with use of sources, while terrain difficulty, abundance of small and medium rocks, Calories, and AOSA, are negatively correlated with source use. This shows that the hominins at the Bau de l'Aubesier optimized their raw material procurement to get the most good quality material that they could, while minimizing the time and energy spent getting and using it.

  19. Design Considerations for mHealth Programs Targeting Smokers Not Yet Ready to Quit: Results of a Sequential Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Heffner, Jaimee; Hohl, Sarah; Klasnja, Predrag; Catz, Sheryl L

    2017-01-01

    Background Mobile health (mHealth) smoking cessation programs are typically designed for smokers who are ready to quit smoking. In contrast, most smokers want to quit someday but are not yet ready to quit. If mHealth apps were designed for these smokers, they could potentially encourage and assist more people to quit smoking. No prior studies have specifically examined the design considerations of mHealth apps targeting smokers who are not yet ready to quit. Objective To inform the user-centered design of mHealth apps for smokers who were not yet ready to quit by assessing (1) whether these smokers were interested in using mHealth tools to change their smoking behavior; (2) their preferred features, functionality, and content of mHealth programs addressing smoking; and (3) considerations for marketing or distributing these programs to promote their uptake. Methods We conducted a sequential exploratory, mixed-methods study. Qualitative interviews (phase 1, n=15) were completed with a demographically diverse group of smokers who were smartphone owners and wanted to quit smoking someday, but not yet. Findings informed a Web-based survey of smokers from across the United States (phase 2, n=116). Data were collected from April to September, 2016. Results Findings confirmed that although smokers not yet ready to quit are not actively seeking treatment or using cessation apps, most would be interested in using these programs to help them reduce or change their smoking behavior. Among phase 2 survey respondents, the app features, functions, and content rated most highly were (1) security of personal information; (2) the ability to track smoking, spending, and savings; (3) content that adaptively changes with one’s needs; (4) the ability to request support as needed; (5) the ability to earn and redeem awards for program use; (6) guidance on how to quit smoking; and (7) content specifically addressing management of nicotine withdrawal, stress, depression, and anxiety

  20. Mixing navigation on networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Tao

    2008-05-01

    In this article, we propose a mixing navigation mechanism, which interpolates between random-walk and shortest-path protocol. The navigation efficiency can be remarkably enhanced via a few routers. Some advanced strategies are also designed: For non-geographical scale-free networks, the targeted strategy with a tiny fraction of routers can guarantee an efficient navigation with low and stable delivery time almost independent of network size. For geographical localized networks, the clustering strategy can simultaneously increase efficiency and reduce the communication cost. The present mixing navigation mechanism is of significance especially for information organization of wireless sensor networks and distributed autonomous robotic systems.

  1. Mixed-Methods Research Methodologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrell, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Mixed-Method studies have emerged from the paradigm wars between qualitative and quantitative research approaches to become a widely used mode of inquiry. Depending on choices made across four dimensions, mixed-methods can provide an investigator with many design choices which involve a range of sequential and concurrent strategies. Defining…

  2. Examining the pathways for young people with drug and alcohol dependence: a mixed-method design to examine the role of a treatment programme

    PubMed Central

    Nathan, Sally; Rawstorne, Patrick; Hayen, Andrew; Bryant, Joanne; Baldry, Eileen; Ferry, Mark; Williams, Megan; Shanahan, Marian; Jayasinha, Ranmalie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Young people with drug and alcohol problems are likely to have poorer health and other psychosocial outcomes than other young people. Residential treatment programmes have been shown to lead to improved health and related outcomes for young people in the short term. There is very little robust research showing longer term outcomes or benefits of such programmes. This paper describes an innovative protocol to examine the longer term outcomes and experiences of young people referred to a residential life management and treatment programme in Australia designed to address alcohol and drug issues in a holistic manner. Methods and analysis This is a mixed-methods study that will retrospectively and prospectively examine young people's pathways into and out of a residential life management programme. The study involves 3 components: (1) retrospective data linkage of programme data to health and criminal justice administrative data sets, (2) prospective cohort (using existing programme baseline data and a follow-up survey) and (3) qualitative in-depth interviews with a subsample of the prospective cohort. The study will compare findings among young people who are referred and (a) stay 30 days or more in the programme (including those who go on to continuing care and those who do not); (b) start, but stay fewer than 30 days in the programme; (c) are assessed, but do not start the programme. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval has been sought from several ethics committees including a university ethics committee, state health departments and an Aboriginal-specific ethics committee. The results of the study will be published in peer-reviewed journals, presented at research conferences, disseminated via a report for the general public and through Facebook communications. The study will inform the field more broadly about the value of different methods in evaluating programmes and examining the pathways and trajectories of vulnerable young people. PMID

  3. Methodology for Evaluating Raw Material Changes to RSRM Elastomeric Insulation Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mildenhall, Scott D.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) uses asbestos and silicon dioxide filled acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (AS-NBR) as the primary internal insulation to protect the case from heat. During the course of the RSRM Program, several changes have been made to the raw materials and processing of the AS-NBR elastomeric insulation material. These changes have been primarily caused by raw materials becoming obsolete. In addition, some process changes have been implemented that were deemed necessary to improve the quality and consistency of the AS-NBR insulation material. Each change has been evaluated using unique test efforts customized to determine the potential impacts of the specific raw material or process change. Following the evaluations, the various raw material and process changes were successfully implemented with no detectable effect on the performance of the AS-NBR insulation. This paper will discuss some of the raw material and process changes evaluated, the methodology used in designing the unique test plans, and the general evaluation results. A summary of the change history of RSRM AS-NBR internal insulation is also presented.

  4. Effect of irradiation on the parameters that influence quality characteristics of raw turkey breast meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xi; Moon, Sun Hee; Lee, Hyun Yong; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to elucidate the mechanisms of quality changes in raw turkey breast meat by irradiation. Raw turkey breast meat was irradiated at 0 kGy, 1.5 kGy, 3.0 kGy and 4.5 kGy, and changes in quality parameters including color, lipid and protein oxidation, and off-odor volatiles were determined. Irradiation accelerated lipid and protein oxidation, and increased redness in raw turkey breast meat. However, irradiation had less effect on the volatile profiles of salt-soluble muscle extract than water-soluble muscle extract because the primary radiolytic product from water (hydroxyl radical) had higher chances to react with the water-soluble molecules nearby. The radiolytic degradation products from sulfur-containing amino acids and aldehydes from lipid oxidation were two major volatile compounds responsible for the off-odor of irradiated raw turkey breast meat. Dimethyl disulfide was found only in irradiated raw turkey breast meat, and the amount of dimethyl disulfide linearly increased as the irradiation dose increased, indicating that this compound can be used as a marker for irradiate meat.

  5. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in raw milk and some dairy products

    PubMed Central

    El-Zamkan, Mona A.; Hameed, Karima G. Abdel

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was accomplished to test raw milk and certain dairy products sold in local markets of Qena, Egypt, for the presence of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 samples of raw milk, kareish cheese, and yoghurt (50 samples each) were subjected first to enrichment in Bolton broth at 42°C for 2 days under a microaerobic condition, subsequently campylobacter blood free selective agar plates were cultured and incubated in the same condition of the broth. Based on the morphological and biochemical themes of the growing colonies, it was further classified into Campylobacter spp. The identified isolates were later affirmed by polymerase chain reaction using primers that were designed to locate hipO genes in C. jejuni and glyA in C. coli. Results: Of the total 150 examined samples of raw milk and soft cheese samples; 37 (24.6%) samples were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. C. jejuni was dominating in this study in 20%, 14%, and 8% of the examined raw milk, kareish cheese, and yoghurt samples, respectively. No sample harbored C. coli. Conclusion: Campylobacter spp. could be detected in 24.6% of the investigated samples. C. jejuni isolated from 14% of the total tested samples, while C. coli could not be detected from the examined samples. Campylobacter spp. is rampant in the areas of poor hygienic conditions making products made from raw milk of public health hazard. PMID:27847427

  6. Vegan triple-ironman (raw vegetables/fruits).

    PubMed

    Leischik, Roman; Spelsberg, Norman

    2014-01-01

    Endurance sport requires a healthy and balanced diet. In this case report we present the findings of an ultra-triathlete (three times Ironman, means 11.4 km swim, 540 km bike, 125 km run in 41:18 h as a whole) living on a raw vegan diet and having finished the competitions under these nutritional conditions. To this end, the vegan ultra triathlete and a control group of 10 Ironman triathletes of similar age living on a mixed diet were investigated, using echocardiography and spiroergometry. In addition, blood samples were taken from the vegan athlete both in the sporting season and in the off-season. The vegan athlete showed no signs of dietary deficiencies or impaired health. In comparison with the control group, the vegan athlete showed a higher oxygen intake at the respiratory compensation point. This case demonstrates that even top-class sporting performance, like that of a three-time Ironman, is possible on a vegan diet. Whether a vegan diet offers advantages or disadvantages for the performance of endurance athletes remains an open question.

  7. Considering adaptation of electrical ovens with unit-type releasing to peculiarities of thermal energization of mineral raw materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zvezdin, A. V.; Bryanskikh, T. B.

    2017-01-01

    The paper gives a short overview of technologies of mineral raw material thermal treatment where application of electrical ovens with unit-type releasing is possible. Efficiency of such ovens for vermiculite concentrate and conglomerate roasting is proved by more than 13-years experience of their industrial operation. The paper furthermore considers alternative connections of energotechnological blocks of an oven in order to determine its efficient design for specific technology related to one or another mineral raw material.

  8. Design and internal validation of an obstetric early warning score: secondary analysis of the Intensive Care National Audit and Research Centre Case Mix Programme database.

    PubMed

    Carle, C; Alexander, P; Columb, M; Johal, J

    2013-04-01

    We designed and internally validated an aggregate weighted early warning scoring system specific to the obstetric population that has the potential for use in the ward environment. Direct obstetric admissions from the Intensive Care National Audit and Research Centre's Case Mix Programme Database were randomly allocated to model development (n = 2240) or validation (n = 2200) sets. Physiological variables collected during the first 24 h of critical care admission were analysed. Logistic regression analysis for mortality in the model development set was initially used to create a statistically based early warning score. The statistical score was then modified to create a clinically acceptable early warning score. Important features of this clinical obstetric early warning score are that the variables are weighted according to their statistical importance, a surrogate for the FI O2 /Pa O2 relationship is included, conscious level is assessed using a simplified alert/not alert variable, and the score, trigger thresholds and response are consistent with the new non-obstetric National Early Warning Score system. The statistical and clinical early warning scores were internally validated using the validation set. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.995 (95% CI 0.992-0.998) for the statistical score and 0.957 (95% CI 0.923-0.991) for the clinical score. Pre-existing empirically designed early warning scores were also validated in the same way for comparison. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.955 (95% CI 0.922-0.988) for Swanton et al.'s Modified Early Obstetric Warning System, 0.937 (95% CI 0.884-0.991) for the obstetric early warning score suggested in the 2003-2005 Report on Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the UK, and 0.973 (95% CI 0.957-0.989) for the non-obstetric National Early Warning Score. This highlights that the new clinical obstetric early warning score has an excellent ability to

  9. Individualized chiropractic and integrative care for low back pain: the design of a randomized clinical trial using a mixed-methods approach

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Low back pain (LBP) is a prevalent and costly condition in the United States. Evidence suggests there is no one treatment which is best for all patients, but instead several viable treatment options. Additionally, multidisciplinary management of LBP may be more effective than monodisciplinary care. An integrative model that includes both complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and conventional therapies, while also incorporating patient choice, has yet to be tested for chronic LBP. The primary aim of this study is to determine the relative clinical effectiveness of 1) monodisciplinary chiropractic care and 2) multidisciplinary integrative care in 200 adults with non-acute LBP, in both the short-term (after 12 weeks) and long-term (after 52 weeks). The primary outcome measure is patient-rated back pain. Secondary aims compare the treatment approaches in terms of frequency of symptoms, low back disability, fear avoidance, self-efficacy, general health status, improvement, satisfaction, work loss, medication use, lumbar dynamic motion, and torso muscle endurance. Patients' and providers' perceptions of treatment will be described using qualitative methods, and cost-effectiveness and cost utility will be assessed. Methods and Design This paper describes the design of a randomized clinical trial (RCT), with cost-effectiveness and qualitative studies conducted alongside the RCT. Two hundred participants ages 18 and older are being recruited and randomized to one of two 12-week treatment interventions. Patient-rated outcome measures are collected via self-report questionnaires at baseline, and at 4, 12, 26, and 52 weeks post-randomization. Objective outcome measures are assessed at baseline and 12 weeks by examiners blinded to treatment assignment. Health care cost data is collected by self-report questionnaires and treatment records during the intervention phase and by monthly phone interviews thereafter. Qualitative interviews, using a semi

  10. TGA-DTA and chemical composition study of raw material of Bikaner region for electrical porcelain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tak, S. K.; Shekhawat, M. S.; Mangal, R.

    2013-06-01

    Porcelains are vitrified and a fine grained ceramic product, used either glazed or unglazed and is often manufactured from a tri-axial body mix of clays, quartz and alkaline feldspar. Physical properties associated with porcelain include those of permeability, high strength, hardness, glassiness, durability, whiteness, translucence, resonance, brittleness, high resistance to the passage of electricity, high resistance to thermal shock and high elasticity[1,2]. Porcelain insulators are made from three raw materials; clay; feldspar and quartz. For porcelain manufacture the clay is categorized in two groups; ball clay and kaolin, each of which plays an important role, either in the preparation of the product or in the properties of the finished products. The following research highlights the importance that suits these materials for their contributions to the final properties of the product. Keeping this view a TGA-DTA and chemical composition of these raw materials were observed and these materials are found suitable for production of Electrical Porcelain.

  11. The complex microbiota of raw milk.

    PubMed

    Quigley, Lisa; O'Sullivan, Orla; Stanton, Catherine; Beresford, Tom P; Ross, R Paul; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Cotter, Paul D

    2013-09-01

    Here, we review what is known about the microorganisms present in raw milk, including milk from cows, sheep, goats and humans. Milk, due to its high nutritional content, can support a rich microbiota. These microorganisms enter milk from a variety of sources and, once in milk, can play a number of roles, such as facilitating dairy fermentations (e.g. Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Propionibacterium and fungal populations), causing spoilage (e.g. Pseudomonas, Clostridium, Bacillus and other spore-forming or thermoduric microorganisms), promoting health (e.g. lactobacilli and bifidobacteria) or causing disease (e.g. Listeria, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter and mycotoxin-producing fungi). There is also concern that the presence of antibiotic residues in milk leads to the development of resistance, particularly among pathogenic bacteria. Here, we comprehensively review these topics, while comparing the approaches, both culture-dependent and culture-independent, which can be taken to investigate the microbial composition of milk.

  12. Bacteriological profile of raw, frozen chicken nuggets.

    PubMed

    Eglezos, Sofroni; Dykes, Gary A; Huang, Bixing; Fegan, Narelle; Stuttard, Ed

    2008-03-01

    The bacteriological profile of raw, frozen chicken nuggets manufactured at a chicken processing facility in Queensland, Australia, was determined. Chicken nuggets are manufactured by grinding poultry, adding premixes to incorporate spices, forming the meat to the desired size and shape, applying a batter and breading, freezing, and packaging. A total of 300 frozen batches were analyzed for aerobic plate count, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella over a period of 4 years. The mean of the aerobic plate count was 5.4 log CFU/g, and counts at the 90th, 95th, and 99th percentiles were 5.7, 5.9, and 6.5 log CFU/g, respectively. The maximum number of bacteria detected was 6.6 log CFU/g. E. coli prevalence was 47%, and of the positive samples, the mean was 1.9 log CFU/g; counts at the 90th, 95th, and 99th percentiles were 2.3, 2.4, and 2.8 log CFU/g, respectively. The maximum number of E. coli was 2.9 log CFU/g. The Salmonella prevalence was 8.7%, and 57.7% of these isolates were typed as Salmonella subspecies II 4,12,[27]:b:[e,n,x] (Sofia), a low-virulence serotype well adapted to Australian poultry flocks. There was a significant relationship (P < 0.05) between season and both aerobic plate counts and E. coli counts, and no correlation between E. coli counts and Salmonella prevalence. This study provides valuable data on the bacteriological quality of raw, frozen chicken nuggets.

  13. Raw Sewage Harbors Diverse Viral Populations

    PubMed Central

    Cantalupo, Paul G.; Calgua, Byron; Zhao, Guoyan; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Wier, Adam D.; Katz, Josh P.; Grabe, Michael; Hendrix, Roger W.; Girones, Rosina; Wang, David; Pipas, James M.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT At this time, about 3,000 different viruses are recognized, but metagenomic studies suggest that these viruses are a small fraction of the viruses that exist in nature. We have explored viral diversity by deep sequencing nucleic acids obtained from virion populations enriched from raw sewage. We identified 234 known viruses, including 17 that infect humans. Plant, insect, and algal viruses as well as bacteriophages were also present. These viruses represented 26 taxonomic families and included viruses with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), positive-sense ssRNA [ssRNA(+)], and dsRNA genomes. Novel viruses that could be placed in specific taxa represented 51 different families, making untreated wastewater the most diverse viral metagenome (genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples) examined thus far. However, the vast majority of sequence reads bore little or no sequence relation to known viruses and thus could not be placed into specific taxa. These results show that the vast majority of the viruses on Earth have not yet been characterized. Untreated wastewater provides a rich matrix for identifying novel viruses and for studying virus diversity. Importance At this time, virology is focused on the study of a relatively small number of viral species. Specific viruses are studied either because they are easily propagated in the laboratory or because they are associated with disease. The lack of knowledge of the size and characteristics of the viral universe and the diversity of viral genomes is a roadblock to understanding important issues, such as the origin of emerging pathogens and the extent of gene exchange among viruses. Untreated wastewater is an ideal system for assessing viral diversity because virion populations from large numbers of individuals are deposited and because raw sewage itself provides a rich environment for the growth of diverse host species and thus their viruses. These studies suggest that

  14. Aerospace Fuels from Nonpetroleum Raw Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, B. A.; Hepp, A. F.; Kulis, M. J.; Jaworske, D. A.

    2013-01-01

    Recycling human metabolic and plastic wastes minimizes cost and increases efficiency by reducing the need to transport consumables and return trash, respectively, from orbit to support a space station crew. If the much larger costs of transporting consumables to the Moon and beyond are taken into account, developing waste recycling technologies becomes imperative and possibly mission enabling. Reduction of terrestrial waste streams while producing energy and/or valuable raw materials is an opportunity being realized by a new generation of visionary entrepreneurs; several relevant technologies are briefly compared, contrasted and assessed for space applications. A two-step approach to nonpetroleum raw materials utilization is presented; the first step involves production of supply or producer gas. This is akin to synthesis gas containing carbon oxides, hydrogen, and simple hydrocarbons. The second step involves production of fuel via the Sabatier process, a methanation reaction, or another gas-to-liquid technology, typically Fischer- Tropsch processing. Optimization to enhance the fraction of product stream relevant to transportation fuels via catalytic (process) development at NASA GRC is described. Energy utilization is a concern for production of fuels whether for operation on the lunar or Martian surface, or beyond. The term "green" relates to not only mitigating excess carbon release but also to the efficiency of energy usage. For space, energy usage can be an essential concern. Other issues of great concern include minimizing impurities in the product stream(s), especially those that are potential health risks and/or could de-grade operations through catalyst poisoning or equipment damage; technologies being developed to remove heteroatom impurities are discussed. Alternative technologies to utilize waste fluids, such as a propulsion option called the resistojet, are discussed. The resistojet is an electric propulsion technology with a powered thruster to

  15. Lateral Mixing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    apl.uw.edu/dasaro LONG-TERM GOALS I seek to understand the processes controlling lateral mixing in the ocean, particularly at the submesoscale ...APPROACH During AESOP, Lee and D’Asaro pioneered an innovative approach to measuring submesoscale structure in strong fronts. An adaptive measurement...injection of potential vorticity and scalars is predicted to create an intense ‘ submesoscale soup’ of high small-scale variance. The combination of small

  16. Lateral Mixing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-08

    to mesoscale forcing. APPROACH Figure 1: MVP system deployed from stern of R/V Endeavor in Sargasso Sea . 1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for...integrative efforts with other sea -going investigators and numerical modelers. The Lateral Mixing Experiment project was an ideal opportunity to...2011 I also participated in the sea -going part of this project, taking my group on the R/V Endeavor in June 2011. Our role was to sample around the

  17. Lateral Mixing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    ocean as it responds to mesoscale forcing. APPROACH Figure 1: MVP system deployed from stern of R/V Endeavor in Sargasso Sea . My approach for...therefore requires integrative efforts with other sea -going investigators and numerical modelers. The Lateral Mixing Experiment project was an ideal...also participated in the sea -going part of this project, taking my group on the R/V Endeavor in June 2011. Our role was to sample around the center of

  18. Quality design of belite–melilite clinker

    SciTech Connect

    Kurokawa, Daisuke; Honma, Kenichi; Hirao, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Koichiro

    2013-12-15

    We have developed a new cement clinker, consisting mainly of belite and melilite, which is capable of increasing the amount of recycled waste as a part of its raw materials. We analyzed clinkers with a wide range of compositions, and clarified the quantitative relationship between the chemical and mineral compositions. Clinkers consisting mostly of belite and melilite were successfully obtained at the CaO/SiO{sub 2} mass ratio of 1.7 to 1.9. Test cements were prepared using these clinkers and mixed with OPC for the evaluation of fluidity and strength. The belite–melilite cement was found to have good fluidity, and the belite–melilite cement mixed with OPC at up to 30% exhibited a satisfactory long term strength equivalent to the OPC, demonstrating the potential as an alternative to OPC. Electron probe microanalysis revealed the relatively high concentration of diphosphorus pentaoxide in belite, suggesting this component might contribute to the strength enhancement of the cement. -- Highlights: •A new cement clinker consisting mainly of belite and melilite was designed. •The clinker enables the use of various recycled wastes as part of its raw materials. •The relationship between the chemical and mineral compositions was clarified. •This cement mixed with OPC at up to 30% exhibited a good quality equivalent to OPC.

  19. Developing and evaluating the implementation of a complex intervention: using mixed methods to inform the design of a randomised controlled trial of an oral healthcare intervention after stroke

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many interventions delivered within the stroke rehabilitation setting could be considered complex, though some are more complex than others. The degree of complexity might be based on the number of and interactions between levels, components and actions targeted within the intervention. The number of (and variation within) participant groups and the contexts in which it is delivered might also reflect the extent of complexity. Similarly, designing the evaluation of a complex intervention can be challenging. Considerations include the necessity for intervention standardisation, the multiplicity of outcome measures employed to capture the impact of a multifaceted intervention and the delivery of the intervention across different clinical settings operating within varying healthcare contexts. Our aim was to develop and evaluate the implementation of a complex, multidimensional oral health care (OHC) intervention for people in stroke rehabilitation settings which would inform the development of a randomised controlled trial. Methods After reviewing the evidence for the provision of OHC following stroke, multi-disciplinary experts informed the development of our intervention. Using both quantitative and qualitative methods we evaluated the implementation of the complex OHC intervention across patients, staff and service levels of care. We also adopted a pragmatic approach to patient recruitment, the completion of assessment tools and delivery of OHC, alongside an attention to the context in which it was delivered. Results We demonstrated the feasibility of implementing a complex OHC intervention across three levels of care. The complementary nature of the mixed methods approach to data gathering provided a complete picture of the implementation of the intervention and a detailed understanding of the variations within and interactions between the components of the intervention. Information on the feasibility of the outcome measures used to capture impact

  20. Understanding the link between leadership style, employee satisfaction, and absenteeism: a mixed methods design study in a mental health care institution

    PubMed Central

    Elshout, Rachelle; Scherp, Evelien; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M

    2013-01-01

    Background In service oriented industries, such as the health care sector, leadership styles have been suggested to influence employee satisfaction as well as outcomes in terms of service delivery. However, how this influence comes into effect has not been widely explored. Absenteeism may be a factor in this association; however, no studies are available on this subject in the mental health care setting, although this setting has been under a lot of strain lately to provide their services at lower costs. This may have an impact on employers, employees, and the delivery of services, and absenteeism due to illness of employees tends to already be rather high in this particular industry. This study explores the association between leadership style, absenteeism, and employee satisfaction in a stressful work environment, namely a post-merger specialty mental health care institution (MHCI) in a country where MHCIs are under governmental pressure to lower their costs (The Netherlands). Methods We used a mixed methods design with quantitative as well as qualitative research to explore the association between leadership style, sickness absence rates, and employee satisfaction levels in a specialty MHCI. In depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten key informants and triangulated with documented research and a contrast between four departments provided by a factor analysis of the data from the employee satisfaction surveys and sickness rates. Data was analyzed thematically by means of coding and subsequent exploration of patterns. Data analysis was facilitated by qualitative analysis software. Results Quantitative analysis revealed sickness rates of 5.7% in 2010, which is slightly higher than the 5.2% average national sickness rate in The Netherlands in 2010. A general pattern of association between low employee satisfaction, high sickness rates, and transactional leadership style in contrast to transformational leadership style was established. The

  1. Aerospace Fuels From Nonpetroleum Raw Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Kulis, Michael J.; Jaworske, Donald A.

    2013-01-01

    Recycling human metabolic and plastic wastes minimizes cost and increases efficiency by reducing the need to transport consumables and return trash, respectively, from orbit to support a space station crew. If the much larger costs of transporting consumables to the Moon and beyond are taken into account, developing waste recycling technologies becomes imperative and possibly mission enabling. Reduction of terrestrial waste streams while producing energy and/or valuable raw materials is an opportunity being realized by a new generation of visionary entrepreneurs; several relevant technologies are briefly compared, contrasted and assessed for space applications. A two-step approach to nonpetroleum raw materials utilization is presented; the first step involves production of supply or producer gas. This is akin to synthesis gas containing carbon oxides, hydrogen, and simple hydrocarbons. The second step involves production of fuel via the Sabatier process, a methanation reaction, or another gas-to-liquid technology, typically Fischer-Tropsch processing. Optimization to enhance the fraction of product stream relevant to transportation fuels via catalytic (process) development at NASA Glenn Research Center is described. Energy utilization is a concern for production of fuels whether for operation on the lunar or Martian surface, or beyond. The term green relates to not only mitigating excess carbon release but also to the efficiency of energy usage. For space, energy usage can be an essential concern. Another issue of great concern is minimizing impurities in the product stream(s), especially those that are potential health risks and/or could degrade operations through catalyst poisoning or equipment damage; technologies being developed to remove heteroatom impurities are discussed. Alternative technologies to utilize waste fluids, such as a propulsion option called the resistojet, are discussed. The resistojet is an electric propulsion technology with a powered

  2. Development of a Rational Design Space for Optimizing Mixing Conditions for Formation of Adhesive Mixtures for Dry-Powder Inhaler Formulations.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Saurabh; Minatovicz, Bruna; Thalberg, Kyrre; Chaudhuri, Bodhisattwa

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop guidance toward rational choice of blenders and processing conditions to make robust and high performing adhesive mixtures for dry-powder inhalers and to develop quantitative experimental approaches for optimizing the process. Mixing behavior of carrier (LH100) and AstraZeneca fine lactose in high-shear and low-shear double cone blenders was systematically investigated. Process variables impacting the mixing performance were evaluated for both blenders. The performance of the blenders with respect to the mixing time, press-on forces, static charging, and abrasion of carrier fines was monitored, and for some of the parameters, distinct differences could be detected. A comparison table is presented, which can be used as a guidance to enable rational choice of blender and process parameters based on the user requirements. Segregation of adhesive mixtures during hopper discharge was also investigated.

  3. Antibacterial efficacy of raw and processed honey.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, D P; Thakur, V; Brar, S K

    2011-01-01

    In vitro antibacterial activity of methanol, ethanol, and ethyl acetate extracts of raw and processed honey was tested against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Micrococcus luteus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella typhi). Both types of honey showed antibacterial activity against tested organisms with the zone of inhibition (ZOI) ranging from 6.94 to 37.94 mm, while E. coli, S. typhi, and P. aeruginosa showed that sensibility towards all the extracts with ZOI ranges between 13.09 to 37.94 mm. The methanol extract showed more potent activity than other organic extracts. Gram-negative bacteria were found to be more susceptible as compared to Gram-positive bacteria except E. faecalis. The broth microdilution assay gave minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) value of 625 μg/mL, while the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranges between 625 μg/mL 2500 μg/mL. The study showed that honey has antibacterial activity (bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect), similar to antibiotics, against test organisms and provides alternative therapy against certain bacteria.

  4. Antibacterial Efficacy of Raw and Processed Honey

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, D. P.; Thakur, V.; Brar, S. K.

    2011-01-01

    In vitro antibacterial activity of methanol, ethanol, and ethyl acetate extracts of raw and processed honey was tested against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Micrococcus luteus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella typhi). Both types of honey showed antibacterial activity against tested organisms with the zone of inhibition (ZOI) ranging from 6.94 to 37.94 mm, while E. coli, S. typhi, and P. aeruginosa showed that sensibility towards all the extracts with ZOI ranges between 13.09 to 37.94 mm. The methanol extract showed more potent activity than other organic extracts. Gram-negative bacteria were found to be more susceptible as compared to Gram-positive bacteria except E. faecalis. The broth microdilution assay gave minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) value of 625 μg/mL, while the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranges between 625 μg/mL 2500 μg/mL. The study showed that honey has antibacterial activity (bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect), similar to antibiotics, against test organisms and provides alternative therapy against certain bacteria. PMID:21350671

  5. 40 CFR 89.413 - Raw sampling procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Raw sampling procedures. 89.413... Test Procedures § 89.413 Raw sampling procedures. Follow these procedures when sampling for gaseous... of the exhaust pipe—whichever is the larger—upstream of the exit of the exhaust gas system. (b)...

  6. 40 CFR 89.413 - Raw sampling procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raw sampling procedures. 89.413... Test Procedures § 89.413 Raw sampling procedures. Follow these procedures when sampling for gaseous... of the exhaust pipe—whichever is the larger—upstream of the exit of the exhaust gas system. (b)...

  7. 40 CFR 89.413 - Raw sampling procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Raw sampling procedures. 89.413... Test Procedures § 89.413 Raw sampling procedures. Follow these procedures when sampling for gaseous... of the exhaust pipe—whichever is the larger—upstream of the exit of the exhaust gas system. (b)...

  8. 40 CFR 89.413 - Raw sampling procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Raw sampling procedures. 89.413 Section... Procedures § 89.413 Raw sampling procedures. Follow these procedures when sampling for gaseous emissions. (a... exhaust pipe—whichever is the larger—upstream of the exit of the exhaust gas system. (b) In the case of...

  9. 7 CFR 58.332 - Segregation of raw material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Segregation of raw material. 58.332 Section 58.332 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Procedures § 58.332 Segregation of raw material. The milk and cream received at the dairy plant shall...

  10. 7 CFR 58.332 - Segregation of raw material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Segregation of raw material. 58.332 Section 58.332 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Procedures § 58.332 Segregation of raw material. The milk and cream received at the dairy plant shall...

  11. 7 CFR 58.735 - Quality specifications for raw materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Quality specifications for raw materials. 58.735... specifications for raw materials. (a) Cheddar colby, washed or soaked curd, granular or stirred curd cheese... removal of all packaging material and surface defects. The cheese shall at least meet the requirements...

  12. 7 CFR 58.735 - Quality specifications for raw materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Quality specifications for raw materials. 58.735... specifications for raw materials. (a) Cheddar colby, washed or soaked curd, granular or stirred curd cheese... removal of all packaging material and surface defects. The cheese shall at least meet the requirements...

  13. 7 CFR 58.332 - Segregation of raw material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Segregation of raw material. 58.332 Section 58.332 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Procedures § 58.332 Segregation of raw material. The milk and cream received at the dairy plant shall...

  14. 7 CFR 58.332 - Segregation of raw material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Segregation of raw material. 58.332 Section 58.332 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Procedures § 58.332 Segregation of raw material. The milk and cream received at the dairy plant shall...

  15. 7 CFR 58.735 - Quality specifications for raw materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Quality specifications for raw materials. 58.735... specifications for raw materials. (a) Cheddar colby, washed or soaked curd, granular or stirred curd cheese... removal of all packaging material and surface defects. The cheese shall at least meet the requirements...

  16. 40 CFR 1065.230 - Raw exhaust flow meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Raw exhaust flow meter. 1065.230 Section 1065.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.230 Raw...

  17. 40 CFR 1065.230 - Raw exhaust flow meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Raw exhaust flow meter. 1065.230 Section 1065.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.230 Raw...

  18. 40 CFR 1065.230 - Raw exhaust flow meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Raw exhaust flow meter. 1065.230 Section 1065.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.230 Raw...

  19. 40 CFR 1065.230 - Raw exhaust flow meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Raw exhaust flow meter. 1065.230 Section 1065.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.230 Raw...

  20. 40 CFR 1065.230 - Raw exhaust flow meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raw exhaust flow meter. 1065.230 Section 1065.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.230 Raw...

  1. SAW Employment Data and the Need for RAWs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Howard R.

    1989-01-01

    Describes provisions of Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) allowing for Special Agricultural Workers (SAWs) and Replenishment Agricultural Workers (RAWs), to replace SAWs who leave the workforce. Describes government policy for implementing RAW program, determining need and supply, immigrant reporting requirements, eligibility…

  2. Focusing on What Counts: Using Exploratory Focus Groups to Enhance the Development of an Electronic Survey in a Mixed-Methods Research Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galliott, Natal'ya; Graham, Linda J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper illustrates the use of exploratory focus groups to inform the development of a survey instrument in a sequential phase mixed-methods study investigating differences in secondary students' career choice capability. Five focus groups were conducted with 23 Year 10 students in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Analysis of the focus…

  3. The Constructivist Approach? I Have Heard about It but I Have Never Seen It: "An Example of Exploratory Sequential Mixed Design Study"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat, Ahmet; Dogan, Soner; Demir, Selçuk Besir

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the quality of education based on the views of the students attending social studies education departments at the Faculties of Education and to determine the existing problems and present suggestions for their solutions. The study was conducted according to exploratory sequential mixed method. In…

  4. The Constructivist Approach? I Have Heard about It but I Have Never Seen It "An Example of Exploratory Sequential Mixed Design Study"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat, Ahmet; Dogan, Soner; Demir, Selçuk Besir

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the quality of education based on the views of the students attending social studies education departments at the Faculties of Education and to determine the existing problems and present suggestions for their solutions. The study was conducted according to exploratory sequential mixed method. In…

  5. 7 CFR 51.2112 - Mixed varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Sheller Run, U.S. Standard Sheller Run, U.S. No. 1 Whole and Broken may be designated as: “U.S. No. 1 Mixed;” “U.S. Select Sheller Run Mixed;” “U.S. Standard Sheller Run Mixed;” “U.S. No. 1 Whole and...

  6. Alumina-magnesia spinel for refractories synthesized from natural raw materials

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.E.; Monton, B.S. . Ceramic engineering Dept.)

    1993-03-01

    Spinel is proving to be a high quality refractory for specific applications. Synthesis of spinel in this study involved using either diaspore or bauxite in its raw form. The diaspore was obtained from a central Missouri deposit and the bauxites were obtained from China and Guyana. Diaspore and bauxite source materials need to have a low alkali content and a high alumina content in order to produce a stable refractory spinel. The raw materials are ground below 45 microns and combined with hardbured magnesia, also below 45 microns, in appropriate compositions to yield spinel. Dry mixing was used to obtain homogeneous mixtures of the raw materials and magnesia. Compacts of different compositions were fired at 1,600 C prior to the creep testing. Creep analysis was done to determine the load bearing capabilities and refractoriness. X-ray diffraction and microstructural analysis, including point count analysis and cathodoluminescence, was carried out to determine completeness of the reactions and morphologies of the reaction products.

  7. Characterization of Staphylococci Isolated from Raw Milk

    PubMed Central

    Zemelman, Raúl; Longeri, Luis

    1965-01-01

    To evaluate the pathogenicity of staphylococci from bovine raw milk, the general characteristics of 775 strains isolated from 798 samples of milk were studied. The coagulase test was performed by use of rabbit plasma. Chromogenesis, mannitol fermentation, and gelatin liquefaction were investigated on Chapman's Medium 110, after 48 hr of incubation. Production of β-hemolysin, which has been considered indicative of pathogenic staphylococci of animal origin, was determined by streaking different strains on sheep blood-agar plates in the presence of a strain of Lancefield group B streptococci. Plates were incubated at 37 C for 24 hr, and strong hemolysis was produced in the zone of interaction of β-hemolysin and some substance liberated by streptococcus (CAMP test). Of 404 strains found to be coagulase-positive, 95.8% exhibited a deep-orange pigment, 76.5% produced β-hemolysin, 91.8% fermented mannitol, and 75% liquefield gelatin. Of 371 strains which gave a negative coagulase test, about 16% fermented mannitol and liquefied gelatin; none of these strains produced β-hemolysin. When results are grouped according to pigmentation and coagulase production, β-hemolysin seems to be developed by pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus only. If suitability of these tests for investigation of pathogenicity is compared, production of β-hemolysin appears to be the most useful one, since no “false positive” results were found. The use of the CAMP test as a simple and rapid technique to determine production of β-hemolysin by pathogenic strains of animal staphylococci during routine bacteriological work is suggested. Images Fig. 1 PMID:14325873

  8. Influence of raw material properties upon critical quality attributes of continuously produced granules and tablets.

    PubMed

    Fonteyne, Margot; Wickström, Henrika; Peeters, Elisabeth; Vercruysse, Jurgen; Ehlers, Henrik; Peters, Björn-Hendrik; Remon, Jean Paul; Vervaet, Chris; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Sandler, Niklas; Rantanen, Jukka; Naelapää, Kaisa; De Beer, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    Continuous manufacturing gains more and more interest within the pharmaceutical industry. The International Conference of Harmonisation (ICH) states in its Q8 'Pharmaceutical Development' guideline that the manufacturer of pharmaceuticals should have an enhanced knowledge of the product performance over a range of raw material attributes, manufacturing process options and process parameters. This fits further into the Process Analytical Technology (PAT) and Quality by Design (QbD) framework. The present study evaluates the effect of variation in critical raw material properties on the critical quality attributes of granules and tablets, produced by a continuous from-powder-to-tablet wet granulation line. The granulation process parameters were kept constant to examine the differences in the end product quality caused by the variability of the raw materials properties only. Theophylline-Lactose-PVP (30-67.5-2.5%) was used as model formulation. Seven different grades of theophylline were granulated. Afterward, the obtained granules were tableted. Both the characteristics of granules and tablets were determined. The results show that differences in raw material properties both affect their processability and several critical quality attributes of the resulting granules and tablets.

  9. Prevalence and concentration of Salmonella on raw shelled peanuts in the United States.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Stephen; Post, Laurie; Warren, Benjamin; Thompson, Sterling; Bontempo, Ann Rogers

    2013-04-01

    Recalls and/or outbreaks associated with Salmonella contamination in peanut-containing products were reported over the past several years. There are very limited data available on the prevalence and concentration of Salmonella on raw shelled peanuts in the United States. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on raw shelled peanuts in the United States and to estimate that concentration of Salmonella. Samples of Runner- and Virginia-type raw shelled peanuts from the 2008, 2009, and 2010 crop years were proportionately sampled from each growing region, based on 2007 production volume. Of 944 raw shelled peanut samples (375 g each), 22 (2.33%) were positive for Salmonella by the VIDAS Salmonella assay. Salmonella serovars identified in this study included Agona, Anatum, Braenderup, Dessau, Hartford, Meleagridis, Muenchen, Rodepoort, Tennessee, and Tornow. The concentration levels of Salmonella in positive samples, as determined by a most-probable-number assay, were <0.03 to 2.4 MPN/g. These data will be useful when designing and validating processes for the reduction or elimination of Salmonella in peanuts and/or peanut-containing products.

  10. Mixed cryoglobulinemia

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, Clodoveo

    2008-01-01

    Mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC), type II and type III, refers to the presence of circulating cryoprecipitable immune complexes in the serum and manifests clinically by a classical triad of purpura, weakness and arthralgias. It is considered to be a rare disorder, but its true prevalence remains unknown. The disease is more common in Southern Europe than in Northern Europe or Northern America. The prevalence of 'essential' MC is reported as approximately 1:100,000 (with a female-to-male ratio 3:1), but this term is now used to refer to a minority of MC patients only. MC is characterized by variable organ involvement including skin lesions (orthostatic purpura, ulcers), chronic hepatitis, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, peripheral neuropathy, diffuse vasculitis, and, less frequently, interstitial lung involvement and endocrine disorders. Some patients may develop lymphatic and hepatic malignancies, usually as a late complication. MC may be associated with numerous infectious or immunological diseases. When isolated, MC may represent a distinct disease, the so-called 'essential' MC. The etiopathogenesis of MC is not completely understood. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is suggested to play a causative role, with the contribution of genetic and/or environmental factors. Moreover, MC may be associated with other infectious agents or immunological disorders, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or primary Sjögren's syndrome. Diagnosis is based on clinical and laboratory findings. Circulating mixed cryoglobulins, low C4 levels and orthostatic skin purpura are the hallmarks of the disease. Leukocytoclastic vasculitis involving medium- and, more often, small-sized blood vessels is the typical pathological finding, easily detectable by means of skin biopsy of recent vasculitic lesions. Differential diagnoses include a wide range of systemic, infectious and neoplastic disorders, mainly autoimmune hepatitis, Sjögren's syndrome, polyarthritis, and B

  11. Toward Rational Design of Protein Detergent Complexes: Determinants of Mixed Micelles That Are Critical for the In Vitro Stabilization of a G-Protein Coupled Receptor

    PubMed Central

    O'Malley, Michelle A.; Helgeson, Matthew E.; Wagner, Norman J.; Robinson, Anne S.

    2011-01-01

    Although reconstitution of membrane proteins within protein detergent complexes is often used to enable their structural or biophysical characterization, it is unclear how one should rationally choose the appropriate micellar environment to preserve native protein folding. Here, we investigated model mixed micelles consisting of a nonionic glucosylated alkane surfactant from the maltoside and thiomaltoside families, bile salt surfactant, and the steryl derivative cholesteryl hemisuccinate. We correlated several key attributes of these micelles with the in vitro ligand-binding activity of hA2aR in these systems. Through small-angle neutron scattering and radioligand-binding analysis, we found several key aspects of mixed micellar systems that preserve the activity of hA2aR, including a critical amount of cholesteryl hemisuccinate per micelle, and an optimal hydrophobic thickness of the micelle that is analogous to the thickness of native mammalian bilayers. These features are closely linked to the headgroup chemistry of the surfactant and the hydrocarbon chain length, which influence both the morphology and composition of resulting micelles. This study should serve as a general guide for selecting the appropriate mixed surfactant systems to stabilize membrane proteins for biophysical analysis. PMID:22004748

  12. Utilization of Savannah Harbor river sediment as the primary raw material in production of fired brick.

    PubMed

    Mezencevova, Andrea; Yeboah, Nortey N; Burns, Susan E; Kahn, Lawrence F; Kurtis, Kimberly E

    2012-12-30

    A laboratory-scale study was conducted to assess the feasibility of the production of fired bricks from sediments dredged from the Savannah Harbor (Savannah, GA, USA). The dredged sediment was used as the sole raw material, or as a 50% replacement for natural brick-making clay. Sediment bricks were prepared using the stiff mud extrusion process from raw mixes consisted of 100% dredged sediment, or 50% dredged sediment and 50% brick clay. The bricks were fired at temperatures between 900 and 1000 °C. Physical and mechanical properties of the dredged sediment brick were found to generally comply with ASTM criteria for building brick. Water absorption of the dredged sediment bricks was in compliance with the criteria for brick graded for severe (SW) or moderate (MW) weathering. Compressive strength of 100% dredged sediment bricks ranged from 8.3 to 11.7 MPa; the bricks sintered at 1000 °C met the requirements for negligible weathering (NW) building brick. Mixing the dredged sediment with natural clay resulted in an increase of the compressive strength. The compressive strength of the sediment-clay bricks fired at 1000 °C was 29.4 MPa, thus meeting the ASTM requirements for the SW grade building brick. Results of this study demonstrate that production of fired bricks is a promising and achievable productive reuse alternative for Savannah Harbor dredged sediments.

  13. Design of an impact evaluation using a mixed methods model – an explanatory assessment of the effects of results-based financing mechanisms on maternal healthcare services in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In this article we present a study design to evaluate the causal impact of providing supply-side performance-based financing incentives in combination with a demand-side cash transfer component on equitable access to and quality of maternal and neonatal healthcare services. This intervention is introduced to selected emergency obstetric care facilities and catchment area populations in four districts in Malawi. We here describe and discuss our study protocol with regard to the research aims, the local implementation context, and our rationale for selecting a mixed methods explanatory design with a quasi-experimental quantitative component. Design The quantitative research component consists of a controlled pre- and post-test design with multiple post-test measurements. This allows us to quantitatively measure ‘equitable access to healthcare services’ at the community level and ‘healthcare quality’ at the health facility level. Guided by a theoretical framework of causal relationships, we determined a number of input, process, and output indicators to evaluate both intended and unintended effects of the intervention. Overall causal impact estimates will result from a difference-in-difference analysis comparing selected indicators across intervention and control facilities/catchment populations over time. To further explain heterogeneity of quantitatively observed effects and to understand the experiential dimensions of financial incentives on clients and providers, we designed a qualitative component in line with the overall explanatory mixed methods approach. This component consists of in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with providers, service user, non-users, and policy stakeholders. In this explanatory design comprehensive understanding of expected and unexpected effects of the intervention on both access and quality will emerge through careful triangulation at two levels: across multiple quantitative elements and across

  14. Microfluidic mixing using contactless dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Salmanzadeh, Alireza; Shafiee, Hadi; Davalos, Rafael V; Stremler, Mark A

    2011-09-01

    The first experimental evidence of mixing enhancement in a microfluidic system using contactless dielectrophoresis (cDEP) is presented in this work. Pressure-driven flow of deionized water containing 0.5 μm beads was mixed in various chamber geometries by imposing a dielectrophoresis (DEP) force on the beads. In cDEP the electrodes are not in direct contact with the fluid sample but are instead capacitively coupled to the mixing chamber through thin dielectric barriers, which eliminates many of the problems encountered with standard DEP. Four system designs with rectangular and circular mixing chambers were fabricated in PDMS. Mixing tests were conducted for flow rates from 0.005 to 1 mL/h subject to an alternating current signal range of 0-300 V at 100-600 kHz. When the time scales of the bulk fluid motion and the DEP motion were commensurate, rapid mixing was observed. The rectangular mixing chambers were found to be more efficient than the circular chambers. This approach shows potential for mixing low diffusivity biological samples, which is a very challenging problem in laminar flows at small scales.

  15. Regulatory considerations for raw materials used in biological products.

    PubMed

    Khan, A S

    2010-01-01

    Raw materials are critical components of product manufacture; these include source materials such as cell substrates, tissues, and biological fluids required for product manufacture, as well as biological materials required for cell growth, propagation, differentiation, and selection. Adventitious viruses are a major safety concern in biological raw materials. This paper discusses the specific concerns related to different types of biological materials and presents the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research's perspective on the qualification and management of raw materials for purposes of developing a safety program for the manufacture of biological products.

  16. Comparison of nitrate levels in raw water and finished water from historical monitoring data on Iowa municipal drinking water supplies.

    PubMed

    Weyer, Peter J; Smith, Brian J; Feng, Zhen-Fang; Kantamneni, Jiji R; Riley, David G

    2006-05-01

    Nitrate contamination of water sources is a concern where large amounts of nitrogen fertilizers are regularly applied to soils. Ingested nitrate from dietary sources and drinking water can be converted to nitrite and ultimately to N-nitroso compounds, many of which are known carcinogens. Epidemiologic studies of drinking water nitrate and cancer report mixed findings; a criticism is the use of nitrate concentrations from retrospective drinking water data to assign exposure levels. Residential point-of-use nitrate data are scarce; gaps in historical data for municipal supply finished water hamper exposure classification efforts. We used generalized linear regression models to estimate and compare historical raw water and finished water nitrate levels (1960s-1990s) in single source Iowa municipal supplies to determine whether raw water monitoring data could supplement finished water data to improve exposure assessment. Comparison of raw water and finished water samples (same sampling date) showed a significant difference in nitrate levels in municipalities using rivers; municipalities using other surface water or alluvial groundwater had no difference in nitrate levels. A regional aggregation of alluvial groundwater municipalities was constructed based on results from a previous study showing regional differences in nitrate contamination of private wells; results from this analysis were mixed, dependent upon region and decade. These analyses demonstrate using historical raw water nitrate monitoring data to supplement finished water data for exposure assessment is appropriate for individual Iowa municipal supplies using alluvial groundwater, lakes or reservoirs. Using alluvial raw water data on a regional basis is dependent on region and decade.

  17. Environmental situation and development of mineral raw material base in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larikova, O. I.

    2003-04-01

    The necessity of the further development of mineral raw material base and exploration for new deposits in Russia, connected with the loss of traditional sources of mineral and raw material resources in the former USSR republics, let us to study several ecological problems of top priority: 1. To determine all natural factors that affect the development of mineral raw material base; to determine the availability of the Russian territory ranged according to the favorable conditions for the development of its mineral raw material base. 2. To determine all natural factors in order to find regions where natural environment is not capable of self-restoration and where additional burden resulted from deposits' development could cause irreversible environmental changes and ecological catastrophes. 3. To evaluate the main negative results arisen from deposits' development and to set up the complex of nature protection measures in order to reduce negative influence on the environment. To solve the first task, scientists from VIEMS and VNIIgeosystem have compiled the Atlas of electronic geo-ecological maps of Russia consisting of more than 20 digital geoecological maps grouped into 4 blocks: - natural factors, including continuous and discontinuous permafrost, seismological danger, avalanche and mudflow hazards, manifestation of exogenous geological processes; - unique natural resources and objects, including current and designed reservation parks, unique lake systems, areas used mainly by small-in-numbers peoples of the North; - hydro geological factors - rate of underground water resources in operation and provision of population with fresh underground water; - social and economic factors, including density and natural increase of population disease and mortality rates, the number of unemployed, etc. On the final map, the whole territory of Russia has been divided into 4 categories: - territories, where the law prohibits the exploration, - territories, those are adverse for

  18. RAW WATER STORAGE TANK ON NORTH SIDE OF WATER PUMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    RAW WATER STORAGE TANK ON NORTH SIDE OF WATER PUMP HOUSE, TRA-619. INTERIOR. INL NEGATIVE NO. 2489. Unknown Photographer, 6/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. Know the Risks of Feeding Raw Food to Your Pets

    MedlinePlus

    ... 30, 2014 back to top Related Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Avoid the Dangers of Raw Pet Food Tips for Safe Handling of Pet Food and Treats More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food ...

  20. New rain shed (Building No. 241), overhead pipeline and raw ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    New rain shed (Building No. 241), overhead pipeline and raw water tank T4. Distribution pump house can be seen at the center of building. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  1. 7 CFR 58.332 - Segregation of raw material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Procedures § 58.332 Segregation of raw material. The milk and cream received at the dairy plant shall meet the quality specifications as indicated under § 58.322. The milk and cream should be segregated...

  2. 60. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE RAW MATERIALS BUILDING, LOOKING AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE RAW MATERIALS BUILDING, LOOKING AT THE POIDOMETER AND WEIGHING MACHINE. MAY 5, 1919. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  3. Using a Mixed Methods Research Design in a Study Investigating the "Heads of e-Learning" Perspective towards Technology Enhanced Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almpanis, Timos

    2016-01-01

    This paper outlines the research design, methodology and methods employed in research conducted in the context of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) and focuses on the Heads of e-Learning (HeLs) perspective about Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) by campus-based UK institutions. This paper aims to expand on the research design and the research…

  4. Determination of 15 organophosphorus pesticides in Italian raw milk.

    PubMed

    Gazzotti, Teresa; Sticca, Patrizia; Zironi, Elisa; Lugoboni, Barbara; Serraino, Andrea; Pagliuca, Giampiero

    2009-02-01

    A study was conducted on raw cow's milk to measure the residues of 15 organophosphorus pesticides used as dairy cattle ectoparasiticides or as insecticides in crops used for animal feed. For this purpose a previously devised method was improved and validated. The samples were collected directly from tank trucks during delivery of 3,974 tonnes of raw milk at nine Italian dairy plants. Approximately 4.4% of the 298 samples analyzed contained residues only in traces. The main pollutant was chlorpyriphos.

  5. Sodar - PNNL Scintec MFAS, Oregon Raceway Park - Raw Data

    SciTech Connect

    Pekour, Mikhail

    2016-10-25

    Provide measurements of wind speed and direction up to 400 m AGL (max). The data are stored in 2 forms: ASCII and raw (binary). ASCII files contain averaged data (currently -- 15 min time step and 10 m range gate); raw files could be reprocessed with the sodar software (APRun by Scintec) to produce ASCII files with different time and/or height averaging settings (highest resolution is approx. 90 sec and 10 m).

  6. Biosorption of copper(II) ions onto powdered waste sludge in a completely mixed fed-batch reactor: estimation of design parameters.

    PubMed

    Pamukoglu, Yunus; Kargi, Fikret

    2007-04-01

    Biosorption of Cu(II) ions onto pre-treated powdered waste sludge (PWS) was investigated using a fed-batch operated completely mixed reactor. Fed-batch adsorption experiments were performed by varying the feed flow rate ( 0.075-0.325 l h(-1)), feed copper (II) ion concentrations (50-300 mg l(-1)) and the amount of adsorbent (1-6 g PWS) using fed-batch operation. Breakthrough curves describing the variations of effluent copper ion concentrations with time were determined for different operating conditions. Percent copper ion removals from the aqueous phase decreased, but the biosorbed (solid phase) copper ion concentrations increased with increasing the feed flow rate and Cu(II) concentration. A modified Bohart-Adams equation was used to determine the biosorption capacity of PWS and the rate constant for Cu(II) ion biosorption. Adsorption rate constant in fed-batch operation was an order of magnitude larger than those obtained in adsorption columns because of elimination of mass transfer limitations encountered in the column operations while the biosorption capacity of PWS was comparable with powdered activated (PAC) in column operations. Therefore, a completely mixed reactor operated in fed-batch mode was proven to be more advantageous as compared to adsorption columns due to better contact between the phases yielding faster adsorption rates.

  7. Program to design, fabricate, test, and deliver a thermal control-mixing control device for the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurston, T. S.; Larson, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    The development and testing of a temperature sensor and pulse duration modulation (PDM) diverter valve for a thermal control-mixing control device are described. The temperature sensor selected for use uses a fluidic pin amplifier in conjunction with an expansion device. This device can sense changes of less than 0.25 F with greater than 15:1 signal to noise ratio when operating with a typical Freon pump supplied pressure. The pressure sensitivity of the sensor is approximately 0.0019 F/kPa. The valve which was selected was tested and performed with 100% flow diversion. In addition, the valve operates with a flow efficiency of at least 95%, with the possibility of attaining 100% if the vent flow of the PDM can be channeled through the last stage of the diverter valve. A temperature sensor which utilized an orifice bridge circuit and proportional-vortex combination mixing valve were also evaluated, but the concepts were rejected due to various problems.

  8. Tracing and control of raw materials sourcing for vaccine manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Faretra Peysson, Laurence

    2010-05-01

    The control of the raw materials used to manufacture vaccines is mandatory; therefore, a very clear process must be in place to guarantee that raw materials are traced. Those who make products or supplies used in vaccine manufacture (suppliers of culture media, diagnostic tests, etc.) must apply quality systems proving that they adhere to certain standards. ISO certification, Good Manufacturing Practices for production sites and the registration of culture media with a 'Certificate of Suitability' from the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and Healthcare are reliable quality systems pertaining to vaccine production. Suppliers must assure that each lot of raw materials used in a product that will be used in vaccine manufacture adheres to the level of safety and traceability required. Incoming materials must be controlled in a single 'Enterprise Resource Planning' system which is used to document important information, such as the assignment of lot number, expiration date, etc. Ingredients for culture media in particular must conform to certain specifications. The specifications that need to be checked vary according to the ingredient, based on the level of risk. The way a raw material is produced is also important, and any aspect relative to cross-contamination, such as the sanitary measures used in producing and storing the raw material must be checked as well. In addition, suppliers can reduce the risk of viral contamination of raw materials by avoiding purchases in countries where a relevant outbreak is currently declared.

  9. Assessment of toxic metals in raw and processed milk samples using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometer.

    PubMed

    Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Jalbani, Nusrat; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Arain, Mohammad Balal; Jamali, Mohammad Khan; Shah, Abdul Qadir

    2009-09-01

    Milk and dairy products have been recognized all over the world for their beneficial influence on human health. The levels of toxic metals (TMs) are an important component of safety and quality of milk. A simple and efficient microwave assisted extraction (MAE) method has been developed for the determination of TMs (Al, Cd, Ni and Pb), in raw and processed milk samples. A Plackett-Burman experimental design and 2(3)+star central composite design, were applied in order to determine the optimum conditions for MAE. Concentrations of TMs were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The accuracy of the optimized procedure was evaluated by standard addition method and conventional wet acid digestion method (CDM), for comparative purpose. No significant differences were observed (P>0.05), when comparing the values obtained by the proposed MAE method and CDM (paired t-test). The average relative standard deviation of the MAE method varied between 4.3% and 7.6% based on analyte (n=6). The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of understudy TMs in milk samples. The results of raw and processed milk indicated that environmental conditions and manufacturing processes play a key role in the distribution of toxic metals in raw and processed milk.

  10. Efficient anaerobic transformation of raw wheat straw by a robust cow rumen-derived microbial consortium.

    PubMed

    Lazuka, Adèle; Auer, Lucas; Bozonnet, Sophie; Morgavi, Diego P; O'Donohue, Michael; Hernandez-Raquet, Guillermina

    2015-11-01

    A rumen-derived microbial consortium was enriched on raw wheat straw as sole carbon source in a sequential batch-reactor (SBR) process under strict mesophilic anaerobic conditions. After five cycles of enrichment the procedure enabled to select a stable and efficient lignocellulolytic microbial consortium, mainly constituted by members of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla. The enriched community, designed rumen-wheat straw-derived consortium (RWS) efficiently hydrolyzed lignocellulosic biomass, degrading 55.5% w/w of raw wheat straw over 15days at 35°C and accumulating carboxylates as main products. Cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic activities, mainly detected on the cell bound fraction, were produced in the earlier steps of degradation, their production being correlated with the maximal lignocellulose degradation rates. Overall, these results demonstrate the potential of RWS to convert unpretreated lignocellulosic substrates into useful chemicals.

  11. Performance Assessment of High and Low Income Families through "Online RAW Achievement Battery Test" of Primary Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Tamim; Hanif, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study is intended to investigate student's achievement capability among two families i.e. Low and High income families and designed for primary level learners. A Reading, Arithmetic and Writing (RAW) Achievement test that was developed as a part of another research study (Tamim Ahmed Khan, 2015) was adopted for this study. Both English medium…

  12. Greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potential of soils amended with raw swine manure, dry and wet pyrolyzed swine biochars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research is to study the greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potentials of the soils amended with raw swine solid and swine biochars made from different thermochemical conditions. Triplicate sets of small pots were designed: 1) control soil with a 50/50 mixture of...

  13. Rational chemical design of the next generation of molecular imaging probes based on physics and biology: mixing modalities, colors and signals.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hisataka; Longmire, Michelle R; Ogawa, Mikako; Choyke, Peter L

    2011-09-01

    In recent years, numerous in vivo molecular imaging probes have been developed. As a consequence, much has been published on the design and synthesis of molecular imaging probes focusing on each modality, each type of material, or each target disease. More recently, second generation molecular imaging probes with unique, multi-functional, or multiplexed characteristics have been designed. This critical review focuses on (i) molecular imaging using combinations of modalities and signals that employ the full range of the electromagnetic spectra, (ii) optimized chemical design of molecular imaging probes for in vivo kinetics based on biology and physiology across a range of physical sizes, (iii) practical examples of second generation molecular imaging probes designed to extract complementary data from targets using multiple modalities, color, and comprehensive signals (277 references).

  14. Rational chemical design of the next generation of molecular imaging probes based on physics and biology: mixing modalities, colors and signals

    PubMed Central

    Longmire, Michelle R.; Ogawa, Mikako; Choyke, Peter L.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, numerous in vivo molecular imaging probes have been developed. As a consequence, much has been published on the design and synthesis of molecular imaging probes focusing on each modality, each type of material, or each target disease. More recently, second generation molecular imaging probes with unique, multi-functional, or multiplexed characteristics have been designed. This critical review focuses on (i) molecular imaging using combinations of modalities and signals that employ the full range of the electromagnetic spectra, (ii) optimized chemical design of molecular imaging probes for in vivo kinetics based on biology and physiology across a range of physical sizes, (iii) practical examples of second generation molecular imaging probes designed to extract complementary data from targets using multiple modalities, color, and comprehensive signals (277 references). PMID:21607237

  15. Inference of ICF implosion core mix using experimental data and theoretical mix modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Sherrill, Leslie Welser; Haynes, Donald A; Cooley, James H; Sherrill, Manolo E; Mancini, Roberto C; Tommasini, Riccardo; Golovkin, Igor E; Haan, Steven W

    2009-01-01

    The mixing between fuel and shell materials in Inertial Confinement Fusion (lCF) implosion cores is a current topic of interest. The goal of this work was to design direct-drive ICF experiments which have varying levels of mix, and subsequently to extract information on mixing directly from the experimental data using spectroscopic techniques. The experimental design was accomplished using hydrodynamic simulations in conjunction with Haan's saturation model, which was used to predict the mix levels of candidate experimental configurations. These theoretical predictions were then compared to the mixing information which was extracted from the experimental data, and it was found that Haan's mix model predicted trends in the width of the mix layer as a function of initial shell thickness. These results contribute to an assessment of the range of validity and predictive capability of the Haan saturation model, as well as increasing confidence in the methods used to extract mixing information from experimental data.

  16. Investigation of persistence of infectious Toxoplasma gondii in raw sausages using in-house developed and validated real time-PCR.

    PubMed

    Abdulmawjood, A; Rosa, S; Taubert, A; Bauer, C; Failing, K; Zahner, H; Bülte, M

    2014-08-01

    The question, if and to what extent raw-sausage-products represent a possible source of infection for the globally distributed and potentially health-threatening toxoplasmosis gave reason for this study. For this, the survival capability of Toxoplasma gondii in relation to the raw-sausage-manufacturing-process including different ripening-processes was investigated. To enable a fast and reliable parasite-detection, a real time-PCR-system based on a specific 529-bp-fragment of T. gondii and an internal amplification control (IAC) was developed and established. The applicability was tested in various experiments where T. gondii-tachyzoites were mixed into different types of raw-sausages and then investigated by using the real time-PCR-system. The latter was also used to investigate the possible infection-risk of raw-sausages. For this, two pigs were intravenously infected with T. gondii-tachyzoites and after having reached the typical slaughtering age, their meat was manufactured to different raw-sausage-products ("Mett"- and "Teewurst" as well as "Salami"). In order to prove the potential infectivity of these products under conditions close to reality, sausages in different ripening stages were fed to laboratory mice. The animals' organs (brain, heart and spleen) were examined employing the real time-PCR. T. gondii-DNA was detected in four out of 288 (1.4%) mice indicating that marketable raw-sausage-products generally bear a risk for consumers. However, the probability of an infection seems to be quite marginal.

  17. Evaluation of the spoilage potential of bacteria isolated from spoiled raw salmon (Salmo salar) fillets stored under modified atmosphere packaging.

    PubMed

    Macé, Sabrina; Joffraud, Jean-Jacques; Cardinal, Mireille; Malcheva, Mariya; Cornet, Josiane; Lalanne, Valérie; Chevalier, Frédérique; Sérot, Thierry; Pilet, Marie-France; Dousset, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    The spoilage potential of eight bacterial groups/species (Serratia spp., Hafnia alvei, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Shewanella baltica, Lactococcus piscium, Photobacterium phosphoreum, "other Enterobacteriaceae" [containing one strain of Moellerella sp., Morganella sp. and Pectobacterium sp.]) isolated from spoiled raw salmon fillets stored under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) was evaluated by inoculation into sterile raw salmon cubes followed by storage for 12days at 8°C. Microbial growth and sensory changes were monitored during the storage period. The dominant spoilage bacteria were C. maltaromaticum, H. alvei and P. phosphoreum. In order to further characterize their spoilage potential and to study the effect of their interactions, each of these 3 specific spoilage organisms (SSO) and two mixed-cultures, C. maltaromaticum/H. alvei and C. maltaromaticum/P. phosphoreum were tested in the sterile salmon model system using a combination of complementary methods: molecular (PCR-TTGE), sensory, chemical and conventional microbiological analyses. It was concluded that, in the mixed-culture inoculated samples, the dominant species determined the spoilage characteristics. The volatile fraction of P. phosphoreum inoculated samples was analyzed by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Among the specific volatile compounds present on P. phosphoreum spoiled inoculated samples, acetic acid was correlated with sensory analysis and can be proposed as a raw salmon spoilage marker.

  18. Raw material ‘criticality’—sense or nonsense?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenzel, M.; Kullik, J.; Reuter, M. A.; Gutzmer, J.

    2017-03-01

    The past decade has seen a resurgence of interest in the supply security of mineral raw materials. A key to the current debate is the concept of ‘criticality’. The present article reviews the criticality concept, as well as the methodologies used in its assessment, including a critical evaluation of their validity in view of classical risk theory. Furthermore, it discusses a number of risks present in global raw materials markets that are not captured by most criticality assessments. Proposed measures for the alleviation of these risks are also presented. We find that current assessments of raw material criticality are fundamentally flawed in several ways. This is mostly due to a lack of adherence to risk theory, and highly limits their applicability. Many of the raw materials generally identified as critical are probably not critical. Still, the flaws of current assessments do not mean that the general issue of supply security can simply be ignored. Rather, it implies that new assessments are required. While the basic theoretical framework for such assessments is outlined in this review, detailed method development will require a major collaborative effort between different disciplines along the raw materials value chain. In the opinion of the authors, the greatest longer-term challenge in the raw materials sector is to stop, or counteract the effects of, the escalation of unit energy costs of production. This issue is particularly pressing due to its close link with the renewable energy transition, requiring more metal and mineral raw materials per unit energy produced. The solution to this problem will require coordinated policy action, as well as the collaboration of scientists from many different fields—with physics, as well as the materials and earth sciences in the lead.

  19. Folate content and retention in selected raw and processed foods.

    PubMed

    Bassett, M N; Sammán, N C

    2010-09-01

    Adequate intake of folate reduced the risk of abnormalities in early embryonic brain development such as the risk of malformations of the embryonic brain/spinal cord, collectively referred to as neural tube defects (NTDs). Folate is extremely sensitive to destruction by heat, oxidation and UV light. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of different extraction procedures and enzymatic treatment to determine folate concentrations in variety of foods using a microbiological assay (MA) with Lactobacillus rhamnosus as the test organism. This study also aimed to evaluate the retention of folate in foods after using different cooking processes. Nine of the most commonly consumed foods in Argentina and that contain folate were analyzed: broccoli, spinach, potato, lentil, soy (raw and boiled); hen whole egg and yolks (raw, boiled and fried); beef liver (raw and cooked); strawberry (raw) and white bread. For this study, rat plasma (RP) and human plasma (HP) conjugases together with acetate and phosphate buffers were tested. In extraction step for all analyses, RP conjugase was selected since it was easily available in our laboratory and small quantities were required. The acetate buffer was chosen since better growth and more reproducible results were obtained in the different conditions assayed. The results allowed the foods to be grouped into (a) rich sources of folate: hen eggs, yolks, spinach, soybean (raw) and strawberry (100 and 350 microg/100 g fresh weight (FW); (b) good sources of folate: broccoli (raw), soybean (boiled), lentils (raw) and potato (56 to 83 microg/100 g FW) and c) moderate sources of folate: broccoli, lentils (boiled), white breads, onions and beef liver (15 to 30 microg/100g FW). The folate retention was in the range 14-99% according to both type of food and method of processing. Contents and losses of folate vary widely according to type of food and cooking method.

  20. Mixed Methods Research: A Research Paradigm Whose Time Has Come

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, R. Burke; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2004-01-01

    The purposes of this article are to position mixed methods research ("mixed research" is a synonym) as the natural complement to traditional qualitative and quantitative research, to present pragmatism as offering an attractive philosophical partner for mixed methods research, and to provide a framework for designing and conducting mixed methods…

  1. Method for producing a compressed body of mix-powder for ceramic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okawa, K.

    1983-01-01

    Under the invented method, a compressed body of mix powder for ceramic is produced by mixing and stirring several raw powder materials with mixing liquid such as water, and, in the process of sending the resulted viscous material pressurized at 5 kg/cm to 7 kg/cm, using 1.5 to 2 times the pressure to filter and dehydrate, adjusting the water content to 10 to 20%.

  2. Chryseobacterium bovis sp. nov., isolated from raw cow's milk.

    PubMed

    Hantsis-Zacharov, Elionora; Senderovich, Yigal; Halpern, Malka

    2008-04-01

    Three Gram-negative, rod-shaped, oxidase-positive, aerobic, non-motile bacterial strains, designated H9T, H10 and H15, were isolated during a study on the diversity of culturable psychrotolerant bacteria in raw cow's milk. Comparisons of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the three strains were very closely related to each other (sequence similarities of 99.6-99.8 %). A polyphasic taxonomic study of the isolates resulted in their identification as members of the genus Chryseobacterium (family Flavobacteriaceae, phylum Bacteroidetes). The three strains showed < or =96.9 % sequence similarity with respect to the type strains of described Chryseobacterium species, indicating that H9T, H10 and H15 represent a novel species of the genus Chryseobacterium. The three strains grew at 7-37 degrees C (strain H10 grew at up to 41 degrees C), with 0-2.5 % NaCl and at pH 5.0-9.8. The dominant cellular fatty acids of strain H9T were 15 : 0 iso (38.9 %), 15 : 0 anteiso (15.6 %) and 17 : 0 iso 3-OH (12.7 %). Strain H10 also possessed 17 : 1 iso omega 9c (14.8 %) as a major fatty acid. On the basis of phenotypic properties and phylogenetic distinctiveness, the three milk isolates represent a novel species in the genus Chryseobacterium, for which the name Chryseobacterium bovis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is H9T (=LMG 24227T =DSM 19482T).

  3. Chryseobacterium carnipullorum sp. nov., isolated from raw chicken.

    PubMed

    Charimba, George; Jooste, Piet; Albertyn, Jacobus; Hugo, Celia

    2013-09-01

    Three Gram-staining-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming, non-motile, oxidase-positive, yellow pigmented and aerobic bacterial isolates designated 8_R23573, 9_R23581(T) and 10_R23577 were isolated from raw chicken at a broiler processing plant in Bloemfontein, South Africa. A polyphasic taxonomic approach was used to determine their exact taxonomic identities. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the three strains belonged to the genus Chryseobacterium, exhibiting the highest similarities to Chryseobacterium shigense DSM 17126(T) (98.6-99.2%) and Chryseobacterium luteum DSM 18605(T) (98.3-98.7%). The most abundant quinone was menaquinone MK-6 and the predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-15:0, iso-17:1ω9c, iso-17:0 3-OH and summed feature 3 (iso-16:1ω7c and/or iso-15:0 2-OH), which supported the affiliation of the strains to the genus Chryseobacterium. The DNA G+C contents of the strains were 36.9, 36.7 and 36.6 mol% respectively. The DNA-DNA hybridization results gave relatedness values ranging from 78.8 to 87.2% among the three strains and 23.4 to 56.1% to the two nearest phylogenetic neighbours C. shigense DSM 17126(T) and C. luteum LMG 23785(T). On the basis of the data from this polyphasic study, the three strains are concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Chryseobacterium for which the name Chryseobacterium carnipullorum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 9_R23581(T) ( = LMG 26732(T) =DSM 25581(T)).

  4. Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of resources on this month's theme "Design" for K-8 language arts, art and architecture, music and dance, science, math, social studies, health, and physical education. Includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audiotapes, magazines, professional resources and classroom activities.…

  5. Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Richard; Cross, Nigel; Durling, David; Nelson, Harold; Owen, Charles; Valtonen, Anna; Boling, Elizabeth; Gibbons, Andrew; Visscher-Voerman, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of design were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Richard Buchanan, Nigel Cross, David Durling, Harold Nelson, Charles Owen, and Anna Valtonen. Scholars…

  6. Monitoring of Foodborne Pathogens in Raw Cow Milk in Tuscany

    PubMed Central

    D’Alonzo, Alessia; Senese, Matteo; Fabbri, Ilaria; Cirri, Cristina; Milioni, Carla; Valenza, Valeria; Tolli, Rita; Campeis, Francesca; Fischetti, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Raw milk consumption in Italy has increased over the last few years and although raw milk is characterised by cold chain, short shelf-life and the duty of boiling before domestic consumption, it is still considered a hazard. From 2010 to 2013 a monitoring survey of raw milk sold through vending machines was carried out to investigate the occurrence of several foodborne pathogens stipulated in the national legal requirements, i.e. Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O:157 and coagulase-positive Staphylococci. A total of 127 raw milk samples were collected from 19 dairy herds in Tuscany Region, Italy. In addition, the milk samples were tested for the presence and count of Yersinia genus. Results shown that only one sample was positive for non verocytotoxin-producing E. coli O:157, whereas a total of 38 samples (29.9%) were postive for Yersinia genus; of the total 39 isolated bacteria, 23.6% were Y. enterocolitica, 2.4% Y. kristenseni and 4.7% Y. frederiksenii. None isolate was enteropathogenic; serotypes O:5 and O:8 were found in 16.6 and 13.3% of the isolates respectively, whereas none of the serotypes tested was detected in 70% of the isolates. The most probable number method revealed a count value between 0.03 and 24 MPN/mL. Based on these data a general assurance on health safety of raw milk produced and sold in Tuscany could be assessed. PMID:27800320

  7. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in raw milk in Kerman, Iran.

    PubMed

    Mansouri-Najand, Ladan; Kianpour, Mehrnoush; Sami, Masoud; Jajarmi, Maziar

    2015-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes as one of the most important pathogen in public health concerns is transmitted through consumption of contaminated food. The pathogen has been considered as a potential source of contamination of raw milk and dairy products. This research was aimed to investigate prevalence of L. monocytogenes in raw milk in Kerman region. In the summer of 2011, a total number of one hundred raw milk samples were collected from bulk tanks of some dairy farms and tested for iap and actA genes using polymerase chain reaction. Among the 100 samples, five isolates (5.0%) were detected as L. monocytogenes based on phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. Considering the low frequency of L. monocytogenes in this study, raw milk cannot be omitted as a potential source of food contamination for the population of the region. To achieve more accurate isolation, identification and control of L. monocytogenes in raw milk, it is suggested that new standard laboratory methods be implemented as well as biosafety outreach programs, management techniques and education.

  8. Raw materials in the manufacture of biotechnology products: regulatory considerations.

    PubMed

    Cordoba-Rodriguez, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration's Pharmaceutical cGMPs for the 21st Century initiative emphasizes science and risk-based approaches in the manufacture of drugs. These approaches are reflected in the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidances ICH Q8, Q9, and Q10 and encourage a comprehensive assessment of the manufacture of a biologic, including all aspects of manufacture that have the potential to affect the finished drug product. Appropriate assessment and management of raw materials are an important part of this initiative. Ideally, a raw materials program should strive to assess and minimize the risk to product quality. With this in mind, risk-assessment concepts and control strategies will be discussed and illustrated by examples, with an emphasis on the impact of raw materials on cell substrates. Finally, the life cycle of the raw material will be considered, including its potential to affect the drug product life cycle. In this framework, the supply chain and the vendor-manufacturer relationship will be explored as important parts of an adequate raw materials control strategy.

  9. Factors affecting adherence to a raw vegan diet

    PubMed Central

    Link, Lilli B.; Jacobson, Judith S.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate adherence and identify predictors of adherence to a raw vegan diet (i.e., uncooked plant foods) following a stay at a raw vegan institute. In this cohort study of guests at a raw vegan institute, subjects completed written questionnaires upon arrival and 12 weeks later. Of 107 eligible guests, 84 participated. Mean age was 54 years, 23 were male, and 73 white. Fifty-one completed the 12-week follow-up. Eight (16%) reported their diet to be ≥80% raw vegan at baseline and 14 (28%) at follow-up. Based on a raw vegan dietary adherence score (range 0-42) created for this study, mean adherence (SD) increased from 15.1 (5.4) to 17.0 (5.8) over 12 weeks (p=0.03). Baseline predictors of adherence included: education (β=0.95), severity of disease (β=0.98), and self-efficacy to adhere (β=0.72). Future interventions that evaluate this diet should address self-efficacy, an important, potentially remediable predictor of adherence. PMID:18243943

  10. Microbiological Assessment of Raw Goat Milk Collected from Sardinian Herds

    PubMed Central

    Carusillo, Francesca; Rosu, Valentina; Fancello, Cipriana; Pirino, Tonino; Bandino, Ennio

    2014-01-01

    With Regulation EC 853/04, the European Parliament and the Council laid down general rules for food business operators regarding the hygiene of foodstuffs. In particular, the regulation established ≤1.500.000 cfu/mL as the maximum-tolerated value for total bacterial count in raw goat milk. Moreover, in order to enhance the hygiene of dairy farms, the Sardinia Region has funded the F measure programme which provides rewards for farmers showing improvements in herd management and animal welfare practices. This work aimed to evaluate the microbiological quality of raw goat milk samples collected during the F measure enforcement. A total of 536 raw goat samples, collected from dairy farms in the Sardinian province of Nuoro and Ogliastra, were analised for total bacterial count at 30°C. Results showed that total bacterial count was ≤1.500.000 ufc/mL in 456 (85.1%) raw milk goat samples, most of them (80.2%) with a total bacterial contamination <500.000 cfu/mL. This study confirms the hygienic good quality of raw goat milk collected from Sardinian dairy farms. PMID:27800332

  11. Cardioprotective properties of raw and cooked eggplant (Solanum melongena L).

    PubMed

    Das, S; Raychaudhuri, U; Falchi, M; Bertelli, A; Braga, P C; Das, Dipak K

    2011-07-01

    Although eggplants are known to be part of a healthy diet, the effects of this fruit on cardioprotection are not known. The present study examined the role of raw and grilled eggplants on cardioprotection using an isolated perfusion heart model. The animals were fed freeze-dried products of either raw or grilled eggplants for 30 days. After 30 days, isolated working hearts were subjected to 30 min ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion. Left ventricular function was monitored, and myocardial infarct size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis were assessed. To determine the antioxidant function of eggplants, their DPPH scavenging ability were determined, and polyphenolic components, especially nasunin content, were determined. The chemical composition of raw and grilled eggplants were determined in order to examine whether grilling was associated with major changes in their composition. The results of this study demonstrated eggplants as containing potent cardioprotective compounds judging by their ability to increase left ventricular function, and reduce myocardial infarct size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. However, there was no difference in cardioprotective ability between the raw and grilled products. The antioxidant vitamins, including vitamin A, vitamin C and β-carotene, were lower and some of the polyphenolic components, especially nasunin content, were higher in grilled eggplants, but they were unable to demonstrate better cardioprotective properties compared to the raw fruit.

  12. Factors affecting adherence to a raw vegan diet.

    PubMed

    Link, Lilli B; Jacobson, Judith S

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate adherence and identify predictors of adherence to a raw vegan diet (i.e., uncooked plant foods) following a stay at a raw vegan institute. In this cohort study of guests at a raw vegan institute, subjects completed written questionnaires upon arrival and 12 weeks later. Of 107 eligible guests, 84 participated. Mean age was 54 years, 23 were male, and 73 white. Fifty-one completed the 12-week follow-up. Eight (16%) reported their diet to be 80% raw vegan at baseline and 14 (28%) at follow-up. Based on a raw vegan dietary adherence score (range 0-42) created for this study, mean adherence (SD) increased from 15.1 (5.4) to 17.0 (5.8) over 12 weeks (p=0.03). Baseline predictors of adherence included: education (beta=0.95), severity of disease (beta=0.98), and self-efficacy to adhere (beta=0.72). Future interventions that evaluate this diet should address self-efficacy, an important, potentially remediable predictor of adherence.

  13. Sampling design and required sample size for evaluating contamination levels of (137)Cs in Japanese fir needles in a mixed deciduous forest stand in Fukushima, Japan.

    PubMed

    Oba, Yurika; Yamada, Toshihiro

    2017-05-01

    We estimated the sample size (the number of samples) required to evaluate the concentration of radiocesium ((137)Cs) in Japanese fir (Abies firma Sieb. & Zucc.), 5 years after the outbreak of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. We investigated the spatial structure of the contamination levels in this species growing in a mixed deciduous broadleaf and evergreen coniferous forest stand. We sampled 40 saplings with a tree height of 150 cm-250 cm in a Fukushima forest community. The results showed that: (1) there was no correlation between the (137)Cs concentration in needles and soil, and (2) the difference in the spatial distribution pattern of (137)Cs concentration between needles and soil suggest that the contribution of root uptake to (137)Cs in new needles of this species may be minor in the 5 years after the radionuclides were released into the atmosphere. The concentration of (137)Cs in needles showed a strong positive spatial autocorrelation in the distance class from 0 to 2.5 m, suggesting that the statistical analysis of data should consider spatial autocorrelation in the case of an assessment of the radioactive contamination of forest trees. According to our sample size analysis, a sample size of seven trees was required to determine the mean contamination level within an error in the means of no more than 10%. This required sample size may be feasible for most sites.

  14. Rational design of mixed ionic and electronic conducting perovskite oxides for solid oxide fuel cell anode materials: A case study for doped SrTiO3

    SciTech Connect

    Suthirakun, Suwit; Xiao, Guoliang; Ammal, Salai Cheettu; Chen, Fanglin; zur Loye, Hans-Conrad; Heyden, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The effect of p- and n-type dopants on ionic and electronic conductivity of SrTiO3 based perovskites were investigated both computationally and experimentally. Specifically, we performed density functional theory (DFT) calculations of Na- and La-doped SrTiO3 and Na- and Nb-doped SrTiO3 systems. Constrained ab initio thermodynamic calculations were used to evaluate the phase stability and reducibility of doped SrTiO3 under both oxidizing and reducing synthesis conditions, as well as under anodic solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) conditions. The density of states (DOS) of these materials was analyzed to study the effects of p- and n-doping on the electronic conductivity. Furthermore, Na- and La-doped SrTiO3 and Na- and Nb-doped SrTiO3 samples were experimentally prepared and the conductivity was measured to confirm our computational predictions. The experimental observations are in very good agreement with the theoretical predictions that doping n-doped SrTiO3 with small amounts of p-type dopants promotes both the ionic and electronic conductivity of the material. This doping strategy is valid independent of p- and n-doping site and permits the synthesis of perovskite based mixed ionic/electronic conductors.

  15. Effect of post-harvest treatments on the occurrence of ochratoxin A in raw cocoa beans.

    PubMed

    Kedjebo, Kra Brou Didier; Guehi, Tagro Simplice; Kouakou, Brou; Durand, Noël; Aguilar, Philippe; Fontana, Angélique; Montet, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa beans are the principal raw material for chocolate manufacture. Moulds have an important place in the change in the quality of cocoa beans due to their role in the production of free fatty acids and mycotoxins, namely ochratoxin A (OTA). This study investigated the impact of the key post-harvest treatments, namely the fermentation and drying methods on OTA contamination of raw cocoa beans. Analytical methods for OTA detection were based on solid-liquid extraction, clean-up using an immunoaffinity column, and identification by reversed-phase HPLC with fluorescence detection. Of a total of 104 randomly selected cocoa samples analysed, 32% had OTA contents above 2 µg kg(-1). Cocoa sourced from pods in a bad state of health had a maximum OTA content of 39.2 µg kg(-1), while that obtained from healthy pods recorded 11.2 µg kg(-1). The production of OTA in cocoa beans increased according to the pod-opening delay and reached 39.2 µg kg(-1) after an opening delay of 7 days after harvest, while 6.1 and 11.2 µg kg(-1) were observed when pods were opened after 0 and 4 days. OTA production also seemed to depend considerably to the cocoa fermentation materials. When using plastic boxes for bean fermentation, the OTA production was enhanced and reached an average OTA content of about 4.9 µg kg(-1), while the raw cocoa treated in banana leaves and wooden boxes recorded 1.6 and 2.2 µg kg(-1) on average respectively. In parallel, the OTA production was not really influenced by either the mixing or the duration of the fermentation or the drying materials.

  16. Water reservoir as resource of raw material for ceramic industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irie, M.; Tarhouni, J.

    2015-04-01

    The industries related to the ceramics such as construction bricks, pottery and tile are the important sectors that cover the large part of the working population in Tunisia. The raw materials, clay or silt are excavated from opencast site of limestone clay stratum. The opencast site give the negative impact on landscape and environment, risks of landslide, soil erosion etc. On the other hand, a most serious problem in water resource management, especially in arid land such as Tunisia, is sedimentation in reservoirs. Sediment accumulation in the reservoirs reduces the water storage capacity. The authors proposed the exploitation of the sediment as raw material for the ceramics industries in the previous studies because the sediment in Tunisia is fine silt. In this study, the potential of the water reservoirs in Tunisia as the resource of the raw material for the ceramics industries is estimated from the sedimentation ratio in the water reservoirs.

  17. Ethanol Production from Traditional and Emerging Raw Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolf, Andreas; Karhumaa, Kaisa; Hahn-Hägerdal, Bärbel

    The ethanol industry of today utilizes raw materials rich in saccharides, such as sugar cane or sugar beets, and raw materials rich in starch, such as corn and wheat. The concern about supply of liquid transportation fuels, which has brought the crude oil price above 100 /barrel during 2006, together with the concern about global warming, have turned the interest towards large-scale ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials, such as agriculture and forestry residues. Baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the preferred fermenting microorganism for ethanol production because of its superior and well-documented industrial performance. Extensive work has been made to genetically improve S. cerevisiae to enable fermentation of lignocellulosic raw materials. Ethanolic fermentation processes are conducted in batch, fed-batch, or continuous mode, with or without cell recycling, the relative merit of which will be discussed.

  18. Pooling raw shell eggs: Salmonella contamination and high risk practices in the United Kingdom food service sector.

    PubMed

    Gormley, F J; Little, C L; Murphy, N; de Pinna, E; McLauchlin, J

    2010-03-01

    Salmonella contamination of pooled raw shelled egg mix (RSEM) used as an ingredient in lightly cooked or uncooked foods and high-risk kitchen hygiene practices in United Kingdom food service establishments using RSEM were investigated. Samples were collected from 934 premises. Salmonella was found in 1 (0.13%) of 764 RSEM samples, 2 (0.3%) of 726 samples from surfaces where ready-to-eat foods were prepared, and 7 (1.3%) of 550 cleaning cloths. Poor RSEM storage and handling practices were highlighted. Workers in 40% of the premises sampled failed to use designated utensils when RSEM was added to other ingredients, workers in 17% of the premises did not clean surfaces and utensils thoroughly after use with RSEM and before preparing other foods, only 42% of workers washed and dried their hands after handling eggs or RSEM, workers in 41% of the premises did not store RSEM at refrigeration temperature before use, and workers in 8% of the premises added RSEM to cooked rice at the end of cooking when preparing egg fried rice. Take-away premises, especially those serving Chinese cuisine, were least likely to have a documented food safety management system and awareness of the key food safety points concerning the use of RSEM compared with other food service premises (P < 0.0001). Food service businesses using RSEM must be aware of the continuing hazard from Salmonella, must adopt appropriate control measures, and must follow advice provided by national food agencies to reduce the risk of Salmonella infection.

  19. Interfacial Design of Ternary Mixed Matrix Membranes Containing Pebax 1657/Silver-Nanopowder/[BMIM][BF4] for Improved CO2 Separation Performance.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi Estahbanati, Ehsan; Omidkhah, Mohammadreza; Ebadi Amooghin, Abtin

    2017-03-08

    In this research, Pebax1657 as an organic phase and silver nanoparticles as an inorganic phase were used for preparation of binary mixed matrix membranes (MMMs). Silver nanoparticles as a filler could enter the polymer chains and enhance the gas permeability by increasing the fractional free volume of membranes. Afterward, ternary MMMs were fabricated by addition of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM][BF4]) ionic liquid, in order to have better polymer/filler adhesion and eliminate interfacial defects and nonselective voids. In addition, positively polarized silver nanoparticles in the presence of the IL could interact with PEO segment of the polymer and increase the CO2 affinity of membranes, which results in increasing the CO2/light gases permselectivity of MMMs. Gas permeation properties of MMMs were studied at a temperature of 35 °C and operating pressures from 2 to 10 bar. Moreover, fabricated membranes were characterized by fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The analysis revealed that there is a proper adhesion between positively charged surface of nanoparticles and the polymer, and both filler and IL decrease the crystallinity of the membranes, which could enhance the polar gas transport properties. Gas permeation results showed significant enhancement in CO2 permeability (325 Barrer) for binary membrane (Pebax 1657/1%Ag) at 35 °C and 10 bar. Moreover, ternary MMM (Pebax 1657/0.5%Ag/50%IL) encountered significant increase in both permeability and selectivity in comparison with neat membrane. Indeed, the CO2 permeability increased from 110 Barrer to 180 (about 64%). Moreover, the related CO2/CH4 and CO2/N2 selectivities were increased from 20.8 to 61.0 (more than 193%) and from 78.6 to 187.5 (about 139%), respectively.

  20. EARLINET Single Calculus Chain - technical - Part 1: Pre-processing of raw lidar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, Giuseppe; Amodeo, Aldo; Mattis, Ina; Freudenthaler, Volker; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we describe an automatic tool for the pre-processing of aerosol lidar data called ELPP (EARLINET Lidar Pre-Processor). It is one of two calculus modules of the EARLINET Single Calculus Chain (SCC), the automatic tool for the analysis of EARLINET data. ELPP is an open source module that executes instrumental corrections and data handling of the raw lidar signals, making the lidar data ready to be processed by the optical retrieval algorithms. According to the specific lidar configuration, ELPP automatically performs dead-time correction, atmospheric and electronic background subtraction, gluing of lidar signals, and trigger-delay correction. Moreover, the signal-to-noise ratio of the pre-processed signals can be improved by means of configurable time integration of the raw signals and/or spatial smoothing. ELPP delivers the statistical uncertainties of the final products by means of error propagation or Monte Carlo simulations. During the development of ELPP, particular attention has been payed to make the tool flexible enough to handle all lidar configurations currently used within the EARLINET community. Moreover, it has been designed in a modular way to allow an easy extension to lidar configurations not yet implemented. The primary goal of ELPP is to enable the application of quality-assured procedures in the lidar data analysis starting from the raw lidar data. This provides the added value of full traceability of each delivered lidar product. Several tests have been performed to check the proper functioning of ELPP. The whole SCC has been tested with the same synthetic data sets, which were used for the EARLINET algorithm inter-comparison exercise. ELPP has been successfully employed for the automatic near-real-time pre-processing of the raw lidar data measured during several EARLINET inter-comparison campaigns as well as during intense field campaigns.

  1. EARLINET Single Calculus Chain - technical - Part 1: Pre-processing of raw lidar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, G.; Amodeo, A.; Mattis, I.; Freudenthaler, V.; Pappalardo, G.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we describe an automatic tool for the pre-processing of lidar data called ELPP (EARLINET Lidar Pre-Processor). It is one of two calculus modules of the EARLINET Single Calculus Chain (SCC), the automatic tool for the analysis of EARLINET data. The ELPP is an open source module that executes instrumental corrections and data handling of the raw lidar signals, making the lidar data ready to be processed by the optical retrieval algorithms. According to the specific lidar configuration, the ELPP automatically performs dead-time correction, atmospheric and electronic background subtraction, gluing of lidar signals, and trigger-delay correction. Moreover, the signal-to-noise ratio of the pre-processed signals can be improved by means of configurable time integration of the raw signals and/or spatial smoothing. The ELPP delivers the statistical uncertainties of the final products by means of error propagation or Monte Carlo simulations. During the development of the ELPP module, particular attention has been payed to make the tool flexible enough to handle all lidar configurations currently used within the EARLINET community. Moreover, it has been designed in a modular way to allow an easy extension to lidar configurations not yet implemented. The primary goal of the ELPP module is to enable the application of quality-assured procedures in the lidar data analysis starting from the raw lidar data. This provides the added value of full traceability of each delivered lidar product. Several tests have been performed to check the proper functioning of the ELPP module. The whole SCC has been tested with the same synthetic data sets, which were used for the EARLINET algorithm inter-comparison exercise. The ELPP module has been successfully employed for the automatic near-real-time pre-processing of the raw lidar data measured during several EARLINET inter-comparison campaigns as well as during intense field campaigns.

  2. Predicting pathogen growth during short-term temperature abuse of raw sausage.

    PubMed

    Ingham, Steven C; Ingham, Barbara H; Borneman, Darand; Jaussaud, Emilie; Schoeller, Erica L; Hoftiezer, Nathan; Schwartzburg, Lauren; Burnham, Greg M; Norback, John P

    2009-01-01

    Lag-phase duration (LPD) and growth rate (GR) values were calculated from experimental data obtained using a previously described protocol (S. C. Ingham, M. A. Fanslau, G. M. Burnham, B. H. Ingham, J. P. Norback, and D. W. Schaffner, J. Food Prot. 70:1445-1456, 2007). These values were used to develop an interval accumulation-based tool designated THERM (temperature history evaluation for raw meats) for predicting growth or no growth of Salmonella serovars, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Staphylococcus aureus in temperature-abused raw sausage. Data (time-temperature and pathogen log CFU per gram) were obtained from six inoculation experiments with Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, and S. aureus in three raw pork sausage products stored under different temperature abuse conditions. The time-temperature history from each experiment was entered into THERM to predict pathogen growth. Predicted and experimental results were described as growth (> 0.3 log increase in CFU) or no growth (< or = 0.3 log increase in CFU) and compared. The THERM tool accurately predicted growth or no growth for all 18 pathogen-experiment combinations. When compared with the observed changes in log CFU values for the nine pathogen-experiment combinations in which pathogens grew, the predicted changes in log CFU values were within 0.3 log CFU for three combinations, exceeded observed values by 0.4 to 1.5 log CFU in four combinations, and were 1.2 to 1.4 log CFU lower in two combinations. The THERM tool approach appears to be useful for predicting pathogen growth versus no growth in raw sausage during temperature abuse, although further development and testing are warranted.

  3. Investigation on flow and mixing characteristics of supersonic mixing layer induced by forced vibration of cantilever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dongdong; Tan, Jianguo; Lv, Liang

    2015-12-01

    The mixing process has been an important issue for the design of supersonic combustion ramjet engine, and the mixing efficiency plays a crucial role in the improvement of the combustion efficiency. In the present study, nanoparticle-based planar laser scattering (NPLS), particle image velocimetry (PIV) and large eddy simulation (LES) are employed to investigate the flow and mixing characteristics of supersonic mixing layer under different forced vibration conditions. The indexes of fractal dimension, mixing layer thickness, momentum thickness and scalar mixing level are applied to describe the mixing process. Results show that different from the development and evolution of supersonic mixing layer without vibration, the flow under forced vibration is more likely to present the characteristics of three-dimensionality. The laminar flow region of mixing layer under forced vibration is greatly shortened and the scales of rolled up Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices become larger, which promote the mixing process remarkably. The fractal dimension distribution reveals that comparing with the flow without vibration, the turbulent fluctuation of supersonic mixing layer under forced vibration is more intense. Besides, the distribution of mixing layer thickness, momentum thickness and scalar mixing level are strongly influenced by forced vibration. Especially, when the forcing frequency is 4000 Hz, the mixing layer thickness and momentum thickness are 0.0391 m and 0.0222 m at the far field of 0.16 m, 83% and 131% higher than that without vibration at the same position, respectively.

  4. Gastric digestion of raw and roasted almonds in vivo.

    PubMed

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Roman, Maxine J; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Burri, Betty J; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, R Paul

    2013-11-01

    Almonds are an important dietary source of lipids, protein, and α-tocopherol. It has been demonstrated that the physical form of almond kernels influences their digestion and absorption, but the role of thermal processes on the digestion of almonds has received little attention. The objectives of this study were to examine the gastric emptying and nutrient composition of gastric chyme from pigs (used as a model for the adult human) fed a single meal of either raw or roasted almonds over a 12-h postprandial period (72 pigs total, 6 pigs at each diet-time combination). Concentrations of glucose, triacylglycerols, and α-tocopherol in peripheral plasma during the 12-h postprandial period were determined. For dry matter and lipid, the gastric emptying profile was not different between raw and roasted almonds. Roasting almonds also did not influence gastric pH, or plasma glucose or triacylglycerols levels. In contrast, the gastric emptying of protein was more rapid for raw almonds compared to roasted almonds (P < 0.01) and intragastric protein content exhibited segregation (P < 0.001) throughout the stomach, with raw almonds having a higher level of segregation compared to roasted almonds. Postprandial plasma α-tocopherol levels were, on average 33% greater (P < 0.001) after consumption of raw almonds, most likely as a result of the higher concentration of α-tocopherol in raw almonds compared to roasted almonds. Roasting of almonds did not influence the overall gastric emptying process, but did lead to differences in the distribution of protein in the stomach and to the gastric emptying of protein.

  5. Incorporation of Listeria monocytogenes strains in raw milk biofilms.

    PubMed

    Weiler, Christiane; Ifland, Andrea; Naumann, Annette; Kleta, Sylvia; Noll, Matthias

    2013-02-01

    Biofilms develop successively on devices of milk production without sufficient cleaning and originate from the microbial community of raw milk. The established biofilm matrices enable incorporation of pathogens like Listeria monocytogenes, which can cause a continuous contamination of food processing plants. L. monocytogenes is frequently found in raw milk and non-pasteurized raw milk products and as part of a biofilm community in milk meters and bulk milk tanks. The aim of this study was to analyze whether different L. monocytogenes strains are interacting with the microbial community of raw milk in terms of biofilm formation in the same manner, and to identify at which stage of biofilm formation a selected L. monocytogenes strain settles best. Bacterial community structure and composition of biofilms were analyzed by a cloning and sequencing approach and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (T-RFLP) based on the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The chemical composition of biofilms was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), while settled L. monocytogenes cells were quantified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Addition of individual L. monocytogenes strains to raw milk caused significant shifts in the biofilm biomass, in the chemical as well as in the bacterial community composition. Biofilm formation and attachment of L. monocytogenes cells were not serotype but strain specific. However, the added L. monocytogenes strains were not abundant since mainly members of the genera Citrobacter and Lactococcus dominated the bacterial biofilm community. Overall, added L. monocytogenes strains led to a highly competitive interaction with the raw milk community and triggered alterations in biofilm formation.

  6. Microbiological quality of raw milk attributable to prolonged refrigeration conditions.

    PubMed

    Vithanage, Nuwan R; Dissanayake, Muditha; Bolge, Greg; Palombo, Enzo A; Yeager, Thomas R; Datta, Nivedita

    2017-02-01

    Refrigerated storage of raw milk is a prerequisite in dairy industry. However, temperature abused conditions in the farming and processing environments can significantly affect the microbiological quality of raw milk. Thus, the present study investigated the effect of different refrigeration conditions such as 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 °C on microbiological quality of raw milk from three different dairy farms with significantly different initial microbial counts. The bacterial counts (BC), protease activity (PA), proteolysis (PL) and microbial diversity in raw milk were determined during storage. The effect of combined heating (75 ± 0·5 °C for 15 s) and refrigeration on controlling those contaminating microorganisms was also investigated. Results of the present study indicated that all of the samples showed increasing BC, PA and PL as a function of temperature, time and initial BC with a significant increase in those criteria ≥6 °C. Similar trends in BC, PA and PL were observed during the extended storage of raw milk at 4 °C. Both PA and PL showed strong correlation with the psychrotrophic proteolytic count (PPrBC: at ≥4 °C) and thermoduric psychrotrophic count (TDPC: at ≥8 °C) compared to total plate count (TPC) and psychrotrophic bacterial count (PBC), that are often used as the industry standard. Significant increases in PA and PL were observed when PPrBC and TDPC reached 5 × 104 cfu/ml and 1 × 104 cfu/ml, and were defined as storage life for quality (S LQ), and storage life for safety (S LS) aspects, respectively. The storage conditions also significantly affected the microbial diversity, where Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus cereus were found to be the most predominant isolates. However, deep cooling (2 °C) and combination of heating and refrigeration (≤4 °C) significantly extended the S LQ and S Ls of raw milk.

  7. Beyond waste: new sustainable fillers from fly ashes stabilization, obtained by low cost raw materials.

    PubMed

    Rodella, N; Pasquali, M; Zacco, A; Bilo, F; Borgese, L; Bontempi, N; Tomasoni, G; Depero, L E; Bontempi, E

    2016-09-01

    A sustainable economy can be achieved only by assessing processes finalized to optimize the use of resources. Waste can be a relevant source of energy thanks to energy-from-waste processes. Concerns regarding the toxic fly ashes can be solved by transforming them into resource as recycled materials. The commitment to recycle is driven by the need to conserve natural resources, reduce imports of raw materials, save landfill space and reduce pollution. A new method to stabilize fly ash from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator (MSWI) at room temperature has been developed thanks to COSMOS-RICE LIFE+ project (www.cosmos-rice.csmt.eu). This process is based on a chemical reaction that occurs properly mixing three waste fly ashes with rice husk ash, an agricultural by-product. COSMOS inert can replace critical raw materials (i.e. silica, fluorspar, clays, bentonite, antimony and alumina) as filler. Moreover the materials employed in the stabilization procedure may be not available in all areas. This paper investigates the possibility of substituting silica fume with corresponding condensed silica fume and to substitute flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) residues with low-cost calcium hydroxide powder. The removal of coal fly ash was also considered. The results will be presented and a possible substitution of the materials to stabilize fly ash will be discussed.

  8. Mutagenicity studies in a tyre plant: in vitro activity of workers' urinary concentrates and raw materials.

    PubMed Central

    Crebelli, R; Paoletti, A; Falcone, E; Aquilina, G; Fabri, G; Carere, A

    1985-01-01

    The possible contribution to urinary mutagenicity of occupational exposures in the rubber industry was studied by assaying the urine concentrates of 72 workmen (44 smokers) employed in a tyre plant. Twenty three clerks (16 smokers) engaged in the administrative department of the same factory served as presumptive unexposed controls. XAD-2 resin concentrates of urine samples were assayed in the plate incorporation test and in the microtitre fluctuation assay with Salmonella typhimurium strains TA1535, TA98, and TA100. Furthermore, the in vitro mutagenicity of the major raw materials in use at the plant was determined in the plate incorporation assay with S typhimurium strains TA1535, TA1537, TA98, and TA100. The results obtained from the urinary mutagenicity study show that smoking habits, but not occupation, were statistically significantly related to the appearance of a urinary mutagenicity that was detectable with strain TA98. A possible synergistic effect of occupation with smoking was observed among tyre builders who were also smokers. The study of the raw materials showed that three technical grade materials were weakly active as mutagens in strain TA98 in the absence (poly-p-dinitrosobenzene) or in the presence of metabolic activation (mixed diaryl-p-phenylendiamines and tetramethyltiuram disulphide). The latter chemical was also weakly active in strain TA100. PMID:4015996

  9. Recovery of indigenous enteroviruses from raw and digested sewage sludges.

    PubMed Central

    Goddard, M R; Bates, J; Butler, M

    1981-01-01

    We examined different types of raw sewage sludge treatment, including consolidation, anaerobic mesophilic digestion with subsequent consolidation, and aerobic-thermophilic digestion. Of these, the most efficient reduction in infectious virus titer was achieved by mesophilic digestion with subsequent consolidation, although a pilot-scale aerobic-thermophilic digester was extremely time effective, producing sludges with similarly low virus titers in a small fraction of the time. Although none of the treatments examined consistently produced a sludge with undetectable virus levels, mesophilic digestion alone was found to be particularly unreliable in reducing the levels of infectious virus present in the raw sludge. PMID:6274258

  10. Radar sensitivity and antenna scan pattern study for a satellite-based Radar Wind Sounder (RAWS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, Michael A.

    1992-01-01

    Modeling global atmospheric circulations and forecasting the weather would improve greatly if worldwide information on winds aloft were available. Recognition of this led to the inclusion of the LAser Wind Sounder (LAWS) system to measure Doppler shifts from aerosols in the planned for Earth Observation System (EOS). However, gaps will exist in LAWS coverage where heavy clouds are present. The RAdar Wind Sensor (RAWS) is an instrument that could fill these gaps by measuring Doppler shifts from clouds and rain. Previous studies conducted at the University of Kansas show RAWS as a feasible instrument. This thesis pertains to the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) sensitivity, transmit waveform, and limitations to the antenna scan pattern of the RAWS system. A dop-size distribution model is selected and applied to the radar range equation for the sensitivity analysis. Six frequencies are used in computing the SNR for several cloud types to determine the optimal transmit frequency. the results show the use of two frequencies, one higher (94 GHz) to obtain sensitivity for thinner cloud, and a lower frequency (24 GHz) to obtain sensitivity for thinner cloud, and a lower frequency (24 GHz) for better penetration in rain, provide ample SNR. The waveform design supports covariance estimation processing. This estimator eliminates the Doppler ambiguities compounded by the selection of such high transmit frequencies, while providing an estimate of the mean frequency. the unambiguous range and velocity computation shows them to be within acceptable limits. The design goal for the RAWS system is to limit the wind-speed error to less than 1 ms(exp -1). Due to linear dependence between vectors for a three-vector scan pattern, a reasonable wind-speed error is unattainable. Only the two-vector scan pattern falls within the wind-error limits for azimuth angles between 16 deg to 70 deg. However, this scan only allows two components of the wind to be determined. As a result, a technique is

  11. Evaluation of an assistive technology product design using a paired comparisons method within a mixed methods approach: a case study evaluating preferences for four types of cutlery with 34 upper limb impaired participants.

    PubMed

    Torrens, George Edward; Smith, Nicholas Charles Selby

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of the study was the assessment of preferences for four types of assistive technology (AT) domestic cutlery with 24 female and 10 male participants who had a range of upper limb impairments. A mixed-methods methodology, that included a paired comparisons analysis, was used to inform product development. Qualitative and quantitative data collected at the time provided triangulation of cohort preferences and insight into the reasoning of the participants. The results indicate that a high friction surface on AT cutlery handles is useful for all upper limb impaired users; however, the unconventional shapes of the Caring Cutlery better match the grip patterns generated by those with arthritis. Conventionally shaped handles are favoured by those who generate conventional grip patterns. Statistical analysis of the paired comparisons results indicated a clear preference for the Caring Cutlery by those with arthritis. The Etan Cutlery set was favoured by those using one hand that predominantly had hemiplegia following a stroke. The paired comparisons method was used as part of a mixed methodology that was considered to be cost effective. The authors concluded that the methodology was useful to help validate a new inclusive/universal product design when the desired attributes are not accurately known.

  12. RAWS: Collective interactions and data transfers

    SciTech Connect

    Fasel, P.K.; Keahey, K.; Mniszewski, S. M.

    2001-01-01

    recent contributions to the CCA design process related to the interactions of parallel components, called collective components. We introduce the notion of a collectible port which is an extension of the CCA ports [AGG+99] and allows collective components to interact as one entity. This is a functionality not found in other existing standards of the day such as [OMG95, Ses97] and represents a significant extension of these standards. The usefulness and efficiency of similar abstractions has been shown in [KG97a, KG97b]. The abstraction described here, extends them in that it allows the programmer to define the performance/utility trade-off of his or her choice. We further describe a class of translation components, which translate between the distributed data format used by one parallel implementation, to that used by another. A well known example of such components is the MxN component which translates between data distributed on M processors to data distributed on N processors. We described its implementation in PAWS, and the supporting data structures. We also present a mechanism allowing the framework to invoke this component on the programmer's behalf whenever such translation is necessary freeing the programmer from treating collective component interactions as a special case. In doing that we introduce user-defined distributed type casts. Finally, we discuss our initial experiments in building complex translation components out of atomic functionalities. Since PAWS assumes a distributed memory model, our experiments are limited to dense rectilinear data. We describe a PAWS application to illustrate the results of this discussion.

  13. Mixed Methods Approaches in Family Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine A.; Churchill, Susan L.; Green, Denise O'Neil; Garrett, Amanda L.

    2008-01-01

    The complex phenomena of interest to family scientists require the use of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Researchers across the social sciences are now turning to mixed methods designs that combine these two approaches. Mixed methods research has great promise for addressing family science topics, but only if researchers understand the…

  14. Design and characterization of a mixed-signal PCB for digital-to-analog conversion in a modular and scalable infrared scene projector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedict, Jacob

    Infra-red (IR) sensors have proven instrumental in a wide variety of fields from military to industrial applications. The proliferation of IR sensors has spawned an intense push for technologies that can test and calibrate the multitudes of IR sensors. One such technology, IR scene projection (IRSP), provides an inexpensive and safe method for the testing of IR sensor devices. Previous efforts have been conducted to develop IRSPs based on super-lattice light emitting diodes (SLEDS). A single-color 512x512 SLEDs system has been developed, produced, and tested as documented in Corey Lange's Master's thesis, and a GOMAC paper by Rodney McGee [1][2]. Current efforts are being undergone to develop a two-color 512x512 SLEDs system designated (TCSA). The following thesis discusses the design and implementation of a custom printed circuit board (PCB), known as the FMC 4DAC, that contains both analog and digital signals. Utilizing two 16-bit digital-to-analog converters (DAC) the purpose of the board is to provide four analog current output channels for driving the TCSA system to a maximum frame rate of 1 kHz. In addition, the board supports a scalable TCSA system architecture. Several copies of the board can be run in parallel to achieve a range of analog channels between 4 and 32.

  15. Reducing Salt in Raw Pork Sausages Increases Spoilage and Correlates with Reduced Bacterial Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Fougy, Lysiane; Desmonts, Marie-Hélène; Coeuret, Gwendoline; Fassel, Christine; Hamon, Erwann; Hézard, Bernard; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Raw sausages are perishable foodstuffs; reducing their salt content raises questions about a possible increased spoilage of these products. In this study, we evaluated the influence of salt reduction (from 2.0% to 1.5% [wt/wt]), in combination with two types of packaging (modified atmosphere [50% mix of CO2-N2] and vacuum packaging), on the onset of spoilage and on the diversity of spoilage-associated bacteria. After 21 days of storage at 8°C, spoilage was easily observed, characterized by noticeable graying of the products and the production of gas and off-odors defined as rancid, sulfurous, or sour. At least one of these types of spoilage occurred in each sample, and the global spoilage intensity was more pronounced in samples stored under modified atmosphere than under vacuum packaging and in samples with the lower salt content. Metagenetic 16S rRNA pyrosequencing revealed that vacuum-packaged samples contained a higher total bacterial richness (n = 69 operational taxonomic units [OTUs]) than samples under the other packaging condition (n = 46 OTUs). The core community was composed of 6 OTUs (Lactobacillus sakei, Lactococcus piscium, Carnobacterium divergens, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Serratia proteamaculans, and Brochothrix thermosphacta), whereas 13 OTUs taxonomically assigned to the Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcaceae, and Leuconostocaceae families comprised a less-abundant subpopulation. This subdominant community was significantly more abundant when 2.0% salt and vacuum packaging were used, and this correlated with a lower degree of spoilage. Our results demonstrate that salt reduction, particularly when it is combined with CO2-enriched packaging, promotes faster spoilage of raw sausages by lowering the overall bacterial diversity (both richness and evenness). IMPORTANCE Our study takes place in the context of raw meat product manufacturing and is linked to a requirement for salt reduction. Health guidelines are calling for a reduction in

  16. Monitoring Uranium Transformations Determined by the Evolution of Biogeochemical Processes: Design of Mixed Batch Reactor and Column Studies at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Criddle, Craig S.; Wu, Weimin

    2013-04-17

    With funds provided by the US DOE, Argonne National Laboratory subcontracted the design of batch and column studies to a Stanford University team with field experience at the ORNL IFRC, Oak Ridge, TN. The contribution of the Stanford group ended in 2011 due to budget reduction in ANL. Over the funded research period, the Stanford research team characterized ORNL IFRC groundwater and sediments and set up microcosm reactors and columns at ANL to ensure that experiments were relevant to field conditions at Oak Ridge. The results of microcosm testing demonstrated that U(VI) in sediments was reduced to U(IV) with the addition of ethanol. The reduced products were not uraninite but were instead U(IV) complexes associated with Fe. Fe(III) in solid phase was only partially reduced. The Stanford team communicated with the ANL team members through email and conference calls and face to face at the annual ERSP PI meeting and national meetings.

  17. Bacteriophage significantly reduces Listeria monocytogenes on raw salmon fillet tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have demonstrated the antilisterial activity of generally recognized as safe (GRAS) bacteriophage LISTEX P100 (phage P100) on the surface of raw salmon fillet tissue against Listeria monocytogenes serotypes 1/2a and 4b. In a broth model system, phage P100 completely inhibited L. monocytogenes gro...

  18. “In bacteria land”: the battle over raw milk.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Beginning at around 1893, America’s initial raw milk wars pitted proponents of pasteurized milk against advocates of a complex scheme for “certifying” clean, uncontaminated raw milk. The certification program, unsuited to modern commercial economies of scale, soon faded into obscurity. When a new version of the raw milk movement began gathering strength in the 1970s, scarcely anyone remembered the terms on which a certain amount of rational debate had once taken place. Part of the reason is that over the course of the twentieth century, the scale and structure of the fluid milk industry had undergone drastic changes that turned a highly variable, fragile product into a nearly featureless one poorly understood by consumers, regulators, or polemicists. Meanwhile, new dairying and processing practices had begun creating hospitable conditions for pathogens that were unknown during the first controversies but that urgently need to be considered today. Unfortunately, discussion of the raw milk question is now almost wholly dictated by intolerant ideologues on both sides, in an atmosphere of profound historical amnesia. Given the great complexity of the issues involved and the serious implications for public health, the general tone of debate is at best counterproductive.

  19. Characterization of silica quartz as raw material in photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boussaa, S. Anas; Kheloufi, A.; Zaourar, N. Boutarek; Kefaifi, A.; Kerkar, F.

    2016-07-01

    Raw materials are essential for the functioning of modern societies, and access to these raw materials is vital to the world economy. Sustainable development, both globally level, raises important new challenges associated with access and efficient use of raw materials. High purity quartz, is consider as a critical raw material and it is a rare commodity that only forms under geological conditions where a narrow set of chemical and physical parameters is fulfilled. When identified and following special beneficiation techniques, high purity quartz obtains very attractive prices and is applied in high technology sectors that currently are under rapid expansion such as photovoltaic solar cells, silicon metal - oxide wafers in the semiconductor industry and long distance optical fibers that are used in communication networks. Crystalline silicon remains the principal material for photovoltaic technology. Metallurgical silicon is produced industrially by the reduction of silica with carbon in an electric arc furnace at temperatures higher than 2000 °C in the hottest parts, by a reaction that can be written ideally as: SiO2 + 2C = Si + 2CO. The aim of this study has been to test experimental methods for investigating the various physical and chemical proprieties of Hoggar quartz with different techniques: X Ray Fluorescence, infra-red spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Optic Microscopy, Carbon Analyzer and Vickers Hardness. The results show finally that the quartz has got good result in purity but need enrichment for the photovoltaic application.

  20. Relating raw rice color and composition to cooked rice color.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditionally, the color of milled rice is economically important. The whiter the rice the more it is preferred by consumers and the more value it has in the market place. Little attention has been given to relating raw rice color to cooked milled rice color and, specifically, to determining the i...

  1. Optimization of alpha-amylase application in raw sugar manufacture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years there have been warnings by some U.S. refineries that there may be a penalty for high starch concentration sin raw sugar if starch control is not improved. Most commercial alpha-amylases used by the U.S. sugar industry to control starch have intermediate temperature stability (up to...

  2. VIEW ALONG RAW MATERIAL CONVEYOR AT RIGHT WITH CRUSHED SHELL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW ALONG RAW MATERIAL CONVEYOR AT RIGHT WITH CRUSHED SHELL CONVEYOR ABOVE. ENGINE AND RADIATOR AT LOWER LEFT. - F. & H. Benning Company Oyster Mill, 14430 Solomons Island Road (moved from 1014 Benning Road, Galesville, Anne Arundel County, Maryland), Solomons, Calvert County, MD

  3. Upgrading of raw oil into advanced fuel. Task 5

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The overall objective of the research effort is the determination of the minimum processing requirements to produce high energy density fuels (HEDF) having acceptable fuel specifications. The program encompasses assessing current technology capability; selecting acceptable processing and refining schemes; and generating samples of advanced test fuels. The Phase I Baseline Program is intended to explore the processing alternatives for producing advanced HEDF from two raw synfuel feedstocks, one from Mild Coal Gasification as exemplified by the COALITE process and one from Colorado shale oil. Eight key tasks have been identified as follows: (1) Planning and Environmental Permitting; (2) Transporting and Storage of Raw Fuel Sources and Products; (3) Screening of Processing and Upgrading Schemes; (4) Proposed Upgrading Schemes for Advanced Fuel; (5) Upgrading of Raw Oil into Advanced Fuel (6) Packaging and Shipment of Advanced Fuels; (7) Updated Technical and Economic Assessment; and, (8) Final Report of Phase I Efforts. This topical report summarizes the operations and results of the Phase I Task 5 sample preparation program. The specific objectives of Task 5 were to: Perform laboratory characterization tests on the raw COALITE feed, the intermediate liquids to the required hydroprocessing units and final advanced fuels and byproducts; and produce a minimum of 25-gal of Category I test fuel for evaluation by DOE and its contractors.

  4. Hydrogenated cottonseed oil as raw material for biobased materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There has been a lot of recent interest in using vegetable oils as biodegradable and renewable raw materials for the syntheses of various biobased materials. Although most of the attention has been paid to soybean oil thus far, cottonseed oil is a viable alternative. An advantage of cottonseed oil...

  5. GENERAL VIEW OF CENTRAL COMPLEX SHOWING STICK BINS FOR RAW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF CENTRAL COMPLEX SHOWING STICK BINS FOR RAW MATERIALS IN FOREGROUND, FOUR LARGE BOILER UNITS, AND STOVES AND THE #2 BLAST FURNACE WITH SKIP HOIST IN BACKGROUND. VIEW FROM THE EAST. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  6. Mathematical Model of Raw Hide Curing with Brine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most common method of preserving raw hides is brine curing with sodium chloride. However, this process has three important disadvantages: first, the length of time that it takes, which is a minimum of 18 hours; second, the insufficient degree of curing reached in some hides due to an overload a...

  7. RAW COPPER SLABS USED IN CASTING OPERATIONS AT BUFFALO PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    RAW COPPER SLABS USED IN CASTING OPERATIONS AT BUFFALO PLANT OF AMERICAN BRASS COMPANY. MATERIALS STORAGE FOR THE CAST SHOP NOW OCCUPIES A PORTION OF THE ORIGINAL BRASS MILL BUILT BY THE BUFFALO COPPER AND BRASS ROLLING MILL IN 1906-07 AND EXPANDED IN 1911. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  8. ORPC RivGen controller performance raw data - Igiugig 2015

    DOE Data Explorer

    Jarlath McEntee

    2015-12-18

    Contains raw data for operations of Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC) RivGen Power System in Igiugig 2015 in Matlab data file format. Two data files capture the data and timestamps for data, including power in, voltage, rotation rate, and velocity.

  9. 40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Measurement of the air flow and the fuel flow by suitable metering systems (for details see SAE J244. This... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Raw exhaust gas flow. 89.416 Section 89.416 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  10. 40 CFR 91.415 - Raw gaseous sampling procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... particles from the flow of gas required for analysis. The sample line for HC measurement must be heated. The... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Raw gaseous sampling procedures. 91.415 Section 91.415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  11. 40 CFR 91.415 - Raw gaseous sampling procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... particles from the flow of gas required for analysis. The sample line for HC measurement must be heated. The... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Raw gaseous sampling procedures. 91.415 Section 91.415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  12. 40 CFR 91.415 - Raw gaseous sampling procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... particles from the flow of gas required for analysis. The sample line for HC measurement must be heated. The... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Raw gaseous sampling procedures. 91.415 Section 91.415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  13. 40 CFR 91.415 - Raw gaseous sampling procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... particles from the flow of gas required for analysis. The sample line for HC measurement must be heated. The... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raw gaseous sampling procedures. 91.415 Section 91.415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  14. 40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Measurement of the air flow and the fuel flow by suitable metering systems (for details see SAE J244. This... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raw exhaust gas flow. 89.416 Section 89.416 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  15. 40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Measurement of the air flow and the fuel flow by suitable metering systems (for details see SAE J244. This... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Raw exhaust gas flow. 89.416 Section 89.416 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  16. 40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Measurement of the air flow and the fuel flow by suitable metering systems (for details see SAE J244. This... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Raw exhaust gas flow. 89.416 Section 89.416 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  17. Good Laboratory Practice. Part 2. Recording and Retaining Raw Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedlich, Richard C.; Libera, Agata E.; Pires, Amanda; Tellarini, Cassandra

    2013-01-01

    A clear understanding of how "raw data" is defined, recorded, and retained in the laboratory record is essential to the chemist employed in the laboratory compliant with the Good Laboratory Practices regulations. This article is intended to provide an understanding by drawing upon examples taken from the modern pharmaceutical analysis…

  18. 7 CFR 58.735 - Quality specifications for raw materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Quality specifications for raw materials. 58.735 Section 58.735 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED)...

  19. 40 CFR 91.419 - Raw emission sampling calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.419 Raw emission sampling calculations. (a) Derive the final test results through the steps described in... following equations are used to determine the weighted emission values for the test engine:...

  20. 40 CFR 91.419 - Raw emission sampling calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.419 Raw emission sampling calculations. (a) Derive the final test results through the steps described in... following equations are used to determine the weighted emission values for the test engine:...

  1. 14. PROJECT PLAN, INTAKE PIER, RAW WATER CONDUITS, PUMPING STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. PROJECT PLAN, INTAKE PIER, RAW WATER CONDUITS, PUMPING STATION FORCE MAINS, TREATED WATER PIPELINES, AND FILTRATION PLANT, SHEET 1 OF 117, 1920. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  2. An Introduction to LANL Mixed Potential Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Mukundan, Rangachary; Brosha, Eric Lanich; Kreller, Cortney

    2015-01-26

    These are slides for a webinar given on the topics of an introduction to LANL mixed potential sensors. Topics include the history of LANL electrochemical sensor work, an introduction to mixed potential sensors, LANL uniqueness, and an application of LANL mixed potential sensors. The summary is as follows: Improved understanding of the mixed-potential sensor mechanism (factors controlling the sensor response identified), sensor design optimized to maximize sensor sensitivity and durability (porous electrolyte/dense electrodes), electrodes selected for various specific applications (CO, HC, H2), sensor operating parameters optimized for improved gas selectivity (NOx, NH3).

  3. Bacteriophage significantly reduces Listeria monocytogenes on raw salmon fillet tissue.

    PubMed

    Soni, Kamlesh A; Nannapaneni, Ramakrishna

    2010-01-01

    We have demonstrated the antilisterial activity of generally recognized as safe (GRAS) bacteriophage LISTEX P100 (phage P100) on the surface of raw salmon fillet tissue against Listeria monocytogenes serotypes 1/2a and 4b. In a broth model system, phage P100 completely inhibited L. monocytogenes growth at 4 degrees Celsius for 12 days, at 10 degrees Celsius for 8 days, and at 30 degrees Celsius for 4 days, at all three phage concentrations of 10(4), 10(6), and 10(8) PFU/ml. On raw salmon fillet tissue, a higher phage concentration of 10(8) PFU/g was required to yield 1.8-, 2.5-, and 3.5-log CFU/g reductions of L. monocytogenes from its initial loads of 2, 3, and 4.5 log CFU/g at 4 or 22 degrees Celsius. Over the 10 days of storage at 4 degrees Celsius, L. monocytogenes growth was inhibited by phage P100 on the raw salmon fillet tissue to as low as 0.3 log CFU/g versus normal growth of 2.6 log CFU/g in the absence of phage. Phage P100 remained stable on the raw salmon fillet tissue over a 10-day storage period, with only a marginal loss of 0.6 log PFU/g from an initial phage treatment of 8 log PFU/g. These findings illustrate that the GRAS bacteriophage LISTEX P100 is listericidal on raw salmon fillets and is useful in quantitatively reducing L. monocytogenes.

  4. Microgravity acoustic mixing for particle cloud combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pla, Frederic; Rubinstein, Robert I.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical investigations of acoustic mixing procedures designed to uniformly distribute fuel particles in a combustion tube for application in the proposed Particle Cloud Combustion Experiment (PCCE) are described. Two acoustic mixing methods are investigated: mixing in a cylindrical tube using high frequency spinning modes generated by suitably phased, or quadrature speakers, and acoustic premixing in a sphere. Quadrature mixing leads to rapid circumferential circulation of the powder around the tube. Good mixing is observed in the circulating regions. However, because axial inhomogeneities are necessarily present in the acoustic field, this circulation does not extend throughout the tube. Simultaneous operation of the quadrature-speaker set and the axial-speaker was observed to produce considerably enhanced mixing compared to operation of the quadrature-speaker set alone. Mixing experiments using both types of speakers were free of the longitudinal powder drift observed using axial-speakers alone. Vigorous powder mixing was obtained in the sphere for many normal modes: however, in no case was the powder observed to fill the sphere entirely. Theoretical analysis indicated that mixing under steady conditions cannot fill more than a hemisphere except under very unusual conditions. Premixing in a hemisphere may be satisfactory; otherwise, complete mixing in microgravity might be possible by operating the speaker in short bursts. A general conclusion is that acoustic transients are more likely to produce good mixing than steady state conditions. The reason is that in steady conditions, flow structures like nodal planes are possible and often even unavoidable. These tend to separate the mixing region into cells across which powder cannot be transferred. In contrast, transients not only are free of such structures, they also have the characteristics, desirable for mixing, of randomness and disorder. This conclusion is corroborated by mixing

  5. Mixing in astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Fryer, Christopher Lee

    2011-01-07

    Turbulent mixing plays a vital role in many fields in astronomy. Here I review a few of these sites, discuss the importance of this turbulent mixing and the techniques used by astrophysicists to solve these problems.

  6. Mixing in explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A.L.

    1993-12-01

    Explosions always contain embedded turbulent mixing regions, for example: boundary layers, shear layers, wall jets, and unstable interfaces. Described here is one particular example of the latter, namely, the turbulent mixing occurring in the fireball of an HE-driven blast wave. The evolution of the turbulent mixing was studied via two-dimensional numerical simulations of the convective mixing processes on an adaptive mesh. Vorticity was generated on the fireball interface by baroclinic effects. The interface was unstable, and rapidly evolved into a turbulent mixing layer. Four phases of mixing were observed: (1) a strong blast wave phase; (2) and implosion phase; (3) a reshocking phase; and (4) an asymptotic mixing phase. The flowfield was azimuthally averaged to evaluate the mean and r.m.s. fluctuation profiles across the mixing layer. The vorticity decayed due to a cascade process. This caused the corresponding enstrophy parameter to increase linearly with time -- in agreement with homogeneous turbulence calculations of G.K. Batchelor.

  7. Mixed methods research.

    PubMed

    Halcomb, Elizabeth; Hickman, Louise

    2015-04-08

    Mixed methods research involves the use of qualitative and quantitative data in a single research project. It represents an alternative methodological approach, combining qualitative and quantitative research approaches, which enables nurse researchers to explore complex phenomena in detail. This article provides a practical overview of mixed methods research and its application in nursing, to guide the novice researcher considering a mixed methods research project.

  8. Characterization of the Key Aroma Compounds in Raw Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) by Means of Molecular Sensory Science.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Juliane; Granvogl, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

    2016-11-09

    Application of the molecular sensory science concept including aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the basis of gas chromatography-olfactometry combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry elucidated the key odorants of raw licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.). Fifty aroma-active compounds were located via AEDA; 16 thereof were identified in raw licorice for the first time. γ-Nonalactone, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one, and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde showed the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor of 1024. Forty-three compounds were quantitated by means of stable isotope dilution analysis (SIDA; 6 more compounds were quantitated using labeled standards with structures similar to the respective analytes) and odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentration to the respective odor threshold) were calculated revealing OAVs ≥1 for 39 compounds. Thereby, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, 5-isopropyl-2-methylphenol, hexanal, and linalool showed the highest OAVs. On the basis of the obtained results, an aqueous reconstitution model was prepared by mixing these 39 odorants in their naturally occurring concentrations. The recombinate elicited an aroma profile very similar to the profile of raw licorice, proving that all key aroma compounds were correctly identified and quantitated.

  9. Comparison between leached metakaolin and leached diatomaceous earth as raw materials for the synthesis of ZSM-5.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Mamani, Wilson; García, Gustavo; Hedlund, Jonas; Mouzon, Johanne

    2014-01-01

    Inexpensive raw materials have been used to prepare ZSM-5 zeolites with SiO2/Al2O3 molar ratios in the range 20 - 40. Kaolin or Bolivian diatomaceous earth was used as aluminosilicate raw materials and sodium hydroxide and n-butylamine were used as mineralizing agents and template. Dealumination of the raw materials by acid leaching made it possible to reach appropriate SiO2/Al2O3 ratios and to reduce the amount of iron and other impurities. After mixing the components and aging, hydrothermal treatment was carried out and the products were recovered The results clearly show for the first time that well-crystallized ZSM-5 can be directly prepared from leached metakaolin or leached diatomaceous earth using sodium hydroxide and n-butylamine as mineralizing agents and template under appropriate synthesis conditions. A longer induction time prior to crystallization was observed for reaction mixtures prepared from leached diatomaceous earth, probably due to slower digestion of the fossilized diatom skeletons as compared with that for microporous leached metakaolin. The use of leached diatomaceous earth allowed higher yield of ZSM-5 crystals within comparable synthesis times. However, low amounts of Mordenite formed, which was related to the high calcium content of diatomaceous earth. Another considerable advantage of diatomaceous earth over kaolin is that diatomaceous earth does not require heat treatment at high temperature for metakaolinization.

  10. Click “Like” to Change Your Behavior: A Mixed Methods Study of College Students’ Exposure to and Engagement With Facebook Content Designed for Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Weibel, Nadir; Patrick, Kevin; Fowler, James H; Norman, Greg J; Gupta, Anjali; Servetas, Christina; Calfas, Karen; Raste, Ketaki; Pina, Laura; Donohue, Mike; Griswold, William G; Marshall, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Background Overweight or obesity is prevalent among college students and many gain weight during this time. Traditional face-to-face weight loss interventions have not worked well in this population. Facebook is an attractive tool for delivering weight loss interventions for college students because of its popularity, potential to deliver strategies found in successful weight loss interventions, and ability to support ongoing adaptation of intervention content. Objective The objective of this study was to describe participant exposure to a Facebook page designed to deliver content to overweight/obese college students in a weight loss randomized controlled trial (N=404) and examine participant engagement with behavior change campaigns for weight loss delivered via Facebook. Methods The basis of the intervention campaign model were 5 self-regulatory techniques: intention formation, action planning, feedback, goal review, and self-monitoring. Participants were encouraged to engage their existing social network to meet their weight loss goals. A health coach moderated the page and modified content based on usage patterns and user feedback. Quantitative analyses were conducted at the Facebook post- and participant-level of analysis. Participant engagement was quantified by Facebook post type (eg, status update) and interaction (eg, like) and stratified by weight loss campaign (sequenced vs nonsequenced). A subset of participants were interviewed to evaluate the presence of passive online engagement or “lurking.” Results The health coach posted 1816 unique messages to the study’s Facebook page over 21 months, averaging 3.45 posts per day (SD 1.96, range 1-13). In all, 72.96% (1325/1816) of the posts were interacted with at least once (eg, liked). Of these, approximately 24.75% (328/1325) had 1-2 interactions, 23.39% (310/1325) had 3-5 interactions, 25.13% (333/1325) had 6-8 interactions, and 41 posts had 20 or more interactions (3.09%, 41/1325). There was

  11. Comparison of biogas sludge and raw crop material as source of hydrolytic cultures for anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Weiß, Stefan; Somitsch, Walter; Klymiuk, Ingeborg; Trajanoski, Slave; Guebitz, Georg M

    2016-05-01

    Mixed fermentative/hydrolytic bacteria were enriched on lignocellulose substrates in minimal medium under semi-anaerobic mesophilic conditions in the presence or absence of natural zeolite as growth supporter to ultimately bioaugment non-adapted sludge and thereby enhance the overall anaerobic digestion (AD) of recalcitrant plant material. Desired enzyme activities, i.e. xylanases and cellulase were monitored during subsequent cultivation cycles. Furthermore, enriched microbial communities were characterized by 16S rRNA-based 454-Pyrosequencing, revealing Firmicutes, Bacteriodetes, Proteobacteria and Spirochaetes to be the predominant bacterial groups in cultures derived from anaerobic sludge and raw crop material, i.e. maple green cut and wheat straw as well. Enriched populations relevant for biopolymer hydrolysis were then compared in biological methane potential tests to demonstrate positive effects on the biogasification of renewable plant substrate material. A significant impact on methane productivity was observed with adapted mixed cultures when used in combination with clinoptilolite to augment and supplement non-adapted bioreactor sludge.

  12. Efficient Research Design: Using Value-of-Information Analysis to Estimate the Optimal Mix of Top-down and Bottom-up Costing Approaches in an Economic Evaluation alongside a Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Edward C F; Mugford, Miranda; Barton, Garry; Shepstone, Lee

    2016-04-01

    In designing economic evaluations alongside clinical trials, analysts are frequently faced with alternative methods of collecting the same data, the extremes being top-down ("gross costing") and bottom-up ("micro-costing") approaches. A priori, bottom-up approaches may be considered superior to top-down approaches but are also more expensive to collect and analyze. In this article, we use value-of-information analysis to estimate the efficient mix of observations on each method in a proposed clinical trial. By assigning a prior bivariate distribution to the 2 data collection processes, the predicted posterior (i.e., preposterior) mean and variance of the superior process can be calculated from proposed samples using either process. This is then used to calculate the preposterior mean and variance of incremental net benefit and hence the expected net gain of sampling. We apply this method to a previously collected data set to estimate the value of conducting a further trial and identifying the optimal mix of observations on drug costs at 2 levels: by individual item (process A) and by drug class (process B). We find that substituting a number of observations on process A for process B leads to a modest £ 35,000 increase in expected net gain of sampling. Drivers of the results are the correlation between the 2 processes and their relative cost. This method has potential use following a pilot study to inform efficient data collection approaches for a subsequent full-scale trial. It provides a formal quantitative approach to inform trialists whether it is efficient to collect resource use data on all patients in a trial or on a subset of patients only or to collect limited data on most and detailed data on a subset.

  13. Analysis of the production process of optically pure D-lactic acid from raw glycerol using engineered Escherichia coli strains.

    PubMed

    Posada, John A; Cardona, Carlos A; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2012-02-01

    Glycerol has become an ideal feedstock for producing fuels and chemicals. Here, five technological schemes for optically pure D: -lactic acid production from raw glycerol were designed, simulated, and economically assessed based on five fermentative scenarios using engineered Escherichia coli strains. Fermentative scenarios considered different qualities of glycerol (pure, 98 wt.%, and crude, 85 wt.%) with concentrations ranging from 20 to 60 g/l in the fermentation media, and two fermentation stages were also analyzed. Raw glycerol (60 wt.%) was considered as the feedstock feeding the production process in all cases; then a purification process of raw glycerol up to the required quality was required. Simulation processes were carried out using Aspen Plus, while economic assessments were performed using Aspen Icarus Process Evaluator. D: -Lactic acid recovery and purification processes were based on reactive extraction with tri-n-octylamine using dichloromethane as active extractant agent. The use of raw glycerol represents only between 2.4% and 7.8% of the total production costs. Also, the total production costs obtained of D: -lactic acid in all cases were lower than its sale price indicating that these processes are potentially profitable. Thus, the best configuration process requires the use of crude glycerol diluted at 40 g/l with total glycerol consumption and with D: -lactic acid recovering by reactive extraction. The lowest obtained total production cost was 1.015 US$/kg with a sale price/production cost ratio of 1.53.

  14. MISO - Mixed Integer Surrogate Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Juliane

    2016-01-20

    MISO is an optimization framework for solving computationally expensive mixed-integer, black-box, global optimization problems. MISO uses surrogate models to approximate the computationally expensive objective function. Hence, derivative information, which is generally unavailable for black-box simulation objective functions, is not needed. MISO allows the user to choose the initial experimental design strategy, the type of surrogate model, and the sampling strategy.

  15. Plesiomonas shigelloides Periprosthetic Knee Infection After Consumption of Raw Oysters.

    PubMed

    Hustedt, Joshua W; Ahmed, Sarim

    Periprosthetic infections are a leading cause of morbidity after total joint arthroplasty. Common pathogens include Staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus, enterococcus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, there are many cases in which rare bacteria are isolated. This case report describes a periprosthetic knee infection caused by Plesiomonas shigelloides. In the United States, P shigelloides and 2 other Vibrionaceae family members, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, are most often contracted from eating raw oysters and shellfish. P shigelloides usually causes a self-limiting watery diarrhea, but in immunosuppressed people it can cause septicemia. In this case report, a chemically and biologically immunosuppressed man consumed raw oysters and developed P shigelloides septicemia and acute periprosthetic knee infection that required surgical intervention.

  16. Aquagrams of raw milk for oestrus detection in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Takemura, G; Bázár, G; Ikuta, K; Yamaguchi, E; Ishikawa, S; Furukawa, A; Kubota, Y; Kovács, Z; Tsenkova, R

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop rapid and cost-effective method for oestrus detection in dairy cows by means of near infrared spectroscopy and aquaphotomics, using raw milk from individual cows. We found that aquaphotomics approach showed consistent specific water spectral pattern of milk at the oestrus periods of the investigated Holstein cows. Characteristic changes were detected especially in foremilk collected at morning milking. They were reflected in calculated aquagrams of milk spectra where distinctive spectral pattern of oestrus showed increased light absorbance of strongly hydrogen-bonded water. Results showed that monitoring of raw milk near infrared spectra provides an opportunity for analysing hormone levels indirectly, through the changes of water spectral pattern caused by complex physiological changes related to fertile periods.

  17. Agaves as a raw material: recent technologies and applications.

    PubMed

    Narváez-Zapata, J A; Sánchez-Teyer, L F

    2009-01-01

    Agave plants are a valuable source of raw material due to its fibrous and complex sugar content of their leaves and core, and their bagasse waste can be use for several aims. This plant genus belongs to the Agavaceae family and until now more than 200 species have been described. A large number of Agave species are currently used as raw material in several biotechnological processes. This review shows the reported applications and patents on fields like alcoholic brewages with special reference to Tequila and Mezcal, the isolation and use of compounds such as saponins and agave fructans, and their potential biotechnological application on several human demands. The process to obtain fibers and cellulose, stock feeds, and several miscellaneous extractives are also reviewed. Some possibilities and problems of cultivation are discussed.

  18. [Screening of compounds of nitrofuran in imported meat raw materials].

    PubMed

    Zakrevskii, V V; Leleko, S N

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the results of screening studies of quantification of the nitrofuran drugs imported in raw meat (turkey, beef pork, veal, lamb, chicken). Identification was carried out by the detection ofsuch nitrofurans metabolites as: 1-aminogidantoin (AGD), 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone (AOZ) and 3-amino-5-morpholinomethyl-2-oxazolidinone (AMOZ). There are analyzed the positive and negative effects of nitrofuran drugs. The data for the establishment of the potential risks to human health when using contaminated raw meat metabolites of nitrofurans are discussed. These drugs are prohibited in livestock in Europe since 1995 due to the adverse effects (carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic and toxic) on animals and the potential risk to humans. In the Russian Federation in accordance with SanPin 2.3.2.1078-01 01.01.2012 for the first time the was introduced rationing for nitrofurans (including furazolidone).

  19. [PCR detection of transgenic elements in feed raw material].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Yu, Dao-Jian; Kang, Lin; Zhang, Gui-Ming; Jin, Xian-Zhong; Yang, Wei-Dong; Huang, Pei-Qing; Wu, Qiong; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Chu, Cheng-Cai; Cheng, Ying-Hui

    2002-05-01

    Based on the heterogeneous genes usually used in transgenic crops, the PCR technique was performed with primers derived from CaMV 35S promoter (35S-promoter,originated from cauliflower mosaic virus), NOS terminator (nopaline synthase-terminator,derived from Agrobacterium tumefaciens), EPSPS (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) gene, and CryIA(b) (delta-endotoxin,evolved from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki) gene to detect transgenic agents from feed raw materials of soybean dregs and corn gluten meal, respectively. Endogenous corn Zein (a protein extracted from corn gluten) gene, soybean Lectin (chitin-binding protein) gene and negative, positive control were applied for avoiding false results. The method established here has been successfully applied in detecting transgenic elements in imported feed raw material.

  20. Enhancement of the cytotoxic potential of the mixed EGFR and DNA-targeting 'combi-molecule' ZRBA1 against human solid tumour cells by a bis-quinazoline-based drug design approach.

    PubMed

    Al-Safadi, Sherin; Domarkas, Juozas; Han, YingShan; Brahimi, Fouad; Jean-Claude, Bertrand J

    2012-06-01

    ZRBA1 is a quinazoline-based molecule termed 'combi-molecule' designed to block the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and further degrade to FD105, an EGFR inhibitor plus a DNA-alkylating agent. To augment the potency of ZRBA1, we designed JDE52, a bistriazene that, following degradation, was 'programmed' to yield higher concentrations of the free inhibitor FD105 and a more cytotoxic bifunctional DNA-damaging species. The results indicated that JDE52 was capable of inducing significant blockade of EGFR phosphorylation, DNA strand breaks and interstrand cross-links in human cells. The fluorescent property of FD105, the secondary inhibitor that both JDE52 and ZRBA1 are capable of releasing, has permitted the analysis of its levels in tumour cells by ultraviolet flow cytometry. It was found that JDE52 was indeed capable of significantly releasing higher levels of fluorescence (P<0.05) in human tumour cells when compared with ZRBA1. Apoptosis was triggered by JDE52 at a faster rate than ZRBA1 and led to higher levels of cell killing. The results in toto suggest that the superior potency of JDE52, when compared with ZRBA1, may be imputed to mechanisms associated with the generation of higher intracellular concentrations of FD105 and to the induction of DNA cross-links. These combined mechanisms (blockade of EGFR-tyrosine kinase and induction of cross-links) contributed to an accelerated rate of apoptosis by JDE52. This study conclusively demonstrated that designing molecules as prodrugs of high levels of quinazoline inhibitors of EGFR and bifunctional DNA cross-linking species is a valid strategy to enhance the potency of mixed EGFR-DNA-targeting combi-molecules.

  1. Natural Radioactivity of Quarry raw Material in Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haquin, G.; Gazit-Yaari, N.; Yungreis, Z.; Braun, M.; Margaliot, M.

    2004-12-01

    During the past decade Natural Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) has been receiving growing attention by radiation protection agencies, including chronic exposure to radon and radiation from building materials. A new Israeli standard (5098) which limit the radionuclide concentration in building material entered into force in 2003. Building materials are often made of natural raw materials which contain natural radionuclides from the 238U-226Ra, 232Th decay series and 40K that occur naturally in the Earth's crust. The radionuclide concentration in the building material depends on the source of the raw material, manufacturing process and the addition of technically enhanced NORM (Te NORM) like fly ash, phospho-gypsum, etc. The aim of this study was to investigate the spatial variation of the natural radioactivity in quarries in Israel, the dependency on the type of quarried substance and to asses the raw materials by radiation protection criteria. The study covered a total of 25 quarries all over Israel that manufacture different types of quarried substances (Limestone, Dolomite, Basalt, Gypsum etc.). Each of the quarries was sampled for three different aggregate sizes. The quarries were selected according to geological-geographical criteria such that all types of quarried materials throughout Israel will be investigated. The radionuclide measurement was performed by Gamma spectrometry according to standard procedures. A simulation was carried out on different concrete mixtures to asses the individual effective dose from the building materials. Results indicate large variations in the radionuclide concentration of raw materials in Israel. An optimization based on radiation protection criteria is proposed to minimize radiation exposure from building material.

  2. Restaurant Policies and Practices for Serving Raw Fish in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Hedeen, Nicole

    2016-10-01

    The number of restaurants serving sushi within Minnesota is continuously increasing. The practices and protocols of serving raw fish are complex and require detailed planning to ensure that food served to patrons will not cause illness. Although the popularity of sushi is increasing, there is a lack of research on food safety issues pertaining to preparation of raw fish and sushi rice. To address this gap, the Minnesota Department of Health Environmental Health Specialists Network Food program collected descriptive data on restaurant practices and policies concerning the service of raw fish and sushi rice in 40 Minnesota restaurants. At each restaurant, a specialist interviewed a restaurant manager, conducted an observation of the sushi prep areas in the restaurant kitchen, and reviewed parasite destruction letters and invoices from fish supplier(s). Over half of the restaurants (59%) were missing one or more of the parasite destruction letters from their fish supplier(s) guaranteeing that fish had been properly frozen to the time and temperature requirements in the Minnesota Food Code. A total of 42 parasite destruction letters from suppliers were observed; 10% were considered "adequate" letters. The majority of the letters were missing details pertaining to the types of fish frozen, the length of time fish were frozen, or details on what temperatures fish were held frozen or a combination of all three. Most restaurants were using time as a public health control for their sushi rice. For those restaurants using time as a public health control, 26% had a written procedure on-site, and approximately 53% were keeping track of time. Bare hand contact during sushi prep was observed in 17% of restaurants, and in more than 40% of the restaurants, at least one fish was mislabeled on the menu. Findings from this study indicate that many Minnesota restaurants are not complying with the Food Code requirements pertaining to parasite destruction for the service of raw fish or

  3. Eosinophilic meningitis risk associated with raw Ampullarium canaliculatus snails consumption.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiun-Jye; Chung, Li-Yu; Lin, Rong-Jyh; Lee, June-Der; Lin, Chaio-Wen; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2011-05-01

    In Taiwan, Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection has been reported in foreign laborers who had consumed raw Ampullarium canaliculatus snails. This study analyzed three foreign laborers who had contracted enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-confirmed A cantonensis infection while working in Taiwan. All three workers had consumed either roasted snails or raw snails flavored with seasoning while drinking wine. This study investigated possible risk factors for A cantonensis, including naturally occurring A cantonensis in A canaliculatus snails, viability of third-stage A cantonensis larvae in raw seasoned snails and in roasted snails, infectivity of larvae, and effects of alcohol while consuming snails. Positive infection rates in snails from five different irrigation canals in south Taiwan ranged from 12.3% to 29.4% and the average number of motile larvae per infected snail ranged from 36 to 65. The number of motile and coiled larvae in snail meat after 120 minutes seasoning was 93 (27.7%) and 233 (69.3%), respectively. After 20 minutes of roasting, most larvae in the snail meat were dead. The infectivities of motile and coiled larvae from snail meat after 60 minutes seasoning were 53.2% and 33.2%, respectively, and those from snail meat after 5 minutes roasting were 33.2% and 7.0%, respectively. Eating Taiwan A canaliculatus snails raw is extremely risky given their high infection rates and infection intensities. Even after 120 minutes seasoning or after 20 minutes roasting, snail meat should be considered unsafe for human consumption. Finally, experimental rodent studies indicated that consuming alcohol while ingesting larvae does not significantly reduced infectivity.

  4. Direct hydrodeoxygenation of raw woody biomass into liquid alkanes.

    PubMed

    Xia, Qineng; Chen, Zongjia; Shao, Yi; Gong, Xueqing; Wang, Haifeng; Liu, Xiaohui; Parker, Stewart F; Han, Xue; Yang, Sihai; Wang, Yanqin

    2016-03-30

    Being the only sustainable source of organic carbon, biomass is playing an ever-increasingly important role in our energy landscape. The conversion of renewable lignocellulosic biomass into liquid fuels is particularly attractive but extremely challenging due to the inertness and complexity of lignocellulose. Here we describe the direct hydrodeoxygenation of raw woods into liquid alkanes with mass yields up to 28.1 wt% over a multifunctional Pt/NbOPO4 catalyst in cyclohexane. The superior performance of this catalyst allows simultaneous conversion of cellulose, hemicellulose and, more significantly, lignin fractions in the wood sawdust into hexane, pentane and alkylcyclohexanes, respectively. Investigation on the molecular mechanism reveals that a synergistic effect between Pt, NbOx species and acidic sites promotes this highly efficient hydrodeoxygenation of bulk lignocellulose. No chemical pretreatment of the raw woody biomass or separation is required for this one-pot process, which opens a general and energy-efficient route for converting raw lignocellulose into valuable alkanes.

  5. Direct hydrodeoxygenation of raw woody biomass into liquid alkanes

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Qineng; Chen, Zongjia; Shao, Yi; Gong, Xueqing; Wang, Haifeng; Liu, Xiaohui; Parker, Stewart F.; Han, Xue; Yang, Sihai; Wang, Yanqin

    2016-01-01

    Being the only sustainable source of organic carbon, biomass is playing an ever-increasingly important role in our energy landscape. The conversion of renewable lignocellulosic biomass into liquid fuels is particularly attractive but extremely challenging due to the inertness and complexity of lignocellulose. Here we describe the direct hydrodeoxygenation of raw woods into liquid alkanes with mass yields up to 28.1 wt% over a multifunctional Pt/NbOPO4 catalyst in cyclohexane. The superior performance of this catalyst allows simultaneous conversion of cellulose, hemicellulose and, more significantly, lignin fractions in the wood sawdust into hexane, pentane and alkylcyclohexanes, respectively. Investigation on the molecular mechanism reveals that a synergistic effect between Pt, NbOx species and acidic sites promotes this highly efficient hydrodeoxygenation of bulk lignocellulose. No chemical pretreatment of the raw woody biomass or separation is required for this one-pot process, which opens a general and energy-efficient route for converting raw lignocellulose into valuable alkanes. PMID:27025898

  6. Residues of organochlorine pesticides in surface soil and raw ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The central Asian Republic of Tajikistan has been an area of extensive historical agricultural pesticide use as well as large scale burials of obsolete banned chlorinated insecticides. The current investigation was a four year study of legacy organochlorine pesticides in surface soil and raw foods in four rural areas of Tajikistan. The four study areas included the pesticide burial sites of Konibodom and Vakhsh, and family farms of Garm and Chimbuloq villages. These areas were selected to represent a diversity of pesticide disposal histories and to allow assessment of local pesticide contamination in Tajikistan. Each site was visited multiple times and over 500 samples of surface soil and raw foods were collected and analyzed for twenty legacy organochlorine pesticides. Various local food products were sampled to represent the range of raw foods potentially containing residues of banned pesticides, including dairy products, meat, edible plant and cotton seed products. The pesticide analytes included DDTs (DDT, DDD, DDE), lindane isomers (α, β, γ, δ BHC), endosulfan isomers (endosulfan I, II, sulfate), other cyclodienes (aldrin, α and γ chlordanes, dieldrin, endrin, endrin aldehyde and ketone, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide), and methoxychlor. Pesticide analytes were selected based on availability of commercial standards and known or suspected historical pesticide use and burial. Pesticide contamination was highest in soil at each of the four sites, and ge

  7. Examination of microbiological quality of pharmaceutical raw materials.

    PubMed

    Bomblies, L; Weiss, C; Beckmann, G

    2007-09-01

    With the ICH harmonisation of the chapters 'Microbiological examination of non-sterile products: microbial enumeration tests' 'Test for specified micro-organisms' and 'Microbiological quality of pharmaceutical preparations' between Ph. Eur., USP and JP, altered specifications and test methods for pharmaceutical preparations are applicable in Europe since 2007 From this results the necessity to check and, where appropriate, adapt microbiological limit values in the individual monographs of the Ph. Eur.- provided that they contain such values. The present examination, which gives an evaluation of 3387 examinations in the period from 1997 to 2006 of the microbiological quality of 40 different pharmaceutical raw materials, is to provide a database for this purpose. It was shown that the existing limit values were not exceeded for 93% of the examined raw materials. 5.5% of the examinations were within the specification after using the valid tolerance factor of 5 of the old methods. Only 1.5% of all examinations led to OOS results. In comparison an evaluation of these data against the new, harmonised limits is leading to an increase in OOS results to a total of 6%. Most raw materials were of the required microbiological quality but a few, predominantly of plant origin, exceeded the limits. Regular incoming goods inspections are indispensable here.

  8. A comparative study on hypoglycemic properties, lipid profile and bioactive components of hydro-alcoholic extracts of cooked and raw Brassica napus

    PubMed Central

    Akbari, Fatemeh; Khodadadi, Samaneh; Asgari, Sedigheh; Shirzad, Hedaytolah; Mirhoseini, Mahmoud; Shahinfard, Najmeh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Many plants with anti-oxidant properties proved to be effective on diabetes treatment. Brassica napus (turnip) is an anti-oxidant plant consumed raw or cooked. In this study, we examined and compared hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic properties of raw and cooked Brassica napus in diabetic rats. Objectives: Due to measuring bioactive component of Brassica napus as a rich source of flavonoid we investigate the hypoglycemic properties in raw and cooked type. Material and Methods: For this experimental study, 50 male Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g were designated into five groups of 10 consist of control, diabetic control, diabetic cooked turnip, diabetic raw turnip, and diabetic glibenclamide. The alloxan-induced diabetic rats received extracts orally for 4 weeks. Then, the serum biochemical factors were measured and compared statisticaly by analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Results: Serum glucose, triglyceride (TG), cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were significantly decreased in cooked and raw turnip rats compared to control ones. Cooked and raw Brassica napus extracts both helped high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increase; cooked turnip competency was superior in view of cholesterol and LDL-C decrease as well as HDL-C increase (P < 0.05). The mean difference in glucose and TG decrease was not significant between diabetic cooked turnip and diabetic raw turnip rats. Conclusion: Improving the blood glucose and lipid levels diabetic rats, in this study, may indicate that both raw and cooked Brassica napus extracts (especially the cooked one) may be beneficial in diabetic patients. PMID:28197509

  9. Threshold raw retrieved contrast in coronagraphs is limited by internal polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breckinridge, James

    The objective of this work is to provide the exoplanet program with an accurate model of the coronagraph complex point spread function, methods to correct chromatic aberration in the presence of polarization aberrations, device requirements to minimize and compensate for these aberrations at levels needed for exoplanet coronagraphy, and exoplanet retrieval algorithms in the presence of polarizaiton aberrations. Currently, space based coronagraphs are designed and performance analyzed using scalar wave aberration theory. Breckinridge, Lam & Chipman (2015) PASP 127: 445-468 and Breckinridge & Oppenheimer (2004) ApJ 600: 1091-1098 showed that astronomical telescopes designed for exoplanet and precision astrometric science require polarization or vector-wave analysis. Internal instrument polarization limits both threshold raw contrast and measurements of the vector wave properties of the electromagnetic radiation from stars, exoplanets, gas and dust. The threshold raw contrast obtained using only scalar wave theory is much more optimistic than that obtained using the more hardware-realistic vector wave theory. Internal polarization reduces system contrast, increases scattered light, alters radiometric measurements, distorts diffraction-limited star images and reduces signal-to-noise ratio. For example, a vector-wave analysis shows that the WFIRST-CGI instrument will have a threshold raw contrast of 10-7 not the 10-8 forecasted using the scalar wave analysis given in the WFIRST-CGI 2015 report. The physical nature of the complex point spread function determines the exoplanet scientific yield of coronagraphs. We propose to use the Polaris-M polarization aberration ray-tracing software developed at the College of Optical Science of the University of Arizona to ray trace both a "typical" exoplanet coronagraph system as well as the WFIRST-CGI system. Threshold raw contrast and the field across the complex PSF will be calculated as a function of optical device vector E

  10. Rationale, design and baseline data of a mixed methods study examining the clinical impact of a brief transition programme for young people with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: the DON'T RETARD project

    PubMed Central

    Hilderson, Deborah; Westhovens, Rene; Wouters, Carine; Van der Elst, Kristien; Goossens, Eva; Moons, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To describe (1) the content of a transition programme for young people with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) designed as a brief intervention, (2) the rationale and design of a mixed-methods study evaluating the clinical impact of this transition programme and (3) to provide baseline data of the intervention group. Design An ‘embedded experimental’ design is used for the evaluation of the transition programme. A ‘one-group pretest-posttest, with a non-equivalent posttest-only comparison group design’ is used to quantitatively evaluate the impact of the transition programme, applying both longitudinal and comparative analyses. Subsequently, experiences of adolescents and their parents who participated in the experimental group will be analysed qualitatively using content analysis. Setting Participants in the intervention are recruited at a tertiary care centre in Belgium. The comparison group participants are recruited from one tertiary and three secondary care centres in Belgium. Participants The intervention group consists of 33 young people (25 females; 8 males) with a median age of 16 years. Main diagnoses are persistent or extended oligoarticular JIA (33%), polyarticular JIA (30%), enthesitis-related JIA (21%) or systemic arthritis (15%). Intervention The transition programme comprises eight key components: (1) transition coordinator; (2) providing information and education; (3) availability by telephone; (4) information about and contact with an adult care programme; (5) guidance of parents; (6) meeting with peers; (7) transfer plan; and (8) actual transfer to adult care. Primary and secondary outcomes The primary outcome is health status, as perceived by the adolescents. Secondary outcomes are health status, as perceived by the parents; medication adherence; illness-related knowledge; quality of life; fatigue; promotion of independence; support of autonomy; behavioural control and psychological control. Results At baseline, the median

  11. Prevalence and concentration of bacterial pathogens in raw produce and minimally processed packaged salads produced in and for the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Wijnands, Lucas M; Delfgou-van Asch, Ellen H M; Beerepoot-Mensink, Marieke E; van der Meij-Florijn, Alice; Fitz-James, Ife; van Leusden, Frans M; Pielaat, Annemarie

    2014-03-01

    Recent outbreaks with vegetable or fruits as vehicles have raised interest in the characterization of the public health risk due to microbial contamination of these commodities. Because qualitative and quantitative data regarding prevalence and concentration of various microbes are lacking, we conducted a survey to estimate the prevalence and contamination level of raw produce and the resulting minimally processed packaged salads as sold in The Netherlands. A dedicated sampling plan accounted for the amount of processed produce in relation to the amount of products, laboratory capacity, and seasonal influences. Over 1,800 samples of produce and over 1,900 samples of ready-to-eat mixed salads were investigated for Salmonella enterica serovars, Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli O157, and Listeria monocytogenes. The overall prevalence in raw produce varied between 0.11% for E. coli O157 and L. monocytogenes and 0.38% for Salmonella. Prevalence point estimates for specific produce/pathogen combinations ranged for Salmonella from 0.53% in iceberg lettuce to 5.1% in cucumber. For Campylobacter, this ranged from 0.83% in endive to 2.7% in oak tree lettuce. These data will be used to determine the public health risk posed by the consumption of ready-to-eat mixed salads in The Netherlands.

  12. PCR identification of beef, sheep, goat, and pork in raw and heat-treated meat mixtures.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Miguel A; García, Teresa; González, Isabel; Asensio, Luis; Hernández, Pablo E; Martín, Rosario

    2004-01-01

    A PCR assay has been developed for the specific and qualitative detection of pork (Sus scrofa domesticus), beef (Bos taurus), sheep (Ovis aries), and goat (Capra hircus) in raw and heat-treated meat mixtures. A forward common primer was designed on a conserved DNA sequence in the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA gene (rRNA), and reverse primers were designed to hybridize on species-specific DNA sequences of each species considered. The different sizes of the species-specific amplicons, separated by agarose gel electrophoresis, allowed clear species identification. Analysis of experimental meat mixtures demonstrated that the detection limit of the assay was 1% (wt/wt) for each species analyzed. This assay can be useful for the accurate identification of these species, avoiding mislabeling or fraudulent species substitution in meat mixtures.

  13. Examining trust factors in online food risk information: The case of unpasteurized or 'raw' milk.

    PubMed

    Sillence, Elizabeth; Hardy, Claire; Medeiros, Lydia C; LeJeune, Jeffrey T

    2016-04-01

    The internet has become an increasingly important way of communicating with consumers about food risk information. However, relatively little is known about how consumers evaluate and come to trust the information they encounter online. Using the example of unpasteurized or raw milk this paper presents two studies exploring the trust factors associated with online information about the risks and benefits of raw milk consumption. In the first study, eye-tracking data was collected from 33 pasteurised milk consumers whilst they viewed six different milk related websites. A descriptive analysis of the eye-tracking data was conducted to explore viewing patterns. Reports revealed the importance of images as a way of capturing initial attention and foregrounding other features and highlighted the significance of introductory text within a homepage. In the second, qualitative study, 41 consumers, some of whom drank raw milk, viewed a selection of milk related websites before participating in either a group discussion or interview. Seventeen of the participants also took part in a follow up telephone interview 2 weeks later. The qualitative data supports the importance of good design whilst noting that balance, authorship agenda, the nature of evidence and personal relevance were also key factors affecting consumers trust judgements. The results of both studies provide support for a staged approach to online trust in which consumers engage in a more rapid, heuristic assessment of a site before moving on to a more in-depth evaluation of the information available. Findings are discussed in relation to the development of trustworthy online food safety resources.

  14. virtualArray: a R/bioconductor package to merge raw data from different microarray platforms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Microarrays have become a routine tool to address diverse biological questions. Therefore, different types and generations of microarrays have been produced by several manufacturers over time. Likewise, the diversity of raw data deposited in public databases such as NCBI GEO or EBI ArrayExpress has grown enormously. This has resulted in databases currently containing several hundred thousand microarray samples clustered by different species, manufacturers and chip generations. While one of the original goals of these databases was to make the data available to other researchers for independent analysis and, where appropriate, integration with their own data, current software implementations could not provide that feature. Only those data sets generated on the same chip platform can be readily combined and even here there are batch effects to be taken care of. A straightforward approach to deal with multiple chip types and batch effects has been missing. The software presented here was designed to solve both of these problems in a convenient and user friendly way. Results The virtualArray software package can combine raw data sets using almost any chip types based on current annotations from NCBI GEO or Bioconductor. After establishing congruent annotations for the raw data, virtualArray can then directly employ one of seven implemented methods to adjust for batch effects in the data resulting from differences between the chip types used. Both steps can be tuned to the preferences of the user. When the run is finished, the whole dataset is presented as a conventional Bioconductor “ExpressionSet” object, which can be used as input to other Bioconductor packages. Conclusions Using this software package, researchers can easily integrate their own microarray data with data from public repositories or other sources that are based on different microarray chip types. Using the default approach a robust and up-to-date batch effect correction technique is

  15. Diamagnetic levitation promotes osteoclast differentiation from RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu-Long; Chen, Zhi-Hao; Chen, Xiao-Hu; Yin, Chong; Li, Di-Jie; Ma, Xiao-Li; Zhao, Fan; Zhang, Ge; Shang, Peng; Qian, Ai-Rong

    2015-03-01

    The superconducting magnet with a high magnetic force field can levitate diamagnetic materials. In this study, a specially designed superconducting magnet with large gradient high magnetic field (LGHMF), which provides three apparent gravity levels (μg, 1 g, and 2 g), was used to study its influence on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation from preosteoclast cell line RAW264.7. The effects of LGHMF on the viability, nitric oxide (NO) production, morphology in RAW264.7 cells were detected by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method, the Griess method, and the immunofluorescence staining, respectively. The changes induced by LGHMF in osteoclast formation, mRNA expression, and bone resorption were determined by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining, semiquantity PCR, and bone resorption test, respectively. The results showed that: 1) LGHMF had no lethal effect on osteoclast precursors but attenuated NO release in RAW264.7 cells. 2) Diamagnetic levitation (μg) enhanced both the formation and bone resorption capacity of osteoclast. Moreover, diamagnetic levitation up-regulated mRNA expression of RANK, Cathepsin K, MMP-9, and NFATc1, while down-regulated RunX2 in comparison with controls. Furthermore, diamagnetic levitation induced obvious morphological alterations in osteoclast, including active cytoplasmic peripheral pseudopodial expansion, formation of pedosome belt, and aggregation of actin ring. 3) Magnetic field produced by LGHMF attenuated osteoclast resorption activity. Collectively, LGHMF with combined effects has multiple effects on osteoclast, which attenuated osteoclast resorption with magnetic field, whereas promoted osteoclast differentiation with diamagnetic levitation. Therefore, these findings indicate that diamagnetic levitation could be used as a novel ground-based microgravity simulator, which facilitates bone cell research of weightlessness condition.

  16. Structural analysis of raw and commercial farm edible bird nests.

    PubMed

    Kew, P E; Wong, S F; Lim, P K; Mak, J W

    2014-03-01

    Edible bird nests (EBNs) are consumed worldwide for various health benefits. EBNs are nests built from the saliva of swiftlets of Aerodramus species. The global market for EBNs is on the rise, especially from Hong Kong and mainland China. In the past, EBNs were harvested mainly from natural caves; however in the recent years, there has been a rapid growth of swiftlet farming. Little is known about the actual composition of EBNs except for protein, carbohydrate, ash and lipid contents, amino acids, vitamins and macro/ micronutrients. Besides the biochemical components of EBNs, are there any other structures that are associated with EBNs? This paper reports on the structural analysis of raw unprocessed farm and processed commercial EBNs. The raw EBNs were purchased from swiftlet farms in five locations in Peninsula Malaysia: Kuala Sanglang (Perlis; 6° 16' 0"N, 100° 12' 0"E), Pantai Remis (Perak; 4º 27' 0" N, 100º 38' 0" E), Kluang (Johor; 02º 012 303N 103º 192 583E), Kajang (Selangor; 2º 59' 0"N, 101º 47' 0"E) and Kota Bharu (Kelantan; 6º 8' 0"N, 102º 15' 0"E). The commercial nests were purchased from five different Chinese traditional medicinal shops (Companies A-E). A portion of each EBN was randomly broken into small fragments, attached to carbon tape and coated with gold and palladium particles for examination and photography under a scanning electron microscope. Structural analysis revealed the presence of mites, fungi, bacteria and feather strands on both the raw and commercial nests. Mite eggshells and faecal pellets, and body parts of other arthropods were seen only in the raw nests. The commercial nests had a variety of unidentified structures and substances coated on the nests' surfaces that were not found on the raw nests. The presence of these contaminants may jeopardise the quality of EBNs and pose health risks to consumers. Further identification of the mites and their allergens, fungi and bacteria are on-going and will be reported separately.

  17. Writing a Mixed Methods Report in Social Work Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronstein, Laura R.; Kovacs, Pamela J.

    2013-01-01

    This article briefly chronicles the development of mixed methods research and its use in social work. We then move onto a discussion of terms and designs, reasons for (and for not) using mixed methods. Drawing upon exemplars, we address how to write up a mixed methods study when (1) the sample is single; single for one part, with a subset for the…

  18. Map of critical raw material deposits in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillaume, Bertrand

    2016-04-01

    Map of critical raw material deposits in Europe Guillaume BERTRAND1, Daniel CASSARD1, Nikolaos ARVANITIDIS2, Gerry STANLEY3 and the EuroGeoSurvey Mineral Resources Expert Group4. 1 - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM), Georesources Divison, 3 avenue Claude Guillemin, 45060 Orléans cedex 2, FRANCE. 2 - Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning (SGU), Box 670, SE-751 28, Uppsala, SWEDEN 3 - Geological Survey of Ireland (GSI), Beggars Bush, Haddington Road, Dublin D04 K7X4, IRELAND 4 - EuroGeoSurveys, Rue Joseph II 36-38, 1000 Brussels, BELGIUM The Critical Raw Material (CRM) Deposit Map of Europe, prepared by EuroGeoSurvey's Mineral Resources Expert Group (MREG), shows European mineral deposits from the ProMine Mineral Deposit database containing critical commodities, according to the 2014 list of critical raw materials of the European Commission. EuroGeoSurveys (EGS), The Geological Surveys of Europe, is a not-for-profit organization representing 37 National Geological Surveys and some regional Geological Surveys in Europe. It provides the European Institutions with expert, independent, balanced and practical pan-European advice and information as an aid to problem-solving, policy development, regulatory and programme formulation in areas such as natural resources, energy and geo-hazards. The EGS MREG is actively involved in contributing to policy and strategy-making processes aimed at identifying, characterizing and safeguarding resource potential, especially for critical raw materials through data provision, research, technological development and innovation. The European Union aspires to reducing the import dependency of raw materials, especially CRM, that are essential to Europe's industries. In this respect, mineral resource information, data sharing and networking by European Geological Surveys is crucial. The Strategic Implementation Plan of the European Innovation Partnership on Raw Materials highlights the need for establishing and maintaining a

  19. Effects of feeding raw or reconstituted high tannin red sorghum on nutrient utilisation and certain welfare parameters of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kumar, V; Elangovan, A V; Mandal, A B; Tyagi, P K; Bhanja, S K; Dash, B B

    2007-04-01

    1. A feeding trial was conducted on 360 1-d-old chicks from 0 to 6 weeks of age to assess the effect of processed high tannin red sorghum in the diet of broiler chickens on nutrient utilisation and certain welfare parameters. 2. Each of 9 dietary treatments was allotted to 4 groups (replicates) of chicks in a completely randomised design. The treatments were a maize-soy based standard broiler diet (control, RS(0)) and eight test diets formulated by incorporating either raw red sorghum (RS(25), RS(50), RS(75), RS(100)) or reconstituted red sorghum (RS(25)(R), RS(50)(R), RS(75)(R), RS(100)(R)) replacing 25, 50, 75 or 100% of maize from the control diet. 3. The tannin content was reduced from 23 to 16 g/kg in reconstituted red sorghum. 4. Utilisations of nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus retention were similar in all the dietary groups. 5. The cell-mediated immune response measured as footpad index (FPI) value of birds given raw red sorghum was significantly higher than in control and reconstituted red sorghum groups. Similarly, comparatively better humoral response measured as HA titre value was observed in raw red sorghum based groups than in reconstituted ones. 6. Plasma albumin, globulin, protein, glucose, calcium, phosphorus, SGOT, SGPT and uric acid levels did not differ significantly due to dietary treatments. 7. Mild histopathological changes were observed in liver and kidney tissues of birds given raw red sorghum. 8. From the present study, it is concluded that (1) the reconstitution of high tannin red sorghum resulted in about 30% reduction in its tannin concentration; (2) the feeding of reconstituted sorghum based diets to broiler chickens did not exert any appreciable influence on nutrient utilisation, blood biochemicals and enzymes and gross pathological changes; and (3) the birds fed on raw red sorghum exhibited higher immuno-responsiveness in comparison to their reconstituted counterparts.

  20. Analytical techniques for characterization of raw materials in cell culture media.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Chandana; Drew, Barry; Head, Kevin; Pusuluri, Rani; Caple, Matthew V

    2011-01-01

    Raw materials are a critical part of any cell culture medium; therefore, it is of utmost importance to understand and characterize them for high-quality product. The raw material characterization (RMC) program at SAFC focuses on individual screening of raw materials both analytically and biologically. The goal of the program is to develop the best-in-class knowledge base of the raw materials used in SAFC's media formulations and their impact on performance of products.

  1. Advances in compressible turbulent mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Dannevik, W.P.; Buckingham, A.C.; Leith, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    This volume includes some recent additions to original material prepared for the Princeton International Workshop on the Physics of Compressible Turbulent Mixing, held in 1988. Workshop participants were asked to emphasize the physics of the compressible mixing process rather than measurement techniques or computational methods. Actual experimental results and their meaning were given precedence over discussions of new diagnostic developments. Theoretical interpretations and understanding were stressed rather than the exposition of new analytical model developments or advances in numerical procedures. By design, compressibility influences on turbulent mixing were discussed--almost exclusively--from the perspective of supersonic flow field studies. The papers are arranged in three topical categories: Foundations, Vortical Domination, and Strongly Coupled Compressibility. The Foundations category is a collection of seminal studies that connect current study in compressible turbulent mixing with compressible, high-speed turbulent flow research that almost vanished about two decades ago. A number of contributions are included on flow instability initiation, evolution, and transition between the states of unstable flow onset through those descriptive of fully developed turbulence. The Vortical Domination category includes theoretical and experimental studies of coherent structures, vortex pairing, vortex-dynamics-influenced pressure focusing. In the Strongly Coupled Compressibility category the organizers included the high-speed turbulent flow investigations in which the interaction of shock waves could be considered an important source for production of new turbulence or for the enhancement of pre-existing turbulence. Individual papers are processed separately.

  2. Design of optical time-division multiplexed systems using the cascaded four-wave mixing in a highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber for simultaneous time demultiplexing and wavelength multicasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Zhan-Qiang; Zhang, Jian-Guo

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports a new design of optical time-division multiplexed (OTDM) systems that possess a functionality of simultaneous time demultiplexing and wavelength multicasting based on the cascaded four-wave mixing in a dispersion-flattened highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber (DF-HNL-PCF). A module of OTDM demultiplexing and wavelength multicasting can be feasibly implemented by using a 3 dB optical coupler, a high-power erbium-doped fiber amplifier, a short-length DF-HNL-PCF, and a wavelength demultiplexer in the simple configuration. We also carry out an experiment on the proposed system to demonstrate the 100-10 Gbit s-1 OTDM demultiplexing with wavelength conversion simultaneously at 4 multicast wavelengths. It is shown that error-free wavelength multicasting is achieved on two wavelength channels with the minimum power penalty of 3.2 dB relative to the 10 Gbit s-1 back-to-back measurement, whereas the bit error rates of other two multicasting channels are measured to be about 10-6-10-5. Moreover, we propose the use of a proper error-correcting code to improve the multicasting performance of such an OTDM system, and our work reveals that the resulting system can theoretically support error-free multicasting of the OTDM-demultiplexed signal on four wavelength channels.

  3. 76 FR 44855 - Common or Usual Name for Raw Meat and Poultry Products Containing Added Solutions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... 319 and 381 [Docket No. FSIS-2010-0012] RIN 0583-AD41 Common or Usual Name for Raw Meat and Poultry... a common or usual name for raw meat and poultry products that do not meet standard of identity... accurate description of the raw meat or poultry component, the percentage of added solution...

  4. 78 FR 46604 - Raw Flexible Magnets From China and Taiwan; Institution of Five-Year Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... COMMISSION Raw Flexible Magnets From China and Taiwan; Institution of Five- Year Reviews AGENCY: United...)) (the Act) to determine whether revocation of the countervailing duty order on raw flexible magnets from China and the revocation of the antidumping duty orders on raw flexible magnets from China and...

  5. 21 CFR 1210.26 - Permits for raw milk or cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permits for raw milk or cream. 1210.26 Section... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Permit Control § 1210.26 Permits for raw milk or cream. Except as provided in § 1210.27, permits to ship or transport raw milk or cream into the United States will be granted...

  6. 76 FR 72331 - Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Certain Raw Beef Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Certain Raw Beef Products AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service... methods for controlling non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in raw, intact and non-intact beef... Escherichia coli in raw, intact and non-intact beef products and product components on or before December...

  7. Continuous Microfluidic Mixing Using Pulsatile Micropumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, Ajay; Liepmann, Dorian

    2000-11-01

    For many microfluidic and micro-TAS applications, the mixing of two fluids is required. At small length scales, however, traditional means of mixing, such as turbulence generation, are impossible yet diffusion is often too slow. For laminar mixing, 3 degrees of freedom are required. Since MEMS are normally 2-D, time-dependence is added for the third degree of freedom. This process involves the use of two positive displacement pumps to alternatively deliver two different fluids into a common channel and utilizing Taylor dispersion to mix them. This mixing process was modelled numerically and confirmed via experimental observation of fluorescent dye in a fabricated MEMS mixer. The pumps used in the device are a new design consisting of a bubble-piston and two check valves.

  8. Mixed oxide solid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Magno, Scott; Wang, Ruiping; Derouane, Eric

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is a mixed oxide solid solution containing a tetravalent and a pentavalent cation that can be used as a support for a metal combustion catalyst. The invention is furthermore a combustion catalyst containing the mixed oxide solid solution and a method of making the mixed oxide solid solution. The tetravalent cation is zirconium(+4), hafnium(+4) or thorium(+4). In one embodiment, the pentavalent cation is tantalum(+5), niobium(+5) or bismuth(+5). Mixed oxide solid solutions of the present invention exhibit enhanced thermal stability, maintaining relatively high surface areas at high temperatures in the presence of water vapor.

  9. Cement mixing with vibrator

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, T.E.

    1991-07-09

    This patent describes a method of cementing a casing string in a bore hole of a well. It comprises introducing water and dry cement material into a mixing vessel; mixing the water and dry cement material in the mixing vessel to form a cement slurry, the slurry including lumps of the dry cement material, the mixing including steps of: agitating the slurry; and while agitating the slurry, transmitting vibrational energy into the slurry and thereby aiding disintegration and subsequent wetting of the lumps of the dry cement material in the slurry; and pumping the slurry into an annulus between the casing string and the bore hole.

  10. Free fatty acids and oxidative changes of a raw goat milk cheese through maturation.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Francisco J; González-Crespo, José; Cava, Ramón; Ramírez, Rosario

    2011-05-01

    Free fatty acids (FFA) and lipid and protein oxidation changes were studied throughout maturation process of a raw goat milk cheese with protected designation of origin. Cheeses were analyzed at 4 different times of maturation, at 1, 30, 60, and 90 d. All FFA significantly increased during maturation and the relative increase was higher for long-chain than medium- or short-chain FFA. At the end of maturation, oleic (C18:1 n9), butyric (C4:0), and palmitic (C16:0) acids were the most abundant. The higher levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) regarding total FFA obtained at the end of Ibores cheese ripening compared with other raw goat milk cheeses, highlight the notable role of SCFA on the flavor of this cheese owing to their low-odor thresholds. Lipid oxidation values significantly increased during maturation process but low levels of malondialdehyde were reported; however, protein oxidation did not significantly change during ripening.

  11. Rapid raw data simulation for fixed-receiver bistatic interferometric synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Feifei; Chang, Wenge; Li, Xiangyang

    2016-07-01

    Raw data simulation of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is useful for system designing, mission planning, and testing of imaging algorithms. According to the two-dimensional (2-D) frequency spectrum of the fixed-receiver bistatic SAR system, a rapid raw data simulation approach is proposed. With the combination of 2-D inverse Stolt transform in the 2-D frequency domain and phase compensation in the range-Doppler frequency domain, our approach can significantly reduce the simulation time. Therefore, simulations of extended scenes can be performed much more easily. Moreover, the proposed algorithm offers high accuracy of phase distribution, therefore, it can be used for single-pass fixed-receiver bistatic interferometric usage. The proposal is verified by extensive simulations of point targets and extended scene, in which the results indicate the feasibility as well as the effectiveness of our approach. In the end, the accuracy of phase distribution of the proposed algorithm is further examined with simulations of synthetic aperture radar interferometry.

  12. Production and optimization of biodiesel using mixed immobilized biocatalysts in packed bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Bakkiyaraj, S; Syed, Mahin Basha; Devanesan, M G; Thangavelu, Viruthagiri

    2016-05-01

    Vegetable oils are used as raw materials for biodiesel production using transesterification reaction. Several methods for the production of biodiesel were developed using chemical (alkali and acidic compounds) and biological catalysts (lipases). Biodiesel production catalyzed by lipases is energy and cost-saving processes and is carried out at normal temperature and pressure. The need for an efficient method for screening larger number of variables has led to the adoption of statistical experimental design. In the present study, packed bed reactor was designed to study with mixed immobilized biocatalysts to have higher productivity under optimum conditions. Contrary to the single-step acyl migration mechanism, a two-step stepwise reaction mechanism involving immobilized Candida rugosa lipase and immobilized Rhizopus oryzae cells was employed for the present work. This method was chosen because enzymatic hydrolysis followed by esterification can tolerate high free fatty acid containing oils. The effects of flow rate and bed height on biodiesel yield were studied using two factors five-level central composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology (RSM). Maximum biodiesel yield of 85 and 81 % was obtained for jatropha oil and karanja oil with the optimum bed height and optimum flow rate of 32.6 cm and 1.35 L/h, and 32.6 cm and 1.36 L/h, respectively.

  13. Interdisciplinary Learning: Adding an Egg To the Mix.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monhardt, Rebecca; Henriques, Laura

    1997-01-01

    Describes interdisciplinary activities for teaching elementary science using eggs. Each activity is designed to introduce larger thematic units. Activities include making egg animals (study of animal survival), throwing raw eggs at taut vertical sheets and making cars for egg passengers (force and momentum), and making eggshell domes (dome…

  14. Mixed waste minimization/mixed waste avoidance

    SciTech Connect

    Todisco, L.R.

    1994-12-31

    This presentation describes methods for the minimization and volume reduction of low-level radioactive and mixed wastes. Many methods are presented including: source reduction, better waste monitoring activities, waste segregation, recycling, administrative controls, and optimization of waste-generating processes.

  15. RAPP, a systematic e-assessment of postoperative recovery in patients undergoing day surgery: study protocol for a mixed-methods study design including a multicentre, two-group, parallel, single-blind randomised controlled trial and qualitative interview studies

    PubMed Central

    Dahlberg, K; Odencrants, S; Hagberg, L

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Day surgery is a well-established practice in many European countries, but only limited information is available regarding postoperative recovery at home though there is a current lack of a standard procedure regarding postoperative follow-up. Furthermore, there is also a need for improvement of modern technology in assessing patient-related outcomes such as mobile applications. This article describes the Recovery Assessment by Phone Points (RAPP) study protocol, a mixed-methods study to evaluate if a systematic e-assessment follow-up in patients undergoing day surgery is cost-effective and improves postoperative recovery, health and quality of life. Methods and analysis This study has a mixed-methods study design that includes a multicentre, two-group, parallel, single-blind randomised controlled trial and qualitative interview studies. 1000 patients >17 years of age who are undergoing day surgery will be randomly assigned to either e-assessed postoperative recovery follow-up daily in 14 days measured via smartphone app including the Swedish web-version of Quality of Recovery (SwQoR) or to standard care (ie, no follow-up). The primary aim is cost-effectiveness. Secondary aims are (A) to explore whether a systematic e-assessment follow-up after day surgery has a positive effect on postoperative recovery, health-related quality of life (QoL) and overall health; (B) to determine whether differences in postoperative recovery have an association with patient characteristic, type of surgery and anaesthesia; (C) to determine whether differences in health literacy have a substantial and distinct effect on postoperative recovery, health and QoL; and (D) to describe day surgery patient and staff experiences with a systematic e-assessment follow-up after day surgery. The primary aim will be measured at 2 weeks postoperatively and secondary outcomes (A–C) at 1 and 2 weeks and (D) at 1 and 4 months. Trial registration number NCT02492191; Pre

  16. Toxin-Induced Autoimmune Hepatitis Caused by Raw Cashew Nuts

    PubMed Central

    Stueck, Ashley; Bansal, Meena

    2016-01-01

    A 64-year-old man with no past medical history presented with abnormally elevated liver enzymes 1 year after developing a diffuse rash thought to be related to eating large quantities of raw cashew nuts. Liver biopsy was performed, which revealed features concerning for drug- or toxin-induced autoimmune hepatitis. The patient began treatment with azathioprine and prednisone, and liver enzymes normalized. We describe a unique case of a toxin-induced autoimmune hepatitis precipitated not by a drug or dietary supplement but by a food product. PMID:27807585

  17. RECOVERY OF URANIUM VALUES FROM URANIUM BEARING RAW MATERIALS

    DOEpatents

    Michal, E.J.; Porter, R.R.

    1959-06-16

    Uranium leaching from ground uranium-bearing raw materials using MnO/sub 2/ in H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ is described. The MnO/sub 2/ oxidizes U to the leachable hexavalent state. The MnO/sub 2/ does not replace Fe normally added, because the Fe complexes P and catalyzes the MnO/sub 2/ reaction. Three examples of continuous processes are given, but batch operation is also possible. The use of MnO/sub 2/ makes possible recovery of very low U values. (T.R.H.)

  18. Sound absorption study of raw and expanded particulate vermiculites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vašina, Martin; Plachá, Daniela; Mikeska, Marcel; Hružík, Lumír; Martynková, Gražyna Simha

    2016-12-01

    Expanded and raw vermiculite minerals were studied for their ability to absorb sound. Phase and structural characterization of the investigated vermiculites was found similar for both types, while morphology and surface properties vary. Sound waves reflect in wedge-like structure and get minimized, and later are absorbed totally. We found that thanks to porous character of expanded vermiculite the principle of absorption of sound into layered vermiculite morphology is analogous to principle of sound minimization in "anechoic chambers." It was found in this study that the best sound damping properties of the investigated vermiculites were in general obtained at higher powder bed heights and higher excitation frequencies.

  19. Encephalitozoon cuniculi in Raw Cow's Milk Remains Infectious After Pasteurization.

    PubMed

    Kváč, Martin; Tomanová, Vendula; Samková, Eva; Koubová, Jana; Kotková, Michaela; Hlásková, Lenka; McEvoy, John; Sak, Bohumil

    2016-02-01

    This study describes the prevalence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in raw cow's milk and evaluates the effect of different milk pasteurization treatments on E. cuniculi infectivity for severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Using a nested polymerase chain reaction approach, 1 of 50 milking cows was found to repeatedly shed E. cuniculi in its feces and milk. Under experimental conditions, E. cuniculi spores in milk remained infective for SCID mice following pasteurization treatments at 72 °C for 15 s or 85 °C for 5 s. Based on these findings, pasteurized cow's milk should be considered a potential source of E. cuniculi infection in humans.

  20. [Severe type 1-allergy to raw bell pepper].

    PubMed

    Rüger, R D; Wagner, S; Simon, J C; Treudler, R

    2010-04-01

    We report on a patient with rare anaphylaxis after ingestion of raw bell pepper. A complex cluster of sensitization including grass and birch pointed out a possible pollen-associated food allergy. We suggest that the severe reaction is due to cross-reactivity towards Bet v 1. Western blot showed binding of the patient's serum to an 11 kDa protein, which has not been described yet and might be a new allergenic structure of the bell pepper plant or a fragment of the Bet v 1-homologous bell pepper protein.