Science.gov

Sample records for raw mix designing

  1. Mixing, tensile and pasting properties of wheat flour mixed with raw and enzyme treated rice bran.

    PubMed

    Teng, Yuefei; Liu, Chunying; Bai, Jing; Liang, Jianfen

    2015-05-01

    Rice bran is a potential fiber and minerals source for nutrients enhancement of cereals food. For evaluation of rice bran applied in bread making, mixing properties, tensile and pasting properties of wheat flour dough with raw (RB) or enzymes treated rice bran (ERB) were investigated. Farinogram with two peaks, which was observed in the dough with 40 % ERB, was reported. For mixing properties, addition of RB and ERB significantly decreased water absorption and stability of wheat dough. Dough development time of mixed flour with ERB was longer than that with RB. Water absorption, stability time of the dough and farinograph quality number is negatively correlated with addition of RB and ERB. The alveograph tests indicated that extensibility of dough decreased remarkably with increased RB or ERB addition and RB had more negative effects than that of the ERB. Results of pasting behaviors predicted that addition of RB or ERB, could slow down starch retrogradation and delay bread staling. In general, wheat flour mixed with 20 % RB or ERB was fit for bread making and the later expects better sensory and nutritional values.

  2. Design for the Environment Products (Raw Data)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This dataset contains a list of products that carry the Design for the Environment (DfE) label. This mark enables consumers to quickly identify and choose products that can help protect the environment and are safer for families. When you see the DfE logo on a product it means that the DfE scientific review team has screened each ingredient for potential human health and environmental effects and that-based on currently available information, EPA predictive models, and expert judgment-the product contains only those ingredients that pose the least concern among chemicals in their class. Product manufacturers who become DfE partners, and earn the right to display the DfE logo on recognized products, have invested heavily in research, development and reformulation to ensure that their ingredients and finished product line up on the green end of the health and environmental spectrum while maintaining or improving product performance. EPA's Design for the Environment Program (DfE) has allowed use of their logo on over 2500 products. These products are formulated from the safest possible ingredients and have reduced the use of chemicals of concern by hundreds of millions of pounds. A Spanish version of this dataset is available for download at http://www.epa.gov/dfe/pubs/products/list_of_labeled_products.html

  3. Mixed voltage VLSI design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panwar, Ramesh; Rennels, David; Alkalaj, Leon

    1993-01-01

    A technique for minimizing the power dissipated in a Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) chip by lowering the operating voltage without any significant penalty in the chip throughput even though low voltage operation results in slower circuits. Since the overall throughput of a VLSI chip depends on the speed of the critical path(s) in the chip, it may be possible to sustain the throughput rates attained at higher voltages by operating the circuits in the critical path(s) with a high voltage while operating the other circuits with a lower voltage to minimize the power dissipation. The interface between the gates which operate at different voltages is crucial for low power dissipation since the interface may possibly have high static current dissipation thus negating the gains of the low voltage operation. The design of a voltage level translator which does the interface between the low voltage and high voltage circuits without any significant static dissipation is presented. Then, the results of the mixed voltage design using a greedy algorithm on three chips for various operating voltages are presented.

  4. Prediction of tablet hardness based on near infrared spectra of raw mixed powders by chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Makoto; Yamane, Ikuro

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to elucidate the effect of lubricant mixing on tablet hardness by near-infrared (NIR) chemometrics as a basic study of process analytical technology. Formulation cellulose (F-C) consisted of sulpyrine (SP), microcrystalline cellulose (MC), and magnesium stearate (MgSt). Formulation lactose/starch (F-L) consisted of SP bulk drug powder, spray-dried lactose (SL), corn starch (CS), and MgSt. First, F-L and F-C without MgSt were mixed in a twin-shell mixer for 60 min. MgSt was added to the mixed powder, and was mixed for various mixing times, after which the mixed powders were compressed by 8-mm diameter punch and die. NIR spectra of raw mixed powders of F-L and F-C were taken using a reflection type of Fourier transform NIR spectra spectrometer, and chemometric analysis was performed using principal component regression (PCR). The tablet hardnesses of F-L and F-C decreased with increasing mixing time. All NIR spectra of the mixed powders of F-L and F-C fluctuated depending on mixing time. In order to predict tablet hardness before tablet compression, NIR spectra of F-L and F-C mixed powders were analyzed and evaluated for hardness by PCR. The minimum standard error of cross-validation values could be realized by using five- and six-principal component models, respectively. In the cases of F-L and F-C, the relationships between the actual and predicted tablet hardnesses showed straight lines, respectively. In the regression vectors of F-L and FC, the peaks related to hydrogen groups of SP, CS, and MC appeared as positive peaks. In contrast, the peaks related to hydrocarbon due to MgSt appeared as negative peaks in the regression vectors. The calibration models to evaluate the tablet hardness were obtained based on NIR spectra of raw mixed powders by PCR. This approach to predicting tablet hardness prior to compression could be used as a routine test to indicate the quality of the final product without spending time and energy to produce

  5. Ammonia removal from raw manure digestate by means of a turbulent mixing stripping process.

    PubMed

    Limoli, Alice; Langone, Michela; Andreottola, Gianni

    2016-07-01

    In this study, ammonia stripping by means of a turbulent mixing process followed by pH neutralization was investigated as a simple and cost-effective ammonia removal technique to treat raw manure digestate. Batch tests conducted using CaO, NaOH and H2O2 to control pH and temperature and combinations thereof showed that sodium hydroxide was the most suitable chemical, as it is easy to handle, minimizes treatment time and costs, does not increase the solid content of the sludge and allows to easily control the stripping process. NaOH dosage mainly depended on buffering capacity rather than on total solid content. The analysis of the ammonia stripping process indicated that ammonia removal was strongly dependent on pH, and ammonia removal rate followed the pseudo-first-order kinetics. Total solid content slightly influenced TAN removal efficiency. When NaOH was applied to treat raw digestate at pH 10 and mean temperature of 23 ± 2 °C, TAN removal efficiency reached 88.7% after 24 h of turbulent mixing stripping, without reaching inhibitory salinity levels. Moreover, pH neutralization with sulfuric acid following the stripping process improved raw digestate dewaterability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Relation between quality and production cost for pure biodiesel bases on the mixes of raw materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsanaktsidis, C. G.; Spinthiropoulos, K. G.; Guliyev, Fariz; Dimitriou, D.; Euthaltsidou, K.; Tzilantonis, G. T.

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays biodiesel has become more attractive because it is made from renewable resources. The main ingredients of industrial biodiesel are rap oil, sun oil, fat acid, olive oil cooked. In this study we verify that, the proportion of these components sets the qualitative composition and energy efficiency of the final product. Essential we link the raw materials (rap oil, sun oil, fat acid, olive oil cooked) used in the manufacture of industrial biodiesel the proportion of mixes, with the variation of physicochemical properties of biodiesel produced. According to the quantitative analysis we notice that the physiochemical properties which alter the value for example humidity, acidity, while a large number of physicochemical properties do not change their value depending on the ratio of raw materials in each mixture. The analysis of these changes seems that the presence of fat acids is negative for the quality of the mixture. From the analysis of the cost of the final mixtures that lower cost is achieved in the mixture was 10 and the highest cost was in the mixture 3. Based on a study of the cost of the mixtures can determine a basic relation between the quality and the cost of the final product.

  7. Design Packing to Safely Mail Raw Spaghetti. Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, Erik; Ryan, Emily; Swift, Charles

    This activity is designed to build creative skills based on an everyday problem. The scenario that sometimes packages are dropped and letters get bent is used. How can a special delivery be protected from such unfortunate mishaps? Students use their creative skills to determine a way to mail raw spaghetti. A way to safely package the raw spaghetti…

  8. Conceptual design report, TWRS Privatization phase I, raw and potable water, subproject W-504

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, G.

    1997-06-05

    This document includes Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for extension of existing Raw and Potable systems from 200-East Area systems to two new private contractor facilities for immobilization and disposal of low-activity waste (LAW). The work will include design and installation of almost 3400 m (11,200 ft) of raw water pipe and 2200 in (7,300 ft) of potable water pipe.

  9. Mixed Methods Research Designs in Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, William E.; Creswell, John W.; Clark, Vicki L. Plano; Petska, Kelly S.; Creswell, David J.

    2005-01-01

    With the increased popularity of qualitative research, researchers in counseling psychology are expanding their methodologies to include mixed methods designs. These designs involve the collection, analysis, and integration of quantitative and qualitative data in a single or multiphase study. This article presents an overview of mixed methods…

  10. Mixed Methods Research Designs in Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, William E.; Creswell, John W.; Clark, Vicki L. Plano; Petska, Kelly S.; Creswell, David J.

    2005-01-01

    With the increased popularity of qualitative research, researchers in counseling psychology are expanding their methodologies to include mixed methods designs. These designs involve the collection, analysis, and integration of quantitative and qualitative data in a single or multiphase study. This article presents an overview of mixed methods…

  11. Mixed Method Designs in Implementation Research

    PubMed Central

    Aarons, Gregory A.; Horwitz, Sarah; Chamberlain, Patricia; Hurlburt, Michael; Landsverk, John

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the application of mixed method designs in implementation research in 22 mental health services research studies published in peer-reviewed journals over the last 5 years. Our analyses revealed 7 different structural arrangements of qualitative and quantitative methods, 5 different functions of mixed methods, and 3 different ways of linking quantitative and qualitative data together. Complexity of design was associated with number of aims or objectives, study context, and phase of implementation examined. The findings provide suggestions for the use of mixed method designs in implementation research. PMID:20967495

  12. Mixed method designs in implementation research.

    PubMed

    Palinkas, Lawrence A; Aarons, Gregory A; Horwitz, Sarah; Chamberlain, Patricia; Hurlburt, Michael; Landsverk, John

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the application of mixed method designs in implementation research in 22 mental health services research studies published in peer-reviewed journals over the last 5 years. Our analyses revealed 7 different structural arrangements of qualitative and quantitative methods, 5 different functions of mixed methods, and 3 different ways of linking quantitative and qualitative data together. Complexity of design was associated with number of aims or objectives, study context, and phase of implementation examined. The findings provide suggestions for the use of mixed method designs in implementation research.

  13. Designing a Mixed Reality Intergenerational Entertainment System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoo, Eng Tat; Merritt, Tim; Cheok, Adrian David

    This chapter presents steps for designing an intergenerational mixed reality entertainment system, which focuses on physical and social interactions using a mixed reality floor system. The main design goals include the following: facilitating interactions between users with varied levels of skill in utilizing technology, utilizing the familiar physical motions from other activities to make an intuitive physical interface, and encouraging social interactions among families and friends. Detailed implementation of these steps is presented in the design of our intergenerational entertainment system, Age Invaders. Our design process is based on user-centered design. The results of the study help to focus the refinements of the existing platform from a usability standpoint and also aid in the development of new physical entertainment and interactive applications. This study provides insights into user issues including how users interact in a complex mixed reality experience.

  14. Suitability of a new mixed-strain starter for manufacturing uncooked raw ewe's milk cheeses.

    PubMed

    Feutry, Fabienne; Torre, Paloma; Arana, Ines; Garcia, Susana; Pérez Elortondo, Francisco J; Berthier, Françoise

    2016-06-01

    Most raw milk Ossau-Iraty cheeses are currently manufactured on-farm using the same commercial streptococcal-lactococcal starter (S1). One way to enhance the microbial diversity that gives raw milk its advantages for cheese-making is to formulate new starters combining diverse, characterized strains. A new starter (OI) combining 6 raw milk strains of lactococci, recently isolated and characterized, was tested in parallel with the current starter by making 12 Ossau-Iraty raw milk cheeses at 3 farmhouses under the conditions prevailing at each farm. Compliance of the sensory characteristics with those expected by the Ossau-Iraty professionals, physicochemical parameters and coliforms were quantified at key manufacturing steps. The new starter OI gave cheeses having proper compliance but having lower compliance than the S1 cheeses under most manufacturing conditions, while managing coliform levels equally well as starter S1. This lower compliance relied more on the absence of Streptococcus thermophilus in starter OI, than on the nature of the lactoccocal strains present in starter OI. The study also shows that variations in 5 technological parameters during the first day of manufacture, within the range of values applied in the 3 farmhouses, are powerful tools for diversifying the scores for the sensory characteristics investigated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mixed-mode resins: taking shortcut in downstream processing of raw-starch digesting α-amylases.

    PubMed

    Lončar, Nikola; Šokarda Slavić, Marinela; Vujčić, Zoran; Božić, Nataša

    2015-10-23

    Bacillus licheniformis 9945a α-amylase is known as a potent enzyme for raw starch hydrolysis. In this paper, a mixed mode Nuvia cPrime™ resin is examined with the aim to improve the downstream processing of raw starch digesting amylases and exploit the hydrophobic patches on their surface. This resin combines hydrophobic interactions with cation exchange groups and as such the presence of salt facilitates hydrophobic interactions while the ion-exchange groups enable proper selectivity. α-Amylase was produced using an optimized fed-batch approach in a defined media and significant overexpression of 1.2 g L(-1) was achieved. This single step procedure enables simultaneous concentration, pigment removal as well as purification of amylase with yields of 96% directly from the fermentation broth.

  16. Mixed-mode resins: taking shortcut in downstream processing of raw-starch digesting α-amylases

    PubMed Central

    Lončar, Nikola; Slavić, Marinela Šokarda; Vujčić, Zoran; Božić, Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus licheniformis 9945a α-amylase is known as a potent enzyme for raw starch hydrolysis. In this paper, a mixed mode Nuvia cPrime™ resin is examined with the aim to improve the downstream processing of raw starch digesting amylases and exploit the hydrophobic patches on their surface. This resin combines hydrophobic interactions with cation exchange groups and as such the presence of salt facilitates hydrophobic interactions while the ion-exchange groups enable proper selectivity. α-Amylase was produced using an optimized fed-batch approach in a defined media and significant overexpression of 1.2 g L−1 was achieved. This single step procedure enables simultaneous concentration, pigment removal as well as purification of amylase with yields of 96% directly from the fermentation broth. PMID:26492875

  17. Flow characteristics of the raw sewage for the design of sewage-source heat pump systems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Wu, Yuebin; Sun, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    The flow characteristics of raw sewage directly affect the technical and economic performance of sewage-source heat pump systems. The purpose of this research is to characterize the flow characteristics of sewage by experimental means. A sophisticated and flexible experimental apparatus was designed and constructed. Then the flow characteristics of the raw sewage were studied through laboratorial testing and theoretical analyses. Results indicated that raw sewage could be characterized as a power-law fluid with the rheological exponent n being 0.891 and the rheological coefficient k being 0.00175. In addition, the frictional loss factor formula in laminar flow for raw sewage was deduced by theoretical analysis of the power-law fluid. Furthermore, an explicit empirical formula for the frictional loss factor in turbulent flow was obtained through curve fitting of the experimental data. Finally, the equivalent viscosity of the raw sewage is defined in order to calculate the Reynolds number in turbulent flow regions; it was found that sewage had two to three times the viscosity of water at the same temperature. These results contributed to appropriate parameters of fluid properties when designing and operating sewage-source heat pump systems.

  18. Psychometric Properties of Raw and Scale Scores on Mixed-Format Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolen, Michael J.; Lee, Won-Chan

    2011-01-01

    This paper illustrates that the psychometric properties of scores and scales that are used with mixed-format educational tests can impact the use and interpretation of the scores that are reported to examinees. Psychometric properties that include reliability and conditional standard errors of measurement are considered in this paper. The focus is…

  19. Psychometric Properties of Raw and Scale Scores on Mixed-Format Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolen, Michael J.; Lee, Won-Chan

    2011-01-01

    This paper illustrates that the psychometric properties of scores and scales that are used with mixed-format educational tests can impact the use and interpretation of the scores that are reported to examinees. Psychometric properties that include reliability and conditional standard errors of measurement are considered in this paper. The focus is…

  20. Automated mixed traffic vehicle design AMTV 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, A. R.; Marks, R. A.; Cassell, P. L.

    1982-01-01

    The design of an improved and enclosed Automated Mixed Traffic Transit (AMTT) vehicle is described. AMTT is an innovative concept for low-speed tram-type transit in which suitable vehicles are equipped with sensors and controls to permit them to operate in an automated mode on existing road or walkway surfaces. The vehicle chassis and body design are presented in terms of sketches and photographs. The functional design of the sensing and control system is presented, and modifications which could be made to the baseline design for improved performance, in particular to incorporate a 20-mph capability, are also discussed. The vehicle system is described at the block-diagram-level of detail. Specifications and parameter values are given where available.

  1. The application of mixed methods designs to trauma research.

    PubMed

    Creswell, John W; Zhang, Wanqing

    2009-12-01

    Despite the use of quantitative and qualitative data in trauma research and therapy, mixed methods studies in this field have not been analyzed to help researchers designing investigations. This discussion begins by reviewing four core characteristics of mixed methods research in the social and human sciences. Combining these characteristics, the authors focus on four select mixed methods designs that are applicable in trauma research. These designs are defined and their essential elements noted. Applying these designs to trauma research, a search was conducted to locate mixed methods trauma studies. From this search, one sample study was selected, and its characteristics of mixed methods procedures noted. Finally, drawing on other mixed methods designs available, several follow-up mixed methods studies were described for this sample study, enabling trauma researchers to view design options for applying mixed methods research in trauma investigations.

  2. Rational selection of Leuconostoc strains for mixed starters based on the physiological biodiversity found in raw milk fermentations.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Jorge Ignacio; Martínez, Beatriz; Rodríguez, Ana

    2005-12-15

    The technological abilities of eleven wild Leuconostoc strains isolated from artisanal Afuega'l Pitu cheese, a homemade acid-coagulated cheese from raw milk from Asturias (northern Spain), were studied in order to test their potential application as components of dairy starters. Metabolic activity, production of flavour compounds, resistance to NaCl, acid, nisin and freezing, as well as genetic biodiversity were investigated. Marked differences among all tested strains reflected the existing biodiversity in naturally fermented products. After evaluation of their performance, strains IPLA567 and IPLA979 revealed the best properties to be used use in mixed dairy starter cultures. These two strains were able to ferment lactose and galactose and produced larger amounts of lactic acid than the others. Moreover, they showed high tolerance levels to NaCl, acid and nisin, although their resistance to freezing was slightly lower than the other strains. This study evidences the fact that natural environments can be considered as a proper source of new strains, which may help the dairy industry to widen their fermented products range.

  3. Designing a mixed methods study in pediatric oncology nursing research.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Krista; Woodgate, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    Despite the appeal of discovering the different strengths of various research methods, mixed methods research remains elusive in pediatric oncology nursing research. If pediatric oncology nurses are to succeed in mixing quantitative and qualitative methods, they need practical guidelines for managing the complex data and analyses of mixed methods research. This article discusses mixed methods terminology, designs, and key design features. Specific areas addressed include the myths about mixed methods research, types of mixed method research designs, steps involved in developing a mixed method research study, and the benefits and challenges of using mixed methods designs in pediatric oncology research. Examples of recent research studies that have combined quantitative and qualitative research methods are provided. The term mixed methods research is used throughout this article to reflect the use of both quantitative and qualitative methods within one study rather than the use of these methods in separate studies concerning the same research problem.

  4. Development of a simplified asphalt mix stability procedure for use in Superpave volumetric mix design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafez, Ihab Hussein Fahmy

    Over the last five decades, two common test methods (Marshall and Hveem) have evolved for the design of asphaltic mixes. These design methods have been historically found to be generally reliable and reasonable for most application in design. However, premature distress in many flexible pavements suggests that these empirical methods of design do not guarantee a stable mix. Recently, many studies have been carried out in order to develop a rational mix design procedure that accounts for both the mix volumetric properties as well as fundamental engineering properties. Among those is the Superpave design procedure, which was originally divided into three, hierarchical levels termed the volumetric mix design (level I), the abbreviated mix design (level II), and the full mix design (level III). In the volumetric design, the entire mix design process is based upon the volumetric properties and does not include a test method to evaluate the stability/strength of the mix. Although both the abbreviated level and the full level of design included test methods that considered the engineering properties in a complete and a comprehensive manner; they required the purchase of very expensive equipment and a large number of samples to be tested. The objective of this research was to develop a new rational "fundamental" mix strength (stability) test for the design of dense graded mixes to overcome the limitations of the Hveem and Marshall empirical methods and to fill the gaps and major deficiencies in the current Superpave volumetric mix design. The new procedure is based upon the Superpave volumetric design (level I) but is augmented by the simple, but fundamental mix strength (stability) test. Such a test is now currently absent in the existing Superpave approach. The new procedure introduces the flow time as a fundamental engineering design criterion in the mix design. This parameter is defined as the time (in seconds) at which plastic flow in a mix occurs under creep loading

  5. Demystifying Mixed Methods Research Design: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruth, Gail D.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods research evolved in response to the observed limitations of both quantitative and qualitative designs and is a more complex method. The purpose of this paper was to examine mixed methods research in an attempt to demystify the design thereby allowing those less familiar with its design an opportunity to utilize it in future research.…

  6. How to Construct a Mixed Methods Research Design.

    PubMed

    Schoonenboom, Judith; Johnson, R Burke

    2017-01-01

    This article provides researchers with knowledge of how to design a high quality mixed methods research study. To designmixed study, researchers must understand and carefully consider each of the dimensions of mixed methods design, and always keep an eye on the issue of validity. We explain the seven major design dimensions: purpose, theoretical drive, timing (simultaneity and dependency), point of integration, typological versus interactive design approaches, planned versus emergent design, and design complexity. There also are multiple secondary dimensions that need to be considered during the design process. We explain ten secondary dimensions of design to be considered for each research study. We also provide two case studies showing how the mixed designs were constructed.

  7. Top-down methodology in industrial mixed-signals design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, E.; Postula, A.; Ding, Y.

    2005-12-01

    Analogue and mixed-signal designs are fast becoming significant in System-On-Chip (SoC) designs as digital computational cores need to interface with the real world. Cellular phones, magnetic disk drives, speech recognition hardware and other 'digital' innovations in fact rely on a core of analogue circuitry. Mature digital CAD tools competently handle the digital portions of SoC designs. This is not true for analogue and mixed-signals components, still designed manually using time-consuming techniques. A good top-down design methodology can drastically reduce the design time of analogue components in SoCs and allow comprehensive functionality verification. This paper contains a critical survey of current design processes and tools, a top-down design case study and introduces MIX-SYN, a new platform for fast-tracking exploration and design time for the analogue and mixed-signals design industry.

  8. What Can Mixed Methods Designs Offer Professional Development Program Evaluators?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Victoria; Nevin, Ann

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the authors describe the benefits and pitfalls of mixed methods designs. They argue that mixed methods designs may be preferred when evaluating professional development programs for p-K-12 education given the new call for accountability in making data-driven decisions. They summarize and critique the studies in terms of limitations…

  9. Design and analysis of biorefineries based on raw glycerol: addressing the glycerol problem.

    PubMed

    Posada, John A; Rincón, Luis E; Cardona, Carlos A

    2012-05-01

    Glycerol as a low-cost by-product of the biodiesel industry can be considered a renewable building block for biorefineries. In this work, the conversion of raw glycerol to nine added-value products obtained by chemical (syn-gas, acrolein, and 1,2-propanediol) or bio-chemical (ethanol, 1,3-propanediol, d-lactic acid, succinic acid, propionic acid, and poly-3-hydroxybutyrate) routes were considered. The technological schemes for these synthesis routes were designed, simulated, and economically assessed using Aspen Plus and Aspen Icarus Process Evaluator, respectively. The techno-economic potential of a glycerol-based biorefinery system for the production of fuels, chemicals, and plastics was analyzed using the commercial Commercial Sale Price/Production Cost ratio criteria, under different production scenarios. More income can be earned from 1,3-propanediol and 1,2-propanediol production, while less income would be obtained from hydrogen and succinic acid. This analysis may be useful mainly for biodiesel producers since several profitable alternatives are presented and discussed.

  10. Improvements in Mixing Time and Mixing Uniformity in Devices Designed for Studies of Protein Folding Kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Shuhuai; Bakajin, Olgica

    2007-08-01

    Using a microfluidic laminar flow mixer designed for studies of protein folding kinetics, we demonstrate a mixing time of 1 +/- 1 micros with sample consumption on the order of femtomoles. We recognize two limitations of previously proposed designs: (1) size and shape of the mixing region, which limits mixing uniformity and (2) the formation of Dean vortices at high flow rates, which limits the mixing time. We address these limitations by using a narrow shape-optimized nozzle and by reducing the bend of the side channel streamlines. The final design, which combines both of these features, achieves the best performance. We quantified the mixing performance of the different designs by numerical simulation of coupled Navier-Stokes and convection-diffusion equations and experiments using fluorescence resonance energy-transfer (FRET)-labeled DNA.

  11. Mixed Methodology Research Design in Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Muthu

    2007-01-01

    In recent times many educational researchers have moved away from the traditional purist approach of strictly adopting either a qualitative or quantitative approach to conducting research. Instead they have attempted an eclectic mix of both methods in their research inquiry, combining aspects of both the traditions at various stages of their…

  12. Mixed Methodology Research Design in Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Muthu

    2007-01-01

    In recent times many educational researchers have moved away from the traditional purist approach of strictly adopting either a qualitative or quantitative approach to conducting research. Instead they have attempted an eclectic mix of both methods in their research inquiry, combining aspects of both the traditions at various stages of their…

  13. Teaching the Mixed Model Design: A Flowchart to Facilitate Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Jamie D.

    2005-01-01

    The Mixed Model (MM) design, sometimes known as a Split-Plot design, is very popular in educational research. This model can be used to examine the effects of several independent variables on a dependent variable and it offers a more powerful alternative to the completely randomized design. The MM design considers both a between-subjects factor,…

  14. Teaching the Mixed Model Design: A Flowchart to Facilitate Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Jamie D.

    2005-01-01

    The Mixed Model (MM) design, sometimes known as a Split-Plot design, is very popular in educational research. This model can be used to examine the effects of several independent variables on a dependent variable and it offers a more powerful alternative to the completely randomized design. The MM design considers both a between-subjects factor,…

  15. RBCC Mixing Studies: Ejector Ramjet Design Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The research project reported herein extended over a period from October 1997 through August 1999. The research resulted in three technical papers presented at the AIAA/SAE/ASME/ASEE 35th Joint Propulsion Conference in Los Angeles in July 1999. These three papers are attached to this Executive Summary to constitute the final report. Objective: The objective of this research was to determine the mixing characteristics between the primary rocket jets and the turbine exhaust stream in a simulated Rocket Based Combined Cycle propulsion concept operating in the air augmented rocket mode.

  16. Designing, Teaching, and Evaluating Two Complementary Mixed Methods Research Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Thomas W.

    2009-01-01

    Teaching mixed methods research is difficult. This longitudinal explanatory study examined how two classes were designed, taught, and evaluated. Curriculum, Research, and Teaching (EDCS-606) and Mixed Methods Research (EDCS-780) used a research proposal generation process to highlight the importance of the purpose, research question and…

  17. Breaking from binaries - using a sequential mixed methods design.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Patricia Mary; Begley, Cecily Marion; Devane, Declan

    2014-03-01

    To outline the traditional worldviews of healthcare research and discuss the benefits and challenges of using mixed methods approaches in contributing to the development of nursing and midwifery knowledge. There has been much debate about the contribution of mixed methods research to nursing and midwifery knowledge in recent years. A sequential exploratory design is used as an exemplar of a mixed methods approach. The study discussed used a combination of focus-group interviews and a quantitative instrument to obtain a fuller understanding of women's experiences of childbirth. In the mixed methods study example, qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis and quantitative data using regression analysis. Polarised debates about the veracity, philosophical integrity and motivation for conducting mixed methods research have largely abated. A mixed methods approach can contribute to a deeper, more contextual understanding of a variety of subjects and experiences; as a result, it furthers knowledge that can be used in clinical practice. The purpose of the research study should be the main instigator when choosing from an array of mixed methods research designs. Mixed methods research offers a variety of models that can augment investigative capabilities and provide richer data than can a discrete method alone. This paper offers an example of an exploratory, sequential approach to investigating women's childbirth experiences. A clear framework for the conduct and integration of the different phases of the mixed methods research process is provided. This approach can be used by practitioners and policy makers to improve practice.

  18. Fixed-Order Mixed Norm Designs for Building Vibration Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whorton, Mark S.; Calise, Anthony J.

    2000-01-01

    This study investigates the use of H2, mu-synthesis, and mixed H2/mu methods to construct full order controllers and optimized controllers of fixed dimensions. The benchmark problem definition is first extended to include uncertainty within the controller bandwidth in the form of parametric uncertainty representative of uncertainty in the natural frequencies of the design model. The sensitivity of H2 design to unmodeled dynamics and parametric uncertainty is evaluated for a range of controller levels of authority. Next, mu-synthesis methods are applied to design full order compensators that are robust to both unmodeled dynamics and to parametric uncertainty. Finally, a set of mixed H2/mu compensators are designed which are optimized for a fixed compensator dimension. These mixed norm designs recover the H2 design performance levels while providing the same levels of robust stability as the mu designs. It is shown that designing with the mixed norm approach permits higher levels of controller authority for which the H2 designs are destabilizing. The benchmark problem is that of an active tendon system. The controller designs are all based on the use of acceleration feedback.

  19. A Mixed Methods Investigation of Mixed Methods Sampling Designs in Social and Health Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Jiao, Qun G.

    2007-01-01

    A sequential design utilizing identical samples was used to classify mixed methods studies via a two-dimensional model, wherein sampling designs were grouped according to the time orientation of each study's components and the relationship of the qualitative and quantitative samples. A quantitative analysis of 121 studies representing nine fields…

  20. A Mixed Methods Investigation of Mixed Methods Sampling Designs in Social and Health Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Jiao, Qun G.

    2007-01-01

    A sequential design utilizing identical samples was used to classify mixed methods studies via a two-dimensional model, wherein sampling designs were grouped according to the time orientation of each study's components and the relationship of the qualitative and quantitative samples. A quantitative analysis of 121 studies representing nine fields…

  1. Guidance for using mixed methods design in nursing practice research.

    PubMed

    Chiang-Hanisko, Lenny; Newman, David; Dyess, Susan; Piyakong, Duangporn; Liehr, Patricia

    2016-08-01

    The mixed methods approach purposefully combines both quantitative and qualitative techniques, enabling a multi-faceted understanding of nursing phenomena. The purpose of this article is to introduce three mixed methods designs (parallel; sequential; conversion) and highlight interpretive processes that occur with the synthesis of qualitative and quantitative findings. Real world examples of research studies conducted by the authors will demonstrate the processes leading to the merger of data. The examples include: research questions; data collection procedures and analysis with a focus on synthesizing findings. Based on experience with mixed methods studied, the authors introduce two synthesis patterns (complementary; contrasting), considering application for practice and implications for research.

  2. Sorption and Release of Organics by Primary, Anaerobic, and Aerobic Activated Sludge Mixed with Raw Municipal Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Modin, Oskar; Saheb Alam, Soroush; Persson, Frank; Wilén, Britt-Marie

    2015-01-01

    New activated sludge processes that utilize sorption as a major mechanism for organics removal are being developed to maximize energy recovery from wastewater organics, or as enhanced primary treatment technologies. To model and optimize sorption-based activated sludge processes, further knowledge about sorption of organics onto sludge is needed. This study compared primary-, anaerobic-, and aerobic activated sludge as sorbents, determined sorption capacity and kinetics, and investigated some characteristics of the organics being sorbed. Batch sorption assays were carried out without aeration at a mixing velocity of 200 rpm. Only aerobic activated sludge showed net sorption of organics. Sorption of dissolved organics occurred by a near-instantaneous sorption event followed by a slower process that obeyed 1st order kinetics. Sorption of particulates also followed 1st order kinetics but there was no instantaneous sorption event; instead there was a release of particles upon mixing. The 5-min sorption capacity of activated sludge was 6.5±10.8 mg total organic carbon (TOC) per g volatile suspend solids (VSS) for particulate organics and 5.0±4.7 mgTOC/gVSS for dissolved organics. The observed instantaneous sorption appeared to be mainly due to organics larger than 20 kDa in size being sorbed, although molecules with a size of about 200 Da with strong UV absorbance at 215–230 nm were also rapidly removed. PMID:25768429

  3. Mixed methods research design for pragmatic psychoanalytic studies.

    PubMed

    Tillman, Jane G; Clemence, A Jill; Stevens, Jennifer L

    2011-10-01

    Calls for more rigorous psychoanalytic studies have increased over the past decade. The field has been divided by those who assert that psychoanalysis is properly a hermeneutic endeavor and those who see it as a science. A comparable debate is found in research methodology, where qualitative and quantitative methods have often been seen as occupying orthogonal positions. Recently, Mixed Methods Research (MMR) has emerged as a viable "third community" of research, pursuing a pragmatic approach to research endeavors through integrating qualitative and quantitative procedures in a single study design. Mixed Methods Research designs and the terminology associated with this emerging approach are explained, after which the methodology is explored as a potential integrative approach to a psychoanalytic human science. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods are reviewed, as well as how they may be used in Mixed Methods Research to study complex human phenomena.

  4. Some Human Factors Considerations for Designing Mixed Reality Interfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    the viewer’s eyes must converge at one distance, VSG , but must accommodate at another, fSG. Such a conflict causes the viewer to reconcile the two...the binocular fDV fSG p disparity vSG Right-eye View Left-eye View Some Human Factors Considerations for Designing Mixed Reality Interfaces RTO-MP

  5. Thermal design of multi-fluid mixed-mixed cross-flow heat exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roetzel, W.; Luo, X.

    2010-11-01

    A fast analytical calculation method is developed for the thermal design and rating of multi-fluid mixed-mixed cross-flow heat exchangers. Temperature dependent heat capacities and heat transfer coefficients can iteratively be taken into account. They are determined at one or two special reference temperatures. Examples are given for the application of the method to the rating of special multi-fluid multi-pass shell-and-tube heat exchangers and multi-fluid cross-flow plate-fin heat exchangers. The accuracy of the method is tested against numerical calculations with good results.

  6. Testing effects in mixed- versus pure-list designs.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Christopher A; Littrell-Baez, Megan K; Sensenig, Amanda E; DeLosh, Edward L

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, we investigated the role of list composition in the testing effect. Across three experiments, participants learned items through study and initial testing or study and restudy. List composition was manipulated, such that tested and restudied items appeared either intermixed in the same lists (mixed lists) or in separate lists (pure lists). In Experiment 1, half of the participants received mixed lists and half received pure lists. In Experiment 2, all participants were given both mixed and pure lists. Experiment 3 followed Erlebacher's (Psychological Bulletin, 84, 212-219, 1977) method, such that mixed lists, pure tested lists, and pure restudied lists were given to independent groups. Across all three experiments, the final recall results revealed significant testing effects for both mixed and pure lists, with no reliable difference in the magnitude of the testing advantage across list designs. This finding suggests that the testing effect is not subject to a key boundary condition-list design-that impacts other memory phenomena, including the generation effect.

  7. PCR detection of Salmonella typhimurium in pharmaceutical raw materials and products contaminated with a mixed bacterial culture using the BAX system.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, L; Scalici, C; Smalls, S; Bosko, Y; Ignar, R

    2001-01-01

    The BAX system, a PCR-based assay, was evaluated for detecting Salmonella typhimurium in pharmaceutical raw materials and products contaminated with mixed bacterial cultures of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella typhimurium. Artificially contaminated samples were preenriched in lactose broth with and without Tween 20. After preenrichment, samples were analyzed by PCR and standard methods. Ten of 25 samples did not show presence of the specific Salmonella spp. 740-base pair DNA fragment. However, S. typhimurium was isolated and identified by standard methods from all 25 samples. To optimize S. typhimurium detection in PCR negative samples, lactose broth was replaced by buffered peptone water (BPW) as the preenrichment broth. When BPW was used, all 10 samples were PCR positive. BPW enrichments increased S. typhimurium growth resulting in rapid PCR detection. The presence of non-Salmonella bacteria influenced the performance of the PCR-based assay. Optimization of S. typhimurium PCR detection in mixed culture required the use of different preenrichment broths. However, the BAX system detected S. typhimurium within 27 hours while standard methods required 5-7 days.

  8. Designing A Mixed Methods Study In Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Creswell, John W.; Fetters, Michael D.; Ivankova, Nataliya V.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND Mixed methods or multimethod research holds potential for rigorous, methodologically sound investigations in primary care. The objective of this study was to use criteria from the literature to evaluate 5 mixed methods studies in primary care and to advance 3 models useful for designing such investigations. METHODS We first identified criteria from the social and behavioral sciences to analyze mixed methods studies in primary care research. We then used the criteria to evaluate 5 mixed methods investigations published in primary care research journals. RESULTS Of the 5 studies analyzed, 3 included a rationale for mixing based on the need to develop a quantitative instrument from qualitative data or to converge information to best understand the research topic. Quantitative data collection involved structured interviews, observational checklists, and chart audits that were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical procedures. Qualitative data consisted of semistructured interviews and field observations that were analyzed using coding to develop themes and categories. The studies showed diverse forms of priority: equal priority, qualitative priority, and quantitative priority. Data collection involved quantitative and qualitative data gathered both concurrently and sequentially. The integration of the quantitative and qualitative data in these studies occurred between data analysis from one phase and data collection from a subsequent phase, while analyzing the data, and when reporting the results. DISCUSSION We recommend instrument-building, triangulation, and data transformation models for mixed methods designs as useful frameworks to add rigor to investigations in primary care. We also discuss the limitations of our study and the need for future research. PMID:15053277

  9. Achieving integration in mixed methods designs-principles and practices.

    PubMed

    Fetters, Michael D; Curry, Leslie A; Creswell, John W

    2013-12-01

    Mixed methods research offers powerful tools for investigating complex processes and systems in health and health care. This article describes integration principles and practices at three levels in mixed methods research and provides illustrative examples. Integration at the study design level occurs through three basic mixed method designs-exploratory sequential, explanatory sequential, and convergent-and through four advanced frameworks-multistage, intervention, case study, and participatory. Integration at the methods level occurs through four approaches. In connecting, one database links to the other through sampling. With building, one database informs the data collection approach of the other. When merging, the two databases are brought together for analysis. With embedding, data collection and analysis link at multiple points. Integration at the interpretation and reporting level occurs through narrative, data transformation, and joint display. The fit of integration describes the extent the qualitative and quantitative findings cohere. Understanding these principles and practices of integration can help health services researchers leverage the strengths of mixed methods.

  10. The Mixed Waste Management Facility. Preliminary design review

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This document presents information about the Mixed Waste Management Facility. Topics discussed include: cost and schedule baseline for the completion of the project; evaluation of alternative options; transportation of radioactive wastes to the facility; capital risk associated with incineration; radioactive waste processing; scaling of the pilot-scale system; waste streams to be processed; molten salt oxidation; feed preparation; initial operation to demonstrate selected technologies; floorplans; baseline revisions; preliminary design baseline; cost reduction; and project mission and milestones.

  11. MIX DESIGN FOR SMALL-SCALE MODELS OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    An easily applied method of mix design was developed for concretes suitable for use in small -scale models of concrete structures. By use of the...properties were collected for model concretes with portland cement and gypsum cement bases. These concretes had maximum aggregate sizes of No. 4...strength, the model concretes using approximately scaled aggregate were found to have about the same splitting-tensile strength and flexural strength, a

  12. Impact of chemistry on Standard High Solids Vessel Design mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.

    2016-03-02

    The plan for resolving technical issues regarding mixing performance within vessels of the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Pretreatment Facility directs a chemical impact study to be performed. The vessels involved are those that will process higher (e.g., 5 wt % or more) concentrations of solids. The mixing equipment design for these vessels includes both pulse jet mixers (PJM) and air spargers. This study assesses the impact of feed chemistry on the effectiveness of PJM mixing in the Standard High Solids Vessel Design (SHSVD). The overall purpose of this study is to complement the Properties that Matter document in helping to establish an acceptable physical simulant for full-scale testing. The specific objectives for this study are (1) to identify the relevant properties and behavior of the in-process tank waste that control the performance of the system being tested, (2) to assess the solubility limits of key components that are likely to precipitate or crystallize due to PJM and sparger interaction with the waste feeds, (3) to evaluate the impact of waste chemistry on rheology and agglomeration, (4) to assess the impact of temperature on rheology and agglomeration, (5) to assess the impact of organic compounds on PJM mixing, and (6) to provide the technical basis for using a physical-rheological simulant rather than a physical-rheological-chemical simulant for full-scale vessel testing. Among the conclusions reached are the following: The primary impact of precipitation or crystallization of salts due to interactions between PJMs or spargers and waste feeds is to increase the insoluble solids concentration in the slurries, which will increase the slurry yield stress. Slurry yield stress is a function of pH, ionic strength, insoluble solids concentration, and particle size. Ionic strength and chemical composition can affect particle size. Changes in temperature can affect SHSVD mixing through its effect on properties such as viscosity, yield stress, solubility

  13. Prevalence of Mixed-Methods Sampling Designs in Social Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Kathleen M. T.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to document the prevalence of sampling designs utilised in mixed-methods research and to examine the interpretive consistency between interpretations made in mixed-methods studies and the sampling design used. Classification of studies was based on a two-dimensional mixed-methods sampling model. This…

  14. Design and calibration of the mixing layer and wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, James H.; Mehta, Rabindra D.

    1989-01-01

    A detailed account of the design, assembly and calibration of a wind tunnel specifically designed for free-shear layer research is contained. The construction of this new facility was motivated by a strong interest in the study of plane mixing layers with varying initial and operating conditions. The Mixing Layer Wind tunnel is located in the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory at NASA Ames Research Center. The tunnel consists of two separate legs which are driven independently by centrifugal blowers connected to variable speed motors. The blower/motor combinations are sized such that one is smaller than the other, giving maximum flow speeds of about 20 and 40 m/s, respectively. The blower speeds can either be set manually or via the Microvax II computer. The two streams are allowed to merge in the test section at the sharp trailing edge of a slowly tapering splitter plate. The test section is 36 cm in the cross-stream direction, 91 cm in the spanwise direction and 366 cm in length. One test section side-wall is slotted for probe access and adjustable so that the streamwise pressure gradient may be controlled. The wind tunnel is also equipped with a computer controlled, three-dimensional traversing system which is used to investigate the flow fields with pressure and hot-wire instrumentation. The wind tunnel calibration results show that the mean flow in the test section is uniform to within plus or minus 0.25 pct and the flow angularity is less than 0.25 deg. The total streamwise free-stream turbulence intensity level is approximately 0.15 pct. Currently the wind tunnel is being used in experiments designed to study the three-dimensional structure of plane mixing layers and wakes.

  15. Design of an electromagnetic accelerator for turbulent hydrodynamic mix studies

    SciTech Connect

    Susoeff, A.R.; Hawke, R.S.; Morrison, J.J.; Dimonte, G.; Remington, B.A.

    1993-12-08

    An electromagnetic accelerator in the form of a linear electric motor (LEM) has been designed to achieve controlled acceleration profiles of a carriage containing hydrodynamically unstable fluids for the investigation of the development of turbulent mix. The Rayleigh- Taylor instability is investigated by accelerating two dissimilar density fluids using the LEM to achieve a wide variety of acceleration and deceleration profiles. The acceleration profiles are achieved by independent control of rail and augmentation currents. A variety of acceleration-time profiles are possible including: (1) constant, (2) impulsive and (3) shaped. The LEM and support structure are a robust design in order to withstand high loads with deflections and to mitigate operational vibration. Vibration of the carriage during acceleration could create artifacts in the data which would interfere with the intended study of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The design allows clear access for diagnostic techniques such as laser induced fluorescence radiography, shadowgraphs and particle imaging velocimetry. Electromagnetic modeling codes were used to optimize the rail and augmentation coil positions within the support structure framework. Results of contemporary studies for non-arcing sliding contact of solid armatures are used for the design of the driving armature and the dynamic electromagnetic braking system. A 0. 6MJ electrolytic capacitor bank is used for energy storage to drive the LEM. This report will discuss a LEM design which will accelerate masses of up to 3kg to a maximum of about 3000g{sub o}, where g{sub o} is accelerated due to gravity.

  16. Bivalve fouling of nuclear power plant service-water systems. Volume 1. Correlation of bivalve biological characteristics and raw-water system design

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, D.A.; Johnson, K.I.; Page, T.L.; Young, J.S.; Daling, P.M.

    1984-12-01

    Fouling of raw-water systems in nuclear power plants in the US can affect the safe operation of a power plant. This report describes correlations between the biology of bivalve organisms and the design and operation of power plants that allow bivalves to enter and reside in nuclear power plants. Discussions are focused on safety-related raw-water systems subject to fouling by the Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea), the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), and the American oyster (Crassostrea virginica). Score sheets to rate fouling potential of power plant systems and components are provided.

  17. Mixed Transportation Network Design under a Sustainable Development Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jin; Ni, Ling-lin; Shi, Feng

    2013-01-01

    A mixed transportation network design problem considering sustainable development was studied in this paper. Based on the discretization of continuous link-grade decision variables, a bilevel programming model was proposed to describe the problem, in which sustainability factors, including vehicle exhaust emissions, land-use scale, link load, and financial budget, are considered. The objective of the model is to minimize the total amount of resources exploited under the premise of meeting all the construction goals. A heuristic algorithm, which combined the simulated annealing and path-based gradient projection algorithm, was developed to solve the model. The numerical example shows that the transportation network optimized with the method above not only significantly alleviates the congestion on the link, but also reduces vehicle exhaust emissions within the network by up to 41.56%. PMID:23476142

  18. Mixed transportation network design under a sustainable development perspective.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jin; Ni, Ling-lin; Shi, Feng

    2013-01-01

    A mixed transportation network design problem considering sustainable development was studied in this paper. Based on the discretization of continuous link-grade decision variables, a bilevel programming model was proposed to describe the problem, in which sustainability factors, including vehicle exhaust emissions, land-use scale, link load, and financial budget, are considered. The objective of the model is to minimize the total amount of resources exploited under the premise of meeting all the construction goals. A heuristic algorithm, which combined the simulated annealing and path-based gradient projection algorithm, was developed to solve the model. The numerical example shows that the transportation network optimized with the method above not only significantly alleviates the congestion on the link, but also reduces vehicle exhaust emissions within the network by up to 41.56%.

  19. An Algorithm for the Mixed Transportation Network Design Problem.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinyu; Chen, Qun

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an optimization algorithm, the dimension-down iterative algorithm (DDIA), for solving a mixed transportation network design problem (MNDP), which is generally expressed as a mathematical programming with equilibrium constraint (MPEC). The upper level of the MNDP aims to optimize the network performance via both the expansion of the existing links and the addition of new candidate links, whereas the lower level is a traditional Wardrop user equilibrium (UE) problem. The idea of the proposed solution algorithm (DDIA) is to reduce the dimensions of the problem. A group of variables (discrete/continuous) is fixed to optimize another group of variables (continuous/discrete) alternately; then, the problem is transformed into solving a series of CNDPs (continuous network design problems) and DNDPs (discrete network design problems) repeatedly until the problem converges to the optimal solution. The advantage of the proposed algorithm is that its solution process is very simple and easy to apply. Numerical examples show that for the MNDP without budget constraint, the optimal solution can be found within a few iterations with DDIA. For the MNDP with budget constraint, however, the result depends on the selection of initial values, which leads to different optimal solutions (i.e., different local optimal solutions). Some thoughts are given on how to derive meaningful initial values, such as by considering the budgets of new and reconstruction projects separately.

  20. An Algorithm for the Mixed Transportation Network Design Problem

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinyu; Chen, Qun

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an optimization algorithm, the dimension-down iterative algorithm (DDIA), for solving a mixed transportation network design problem (MNDP), which is generally expressed as a mathematical programming with equilibrium constraint (MPEC). The upper level of the MNDP aims to optimize the network performance via both the expansion of the existing links and the addition of new candidate links, whereas the lower level is a traditional Wardrop user equilibrium (UE) problem. The idea of the proposed solution algorithm (DDIA) is to reduce the dimensions of the problem. A group of variables (discrete/continuous) is fixed to optimize another group of variables (continuous/discrete) alternately; then, the problem is transformed into solving a series of CNDPs (continuous network design problems) and DNDPs (discrete network design problems) repeatedly until the problem converges to the optimal solution. The advantage of the proposed algorithm is that its solution process is very simple and easy to apply. Numerical examples show that for the MNDP without budget constraint, the optimal solution can be found within a few iterations with DDIA. For the MNDP with budget constraint, however, the result depends on the selection of initial values, which leads to different optimal solutions (i.e., different local optimal solutions). Some thoughts are given on how to derive meaningful initial values, such as by considering the budgets of new and reconstruction projects separately. PMID:27626803

  1. The study of mixing of reagents within a droplet in various designs of microfluidic chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filatov, N. A.; Belousov, K. I.; Bukatin, A. S.; Kukhtevich, I. V.; Evstrapov, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to determine a design of a microfluidic droplet generator which provides the best mixing of two components within a droplet during its formation. Simulation of droplets’ formation in various designs of microfluidic generators was performed. Dependences of a mixing index from a capillary number and a viscosity of continuous phase were obtained for each design. The mixing index was determined directly after the formation of the droplet. It was found that the small capillary numbers correspond to the lower mixing index due to increase of the droplets diameter. The high viscosity of the continuous phase provides vortex flows in the area of droplet formation which leads to an increase in the mixing index for asymmetric designs, but has no significant effect on the mixing in conventional symmetric flow focusing. So for the asymmetric droplet generator designs the mixing index increases up to 1.5 as compared with the conventional flow focusing designs.

  2. A Preliminary Rubric Design to Evaluate Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    With the increase in frequency of the use of mixed methods, both in research publications and in externally funded grants there are increasing calls for a set of standards to assess the quality of mixed methods research. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to conduct a multi-phase analysis to create a preliminary rubric to evaluate mixed…

  3. A Preliminary Rubric Design to Evaluate Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    With the increase in frequency of the use of mixed methods, both in research publications and in externally funded grants there are increasing calls for a set of standards to assess the quality of mixed methods research. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to conduct a multi-phase analysis to create a preliminary rubric to evaluate mixed…

  4. Increasing the Transparency of Stated Choice Studies for Policy Analysis: Designing Experiments to Produce Raw Response Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sur, Dipika; Cook, Joseph; Chatterjee, Susmita; Deen, Jacqueline; Whittington, Dale

    2007-01-01

    We believe a lack of transparency undermines both the credibility of, and interest in, stated choice studies among policy makers. Unlike articles reporting the results of contingent valuation studies, papers in the stated choice literature rarely present simple tabulations of raw response data (that is, a table or graph showing the percentage of…

  5. Increasing the Transparency of Stated Choice Studies for Policy Analysis: Designing Experiments to Produce Raw Response Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sur, Dipika; Cook, Joseph; Chatterjee, Susmita; Deen, Jacqueline; Whittington, Dale

    2007-01-01

    We believe a lack of transparency undermines both the credibility of, and interest in, stated choice studies among policy makers. Unlike articles reporting the results of contingent valuation studies, papers in the stated choice literature rarely present simple tabulations of raw response data (that is, a table or graph showing the percentage of…

  6. Interactive tools designed to study mix in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Welser-sherrill, Leslie; Cooley, James H; Wilson, Doug C

    2008-01-01

    Graphical user interface tools have been built in IDL to study mix in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosion cores. FLAME (Fall-Line Analysis Mix Evaluator), a code which investigates yield degradation due to mix , was designed to post-process 1D hydrodynamic simulation output by implementing a variety of mix models. Three of these mix models are based on the physics of the fall-line. In addition, mixing data from other sources can be incorporated into the yield degradation analysis. Two independent tools called HAME (Haan Analysis Mix Evaluator) and YAME (Youngs Analysis Mix Evaluator) were developed to calculate the spatial extent of the mix region according to the Haan saturation model and Youngs' phenomenological model, respectively. FLAME facilitates a direct comparison to experimental data. The FLAME, HAME, and YAME interfaces are user-friendly, flexible, and platform-independent.

  7. Mixing temperature design and properties evaluation for SMA-13 mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X. Y.; Li, B. Y.

    2017-01-01

    The mixing temperature of hot asphalt mixture could be reduced by adding WMA additive Sasobit, as well as reducing smoke emissions and energy construction during the mixing construction and paving. The reasonable mixing temperature were investigated in this paper. In addition, high temperature stability, water stability and low-temperature performance of warm asphalt mixture were evaluaterd. The test results indicate that the mixing temperature of SMA-13 with WMA additive Sasobit may reduce 15-20°C at the same energy (compaction times). the dynamic stability were improved after adding WMA additive Sasobit, and the Water stability and low-temperature performance of mixture decreased, while all kinds of asphalt mixture properties can meet the requirements.

  8. A Proposed Model of Retransformed Qualitative Data within a Mixed Methods Research Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palladino, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Most models of mixed methods research design provide equal emphasis of qualitative and quantitative data analyses and interpretation. Other models stress one method more than the other. The present article is a discourse about the investigator's decision to employ a mixed method design to examine special education teachers' advocacy and…

  9. Single-Case Designs and Qualitative Methods: Applying a Mixed Methods Research Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitchcock, John H.; Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Summerville, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this conceptual paper is to describe a design that mixes single-case (sometimes referred to as single-subject) and qualitative methods, hereafter referred to as a single-case mixed methods design (SCD-MM). Minimal attention has been given to the topic of applying qualitative methods to SCD work in the literature. These two…

  10. A Proposed Model of Retransformed Qualitative Data within a Mixed Methods Research Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palladino, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Most models of mixed methods research design provide equal emphasis of qualitative and quantitative data analyses and interpretation. Other models stress one method more than the other. The present article is a discourse about the investigator's decision to employ a mixed method design to examine special education teachers' advocacy and…

  11. Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Insights into Design and Analysis Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieber, Eli

    2009-01-01

    This article describes and discusses issues related to research design and data analysis in the mixing of qualitative and quantitative methods. It is increasingly desirable to use multiple methods in research, but questions arise as to how best to design and analyze the data generated by mixed methods projects. I offer a conceptualization for such…

  12. Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Insights into Design and Analysis Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieber, Eli

    2009-01-01

    This article describes and discusses issues related to research design and data analysis in the mixing of qualitative and quantitative methods. It is increasingly desirable to use multiple methods in research, but questions arise as to how best to design and analyze the data generated by mixed methods projects. I offer a conceptualization for such…

  13. Single-Case Designs and Qualitative Methods: Applying a Mixed Methods Research Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitchcock, John H.; Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Summerville, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this conceptual paper is to describe a design that mixes single-case (sometimes referred to as single-subject) and qualitative methods, hereafter referred to as a single-case mixed methods design (SCD-MM). Minimal attention has been given to the topic of applying qualitative methods to SCD work in the literature. These two…

  14. The Mixed Waste Management Facility. Design basis integrated operations plan (Title I design)

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    The Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) will be a fully integrated, pilotscale facility for the demonstration of low-level, organic-matrix mixed waste treatment technologies. It will provide the bridge from bench-scale demonstrated technologies to the deployment and operation of full-scale treatment facilities. The MWMF is a key element in reducing the risk in deployment of effective and environmentally acceptable treatment processes for organic mixed-waste streams. The MWMF will provide the engineering test data, formal evaluation, and operating experience that will be required for these demonstration systems to become accepted by EPA and deployable in waste treatment facilities. The deployment will also demonstrate how to approach the permitting process with the regulatory agencies and how to operate and maintain the processes in a safe manner. This document describes, at a high level, how the facility will be designed and operated to achieve this mission. It frequently refers the reader to additional documentation that provides more detail in specific areas. Effective evaluation of a technology consists of a variety of informal and formal demonstrations involving individual technology systems or subsystems, integrated technology system combinations, or complete integrated treatment trains. Informal demonstrations will typically be used to gather general operating information and to establish a basis for development of formal demonstration plans. Formal demonstrations consist of a specific series of tests that are used to rigorously demonstrate the operation or performance of a specific system configuration.

  15. Engineering scale mixing system tests for MWTF title II design

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.C.

    1994-10-10

    Mixing tests for the Multifunction Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) were conducted in 1/25 and 1/10 scale test tanks with different slurry levels, solids concentrations, different jet mixers and with simulated in-tank structures. The same test procedure was used as in the Title I program, documented in WHC-SD-W236A-ER-005. The test results support the scaling correlation derived previously in the Title I program. The tests also concluded that a partially filled tank requires less mixing power, and horizontal and angled jets in combination (H/A mixer) are significantly more effective than the two horizontal jet mixers (H/H mixer) when used for mixing slurry with a high solids concentrations.

  16. Removal of anionic dye Congo red from aqueous solution by raw pine and acid-treated pine cone powder as adsorbent: equilibrium, thermodynamic, kinetics, mechanism and process design.

    PubMed

    Dawood, Sara; Sen, Tushar Kanti

    2012-04-15

    Pine cone a natural, low-cost agricultural by-product in Australia has been studied for its potential application as an adsorbent in its raw and hydrochloric acid modified form. Surface study of pine cone and treated pine cone was investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The modification process leads to increases in the specific surface area and decreases mean particle sizes of acid-treated pine cone when compared to raw pine cone biomass. Batch adsorption experiments were performed to remove anionic dye Congo red from aqueous solution. It was found that the extent of Congo red adsorption by both raw pine cone biomass and acid-treated biomass increased with initial dye concentration, contact time, temperature but decreased with increasing solution pH and amount of adsorbent of the system. Overall, kinetic studies showed that the dye adsorption process followed pseudo-second-order kinetics based on pseudo-first-order and intra-particle diffusion models. The different kinetic parameters including rate constant, half-adsorption time, and diffusion coefficient were determined at different physico-chemical conditions. Equilibrium data were best represented by Freundlich isotherm model among Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. It was observed that the adsorption was pH dependent and the maximum adsorption of 32.65 mg/g occurred at pH of 3.55 for an initial dye concentration of 20 ppm by raw pine cone, whereas for acid-treated pine cone the maximum adsorption of 40.19 mg/g for the same experimental conditions. Freundlich constant 'n' also indicated favourable adsorption. Thermodynamic parameters such as ∆G(0), ∆H(0), and ∆S(0) were calculated. A single-stage batch absorber design for the Congo red adsorption onto pine cone biomass also presented based on the Freundlich isotherm model equation.

  17. Using mixed methods research designs in health psychology: an illustrated discussion from a pragmatist perspective.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Felicity L

    2015-02-01

    To outline some of the challenges of mixed methods research and illustrate how they can be addressed in health psychology research. This study critically reflects on the author's previously published mixed methods research and discusses the philosophical and technical challenges of mixed methods, grounding the discussion in a brief review of methodological literature. Mixed methods research is characterized as having philosophical and technical challenges; the former can be addressed by drawing on pragmatism, the latter by considering formal mixed methods research designs proposed in a number of design typologies. There are important differences among the design typologies which provide diverse examples of designs that health psychologists can adapt for their own mixed methods research. There are also similarities; in particular, many typologies explicitly orient to the technical challenges of deciding on the respective timing of qualitative and quantitative methods and the relative emphasis placed on each method. Characteristics, strengths, and limitations of different sequential and concurrent designs are identified by reviewing five mixed methods projects each conducted for a different purpose. Adapting formal mixed methods designs can help health psychologists address the technical challenges of mixed methods research and identify the approach that best fits the research questions and purpose. This does not obfuscate the need to address philosophical challenges of mixing qualitative and quantitative methods. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Mixed methods research poses philosophical and technical challenges. Pragmatism in a popular approach to the philosophical challenges while diverse typologies of mixed methods designs can help address the technical challenges. Examples of mixed methods research can be hard to locate when component studies from mixed methods projects are published separately. What does this study add? Critical

  18. Systematic Experimental Designs For Mixed-species Plantings

    Treesearch

    Jeffery C. Goelz

    2001-01-01

    Systematic experimental designs provide splendid demonstration areas for scientists and land managers to observe the effects of a gradient of species composition. Systematic designs are based on large plots where species composition varies gradually. Systematic designs save considerable space and require many fewer seedlings than conventional mixture designs. One basic...

  19. [Theory and practice of designing the therapeutic drugs based on the lipophilic fractions of vegetable raw materials for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory lesions of urogenital system].

    PubMed

    Fetisova, A N; Popkov, V A

    2004-01-01

    Principle approaches to designing the therapeutic drugs based on the lipophilic fractions of vegetable raw-materials and meant for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory lesions of urogenital-system organs are substantiated in the paper both experimentally and theoretically. Considering the peculiarities of the mentioned pathologies, it is recommended to use the lipophilic fractions as the main components of soft drugs, in particular, of suppositories and ointments. The preliminary results of preclinical tests proved the chosen trend in creating the new therapeutic-and-preventive preparations to be promising.

  20. Swarm intelligence for mixed-variable design optimization.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chuang-Xin; Hu, Jia-Sheng; Ye, Bin; Cao, Yi-Jia

    2004-07-01

    Many engineering optimization problems frequently encounter continuous variables and discrete variables which adds considerably to the solution complexity. Very few of the existing methods can yield a globally optimal solution when the objective functions are non-convex and non-differentiable. This paper presents a hybrid swarm intelligence approach (HSIA) for solving these nonlinear optimization problems which contain integer, discrete, zero-one and continuous variables. HSIA provides an improvement in global search reliability in a mixed-variable space and converges steadily to a good solution. An approach to handle various kinds of variables and constraints is discussed. Comparison testing of several examples of mixed-variable optimization problems in the literature showed that the proposed approach is superior to current methods for finding the best solution, in terms of both solution quality and algorithm robustness.

  1. Mixed reality temporal bone surgical dissector: mechanical design.

    PubMed

    Hochman, Jordan Brent; Sepehri, Nariman; Rampersad, Vivek; Kraut, Jay; Khazraee, Milad; Pisa, Justyn; Unger, Bertram

    2014-08-08

    The Development of a Novel Mixed Reality (MR) Simulation. An evolving training environment emphasizes the importance of simulation. Current haptic temporal bone simulators have difficulty representing realistic contact forces and while 3D printed models convincingly represent vibrational properties of bone, they cannot reproduce soft tissue. This paper introduces a mixed reality model, where the effective elements of both simulations are combined; haptic rendering of soft tissue directly interacts with a printed bone model. This paper addresses one aspect in a series of challenges, specifically the mechanical merger of a haptic device with an otic drill. This further necessitates gravity cancelation of the work assembly gripper mechanism. In this system, the haptic end-effector is replaced by a high-speed drill and the virtual contact forces need to be repositioned to the drill tip from the mid wand. Previous publications detail generation of both the requisite printed and haptic simulations. Custom software was developed to reposition the haptic interaction point to the drill tip. A custom fitting, to hold the otic drill, was developed and its weight was offset using the haptic device. The robustness of the system to disturbances and its stable performance during drilling were tested. The experiments were performed on a mixed reality model consisting of two drillable rapid-prototyped layers separated by a free-space. Within the free-space, a linear virtual force model is applied to simulate drill contact with soft tissue. Testing illustrated the effectiveness of gravity cancellation. Additionally, the system exhibited excellent performance given random inputs and during the drill's passage between real and virtual components of the model. No issues with registration at model boundaries were encountered. These tests provide a proof of concept for the initial stages in the development of a novel mixed-reality temporal bone simulator.

  2. Mixed reality temporal bone surgical dissector: mechanical design

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Development of a Novel Mixed Reality (MR) Simulation. An evolving training environment emphasizes the importance of simulation. Current haptic temporal bone simulators have difficulty representing realistic contact forces and while 3D printed models convincingly represent vibrational properties of bone, they cannot reproduce soft tissue. This paper introduces a mixed reality model, where the effective elements of both simulations are combined; haptic rendering of soft tissue directly interacts with a printed bone model. This paper addresses one aspect in a series of challenges, specifically the mechanical merger of a haptic device with an otic drill. This further necessitates gravity cancelation of the work assembly gripper mechanism. In this system, the haptic end-effector is replaced by a high-speed drill and the virtual contact forces need to be repositioned to the drill tip from the mid wand. Previous publications detail generation of both the requisite printed and haptic simulations. Method Custom software was developed to reposition the haptic interaction point to the drill tip. A custom fitting, to hold the otic drill, was developed and its weight was offset using the haptic device. The robustness of the system to disturbances and its stable performance during drilling were tested. The experiments were performed on a mixed reality model consisting of two drillable rapid-prototyped layers separated by a free-space. Within the free-space, a linear virtual force model is applied to simulate drill contact with soft tissue. Results Testing illustrated the effectiveness of gravity cancellation. Additionally, the system exhibited excellent performance given random inputs and during the drill’s passage between real and virtual components of the model. No issues with registration at model boundaries were encountered. Conclusion These tests provide a proof of concept for the initial stages in the development of a novel mixed-reality temporal bone

  3. Using mixed methods effectively in prevention science: designs, procedures, and examples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wanqing; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu

    2014-10-01

    There is growing interest in using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods to generate evidence about the effectiveness of health prevention, services, and intervention programs. With the emerging importance of mixed methods research across the social and health sciences, there has been an increased recognition of the value of using mixed methods for addressing research questions in different disciplines. We illustrate the mixed methods approach in prevention research, showing design procedures used in several published research articles. In this paper, we focused on two commonly used mixed methods designs: concurrent and sequential mixed methods designs. We discuss the types of mixed methods designs, the reasons for, and advantages of using a particular type of design, and the procedures of qualitative and quantitative data collection and integration. The studies reviewed in this paper show that the essence of qualitative research is to explore complex dynamic phenomena in prevention science, and the advantage of using mixed methods is that quantitative data can yield generalizable results and qualitative data can provide extensive insights. However, the emphasis of methodological rigor in a mixed methods application also requires considerable expertise in both qualitative and quantitative methods. Besides the necessary skills and effective interdisciplinary collaboration, this combined approach also requires an open-mindedness and reflection from the involved researchers.

  4. Design and synthesis of mixed oxides nanoparticles for biofuel applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Senniang

    2010-05-15

    The work in this dissertation presents the synthesis of two mixed metal oxides for biofuel applications and NMR characterization of silica materials. In the chapter 2, high catalytic efficiency of calcium silicate is synthesized for transesterfication of soybean oil to biodisels. Chapter 3 describes the synthesis of a new Rh based catalyst on mesoporous manganese oxides. The new catalyst is found to have higher activity and selectivity towards ethanol. Chapter 4 demonstrates the applications of solid-state Si NMR in the silica materials.

  5. Design and analysis of mixed cropping experiments for indigenous Pacific Islands

    Treesearch

    Mareko P. Tofinga

    1993-01-01

    Mixed cropping (including agroforestry) often gives yield advan-tages as opposed to monocropping. Many criteria have been used to assess yield advantage in crop mixtures. Some of these are presented. In addition, the relative merits of replacement, additive and bivariate factorial designs are discussed. The concepts of analysis of mixed cropping are applied to an...

  6. Serial correlation in optimal design for nonlinear mixed effects models.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, Joakim; Höglund, Richard; Bergstrand, Martin; Karlsson, Mats O; Hooker, Andrew C

    2012-06-01

    In population modeling two sources of variability are commonly included; inter individual variability and residual variability. Rich sampling optimal design (more samples than model parameters) using these models will often result in a sampling schedule where some measurements are taken at exactly the same time point, thereby maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio. This behavior is a result of not appropriately taking into account error generation mechanisms and is often clinically unappealing and may be avoided by including intrinsic variability, i.e. serially correlated residual errors. In this paper we extend previous work that investigated optimal designs of population models including serial correlation using stochastic differential equations to optimal design with the more robust, and analytic, AR(1) autocorrelation model. Further, we investigate the importance of correlation strength, design criteria and robust designs. Finally, we explore the optimal design properties when estimating parameters with and without serial correlation. In the investigated examples the designs and estimation performance differs significantly when handling serial correlation.

  7. Advanced Off-Gas Control System Design For Radioactive And Mixed Waste Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Soelberg

    2005-09-01

    Treatment of radioactive and mixed wastes is often required to destroy or immobilize hazardous constituents, reduce waste volume, and convert the waste to a form suitable for final disposal. These kinds of treatments usually evolve off-gas. Air emission regulations have become increasingly stringent in recent years. Mixed waste thermal treatment in the United States is now generally regulated under the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards. These standards impose unprecedented requirements for operation, monitoring and control, and emissions control. Off-gas control technologies and system designs that were satisfactorily proven in mixed waste operation prior to the implementation of new regulatory standards are in some cases no longer suitable in new mixed waste treatment system designs. Some mixed waste treatment facilities have been shut down rather than have excessively restrictive feed rate limits or facility upgrades to comply with the new standards. New mixed waste treatment facilities in the U. S. are being designed to operate in compliance with the HWC MACT standards. Activities have been underway for the past 10 years at the INL and elsewhere to identify, develop, demonstrate, and design technologies for enabling HWC MACT compliance for mixed waste treatment facilities. Some specific off-gas control technologies and system designs have been identified and tested to show that even the stringent HWC MACT standards can be met, while minimizing treatment facility size and cost.

  8. What Informs Practice and What Is Valued in Corporate Instructional Design? A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson-Sellers, Ingrid N.

    2012-01-01

    This study used a two-phased explanatory mixed-methods design to explore in-depth what factors are perceived by Instructional Design and Technology (IDT) professionals as impacting instructional design practice, how these factors are valued in the field, and what differences in perspectives exist between IDT managers and non-managers. For phase 1…

  9. Mixed-Methods Design in Biology Education Research: Approach and Uses

    PubMed Central

    Warfa, Abdi-Rizak M.

    2016-01-01

    Educational research often requires mixing different research methodologies to strengthen findings, better contextualize or explain results, or minimize the weaknesses of a single method. This article provides practical guidelines on how to conduct such research in biology education, with a focus on mixed-methods research (MMR) that uses both quantitative and qualitative inquiries. Specifically, the paper provides an overview of mixed-methods design typologies most relevant in biology education research. It also discusses common methodological issues that may arise in mixed-methods studies and ways to address them. The paper concludes with recommendations on how to report and write about MMR. PMID:27856556

  10. Mixed mode missions - Designing payloads to match flight opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noblitt, B. G.; Kissin, K.; Moke, R.; Mcannally, R.

    1980-01-01

    Shuttle missions have usually been viewed as being devoted to a single mission mode. But full utilization of the STS capabilities as a platform for space research dictates a flexible strategy toward payload integration and mission design. Simple interfaces, single disciplines, and large design and resource margins point the way toward larger payload integration and operation costs. Payloads for early missions (i.e., OSTA-1, OSS-1, and MEA) are used as illustrations to support this argument. The implications of this approach for future NASA plans as well as for new STS operational concepts are considered.

  11. Mixed Estimation for a Forest Survey Sample Design

    Treesearch

    Francis A. Roesch

    1999-01-01

    Three methods of estimating the current state of forest attributes over small areas for the USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station's annual forest sampling design are compared. The three methods were (I) simple moving average, (II) single imputation of plot data that had been updated by externally developed models, and (III) local application of a global...

  12. Adaptive Pareto Set Estimation for Stochastic Mixed Variable Design Problems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    Improved Feature Extraction, Feature Selection, and Identification Techniques that Create a Fast Unsupervised Hyperspectral Target Detection Algorithm...optional): ______________________________________ General Category / Classification : [ ] core values [ ] command [ ] strategy...Optimization, 8(3), 631-657. 125 23. Davis, M. (2009). Using Multiple Robust Parameter Design Techniques to Improve Hyperspectral Anomaly

  13. Conflicts Management Model in School: A Mixed Design Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogan, Soner

    2016-01-01

    The object of this study is to evaluate the reasons for conflicts occurring in school according to perceptions and views of teachers and resolution strategies used for conflicts and to build a model based on the results obtained. In the research, explanatory design including quantitative and qualitative methods has been used. The quantitative part…

  14. A Study of Fixed-Order Mixed Norm Designs for a Benchmark Problem in Structural Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whorton, Mark S.; Calise, Anthony J.; Hsu, C. C.

    1998-01-01

    This study investigates the use of H2, p-synthesis, and mixed H2/mu methods to construct full-order controllers and optimized controllers of fixed dimensions. The benchmark problem definition is first extended to include uncertainty within the controller bandwidth in the form of parametric uncertainty representative of uncertainty in the natural frequencies of the design model. The sensitivity of H2 design to unmodelled dynamics and parametric uncertainty is evaluated for a range of controller levels of authority. Next, mu-synthesis methods are applied to design full-order compensators that are robust to both unmodelled dynamics and to parametric uncertainty. Finally, a set of mixed H2/mu compensators are designed which are optimized for a fixed compensator dimension. These mixed norm designs recover the H, design performance levels while providing the same levels of robust stability as the u designs. It is shown that designing with the mixed norm approach permits higher levels of controller authority for which the H, designs are destabilizing. The benchmark problem is that of an active tendon system. The controller designs are all based on the use of acceleration feedback.

  15. Raw pig blood consumption and potential risk for Streptococcus suis infection, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Huong, Vu Thi Lan; Hoa, Ngo Thi; Horby, Peter; Bryant, Juliet E; Van Kinh, Nguyen; Toan, Tran Khanh; Wertheim, Heiman F L

    2014-11-01

    We assessed consumption of raw pig blood, which is a risk factor for Streptococcus suis infection in Vietnam, by using a mix-method design. Factors associated with consumption included rural residency, age, sex, occupation, income, and marital status. We identified risk groups and practices and perceptions that should be targeted by communication programs.

  16. Improved Efficient, Nearly Orthogonal, Nearly Balanced Mixed Designs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    been widely used for computational experiments ( Sacks et al. 1989). They tend to have good space-filling and orthogonality behavior if n p, but when n...Fisher, R. A. 2000. Statistical methods for research workers. Edinburgh, Scotland: Oliver and Boyd. Hedayat, A. S., N. J. Sloane, and J. Stufken. 1999...methods. 2nd ed. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley. Sacks , J., W. J. Welch, T. J. Mitchell, and H. P. Wynn. 1989. Design and analysis of computer experiments

  17. A PET system design by using mixed detectors: resolution properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingjing; Kao, Chien-Min; Gu, Shuguo; Xiao, Peng; Xie, Qingguo

    2014-07-01

    We investigate a cylindrical positron emission tomography (PET) system design strategy that employs two groups of detectors with different resolutions. The reason for considering this strategy is the observation that in many tasks one would want a higher resolution in a targeted region, which contains lesions or organs of interest, than that in the rest of the subject. Although one can design a PET system to meet the highest resolution required by the imaging task, this is not cost efficient because the superior resolution outside the target region is not needed. To address this issue, investigators have proposed the concept of an insert, in which a high-resolution detector (HRD) is inserted into a parent PET system to locally increase the image resolution. In this paper, we examine an alternative strategy in which the system is made of one arc of normal-resolution detectors with respect to, for example, whole-body imaging and one arc of HRDs. By using Monte Carlo simulations, we study the resolution properties of this system design and examine how they are affected by the location and size of the HRD arc. Our results show that the region obtained by connecting the edges of the HRD arc to the center of the field-of-view (FOV) can have significantly better resolution than that in the rest of the FOV, as well as better resolution uniformity.

  18. Zero-Release Mixed Waste Process Facility Design and Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Richard D. Boardman; John A. Deldebbio; Robert J. Kirkham; Martin K. Clemens; Robert Geosits; Ping Wan

    2004-02-01

    A zero-release offgas cleaning system for mixed-waste thermal treatment processes has been evaluated through experimental scoping tests and process modeling. The principles can possibly be adapted to a fluidized-bed calcination or stream reforming process, a waste melter, a rotarykiln process, and possibly other waste treatment thermal processes. The basic concept of a zero-release offgas cleaning system is to recycle the bulk of the offgas stream to the thermal treatment process. A slip stream is taken off the offgas recycle to separate and purge benign constituents that may build up in the gas, such as water vapor, argon, nitrogen, and CO2. Contaminants are separated from the slip stream and returned to the thermal unit for eventual destruction or incorporation into the waste immobilization media. In the current study, a standard packed-bed scrubber, followed by gas separation membranes, is proposed for removal of contaminants from the offgas recycle slipstream. The scrub solution is continuously regenerated by cooling and precipitating sulfate, nitrate, and other salts that reach a solubility limit in the scrub solution. Mercury is also separated by the scrubber. A miscible chemical oxidizing agent was shown to effectively oxidize mercury and also NO, thus increasing their removal efficiency. The current study indicates that the proposed process is a viable option for reducing offgas emissions. Consideration of the proposed closed-system offgas cleaning loop is warranted when emissions limits are stringent, or when a reduction in the total gas emissions volume is desired. Although the current closed-loop appears to be technically feasible, economical considerations must be also be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

  19. Mixing, Noise and Thrust Benefits Using Corrugated Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Morris H., III; Gilinsky, Mikhail M.

    2000-01-01

    These projects are directed toward the analysis of several concepts for nozzle and inlet performance improvement and noise reduction from jet exhausts. Currently. The FM&AL also initiates new joint research between the HU/FM&AL, the Hyper-X Program Team at the LaRC, and the Central Institute of Aviation Motors (CIAM), Moscow, Russia in the field of optimization of fuel injection and mixing in air-breathing propulsion systems. The main results of theoretical, numerical simulation and experimental tests obtained in the previous research are in the papers and patents. The goals of the 14U/FM&AL programs are twofold: 1) to improve the working efficiency of the HU/FM&AL team in generating new innovative ideas and in conducting research in the field of fluid dynamics and acoustics, basically for improvement of supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines, and 2) to attract promising minority students to this research and training and, in cooperation with other HU departments, to teach them basic knowledge in Aerodynamics, Gas Dynamics, and Theoretical and Experimental Methods in Aeroacoustics and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The research at the HU/FM&AL supports reduction schemes associated with the emission of en 'ne pollutants for commercial aircraft and concepts for reduction of 91 observables for military aircraft. These research endeavors relate to the goals of the NASA Strategic Enterprise in Aeronautics concerning the development of environmentally acceptable aircraft. It is in this precise area, where the US aircraft industry, academia, and Government are in great need of trained professionals and which is a high priority goal of the Minority University Research and Education (MLTREP) Program, that the HU/FM&AL can make its most important contribution.

  20. Design of turbulent tangential micro-mixers that mix liquids on the nanosecond time scale.

    PubMed

    Mitic, Sandra; van Nieuwkasteele, Jan W; van den Berg, Albert; de Vries, Simon

    2015-01-15

    Unravelling (bio)chemical reaction mechanisms and macromolecular folding pathways on the (sub)microsecond time scale is limited by the time resolution of kinetic instruments for mixing reactants and observation of the progress of the reaction. To improve the mixing time resolution, turbulent four- and two-jet tangential micro-mixers were designed and characterized for their mixing and (unwanted) premixing performances employing acid-base reactions monitored by a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye. The mixing performances of the micro-mixers were determined after the mixing chamber in a free-flowing jet. The premixing behavior in the vortex chamber was assessed in an optically transparent glass-silicon replica of a previously well-characterized stainless-steel four-jet tangential micro-mixer. At the highest flow rates, complete mixing was achieved in 160ns with only approximately 9% premixing of the reactants. The mixing time of 160ns is at least 50 times shorter than estimated for other fast mixing devices. Key aspects to the design of ultrafast turbulent micro-mixers are discussed. The integration of these micro-mixers with an optical flow cell would enable the study of the very onset of chemical reactions in general and of enzyme catalytic reactions in particular.

  1. A numerical study of automotive turbocharger mixed flow turbine inlet geometry for off design performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, T.; Spence, S.; Early, J.; Filsinger, D.

    2013-12-01

    Mixed flow turbines represent a potential solution to the increasing requirement for high pressure, low velocity ratio operation in turbocharger applications. While literature exists for the use of these turbines at such operating conditions, there is a lack of detailed design guidance for defining the basic geometry of the turbine, in particular, the cone angle - the angle at which the inlet of the mixed flow turbine is inclined to the axis. This investigates the effect and interaction of such mixed flow turbine design parameters. Computational Fluids Dynamics was initially used to investigate the performance of a modern radial turbine to create a baseline for subsequent mixed flow designs. Existing experimental data was used to validate this model. Using the CFD model, a number of mixed flow turbine designs were investigated. These included studies varying the cone angle and the associated inlet blade angle. The results of this analysis provide insight into the performance of a mixed flow turbine with respect to cone and inlet blade angle.

  2. Panel Design Variations in the Multistage Test Using the Mixed-Format Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jiseon; Chung, Hyewon; Dodd, Barbara G.; Park, Ryoungsun

    2012-01-01

    This study compared various panel designs of the multistage test (MST) using mixed-format tests in the context of classification testing. Simulations varied the design of the first-stage module. The first stage was constructed according to three levels of test information functions (TIFs) with three different TIF centers. Additional computerized…

  3. Design Case Summary. Production of Mixed Alcohols from Municipal Solid Waste via Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Valkenburg, C.; Zhu, Y.; Walton, C. W.; Thompson, B. L.; Gerber, M. A.; Jones, S. B.; Stevens, D. J.

    2010-03-01

    The Biomass Program develops design cases to understand the current state of conversion technologies and to determine where improvements need to take place in the future. This design case establishes cost targets for converting MSW to ethanol and other mixed alcohols via gasification.

  4. Curiosity and Pedagogy: A Mixed-Methods Study of Student Experiences in the Design Studio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Korydon H.

    2010-01-01

    Curiosity is often considered the foundation of learning. There is, however, little understanding of how (or if) pedagogy in higher education affects student curiosity, especially in the studio setting of architecture, interior design, and landscape architecture. This study used mixed-methods to investigate curiosity among design students in the…

  5. A Typology of Mixed Methods Sampling Designs in Social Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a framework for developing sampling designs in mixed methods research. First, we present sampling schemes that have been associated with quantitative and qualitative research. Second, we discuss sample size considerations and provide sample size recommendations for each of the major research designs for quantitative and…

  6. Establishing Interpretive Consistency When Mixing Approaches: Role of Sampling Designs in Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this chapter is to recommend quality criteria to guide evaluators' selections of sampling designs when mixing approaches. First, we contextualize our discussion of quality criteria and sampling designs by discussing the concept of interpretive consistency and how it impacts sampling decisions. Embedded in this discussion are…

  7. Curiosity and Pedagogy: A Mixed-Methods Study of Student Experiences in the Design Studio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Korydon H.

    2010-01-01

    Curiosity is often considered the foundation of learning. There is, however, little understanding of how (or if) pedagogy in higher education affects student curiosity, especially in the studio setting of architecture, interior design, and landscape architecture. This study used mixed-methods to investigate curiosity among design students in the…

  8. Establishing Interpretive Consistency When Mixing Approaches: Role of Sampling Designs in Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this chapter is to recommend quality criteria to guide evaluators' selections of sampling designs when mixing approaches. First, we contextualize our discussion of quality criteria and sampling designs by discussing the concept of interpretive consistency and how it impacts sampling decisions. Embedded in this discussion are…

  9. Panel Design Variations in the Multistage Test Using the Mixed-Format Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jiseon; Chung, Hyewon; Dodd, Barbara G.; Park, Ryoungsun

    2012-01-01

    This study compared various panel designs of the multistage test (MST) using mixed-format tests in the context of classification testing. Simulations varied the design of the first-stage module. The first stage was constructed according to three levels of test information functions (TIFs) with three different TIF centers. Additional computerized…

  10. Phase Evolution and Nucleus Growth Observation of Solid-State BaTiO3 Powder Prepared by High-Energy Bead Milling for Raw Material Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ting-Tai; Huang, Chi-Yuen; Chang, Che-Yuan; Lin, Shih-Pin; Su, Che-Yi; Lee, Chun-Te; Fujimoto, Masayuki

    2011-09-01

    The solid-state synthesis, phase evolution, and nucleus growth of the barium titanate (BaTiO3, BT) powder were investigated in this study. Rapid nucleus growth and precursor phase formation of BT were observed at a relatively low temperature of 600 °C by mixing BaCO3 (2 m2/g) and TiO2 (7 m2/g) with a high-energy bead mill. The decomposition of BaCO3 and the formation of the Ba2TiO4 phase were identified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). On the basis of this observation, the weight loss observed at 600 °C in the derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) curve could also be explained. Furthermore, with increasing calcination temperature, single cubic BT with less than 80 nm fine nuclei/crystallites was observed at 900 °C, and tetragonal BT (c/a > 1.008) with an average particle size of 0.4 µm was obtained at 1000 °C. With regard to the dielectric properties of sintered ceramics, the relative permittivity (ɛr) increased with calcination temperature, and the Curie point also shifted to a progressively higher temperature. However, BT nucleus samples (with low calcination temperatures of 800 and 900 °C) could not satisfy the X7R requirement (Electric Industries Association Standard, the tolerance of capacitance from -55 to +125 °C is ±15%) until calcination temperature increased to 1000 °C.

  11. Growth and inactivation of Salmonella at low refrigerated storage temperatures and thermal inactivation on raw chicken meat and laboratory media: mixed effect meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Smadi, Hanan; Sargeant, Jan M; Shannon, Harry S; Raina, Parminder

    2012-12-01

    Growth and inactivation regression equations were developed to describe the effects of temperature on Salmonella concentration on chicken meat for refrigerated temperatures (⩽10°C) and for thermal treatment temperatures (55-70°C). The main objectives were: (i) to compare Salmonella growth/inactivation in chicken meat versus laboratory media; (ii) to create regression equations to estimate Salmonella growth in chicken meat that can be used in quantitative risk assessment (QRA) modeling; and (iii) to create regression equations to estimate D-values needed to inactivate Salmonella in chicken meat. A systematic approach was used to identify the articles, critically appraise them, and pool outcomes across studies. Growth represented in density (Log10CFU/g) and D-values (min) as a function of temperature were modeled using hierarchical mixed effects regression models. The current meta-analysis analysis found a significant difference (P⩽0.05) between the two matrices - chicken meat and laboratory media - for both growth at refrigerated temperatures and inactivation by thermal treatment. Growth and inactivation were significantly influenced by temperature after controlling for other variables; however, no consistent pattern in growth was found. Validation of growth and inactivation equations against data not used in their development is needed. Copyright © 2012 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Miniaturized LED primary optics design used for short-distance color mixing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tsung-Xian; Tsai, Meng-Che; Chang, Shuo-Chieh; Liu, Kuei-Chun

    2016-11-10

    Color-tunable LED light fixtures generally change colors by controlling LEDs of multiple colors. This type of light source requires additional secondary optics and light-mixing distances to deliver color-mixing functions and perform high color uniformity. However, the color-mixing elements increase the optics size, resulting in more difficulties in making tiny lighting fixtures. Therefore, in this study, we introduce a LED primary optics design method that retains standard LED package size while featuring a color-mixing chamber. This method combines a lens having a rotational symmetry with a freeform profile and a zigzag structure by using double total internal reflection to disperse light uniformly. In contrast to a typical hemispherical lens, our design effectively lowers the weighted average color difference from 0.03 to 0.0035, and maintains optical efficiency of at least 90% without using any optical diffuser.

  13. Homotopy Algorithm for Fixed Order Mixed H2/H(infinity) Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whorton, Mark; Buschek, Harald; Calise, Anthony J.

    1996-01-01

    Recent developments in the field of robust multivariable control have merged the theories of H-infinity and H-2 control. This mixed H-2/H-infinity compensator formulation allows design for nominal performance by H-2 norm minimization while guaranteeing robust stability to unstructured uncertainties by constraining the H-infinity norm. A key difficulty associated with mixed H-2/H-infinity compensation is compensator synthesis. A homotopy algorithm is presented for synthesis of fixed order mixed H-2/H-infinity compensators. Numerical results are presented for a four disk flexible structure to evaluate the efficiency of the algorithm.

  14. The Design of Useful Mix Characterization Experiments for the LLNL Reshock Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Tanim

    2015-11-01

    The NIF Re-shock platform has been extensively engineered to minimize boundary effects and polluting shocks. It is capable of comprehensively and reproducibly exploring a large parameter space important in mix experiments: strength and timing of shocks and reshocks; the amplitude and wavelength of Richtmyer-Meshkov-unstable interfaces; the Atwood number of these mixing layers; and using a technique developed with experiments at the Omega laser, the simultaneous visualization of spike and bubble fronts. In this work, I explore multimodal and roughened surface designed, and combinations of light and heavy materials, that may illuminate our understanding of mix in plasmas.

  15. Design and aerodynamic performance evaluation of a high-work mixed flow turbine stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neri, Remo N.; Elliott, Thomas J.; Marsh, David N.; Civinskas, Kestutis C.

    1994-01-01

    As axial and radial turbine designs have been pushed to their aerothermodynamic and mechanical limits, the mixed-flow turbine (MFT) concept has been projected to offer performance and durability improvements, especially when ceramic materials are considered. The objective of this NASA/U.S. Army sponsored mixed-flow turbine (AMFT) program was to determine the level of performance attainable with MFT technology within the mechanical constraints of 1997 projected ceramic material properties. The MFT geometry is similar to a radial turbine, exhibiting a large radius change from inlet to exit, but differing in that the inlet flowpath is not purely radial, nor axial, but mixed; it is the inlet geometry that gives rise to the name 'mixed-flow'. The 'mixed' orientation of the turbine inlet offers several advantages over radial designs by allowing a nonzero inlet blade angle yet maintaining radial-element blades. The oblique inlet not only improves the particle-impact survivability of the design, but improves the aerodynamic performance by reducing the incidence at the blade inlet. The difficulty, however, of using mixed-flow geometry lies in the scarcity of detailed data and documented design experience. This paper reports the design of a MFT stage designed with the intent to maximize aerodynamic performance by optimizing design parameters such as stage reaction, rotor incidence, flowpath shape, blade shape, vane geometry, and airfoil counts using 2-D, 3-D inviscid, and 3-D viscous computational fluid dynamics code. The aerodynamic optimization was accomplished while maintaining mechanical integrity with respect to vibration and stress levels in the rotor. A full-scale cold-flow rig test was performed with metallic hardware fabricated to the specifications of the hot ceramic geometry to evaluate the stage performance.

  16. Design and rotor performance of a 5:1 mixed-flow supersonic compressor

    SciTech Connect

    Moenig, R. . KWU Group); Elmendorf, W.; Gallus, H.E. )

    1993-07-01

    In consideration of further jet-engine developments required by applications for supersonic travel aircraft, air breathing propulsion of space vehicles, or only the improvement of conventional high-performance turbo-engines, highly loaded supersonic compressors seem to meet the future demands. Particularly mixed-flow compressor stages with moderate supersonic rotor and stator inlet flow reveal the potential of high pressure rise and mass flow as well as favorable performance characteristics and efficiency. The first part of this paper presents analytical considerations for mixed-flow supersonic compressors with strong shock waves. This theoretical approach proves to be essential besides established design tools in order to ensure safe rotor and stage operation in accordance with the design objectives. In this context, the conditions for shock wave stabilization within a diagonal rotor passage are discussed in detail for design and off-design rotational speeds. The main part of this paper, however, presents the results and flow analysis obtained by extensive experimental investigations of the designed mixed-flow compressor rotor. The investigations were restricted to operation without stator in order to strictly separate rotor performance from rotor-stator interactions. The results reveal the design goals to be met in general. Mass flow, total pressure rise, and efficiency in particular show a good agreement with the design properties for near-surge operation at design and off-design conditions.

  17. Compound parabolic concentrator design for red, green, blue, and white LED light mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, An-Chi; Lo, Shih-Chieh; Hung, Pei-Fang; Lee, Ju-Yi; Yeh, Hong-Yih; Huang, Hong-Cheng; Li, Chia-Ming

    2016-08-01

    A light-mixing module consisting of a compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) and a fiber for mixing light from red, green, blue, and white (RGBW) LEDs was proposed. The design principle was investigated and a design prototype was demonstrated in a simulation. The simulated results showed that the chromatic nonuniformity was reduced to 1/10 when the fiber length was 40 times the core width, and the module efficiencies were more than 80% and more than 60% when the fiber lengths were 350 mm and 5 m, respectively. The proposed module is suitable for solar lighting compensation or indoor lighting, such as plant-factory lighting.

  18. Response surface modeling of acid activation of raw diatomite using in sunflower oil bleaching by: Box-Behnken experimental design.

    PubMed

    Larouci, M; Safa, M; Meddah, B; Aoues, A; Sonnet, P

    2015-03-01

    The optimum conditions for acid activation of diatomite for maximizing bleaching efficiency of the diatomite in sun flower oil treatment were studied. Box-Behnken experimental design combining with response surface modeling (RSM) and quadratic programming (QP) was employed to obtain the optimum conditions of three independent variables (acid concentration, activation time and solid to liquid) for acid activation of diatomite. The significance of independent variables and their interactions were tested by means of the analysis of variance (ANOVA) with 95 % confidence limits (α = 0.05). The optimum values of the selected variables were obtained by solving the quadratic regression model, as well as by analyzing the response surface contour plots. The experimental conditions at this global point were determined to be acid concentration = 8.963 N, activation time = 11.9878 h, and solid to liquid ratio = 221.2113 g/l, the corresponding bleaching efficiency was found to be about 99 %.

  19. Comparison of response patterns in different survey designs: a longitudinal panel with mixed-mode and online-only design.

    PubMed

    Rübsamen, Nicole; Akmatov, Manas K; Castell, Stefanie; Karch, André; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T

    2017-01-01

    Increasing availability of the Internet allows using only online data collection for more epidemiological studies. We compare response patterns in a population-based health survey using two survey designs: mixed-mode (choice between paper-and-pencil and online questionnaires) and online-only design (without choice). We used data from a longitudinal panel, the Hygiene and Behaviour Infectious Diseases Study (HaBIDS), conducted in 2014/2015 in four regions in Lower Saxony, Germany. Individuals were recruited using address-based probability sampling. In two regions, individuals could choose between paper-and-pencil and online questionnaires. In the other two regions, individuals were offered online-only participation. We compared sociodemographic characteristics of respondents who filled in all panel questionnaires between the mixed-mode group (n = 1110) and the online-only group (n = 482). Using 134 items, we performed multinomial logistic regression to compare responses between survey designs in terms of type (missing, "do not know" or valid response) and ordinal regression to compare responses in terms of content. We applied the false discovery rates (FDR) to control for multiple testing and investigated effects of adjusting for sociodemographic characteristic. For validation of the differential response patterns between mixed-mode and online-only, we compared the response patterns between paper and online mode among the respondents in the mixed-mode group in one region (n = 786). Respondents in the online-only group were older than those in the mixed-mode group, but both groups did not differ regarding sex or education. Type of response did not differ between the online-only and the mixed-mode group. Survey design was associated with different content of response in 18 of the 134 investigated items; which decreased to 11 after adjusting for sociodemographic variables. In the validation within the mixed-mode, only two of those were among the 11 significantly

  20. Mixed-methods designs in mental health services research: a review.

    PubMed

    Palinkas, Lawrence A; Horwitz, Sarah M; Chamberlain, Patricia; Hurlburt, Michael S; Landsverk, John

    2011-03-01

    Despite increased calls for use of mixed-methods designs in mental health services research, how and why such methods are being used and whether there are any consistent patterns that might indicate a consensus about how such methods can and should be used are unclear. Use of mixed methods was examined in 50 peer-reviewed journal articles found by searching PubMed Central and 60 National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded projects found by searching the CRISP database over five years (2005-2009). Studies were coded for aims and the rationale, structure, function, and process for using mixed methods. A notable increase was observed in articles published and grants funded over the study period. However, most did not provide an explicit rationale for using mixed methods, and 74% gave priority to use of quantitative methods. Mixed methods were used to accomplish five distinct types of study aims (assess needs for services, examine existing services, develop new or adapt existing services, evaluate services in randomized controlled trials, and examine service implementation), with three categories of rationale, seven structural arrangements based on timing and weighting of methods, five functions of mixed methods, and three ways of linking quantitative and qualitative data. Each study aim was associated with a specific pattern of use of mixed methods, and four common patterns were identified. These studies offer guidance for continued progress in integrating qualitative and quantitative methods in mental health services research consistent with efforts by NIH and other funding agencies to promote their use.

  1. [The mixed design in nursing sciences or when a question of research calls for qualitative and quantitative strategies].

    PubMed

    Bourgault, Patricia; Gallagher, Frances; Michaud, Cécile; Saint-Cyr-Tribble, Denise

    2010-12-01

    The use of a mixed method research design raises many questions, especially regarding the paradigmatic position. With this paradigm, we may consider the mixed method design as the best way of answering a research question and the latter orients to one of the different subtypes of mixed method design. To illustrate the use of this kind of design, we propose a study such as conducted in nursing sciences. In this article, the challenges raised by the mixed method design, and the place of this type of research in nursing sciences is discussed.

  2. Taking Advantage of Model-Driven Engineering Foundations for Mixed Interaction Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauffre, Guillaume; Dubois, Emmanuel

    New forms of interactive systems, hereafter referred to as Mixed Interactive Systems (MIS), are based on the use of physical artefacts present in the environment. Mixing the digital and physical worlds affects the development of interactive systems, especially from the point of view of the design resources which need to express new dimensions. Consequently, there is a crucial need to clearly describe the content and utility of the recent models associated to these new interaction forms. Based on existing initiatives in the field of HCI, this chapter first highlights the interest of using a Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) approach for the design of MIS. Then, this chapter retraces the application of a MDE approach on a specific Mixed Interaction design resource. The resulted contribution is a motivated, explicit, complete and standardized definition of the ASUR model, a model for mixed interaction design. This definition constitutes a basis to promote the use of this model, to support its diffusion and to derive design tools from this model. The model-driven development of a flexible ASUR editor is finally introduced, thus facilitating the insertion of model extensions and articulations.

  3. Facility design consideration for continuous mix production of class 1.3 propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, K. L.; Schirk, P. G.

    1994-01-01

    In November of 1989, NASA awarded the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) contract to Lockheed Missiles and Space Company (LMSC) for production of advanced solid rocket motors using the continuous mix process. Aerojet ASRM division (AAD) was selected as the facility operator and RUST International Corporation provided the engineering, procurement, and construction management services. The continuous mix process mandates that the mix and cast facilities be 'close-coupled' along with the premix facilities, creating unique and challenging requirements for the facility designer. The classical approach to handling energetic materials-division into manageable quantities, segregation, and isolation-was not available due to these process requirements and quantities involved. This paper provides a description of the physical facilities, the continuous mix process, and discusses the monitoring and detection techniques used to mitigate hazards and prevent an incident.

  4. Nanohole Arrays of Mixed Designs and Microwriting for Simultaneous and Multiple Protein Binding Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Jin; Yang, Jiun-Chan; Larson, Dale N.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate using nanohole arrays of mixed designs and a microwriting process based on dip-pen nanolithography to monitor multiple, different protein binding events simultaneously in real time based on the intensity of Extraordinary Optical Transmission of nanohole arrays. The microwriting process and small footprint of the individual nanohole arrays enabled us to observe different binding events located only 16μm apart, achieving high spatial resolution. We also present a novel concept that incorporates nanohole arrays of different designs to improve confidence and accuracy of binding studies. For proof of concept, two types of nanohole arrays, designed to exhibit opposite responses to protein bindings, were fabricated on one transducer. Initial studies indicate that the mixed designs could help to screen out artifacts such as protein intrinsic signals, providing improved accuracy of binding interpretation. PMID:19297143

  5. Food Safety and Raw Milk

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Food Safety Food Safety Modernization Act Raw Milk Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir RAW MILK ... Decide? Questions & Answers Outbreak Studies Resources & Publications Raw Milk Infographic [PDF – 1 page] More Resources 5 Raw ...

  6. Apparent nutrient digestibility of two raw diets in domestic kittens.

    PubMed

    Hamper, Beth A; Kirk, Claudia A; Bartges, Joseph W

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate overall dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, crude fat and gross energy digestibility of a feline commercial raw diet and a homemade raw diet compared with a canned, heat-processed diet. Six domestic shorthair kittens (20-28 weeks old) were fed three different diets in a Latin square crossover design. Diet A was a commercially available, canned, heat-processed diet. Diet B was a complete commercial, prefrozen, raw diet (commercial raw), and diet C was a raw diet supplement mixed with ground raw meat obtained locally (homemade raw). Both diets A and B were formulated to meet nutritional profile levels for cats at all life stages. Kittens were given specific diet amounts to maintain a 2-4% weight increase per week. Food was measured before and after feedings to determine the amount eaten, and all feces were collected, weighed and frozen prior to submission. Composite food samples and all feces were submitted to a national laboratory for proximate analysis of crude protein, crude fiber, ash, crude fat, moisture and caloric density. Significantly higher digestibility of dry matter (P <0.001), organic matter (P <0.001), crude protein (P <0.001) and gross energy (P <0.001) was seen in the raw diets compared with the heat-processed diets. This difference resulted in significantly less fecal matter (P <0.001) despite similar levels of intake and kcal ingested, and evidence of no difference in fecal scores. Higher dry matter, organic matter and protein digestibility was seen in two commercial raw diets compared with a heat-processed diet. Digestibility differences could have been due to variance in dietary protein, fat and carbohydrate concentrations between the diets, variance in dietary ingredients or quality, alterations in protein structure secondary to heat processing, as well as alterations in gastrointestinal flora. Future research examining digestibility in diets with the same macronutrient proportions and ingredients

  7. Designing photonic crystal waveguides for broadband four-wave mixing applications.

    PubMed

    Kanakis, Panagiotis; Kamalakis, Thomas; Sphicopoulos, Thomas

    2015-03-15

    We present photonic crystal waveguide designs which exhibit large four-wave mixing efficiencies over a wide wavelength region. These designs are identified using an optimization process taking into account sophisticated figure-of-merits that depend on the pump bandwidth and the signal/pump tunability. The obtained designs achieve up to -18.9  dB conversion efficiency, tunable over a 10 nm tunability range. We also present alternative designs that are less efficient but have smaller power requirements and are far more compact.

  8. Detecting Low Incidents Effects: The Value of Mixed Methods Research Designs in Low-N Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Isadore; Ridenour, Carolyn S.; Newman, Carole; Smith, Shannon; Brown, Russell C.

    2013-01-01

    Many important educational situations such as traumatic brain injury among preschoolers, school gun violence, preadolescent eating disorders, and adolescent suicide happen relatively infrequently. In this article, the authors explain why mixed methods research designs offer more meaningful empirical results than do qualitative or quantitative…

  9. DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF A TURBULENT MIXING CONDENSATION NUCLEI COUNTER. (R826654)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The design and optimization of operation parameters of a Turbulent Mixing Condensation Nuclei Counter (TMCNC) are discussed as well as its performance using dibutylphthalate (DBP) as the working fluid. A detection limit of 3 nm has been achieved at a flow rate of 2.8 lmin-1<...

  10. Many-Facet Rasch Analysis with Crossed, Nested, and Mixed Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacker, Randall E.

    1999-01-01

    Describes many-facet Rasch analysis, which provides a basis for making fair and meaningful decisions from individual ratings by judges. Gives examples of crossed, nested, and mixed designs to illustrate how a Rasch analysis may be modified to meet the connectivity requirement for comparing facet measures. (SLD)

  11. Detecting Low Incidents Effects: The Value of Mixed Methods Research Designs in Low-N Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Isadore; Ridenour, Carolyn S.; Newman, Carole; Smith, Shannon; Brown, Russell C.

    2013-01-01

    Many important educational situations such as traumatic brain injury among preschoolers, school gun violence, preadolescent eating disorders, and adolescent suicide happen relatively infrequently. In this article, the authors explain why mixed methods research designs offer more meaningful empirical results than do qualitative or quantitative…

  12. A Mixed-Methods Social Networks Study Design for Research on Transnational Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardi, Laura

    2011-01-01

    This paper advocates the adoption of a mixed-methods research design to describe and analyze ego-centered social networks in transnational family research. Drawing on the experience of the "Social Networks Influences on Family Formation" project (2004-2005; see Bernardi, Keim, & von der Lippe, 2007a, 2007b), I show how the combined…

  13. Evaluating Bias of Sequential Mixed-Mode Designs against Benchmark Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klausch, Thomas; Schouten, Barry; Hox, Joop J.

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated three types of bias--total, measurement, and selection bias (SB)--in three sequential mixed-mode designs of the Dutch Crime Victimization Survey: telephone, mail, and web, where nonrespondents were followed up face-to-face (F2F). In the absence of true scores, all biases were estimated as mode effects against two different…

  14. Evidence on "What Works": An Argument for Extended-Term Mixed-Method (ETMM) Evaluation Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterji, Madhabi

    2005-01-01

    Federal policy tools for gathering evidence on "What Works" in education, such as the What Works Clearinghouse's (WWC) standards, emphasize randomized field trials as the preferred method for generating scientific evidence on the effectiveness of educational programs. This article argues instead for extended-term mixed-method (ETMM) designs.…

  15. Design sensitivity and mixing uniformity of a micro-fluidic mixer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivorra, Benjamin; López Redondo, Juana; Ramos, Angel M.; Santiago, Juan G.

    2016-01-01

    We consider a particular hydrodynamic focusing microfluidic mixer used to initiate the folding process of individual proteins, which has been designed in a previous work and exhibited a mixing time of 0.1 μs. The aim of the current paper is twofold. First, we explore the sensitivity of mixing time to key geometric and flow parameters. In particular, we study the angle between inlets, the shape of the channel intersections, channel widths, mixer depth, mixer symmetry, inlet velocities, working fluid physical properties, and denaturant concentration thresholds. Second, we analyze the uniformity of mixing times as a function of inlet flow streamlines. We find the shape of the intersection, channel width, inlet velocity ratio, and asymmetries have strong effects on mixing time; while inlet angles, mixer depth, fluid properties, and concentration thresholds have weaker effects. Also, the uniformity of the mixing time is preserved for most of the inlet flow and distances of down to within about 0.4 μm of the mixer wall. We offer these analyses of sensitivities to imperfections in mixer geometry and flow conditions as a guide to experimental efforts which aim to fabricate and use these types of mixers. Our study also highlights key issues and provides a guide to the optimization and practical design of other microfluidic devices dependent on both geometry and flow conditions.

  16. Combining qualitative and quantitative research within mixed method research designs: a methodological review.

    PubMed

    Östlund, Ulrika; Kidd, Lisa; Wengström, Yvonne; Rowa-Dewar, Neneh

    2011-03-01

    It has been argued that mixed methods research can be useful in nursing and health science because of the complexity of the phenomena studied. However, the integration of qualitative and quantitative approaches continues to be one of much debate and there is a need for a rigorous framework for designing and interpreting mixed methods research. This paper explores the analytical approaches (i.e. parallel, concurrent or sequential) used in mixed methods studies within healthcare and exemplifies the use of triangulation as a methodological metaphor for drawing inferences from qualitative and quantitative findings originating from such analyses. This review of the literature used systematic principles in searching CINAHL, Medline and PsycINFO for healthcare research studies which employed a mixed methods approach and were published in the English language between January 1999 and September 2009. In total, 168 studies were included in the results. Most studies originated in the United States of America (USA), the United Kingdom (UK) and Canada. The analytic approach most widely used was parallel data analysis. A number of studies used sequential data analysis; far fewer studies employed concurrent data analysis. Very few of these studies clearly articulated the purpose for using a mixed methods design. The use of the methodological metaphor of triangulation on convergent, complementary, and divergent results from mixed methods studies is exemplified and an example of developing theory from such data is provided. A trend for conducting parallel data analysis on quantitative and qualitative data in mixed methods healthcare research has been identified in the studies included in this review. Using triangulation as a methodological metaphor can facilitate the integration of qualitative and quantitative findings, help researchers to clarify their theoretical propositions and the basis of their results. This can offer a better understanding of the links between theory and

  17. Optimal clinical trial design based on a dichotomous Markov-chain mixed-effect sleep model.

    PubMed

    Steven Ernest, C; Nyberg, Joakim; Karlsson, Mats O; Hooker, Andrew C

    2014-12-01

    D-optimal designs for discrete-type responses have been derived using generalized linear mixed models, simulation based methods and analytical approximations for computing the fisher information matrix (FIM) of non-linear mixed effect models with homogeneous probabilities over time. In this work, D-optimal designs using an analytical approximation of the FIM for a dichotomous, non-homogeneous, Markov-chain phase advanced sleep non-linear mixed effect model was investigated. The non-linear mixed effect model consisted of transition probabilities of dichotomous sleep data estimated as logistic functions using piecewise linear functions. Theoretical linear and nonlinear dose effects were added to the transition probabilities to modify the probability of being in either sleep stage. D-optimal designs were computed by determining an analytical approximation the FIM for each Markov component (one where the previous state was awake and another where the previous state was asleep). Each Markov component FIM was weighted either equally or by the average probability of response being awake or asleep over the night and summed to derive the total FIM (FIM(total)). The reference designs were placebo, 0.1, 1-, 6-, 10- and 20-mg dosing for a 2- to 6-way crossover study in six dosing groups. Optimized design variables were dose and number of subjects in each dose group. The designs were validated using stochastic simulation/re-estimation (SSE). Contrary to expectations, the predicted parameter uncertainty obtained via FIM(total) was larger than the uncertainty in parameter estimates computed by SSE. Nevertheless, the D-optimal designs decreased the uncertainty of parameter estimates relative to the reference designs. Additionally, the improvement for the D-optimal designs were more pronounced using SSE than predicted via FIM(total). Through the use of an approximate analytic solution and weighting schemes, the FIM(total) for a non-homogeneous, dichotomous Markov-chain phase

  18. The Design of the Trading Mechanism to Adapt the Development of Mixed Cooling Heating and Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D. N.; Li, Z. H.; Zhou, H. M.; Zhao, Q.; Xu, X. F.

    2017-08-01

    The enterprise who has combined cooling heating and power system has both the customer group and the power generation resources. Therefore, it can be used as a power user, and can also be used as a power generation enterprise to participate in the direct purchase of electricity. This paper combines characteristics of mixed cooling heating and power, designs application business model of mixed cooling heating and power, and puts forward to the scene of cooling heating and power trading scheme, helping the enterprise according to the power supply and demand situation in the region adjust their positions and participate in the electricity market.

  19. Mixing methodology, nursing theory and research design for a practice model of district nursing advocacy.

    PubMed

    Reed, Frances M; Fitzgerald, Les; Rae, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    To highlight philosophical and theoretical considerations for planning a mixed methods research design that can inform a practice model to guide rural district nursing end of life care. Conceptual models of nursing in the community are general and lack guidance for rural district nursing care. A combination of pragmatism and nurse agency theory can provide a framework for ethical considerations in mixed methods research in the private world of rural district end of life care. Reflection on experience gathered in a two-stage qualitative research phase, involving rural district nurses who use advocacy successfully, can inform a quantitative phase for testing and complementing the data. Ongoing data analysis and integration result in generalisable inferences to achieve the research objective. Mixed methods research that creatively combines philosophical and theoretical elements to guide design in the particular ethical situation of community end of life care can be used to explore an emerging field of interest and test the findings for evidence to guide quality nursing practice. Combining philosophy and nursing theory to guide mixed methods research design increases the opportunity for sound research outcomes that can inform a nursing model of care.

  20. A PC-based inverse design method for radial and mixed flow turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skoe, Ivar Helge

    1991-01-01

    An Inverse Design Method suitable for radial and mixed flow turbomachinery is presented. The codes are based on the streamline curvature concept; therefore, it is applicable for current personal computers from the 286/287 range. In addition to the imposed aerodynamic constraints, mechanical constraints are imposed during the design process to ensure that the resulting geometry satisfies production consideration and that structural considerations are taken into account. By the use of Bezier Curves in the geometric modeling, the same subroutine is used to prepare input for both aero and structural files since it is important to ensure that the geometric data is identical to both structural analysis and production. To illustrate the method, a mixed flow turbine design is shown.

  1. Design evaluation and optimisation in crossover pharmacokinetic studies analysed by nonlinear mixed effects models.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thu Thuy; Bazzoli, Caroline; Mentré, France

    2012-05-20

    Bioequivalence or interaction trials are commonly studied in crossover design and can be analysed by nonlinear mixed effects models as an alternative to noncompartmental approach. We propose an extension of the population Fisher information matrix in nonlinear mixed effects models to design crossover pharmacokinetic trials, using a linearisation of the model around the random effect expectation, including within-subject variability and discrete covariates fixed or changing between periods. We use the expected standard errors of treatment effect to compute the power for the Wald test of comparison or equivalence and the number of subjects needed for a given power. We perform various simulations mimicking crossover two-period trials to show the relevance of these developments. We then apply these developments to design a crossover pharmacokinetic study of amoxicillin in piglets and implement them in the new version 3.2 of the r function PFIM.

  2. Design and simulation of adaptive optics controller based on mixed sensitivity H∞ control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Dingan; Li, Xinyang; Peng, Zhenming

    2016-10-01

    Optical systems such as telescopes are very complex, and their model usually with the uncertainty. To deal with the uncertainty of adaptive optics system and improve system robust stability, the mixed sensitivity H-infinity control has been introduced to design system controller. In order to testify the validity, wavefront aberration correction capability, as well as the robust stability, has been compared between the mixed sensitivity H-infinity controller and the classic integral controller. The computer simulation results demonstrate that the system with the mixed sensitivity H-infinity controller, while can't guarantee a better correction performance, has greater robust stability than the one with the classic integral controller. That is to say, greater robust stability is achieved at the expense of the correction capability in the system with H-infinity controller. Moreover, the greater the uncertainty is, the more proceeds the mixed sensitivity H-infinity controller will produce. It proves the efficiency of the mixed sensitivity H-infinity controller in dealing with the uncertainty of adaptive optics system.

  3. Characteristics of a hydrocyclone with raw material input along the central axis: a new design for the separation of coal from heavier materials such as pyritic sulfur. Final report, July 1, 1983-June 30, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, P.K.

    1985-01-01

    The characteristics of a hydrocyclone with raw material input along the central axis were studied. The impetus for this study lies in the need for an economical method to recover the usable coal fines from the many acres of gob piles around old mine sites. The design and flow variables were first identified, and then a dimensional analysis was performed to guide the experiments. Initially, spheres of appropriate densities simulating particles of coal, shale, sandstone and pyrite, for example, were color coded and used to model the solid raw materials. Later, samples of gob were used. Two methods of input of the raw materials were tested: (1) auger or screw feed through a tube extending up through the underflow, and (2) hydraulic feed through a tube extending up through the underflow. The auger did not work as well as expected and consequently this design was discarded. It is anticipated that another disadvantage of the auger feed in continuous operation using gob would be a high rate of wear. The hydraulic feed design, however, proved to be successful in the laboratory and it is believed that feeding the gob hydraulically is feasible in a continuous operation in the field. In regard to whether or not a hydrocyclone with the raw solid material fed centrally along the axis can separate the coal fines from the waste materials with less energy consumption than with a conventional hydrocyclone, the data look encouraging, but more data should be taken than was possible in this project. However, the effect of centrally feeding the raw material into the hydrocyclone was not found to be as pronounced as had been expected. 3 references, 5 figures, 4 tables.

  4. Nevada test site low-level and mixed waste repository design in the unsaturated zone

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, T.A.; Warren, D.M.; USDOE Nevada Operations Office, Las Vegas, NV )

    1989-01-01

    The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is used for shallow land disposal of Low-Level Radioactive (LLW) and for retrievable disposal of Mixed Wastes (MW) from various Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The site is situated in southern Nevada, one of the most arid regions of the United States. Design considerations include vadose zone monitoring in lieu of groundwater monitoring, stringent waste acceptance and packaging criteria, a waste examination and real-time radiography facility, and trench design. 4 refs.

  5. Designing slow-light photonic crystal waveguides for four-wave mixing applications.

    PubMed

    Kanakis, Panagiotis; Kamalakis, Thomas; Sphicopoulos, Thomas

    2014-02-15

    We discuss the optimization of photonic crystal waveguides for four-wave mixing (FWM) applications, taking into account linear loss and free-carrier effects. Suitable figures of merit are introduced in order to guide us through the choice of practical, high-efficiency designs requiring relatively low pump power and small waveguide length. In order to realistically perform the waveguide optimization process, we propose and validate an approximate expression for the FWM efficiency, which significantly alleviates our numerical calculations. Promising waveguide designs are identified by means of an exhaustive search, altering some structural parameters. Our approach aims to optimize the waveguides for nonlinear signal-processing applications based on the FWM.

  6. A reuse-based framework for the design of analog and mixed-signal ICs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Lopez, Rafael; Fernandez, Francisco V.; Rodriguez Vazquez, Angel

    2005-06-01

    Despite the spectacular breakthroughs of the semiconductor industry, the ability to design integrated circuits (ICs) under stringent time-to-market (TTM) requirements is lagging behind integration capacity, so far keeping pace with still valid Moore"s Law. The resulting gap is threatening with slowing down such a phenomenal growth. The design community believes that it is only by means of powerful CAD tools and design methodologies - and, possibly, a design paradigm shift - that this design gap can be bridged. In this sense, reuse-based design is seen as a promising solution, and concepts such as IP Block, Virtual Component, and Design Reuse have become commonplace thanks to the significant advances in the digital arena. Unfortunately, the very nature of analog and mixed-signal (AMS) design has hindered a similar level of consensus and development. This paper presents a framework for the reuse-based design of AMS circuits. The framework is founded on three key elements: (1) a CAD-supported hierarchical design flow that facilitates the incorporation of AMS reusable blocks, reduces the overall design time, and expedites the management of increasing AMS design complexity; (2) a complete, clear definition of the AMS reusable block, structured into three separate facets or views: the behavioral, structural, and layout facets, the two first for top-down electrical synthesis and bottom-up verification, the latter used during bottom-up physical synthesis; (3) the design for reusability set of tools, methods, and guidelines that, relying on intensive parameterization as well as on design knowledge capture and encapsulation, allows to produce fully reusable AMS blocks. A case study and a functional silicon prototype demonstrate the validity of the paper"s proposals.

  7. Manufacturing-aware design methodologies for mixed-signal communication circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carballo, Juan A.; Nassif, Sani

    2004-05-01

    Mixed-signal communication circuits are becoming a very common component of systems-on-a-chip as part of modern communication systems. The implementation of DFM and DFT methodologies is critical to enhance communication across the tape-out barrier critical for these circuits. We present a manufacturing-aware design methodology specifically targeting integrated communication circuits in systems-on-a-chip (SoC). The key principle behind the methodology is that flexible design methods which can effectively adjust a design"s power consumption and functionality to its application can also provide critical reductions in manufacturing-induced design risk. The methodology is based on the following four techniques: goal-based design that directly relates top level goals with low level manufacturing-dependent parameters; semi-custom voltage-island physical design techniques; adaptive architecture design; and intelligent on-line at-speed monitoring and problem determination techniques. We describe these four methodology features, and illustrate them on a multi-protocol CMOS 3.2 Gbits/second low-power serial communications core. The presented data shows how this methodology results in better and more cost-effective adaptability of the design to manufacturing and post-manufacturing conditions, thereby improving turnaround time, yield, and overall profit.

  8. Mixed-Methods Design in Biology Education Research: Approach and Uses.

    PubMed

    Warfa, Abdi-Rizak M

    Educational research often requires mixing different research methodologies to strengthen findings, better contextualize or explain results, or minimize the weaknesses of a single method. This article provides practical guidelines on how to conduct such research in biology education, with a focus on mixed-methods research (MMR) that uses both quantitative and qualitative inquiries. Specifically, the paper provides an overview of mixed-methods design typologies most relevant in biology education research. It also discusses common methodological issues that may arise in mixed-methods studies and ways to address them. The paper concludes with recommendations on how to report and write about MMR. © 2016 L. A.-R. M. Warfa. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  9. Proposed pushered single shell capsule design for the investigation of mid/high Z mix on the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacks, Ryan; Tipton, Robert; Graziani, Frank

    2016-05-01

    The CD Mix campaign has given a detailed explination of the mix mechanics in the current ignition capsule designs by investigating the relationship between material mixing, shell-fuel interfaces, and the change in thermonuclear yield given a deuterated layer in the capsule. Alternative ignition scenarios include the use of double shell designs that incorporate high-Z material in the capsule. Simulations are conducted on a proposed capsule platform using the ARES code on a scaled capsule design using a partially reduced glass capsule design. This allows for the inclusion of deuterium on the inner surface of the pusher layer similar to the CD mix experiments. The presence of silicon dioxide allows for the investigation of the influence of higher Z material on the mixing characteristics.

  10. Design of High-Entropy Alloy: A Perspective from Nonideal Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Q. F.; Ding, Z. Y.; Ye, Y. F.; Yang, Y.

    2017-07-01

    Since the advent in 2004, high-entropy alloys (HEAs) have been attracting a great deal of research interest worldwide. Being deemed as a major paradigmatic shift, the design of HEAs without base elements poses challenges to the existing thermodynamic models and theories that were long established for traditional alloys, one of which is related to the thermodynamic mechanisms for the formation of random solid solution in a concentrated multicomponent alloy. In this article, we discuss the design of HEAs from the perspective of correlated mixing (nonideal mixing of atoms with interatomic correlations). In a quantitative manner, we can show that the formation of a random solid solution in HEAs depends not only on the number of constituent elements but also on the alloy's melting/processing temperature and on various interatomic correlations. Through the correlated mixing rule, we further demonstrate a strategy to screen out equiatomic alloys with the thermodynamic characteristics close to those of random solid solutions from an expanded library of 20 candidate elements.

  11. Method of analysis for compressible flow through mixed-flow centrifugal impellers of arbitrary design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrick, Joseph T; Ginsburg, Ambrose; Osborn, Walter M

    1952-01-01

    A method is presented for analysis of the compressible flow between the hub and the shroud of mixed-flow impellers of arbitrary design. Axial symmetry was assumed, but the forces in the meridional (hub to shroud) plane, which are derived from tangential pressure gradients, were taken into account. The method was applied to an experimental mixed-flow impeller. The analysis of the flow in the meridional plane of the impeller showed that the rotational forces, the blade curvature, and the hub-shroud profile can introduce severe velocity gradients along the hub and the shroud surfaces. Choked flow at the impeller inlet as determined by the analysis was verified by experimental results.

  12. Understanding Design Tradeoffs for Health Technologies: A Mixed-Methods Approach.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Katie; Eschler, Jordan; Kendall, Logan; Vizer, Lisa M; Ralston, James D; Pratt, Wanda

    2015-04-18

    We introduce a mixed-methods approach for determining how people weigh tradeoffs in values related to health and technologies for health self-management. Our approach combines interviews with Q-methodology, a method from psychology uniquely suited to quantifying opinions. We derive the framework for structured data collection and analysis for the Q-methodology from theories of self-management of chronic illness and technology adoption. To illustrate the power of this new approach, we used it in a field study of nine older adults with type 2 diabetes, and nine mothers of children with asthma. Our mixed-methods approach provides three key advantages for health design science in HCI: (1) it provides a structured health sciences theoretical framework to guide data collection and analysis; (2) it enhances the coding of unstructured data with statistical patterns of polarizing and consensus views; and (3) it empowers participants to actively weigh competing values that are most personally significant to them.

  13. Robust Control for Microgravity Vibration Isolation using Fixed Order, Mixed H2/Mu Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whorton, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Many space-science experiments need an active isolation system to provide a sufficiently quiescent microgravity environment. Modern control methods provide the potential for both high-performance and robust stability in the presence of parametric uncertainties that are characteristic of microgravity vibration isolation systems. While H2 and H(infinity) methods are well established, neither provides the levels of attenuation performance and robust stability in a compensator with low order. Mixed H2/H(infinity), controllers provide a means for maximizing robust stability for a given level of mean-square nominal performance while directly optimizing for controller order constraints. This paper demonstrates the benefit of mixed norm design from the perspective of robustness to parametric uncertainties and controller order for microgravity vibration isolation. A nominal performance metric analogous to the mu measure, for robust stability assessment is also introduced in order to define an acceptable trade space from which different control methodologies can be compared.

  14. Design and performance of family of diffusing scrolls with mixed-flow impeller and vaneless diffuser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W Byron; Bradshaw, Guy R

    1949-01-01

    A family of diffusing scrolls was designed for use with a mixed-flow impeller and a small-diameter vaneless diffuser. The design theory, intended to maintain a uniform pressure around the scroll inlet, permits determination of the position of scroll cross sections of preassigned area by considering the radial variation in fluid density and the effects of friction along the scroll. Inasmuch as the design method leaves the cross-sectional shape undetermined, the effect of certain variations in scroll shape was investigated by studying scrolls having angles of divergence (of the scroll walls downstream of the entrance section) of 24 degrees, 40 degrees, and 80 degrees. A second 80 degree scroll was of asymmetrical construction and a third was plaster-cast instead of sand-cast. Each scroll was tested as a compressor component at actual impeller tip speeds of 700 to 1300 feet per second from full throttle to surge.

  15. Covariance Matrix Adapted Evolution Strategy Based Design of Mixed H2/H ∞ PID Controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willjuice Iruthayarajan, M.; Baskar, S.

    This paper discusses the application of the covariance matrix adapted evolution strategy (CMAES) technique to the design of the mixed H2/H ∞ PID controller. The optimal robust PID controller is designed by minimizing the weighted sum of integral squared error (ISE) and balanced robust performance criterion involving robust stability and disturbance attenuation performance subjected to robust stability and disturbance attenuation constraints. In CMAES algorithm, these constraints are effectively handled by penalty parameter-less scheme. In order to test the performance of CMAES algorithm, MIMO distillation column model is considered. For the purpose of comparison, reported intelligent genetic algorithm (IGA) method is used. The statistical performances of combined ISE and balanced robust performance criterion in ten independent simulation runs show that a performance of CMAES is better than IGA method. Robustness test conducted on the system also shows that the robust performance of CMAES designed controller is better than IGA based controller under model uncertainty and external disturbances.

  16. Improved genetic algorithm for mixed-discrete-continuous design optimization problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kuo-Ming; Tsai, Jinn-Tsong; Liu, Tung-Kuan; Chou, Jyh-Horng

    2010-10-01

    An improved genetic algorithm (IGA) is presented to solve the mixed-discrete-continuous design optimization problems. The IGA approach combines the traditional genetic algorithm with the experimental design method. The experimental design method is incorporated in the crossover operations to systematically select better genes to tailor the crossover operations in order to find the representative chromosomes to be the new potential offspring, so that the IGA approach possesses the merit of global exploration and obtains better solutions. The presented IGA approach is effectively applied to solve one structural and five mechanical engineering problems. The computational results show that the presented IGA approach can obtain better solutions than both the GA-based and the particle-swarm-optimizer-based methods reported recently.

  17. Detailed design of a lattice composite fuselage structure by a mixed optimization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D.; Lohse-Busch, H.; Toropov, V.; Hühne, C.; Armani, U.

    2016-10-01

    In this article, a procedure for designing a lattice fuselage barrel is developed. It comprises three stages: first, topology optimization of an aircraft fuselage barrel is performed with respect to weight and structural performance to obtain the conceptual design. The interpretation of the optimal result is given to demonstrate the development of this new lattice airframe concept for the fuselage barrel. Subsequently, parametric optimization of the lattice aircraft fuselage barrel is carried out using genetic algorithms on metamodels generated with genetic programming from a 101-point optimal Latin hypercube design of experiments. The optimal design is achieved in terms of weight savings subject to stability, global stiffness and strain requirements, and then verified by the fine mesh finite element simulation of the lattice fuselage barrel. Finally, a practical design of the composite skin complying with the aircraft industry lay-up rules is presented. It is concluded that the mixed optimization method, combining topology optimization with the global metamodel-based approach, allows the problem to be solved with sufficient accuracy and provides the designers with a wealth of information on the structural behaviour of the novel anisogrid composite fuselage design.

  18. Statistical efficiency and optimal design for stepped cluster studies under linear mixed effects models.

    PubMed

    Girling, Alan J; Hemming, Karla

    2016-06-15

    In stepped cluster designs the intervention is introduced into some (or all) clusters at different times and persists until the end of the study. Instances include traditional parallel cluster designs and the more recent stepped-wedge designs. We consider the precision offered by such designs under mixed-effects models with fixed time and random subject and cluster effects (including interactions with time), and explore the optimal choice of uptake times. The results apply both to cross-sectional studies where new subjects are observed at each time-point, and longitudinal studies with repeat observations on the same subjects. The efficiency of the design is expressed in terms of a 'cluster-mean correlation' which carries information about the dependency-structure of the data, and two design coefficients which reflect the pattern of uptake-times. In cross-sectional studies the cluster-mean correlation combines information about the cluster-size and the intra-cluster correlation coefficient. A formula is given for the 'design effect' in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. An algorithm for optimising the choice of uptake times is described and specific results obtained for the best balanced stepped designs. In large studies we show that the best design is a hybrid mixture of parallel and stepped-wedge components, with the proportion of stepped wedge clusters equal to the cluster-mean correlation. The impact of prior uncertainty in the cluster-mean correlation is considered by simulation. Some specific hybrid designs are proposed for consideration when the cluster-mean correlation cannot be reliably estimated, using a minimax principle to ensure acceptable performance across the whole range of unknown values. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Attitudes of dental students towards using computers in education--a mixed design study.

    PubMed

    El Tantawi, M M A; Saleh, S M

    2008-01-01

    This mixed design study explored attitudes of dental students towards use of computers. It employed quantitative analyses of a questionnaire answered by 979 students and qualitative analysis of suggestions by a subgroup of 339. Positive attitudes towards computers were predicted by "computer use for > 1 year" and "year of study". Qualitative analysis of students' suggestions confirmed these findings and brought up new issues such as the need for establishing a website for the faculty. The results indicate that careful planning is needed to improve students' skills and incorporate computer applications in educational curricula.

  20. Design considerations for an intelligent mobile robot for mixed-waste inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Sias, F.R.; Dawson, D.M.; Schalkoff, R.J.; Byrd, J.S.; Pettus, R.O.

    1993-06-01

    Large quantities of low-level radioactive waste are stored in steel drums at various Department of Energy (DOE) sites in the United States. Much of the stored waste qualifies as mixed waste and falls under Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations that require periodic inspection. A semi-autonomous mobile robot is being developed during Phase 1 of a DOE contract to perform the inspection task and consequently reduce the radiation exposure of inspection personnel to ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable). The nature of the inspection process, the resulting robot design requirements, and the current status of the project are the subjects of this paper.

  1. [Mixed design for the evaluation of the Mesoamerica Health 2015 initiative].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo; Téllez-Rojo, Marta María; Torres, Pilar; Romero, Martín; Bertozzi, Stefano M

    2011-01-01

    Since the Salud Mesoamerica 2015 initiative (SM-2015) aim is to improve health and nutrition conditions of those most vulnerable in Mesoamerica, the goal of the evaluation is to generate evidence of the joint effectiveness of a package of interventions designed to improve the health conditions. We propose a mix design for the evaluation, which will allow to know the magnitude of changes attributable to the interventions, as well as the meanings of these changes for the target population, taking into account the specificities of each country. The main axis of this design is a locality panel where information about individuals, households, and health facilities (first and second level) will also be collected. The evaluation design described in this paper was developed between June and December, 2009, and it was integrated during workshops in Cuernavaca (Mexico), Managua (Nicaragua), and San Jose (Costa Rica). The proposed design will allow to generate evidence about the joint effectiveness of the package of interventions proposed for the SM-2015. The success of this design rests on the political commitment of countries and donors.

  2. Alcohol mixed with energy drinks: methodology and design of the Utrecht Student Survey

    PubMed Central

    de Haan, Lydia; de Haan, Hein A; Olivier, Berend; Verster, Joris C

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology of the Utrecht Student Survey. This online survey was conducted in June 2011 by 6002 students living in Utrecht, The Netherlands. The aim of the survey was to determine the potential impact of mixing alcoholic beverages with energy drinks on overall alcohol consumption and alcohol-related consequences. In contrast to most previous surveys conducted on this topic, the current survey used a more appropriate within-subject design, comparing the alcohol consumption of individuals who consume alcohol mixed with energy drinks on occasions. Specifically, a comparison was conducted to examine the occasions during which these individuals consume this mixture versus occasions during which they consume alcohol alone. In addition to energy drinks, the consumption of other non-alcoholic mixers was also assessed when combined with alcoholic beverages. Furthermore, the reasons for consuming energy drinks alone or in combination with alcohol were investigated, and were compared to reasons for mixing alcohol with other non-alcoholic beverages. Finally, personality characteristics and the level of risk-taking behavior among the individuals were also assessed to explore their relationship with alcohol consumption. The Utrecht Student Survey will be replicated in the USA, Australia, and the UK. Results will be pooled, but also examined for possible cross-cultural differences. PMID:23118547

  3. Engineering design and test plan for demonstrating DETOX treatment of mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Goldblatt, S.; Dhooge, P.

    1995-03-01

    DETOX is a cocatalyzed wet oxidation process in which the catalysts are a relatively great concentration of iron ions (typically as iron(III) chloride) in the presence of small amounts of platinum and ruthenium ions. Organic compounds are oxidized completely to carbon dioxide, water, and (if chlorinated) hydrogen chloride. The process has shown promise as a non-thermal alternative to incineration for treatment and/or volume reduction of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes. Design and fabrication of a demonstration unit capable of destroying 25. Kg/hr of organic material is now in progress. This paper describes the Title 2 design of the demonstration unit, and the planned demonstration effort at Savannah River Site (SRS) and Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP).

  4. Radiation hardness by design for mixed signal infrared readout circuit applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaalema, Stephen; Gates, James; Dobyns, David; Pauls, Greg; Wall, Bruce

    2013-09-01

    Readout integrated circuits (ROICs) to support space-based infrared detection applications often have severe radiation tolerance requirements. Radiation hardness-by-design (RHBD) significantly enhances the radiation tolerance of commercially available CMOS and custom radiation hardened fabrication techniques are not required. The combination of application specific design techniques, enclosed gate architecture nFETs and intrinsic thin oxide radiation hardness of 180 nm process node commercial CMOS allows realization of high performance mixed signal circuits. Black Forest Engineering has used RHBD techniques to develop ROICs with integrated A/D conversion that operate over a wide range of temperatures (40K-300K) to support infrared detection. ROIC radiation tolerance capability for 256x256 LWIR area arrays and 1x128 thermopile linear arrays is presented. The use of 130 nm CMOS for future ROIC RHBD applications is discussed.

  5. Design of a home-based adaptive mixed reality rehabilitation system for stroke survivors.

    PubMed

    Baran, Michael; Lehrer, Nicole; Siwiak, Diana; Chen, Yinpeng; Duff, Margaret; Ingalls, Todd; Rikakis, Thanassis

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a home-based adaptive mixed reality system (HAMRR) for upper extremity stroke rehabilitation. The goal of HAMRR is to help restore motor function to chronic stroke survivors by providing an engaging long-term reaching task therapy at home. The system uses an intelligent adaptation scheme to create a continuously challenging and unique multi-year therapy experience. The therapy is overseen by a physical therapist, but day-to-day use of the system can be independently set up and completed by a stroke survivor. The HAMMR system tracks movement of the wrist and torso and provides real-time, post-trial, and post-set feedback to encourage the stroke survivor to self-assess his or her movement and engage in active learning of new movement strategies. The HAMRR system consists of a custom table, chair, and media center, and is designed to easily integrate into any home.

  6. A New Design for Airway Management Training with Mixed Reality and High Fidelity Modeling.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yunhe; Hananel, David; Zhao, Zichen; Burke, Daniel; Ballas, Crist; Norfleet, Jack; Reihsen, Troy; Sweet, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Restoring airway function is a vital task in many medical scenarios. Although various simulation tools have been available for learning such skills, recent research indicated that fidelity in simulating airway management deserves further improvements. In this study, we designed and implemented a new prototype for practicing relevant tasks including laryngoscopy, intubation and cricothyrotomy. A large amount of anatomical details or landmarks were meticulously selected and reconstructed from medical scans, and 3D-printed or molded to the airway intervention model. This training model was augmented by virtually and physically presented interactive modules, which are interoperable with motion tracking and sensor data feedback. Implementation results showed that this design is a feasible approach to develop higher fidelity airway models that can be integrated with mixed reality interfaces.

  7. Mixed transition-metal oxides: design, synthesis, and energy-related applications.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Changzhou; Wu, Hao Bin; Xie, Yi; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2014-02-03

    A promising family of mixed transition-metal oxides (MTMOs) (designated as Ax B3-x O4 ; A, B=Co, Ni, Zn, Mn, Fe, etc.) with stoichiometric or even non-stoichiometric compositions, typically in a spinel structure, has recently attracted increasing research interest worldwide. Benefiting from their remarkable electrochemical properties, these MTMOs will play significant roles for low-cost and environmentally friendly energy storage/conversion technologies. In this Review, we summarize recent research advances in the rational design and efficient synthesis of MTMOs with controlled shapes, sizes, compositions, and micro-/nanostructures, along with their applications as electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors, and efficient electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction in metal-air batteries and fuel cells. Some future trends and prospects to further develop advanced MTMOs for next-generation electrochemical energy storage/conversion systems are also presented.

  8. Optimal design of mixed-effects PK/PD models based on differential equations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Eskridge, Kent M; Nadarajah, Saralees

    2012-01-01

    There is a vast literature on the analysis of optimal design of nonlinear mixed-effects models (NLMMs) described by ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with analytic solution. However, much less has been published on the design of trials to fit such models with nonanalytic solution. In this article, we use the "direct" method to find parameter sensitivities, which are required during the optimization of models defined as ODEs, and apply them to find D-optimal designs for various specific situations relevant to population pharmacokinetic studies using a particular model with first-order absorption and elimination. In addition, we perform two simulation studies. The first one aims to show that the criterion computed from the development of the Fisher information matrix expression is a good measure to compare and optimize population designs, thus avoiding a large number of simulations; In the second one, a sensitivity analysis with respect to parameter misspecification allows us to compare the robustness of different population designs constructed in this article.

  9. Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project melter system preliminary design technical review meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, T.L.; Raivo, B.D.; Soelberg, N.R.; Wiersholm, O.

    1995-02-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project sponsored a plasma are melter technical design review meeting to evaluate high-temperature melter system configurations for processing heterogeneous alpha-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (ALLW). Thermal processing experts representing Department of Energy contractors, the Environmental Protection Agency, and private sector companies participated in the review. The participants discussed issues and evaluated alternative configurations for three areas of the melter system design: plasma torch melters and graphite arc melters, offgas treatment options, and overall system configuration considerations. The Technical Advisory Committee for the review concluded that graphite arc melters are preferred over plasma torch melters for processing ALLW. Initiating involvement of stakeholders was considered essential at this stage of the design. For the offgas treatment system, the advisory committee raised the question whether to a use wet-dry or a dry-wet system. The committee recommended that the waste stream characterization, feed preparation, and the control system are essential design tasks for the high-temperature melter treatment system. The participants strongly recommended that a complete melter treatment system be assembled to conduct tests with nonradioactive surrogate waste material. A nonradioactive test bed would allow for inexpensive design and operational changes prior to assembling a system for radioactive waste treatment operations.

  10. Implosion Dynamics and Mix in Double-Shell ICF Capsule Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunderson, Mark; Daughton, William; Simakov, Andrei; Wilson, Douglas; Watt, Robert; Delamater, Norman; Montgomery, David

    2015-11-01

    From an implosion dynamics perspective, double-shell ICF capsule designs have several advantages over the single-shell NIF ICF capsule point design. Double shell designs do not require precise shock sequencing, do not rely on hot spot ignition, have lower peak implosion speed requirements, and have lower convergence ratio requirements. However, there are still hurdles that must be overcome. The timing of the two main shocks in these designs is important in achieving sufficient compression of the DT fuel. Instability of the inner gold shell due to preheat from the hohlraum environment can disrupt the implosion of the inner pill. Mix, in addition to quenching burn in the DT fuel, also decreases the transfer of energy between the beryllium ablator and the inner gold shell during collision thus decreasing the implosion speed of the inner shell along with compression of the DT fuel. Herein, we will discuss practical implications of these effects on double-shell design we carry out in preparation for the NIF double-shell campaign. Work performed under the auspices of DOE by LANL under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  11. Toward Mixed Method Evaluations of Scientific Visualizations and Design Process as an Evaluation Tool

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Bret; Coffey, Dane; Thorson, Lauren; Schroeder, David; Ellingson, Arin M.; Nuckley, David J.

    2017-01-01

    In this position paper we discuss successes and limitations of current evaluation strategies for scientific visualizations and argue for embracing a mixed methods strategy of evaluation. The most novel contribution of the approach that we advocate is a new emphasis on employing design processes as practiced in related fields (e.g., graphic design, illustration, architecture) as a formalized mode of evaluation for data visualizations. To motivate this position we describe a series of recent evaluations of scientific visualization interfaces and computer graphics strategies conducted within our research group. Complementing these more traditional evaluations our visualization research group also regularly employs sketching, critique, and other design methods that have been formalized over years of practice in design fields. Our experience has convinced us that these activities are invaluable, often providing much more detailed evaluative feedback about our visualization systems than that obtained via more traditional user studies and the like. We believe that if design-based evaluation methodologies (e.g., ideation, sketching, critique) can be taught and embraced within the visualization community then these may become one of the most effective future strategies for both formative and summative evaluations.

  12. The Oporto mixed-longitudinal growth, health and performance study. Design, methods and baseline results.

    PubMed

    Souza, Michele Caroline de; Chaves, Raquel Nichele de; Dos Santos, Fernanda Karina; Gomes, Thayse Natacha Queiroz Ferreira; Santos, Daniel Vilhena E; Borges, Alessandra Silva; Pereira, Sara Isabel Sampaio; Forjaz, Cláudia Lúcia de Moraes; Eisenmann, Joey; Maia, José António Ribeiro

    2017-02-01

    Studies concerning child and adolescent growth, development, performance and health aimed at the multiple interactions amongst this complex set of variables are not common in the Portuguese speaking countries. The aim of this paper is to address the key ideas, methodology and design of the Oporto Growth, Health and Performance Study (OGHPS). The OGHPS is a multidisciplinary mixed-longitudinal study whose main purpose is to examine the multiple interactions among biological, environmental and lifestyle indicators that affect growth, development, health and performance of Portuguese adolescents aged 10-18 years old. This study briefly presents baseline results for growth, physical fitness and lifestyle behaviours for those participating in the cross-sectional sample (n ≈ 8000). Approximately 30% were over-fat or obese. On average, boys were more physically fit and active than girls. Few adolescents meet the guidelines for sleep duration (≈10%) and eating habits (16.2-24.8%), while 76-85% meet the recommended levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The OGHPS has an innovative approach due to its mixed-longitudinal design and the broad array of variables. Furthermore, subsequent analyses of the longitudinal data will enable a detailed exploration of important factors affecting the growth trajectories of health and performance variables and will also help to identify some of the most opportune times for interventions in terms of health behaviours.

  13. Design and Performance of South Ukraine Nuclear Power Plant Mixed Cores

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullayev, A. M.; Baydulin, V.; Zhukov, A. I.; Latorre, Richard

    2011-09-24

    In 2010, 42 Westinghouse fuel assemblies (WFAs) were loaded into the core of South Ukraine Nuclear Power Plant (SUNPP) Unit 3 after four successful cycles with 6 Westinghouse Lead Test Assemblies. The scope of safety substantiating documents required for the regulatory approval of this mixed core was extended considerably, particularly with development and implementation of new methodologies and 3-D kinetic codes. Additional verification for all employed codes was also performed. Despite the inherent hydraulic non-uniformity of a mixed core, it was possible to demonstrate that all design and operating restrictions for three different types of fuel (TVS-M, TVSA and WFA) loaded in the core were conservatively met. This paper provides the main results from the first year of operation of the core loaded with 42 WFAs, the predicted parameters for the transition and equilibrium cycles with WFAs, comparisons of predicted versus measured core parameters, as well as the acceptable margin evaluation results for reactivity accidents using the 3-D kinetic codes. To date WFA design parameters have been confirmed by operation experience.

  14. RAW to UIMF Converter

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-09

    The RAW to Unified Ion Mobility File (UIMF) converter is a software application that takes LC MS scans from a Thermo RAW file and translates them into ion mobility scans compatible with the UIMF file format. The converter calculates the number of points to generate for the UIMF format by estimating the coefficients of a power function, which models the way in which FTMS data is collected. Once the coefficients are estimated (using a standard Gauss-Newton solver), an m/z mesh is created using standard m/z ppm calculations. This mesh is then used as a basis for translating the m/z intensity pairs from the Thermo RAW file to the UIMF format. Due to non-uniform spacing of m/z values in RAW spectra, a simple linear interpolation is applied to the UIMF format after assigning all m/z values in the mesh in order to fill in gaps. Finally, the converter can perform singly or doubly demultiplexing of encoded ion mobility chromtograms, depending on user selected options during the conversion process. This operation is performed after the UIMF file has been generated.

  15. A proposed through-flow inverse method for the design of mixed-flow pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borges, Joao Eduardo

    1991-01-01

    A through-flow (hub-to-shroud) truly inverse method is proposed and described. It uses an imposition of mean swirl, i.e., radius times mean tangential velocity, given throughout the meridional section of the turbomachine as an initial design specification. In the present implementation, it is assumed that the fluid is inviscid, incompressible, and irrotational at inlet and that the blades are supposed to have zero thickness. Only blade rows that impart to the fluid a constant work along the space are considered. An application of this procedure to design the rotor of a mixed-flow pump is described in detail. The strategy used to find a suitable mean swirl distribution and the other design inputs is also described. The final blade shape and pressure distributions on the blade surface are presented, showing that it is possible to obtain feasible designs using this technique. Another advantage of this technique is the fact that it does not require large amounts of CPU time.

  16. Automatic Design of Synthetic Gene Circuits through Mixed Integer Non-linear Programming

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Linh; Kececioglu, John; Köppe, Matthias; Tagkopoulos, Ilias

    2012-01-01

    Automatic design of synthetic gene circuits poses a significant challenge to synthetic biology, primarily due to the complexity of biological systems, and the lack of rigorous optimization methods that can cope with the combinatorial explosion as the number of biological parts increases. Current optimization methods for synthetic gene design rely on heuristic algorithms that are usually not deterministic, deliver sub-optimal solutions, and provide no guaranties on convergence or error bounds. Here, we introduce an optimization framework for the problem of part selection in synthetic gene circuits that is based on mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP), which is a deterministic method that finds the globally optimal solution and guarantees convergence in finite time. Given a synthetic gene circuit, a library of characterized parts, and user-defined constraints, our method can find the optimal selection of parts that satisfy the constraints and best approximates the objective function given by the user. We evaluated the proposed method in the design of three synthetic circuits (a toggle switch, a transcriptional cascade, and a band detector), with both experimentally constructed and synthetic promoter libraries. Scalability and robustness analysis shows that the proposed framework scales well with the library size and the solution space. The work described here is a step towards a unifying, realistic framework for the automated design of biological circuits. PMID:22536398

  17. Design of an electromagnetic accelerator for turbulent hydrodynamic mix studies. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Susoeff, A.R.; Hawke, R.S.; Morrison, J.J.; Dimonte, G.; Remington, B.A.

    1994-03-01

    An electromagnetic accelerator in the form of a linear electric motor (LEM) has been designed to achieve controlled acceleration profiles of a carriage containing hydrodynamically unstable fluids for the investigation of the development of turbulent mix. Key features of the design include: (1) independent control of acceleration, deceleration and augmentation currents to provide a variety of acceleration-time profiles, (2) a robust support structure to minimized deflection and dampen vibration which could create artifacts in the data interfering with the intended study and (3) a compliant, non-arcing solid armature allowing optimum electrical contact. Electromagnetic modeling codes were used to optimize the rail and augmentation coil positions within the support structure framework. Design of the driving armature and the dynamic electromagnetic braking system is based on results of contemporary studies for non-arcing sliding contact of solid armatures. A 0.6MJ electrolytic capacitor bank is used for energy storage to drive the LEM. This report will discuss a LEM and armature design which will accelerate masses of up to 3kg to a maximum of about 3000g{sub o}, where g{sub o} is acceleration due to gravity.

  18. Automatic design of synthetic gene circuits through mixed integer non-linear programming.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Linh; Kececioglu, John; Köppe, Matthias; Tagkopoulos, Ilias

    2012-01-01

    Automatic design of synthetic gene circuits poses a significant challenge to synthetic biology, primarily due to the complexity of biological systems, and the lack of rigorous optimization methods that can cope with the combinatorial explosion as the number of biological parts increases. Current optimization methods for synthetic gene design rely on heuristic algorithms that are usually not deterministic, deliver sub-optimal solutions, and provide no guaranties on convergence or error bounds. Here, we introduce an optimization framework for the problem of part selection in synthetic gene circuits that is based on mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP), which is a deterministic method that finds the globally optimal solution and guarantees convergence in finite time. Given a synthetic gene circuit, a library of characterized parts, and user-defined constraints, our method can find the optimal selection of parts that satisfy the constraints and best approximates the objective function given by the user. We evaluated the proposed method in the design of three synthetic circuits (a toggle switch, a transcriptional cascade, and a band detector), with both experimentally constructed and synthetic promoter libraries. Scalability and robustness analysis shows that the proposed framework scales well with the library size and the solution space. The work described here is a step towards a unifying, realistic framework for the automated design of biological circuits.

  19. ISMRM Raw data format: A proposed standard for MRI raw datasets.

    PubMed

    Inati, Souheil J; Naegele, Joseph D; Zwart, Nicholas R; Roopchansingh, Vinai; Lizak, Martin J; Hansen, David C; Liu, Chia-Ying; Atkinson, David; Kellman, Peter; Kozerke, Sebastian; Xue, Hui; Campbell-Washburn, Adrienne E; Sørensen, Thomas S; Hansen, Michael S

    2017-01-01

    This work proposes the ISMRM Raw Data format as a common MR raw data format, which promotes algorithm and data sharing. A file format consisting of a flexible header and tagged frames of k-space data was designed. Application Programming Interfaces were implemented in C/C++, MATLAB, and Python. Converters for Bruker, General Electric, Philips, and Siemens proprietary file formats were implemented in C++. Raw data were collected using magnetic resonance imaging scanners from four vendors, converted to ISMRM Raw Data format, and reconstructed using software implemented in three programming languages (C++, MATLAB, Python). Images were obtained by reconstructing the raw data from all vendors. The source code, raw data, and images comprising this work are shared online, serving as an example of an image reconstruction project following a paradigm of reproducible research. The proposed raw data format solves a practical problem for the magnetic resonance imaging community. It may serve as a foundation for reproducible research and collaborations. The ISMRM Raw Data format is a completely open and community-driven format, and the scientific community is invited (including commercial vendors) to participate either as users or developers. Magn Reson Med 77:411-421, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Optimal design of mixed-media packet-switching networks - Routing and capacity assignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, D.; Kuo, F. F.; Kobayashi, H.

    1977-01-01

    This paper considers a mixed-media packet-switched computer communication network which consists of a low-delay terrestrial store-and-forward subnet combined with a low-cost high-bandwidth satellite subnet. We show how to route traffic via ground and/or satellite links by means of static, deterministic procedures and assign capacities to channels subject to a given linear cost such that the network average delay is minimized. Two operational schemes for this network model are investigated: one is a scheme in which the satellite channel is used as a slotted ALOHA channel; the other is a new multiaccess scheme we propose in which whenever a channel collision occurs, retransmission of the involved packets will route through ground links to their destinations. The performance of both schemes is evaluated and compared in terms of cost and average packet delay tradeoffs for some examples. The results offer guidelines for the design and optimal utilization of mixed-media networks.

  1. Design, implementation and testing of extended and mixed precisionBLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X.S.; Demmel, J.W.; Bailey, D.H.; Henry, G.; Hida, Y.; Iskandar, J.; Kahan, W.; Kapur, A.; Martin, M.C.; Tung, T.; Yoo, D.J.

    2000-10-20

    This article describes the design rationale, a C implementation, and conformance testing of a subset of the new Standard for the BLAS (Basic Linear Algebra Subroutines): Extended and Mixed Precision BLAS. Permitting higher internal precision and mixed input/output types and precisions allows us to implement some algorithms that are simpler, more accurate, and sometimes faster than possible without these features. The new BLAS are challenging to implement and test because there are many more subroutines than in the existing Standard, and because we must be able to assess whether a higher precision is used for internal computations than is used for either input or output variables. We have therefore developed an automated process of generating and systematically testing these routines. Our methodology is applicable to languages besides C. In particular, our algorithms used in the testing code will be valuable to all other BLAS implementors. Our extra precision routines achieve excellent performance--close to half of the machine peak Megaflop rate even for the Level 2 BLAS, when the data access is stride one.

  2. Optimal design of mixed-media packet-switching networks - Routing and capacity assignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, D.; Kuo, F. F.; Kobayashi, H.

    1977-01-01

    This paper considers a mixed-media packet-switched computer communication network which consists of a low-delay terrestrial store-and-forward subnet combined with a low-cost high-bandwidth satellite subnet. We show how to route traffic via ground and/or satellite links by means of static, deterministic procedures and assign capacities to channels subject to a given linear cost such that the network average delay is minimized. Two operational schemes for this network model are investigated: one is a scheme in which the satellite channel is used as a slotted ALOHA channel; the other is a new multiaccess scheme we propose in which whenever a channel collision occurs, retransmission of the involved packets will route through ground links to their destinations. The performance of both schemes is evaluated and compared in terms of cost and average packet delay tradeoffs for some examples. The results offer guidelines for the design and optimal utilization of mixed-media networks.

  3. Understanding Design Tradeoffs for Health Technologies: A Mixed-Methods Approach

    PubMed Central

    O’Leary, Katie; Eschler, Jordan; Kendall, Logan; Vizer, Lisa M.; Ralston, James D.; Pratt, Wanda

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a mixed-methods approach for determining how people weigh tradeoffs in values related to health and technologies for health self-management. Our approach combines interviews with Q-methodology, a method from psychology uniquely suited to quantifying opinions. We derive the framework for structured data collection and analysis for the Q-methodology from theories of self-management of chronic illness and technology adoption. To illustrate the power of this new approach, we used it in a field study of nine older adults with type 2 diabetes, and nine mothers of children with asthma. Our mixed-methods approach provides three key advantages for health design science in HCI: (1) it provides a structured health sciences theoretical framework to guide data collection and analysis; (2) it enhances the coding of unstructured data with statistical patterns of polarizing and consensus views; and (3) it empowers participants to actively weigh competing values that are most personally significant to them. PMID:28804794

  4. Rational design of metallic nanocavities for resonantly enhanced four-wave mixing.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Euclides; Prior, Yehiam

    2015-05-14

    Optimizing the shape of nanostructures and nano-antennas for specific optical properties has evolved to be a very fruitful activity. With modern fabrication tools a large variety of possibilities is available for shaping both nanoparticles and nanocavities; in particular nanocavities in thin metal films have emerged as attractive candidates for new metamaterials and strong linear and nonlinear optical systems. Here we rationally design metallic nanocavities to boost their Four-Wave Mixing response by resonating the optical plasmonic resonances with the incoming and generated beams. The linear and nonlinear optical responses as well as the propagation of the electric fields inside the cavities are derived from the solution of Maxwell's equations by using the 3D finite-differences time domain method. The observed conversion-efficiency of near-infrared to visible light equals or surpasses that of BBO of equivalent thickness. Implications to further optimization for efficient and broadband ultrathin nonlinear optical materials are discussed.

  5. Freely designable optical frequency conversion in Raman-resonant four-wave-mixing process

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jian; Katsuragawa, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear optical processes are governed by the relative-phase relationships among the relevant electromagnetic fields in these processes. In this Report, we describe the physics of arbitrary manipulation of Raman-resonant four-wave-mixing process by artificial control of relative phases. As a typical example, we show freely designable optical-frequency conversions to extreme spectral regions, mid-infrared and vacuum-ultraviolet, with near-unity quantum efficiencies. Furthermore, we show that such optical-frequency conversions can be realized by using a surprisingly simple technology where transparent plates are placed in a nonlinear optical medium and their positions and thicknesses are adjusted precisely. In a numerical simulation assuming practically applicable parameters in detail, we demonstrate a single-frequency tunable laser that covers the whole vacuum-ultraviolet spectral range of 120 to 200 nm. PMID:25748023

  6. Rational design of metallic nanocavities for resonantly enhanced four-wave mixing

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Euclides; Prior, Yehiam

    2015-01-01

    Optimizing the shape of nanostructures and nano-antennas for specific optical properties has evolved to be a very fruitful activity. With modern fabrication tools a large variety of possibilities is available for shaping both nanoparticles and nanocavities; in particular nanocavities in thin metal films have emerged as attractive candidates for new metamaterials and strong linear and nonlinear optical systems. Here we rationally design metallic nanocavities to boost their Four-Wave Mixing response by resonating the optical plasmonic resonances with the incoming and generated beams. The linear and nonlinear optical responses as well as the propagation of the electric fields inside the cavities are derived from the solution of Maxwell’s equations by using the 3D finite-differences time domain method. The observed conversion-efficiency of near-infrared to visible light equals or surpasses that of BBO of equivalent thickness. Implications to further optimization for efficient and broadband ultrathin nonlinear optical materials are discussed. PMID:25974175

  7. Mixed culture optimization for marigold flower ensilage via experimental design and response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Navarrete-Bolaños, José Luis; Jiménez-Islas, Hugo; Botello-Alvarez, Enrique; Rico-Martínez, Ramiro

    2003-04-09

    Endogenous microorganisms isolated from the marigold flower (Tagetes erecta) were studied to understand the events taking place during its ensilage. Studies of the cellulase enzymatic activity and the ensilage process were undertaken. In both studies, the use of approximate second-order models and multiple lineal regression, within the context of an experimental mixture design using the response surface methodology as optimization strategy, determined that the microorganisms Flavobacterium IIb, Acinetobacter anitratus, and Rhizopus nigricans are the most significant in marigold flower ensilage and exhibit high cellulase activity. A mixed culture comprised of 9.8% Flavobacterium IIb, 41% A. anitratus, and 49.2% R. nigricans used during ensilage resulted in an increased yield of total xanthophylls extracted of 24.94 g/kg of dry weight compared with 12.92 for the uninoculated control ensilage.

  8. Status of steady-state irradiation testing of mixed-carbide fuel designs. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Harry, G.R.

    1983-01-01

    The steady-state irradiation program of mixed-carbide fuels has demonstrated clearly the ability of carbide fuel pins to attain peak burnup greater than 12 at.% and peak fluences of 1.4 x 10/sup 23/ n/cm/sup 2/ (E > 0.1 MeV). Helium-bonded fuel pins in 316SS cladding have achieved peak burnups of 20.7 at.% (192 MWd/kg), and no breaches have occurred in pins of this design. Sodium-bonded fuel pins in 316SS cladding have achieved peak burnups of 15.8 at.% (146 MWd/kg). Breaches have occurred in helium-bonded fuel pins in PE-16 cladding (approx. 5 at.% burnup) and in D21 cladding (approx. 4 at.% burnup). Sodium-bonded fuel pins achieved burnups over 11 at.% in PE-16 cladding and over 6 at.% in D9 and D21 cladding.

  9. Interdisciplinary concepts for design and implementation of mixed reality interactive neurorehabilitation systems for stroke.

    PubMed

    Baran, Michael; Lehrer, Nicole; Duff, Margaret; Venkataraman, Vinay; Turaga, Pavan; Ingalls, Todd; Rymer, W Zev; Wolf, Steven L; Rikakis, Thanassis

    2015-03-01

    Interactive neurorehabilitation (INR) systems provide therapy that can evaluate and deliver feedback on a patient's movement computationally. There are currently many approaches to INR design and implementation, without a clear indication of which methods to utilize best. This article presents key interactive computing, motor learning, and media arts concepts utilized by an interdisciplinary group to develop adaptive, mixed reality INR systems for upper extremity therapy of patients with stroke. Two INR systems are used as examples to show how the concepts can be applied within: (1) a small-scale INR clinical study that achieved integrated improvement of movement quality and functionality through continuously supervised therapy and (2) a pilot study that achieved improvement of clinical scores with minimal supervision. The notion is proposed that some of the successful approaches developed and tested within these systems can form the basis of a scalable design methodology for other INR systems. A coherent approach to INR design is needed to facilitate the use of the systems by physical therapists, increase the number of successful INR studies, and generate rich clinical data that can inform the development of best practices for use of INR in physical therapy.

  10. Development of ORIGEN Libraries for Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Assembly Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Mertyurek, Ugur; Gauld, Ian C.

    2015-12-24

    In this research, ORIGEN cross section libraries for reactor-grade mixed oxide (MOX) fuel assembly designs have been developed to provide fast and accurate depletion calculations to predict nuclide inventories, radiation sources and thermal decay heat information needed in safety evaluations and safeguards verification measurements of spent nuclear fuel. These ORIGEN libraries are generated using two-dimensional lattice physics assembly models that include enrichment zoning and cross section data based on ENDF/B-VII.0 evaluations. Using the SCALE depletion sequence, burnup-dependent cross sections are created for selected commercial reactor assembly designs and a representative range of reactor operating conditions, fuel enrichments, and fuel burnup. The burnup dependent cross sections are then interpolated to provide problem-dependent cross sections for ORIGEN, avoiding the need for time-consuming lattice physics calculations. The ORIGEN libraries for MOX assembly designs are validated against destructive radiochemical assay measurements of MOX fuel from the MALIBU international experimental program. This program included measurements of MOX fuel from a 15 × 15 pressurized water reactor assembly and a 9 × 9 boiling water reactor assembly. The ORIGEN MOX libraries are also compared against detailed assembly calculations from the Phase IV-B numerical MOX fuel burnup credit benchmark coordinated by the Nuclear Energy Agency within the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Finally, the nuclide compositions calculated by ORIGEN using the MOX libraries are shown to be in good agreement with other physics codes and with experimental data.

  11. Interdisciplinary Concepts for Design and Implementation of Mixed Reality Interactive Neurorehabilitation Systems for Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Lehrer, Nicole; Duff, Margaret; Venkataraman, Vinay; Turaga, Pavan; Ingalls, Todd; Rymer, W. Zev; Wolf, Steven L.; Rikakis, Thanassis

    2015-01-01

    Interactive neurorehabilitation (INR) systems provide therapy that can evaluate and deliver feedback on a patient's movement computationally. There are currently many approaches to INR design and implementation, without a clear indication of which methods to utilize best. This article presents key interactive computing, motor learning, and media arts concepts utilized by an interdisciplinary group to develop adaptive, mixed reality INR systems for upper extremity therapy of patients with stroke. Two INR systems are used as examples to show how the concepts can be applied within: (1) a small-scale INR clinical study that achieved integrated improvement of movement quality and functionality through continuously supervised therapy and (2) a pilot study that achieved improvement of clinical scores with minimal supervision. The notion is proposed that some of the successful approaches developed and tested within these systems can form the basis of a scalable design methodology for other INR systems. A coherent approach to INR design is needed to facilitate the use of the systems by physical therapists, increase the number of successful INR studies, and generate rich clinical data that can inform the development of best practices for use of INR in physical therapy. PMID:25425694

  12. Mixed logic style adder circuit designed and fabricated using SOI substrate for irradiation-hardened experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Shoucai; Liu, Yamei

    2016-08-01

    This paper proposed a rail to rail swing, mixed logic style 28-transistor 1-bit full adder circuit which is designed and fabricated using silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate with 90 nm gate length technology. The main goal of our design is space application where circuits may be damaged by outer space radiation; so the irradiation-hardened technique such as SOI structure should be used. The circuit's delay, power and power-delay product (PDP) of our proposed gate diffusion input (GDI)-based adder are HSPICE simulated and compared with other reported high-performance 1-bit adder. The GDI-based 1-bit adder has 21.61% improvement in delay and 18.85% improvement in PDP, over the reported 1-bit adder. However, its power dissipation is larger than that reported with 3.56% increased but is still comparable. The worst case performance of proposed 1-bit adder circuit is also seen to be less sensitive to variations in power supply voltage (VDD) and capacitance load (CL), over a wide range from 0.6 to 1.8 V and 0 to 200 fF, respectively. The proposed and reported 1-bit full adders are all layout designed and wafer fabricated with other circuits/systems together on one chip. The chip measurement and analysis has been done at VDD = 1.2 V, CL = 20 fF, and 200 MHz maximum input signal frequency with temperature of 300 K.

  13. Development of ORIGEN Libraries for Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Assembly Designs

    DOE PAGES

    Mertyurek, Ugur; Gauld, Ian C.

    2015-12-24

    In this research, ORIGEN cross section libraries for reactor-grade mixed oxide (MOX) fuel assembly designs have been developed to provide fast and accurate depletion calculations to predict nuclide inventories, radiation sources and thermal decay heat information needed in safety evaluations and safeguards verification measurements of spent nuclear fuel. These ORIGEN libraries are generated using two-dimensional lattice physics assembly models that include enrichment zoning and cross section data based on ENDF/B-VII.0 evaluations. Using the SCALE depletion sequence, burnup-dependent cross sections are created for selected commercial reactor assembly designs and a representative range of reactor operating conditions, fuel enrichments, and fuel burnup.more » The burnup dependent cross sections are then interpolated to provide problem-dependent cross sections for ORIGEN, avoiding the need for time-consuming lattice physics calculations. The ORIGEN libraries for MOX assembly designs are validated against destructive radiochemical assay measurements of MOX fuel from the MALIBU international experimental program. This program included measurements of MOX fuel from a 15 × 15 pressurized water reactor assembly and a 9 × 9 boiling water reactor assembly. The ORIGEN MOX libraries are also compared against detailed assembly calculations from the Phase IV-B numerical MOX fuel burnup credit benchmark coordinated by the Nuclear Energy Agency within the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Finally, the nuclide compositions calculated by ORIGEN using the MOX libraries are shown to be in good agreement with other physics codes and with experimental data.« less

  14. "Vogue," 1892-1928: An Historical Look at the Evolution of One Magazine's Editorial-Advertising-Design Mix.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prior, Marcia R.

    The careful integration of editorial content, graphic design, and advertising to create a successful magazine package is not a phenomenon of the last half of the twentieth century. As early as the 1890s, the first publishers of "Vogue" magazine had established an editorial-advertising-design mix in the fashion magazine that was…

  15. "Vogue," 1892-1928: An Historical Look at the Evolution of One Magazine's Editorial-Advertising-Design Mix.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prior, Marcia R.

    The careful integration of editorial content, graphic design, and advertising to create a successful magazine package is not a phenomenon of the last half of the twentieth century. As early as the 1890s, the first publishers of "Vogue" magazine had established an editorial-advertising-design mix in the fashion magazine that was…

  16. Mixed waste landfill monitoring prototype test design for Los Alamos National Laboratory. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this contract is to design the prototype tests necessary for the verification of the measurement methods proposed for the Mixed Waste Disposal Facility. The design is limited to the hydrological performance of the measurement methods. It does not include the mechanical testing of the methods proposed. The test site is to be selected and when approved, construction drawings provided. The contract also includes testing of vitrified clay pipe as the liner of choice for the passages under the landfill. The tests are to be done of both he hydrologic and the mechanical capability of the pipe. The test bed construction is to be supervised as it is being done by the construction contractor monitored by LANL. This contract does not include the logical subsequent work of performance of the measurements in the test bed. Since this contract was received by September 15, with the work to be completed by September 30, only that work possible in the short time was performed. That included the design of the test bed, the purchase of the vitrified clay pipe and the mechanical tests of the pipe, and the purchase of the SEAMIST systems for testing in the clay pipe. None of those could be delivered in time for flow tests to be done on the clay pipe. The mechanical tests were done as part of the pipe purchase and are reported here. The contract was not extended beyond September 30 for lack of funds. This report is therefore limited to the preliminary design of the test bed and to the specification of the orders for the materials. The hope is that funding will be restored to the program for the completion of the design and measurement effort.

  17. Lessons from a mixed-methods approach to evaluating Active Living by Design.

    PubMed

    Brownson, Ross C; Brennan, Laura K; Evenson, Kelly R; Leviton, Laura C

    2012-11-01

    Beginning in 2003, Active Living by Design (ALbD) established innovative approaches across 25 communities to increase physical activity through community design, public policies, programming, and communication strategies. The complexity of the ALbD projects called for a mixed-methods evaluation to understand implementation as well as perceived and actual impacts of these efforts. Six primary evaluation methods addressed three primary aims: (1) to assess impacts of physical projects and policy changes on community environments; (2) to document intervention strategies implemented, as well as intended and unintended consequences; and (3) to identify strengths and challenges in planning, developing, and implementing interventions. The ALbD evaluation included cross-site comparisons and more in-depth case studies. This article describes the methods used to address the three aims. Analysis of the strengths and challenges associated with the different methods, including partnership capacity surveys, Concept Mapping, an online progress reporting system, key informant interviews, focus groups, and photos and videos. Additional methods, including environmental audits and direct observation, were explored to specifically assess environmental changes. Several important challenges included the lack of baseline data, difficulty in evaluating natural experiments, the need for ongoing policy surveillance, and the need to capture longer-term endpoints. The mixed-methods evaluation of ALbD advances implementation and evaluation science related to community-based efforts for promoting active living through identification of methods and measures to capture multicomponent and complex interventions as well as translation of a range of approaches to create community change across a variety of populations and settings. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Lessons from a Mixed-Methods Approach to Evaluating Active Living by Design

    PubMed Central

    Brownson, Ross C.; Brennan, Laura K.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Leviton, Laura C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Beginning in 2003, Active Living by Design (ALbD) established innovative approaches across 25 communities to increase physical activity through community design, public policies, programming, and communication strategies. Purpose The complexity of the ALbD projects called for a mixed-methods evaluation to understand implementation as well as perceived and actual impacts of these efforts. Methods Six primary evaluation methods addressed three primary aims: (1) to assess impacts of physical projects and policy changes on community environments; (2) to document intervention strategies implemented, as well as intended and unintended consequences; and (3) to identify strengths and challenges in planning, developing, and implementing interventions. The ALbD evaluation included cross-site comparisons and more in-depth case studies. This article describes the methods used to address the three aims. Results Analysis of the strengths and challenges associated with the different methods, including partnership capacity surveys, Concept Mapping, an online Progress Reporting System (PRS), key informant interviews, focus groups, and photos and videos. Additional methods, including environmental audits and direct observation, were explored to specifically assess environmental changes. Several important challenges included the lack of baseline data, difficulty in evaluating natural experiments, the need for ongoing policy surveillance, and the need to capture longer-term endpoints. Conclusions The mixed-methods evaluation of ALbD advances implementation and evaluation science related to community-based efforts for promoting active living through identification of methods and measures to capture multicomponent and complex interventions as well as translation of a range of approaches to create community change across a variety of populations and settings. PMID:23079259

  19. Investigating Appropriate Sampling Design for Estimating Above-Ground Biomass in Bruneian Lowland Mixed Dipterocarp Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Lee, D.; Abu Salim, K.; Yun, H. M.; Han, S.; Lee, W. K.; Davies, S. J.; Son, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Mixed tropical forest structure is highly heterogeneous unlike plantation or mixed temperate forest structure, and therefore, different sampling approaches are required. However, the appropriate sampling design for estimating the above-ground biomass (AGB) in Bruneian lowland mixed dipterocarp forest (MDF) has not yet been fully clarified. The aim of this study was to provide supportive information in sampling design for Bruneian forest carbon inventory. The study site was located at Kuala Belalong lowland MDF, which is part of the Ulu Tembulong National Park, Brunei Darussalam. Six 60 m × 60 m quadrats were established, separated by a distance of approximately 100 m and each was subdivided into quadrats of 10 m × 10 m, at an elevation between 200 and 300 m above sea level. At each plot all free-standing trees with diameter at breast height (dbh) ≥ 1 cm were measured. The AGB for all trees with dbh ≥ 10 cm was estimated by allometric models. In order to analyze changes in the diameter-dependent parameters used for estimating the AGB, different quadrat areas, ranging from 10 m × 10 m to 60 m × 60 m, were used across the study area, starting at the South-West end and moving towards the North-East end. The derived result was as follows: (a) Big trees (dbh ≥ 70 cm) with sparse distribution have remarkable contribution to the total AGB in Bruneian lowland MDF, and therefore, special consideration is required when estimating the AGB of big trees. Stem number of trees with dbh ≥ 70 cm comprised only 2.7% of all trees with dbh ≥ 10 cm, but 38.5% of the total AGB. (b) For estimating the AGB of big trees at the given acceptable limit of precision (p), it is more efficient to use large quadrats than to use small quadrats, because the total sampling area decreases with the former. Our result showed that 239 20 m × 20 m quadrats (9.6 ha in total) were required, while 15 60 m × 60 m quadrats (5.4 ha in total) were required when estimating the AGB of the trees

  20. Prioritizing the mHealth Design Space: A Mixed-Methods Analysis of Smokers’ Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    BlueSpruce, June; Catz, Sheryl L; McClure, Jennifer B

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking remains the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States. Therefore, researchers are constantly exploring new ways to promote smoking cessation. Mobile health (mHealth) technologies could be effective cessation tools. Despite the availability of commercial quit-smoking apps, little research to date has examined smokers’ preferred treatment intervention components (ie, design features). Honoring these preferences is important for designing programs that are appealing to smokers and may be more likely to be adopted and used. Objective The aim of this study was to understand smokers’ preferred design features of mHealth quit-smoking tools. Methods We used a mixed-methods approach consisting of focus groups and written surveys to understand the design preferences of adult smokers who were interested in quitting smoking (N=40). Focus groups were stratified by age to allow differing perspectives to emerge between older (>40 years) and younger (<40 years) participants. Focus group discussion included a “blue-sky” brainstorming exercise followed by participant reactions to contrasting design options for communicating with smokers, providing social support, and incentivizing program use. Participants rated the importance of preselected design features on an exit survey. Qualitative analyses examined emergent discussion themes and quantitative analyses compared feature ratings to determine which were perceived as most important. Results Participants preferred a highly personalized and adaptive mHealth experience. Their ideal mHealth quit-smoking tool would allow personalized tracking of their progress, adaptively tailored feedback, and real-time peer support to help manage smoking cravings. Based on qualitative analysis of focus group discussion, participants preferred pull messages (ie, delivered upon request) over push messages (ie, sent automatically) and preferred interaction with other smokers through closed social

  1. Prioritizing the mHealth Design Space: A Mixed-Methods Analysis of Smokers' Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hartzler, Andrea Lisabeth; BlueSpruce, June; Catz, Sheryl L; McClure, Jennifer B

    2016-08-05

    Smoking remains the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States. Therefore, researchers are constantly exploring new ways to promote smoking cessation. Mobile health (mHealth) technologies could be effective cessation tools. Despite the availability of commercial quit-smoking apps, little research to date has examined smokers' preferred treatment intervention components (ie, design features). Honoring these preferences is important for designing programs that are appealing to smokers and may be more likely to be adopted and used. The aim of this study was to understand smokers' preferred design features of mHealth quit-smoking tools. We used a mixed-methods approach consisting of focus groups and written surveys to understand the design preferences of adult smokers who were interested in quitting smoking (N=40). Focus groups were stratified by age to allow differing perspectives to emerge between older (>40 years) and younger (<40 years) participants. Focus group discussion included a "blue-sky" brainstorming exercise followed by participant reactions to contrasting design options for communicating with smokers, providing social support, and incentivizing program use. Participants rated the importance of preselected design features on an exit survey. Qualitative analyses examined emergent discussion themes and quantitative analyses compared feature ratings to determine which were perceived as most important. Participants preferred a highly personalized and adaptive mHealth experience. Their ideal mHealth quit-smoking tool would allow personalized tracking of their progress, adaptively tailored feedback, and real-time peer support to help manage smoking cravings. Based on qualitative analysis of focus group discussion, participants preferred pull messages (ie, delivered upon request) over push messages (ie, sent automatically) and preferred interaction with other smokers through closed social networks. Preferences for entertaining games or

  2. Precise Composition Tailoring of Mixed-Cation Hybrid Perovskites for Efficient Solar Cells by Mixture Design Methods.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Liu, Na; Xu, Ziqi; Chen, Qi; Wang, Xindong; Zhou, Huanping

    2017-08-29

    Mixed anion/cation perovskites absorber has been recently implemented to construct highly efficient single junction solar cells and tandem devices. However, considerable efforts are still required to map the composition-property relationship of the mixed perovskites absorber, which is essential to facilitate device design. Here we report the intensive exploration of mixed-cation perovskites in their compositional space with the assistance of a rational mixture design (MD) methods. Different from the previous linear search of the cation ratios, it is found that by employing the MD methods, the ternary composition can be tuned simultaneously following simplex lattice designs or simplex-centroid designs, which enable significantly reduced experiment/sampling size to unveil the composition-property relationship for mixed perovskite materials and to boost the resultant device efficiency. We illustrated the composition-property relationship of the mixed perovskites in multidimension and achieved an optimized power conversion efficiency of 20.99% in the corresponding device. Moreover, the method is demonstrated to be feasible to help adjust the bandgap through rational materials design, which can be further extended to other materials systems, not limited in polycrystalline perovskites films for photovoltaic applications only.

  3. Mixed coherent states in coupled chaotic systems: Design of secure wireless communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigneshwaran, M.; Dana, S. K.; Padmanaban, E.

    2016-12-01

    A general coupling design is proposed to realize a mixed coherent (MC) state: coexistence of complete synchronization, antisynchronization, and amplitude death in different pairs of similar state variables of the coupled chaotic system. The stability of coupled system is ensured by the Lyapunov function and a scaling of each variable is also separately taken care of. When heterogeneity as a parameter mismatch is introduced in the coupled system, the coupling function facilitates to retain its coherence and displays the global stability with renewed scaling factor. Robust synchronization features facilitated by a MC state enable to design a dual modulation scheme: binary phase shift key (BPSK) and parameter mismatch shift key (PMSK), for secure data transmission. Two classes of decoders (coherent and noncoherent) are discussed, the noncoherent decoder shows better performance over the coherent decoder, mostly a noncoherent demodulator is preferred in biological implant applications. Both the modulation schemes are demonstrated numerically by using the Lorenz oscillator and the BPSK scheme is demonstrated experimentally using radio signals.

  4. Designing cost-effective biopharmaceutical facilities using mixed-integer optimization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Songsong; Simaria, Ana S; Farid, Suzanne S; Papageorgiou, Lazaros G

    2013-01-01

    Chromatography operations are identified as critical steps in a monoclonal antibody (mAb) purification process and can represent a significant proportion of the purification material costs. This becomes even more critical with increasing product titers that result in higher mass loads onto chromatography columns, potentially causing capacity bottlenecks. In this work, a mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model was created and applied to an industrially relevant case study to optimize the design of a facility by determining the most cost-effective chromatography equipment sizing strategies for the production of mAbs. Furthermore, the model was extended to evaluate the ability of a fixed facility to cope with higher product titers up to 15 g/L. Examination of the characteristics of the optimal chromatography sizing strategies across different titer values enabled the identification of the maximum titer that the facility could handle using a sequence of single column chromatography steps as well as multi-column steps. The critical titer levels for different ratios of upstream to dowstream trains where multiple parallel columns per step resulted in the removal of facility bottlenecks were identified. Different facility configurations in terms of number of upstream trains were considered and the trade-off between their cost and ability to handle higher titers was analyzed. The case study insights demonstrate that the proposed modeling approach, combining MINLP models with visualization tools, is a valuable decision-support tool for the design of cost-effective facility configurations and to aid facility fit decisions. 2013.

  5. Conceptual Design Report: Nevada Test Site Mixed Waste Disposal Facility Project

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2009-01-31

    Environmental cleanup of contaminated nuclear weapons manufacturing and test sites generates radioactive waste that must be disposed. Site cleanup activities throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex are projected to continue through 2050. Some of this waste is mixed waste (MW), containing both hazardous and radioactive components. In addition, there is a need for MW disposal from other mission activities. The Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision designates the Nevada Test Site (NTS) as a regional MW disposal site. The NTS has a facility that is permitted to dispose of onsite- and offsite-generated MW until November 30, 2010. There is not a DOE waste management facility that is currently permitted to dispose of offsite-generated MW after 2010, jeopardizing the DOE environmental cleanup mission and other MW-generating mission-related activities. A mission needs document (CD-0) has been prepared for a newly permitted MW disposal facility at the NTS that would provide the needed capability to support DOE's environmental cleanup mission and other MW-generating mission-related activities. This report presents a conceptual engineering design for a MW facility that is fully compliant with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and DOE O 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management'. The facility, which will be located within the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the NTS, will provide an approximately 20,000-cubic yard waste disposal capacity. The facility will be licensed by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP).

  6. Diffusion in musculoskeletal tissue engineering scaffolds: design issues related to porosity, permeability, architecture, and nutrient mixing.

    PubMed

    Karande, Tejas S; Ong, Joo L; Agrawal, C Mauli

    2004-12-01

    The field of tissue engineering continues to advance with the discovery of new biomaterials, growth factors and scaffold fabrication techniques. However, for the ultimate success of a tissue engineered construct the issue of nutrient transport to the scaffold interior needs to be addressed. Often, the requirements for adequate nutrient supply are at odds with other scaffold design parameters such as mechanical properties as well as scaffold fabrication techniques, leading to incongruities in finding optimal solutions. The goal of this review article is to provide an overview of the various engineering design factors that promote movement of nutrients, waste and other biomolecules in scaffolds for musculoskeletal tissue engineering applications. The importance of diffusion in scaffolds and how it is influenced by porosity, permeability, architecture, and nutrient mixing has been emphasized. Methods for measuring porosity and permeability have also been outlined. The different types of biomaterials used, scaffold fabrication techniques implemented and the pore sizes/porosities obtained over the past 5 years have also been addressed.

  7. Fault Protection Design and Testing for the Cassini Spacecraft in a "Mixed" Thruster Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, David; Lee, Allan; Meakin, Peter; Weitl, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Cassini Spacecraft, launched on October 15th, 1997 and arrived at Saturn on June 30th, 2004, is the largest and most ambitious interplanetary spacecraft in history. In order to meet the challenging attitude control and navigation requirements of the orbit profile at Saturn, Cassini is equipped with a monopropellant thruster based Reaction Control System (RCS), a bipropellant Main Engine Assembly (MEA) and a Reaction Wheel Assembly (RWA). In 2008, after 11 years of reliable service, several RCS thrusters began to show signs of end of life degradation, which led the operations team to successfully perform the swap from the A-branch to the B-branch RCS system. If similar degradation begins to occur on any of the B-branch thrusters, Cassini might have to assume a "mixed" thruster configuration, where a subset of both A and B branch thrusters will be designated as prime. The Cassini Fault Protection FSW was recently updated to handle this scenario. The design, implementation, and testing of this update is described in this paper.

  8. On the solution of mixed-integer nonlinear programming models for computer aided molecular design.

    PubMed

    Ostrovsky, Guennadi M; Achenie, Luke E K; Sinha, Manish

    2002-11-01

    This paper addresses the efficient solution of computer aided molecular design (CAMD) problems, which have been posed as mixed-integer nonlinear programming models. The models of interest are those in which the number of linear constraints far exceeds the number of nonlinear constraints, and with most variables participating in the nonconvex terms. As a result global optimization methods are needed. A branch-and-bound algorithm (BB) is proposed that is specifically tailored to solving such problems. In a conventional BB algorithm, branching is performed on all the search variables that appear in the nonlinear terms. This translates to a large number of node traversals. To overcome this problem, we have proposed a new strategy for branching on a set of linear branchingfunctions, which depend linearly on the search variables. This leads to a significant reduction in the dimensionality of the search space. The construction of linear underestimators for a class of functions is also presented. The CAMD problem that is considered is the design of optimal solvents to be used as cleaning agents in lithographic printing.

  9. On Mixed Data and Event Driven Design for Adaptive-Critic-Based Nonlinear $H∞ Control.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ding; Mu, Chaoxu; Liu, Derong; Ma, Hongwen

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, based on the adaptive critic learning technique, the H∞ control for a class of unknown nonlinear dynamic systems is investigated by adopting a mixed data and event driven design approach. The nonlinear H∞ control problem is formulated as a two-player zero-sum differential game and the adaptive critic method is employed to cope with the data-based optimization. The novelty lies in that the data driven learning identifier is combined with the event driven design formulation, in order to develop the adaptive critic controller, thereby accomplishing the nonlinear H∞ control. The event driven optimal control law and the time driven worst case disturbance law are approximated by constructing and tuning a critic neural network. Applying the event driven feedback control, the closed-loop system is built with stability analysis. Simulation studies are conducted to verify the theoretical results and illustrate the control performance. It is significant to observe that the present research provides a new avenue of integrating data-based control and event-triggering mechanism into establishing advanced adaptive critic systems.

  10. Fault Protection Design and Testing for the Cassini Spacecraft in a "Mixed" Thruster Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, David; Lee, Allan; Meakin, Peter; Weitl, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Cassini Spacecraft, launched on October 15th, 1997 and arrived at Saturn on June 30th, 2004, is the largest and most ambitious interplanetary spacecraft in history. In order to meet the challenging attitude control and navigation requirements of the orbit profile at Saturn, Cassini is equipped with a monopropellant thruster based Reaction Control System (RCS), a bipropellant Main Engine Assembly (MEA) and a Reaction Wheel Assembly (RWA). In 2008, after 11 years of reliable service, several RCS thrusters began to show signs of end of life degradation, which led the operations team to successfully perform the swap from the A-branch to the B-branch RCS system. If similar degradation begins to occur on any of the B-branch thrusters, Cassini might have to assume a "mixed" thruster configuration, where a subset of both A and B branch thrusters will be designated as prime. The Cassini Fault Protection FSW was recently updated to handle this scenario. The design, implementation, and testing of this update is described in this paper.

  11. Mix design and pollution control potential of pervious concrete with non-compliant waste fly ash.

    PubMed

    Soto-Pérez, Linoshka; Hwang, Sangchul

    2016-07-01

    Pervious concrete mix was optimized for the maximum compressive strength and the desired permeability at 7 mm/s with varying percentages of water-to-binder (W/B), fly ash-to-binder (FA/B), nano-iron oxide-to-binder (NI/B) and water reducer-to-binder (WR/B). The mass ratio of coarse aggregates in sizes of 4.75-9.5 mm to the binder was fixed at 4:1. Waste FA used in the study was not compliant with a standard specification for use as a mineral admixture in concrete. One optimum pervious concrete (Opt A) targeting high volume FA utilization had a 28-day compressive strength of 22.8 MPa and a permeability of 5.6 mm/s with a mix design at 36% W/B, 35% FA/B, 6% NI/B and 1.2% WR/B. The other (Opt B) targeting a less use of admixtures had a 28-day compressive strength and a permeability of 21.4 MPa and 7.6 mm/s, respectively, at 32% W/B, 10% FA/B, 0.5% NI/B and 0.8% WR/B. During 10 loads at a 2-h contact time each, the Opt A and Opt B achieved the average fecal coliform removals of 72.4% and 77.9% and phosphorus removals of 49.8% and 40.5%, respectively. Therefore, non-compliant waste FA could be utilized for a cleaner production of pervious concrete possessing a greater structural strength and compatible hydrological property and pollution control potential, compared to the ordinary pervious concrete.

  12. Female adolescents' perspective about reproductive health education needs: a mixed methods study with explanatory sequential design.

    PubMed

    Shahhosseini, Zohreh; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab

    2015-02-01

    One of the most important and basic needs of adolescent girls is reproductive health services and education, which is different from that required by adults. The aim of this study was to determine reproductive health education needs from the perspective of adolescent girls living in urban and rural areas, as well as to explore adolescents' understanding of reproductive health needs. The first phase was a cross-sectional study conducted on 1274 female adolescents. In the second phase, 77 girls in the form of 11 groups participated in focused group discussions. This sequential explanatory mixed methods study using follow-up variants was conducted in two phases. Questionnaires, including items on socio-demographic characteristics and reproductive health needs from adolescents' perspectives, were completed using the self-administered method. The quantitative results of the study revealed city and village girls' perspectives on reproductive health education needs. These results showed that village adolescents were nearly 1.5-2 times more in favor of a same sex counselor, reproductive health group education, and the need for sexual health education than city adolescents. A review of the transcripts of the qualitative phase led to the extraction of two themes including the characteristics of the reproductive health educator and priorities of reproductive health education, which explains the adolescent girls' understanding of reproductive health education needs. The findings of this study confirm the importance of determining reproductive health education needs from the perspective of adolescent girls. The present study shows how a sequential mixed design can be used for a better understanding of reproductive health needs of adolescent girls. The results of this study can be used in health research, education, policy making, and planning associated with adolescent health.

  13. Large-Scale Bi-Level Strain Design Approaches and Mixed-Integer Programming Solution Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joonhoon; Reed, Jennifer L.; Maravelias, Christos T.

    2011-01-01

    The use of computational models in metabolic engineering has been increasing as more genome-scale metabolic models and computational approaches become available. Various computational approaches have been developed to predict how genetic perturbations affect metabolic behavior at a systems level, and have been successfully used to engineer microbial strains with improved primary or secondary metabolite production. However, identification of metabolic engineering strategies involving a large number of perturbations is currently limited by computational resources due to the size of genome-scale models and the combinatorial nature of the problem. In this study, we present (i) two new bi-level strain design approaches using mixed-integer programming (MIP), and (ii) general solution techniques that improve the performance of MIP-based bi-level approaches. The first approach (SimOptStrain) simultaneously considers gene deletion and non-native reaction addition, while the second approach (BiMOMA) uses minimization of metabolic adjustment to predict knockout behavior in a MIP-based bi-level problem for the first time. Our general MIP solution techniques significantly reduced the CPU times needed to find optimal strategies when applied to an existing strain design approach (OptORF) (e.g., from ∼10 days to ∼5 minutes for metabolic engineering strategies with 4 gene deletions), and identified strategies for producing compounds where previous studies could not (e.g., malate and serine). Additionally, we found novel strategies using SimOptStrain with higher predicted production levels (for succinate and glycerol) than could have been found using an existing approach that considers network additions and deletions in sequential steps rather than simultaneously. Finally, using BiMOMA we found novel strategies involving large numbers of modifications (for pyruvate and glutamate), which sequential search and genetic algorithms were unable to find. The approaches and solution

  14. Large-scale bi-level strain design approaches and mixed-integer programming solution techniques.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joonhoon; Reed, Jennifer L; Maravelias, Christos T

    2011-01-01

    The use of computational models in metabolic engineering has been increasing as more genome-scale metabolic models and computational approaches become available. Various computational approaches have been developed to predict how genetic perturbations affect metabolic behavior at a systems level, and have been successfully used to engineer microbial strains with improved primary or secondary metabolite production. However, identification of metabolic engineering strategies involving a large number of perturbations is currently limited by computational resources due to the size of genome-scale models and the combinatorial nature of the problem. In this study, we present (i) two new bi-level strain design approaches using mixed-integer programming (MIP), and (ii) general solution techniques that improve the performance of MIP-based bi-level approaches. The first approach (SimOptStrain) simultaneously considers gene deletion and non-native reaction addition, while the second approach (BiMOMA) uses minimization of metabolic adjustment to predict knockout behavior in a MIP-based bi-level problem for the first time. Our general MIP solution techniques significantly reduced the CPU times needed to find optimal strategies when applied to an existing strain design approach (OptORF) (e.g., from ∼10 days to ∼5 minutes for metabolic engineering strategies with 4 gene deletions), and identified strategies for producing compounds where previous studies could not (e.g., malate and serine). Additionally, we found novel strategies using SimOptStrain with higher predicted production levels (for succinate and glycerol) than could have been found using an existing approach that considers network additions and deletions in sequential steps rather than simultaneously. Finally, using BiMOMA we found novel strategies involving large numbers of modifications (for pyruvate and glutamate), which sequential search and genetic algorithms were unable to find. The approaches and solution

  15. Recoveries raw data

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Dataset shows the calculation of reported decontamination efficacies from the raw data (i.e., measured amount of chemical recovered from test coupons and positive controls) to actual decontamination efficacy for all chemicals and decontaminantsThis dataset is associated with the following publication:Oudejans , L., J. O'Kelly, A. Evans, B. Barbara Wyrzykowska-Ceradini, A. Toauati, D. Tabor , and E. Snyder. Efficacy of decontaminant solutions for remediation on TICs on PPE materials. JOURNAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, USA, 1-5, (2016).

  16. The Design and Construction of the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Harrop, G.

    2003-02-27

    The Advanced Mixed Treatment Project (AMWTP) privatized contract was awarded to BNFL Inc. in December 1996 and construction of the main facility commenced in August 2000. The purpose of the advanced mixed waste treatment facility is to safely treat plutonium contaminated waste, currently stored in drums and boxes, for final disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The plant is being built at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Construction was completed in 28 months, to satisfy the Settlement Agreement milestone of December 2002. Commissioning of the related retrieval and characterization facilities is currently underway. The first shipment of pre-characterized waste is scheduled for March 2003, with AMWTP characterized and certified waste shipments from June 2003. To accommodate these challenging delivery targets BNFL adopted a systematic and focused construction program that included the use of a temporary structure to allow winter working, proven design and engineering principles and international procurement policies to help achieve quality and schedule. The technology involved in achieving the AMWTP functional requirements is primarily based upon a BNFL established pedigree of plant and equipment; applied in a manner that suits the process and waste. This technology includes the use of remotely controlled floor mounted and overhead power manipulators, a high power shredder and a 2000-ton force supercompactor with the attendant glove box suite, interconnections and automated material handling. The characterization equipment includes real-time radiography (RTR) units, drum and box assay measurement systems, drum head space gas sampling / analysis and drum venting, drum coring and sampling capabilities. The project adopted a particularly stringent and intensive pre-installation testing philosophy to ensure that equipment would work safely and reliably at the required throughput. This testing included the complete off site

  17. Quality and Antioxidant Activity of Buckwheat-Based Cookies Designed for a Raw Food Vegan Diet as Affected by Moderate Drying Temperature.

    PubMed

    Brožková, Iveta; Dvořáková, Veronika; Michálková, Kateřina; Červenka, Libor; Velichová, Helena

    2016-12-01

    Buckwheat cookies with various ingredients for raw food vegan diet are usually prepared by soaking them in water at ambient temperature followed by drying at moderate temperature. The aim of this study was to examine the temperature effect on the microbiological quality, antioxidant properties and oxidative stability of lipids of final dried samples. The mixture of ingredients was soaked for 20 h in distilled water, and then cookies were formed and dried in air-forced oven at constant temperature in the range from 40 to 60 °C. Total viable counts, fungi, yeasts, coliform and aerobic spore-forming bacteria counts were evaluated in dried samples and were found to decrease during drying at 50 and 60 °C. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS assays, and the former showed the highest value at 40 °C. Superoxide dismutase activity was also higher at 40 °C in comparison with that at 60 °C. The percentage of lipid peroxidation inhibition increased with the increase in drying temperature until 4th day of incubation. While peroxide value was significantly higher in samples dried at 40 °C, TBARS values did not show significant changes during the drying process. The results of this study suggest that drying buckwheat-based cookies at 40 °C retained their good antioxidant properties but represent a potentially serious microbial hazard.

  18. Fly ash of mineral coal as ceramic tiles raw material.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, A; Bergmann, C P

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of mineral coal fly ash as a raw material in the production of ceramic tiles. The samples of fly ash came from Capivari de Baixo, a city situated in the Brazilian Federal State of Santa Catarina. The fly ash and the raw materials were characterized regarding their physical chemical properties, and, based on these results; batches containing fly ash and typical raw materials for ceramic tiles were prepared. The fly ash content in the batches varied between 20 and 80 wt%. Specimens were molded using a uniaxial hydraulic press and were fired. All batches containing ash up to 60 wt% present adequate properties to be classified as several kinds of products in the ISO 13006 standard () regarding its different absorption groups (pressed). The results obtained indicate that fly ash, when mixed with traditional raw materials, has the necessary requirements to be used as a raw material for production of ceramic tiles.

  19. Development of a crumb rubber modified (CRM) asphalt concrete mix design. Final report, June 1993-May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, M.; Swartz, S.E.; Hoque, M.E.; Funk, L.P.

    1995-05-01

    The objective of this project was to develop an asphalt mix design method incorporating crumb rubber and using the `Wet` or `Dry` method of producing Crumb Rubber Modified Asphalt (CRM). Several resurfacing projects have been constructed using both the `Wet` and `Dry` methods. Based on this study, KDOT could use CRM mixes with a binder content between 7.5% and 9.0% depending on the percent air voids, with 19% to 22% rubber content. In this study, it was observed that using 24% rubber produced mixed were too sticky to manage. With a rubber content of less than 18% combined with AC-5 it was difficult to satisfy the minimum requirements. Fracture tests can be used as a basis to determine the optimum binder content for any asphalt-rubber mix.

  20. Design of high efficiency mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson refrigerator for cooling HTS cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jisung; Hwang, Gyuwan; Jeong, Sangkwon; Park, Byung Jun; Han, Young Hee

    2011-07-01

    The substitution of high temperature superconducting (HTS) cables for existing subterranean electric transmission lines is arising as a solution to continuously increasing electricity demand in urban areas. A cryogenic refrigeration system having the characteristics of high reliability, high efficiency, large cooling capacity, and low capital cost is essential to enable such a substitution. These requirements can be satisfied with a mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson (MR JT) refrigerator. Unfortunately, usual MR JT refrigerators exhibit good performance at refrigeration temperatures above 80 K. A precooled neon-nitrogen MR JT refrigerator is proposed in this paper that can cool HTS cables at 70 K. The coefficient of performance (COP) of the proposed MR JT refrigerator is predicted to be 0.058 at 70 K (19.2% for exergy efficiency) with the optimized design variables. The COP can be improved further to 0.064 by enhancing the efficiency of the precooling cycle. The maximum achievable COP demonstrates the feasibility of MR JT refrigerator for cooling HTS cable.

  1. Probing the Chemical Stability of Mixed Ferrites: Implications for MR Contrast Agent Design

    PubMed Central

    Schultz-Sikma, Elise A.; Joshi, Hrushikesh M.; Ma, Qing; MacRenaris, Keith W.; Eckermann, Amanda L.; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Meade, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Nanomaterials with mixed composition, in particular magnetic spinel ferrites, are emerging as efficient contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Many factors, including size, composition, atomic structure, and surface properties are crucial in the design of such nanoparticle-based probes due to their influence on the magnetic properties. Silica-coated iron oxide (IO-SiO2) and cobalt ferrite (CoIO-SiO2) nanoparticles were synthesized using standard high temperature thermal decomposition and base-catalyzed water-in-oil microemulsion techniques. Under neutral aqueous conditions, it was found that 50–75% of the cobalt content in the CoIO-SiO2 nanoparticles leached out of the core structure. Leaching caused a 7.2-fold increase in longitudinal relaxivity and an increase in the saturation magnetization from ~48 emu/g core to ~65 emu/g core. X-ray absorption fine structure studies confirmed that the atomic structure of the ferrite core was altered following leaching, while TEM and DLS confirmed that the morphology and size of the nanoparticle remained unchanged. The CoIO-SiO2 nanoparticles converted from a partially inverted spinel cation arrangement (unleached state) to an inverse spinel arrangement (leached state). The control IO-SiO2 nanoparticles remained stable with no change in structure and negligible changes in magnetic behavior. This detailed analysis highlights how important understanding the properties of nanomaterials is in the development of reliable agents for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. PMID:21603070

  2. Probing the Chemical Stability of Mixed Ferrites: Implications for MR Contrast Agent Design.

    PubMed

    Schultz-Sikma, Elise A; Joshi, Hrushikesh M; Ma, Qing; Macrenaris, Keith W; Eckermann, Amanda L; Dravid, Vinayak P; Meade, Thomas J

    2011-05-24

    Nanomaterials with mixed composition, in particular magnetic spinel ferrites, are emerging as efficient contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Many factors, including size, composition, atomic structure, and surface properties are crucial in the design of such nanoparticle-based probes due to their influence on the magnetic properties. Silica-coated iron oxide (IO-SiO(2)) and cobalt ferrite (CoIO-SiO(2)) nanoparticles were synthesized using standard high temperature thermal decomposition and base-catalyzed water-in-oil microemulsion techniques. Under neutral aqueous conditions, it was found that 50-75% of the cobalt content in the CoIO-SiO(2) nanoparticles leached out of the core structure. Leaching caused a 7.2-fold increase in longitudinal relaxivity and an increase in the saturation magnetization from ~48 emu/g core to ~65 emu/g core. X-ray absorption fine structure studies confirmed that the atomic structure of the ferrite core was altered following leaching, while TEM and DLS confirmed that the morphology and size of the nanoparticle remained unchanged. The CoIO-SiO(2) nanoparticles converted from a partially inverted spinel cation arrangement (unleached state) to an inverse spinel arrangement (leached state). The control IO-SiO(2) nanoparticles remained stable with no change in structure and negligible changes in magnetic behavior. This detailed analysis highlights how important understanding the properties of nanomaterials is in the development of reliable agents for diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

  3. The Design, Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationship of Mixed Serotonin, Norepinephrine and Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhengming; Yang, Ji; Skolnick, Phil

    The evolution of antidepressants over the past four decades has involved the replacement of drugs with a multiplicity of effects (e.g., TCAs) by those with selective actions (i.e., SSRIs). This strategy was employed to reduce the adverse effects of TCAs, largely by eliminating interactions with certain neurotransmitters or receptors. Although these more selective compounds may be better tolerated by patients, selective drugs, specifically SSRIs, are not superior to older drugs in treating depressed patients as measured by response and remission rates. It may be an advantage to increase synaptic levels of both serotonin and norepinephrine, as in the case of dual uptake inhibitors like duloxetine and venlafaxine. An important recent development has been the emergence of the triple-uptake inhibitors (TUIs/SNDRIs), which inhibit the uptake of the three neurotransmitters most closely linked to depression: serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. Preclinical studies and clinical trials indicate that a drug inhibiting the reuptake of all three of these neurotransmitters could produce more rapid onset of action and greater efficacy than traditional antidepressants. This review will detail the medicinal chemistry involved in the design, synthesis and discovery of mixed serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine transporter uptake inhibitors.

  4. Designing mixed metal halide ammines for ammonia storage using density functional theory and genetic algorithms.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Peter Bjerre; Lysgaard, Steen; Quaade, Ulrich J; Vegge, Tejs

    2014-09-28

    Metal halide ammines have great potential as a future, high-density energy carrier in vehicles. So far known materials, e.g. Mg(NH3)6Cl2 and Sr(NH3)8Cl2, are not suitable for automotive, fuel cell applications, because the release of ammonia is a multi-step reaction, requiring too much heat to be supplied, making the total efficiency lower. Here, we apply density functional theory (DFT) calculations to predict new mixed metal halide ammines with improved storage capacities and the ability to release the stored ammonia in one step, at temperatures suitable for system integration with polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). We use genetic algorithms (GAs) to search for materials containing up to three different metals (alkaline-earth, 3d and 4d) and two different halides (Cl, Br and I) - almost 27,000 combinations, and have identified novel mixtures, with significantly improved storage capacities. The size of the search space and the chosen fitness function make it possible to verify that the found candidates are the best possible candidates in the search space, proving that the GA implementation is ideal for this kind of computational materials design, requiring calculations on less than two percent of the candidates to identify the global optimum.

  5. Effects of auditing patient safety in hospital care: design of a mixed-method evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Auditing of patient safety aims at early detection of risks of adverse events and is intended to encourage the continuous improvement of patient safety. The auditing should be an independent, objective assurance and consulting system. Auditing helps an organisation accomplish its objectives by bringing a systematic, disciplined approach to evaluating and improving the effectiveness of risk management, control, and governance. Audits are broadly conducted in hospitals, but little is known about their effects on the behaviour of healthcare professionals and patient safety outcomes. This study was initiated to evaluate the effects of patient safety auditing in hospital care and to explore the processes and mechanisms underlying these effects. Methods and design Our study aims to evaluate an audit system to monitor and improve patient safety in a hospital setting. We are using a mixed-method evaluation with a before-and-after study design in eight departments of one university hospital in the period October 2011–July 2014. We measure several outcomes 3 months before the audit and 15 months after the audit. The primary outcomes are adverse events and complications. The secondary outcomes are experiences of patients, the standardised mortality ratio, prolonged hospital stay, patient safety culture, and team climate. We use medical record reviews, questionnaires, hospital administrative data, and observations to assess the outcomes. A process evaluation will be used to find out which components of internal auditing determine the effects. Discussion We report a study protocol of an effect and process evaluation to determine whether auditing improves patient safety in hospital care. Because auditing is a complex intervention targeted on several levels, we are using a combination of methods to collect qualitative and quantitative data about patient safety at the patient, professional, and department levels. This study is relevant for hospitals that want to

  6. Solvent-free synthesis of zeolites from solid raw materials.

    PubMed

    Ren, Limin; Wu, Qinming; Yang, Chengguang; Zhu, Longfeng; Li, Caijin; Zhang, Pengling; Zhang, Haiyan; Meng, Xiangju; Xiao, Feng-Shou

    2012-09-19

    As important industrial materials, microporous zeolites are necessarily synthesized in the presence of solvents such as in hydrothermal, solvothermal, and ionothermal routes. We demonstrate here a simple and generalized solvent-free route for synthesizing various types of zeolites by mixing, grinding, and heating solid raw materials. Compared with conventional hydrothermal route, the avoidance of solvents in the synthesis not only significantly reduces the waste production, but also greatly increases the yield of zeolite products. In addition, the use of starting solid raw materials remarkably enhances the synthesis efficiency and reduces the use of raw materials, energy, and costs.

  7. Evidence on "What Works": An Argument for Extended-Term Mixed-Method (ET MM) Evaluation Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterji, Madhabi

    2004-01-01

    Federal policy tools for gathering evidence on "What Works" in education, such as the What Works Clearinghouse's (WWC) standards, emphasize randomized field trials as the preferred method for generating scientific evidence on the effectiveness of educational programs. This article argues instead for extended-term mixed-method (ETMM) designs.…

  8. No Middle Ground, but Many Mansions: Design Features of Effective Mixed Mode Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, D. D.

    2007-01-01

    In this account a model of communicative functions is used in an attempt to clarify the nature of mixed mode learning delivery. Formulated in research on communication in written mode, the model can be seen to offer insights into the nature of hypermedia communication, as well as helping to identify some key features of effective mixed mode course…

  9. Investigating the linearity assumption between lumber grade mix and yield using design of experiments (DOE)

    Treesearch

    Xiaoqiu Zuo; Urs Buehlmann; R. Edward Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Solving the least-cost lumber grade mix problem allows dimension mills to minimize the cost of dimension part production. This problem, due to its economic importance, has attracted much attention from researchers and industry in the past. Most solutions used linear programming models and assumed that a simple linear relationship existed between lumber grade mix and...

  10. No Middle Ground, but Many Mansions: Design Features of Effective Mixed Mode Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, D. D.

    2007-01-01

    In this account a model of communicative functions is used in an attempt to clarify the nature of mixed mode learning delivery. Formulated in research on communication in written mode, the model can be seen to offer insights into the nature of hypermedia communication, as well as helping to identify some key features of effective mixed mode course…

  11. Impairment-constrained network design in mixed line rate and flexible-grid optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Weisheng

    Mixed line rate (MLR) and flexible-grid optical networks are two promising network paradigms for next generation optical networks. In MLR optical networks, different optical channels may operate at different line rates and use the same amount of spectrum. In flexible-grid optical networks, besides different line rates, different optical channels can use different amount of spectrum. In both MLR and flexible-grid optical networks, the physical layer impairments will impact the signal reachability and will require regenerator placement to restore the signal quality. Different line rates and modulation formats suffer from different levels of impairments, and thus have different reachabilities. In this dissertation, we study multiple network design problems with impairment constraints for both MLR and flexible-grid optical networks. We first study regenerator site (RS) selection problems in MLR optical networks. Given a network topology, set of requests, and different line rates' reachabilities, the problem is to select the minimum number of nodes in the network as RSs. We divide the topic into two separate research problems depending on whether routing is fixed or flexible. Energy efficiency is an important factor that will impact the operational expenditure of a telecom network. When designing the routing and wavelength assignment approach for a set of connection requests, the placement of regenerators needs to be considered in order to increase energy efficiency. In this work, we study how to place the minimum number of regenerators in MLR optical networks, while satisfying all the requests. Virtual optical network (VON) mapping plays a vital role in optical network virtualization. When mapping VONs, it is necessary to provision backup resources to guarantee survivability. Thus, we consider how to map VONs that can survive single link failures in flexible-grid optical networks. The objective is to minimize network equipment cost, including regenerators. We also

  12. Pushered single shell capsule design for the study of high Z mix on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacks, Ryan; Baker, Kevin; Casey, Daniel; Dewald, Edward; Graziani, Frank; MacLaren, Stephan; Nikroo, Abass; Pino, Jesse; Ralph, Joseph; Remington, Bruce; Salmonson, Jay; Smalyuk, Vladimir; Tipton, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Alternative ignition scenarios on the NIF such as double shells require an understanding of the mix between high-Z capsule shell and DT gas. By utilizing the two-shock platform, which has been shown to be a robust, symmetric, and near 1-D implosion, a new design is developed to explore high Z mix. Through the addition of a Ge doped pusher layer on the inner surface of the capsule, mixing of non-fully ionized material can be measured using x-ray emission, nuclear yield diagnostics developed during the CD mix experiments, and characterization of the central core. Using the two-shock design allows for the results to be separated from possible implosion asymmetries, allowing differences in performance between capsules with and without Ge to be attributed to high Z material mixing. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC. IM number LLNL-ABS-697758.

  13. Development of high-strength concrete mix designs in support of the prestressed concrete reactor vessel design for a HTGR steam cycle/cogeneration plant

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.

    1985-01-01

    Design optimization studies indicate that a significant reduction in the size of the PCRV for a 2240 MW(t) HTGR plant can be effected through utilization of high-strength concrete in conjunction with large capacity prestressing systems. A three-phase test program to develop and evaluate high-strength concretes (>63.4 MPa) is described. Results obtained under Phase I of the investigation related to materials selection-evaluation and mix design development are presented. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Examination of the Relation between TEOG Score of Turkish Revolution History and Kemalism Course and Reading Comprehension Skill (An Example of Explanatory Sequential Mixed Design)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuvaci, Ibrahim; Demir, Selçuk Besir

    2016-01-01

    This paper is aimed to determine the relation between reading comprehension skill and TEOG success. In this research, a mixed research method, sequential explanatory mixed design, is utilized to examine the relation between reading comprehension skills and TEOG success of 8th grade students throughly. In explanatory sequential mixed design…

  15. Design and Synthesis of a Series of Novel Mixed Borate and Carbonate Halides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lili; Yang, Yun; Huang, Junben; Dong, Xiaoyu; Yang, Zhihua; Pan, Shilie

    2017-08-01

    Combining different functional units together has been regarded as the most ideal strategy to design and synthesize new inorganic materials. Based on numerous experiments, it was possible to assemble three kinds of anion groups together and find a series of novel mixed borate and carbonate halides, Rb9 [B4 O5 (OH)4 ]3 (CO3 )X⋅7 H2 O (X=Cl, Br, and I) and K9 [B4 O5 (OH)4 ]3 (CO3 )X⋅7 H2 O (X=OH and I). Based on the structural template of these compounds, we also obtained the NaRb6 [B4 O5 (OH)4 ]3 X (X=OH, I) crystals through replacement of the CO3 group with the NaO6 octahedron, which results in the crystal structural changes from P6‾ 2c to R32. In addition, it has been confirmed that the replacement of the CO3 group by the alkali cation has an influence on the band gaps, according to the experimental results and theoretical calculations. Meanwhile, millimeter-scale crystals of Rb9 [B4 O5 (OH)4 ]3 (CO3 )I⋅7 H2 O, K9 [B4 O5 (OH)4 ]3 (CO3 )I⋅7 H2 O, K9 [B4 O5 (OH)4 ]3 (CO3 )OH⋅7 H2 O and NaRb6 [B4 O5 (OH)4 ]3 OH were also obtained after adjusting their growing conditions. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Mixed enrichment core design for the NC State University PULSTAR Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Mayo, C.W.; Verghese, K.; Huo, Y.G.

    1997-12-01

    The North Carolina State University PULSTAR Reactor license was renewed for an additional 20 years of operation on April 30, 1997. The relicensing period added additional years to the facility operating time through the end of the second license period, increasing the excess reactivity needs as projected in 1988. In 1995, the Nuclear Reactor Program developed a strategic plan that addressed the future maintenance, development, and utilization of the facility. Goals resulting from this plan included increased academic utilization of the facility in accordance with its role as a university research facility, and increased industrial service use in accordance with the mission of a land grant university. The strategic plan was accepted, and it is the intent of the College of Engineering to operate the PULSTAR Reactor as a going concern through at least the end of the current license period. In order to reach the next relicensing review without prejudice due to low excess reactivity, it is desired to maintain sufficient excess reactivity so that, if relicensed again, the facility could continue to operate without affecting users until new fuel assistance was provided. During the NC State University license renewal, the operation of the PULSTAR Reactor at the State University of New York at Buffalo (SUNY Buffalo) was terminated. At that time, the SUNY Buffalo facility had about 240 unused PULSTAR Reactor fuel pins with 6% enrichment. The objective of the work reported here was to develop a mixed enrichment core design for the NC State University PULSTAR reactor which would: (1) demonstrate that 6% enriched SUNY buffalo fuel could be used in the NC State University PULSTAR Reactor within the existing technical specification safety limits for core physics parameters; (2) show that use of this fuel could permit operating the NC State University PULSTAR Reactor to 2017 with increased utilization; and (3) assure that the decision whether or not to relicense the facility would

  17. Probing the Chemical Stability of Mixed Ferrites: Implications for Magnetic Resonance Contrast Agent Design

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz-Sikma, Elise A.; Joshi, Hrushikesh M.; Ma, Qing; MacRenaris, Keith W.; Eckermann, Amanda L.; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Meade, Thomas J.

    2011-09-16

    Nanomaterials with mixed composition, in particular magnetic spinel ferrites, are emerging as efficient contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. Many factors, including size, composition, atomic structure, and surface properties, are crucial in the design of such nanoparticle-based probes because of their influence on the magnetic properties. Silica-coated iron oxide (IO-SiO{sub 2}) and cobalt ferrite (CoIO-SiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles were synthesized using standard high-temperature thermal decomposition and base-catalyzed water-in-oil microemulsion techniques. Under neutral aqueous conditions, it was found that 50-75% of the cobalt content in the CoIO-SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles leached out of the core structure. Leaching caused a 7.2-fold increase in the longitudinal relaxivity and an increase in the saturation magnetization from {approx}48 to {approx}65 emu/g of the core. X-ray absorption fine structure studies confirmed that the atomic structure of the ferrite core was altered following leaching, while transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering confirmed that the morphology and size of the nanoparticle remained unchanged. The CoIO-SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles converted from a partially inverted spinel cation arrangement (unleached state) to an inverse spinel arrangement (leached state). The control IO-SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles remained stable with no change in the structure and negligible changes in the magnetic behavior. This detailed analysis highlights how important understanding the properties of nanomaterials is in the development of reliable agents for diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

  18. Effects of auditing patient safety in hospital care: design of a mixed-method evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hanskamp-Sebregts, Mirelle; Zegers, Marieke; Boeijen, Wilma; Westert, Gert P; van Gurp, Petra J; Wollersheim, Hub

    2013-06-22

    Auditing of patient safety aims at early detection of risks of adverse events and is intended to encourage the continuous improvement of patient safety. The auditing should be an independent, objective assurance and consulting system. Auditing helps an organisation accomplish its objectives by bringing a systematic, disciplined approach to evaluating and improving the effectiveness of risk management, control, and governance. Audits are broadly conducted in hospitals, but little is known about their effects on the behaviour of healthcare professionals and patient safety outcomes. This study was initiated to evaluate the effects of patient safety auditing in hospital care and to explore the processes and mechanisms underlying these effects. Our study aims to evaluate an audit system to monitor and improve patient safety in a hospital setting. We are using a mixed-method evaluation with a before-and-after study design in eight departments of one university hospital in the period October 2011-July 2014. We measure several outcomes 3 months before the audit and 15 months after the audit. The primary outcomes are adverse events and complications. The secondary outcomes are experiences of patients, the standardised mortality ratio, prolonged hospital stay, patient safety culture, and team climate. We use medical record reviews, questionnaires, hospital administrative data, and observations to assess the outcomes. A process evaluation will be used to find out which components of internal auditing determine the effects. We report a study protocol of an effect and process evaluation to determine whether auditing improves patient safety in hospital care. Because auditing is a complex intervention targeted on several levels, we are using a combination of methods to collect qualitative and quantitative data about patient safety at the patient, professional, and department levels. This study is relevant for hospitals that want to early detect unsafe care and improve patient

  19. African American Organ Donor Registration: A Mixed Methods Design using the Theory of Planned Behavior

    PubMed Central

    DuBay, Derek A.; Ivankova, Nataliya; Herby, Ivan; Wynn, Theresa A.; Kohler, Connie; Berry, Beverly; Foushee, Herman; Carson, April; Redden, David T.; Holt, Cheryl; Siminoff, Laura; Fouad, Mona; Martin, Michelle Y.

    2015-01-01

    Context A large racial disparity exists in organ donation. Objective The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with becoming a registered organ donor in among African Americans in Alabama. Methods The study utilized a concurrent mixed methods design guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior to analyze African American’s decisions to become a registered organ donor using both qualitative (focus groups) and quantitative (survey) methods. Results The sample consisted of 22 registered organ donors (ROD) and 65 non-registered participants (NRP) from six focus groups completed in urban (n=3) and rural (n=3) areas. Participants emphasized the importance of the autonomy to make one’s own organ donation decision and have this decision honored posthumously. One novel barrier to becoming a ROD was the perception that organs from African Americans were often unusable due to high prevalence of chronic medical conditions such as diabetes and hypertension. Another novel theme discussed as an advantage to becoming a ROD was the subsequent motivation to take responsibility for one’s health. Family and friends were the most common groups of persons identified as approving and disapproving of the decision to become a ROD. The most common facilitator to becoming a ROD was information, while fear and the lack of information were the most common barriers. In contrast, religious beliefs, mistrust and social justice themes were infrequently referenced as barriers to becoming a ROD. Discussion Findings from this study may be useful for prioritizing organ donation community-based educational interventions in campaigns to increase donor registration. PMID:25193729

  20. Mixed convective low flow pressure drop in vertical rod assemblies: I---Predictive model and design correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, K.Y.; Todreas, N.E.; Rohsenow, W.M. )

    1989-11-01

    A predicative theory has been developed for rod bundle frictional pressure drop characteristics under laminar and transitional mixed convection conditions on the basis of the intraassembly and intrasubchannel flow redistributions due to buoyancy for a wide spectrum of radial power profiles and for the geometric arrangements of practical design interest. Both the individual subchannel correlations and overall bundle design correlations have been formulated as multipliers applied to the isothermal friction factors at the same Reynolds numbers. Standard and modified subchannel friction factors have been obtained to be used with spatial-average and bulk-mean densities, respectively. A correlating procedure has been proposed to assess the effects of interacting subchannel flows, developing mixed convective flow, wire wrapping, power skew, rod number, and transition from laminar flow. In contrast to forced convection behavior, a strong rod number effect is present under mixed convection conditions in bundle geometries. The results of this study are of design importance in natural circulation conditions becasue the mixed convection frictional pressure losses exceed the corresponding isothermal values at the same Reynolds numbers.

  1. Design and Development of Mixed-Metal Oxide Photocatalysts: the Band Engineering Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boltersdorf, Jonathan Andrew

    The design and development of mixed-metal oxides incorporating Ag(I), Pb(II), Sn(II), and Bi(III), i.e., with filled d10 or d10s2 electron configurations, have yielded new approaches to tune optical and photocatalytic properties for solar energy conversion. My research efforts in the area of solid-state photochemistry have focused on utilizing flux-mediated ion-exchange methods in conjunction with the band engineering approach to synthesize new materials for solar energy driven total water splitting. Layered perovskite phases and the polysomatic family of tantalate/niobate structures, with the general formula Am+ ( n+1)/mB(3 n+1)O(8n +3) (A = Na, Ag; B = Ta, Nb), have received increasing attention owing to their synthetic flexibility, tunable optical band gaps, and photocatalytic activities for total water splitting. Structures in the family of A m+ (n+1)/ mB(3n +1)O(8n+3) structures are based on the stacking of pentagonal bipyramidal layers, where n defines the average thickness (1 ≤ n ≤ 2) of the BO7 layers that alternate with isolated BO6 octahedra surrounded by A-site cations. Synthetic limitations in the discovery of new phases within the layered perovskites and the Am + (n+1)/mB(3 n+1)O(8n +3) structural families can be addressed with the aid of a metal-salt solvent, known as the molten-salt flux method. The flux synthetic route requires the use of an inorganic salt heated above its melting temperature in order to serve as a solvent system for crystallization. Molten fluxes allow for synthetic modification of particle characteristics and can enable the low temperature stabilization of new compositions and phases with limited stability using ion-exchange reactions (e.g., PbTa4O11, AgLaNb 2O7). Solid-state and flux-mediated exchange methods were utilized in order to synthetically explore and investigate the layered perovskites ALaNb2O7, AA2Nb3O 10, A'2La2Ti3O10 (A' = Rb, Ag; A = Ca, Sr), the Am+ (n+1)/mB 3n+1O(8 n+3) structural family (Am + = Na(I), Ag

  2. Evaluation of tubular reactor designs for supercritical water oxidation of U.S. Department of Energy mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, C.M.

    1994-12-01

    Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is an emerging technology for industrial waste treatment and is being developed for treatment of the US Department of Energy (DOE) mixed hazardous and radioactive wastes. In the SCWO process, wastes containing organic material are oxidized in the presence of water at conditions of temperature and pressure above the critical point of water, 374 C and 22.1 MPa. DOE mixed wastes consist of a broad spectrum of liquids, sludges, and solids containing a wide variety of organic components plus inorganic components including radionuclides. This report is a review and evaluation of tubular reactor designs for supercritical water oxidation of US Department of Energy mixed waste. Tubular reactors are evaluated against requirements for treatment of US Department of Energy mixed waste. Requirements that play major roles in the evaluation include achieving acceptable corrosion, deposition, and heat removal rates. A general evaluation is made of tubular reactors and specific reactors are discussed. Based on the evaluations, recommendations are made regarding continued development of supercritical water oxidation reactors for US Department of Energy mixed waste.

  3. Post graduate clinical placements: evaluating benefits and challenges with a mixed methods cross sectional design.

    PubMed

    Yiend, Jenny; Tracy, Derek K; Sreenan, Brian; Cardi, Valentina; Foulkes, Tina; Koutsantoni, Katerina; Kravariti, Eugenia; Tchanturia, Kate; Willmott, Lucy; Shergill, Sukhi; Reedy, Gabriel

    2016-02-16

    Systematic evaluations of clinical placements are rare, especially when offered alongside academic postgraduate courses. An evidence-based approach is important to allow pedagogically-driven provision, rather than that solely governed by opinion or market demand. Our evaluation assessed a voluntary clinical placement scheme allied to a mental health course. Data were collected over academic years 2010/11- 2013/14, from participating students (n = 20 to 58) and clinician supervisors (n = 10-12), using a mixed-methods cross-sectional design. Quantitative evaluation captured information on uptake, dropout, resource use, attitudes and experience, using standardized (the Placement Evaluation Questionnaire; the Scale To Assess the Therapeutic Relationship - Clinical version and the University of Toronto Placement Supervisor Evaluation) and bespoke questionnaires and audit data. Qualitative evaluation comprised two focus groups (5 clinicians, 5 students), to investigate attitudes, experience, perceived benefits, disadvantages and desired future developments. Data were analysed using framework analysis to identify a priori and emergent themes. High uptake (around 70 placements per annum), low dropout (2-3 students per annum; 5 %) and positive focus group comments suggested placements successfully provided added value and catered sufficiently to student demand. Students' responses confirmed that placements met expectations and the perception of benefit remained after completion with 70 % (n = 14) reporting an overall positive experience, 75 % (n = 15) reporting a pleasant learning experience, 60 % (n = 12) feeling that their clinical skills were enhanced and 85 % (n = 17) believing that it would benefit other students. Placements contributed the equivalent of seven full time unskilled posts per annum to local health care services. While qualitative data revealed perceived 'mutual benefit' for both students and clinicians, this was qualified by

  4. Mixing monoclonal antibody formulations using bottom-mounted mixers: impact of mechanism and design on drug product quality.

    PubMed

    Gikanga, Benson; Chen, Yufei; Stauch, Oliver B; Maa, Yuh-Fun

    2015-01-01

    Using bottom-mounted mixers, particularly those that are magnetically driven, is becoming increasingly common during the mixing process in pharmaceutical and biotechnology manufacturing because of their associated low risk of contamination, ease of use, and ability to accommodate low minimum mixing volumes. Despite these benefits, the impact of bottom-mounted mixers on biologic drug product is not yet fully understood and is scarcely reported. This study evaluated four bottom-mounted mixers to assess their impact on monoclonal antibody formulations. Changes in product quality (size variants, particles, and turbidity) and impact on process performance (sterile filtration) were evaluated after mixing. The results suggested that mixers that are designed to function with no contact between the impeller and the drive unit are the most favorable and gentle to monoclonal antibody molecules. Designs with contact or a narrow clearance tended to shear and grind the protein and resulted in high particle count in the liquid, which would subsequently foul a filter membrane during sterile filtration using a 0.22 μm pore size filter. Despite particle formation, increases in turbidity of the protein solution and protein aggregation/fragmentation were not detected. Further particle analysis indicated particles in the range of 0.2-2 μm are responsible for filter fouling. A small-scale screening model was developed using two types of magnetic stir bars mimicking the presence or absence of contact between the impeller and drive unit in the bottom-mounted mixers. The model is capable of differentiating the sensitivity of monoclonal antibody formulations to bottom-mounted mixers with a small sample size. This study fills an important gap in understanding a critical bioprocess unit operation. Mixing is an important unit operation in drug product manufacturing for compounding (dilution, pooling, homogenization, etc.). The current trend in adopting disposable bottom-mounted mixers has

  5. Triangulation and Mixed Methods Designs: Data Integration with New Research Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielding, Nigel G.

    2012-01-01

    Data integration is a crucial element in mixed methods analysis and conceptualization. It has three principal purposes: illustration, convergent validation (triangulation), and the development of analytic density or "richness." This article discusses such applications in relation to new technologies for social research, looking at three…

  6. Using Mixed-Method Design and Network Analysis to Measure Development of Interagency Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Jennifer Eileen; Dickmann, Ellyn; Newman-Gonchar, Rebecca; Fagan, Jesse Michael

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing attention to the importance of interagency collaboration for improving community well-being, environmental and public health, and educational outcomes. This article uses a mixed-methods approach including network analysis to examine the changes in interagency collaboration in one site funded by the Safe…

  7. Innovative Mixed-Methods Research: Moving beyond Design Technicalities to Epistemological and Methodological Realizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riazi, A. Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Mixed-methods research (MMR), as an inter-discourse (quantitative and qualitative) methodology, can provide applied linguistics researchers the opportunity to draw on and integrate the strengths of the two research methodological approaches in favour of making more rigorous inferences about research problems. In this article, the argument is made…

  8. Triangulation and Mixed Methods Designs: Data Integration with New Research Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielding, Nigel G.

    2012-01-01

    Data integration is a crucial element in mixed methods analysis and conceptualization. It has three principal purposes: illustration, convergent validation (triangulation), and the development of analytic density or "richness." This article discusses such applications in relation to new technologies for social research, looking at three…

  9. Innovative Mixed-Methods Research: Moving beyond Design Technicalities to Epistemological and Methodological Realizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riazi, A. Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Mixed-methods research (MMR), as an inter-discourse (quantitative and qualitative) methodology, can provide applied linguistics researchers the opportunity to draw on and integrate the strengths of the two research methodological approaches in favour of making more rigorous inferences about research problems. In this article, the argument is made…

  10. Earth Science Learning in SMALLab: A Design Experiment for Mixed Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birchfield, David; Megowan-Romanowicz, Colleen

    2009-01-01

    Conversational technologies such as email, chat rooms, and blogs have made the transition from novel communication technologies to powerful tools for learning. Currently virtual worlds are undergoing the same transition. We argue that the next wave of innovation is at the level of the computer interface, and that mixed-reality environments offer…

  11. Earth Science Learning in SMALLab: A Design Experiment for Mixed Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birchfield, David; Megowan-Romanowicz, Colleen

    2009-01-01

    Conversational technologies such as email, chat rooms, and blogs have made the transition from novel communication technologies to powerful tools for learning. Currently virtual worlds are undergoing the same transition. We argue that the next wave of innovation is at the level of the computer interface, and that mixed-reality environments offer…

  12. Quasi-three dimensional hydraulic design and performance calculation of high specific speed mixed-flow pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, M.; Zhang, Y. X.; Zhang, J. Y.; Hou, H. C.

    2016-05-01

    According to the basic parameters of 211-80 high specific speed mixed-flow pump, based on the quasi-three dimensional flow theory, the hydraulic design of impeller and its matching spaced guide vanes for high specific speed mixed flow pump was completed, in which the iterative calculation of S 1, S 2 stream surfaces was employed to obtain meridional flow fields and the point-by-point integration method was employed to draw blade camber lines. Blades are thickened as well as blade leading edges are smoothed in the conformal mapping surface. Subsequently the internal fields of the whole flow passage of the designed pump were simulated by using RANS equations with RNG k-ε two-equation turbulent model. The results show that, compared with the 211-80 model, the hydraulic efficiency of the designed pump at the optimal flow rate increases 9.1%. The hydraulic efficiency of designed pump in low flow rate condition (78% designed flow rate) increases 6.46%. The hydraulic efficiency in high flow rate areas increases obviously and there is no bad phenomenon of suddenly decrease of hydraulic efficiency in model pump. From the distributions of velocity and pressure fields, it can be seen that the flow in impeller is uniform and the increase of pressure is gentle. There are no obvious impact phenomenon on impeller inlet and obvious wake shedding vortex phenomenon from impeller outlet to guide vanes inlet.

  13. Orthogonal decomposition as a design tool: With application to a mixing impeller

    SciTech Connect

    Sloan, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Digital manufacturing eliminates the expense and time required to develop custom products. By utilizing this technology, designers can quickly create a customized product specifically for their performance needs. But the timescale and expense from the engineering design workflows used to develop these customized products have not been adapted from the workflows used in mass production. In many cases these customized designs build upon already successful mass-produced products that were developed using conventional engineering design workflows. Many times as part of this conventional design process significant time is spent creating and validating high fidelity models that accurately predict the performance of the final design. These existing validated high fidelity models used for the mass-produced design can be reused for analysis and design of unknown products. This thesis explores the integration of reduced order modeling and detailed analysis into the engineering design workflow developing a customized design using digital manufacturing. Specifically, detailed analysis is coupled with proper orthogonal decomposition to enable the exploration of the design space while simultaneously shaping the model representing the design. This revised workflow is examined using the design of a laboratory scale overhead mixer impeller. The case study presented here is compared with the design of the Kar Dynamic Mixer impeller developed by The Dow Chemical Company. The result of which is a customized design for a refined set of operating conditions with improved performance.

  14. A two-reservoir, hollow-fiber bioreactor for the study of mixed-population dynamics: design aspects and validation of the approach.

    PubMed

    Manjarrez, E S; Albasi, C; Riba, J P

    2000-08-20

    A two-reservoir, membrane bioreactor for carrying out studies of mixed-population dynamics in batch fermentations is presented. Mixing requirements and design aspects for the validity of the approach are given and discussed. Equations describing mixing times between the reservoirs are presented and compared to the experimental results. The validity of the approach is demonstrated by the study of an amensalistic-type interaction, the protein-mediated killer phenomenon between two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. The validation consisted in the comparison between the results obtained in actual mixed culture and the results obtained by keeping the strains separated. A good agreement was found which demonstrates the viability of the designed bioreactor.

  15. Diphyllobothriasis after eating raw salmon.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, J W; Bass, J W; Demers, D M; Myers, G B

    1997-07-01

    An 11-year-old boy in Hawaii passed mucus and a moving object in his stool. The object was identified as a segment of the fish tapeworm Diphyllobothrium species which is not indigenous to Hawaii. Diphyllobothrium ova were also found in the stool. The only raw fish he recalled eating in previous months were tuna sushi and lomi-lomi salmon which usually contains raw but previously frozen salmon. Of these two fish, only salmon which is not native to Hawaiian waters, has been incriminated as a significant source of diphyllobothrium fish tapeworm infection. Freezing kills this parasite, however, we speculate that the raw fish in the lomi-lomi salmon that our patient had eaten had not been pre-frozen or was not adequately pre-frozen. Eating raw salmon without certainty that it has been adequately pre-frozen carries the risk of diphyllobothriasis or fish tapeworm infection.

  16. Characterizing Design Learning through the Use of Language: A Mixed-Methods Study of Engineering Designers. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atman, Cindy; Kilgore, Deborah; McKenna, Ann

    2009-01-01

    This analysis, that utilizes data from part of the Academic Pathways Study (APS) of the Center for the Advancement of Engineering Education (CAEE), found that as a result of taking a course in engineering design and/or studying engineering for four years, students acquire engineering design language that is common to a larger community of practice…

  17. Multidisciplinary and Multiobjective Optimization in Conceptual Design for Mixed-Stream Turbofan Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-12-01

    AFIT/GAE/ENY/96D-6 Abstract Despite major advances in design tools such as engine cycle analysis software and computer-aided design, conceptual gas...Ratio of specific heat for turbine flow etaAB = =iAB Efficiency of afterburner etab = 1lb = Efficiency of burner etacprime = l, = Efficiency of fan...ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) Despite major advances in design tools such as engine cycle analysis software and computer-aided design, conceptual gas

  18. Influence of raw materials composition on firing shrinkage, porosity, heat conductivity and microstructure of ceramic tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurovics, E.; Buzimov, A. Y.; Gömze, L. A.

    2016-04-01

    In this work some new raw material compositions from alumina, conventional brick-clays and sawdust were mixed, compacted and heat treated by the authors. Depending on raw material compositions and firing temperatures the specimens were examined on shrinkage, water absorption, heat conductivity and microstructures. The real raised experiments have shown the important role of firing temperature and raw material composition on color, heat conductivity and microstructure of the final product.

  19. How and Why Do IT Entrepreneurs Leave Their Salaried Employment to Start a SME? A Mixed Methods Research Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourmant, Gaëtan

    This method paper addresses an untapped but important type of IT turnover: IT entrepreneurship. We seek to develop a mixed methods research (MMR) design to understand the factors and processes that influence turnover behavior of prospective (nascent) IT entrepreneurs. To do this, we review two prior streams of research: the entrepreneurship literature and IT employee turnover. We incorporate the results of this literature review into a conceptual framework describing how the relevant factors leading to entrepreneurial and turnover behavior change over time, either gradually or suddenly, in response to specific events. In addition, we also contribute to the research by arguing that mixed methods research (MMR) is appropriate to bridge the gap between entrepreneurial literature and the IT turnover literature. A third important contribution is the design of the MMR, combining a longitudinal approach with a retrospective approach; a qualitative with a quantitative approach and, the exploratory design with the triangulation design [1]. Finally, we discuss practical implications for IT managers and IT entrepreneurs.

  20. Design a freeform microlens array module for any arbitrary-shape collimated beam shaping and color mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Enguo; Wu, Rengmao; Guo, Tailiang

    2014-06-01

    Collimated beam shaping with freeform surface usually employs a predefined mapping to tailor one or multiple freeform surfaces. Limitation on those designs is that the source, the freeform optics and the target are in fixed one-to-one correspondence with each other. To overcome this drawback, this paper presents a kind of freeform microlens array module integrated with an ultra-thin freeform microlens array and a condenser lens to reshape any arbitrary-shape collimated beam into a prescribed uniform rectangular illumination and achieve color mixing. The design theory is explicitly given, and some key issues are addressed. Several different application examples are given, and the target is obtained with high uniformity and energy efficiency. This freeform microlens array module, which shows better flexibility and practicality than the regular designs, can be used not only to reshape any arbitrary-shape collimated beam (or a collimated beam integrated with several sub-collimated beams), but also most importantly to achieve color mixing. With excellent optical performance and ultra-compact volume, this optical module together with the design theory can be further introduced into other applications and will have a huge market potential in the near future.

  1. Design and Properties of Thin Surfacing Hot Mix Asphalt Containing Crumb Rubber as Partial Aggregate Replacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setyawan, Ary; Febrianto, Nugroho; Sarwono, Djoko

    2017-07-01

    Road damage caused as a result of the traffic load and environment. One method to improve the road condition is from an overlay. But the new layer on the top of the pavement structure is thick enough and elevate the surface of the pavement, so it will cause some impact on the user safety and engineering. The use of a thin layer of hot mix asphalt is an alternative to anticipate the thickness problem. Crumb rubber is a waste material that has a flexible nature, these materials are used as an aggregate replacement in the hot mix asphalt thin layer. The research was conducted to find the optimum bitumen content and optimum crumb rubber content on asphalt mixtures by the Marshall procedure. Finally, it was concluded that the addition of crumb rubber in a thin layer of hot mix asphalt indicates the better the interlocking between aggregates so that gave the better Marshall stability, the higher the flow rate, the lower the marshall quotient, reduce the void ratio. The results show that the addition of crumb rubber content as an aggregate replacement leads to the use of less optimum bitumen content.

  2. Low-voltage and low-power circuit design for mixed analog/digital systems in portable equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuzawa, Akira

    1994-04-01

    This paper describes low-voltage and low-power (LV/LP) circuit design for both analog LSI's and digital LSI's which are used in mixed analog/digital systems in portable equipment. We review some LV/LP circuits used in digital LSI's, such as general logic gate, DSP, and DRAM, and others used in analog LSI's, such as operational amplifiers, video-signal processing circuits, A/D and D/A converters, filters, and RF circuits, along with a wide range of items used in recently developed LSI's. Since analog circuits have fundamental difficulties for reducing the operating voltage and the power consumption, in spite of recent progress in LV/LP circuit techniques, these difficulties will be a major issue for decreasing the total power consumption of some mixed analog/digital systems used in portable equipment.

  3. The eXperience Induction Machine: A New Paradigm for Mixed-Reality Interaction Design and Psychological Experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardet, Ulysses; Bermúdez I Badia, Sergi; Duff, Armin; Inderbitzin, Martin; Le Groux, Sylvain; Manzolli, Jônatas; Mathews, Zenon; Mura, Anna; Väljamäe, Aleksander; Verschure, Paul F. M. J.

    The eXperience Induction Machine (XIM) is one of the most advanced mixed-reality spaces available today. XIM is an immersive space that consists of physical sensors and effectors and which is conceptualized as a general-purpose infrastructure for research in the field of psychology and human-artifact interaction. In this chapter, we set out the epistemological rational behind XIM by putting the installation in the context of psychological research. The design and implementation of XIM are based on principles and technologies of neuromorphic control. We give a detailed description of the hardware infrastructure and software architecture, including the logic of the overall behavioral control. To illustrate the approach toward psychological experimentation, we discuss a number of practical applications of XIM. These include the so-called, persistent virtual community, the application in the research of the relationship between human experience and multi-modal stimulation, and an investigation of a mixed-reality social interaction paradigm.

  4. Supplemental design requirements document enhanced radioactive and mixed waste storage: Phase 5, Project W-113

    SciTech Connect

    Ocampo, V.P.

    1994-11-01

    This Supplemental Design Requirements Document (SDRD) is used to communicate Project W-113 specific plant design information from Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the cognizant Architect Engineer (A/E). The SDRD is prepared after the completion of the project Conceptual Design report (CDR) and prior to the initiation of definitive design. Information in the SDRD serves two purposes: to convey design requirements that are too detailed for inclusion in the Functional Design Criteria (FDC) report and to serve as a means of change control for design commitments in the Title I and Title II design. The Solid Waste Retrieval Project (W-113) SDRD has been restructured from the equipment based outline used in previous SDRDs to a functional systems outline. This was done to facilitate identification of deficiencies in the information provided in the initial draft SDRD and aid design confirmation. The format and content of this SDRD adhere as closely as practicable to the requirements of WHC-CM-6-1, Standard Engineering Practices for Functional Design Criteria.

  5. Integrated model for assessing the cost and CO2 emission (IMACC) for sustainable structural design in ready-mix concrete.

    PubMed

    Hong, Taehoon; Ji, Changyoon; Park, Hyoseon

    2012-07-30

    Cost has traditionally been considered the most important factor in the decision-making process. Recently, along with the consistent interest in environmental problems, environmental impact has also become a key factor. Accordingly, there is a need to develop a method that simultaneously reflects the cost and environmental impact in the decision-making process. This study proposed an integrated model for assessing the cost and CO(2) emission (IMACC) at the same time. IMACC is a model that assesses the cost and CO(2) emission of the various structural-design alternatives proposed in the structural-design process. To develop the IMACC, a standard on assessing the cost and CO(2) emission generated in the construction stage was proposed, along with the CO(2) emission factors in the structural materials, based on such materials' strengths. Moreover, using the economic and environmental scores that signify the cost and CO(2) emission reduction ratios, respectively, a method of selecting the best design alternative was proposed. To verify the applicability of IMACC, practical application was carried out. Structural designs were assessed, each of which used 21, 24, 27, and 30 MPa ready-mix concrete (RMC). The use of IMACC makes it easy to verify what the best design is. Results show the one that used 27 MPa RMC was the best design. Therefore, the proposed IMACC can be used as a tool for supporting the decision-making process in selecting the best design alternative. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. New training methods based on mixed reality for interventional ultrasound: Design and validation.

    PubMed

    Francesconi, M; Freschi, C; Sinceri, S; Carbone, M; Cappelli, C; Morelli, L; Ferrari, V; Ferrari, M

    2015-01-01

    Currently the learning model for ultrasound imaging diagnosis and intervention follows a traditional approach based on learning by doing but this model exposes the patient to the whole learning curve of the novice. In order to enable training in a safe environment without compromising patient's health we have developed and demonstrated face, content and construct validity of a hybrid simulator for ultrasound-guided biopsy. This hybrid simulator is able to provide a support to acquire skills in term of 3D perception and hand-eye coordination thanks to a mixed reality visualization that allows accurate and easy planning of probe position/orientation and needle trajectory to reach the target.

  7. Double-shell target design for the NIF: Noncryogenic ignition and nonlinear mix studies for Stockpile Stewardship

    SciTech Connect

    Amendt, P

    2004-02-10

    Double-shell ignition is complementary to the baseline approach by virtue of not requiring: (1) cryogenic preparation and fielding, (2) high-contrast pulse-shaping for shock-timing, and (3) demanding x-ray flux symmetry control. The use of simpler low-contrast pulse-shaping potentially allows more benign hohlraum conditions by reducing the risk of laser backscatter. In addition, the associated higher laser fluence threshold for optics damage initiation allows the possibility of more routine high-fluence shots with 2{omega} on the NIF. Based on LDRD-sponsored research in FY01-03 on NIF double-shell ignition target designs, the feasibility of this approach was advanced through both a highly successful implosion campaign on the Omega laser facility and a variety of design improvements for mitigating instability. The double-shell implosion campaign on Omega achieved the important milestone of repeatably demonstrating dominant primary (2.45 MeV) neutron production from the mix-susceptible compressional phase of a double-shell implosion, using fall-line design optimization and exacting fabrication standards. Showing effective control of fuel-pusher mix during final compression is an essential element for achieving ignition. In our studies to control mix by reducing hydrodynamic instability a new pathway for destructive Rayleigh-Taylor growth on the outer surface of the inner shell at ignition scales was identified. However, highly resolved multi-mode simulations showed that with use of a graded dopant in the inner shell and material-matching with an exterior metallic foam, this instability was significantly reduced. In addition, the resulting density-gradient stabilization was seen to quench small-wavelength growth, thereby avoiding the computationally challenging turbulent regime. A major goal of future research for realizing double-shell ignition on the NIF is experimental validation of this instability mitigation approach using the Omega laser facility.

  8. Implementing Quality Criteria in Designing and Conducting a Sequential Quan [right arrow] Qual Mixed Methods Study of Student Engagement with Learning Applied Research Methods Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivankova, Nataliya V.

    2014-01-01

    In spite of recent methodological developments related to quality assurance in mixed methods research, practical examples of how to implement quality criteria in designing and conducting sequential QUAN [right arrow] QUAL mixed methods studies to ensure the process is systematic and rigorous remain scarce. This article discusses a three-step…

  9. Implementing Quality Criteria in Designing and Conducting a Sequential Quan [right arrow] Qual Mixed Methods Study of Student Engagement with Learning Applied Research Methods Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivankova, Nataliya V.

    2014-01-01

    In spite of recent methodological developments related to quality assurance in mixed methods research, practical examples of how to implement quality criteria in designing and conducting sequential QUAN [right arrow] QUAL mixed methods studies to ensure the process is systematic and rigorous remain scarce. This article discusses a three-step…

  10. Comparisons among Designs for Equating Mixed-Format Tests in Large-Scale Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sooyeon; Walker, Michael E.; McHale, Frederick

    2010-01-01

    In this study we examined variations of the nonequivalent groups equating design for tests containing both multiple-choice (MC) and constructed-response (CR) items to determine which design was most effective in producing equivalent scores across the two tests to be equated. Using data from a large-scale exam, this study investigated the use of…

  11. Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Temperate and Mixed Climates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Renewable Energy Lab. (DOE), Golden, CO.

    The U.S. Department of Energy's EnergySmart Schools provides school boards, administrators, and design staff with guidance to help them make informed decisions about energy and environmental issues important to school systems and communities. The design guidelines presented in this document outline high performance principles for the new or…

  12. Suppression of secondary flows in a mixed-flow pump impeller by application of three-dimensional inverse design method. Part 1: Design and numerical validation

    SciTech Connect

    Zangeneh, M.; Goto, A.; Takemura, T.

    1996-07-01

    This paper describes the design of the blade geometry of a medium specific speed mixed flow pump impeller by using a three-dimensional inverse design method in which the blade circulation (or rV{sub {theta}}) is specified. The design objective is the reduction of impeller exit flow nonuniformity by reducing the secondary flows on the blade suction surface. The paper describes in detail the aerodynamic criteria used for the suppression of secondary flows with reference to the loading distribution and blade stacking condition used in the design. The flow through the designed impeller is computed by Dawes` viscous code, which indicates that the secondary flows are well suppressed on the suction surface. Comparison between the predicted exit flow field of the inverse designed impeller and a corresponding conventional impeller indicates that the suppression of secondary flows has resulted in substantial improvement in the exit flow field. Experimental comparison of the flow fields inside and at exit from the conventional and the inverse designed impeller is made in Part 2 of the paper.

  13. Water balance relationships in four alternative cover designs for radioactive and mixed waste landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, R.W.; Hakonson, T.E.; Trujillo, G.

    1994-08-01

    Preliminary results are presented from a field study to evaluate the relative hydrologic performance of various landfill capping technologies installed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory at Hill Air Force Base, Utah. Four cover designs (two Los Alamos capillary barrier designs, one modified EPA RCRA design, and one conventional design) were installed in large lysimeters instrumented to monitor the fate of natural precipitation between 01 January 1990 and 20 September 1993. After 45 months of study, results showed that the cover designs containing barrier layers were effective in reducing deep percolation as compared to a simple soil cap design. The RCRA cover, incorporating a clay hydraulic barrier, was the most effective of all cover designs in controlling percolation but was not 100% effective. Over 90% of all percolation and barrier lateral flow occurred during the months of February through May of each year, primarily as a result of snow melt, early spring rains and low evapotranspiration. Gravel mulch surface treatments (70--80% coverage) were effective in reducing runoff and erosion. The two plots receiving gravel mulch treatments exhibited equal but enhanced amounts of evapotranspiration despite the fact that one plot was planted with additional shrubs.

  14. Computational studies of penetration and mixing for complex jet injectors to aid in design of hypersonic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campioli, Theresa Lynn

    A computational study of sonic light-gas jet injection into a supersonic cross flow was conducted. The scope of the numerical analysis encompassed many studies that affect how the flow-field is numerically modeled and the behavior, specifically mixing, of the flow-field itself. A single, round injector was used for the Baseline design. Simulated conditions involved sonic injection of helium heated to 313 K into a Mach 4 air cross-stream with average Reynolds number 5.77 e+7 per meter and a freestream momentum flux ratio of 2.1. Experiments at these conditions were available for comparison. The primary numerical flow solver employed was GASP v. 4.2. The Menter Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence model was used, since the algorithm has good capability of solving both wall-bounded and free-shear flows. The SST model was able to capture the mixing behavior of the complex flow-field. Important numerical parameters that affect the capabilities of the numerical solver were studied for the Baseline injector. These sensitivity studies varied the choice of turbulent Prandtl number, Schmidt number, freestream turbulence intensity, boundary layer size, steady and unsteady approaches and computational software packages. A decrease in the turbulent Prandtl number resulted in better mixing behavior of the prediction and better agreement with the experiment. An increase in the turbulent Schmidt number had a small adverse effect on the predictions. The mixing characteristics remained constant with an increase in freestream turbulence intensity. The best Baseline prediction was then compared to three different injector configurations: an aerodynamic ramp consisting of four injectors in an array, a diamond injector both aligned and yawed 15° to the oncoming flow. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools were more accurate compared to experiment in the prediction of the aeroramp injector than the diamond-shaped injectors. The aeroramp injector slightly improved mixing

  15. Quantifying suspended sediment flux in a mixed-land-use urbanizing watershed using a nested-scale study design.

    PubMed

    Zeiger, Sean; Hubbart, Jason A

    2016-01-15

    Suspended sediment (SS) remains the most pervasive water quality problem globally and yet, despite progress, SS process understanding remains relatively poor in watersheds with mixed-land-use practices. The main objective of the current work was to investigate relationships between suspended sediment and land use types at multiple spatial scales (n=5) using four years of suspended sediment data collected in a representative urbanized mixed-land-use (forest, agriculture, urban) watershed. Water samples were analyzed for SS using a nested-scale experimental watershed study design (n=836 samples×5 gauging sites). Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's post-hoc multiple comparison tests were used to test for significant differences (CI=95%, p<0.05) in SS levels between gauging sites. Climate extremes (high precipitation/drought) were observed during the study period. Annual maximum SS concentrations exceeded 2387.6 mg/L. Median SS concentrations decreased by 60% from the agricultural headwaters to the rural/urban interface, and increased by 98% as urban land use increased. Multiple linear regression analysis results showed significant relationships between SS, annual total precipitation (positive correlate), forested land use (negative correlate), agricultural land use (negative correlate), and urban land use (negative correlate). Estimated annual SS yields ranged from 16.1 to 313.0 t km(-2) year(-1) mainly due to differences in annual total precipitation. Results highlight the need for additional studies, and point to the need for improved best management practices designed to reduce anthropogenic SS loading in mixed-land-use watersheds.

  16. Definitive design report: Design report project W-025, Radioactive Mixed Waste (RMW) Land Disposal Facility NON-DRAG-OFF. Revision 1, Volume 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Roscha, V.

    1994-11-29

    The purpose of this report is to describe the definitive design of the Radioactive Mixed Waste (RMW) Non-Drag-Off disposal facility, Project W-025. This report presents a n of the major landfill design features and a discussion of how each of the criteria is addressed in the design. The appendices include laboratory test results, design drawings, and individual analyses that were conducted in support of the design. Revision 1 of this document incorporates design changes resulting from an increase in the required operating life of the W-025 landfill from 2 to 20 years. The rationale for these design changes is described in Golder Associates Inc. 1991a. These changes include (1) adding a 1.5-foot-thick layer of compacted admix directory-under the primary FML on the floor of the landfill to mitigate the effects of possible stress cracking in the primary flexible membrane liner (FML), and (2) increasing the operations layer thickness from two to three feet over the entire landfill area, to provide additional protection for the secondary admix layer against mechanical damage and the effects of freezing and desiccation. The design of the W-025 Landfill has also been modified in response to the results of the EPA Method 9090 chemical compatibility testing program (Golder Associates Inc. 1991b and 1991c), which was completed after the original design was prepared. This program consisted of testing geosynthetic materials and soil/bentonite admix with synthetic leachate having the composition expected during the life of the W-025 Landfill., The results of this program indicated that the polyester geotextile originally specified for the landfill might be susceptible to deterioration. On this basis, polypropylene geotextiles were substituted as a more chemically-resistant alternative. In addition, the percentage of bentonite in the admix was increased to provide sufficiently low permeability to the expected leachate.

  17. Toward compositional design of reticular type porous films by mixing and coating titania-based frameworks with silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, T.

    2015-12-01

    A recently developed reticular type porous structure, which can be fabricated as the film through the soft colloidal block copolymer (e.g., PS-b-PEO) templating, is very promising as the porous platform showing high-performance based on its high surface area as well as high diffusivity of targeted organic molecules and effective accommodation of bulky molecules, but the compositional design of oxide frameworks has not been developed so enough to date. Here, I report reliable synthetic methods of the reticular type porous structure toward simple compositional variations. Due to the reproducibility of reticular type porous titania films from titanium alkoxide (e.g., TTIP; titanium tetraisopropoxide), a titania-silica film having similar porous structure was obtained by mixing silicon alkoxide (e.g., tetraethoxysilane) and TTIP followed by their pre-hydrolysis, and the mixing ratio of Ti to Si composition was easily reached to 1.0. For further compositional design, a concept of surface coating was widely applicable; the reticular type porous titania surfaces can be coated with other oxides such as silica. Here, a silica coating was successfully achieved by the simple chemical vapor deposition of silicon alkoxide (e.g., tetramethoxysilane) without water (with water at the humidity level), which was also utilized for pore filling with silica by the similar process with water.

  18. Conversion of raw carbonaceous fuels

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.

    2007-08-07

    Three configurations for an electrochemical cell are utilized to generate electric power from the reaction of oxygen or air with porous plates or particulates of carbon, arranged such that waste heat from the electrochemical cells is allowed to flow upwards through a storage chamber or port containing raw carbonaceous fuel. These configurations allow combining the separate processes of devolatilization, pyrolysis and electrochemical conversion of carbon to electric power into a single unit process, fed with raw fuel and exhausting high BTU gases, electric power, and substantially pure CO.sub.2 during operation.

  19. Reproductive practices by patterns of marriage among Iranian women: study protocol for an explanatory sequential mixed methods design.

    PubMed

    Taghizadeh, Ziba; Vedadhir, Abouali; Behmanesh, Fereshteh; Ebadi, Abbas; Pourreza, Abulghasem; Abbasi-Shavazi, Mohammad Jalal

    2015-09-18

    Nowadays, nearly half of the world population lives in societies with low fertility or the below-replacement fertility. This potentially grounds the critical situation of reduction in the workforce and causes the aging of population due to an overall increase in life expectancy and standard of living. Hence, population and its transitions including the issue of fertility decline has become a topic of intense debate in the agenda-setting and policy-making processes in both the developed and developing countries. In this view, what can practically be done to respond to the fertility decline that entails effectively addressing the determinants of fertility change? In line with the literature, how people form their marriages or patterns of marriage is amongst influencing factors which potentially affect their reproductive practices as diverse societies recognize different conventions for marriage. This study is to examine women's reproductive practices by the various patterns of marriage using the explanatory sequential mixed methods design. This study has an explanatory sequential mixed methods design, the follow-up explanations variant model, with two strands. This design will be implemented in two distinct phases. In the first phase, a cross-sectional quantitative study will be done using a cluster sampling strategy on 850 married women 15-49 years old living in Babol city, Iran. In order to obtain a deeper understanding of the results of the quantitative phase, researchers will implement a qualitative research in the second phase of this study. This design will provide an explanation of the quantitative research results using the qualitative evidence. As patterns of marriage have implications for the status of women, their health and fertility, the result of this study can provide a rich source of information for the required health-related interventions and policies are required to put the demographic changes on the right track at micro and macro level and improve

  20. Design and Testing of a Boron Carbide Capsule for Spectral Tailoring in Mixed-Spectrum Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Wittman, Richard S.; Pierson, Bruce D.; Metz, Lori A.; Payne, Rosara F.; Finn, Erin C.; Friese, Judah I.

    2012-03-01

    A boron carbide capsule has been designed and used for spectral-tailoring experiments at the TRIGA reactor at Washington State University. Irradiations were conducted in pulsed mode and in continuous operation for up to 4 hours. A cadmium cover was used to reduce thermal heating. The neutron spectrum calculated with MCNP was found to be in good agreement with reactor dosimetry measurements using the STAY'SL computer code. The neutron spectrum resembles that of a fast reactor. Design of a capsule using boron carbide enriched in {sup 10}B shows that it is possible to produce a neutron spectrum similar to {sup 235}U fission.

  1. Development of minimized mixing molecular orbital method for designing organic ferromagnets.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xun; Aoki, Yuriko

    2015-06-15

    Predicting the high spin stability of organic radicals correctly for designing organic ferromagnets remains a significant challenge. We have developed a method with an index (L(min)) for predicting the high spin stability of conjugated organic radicals at the restricted open-shell Hartree-Fock level. Unitary transformations were performed for localizing the coefficients of nonbonding molecular orbitals, and subsequently the localized coefficients were used to calculate L(min) that indicates the high spin stability of conjugated organic radicals. This method can be combined with the elongation method to treat huge high spin open-shell systems. Thus, this method is useful for designing organic ferromagnets.

  2. Designing Health Websites Based on Users’ Web-Based Information-Seeking Behaviors: A Mixed-Method Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Patrick Cheong-Iao; Verspoor, Karin; Pearce, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Background Laypeople increasingly use the Internet as a source of health information, but finding and discovering the right information remains problematic. These issues are partially due to the mismatch between the design of consumer health websites and the needs of health information seekers, particularly the lack of support for “exploring” health information. Objective The aim of this research was to create a design for consumer health websites by supporting different health information–seeking behaviors. We created a website called Better Health Explorer with the new design. Through the evaluation of this new design, we derive design implications for future implementations. Methods Better Health Explorer was designed using a user-centered approach. The design was implemented and assessed through a laboratory-based observational study. Participants tried to use Better Health Explorer and another live health website. Both websites contained the same content. A mixed-method approach was adopted to analyze multiple types of data collected in the experiment, including screen recordings, activity logs, Web browsing histories, and audiotaped interviews. Results Overall, 31 participants took part in the observational study. Our new design showed a positive result for improving the experience of health information seeking, by providing a wide range of information and an engaging environment. The results showed better knowledge acquisition, a higher number of page reads, and more query reformulations in both focused and exploratory search tasks. In addition, participants spent more time to discover health information with our design in exploratory search tasks, indicating higher engagement with the website. Finally, we identify 4 design considerations for designing consumer health websites and health information–seeking apps: (1) providing a dynamic information scope; (2) supporting serendipity; (3) considering trust implications; and (4) enhancing interactivity

  3. Path programmable logic: A structured design method for digital and/or mixed analog integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, B.

    1990-01-01

    The design of Integrated Circuits has evolved past the black art practiced by a few semiconductor companies to a world wide community of users. This was basically accomplished by the development of computer aided design tools which were made available to this community. As the tools matured into different components of the design task they were accepted into the community at large. However, the next step in this evolution is being ignored by the large tool vendors hindering the continuation of this process. With system level definition and simulation through the logic specification well understood, why is the physical generation so blatantly ignored. This portion of the development is still treated as an isolated task with information being passed from the designer to the layout function. Some form of result given back but it severely lacks full definition of what has transpired. The level of integration in I.C.'s for tomorrow, whether through new processes or applications will require higher speeds, increased transistor density, and non-digital performance which can only be achieved through attention to the physical implementation.

  4. Model of Values-Based Management Process in Schools: A Mixed Design Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogan, Soner

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the school administrators' values-based management behaviours according to the teachers' perceptions and opinions and, accordingly, to build a model of values-based management process in schools. The study was conducted using explanatory design which is inclusive of both quantitative and qualitative methods.…

  5. Applying a Mixed Method Design to Evaluate Training Seminars within an Early Childhood Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; Zachopoulou, Evridiki; Tsangaridou, Niki; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Pickup, Ian

    2008-01-01

    The body of research relating to assessment in education suggests that professional developers and seminar administrators have generally paid little attention to evaluation procedures. Scholars have also been critical of evaluations which use a single data source and have favoured the use of a multiple method design to generate a complete picture…

  6. Internet, Phone, Mail, and Mixed-Mode Surveys: The Tailored Design Method, 4th Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillman, Don A.; Smyth, Jolene D.; Christian, Lean Melani

    2014-01-01

    For over two decades, Dillman's classic text on survey design has aided both students and professionals in effectively planning and conducting mail, telephone, and, more recently, Internet surveys. The new edition is thoroughly updated and revised, and covers all aspects of survey research. It features expanded coverage of mobile phones, tablets,…

  7. Engineering and Design: Use of Petroleum Contaminated Soil in Cold-Mix Asphalt Stabilized Base Course

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    1110-3-487 1 Mar 98 A-1 APPENDIX A REFERENCES ER 1110-345-100. Design Policy for Military Construction American Petroleum Institute (API...fuel. Other sources of test procedures are the American Petroleum Institute and several states which have developed test methods of their own. c

  8. Internet, Phone, Mail, and Mixed-Mode Surveys: The Tailored Design Method, 4th Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillman, Don A.; Smyth, Jolene D.; Christian, Lean Melani

    2014-01-01

    For over two decades, Dillman's classic text on survey design has aided both students and professionals in effectively planning and conducting mail, telephone, and, more recently, Internet surveys. The new edition is thoroughly updated and revised, and covers all aspects of survey research. It features expanded coverage of mobile phones, tablets,…

  9. Optimal purchasing of raw materials: A data-driven approach

    SciTech Connect

    Muteki, K.; MacGregor, J.F.

    2008-06-15

    An approach to the optimal purchasing of raw materials that will achieve a desired product quality at a minimum cost is presented. A PLS (Partial Least Squares) approach to formulation modeling is used to combine databases on raw material properties and on past process operations and to relate these to final product quality. These PLS latent variable models are then used in a sequential quadratic programming (SQP) or mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) optimization to select those raw-materials, among all those available on the market, the ratios in which to combine them and the process conditions under which they should be processed. The approach is illustrated for the optimal purchasing of metallurgical coals for coke making in the steel industry.

  10. Mixing console design for telematic applications in live performance and remote recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samson, David J.

    The development of a telematic mixing console addresses audio engineers' need for a fully integrated system architecture that improves efficiency and control for applications such as distributed performance and remote recording. Current systems used in state of the art telematic performance rely on software-based interconnections with complex routing schemes that offer minimal flexibility or control over key parameters needed to achieve a professional workflow. The lack of hardware-based control in the current model limits the full potential of both the engineer and the system. The new architecture provides a full-featured platform that, alongside customary features, integrates (1) surround panning capability for motorized, binaural manikin heads, as well as all sources in the included auralization module, (2) self-labelling channel strips, responsive to change at all remote sites, (3) onboard roundtrip latency monitoring, (4) synchronized remote audio recording and monitoring, and (5) flexible routing. These features combined with robust parameter automation and precise analog control will raise the standard for telematic systems as well as advance the development of networked audio systems for both research and professional audio markets.

  11. Application of orthogonal test method in mix proportion design of recycled lightweight aggregate concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhanshan; An, Le; Zhang, Yijing; Yuan, Jie

    2017-03-01

    Recycled lightweight aggregate concrete was made with construction waste and ceramsite brick mainly including brick. Using the orthogonal test method, the mix proportion of recycled lightweight aggregate concrete was studied, and the Influence regularity and significance of water binder ratio, fly ash, sand ratio, the amount of recycled aggregate proportion on the compressive strength of concrete, the strong influence of mass ratio, slump expansion degree was studied. Through the mean and range analysis of the test results, the results show that the water binder ratio has the greatest influence on the 28d intensity of recycled lightweight aggregate concrete. Secondly, the fly ash content, the recycled aggregate replacement rate and the sand ratio have little influence. For the factors of expansion: the proportion of fly ash = water binder ratio sand >sand rate> recycled aggregate replacement rate. When the content of fly ash is about 30%, the expanded degree of recycled lightweight aggregate concrete is the highest, and the workability of that is better and the strength of concrete with 28d and 56d are the highest. When the content of brickbat is about 40% brick particles, the strength of concrete reaches the highest.

  12. Design of vanadium mixed-ligand complexes as potential anti-protozoa agents.

    PubMed

    Benítez, Julio; Guggeri, Lucía; Tomaz, Isabel; Arrambide, Gabriel; Navarro, Maribel; Pessoa, João Costa; Garat, Beatriz; Gambino, Dinorah

    2009-04-01

    In the search for new therapeutic tools against Chagas' disease (American Trypanosomiasis) four novel mixed-ligand vanadyl complexes, [V(IV)O(L(2)-2H)(L(1))], including a bidentate polypyridyl DNA intercalator (L(1)) and a tridentate salycylaldehyde semicarbazone derivative (L(2)) as ligands were synthesized, characterized by a combination of techniques, and in vitro evaluated. EPR suggest a distorted octahedral geometry with the tridentate semicarbazone occupying three equatorial positions and the polypyridyl ligand coordinated in an equatorial/axial mode. Both complexes including dipyrido[3,2-a: 2',3'-c]phenazine (dppz) as polypyridyl coligand showed IC(50) values in the muM range against Dm28c strain (epimastigotes) of Trypanosoma cruzi, causative agent of the disease, being as active as the anti-trypanosomal reference drug Nifurtimox. To get an insight into the trypanocidal mechanism of action of these compounds, DNA was evaluated as a potential parasite target and EPR, and (51)V NMR experiments were also carried out upon aging aerated solutions of the complexes. Data obtained by electrophoretic analysis suggest that the mechanism of action of these complexes could include DNA interactions.

  13. Receiver design for SPAD-based VLC systems under Poisson-Gaussian mixed noise model.

    PubMed

    Mao, Tianqi; Wang, Zhaocheng; Wang, Qi

    2017-01-23

    Single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) is a promising photosensor because of its high sensitivity to optical signals in weak illuminance environment. Recently, it has drawn much attention from researchers in visible light communications (VLC). However, existing literature only deals with the simplified channel model, which only considers the effects of Poisson noise introduced by SPAD, but neglects other noise sources. Specifically, when an analog SPAD detector is applied, there exists Gaussian thermal noise generated by the transimpedance amplifier (TIA) and the digital-to-analog converter (D/A). Therefore, in this paper, we propose an SPAD-based VLC system with pulse-amplitude-modulation (PAM) under Poisson-Gaussian mixed noise model, where Gaussian-distributed thermal noise at the receiver is also investigated. The closed-form conditional likelihood of received signals is derived using the Laplace transform and the saddle-point approximation method, and the corresponding quasi-maximum-likelihood (quasi-ML) detector is proposed. Furthermore, the Poisson-Gaussian-distributed signals are converted to Gaussian variables with the aid of the generalized Anscombe transform (GAT), leading to an equivalent additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel, and a hard-decision-based detector is invoked. Simulation results demonstrate that, the proposed GAT-based detector can reduce the computational complexity with marginal performance loss compared with the proposed quasi-ML detector, and both detectors are capable of accurately demodulating the SPAD-based PAM signals.

  14. Raw eggs-moving target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrest, Doug

    1999-09-01

    High school physics students often have difficulty with understanding when and where to use an appropriate calculation to solve a problem. In this activity students have to solve a real problem using formulas they have seen before, but in a context with which they are unfamiliar; namely dropping a raw egg on a moving target-their instructor.

  15. Image processing algorithm design and implementation for real-time autonomous inspection of mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Schalkoff, R.J.; Shaaban, K.M.; Carver, A.E.

    1996-12-31

    The ARIES {number_sign}1 (Autonomous Robotic Inspection Experimental System) vision system is used to acquire drum surface images under controlled conditions and subsequently perform autonomous visual inspection leading to a classification as `acceptable` or `suspect`. Specific topics described include vision system design methodology, algorithmic structure,hardware processing structure, and image acquisition hardware. Most of these capabilities were demonstrated at the ARIES Phase II Demo held on Nov. 30, 1995. Finally, Phase III efforts are briefly addressed.

  16. Crested wheatgrass-cheatgrass seedling competition in a mixed-density design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francis, Mark G.; Pyke, David A.

    1996-01-01

    Plant competition experiments have historically used designs that are difficult to interpret due to confounding problems. Recently, designs based on a 'response function' approach have been proposed and tested in various plant mixture settings. For this study, 3 species were used that are important in current revegetation practices in the Intermountain West. 'Nordan' (Agropyron desertorum [Fish. ex Link] Shult.) and 'Hycrest' (A. cristatum [L.] Gaertn. x desertorum) crested wheatgrass are commonly-used revegetation species on rangelands susceptible to cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) invasion, although little quantitative data exist that compare their competitive abilities. We evaluated the competitive ability of Hycrest and Nordan seedlings in 2-species mixtures with cheatgrass in a greenhouse study. Linear and nonlinear models were developed for a range of densities (130- 520 seeds m-2) for each species to predict median above-ground biomass and tiller numbers and to further test the usefulness of this design for evaluating species to rehabilitate rangelands. In both experiments, increasing Hycrest and Nordan densities reduced their own biomass and tiller production while increasing Hycrest densities reduced cheatgrass biomass and tiller production. Nordan did not affect cheatgrass biomass and tiller production. However, increasing cheatgrass densities reduced Hycrest and Nordan biomass and tiller production, and its own biomass and tiller production. The competition index i.e. substitution rate, indicated that Hycrest seedlings were better competitors with cheatgrass than Nordan, although in all mixtures, cheatgrass plants were the superior competitors. Further field research using this design, where environmental inputs are less optimal and diverse, is needed to validate these results and to further evaluate the use of this approach in examining effects of intra- and interspecific competition.

  17. An optimization design proposal of automated guided vehicles for mixed type transportation in hospital environments

    PubMed Central

    González, Domingo; Espinosa, María del Mar; Domínguez, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Aim The aim of this paper is to present an optimization proposal in the automated guided vehicles design used in hospital logistics, as well as to analyze the impact of its implementation in a real environment. Method This proposal is based on the design of those elements that would allow the vehicles to deliver an extra cart by the towing method. So, the proposal intention is to improve the productivity and the performance of the current vehicles by using a transportation method of combined carts. Results The study has been developed following concurrent engineering premises from three different viewpoints. First, the sequence of operations has been described, and second, a proposal of design of the equipment has been undertaken. Finally, the impact of the proposal has been analyzed according to real data from the Hospital Universitario Rio Hortega in Valladolid (Spain). In this particular case, by the implementation of the analyzed proposal in the hospital a reduction of over 35% of the current time of use can be achieved. This result may allow adding new tasks to the vehicles, and according to this, both a new kind of vehicle and a specific module can be developed in order to get a better performance. PMID:28562681

  18. Emergency department waiting times: Do the raw data tell the whole story?

    PubMed

    Green, Janette; Dawber, James; Masso, Malcolm; Eagar, Kathy

    2014-02-01

    To determine whether there are real differences in emergency department (ED) performance between Australian states and territories. Cross-sectional analysis of 2009-10 attendances at an ED contributing to the Australian non-admitted patient ED care database. The main outcome measure was difference in waiting time across triage categories. There were more than 5.8 million ED attendances. Raw ED waiting times varied by a range of factors including jurisdiction, triage category, geographic location and hospital peer group. All variables were significant in a model designed to test the effect of jurisdiction on ED waiting times, including triage category, hospital peer group, patient socioeconomic status and patient remoteness. When the interaction between triage category and jurisdiction entered the model, it was found to have a significant effect on ED waiting times (P<0.001) and triage was also significant (P<0.001). Jurisdiction was no longer statistically significant (P=0.248 using all triage categories and 0.063 using only Australian Triage Scale 2 and 3). Although the Council of Australian Governments has adopted raw measures for its key ED performance indicators, raw waiting time statistics are misleading. There are no consistent differences in ED waiting times between states and territories after other factors are accounted for. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC? The length of time patients wait to be treated after presenting at an ED is routinely used to measure ED performance. In national health agreements with the federal government, each state and territory in Australia is expected to meet waiting time performance targets for the five ED triage categories. The raw data indicate differences in performance between states and territories. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD? Measuring ED performance using raw data gives misleading results. There are no consistent differences in ED waiting times between the states and territories after other factors are taken into account

  19. Transonic off-design drag and performance of three mixed-compression axisymmetric inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woollett, R. R.; Meleason, E. T.; Choby, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the off-design drag and pressure performance of three axisymmetric supersonic inlets in the transonic speed range. For typical engine airflows at Mach 0.8 the drag coefficient varied from 0.045 to 0.09; at Mach 1.2 the largest drag coefficient measured was 0.25. Below Mach 0.9 a lower drag resulted when all or at least part of the excess weight flow was spilled over the cowl rather than through the bypass doors; above Mach 1.1 the lowest drag was obtained by bypassing excess flow.

  20. A Comparison of Student Teachers' Beliefs from Four Different Science Teaching Domains Using a Mixed Methods Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markic, Silvija; Eilks, Ingo

    2012-03-01

    The study presented in this paper integrates data from four combined research studies, which are both qualitative and quantitative in nature. The studies describe freshman science student teachers' beliefs about teaching and learning. These freshmen intend to become teachers in Germany in one of four science teaching domains (secondary biology, chemistry, and physics, respectively, as well as primary school science). The qualitative data from the first study are based on student teachers' drawings of themselves in teaching situations. It was formulated using Grounded Theory to test three scales: Beliefs about Classroom Organisation, Beliefs about Teaching Objectives, and Epistemological Beliefs. Three further quantitative studies give insight into student teachers' curricular beliefs, their beliefs about the nature of science itself, and about the student- and/or teacher-centredness of science teaching. This paper describes a design to integrate all these data within a mixed methods framework. The aim of the current study is to describe a broad, triangulated picture of freshman science student teachers' beliefs about teaching and learning within their respective science teaching domain. The study reveals clear tendencies between the sub-groups. The results suggest that freshman chemistry and-even more pronouncedly-freshman physics student teachers profess quite traditional beliefs about science teaching and learning. Biology and primary school student teachers express beliefs about their subjects which are more in line with modern educational theory. The mixed methods approach towards the student teachers' beliefs is reflected upon and implications for science education and science teacher education are discussed.

  1. Mixed inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme and enkephalinase: Rational design, properties, and potential cardiovascular applications of glycopril and alatriopril

    SciTech Connect

    Gros, C.; Noel, N.; Souque, A.; Schwartz, J.C. ); Danvy, D.; Plaquevent, J.C.; Duhamel, L.; Duhamel, P. ); Lecomte, J.M. ); Bralet, J. )

    1991-05-15

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and enkephalinase, two cell surface metallopeptidases, are responsible for angiotensin II formation and atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) degradation, respectively, and thereby play a critical role in the metabolism of hormonal peptides exerting essentially opposite actions in cardiovascular regulations. To affect simultaneously both hormonal systems by a single molecular structure, the authors designed glycoprilat and alatrioprilat {l brace}(S)-N-(3-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-(mercaptomethyl)-1-oxopropyl)glycine and -alanine, respectively{r brace}. In vitro the two compounds inhibit both ACE and enkephalinase activities with similar, nanomolar potencies, and in vivo, glycopril and alatriopril, the corresponding diester prodrugs, occupy the two enzyme molecules in lung at similar low dosages. The high potency of these compounds is attributable to interaction of the methylenedioxy group with the S{sub 1} subsite of ACE and of the aromatic ring with the S{prime}{sub 1} subsite of enkephalinase. In rodents, low doses of these mixed inhibitors exert typical actions of ACE inhibitors--i.e., prevention of angiotensin I-induced hypertension-as well as of enkephalinase inhibitors--i.e., protection from {sup 125}I-ANF degradation or enhancement of diuresis and natriuresis following acute extracellular volume expansion. In view of the known counterbalanced physiological actions of the two hormonal peptides, whose metabolism is controlled by ACE and enkephalinase, mixed inhibitors of the two peptidases show promise for the treatment of various cardiovascular and salt-retention disorders.

  2. MiRTE: Mixed Reality Triage and Evacuation game for Mass Casualty information systems design, testing and training.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xunyi; Ganz, Aura

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a Mixed Reality Triage and Evacuation game, MiRTE, that is used in the development, testing and training of Mass Casualty Incident (MCI) information systems for first responders. Using the Source game engine from Valve software, MiRTE creates immersive virtual environments to simulate various incident scenarios, and enables interactions between multiple players/first responders. What distinguishes it from a pure computer simulation game is that it can interface with external mass casualty incident management systems, such as DIORAMA. The game will enable system developers to specify technical requirements of underlying technology, and test different alternatives of design. After the information system hardware and software are completed, the game can simulate various algorithms such as localization technologies, and interface with an actual user interface on PCs and Smartphones. We implemented and tested the game with the DIORAMA system.

  3. Design of a very-low-bleed Mach 2.5 mixed-compression inlet with 45 percent internal contraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasserbauer, J. F.; Shaw, R. J.; Neumann, H. E.

    1975-01-01

    A full-scale, mixed-compression inlet was designed for operation with the TF30-P-3 turbofan engine and tested at Mach numbers of 2.5 and 2.0. The two-cone axisymmetric inlet had minimum internal contraction consistent with high total pressure recovery and low cowl drag. At Mach 2.5, inlet recovery was 0.906 with only 0.021 centerbody bleed mass-flow ratio and no cowl bleed. Increased centerbody bleed gave a maximum inlet unstart angle of attack of 6.85 deg. At Mach 2.0, inlet recovery was 0.94 with only 0.014 centerbody bleed mass-flow ratio and no cowl bleed. Inlet performance and angle-of-attack tolerance is presented for operation at Mach numbers of 2.5 and 2.0.

  4. Subjective memory impairment in general practice : Short overview and design of a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Pentzek, Michael; Leve, Verena; Leucht, Verena

    2017-05-01

    Public awareness for dementia is rising and patients with concerns about forgetfulness are not uncommon in general practice. For the general practitioner (GP) subjectively perceived memory impairment (SMI) also offers a chance to broach the issue of cognitive function with the patient. This may support GPs' patient-centered care in terms of a broader frailty concept. What is SMI (definition, operationalization, prevalence and burden)? Which conceptions and approaches do GPs have regarding SMI? Narrative overview of recent SMI criteria and results, selective utilization of results from a systematic literature search on GP dementia care, non-systematic search regarding SMI in general practice, deduction of a study design from the overview and development according to international standards. Studies revealed that approximately 60% of GP patients aged >74 reported a declining memory, every sixth person had concerns about this aspect and only relatively few seek medical advice. Concerns about SMI are considered a risk factor for future dementia. Specific general practice conceptions about SMI could not be identified in the literature. Using guidelines for mixed methods research, the design of an exploratory sequential mixed methods study is presented, which should reveal different attitudes of GPs towards SMI. Subjective memory impairment (SMI) is a common feature and troubles a considerable proportion of patients. Neuropsychiatric research is progressing, but for the transfer of the SMI concept into routine practice, involvement of GP research is necessary. A new study aims to make a contribution to this.

  5. Design and methodology of a mixed methods follow-up study to the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Staveteig, Sarah; Aryeetey, Richmond; Anie-Ansah, Michael; Ahiadeke, Clement; Ortiz, Ladys

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The intended meaning behind responses to standard questions posed in large-scale health surveys are not always well understood. Systematic follow-up studies, particularly those which pose a few repeated questions followed by open-ended discussions, are well positioned to gauge stability and consistency of data and to shed light on the intended meaning behind survey responses. Such follow-up studies require extensive coordination and face challenges in protecting respondent confidentiality during the process of recontacting and reinterviewing participants. Objectives: We describe practical field strategies for undertaking a mixed methods follow-up study during a large-scale health survey. Methods: The study was designed as a mixed methods follow-up study embedded within the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS). The study was implemented in 13 clusters. Android tablets were used to import reference data from the parent survey and to administer the questionnaire, which asked a mixture of closed- and open-ended questions on reproductive intentions, decision-making, and family planning. Results: Despite a number of obstacles related to recontacting respondents and concern about respondent fatigue, over 92 percent of the selected sub-sample were successfully recontacted and reinterviewed; all consented to audio recording. A confidential linkage between GDHS data, follow-up tablet data, and audio transcripts was successfully created for the purpose of analysis. Conclusions: We summarize the challenges in follow-up study design, including ethical considerations, sample size, auditing, filtering, successful use of tablets, and share lessons learned for future such follow-up surveys. PMID:28145817

  6. Toxicities of raw Alocasia odora.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jeong Mi; Lee, Byeong Kook; Chun, Byeong Jo

    2011-10-01

    Alocasia, the Araceae family, is a genus of more than 100 species of perennial, herbaceous, diminutive to extremely large, usually robust herbs with a clear-to-milky latex. They are distributed throughout subtropical and tropical Asia and in the tropical western pacific as well as eastern Australia. Despite easy access to A odora, there have been no published reports in English regarding the toxic symptoms following the ingestion of raw A odora. Here, the clinical manifestations of 2 patients that ingested raw A odora are described. Two patients experienced oral numbness and intractable tongue pain, and 1 patient required endotracheal intubation because of upper respiratory tract obstruction. Although conservative treatment is the primary approach to A odora poisoning, physicians should be aware of the potential for upper respiratory obstruction in patients exposed to A odora, as well as the need for controlling tongue pain.

  7. Raw liquid waste treatment process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, Marshall F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A raw sewage treatment process is disclosed in which substantially all the non-dissolved matter, which is suspended in the sewage water is first separated from the water, in which at least organic matter is dissolved. The non-dissolved material is pyrolyzed to form an activated carbon and ash material without the addition of any conditioning agents. The activated carbon and ash material is added to the water from which the non-dissolved matter was removed. The activated carbon and ash material absorbs organic matter and heavy metal ions, it is believed, are dissolved in the water and is thereafter supplied in a counter current flow direction and combined with the incoming raw sewage to facilitate the separation of the non-dissolved settleable materials from the sewage water. The used carbon and ash material together with the non-dissolved matter which was separated from the sewage water are pyrolyzed to form the activated carbon and ash material.

  8. Design of Mixed Batch Reactor and Column Studies at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Weimin; Criddle, Craig S.

    2015-11-16

    We (the Stanford research team) were invited as external collaborators to contribute expertise in environmental engineering and field research at the ORNL IFRC, Oak Ridge, TN, for projects carried out at the Argonne National Laboratory and funded by US DOE. Specifically, we assisted in the design of batch and column reactors using ORNL IFRC materials to ensure the experiments were relevant to field conditions. During the funded research period, we characterized ORNL IFRC groundwater and sediments in batch microcosm and column experiments conducted at ANL, and we communicated with ANL team members through email and conference calls and face-to-face meetings at the annual ERSP PI meeting and national meetings. Microcosm test results demonstrated that U(VI) in sediments was reduced to U(IV) when amended with ethanol. The reduced products were not uraninite but unknown U(IV) complexes associated with Fe. Fe(III) in solid phase was only partially reduced. Due to budget reductions at ANL, Stanford contributions ended in 2011.

  9. Mixed matrix membrane application for olive oil wastewater treatment: process optimization based on Taguchi design method.

    PubMed

    Zirehpour, Alireza; Rahimpour, Ahmad; Jahanshahi, Mohsen; Peyravi, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) is a concentrated effluent with a high organic load. It has high levels of organic chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phenolic compounds. This study presents a unique process to treat OMW. The process uses ultrafiltration (UF) membranes modified by a functionalized multi wall carbon nano-tube (F-MWCNT). The modified tube has an inner diameter of 15-30 nm and is added to the OMW treatment process to improve performance of the membrane. Tests were done to evaluate the following operating parameters of the UF system; pressure, pH and temperature; also evaluated parameters of permeate flux, flux decline, COD removal and total phenol rejection. The Taguchi robust design method was applied for an optimization evaluation of the experiments. Variance (ANOVA) analysis was used to determine the most significant parameters affecting permeate flux, flux decline, COD removal and total phenols rejection. Results demonstrated coagulation and pH as the most important factors affecting permeate flux of the UF. Moreover, pH and F-MWCNT UF had significant positive effects on flux decline, COD removal and total phenols rejection. Based on the optimum conditions determined by the Taguchi method, evaluations for permeate flux tests; flux decline, COD removal and total phenols rejection were about 21.2 (kg/m(2) h), 12.6%, 72.6% and 89.5%, respectively. These results were in good agreement with those predicted by the Taguchi method (i.e.; 22.8 (kg/m(2) h), 11.9%, 75.8 and 94.7%, respectively). Mechanical performance of the membrane and its application for high organic wastewater treatment were determined as strong.

  10. Exploring the bases for a mixed reality stroke rehabilitation system, Part II: Design of Interactive Feedback for upper limb rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Few existing interactive rehabilitation systems can effectively communicate multiple aspects of movement performance simultaneously, in a manner that appropriately adapts across various training scenarios. In order to address the need for such systems within stroke rehabilitation training, a unified approach for designing interactive systems for upper limb rehabilitation of stroke survivors has been developed and applied for the implementation of an Adaptive Mixed Reality Rehabilitation (AMRR) System. Results The AMRR system provides computational evaluation and multimedia feedback for the upper limb rehabilitation of stroke survivors. A participant's movements are tracked by motion capture technology and evaluated by computational means. The resulting data are used to generate interactive media-based feedback that communicates to the participant detailed, intuitive evaluations of his performance. This article describes how the AMRR system's interactive feedback is designed to address specific movement challenges faced by stroke survivors. Multimedia examples are provided to illustrate each feedback component. Supportive data are provided for three participants of varying impairment levels to demonstrate the system's ability to train both targeted and integrated aspects of movement. Conclusions The AMRR system supports training of multiple movement aspects together or in isolation, within adaptable sequences, through cohesive feedback that is based on formalized compositional design principles. From preliminary analysis of the data, we infer that the system's ability to train multiple foci together or in isolation in adaptable sequences, utilizing appropriately designed feedback, can lead to functional improvement. The evaluation and feedback frameworks established within the AMRR system will be applied to the development of a novel home-based system to provide an engaging yet low-cost extension of training for longer periods of time. PMID:21899779

  11. Exploring the bases for a mixed reality stroke rehabilitation system, Part II: design of interactive feedback for upper limb rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Lehrer, Nicole; Chen, Yinpeng; Duff, Margaret; L Wolf, Steven; Rikakis, Thanassis

    2011-09-08

    Few existing interactive rehabilitation systems can effectively communicate multiple aspects of movement performance simultaneously, in a manner that appropriately adapts across various training scenarios. In order to address the need for such systems within stroke rehabilitation training, a unified approach for designing interactive systems for upper limb rehabilitation of stroke survivors has been developed and applied for the implementation of an Adaptive Mixed Reality Rehabilitation (AMRR) System. The AMRR system provides computational evaluation and multimedia feedback for the upper limb rehabilitation of stroke survivors. A participant's movements are tracked by motion capture technology and evaluated by computational means. The resulting data are used to generate interactive media-based feedback that communicates to the participant detailed, intuitive evaluations of his performance. This article describes how the AMRR system's interactive feedback is designed to address specific movement challenges faced by stroke survivors. Multimedia examples are provided to illustrate each feedback component. Supportive data are provided for three participants of varying impairment levels to demonstrate the system's ability to train both targeted and integrated aspects of movement. The AMRR system supports training of multiple movement aspects together or in isolation, within adaptable sequences, through cohesive feedback that is based on formalized compositional design principles. From preliminary analysis of the data, we infer that the system's ability to train multiple foci together or in isolation in adaptable sequences, utilizing appropriately designed feedback, can lead to functional improvement. The evaluation and feedback frameworks established within the AMRR system will be applied to the development of a novel home-based system to provide an engaging yet low-cost extension of training for longer periods of time.

  12. Mount Sharp Panorama in Raw Colors

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-15

    This mosaic of images from the Mastcam onboard NASA Mars rover Curiosity shows Mount Sharp in raw color. Raw color shows the scene colors as they would look in a typical smart-phone camera photo, before any adjustment.

  13. Performance of a low cost interdigitated flow design on a 1 kW class all vanadium mixed acid redox flow battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, David; Thomsen, Edwin; Li, Bin; Wang, Wei; Nie, Zimin; Koeppel, Brian; Sprenkle, Vincent

    2016-02-01

    Three flow designs were operated in a 3-cell 1 kW class all vanadium mixed acid redox flow battery. The influence of electrode surface area and flow rate on the coulombic, voltage, and energy efficiency and the pressure drop in the flow circuit will be discussed and correlated to the flow design. Material cost associated with each flow design will also be discussed.

  14. Performance of a low cost interdigitated flow design on a 1 kW class all vanadium mixed acid redox flow battery

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, David; Thomsen, Edwin; Li, Bin; Wang, Wei; Nie, Zimin; Koeppel, Brian; Sprenkle, Vincent

    2016-02-01

    Three flow designs were operated in a 3-cell 1 kW class all vanadium mixed acid redox flow battery. The influence of electrode surface area and flow rate on the coulombic, voltage, and energy efficiency and the pressure drop in the flow circuit will be discussed and correlated to the flow design. Material cost associated with each flow design will also be discussed.

  15. Reliable Attention Network Scores and Mutually Inhibited Inter-network Relationships Revealed by Mixed Design and Non-orthogonal Method.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Feng; Jing, Xiu-Juan; Liu, Feng; Li, Mei-Ling; Long, Zhi-Liang; Yan, Jin H; Chen, Hua-Fu

    2015-05-21

    The attention system can be divided into alerting, orienting, and executive control networks. The efficiency and independence of attention networks have been widely tested with the attention network test (ANT) and its revised versions. However, many studies have failed to find effects of attention network scores (ANSs) and inter-network relationships (INRs). Moreover, the low reliability of ANSs can not meet the demands of theoretical and empirical investigations. Two methodological factors (the inter-trial influence in the event-related design and the inter-network interference in orthogonal contrast) may be responsible for the unreliability of ANT. In this study, we combined the mixed design and non-orthogonal method to explore ANSs and directional INRs. With a small number of trials, we obtained reliable and independent ANSs (split-half reliability of alerting: 0.684; orienting: 0.588; and executive control: 0.616), suggesting an individual and specific attention system. Furthermore, mutual inhibition was observed when two networks were operated simultaneously, indicating a differentiated but integrated attention system. Overall, the reliable and individual specific ANSs and mutually inhibited INRs provide novel insight into the understanding of the developmental, physiological and pathological mechanisms of attention networks, and can benefit future experimental and clinical investigations of attention using ANT.

  16. Elementary teachers' perceptions of engineering, engineering design, and their abilities to teach engineering: A mixed methods study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammack, Rebekah Jane

    This explanatory sequential mixed methods study explores elementary teachers' preparedness to teach engineering and engineering design as prescribed by the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). The data analyzed included the NGSS document, responses to an online survey that was completed by 542 Oklahoma K-5 teachers responsible for the science instruction of their students, and interview and focus group transcripts from a subset of survey participants. The results are organized into three distinct manuscripts, each devoted to a specific set of research questions. As a whole, the dissertation findings indicate that elementary teachers are not prepared to incorporate engineering practices into their classrooms. Study participants were found to have limited understanding of engineering and engineering design, as well as low engineering self-efficacy and engineering teaching efficacy related to pedagogical content knowledge. While participants recognized the benefits of including engineering activities in their classrooms, they reported that barriers such as lack of time, lack of training, lack of materials, and lack of support inhibited their abilities to infuse engineering into their curriculum.

  17. Using a mixed methods research design to investigate complementary alternative medicine (CAM) use among women with breast cancer in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Fox, Patricia; Butler, Michelle; Coughlan, Barbara; Murray, Mary; Boland, Noreen; Hanan, Terry; Murphy, Hilary; Forrester, Pauline; O' Brien, Marie; O' Sullivan, Nollaig

    2013-08-01

    To investigate complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among women with breast cancer in Ireland using a mixed methods modified sequential explanatory design. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with oncology professionals (n = 20) and CAM practitioners (n = 20) and this was followed by a survey of 406 women with breast cancer using the 'Use of Complementary and Alternative Therapies Survey' questionnaire (UCATS) (Lengacher et al., 2003). Follow up interviews were subsequently undertaken with a subset of this survey sample (n = 31). Over half of those surveyed (55.7%, n = 226) used some form of CAM since diagnosis. The most frequently used therapies were massage, herbal supplements (including herbs with oestrogenic properties), antioxidants, relaxation, counselling, health supplements, reflexology, reiki and support groups. Dietary interventions were used primarily to reduce symptoms and/or side effects while reduction of psychological stress was the primary reason for use of stress-reducing therapies. Most respondents reported that the CAM therapies they had used were helpful. The qualitative data elaborated on and provided clarification of the survey results. Similar to international studies, CAM is popular among women with breast cancer in Ireland. As such, the challenge for Irish oncology professionals is to identify low risk CAM therapies that are likely to benefit patients while educating patients and themselves on therapies which may be of concern. This study clearly illustrates the benefits of using a mixed methods approach to enhance our understanding of a complex clinical issue and thus we recommend that this method should be the method of choice when planning health services research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Posttraumatic growth following a first episode of psychosis: a mixed methods research protocol using a convergent design.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Gerald; Malla, Ashok; Iyer, Srividya N

    2016-07-25

    The suffering people experience following a first episode of psychosis is great, and has been well-investigated. Conversely, potential positive outcomes following a first episode of psychosis have been under-investigated. One such outcome that may result from a first episode of psychosis is posttraumatic growth, or a positive aftermath following the trauma of a first psychotic episode. While posttraumatic growth has been described following other physical and mental illnesses, posttraumatic growth has received very little attention following a first episode of psychosis. To address this research gap, we will conduct a mixed methods study aimed at answering two research questions: 1) How do people experience posttraumatic growth following a first episode of psychosis? 2) What predicts, or facilitates, posttraumatic growth following a first episode of psychosis? The research questions will be investigated using a mixed methods convergent design. All participants will be service-users being offered treatment for a first episode of psychosis at a specialized early intervention service for young people with psychosis, as well as their case managers.. A qualitative descriptive methodology will guide data-collection through semi-structured interviews with service-users. Service-users and case managers will complete questionnaires related to posttraumatic growth and its potential predictors using quantitative methods. These predictors include the impact a first episode of psychosis on service-users' lives, the coping strategies they use; the level of social support they enjoy; and their experiences of resilience and recovery. Qualitative data will be subject to thematic analysis, quantitative data will be subject to multiple regression analyses, and results from both methods will be combined to answer the research questions in a holistic way. Findings from this study are expected to show that in addition to suffering, people with a first episode of psychosis may experience

  19. Study protocol: developing a decision system for inclusive housing: applying a systematic, mixed-method quasi-experimental design.

    PubMed

    Zeeman, Heidi; Kendall, Elizabeth; Whitty, Jennifer A; Wright, Courtney J; Townsend, Clare; Smith, Dianne; Lakhani, Ali; Kennerley, Samantha

    2016-03-15

    Identifying the housing preferences of people with complex disabilities is a much needed, but under-developed area of practice and scholarship. Despite the recognition that housing is a social determinant of health and quality of life, there is an absence of empirical methodologies that can practically and systematically involve consumers in this complex service delivery and housing design market. A rigorous process for making effective and consistent development decisions is needed to ensure resources are used effectively and the needs of consumers with complex disability are properly met. This 3-year project aims to identify how the public and private housing market in Australia can better respond to the needs of people with complex disabilities whilst simultaneously achieving key corporate objectives. First, using the Customer Relationship Management framework, qualitative (Nominal Group Technique) and quantitative (Discrete Choice Experiment) methods will be used to quantify the housing preferences of consumers and their carers. A systematic mixed-method, quasi-experimental design will then be used to quantify the development priorities of other key stakeholders (e.g., architects, developers, Government housing services etc.) in relation to inclusive housing for people with complex disabilities. Stakeholders randomly assigned to Group 1 (experimental group) will participate in a series of focus groups employing Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) methodology. Stakeholders randomly assigned to Group 2 (control group) will participate in focus groups employing existing decision making processes to inclusive housing development (e.g., Risk, Opportunity, Cost, Benefit considerations). Using comparative stakeholder analysis, this research design will enable the AHP methodology (a proposed tool to guide inclusive housing development decisions) to be tested. It is anticipated that the findings of this study will enable stakeholders to incorporate consumer housing

  20. Social cohesion through football: a quasi-experimental mixed methods design to evaluate a complex health promotion program

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The complexity of the Football United program poses challenges for measurement, and requires the study design to be responsive to the dynamic nature of the program and context. Assessment of change is needed at multiple levels, drawing on mixed methods and multidisciplinary approaches in implementation and evaluation. Attention to these challenges has underpinned the design and methods in the Social Cohesion through Football study, which will use a unique and innovative combination of measures that have not been applied together previously in social inclusion/cohesion and sport and social inclusion/cohesion program research. PMID:20920361

  1. Optimization of critical factors to enhance polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) synthesis by mixed culture using Taguchi design of experimental methodology.

    PubMed

    Venkata Mohan, S; Venkateswar Reddy, M

    2013-01-01

    Optimizing different factors is crucial for enhancement of mixed culture bioplastics (polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA)) production. Design of experimental (DOE) methodology using Taguchi orthogonal array (OA) was applied to evaluate the influence and specific function of eight important factors (iron, glucose concentration, VFA concentration, VFA composition, nitrogen concentration, phosphorous concentration, pH, and microenvironment) on the bioplastics production. Three levels of factor (2(1) × 3(7)) variation were considered with symbolic arrays of experimental matrix [L(18)-18 experimental trails]. All the factors were assigned with three levels except iron concentration (2(1)). Among all the factors, microenvironment influenced bioplastics production substantially (contributing 81%), followed by pH (11%) and glucose concentration (2.5%). Validation experiments were performed with the obtained optimum conditions which resulted in improved PHA production. Good substrate degradation (as COD) of 68% was registered during PHA production. Dehydrogenase and phosphatase enzymatic activities were monitored during process operation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Studies on monolayers. Part 2. Design monolayer assemblies of mixed films of surface-active azo dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Heesemann, J.

    1980-03-26

    This work is concerned with designed self-organization of surfactants to highly organized monomolecular layers, which may be used for molecular engineering. The monolayer properties of 2-component and 3-component films are studied at the air-water and air-glass interface. The 2-component films consist of the chromophoric diglyceride and the chromophoric triglyceride (one fatty acid residue was substituted by n-(4'nitro-1'-phenylazo-P-phe methylaminopropionic acid). The Pi-Alpha curves of the mixed films showed marked deviations from the addivity rule. For the mole fraction 0.35 of the diglyceride component the surface pressure-area isotherm shows the characteristics of an eutectic film. The results of absorbance spectra and surface pressure-area isotherms suggest that the close-packed monolayer of the eutectic mixture consist of molecules in the stretched conformation with the chromophores in a card-pack-like arrangement (H aggregates). The 3-component films consists of stearic acid, stearylamine, and 12-(4'nitro-4- dimethylaminoazobenzene-3'-car acid. Neutral 3-component films are deposited onto glass slides and absorbance spectra are measured with polarized light.

  3. Dawn Vesta Raw Gravity Science V1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buccino, D. R.; Konopliv, A. S.; Park, R. S.; Asmar, S. W.

    2014-10-01

    This data set contains archival raw, partially processed, and ancillary/supporting gravity science data acquired during the Dawn mission while the spacecraft was in orbit around the asteroid Vesta. The radio observations were carried out using the Dawn spacecraft and Earth-based receiving stations of the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN). The data set was designed primarily to support generation of high-resolution gravity field models for Vesta. Of most interest are likely to be the Orbit Data Files in the ODF directory, which provided the raw input to gravity investigations, as well as the ionospheric and tropospheric media calibration files in the ION and TRO directories, respectively.

  4. Extended residence time centrifugal contactor design modification and centrifugal contactor vane plate valving apparatus for extending mixing zone residence time

    DOEpatents

    Wardle, Kent E.

    2017-06-06

    The present invention provides an annular centrifugal contactor, having a housing adapted to receive a plurality of flowing liquids; a rotor on the interior of the housing; an annular mixing zone, wherein the annular mixing zone has a plurality of fluid retention reservoirs with ingress apertures near the bottom of the annular mixing zone and egress apertures located above the ingress apertures of the annular mixing zone; and an adjustable vane plate stem, wherein the stem can be raised to restrict the flow of a liquid into the rotor or lowered to increase the flow of the liquid into the rotor.

  5. Red cell storage in E-Sol 5 and Adsol additive solutions: paired comparison using mixed and non-mixed study designs.

    PubMed

    Radwanski, K; Thill, M; Min, K

    2014-05-01

    If transfusion of older stored red cells is found to negatively affect clinical outcome, one possible alternative to shortened outdate is the use of new additive solutions (AS) that ameliorate the storage lesion. Erythro-Sol (E-Sol), a previously developed next-generation AS, has been reformulated into E-Sol 5, which is compatible with current anticoagulants and AS volumes. The effect of E-Sol 5 on red cells during storage compared to current AS has not been reported. Paired, ABO-matched whole-blood units were collected into CPD anticoagulant, pooled, split and processed into plasma and red cell units with either 110 ml of Adsol or 105 ml of E-Sol 5 within 8 h of collection. In Study 1, paired units in E-Sol 5 and Adsol were sampled on Day 0 and every 7 days up to Day 42 (n = 10). In Study 2, paired units in E-Sol 5 and Adsol were sampled only on Day 0 and Day 42 (n = 10). In Study 1, 2,3 DPG levels were maintained until Day 28 in E-Sol 5 units and Day 14 in Adsol units. ATP levels were higher in E-Sol 5 units until Day 21, after which they were comparable between the two groups. In both studies, metabolic activity was greater in E-Sol 5 units with respect to glucose consumption and lactate production. Morphology scores were higher, and haemolysis and microparticles generated were lower in E-Sol 5 vs. Adsol units. Weekly mixing of units lowered haemolysis and microparticle levels and increased potassium content on Day 42 in both additive solutions. Regardless of whether units are mixed weekly or are stored non-mixed, E-Sol 5 slows the progression of the red cell storage lesion and improves the overall in vitro quality of RBC throughout storage. © 2013 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  6. Using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis in a Mixed Methods Research Design to Explore Music in the Lives of Mature Age Amateur Keyboard Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the use of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) in a mixed methods research design with reference to five recent publications about music in the lives of mature age amateur keyboard players. It explores the links between IPA and the data-gathering methods of "Rivers of Musical Experience",…

  7. A Comparison of the Bootstrap-F, Improved General Approximation, and Brown-Forsythe Multivariate Approaches in a Mixed Repeated Measures Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seco, Guillermo Vallejo; Izquierdo, Marcelino Cuesta; Garcia, M. Paula Fernandez; Diez, F. Javier Herrero

    2006-01-01

    The authors compare the operating characteristics of the bootstrap-F approach, a direct extension of the work of Berkovits, Hancock, and Nevitt, with Huynh's improved general approximation (IGA) and the Brown-Forsythe (BF) multivariate approach in a mixed repeated measures design when normality and multisample sphericity assumptions do not hold.…

  8. Using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis in a Mixed Methods Research Design to Explore Music in the Lives of Mature Age Amateur Keyboard Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the use of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) in a mixed methods research design with reference to five recent publications about music in the lives of mature age amateur keyboard players. It explores the links between IPA and the data-gathering methods of "Rivers of Musical Experience",…

  9. Scan patterns and accuracy of a Radar Wind Sensor (RAWS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Shuxian; Beh, Beng; Moore, Richard K.

    1995-01-01

    The Radar Wind Sensor (RAWS) was proposed as a complement to laser wind sensors, allowing coverage in cloudy regions excluded from laser coverage. Previous University of Kansas studies showed the feasibility of the wind measurement at various levels in the atmosphere and indicated that RAWS can also measure rain rates and ocean-surface winds. Here we discuss measurement of the wind vector in terms of the scan patterns for a conically scanned antenna. By using many measurements from cells about 66 km square and 132 km square, a least-squares algorithm gives results that are reasonable for insertion into global atmospheric models. For RAWS to be used successfully as a complement to a laser wind sensor, the design of the two sensors should be integrated and radial velocity measurements in a given atmospheric cell should be combined to get the most accurate results.

  10. Evaluation and improvement of micro-surfacing mix design method and modelling of asphalt emulsion mastic in terms of filler-emulsion interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robati, Masoud

    This Doctorate program focuses on the evaluation and improving the rutting resistance of micro-surfacing mixtures. There are many research problems related to the rutting resistance of micro-surfacing mixtures that still require further research to be solved. The main objective of this Ph.D. program is to experimentally and analytically study and improve rutting resistance of micro-surfacing mixtures. During this Ph.D. program major aspects related to the rutting resistance of micro-surfacing mixtures are investigated and presented as follow: 1) evaluation of a modification of current micro-surfacing mix design procedures: On the basis of this effort, a new mix design procedure is proposed for type III micro-surfacing mixtures as rut-fill materials on the road surface. Unlike the current mix design guidelines and specification, the new mix design is capable of selecting the optimum mix proportions for micro-surfacing mixtures; 2) evaluation of test methods and selection of aggregate grading for type III application of micro-surfacing: Within the term of this study, a new specification for selection of aggregate grading for type III application of micro-surfacing is proposed; 3) evaluation of repeatability and reproducibility of micro-surfacing mixture design tests: In this study, limits for repeatability and reproducibility of micro-surfacing mix design tests are presented; 4) a new conceptual model for filler stiffening effect on asphalt mastic of micro-surfacing: A new model is proposed, which is able to establish limits for minimum and maximum filler concentrations in the micro-surfacing mixture base on only the filler important physical and chemical properties; 5) incorporation of reclaimed asphalt pavement and post-fabrication asphalt shingles in micro-surfacing mixture: The effectiveness of newly developed mix design procedure for micro-surfacing mixtures is further validated using recycled materials. The results present the limits for the use of RAP and RAS

  11. Investigating the effect of mixing ratio on molar mass distributions of synthetic polymers determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry using design of experiments.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Heike; Ehmann, Thomas; Otto, Matthias

    2010-11-01

    It is well known that the mixing ratio affects the molar mass distribution of synthetic polymers determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Surely, the molar mixing ratio determines whether a mass spectrum will be obtained or not. However, depending on the mass range, several effects such as multimer formation occur, which might be a source of errors in molar mass distribution calculations. In this study, the effect of mixing ratio was investigated for several synthetic polymers, including polystyrene (PS), poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) using statistical designs of experiments. The 2(3) full factorial design was found to be suitable in the study of more than 1000 samples. The obtained MALDI mass spectra as well as the ANOVA statistics show that the mixing ratio affects the molar mass distribution. The optimal mixing ratio for a defined synthetic polymer depends on the studied combination (matrix, cationization reagent, solvent).

  12. Benefits of Incentives for Breastfeeding and Smoking cessation in pregnancy (BIBS): a mixed-methods study to inform trial design.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Heather; Hoddinott, Pat; Thomson, Gill; Crossland, Nicola; Farrar, Shelley; Yi, Deokhee; Hislop, Jenni; Moran, Victoria Hall; MacLennan, Graeme; Dombrowski, Stephan U; Rothnie, Kieran; Stewart, Fiona; Bauld, Linda; Ludbrook, Anne; Dykes, Fiona; Sniehotta, Falko F; Tappin, David; Campbell, Marion

    2015-04-01

    Smoking in pregnancy and/or not breastfeeding have considerable negative health outcomes for mother and baby. To understand incentive mechanisms of action for smoking cessation in pregnancy and breastfeeding, develop a taxonomy and identify promising, acceptable and feasible interventions to inform trial design. Evidence syntheses, primary qualitative survey, and discrete choice experiment (DCE) research using multidisciplinary, mixed methods. Two mother-and-baby groups in disadvantaged areas collaborated throughout. UK. The qualitative study included 88 pregnant women/recent mothers/partners, 53 service providers, 24 experts/decision-makers and 63 conference attendees. The surveys included 1144 members of the general public and 497 health professionals. The DCE study included 320 women with a history of smoking. (1) Evidence syntheses: incentive effectiveness (including meta-analysis and effect size estimates), delivery processes, barriers to and facilitators of smoking cessation in pregnancy and/or breastfeeding, scoping review of incentives for lifestyle behaviours; (2) qualitative research: grounded theory to understand incentive mechanisms of action and a framework approach for trial design; (3) survey: multivariable ordered logit models; (4) DCE: conditional logit regression and the log-likelihood ratio test. Out of 1469 smoking cessation and 5408 breastfeeding multicomponent studies identified, 23 smoking cessation and 19 breastfeeding studies were included in the review. Vouchers contingent on biochemically proven smoking cessation in pregnancy were effective, with a relative risk of 2.58 (95% confidence interval 1.63 to 4.07) compared with non-contingent incentives for participation (four studies, 344 participants). Effects continued until 3 months post partum. Inconclusive effects were found for breastfeeding incentives compared with no/smaller incentives (13 studies) but provider commitment contracts for breastfeeding show promise. Intervention intensity

  13. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 9: Mixed Alcohols From Syngas -- State of Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    This deliverable is for Task 9, Mixed Alcohols from Syngas: State of Technology, as part of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Award ACO-5-44027, ''Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup and Oxygen Separation Equipment''. Task 9 supplements the work previously done by NREL in the mixed alcohols section of the 2003 technical report Preliminary Screening--Technical and Economic Assessment of Synthesis Gas to Fuels and Chemicals with Emphasis on the Potential for Biomass-Derived Syngas.

  14. Describing the Situational Contexts of Sweetened Product Consumption in a Middle Eastern Canadian Community: Application of a Mixed Method Design

    PubMed Central

    Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Cargo, Margaret; Receveur, Olivier; Daniel, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the situational contexts in which individuals consume processed sources of dietary sugars. This study aimed to describe the situational contexts associated with the consumption of sweetened food and drink products in a Catholic Middle Eastern Canadian community. A two-stage exploratory sequential mixed-method design was employed with a rationale of triangulation. In stage 1 (n = 62), items and themes describing the situational contexts of sweetened food and drink product consumption were identified from semi-structured interviews and were used to develop the content for the Situational Context Instrument for Sweetened Product Consumption (SCISPC). Face validity, readability and cultural relevance of the instrument were assessed. In stage 2 (n = 192), a cross-sectional study was conducted and exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the structure of themes that emerged from the qualitative analysis as a means of furthering construct validation. The SCISPC reliability and predictive validity on the daily consumption of sweetened products were also assessed. In stage 1, six themes and 40-items describing the situational contexts of sweetened product consumption emerged from the qualitative analysis and were used to construct the first draft of the SCISPC. In stage 2, factor analysis enabled the clarification and/or expansion of the instrument's initial thematic structure. The revised SCISPC has seven factors and 31 items describing the situational contexts of sweetened product consumption. Initial validation of the instrument indicated it has excellent internal consistency and adequate test-retest reliability. Two factors of the SCISPC had predictive validity for the daily consumption of total sugar from sweetened products (Snacking and Energy demands) while the other factors (Socialization, Indulgence, Constraints, Visual Stimuli and Emotional needs) were rather associated to occasional consumption of these products. PMID:23028597

  15. The German Young Olympic Athletes' Lifestyle and Health Management Study (GOAL Study): design of a mixed-method study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In order to perform at top levels, elite athletes have to both protect and risk their health at the same time. Adolescent elite athletes have the additional challenge of coping with substantial physical, psychological and social transformations. The contradictory phenomenon of protecting and risking the adolescent athletes' health in sports challenges the development of health promotion and protection strategies. The GOAL Study (German Young Olympic Athletes' Lifestyle and Health Management Study) analyzes the individual and organizational management of health in adolescent elite sports. Methods/design We combine quantitative and qualitative approaches in a mixed-method study. This allows us to gather a broad range of representative information on squad athletes from all Olympic disciplines as well as in-depth information on four selected Olympic disciplines (artistic gymnastics, biathlon, handball and wrestling). Within the quantitative section we attempt to identify the young athletes' health and nutrition behavior, their subjective health state and their lay health representations, health-related social networks, and structures of medical attendance. 1138 national team level athletes born between 1992 and 1995 from 51 Olympic disciplines responded to the questionnaire (response rate: 61,75%). The qualitative section investigates the meaning and relevance of health and nutrition within the athletes' sports specific surroundings, the impact of biographic backgrounds on individual health behavior, and sports specific cultures of health, nutrition and risk. We interviewed 24 athletes and 28 coaching and medical experts, and carried out 14 multi-day participant observations at training sessions and competitions. Conclusions The studies' results will serve as the basis for developing tailored health promotion strategies to be in cooperation with German elite sports associations. PMID:21627777

  16. Design of a prospective cohort study to assess ethnic inequalities in patient safety in hospital care using mixed methods

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While US studies show a higher risk of adverse events (AEs) for ethnic minorities in hospital care, in Europe ethnic inequalities in patient safety have never been analysed. Based on existing literature and exploratory research, our research group developed a conceptual model and empirical study to increase our understanding of the role ethnicity plays in patient safety. Our study is designed to (1) assess the risk of AEs for hospitalised patients of non-Western ethnic origin in comparison to ethnic Dutch patients; (2) analyse what patient-related determinants affect the risk of AEs; (3) explore the mechanisms of patient-provider interactions that may increase the risk of AEs; and (4) explore possible strategies to prevent inequalities in patient safety. Methods We are conducting a prospective mixed methods cohort study in four Dutch hospitals, which began in 2010 and is running until 2013. 2000 patients (1000 ethnic Dutch and 1000 of non-Western ethnic origin, ranging in age from 45-75 years) are included. Survey data are collected to capture patients’ explanatory variables (e.g., Dutch language proficiency, health literacy, socio-economic status (SES)-indicators, and religion) during hospital admission. After discharge, a two-stage medical record review using a standardized instrument is conducted by experienced reviewers to determine the incidence of AEs. Data will be analysed using multilevel multivariable logistic regression. Qualitative interviews with providers and patients will provide insight into the mechanisms of AEs and potential prevention strategies. Conclusion This study uses a robust study plan to quantify the risk difference of AEs between ethnic minority and Dutch patients in hospital care. In addition we are developing an in-depth description of the mechanisms of excess risk for some groups compared to others, while identifying opportunities for more equitable distributions of patient safety for all. PMID:23217088

  17. Describing the situational contexts of sweetened product consumption in a Middle Eastern Canadian community: application of a mixed method design.

    PubMed

    Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Cargo, Margaret; Receveur, Olivier; Daniel, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the situational contexts in which individuals consume processed sources of dietary sugars. This study aimed to describe the situational contexts associated with the consumption of sweetened food and drink products in a Catholic Middle Eastern Canadian community. A two-stage exploratory sequential mixed-method design was employed with a rationale of triangulation. In stage 1 (n = 62), items and themes describing the situational contexts of sweetened food and drink product consumption were identified from semi-structured interviews and were used to develop the content for the Situational Context Instrument for Sweetened Product Consumption (SCISPC). Face validity, readability and cultural relevance of the instrument were assessed. In stage 2 (n = 192), a cross-sectional study was conducted and exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the structure of themes that emerged from the qualitative analysis as a means of furthering construct validation. The SCISPC reliability and predictive validity on the daily consumption of sweetened products were also assessed. In stage 1, six themes and 40-items describing the situational contexts of sweetened product consumption emerged from the qualitative analysis and were used to construct the first draft of the SCISPC. In stage 2, factor analysis enabled the clarification and/or expansion of the instrument's initial thematic structure. The revised SCISPC has seven factors and 31 items describing the situational contexts of sweetened product consumption. Initial validation of the instrument indicated it has excellent internal consistency and adequate test-retest reliability. Two factors of the SCISPC had predictive validity for the daily consumption of total sugar from sweetened products (Snacking and Energy demands) while the other factors (Socialization, Indulgence, Constraints, Visual Stimuli and Emotional needs) were rather associated to occasional consumption of these products.

  18. Conditions for sustainability of Academic Collaborative Centres for Public Health in the Netherlands: a mixed methods design.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Maria W J; van Oers, Hans A M; Middelweerd, Mizzi D R; van de Goor, Ien A M; Ruwaard, Dirk

    2015-08-21

    Contemporary research should increasingly be carried out in the context of application. Nowotny called this new form of knowledge production Mode-2. In line with Mode-2 knowledge production, the Dutch government in 2006 initiated the so-called Academic Collaborative Centres (ACC) for Public Health. The aim of these ACCs is to build a regional, sustainable knowledge-sharing network to deliver socially robust knowledge. The present study aims to highlight the enabling and constraining push and pull factors of these ACCs in order to assess whether the ACCs are able to build and strengthen a sustainable integrated organizational network between public health policy, practice, and research. Our empirical analysis builds on a mixed methods design. Quantitative data was derived from records of a survey sent to all 11 ACCs about personnel investments, number and nature of projects, and earning power. Qualitative data was derived from 21 in-depth interviews with stakeholders involved. The interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed, and manually coded as favourable or unfavourable pull or push factors. The extra funding appeared to be the most enabling push factor. The networks secured external grants for about 150 short- and long-term Mode-2 knowledge production projects in the past years. Enabling pull factors improved, especially the number of policy-driven short-term research projects. Exchange agents were able to constructively deal with the constraining push factors, like university's publication pressure and budget limitations. However, the constraining pull factors like local government's involvement and their low demand for scientific evidence were difficult to overcome. A clear improvement of the organizational networks was noticed whereby the ACC's were pushed rather than pulled. Efforts are needed to increase the demand for scientific and socially robust evidence from policymakers and to resolve the regime differences between the research and policy systems, in

  19. Power and sample size for the S:T repeated measures design combined with a linear mixed-effects model allowing for missing data.

    PubMed

    Tango, Toshiro

    2017-02-13

    Tango (Biostatistics 2016) proposed a new repeated measures design called the S:T repeated measures design, combined with generalized linear mixed-effects models and sample size calculations for a test of the average treatment effect that depend not only on the number of subjects but on the number of repeated measures before and after randomization per subject used for analysis. The main advantages of the proposed design combined with the generalized linear mixed-effects models are (1) it can easily handle missing data by applying the likelihood-based ignorable analyses under the missing at random assumption and (2) it may lead to a reduction in sample size compared with the simple pre-post design. In this article, we present formulas for calculating power and sample sizes for a test of the average treatment effect allowing for missing data within the framework of the S:T repeated measures design with a continuous response variable combined with a linear mixed-effects model. Examples are provided to illustrate the use of these formulas.

  20. Mixed jamming method for SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hong-feng; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Yong-sheng

    2007-11-01

    The mixed jamming method of synthetic aperture radar is analyzed and discussed. The methods of active noise and deception jamming and the signal model of transmitting is described. The raw echo signal of SAR and the model of jammed echo signal are expatiated, the characteristic of SAR and the evaluating method of jamming effect are established. Finally, the mixed jamming imaging of SAR is simulated.

  1. When are night shifts effective for nursing student clinical learning? Findings from a mixed-method study design.

    PubMed

    Palese, Alvisa; Basso, Felix; Del Negro, Elena; Achil, Illarj; Ferraresi, Annamaria; Morandini, Marzia; Moreale, Renzo; Mansutti, Irene

    2017-05-01

    Some nursing programmes offer night shifts for students while others do not, mainly due to the lack of evidence regarding their effectiveness on clinical learning. The principal aims of the study were to describe nursing students' perceptions and to explore conditions influencing effectiveness on learning processes during night shifts. An explanatory mixed-method study design composed of a cross-sectional study (primary method, first phase) followed by a descriptive phenomenological study design (secondary method, second phase) in 2015. Two bachelor of nursing degree programmes located in Northern Italy, three years in length and requiring night shifts for students starting in the second semester of the 1st year, were involved. First phase: all nursing students ending their last clinical placement of the academic year attended were eligible; 352 out the 370 participated. Second phase: a purposeful sample of nine students among those included in the first phase and who attended the highest amount of night shifts were interviewed. First phase: a questionnaire composed of closed and open-ended questions was adopted; data was analyzed through descriptive statistical methods. Second phase: an open-ended face-to-face audio-recorded interview was adopted and data was analyzed through content analysis. Findings from the quantitative phase, showed that students who attended night shifts reported satisfaction (44.7%) less frequently than those who attended only day shifts (55.9%). They also reported boredom (23.5%) significantly more often compared to day shift students (p=0001). Understanding of the nursing role and learning competence was significantly inferior among night shift students as compared to day shift students, while the perception of wasting time was significantly higher among night shift students compared to their counterparts. Night shift students performed nursing rounds (288; 98.2%), non-nursing tasks (247; 84.3%) and/or less often managed clinical problems

  2. Mixed-strain housing for female C57BL/6, DBA/2, and BALB/c mice: validating a split-plot design that promotes refinement and reduction.

    PubMed

    Walker, Michael; Fureix, Carole; Palme, Rupert; Newman, Jonathan A; Ahloy Dallaire, Jamie; Mason, Georgia

    2016-01-27

    Inefficient experimental designs are common in animal-based biomedical research, wasting resources and potentially leading to unreplicable results. Here we illustrate the intrinsic statistical power of split-plot designs, wherein three or more sub-units (e.g. individual subjects) differing in a variable of interest (e.g. genotype) share an experimental unit (e.g. a cage or litter) to which a treatment is applied (e.g. a drug, diet, or cage manipulation). We also empirically validate one example of such a design, mixing different mouse strains -- C57BL/6, DBA/2, and BALB/c -- within cages varying in degree of enrichment. As well as boosting statistical power, no other manipulations are needed for individual identification if co-housed strains are differentially pigmented, so also sparing mice from stressful marking procedures. The validation involved housing 240 females from weaning to 5 months of age in single- or mixed- strain trios, in cages allocated to enriched or standard treatments. Mice were screened for a range of 26 commonly-measured behavioural, physiological and haematological variables. Living in mixed-strain trios did not compromise mouse welfare (assessed via corticosterone metabolite output, stereotypic behaviour, signs of aggression, and other variables). It also did not alter the direction or magnitude of any strain- or enrichment-typical difference across the 26 measured variables, or increase variance in the data: indeed variance was significantly decreased by mixed- strain housing. Furthermore, using Monte Carlo simulations to quantify the statistical power benefits of this approach over a conventional design demonstrated that for our effect sizes, the split- plot design would require significantly fewer mice (under half in most cases) to achieve a power of 80%. Mixed-strain housing allows several strains to be tested at once, and potentially refines traditional marking practices for research mice. Furthermore, it dramatically illustrates the

  3. Use of precalciners to remove alkali from raw materials in the cement industry. Final report, July 1978-July 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Gartner, E.M.

    1980-07-01

    The objective of this work was to develop an efficient means of removing alkali metal compounds (alkalies) from high-alkali aluminosilicate raw materials of the type commonly used as part of cement raw mixes in order to increase the energy efficiency of cement manufacture. The intention of this project was to determine whether the high-alkali raw materials could be pyroprocessed separately to remove the alkalies before they entered the rotary kiln, where they would be mixed with the other raw feed components. If this could be achieved, considerable savings could be made in the energy required to remove alkalies, compared to conventional methods in which the cement raw mix must be treated as a whole. Two different methods of alkali removal were examined, namely, vaporization of alkalies at relatively low temperatures; and alkali-rich melt separation at relativey high temperatures. The results showed that the removal of alkalies by pyroprocessing of high-alkali raw feed components separate from the other cement raw mix components is not likely to be a practical alternative to the best available conventional precalciner technology. (LCL)

  4. An Immunoassay for Quantification of Contamination by Raw Meat Juice on Food Contact Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fur-Chi; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Edgar

    2016-11-01

    Raw chicken products often are contaminated with Salmonella and Campylobacter , which can be transmitted from packages to contact surfaces. Raw meat juices from these packages also provide potential media for cross-contamination. There are limited quantitative data on the levels of consumer exposure to raw meat juice during shopping for and handling of chicken products. An exposure assessment is needed to quantify the levels of transmission and to assess the risk. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed and validated for quantitative detection of raw meat juice on hands and various food contact surfaces. Analytical procedures were designed to maximize the recovery of raw meat juice from various surfaces: hands, plastic, wood, stainless steel, laminated countertops, glass, and ceramics. The ELISA was based on the detection of a soluble muscle protein, troponin I (TnI), in the raw meat juice. The assay can detect levels as low as 1.25 ng of TnI, which is equivalent to less than 1 μl of the raw meat juice. The concentrations of TnI in the raw meat juices from 10 retail chicken packages, as determined by ELISA, were between 0.46 and 3.56 ng/μl, with an average of 1.69 ng/μl. The analytical procedures, which include swabbing, extraction, and concentration, enable the detection of TnI from various surfaces. The recoveries of raw meat juice from surfaces of hands were 92%, and recoveries from other tested surfaces were from 55% on plastic cutting boards to 75% on laminated countertops. The ELISA developed has been used for monitoring the transfer of raw meat juice during shopping for and handling of raw chicken products in our studies. The assay also can be applied to other raw meat products, such as pork and beef.

  5. The design and implementation of an obstetric triage system for unscheduled pregnancy related attendances: a mixed methods evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Sara; Hewison, Alistair; Dann, Sophie-Anna; Easterbrook, Jolene; Hamilton-Giachritsis, Catherine; Beckmann, April; Johns, Nina

    2017-09-18

    No standardised system of triage exists in Maternity Care and local audit identified this to be problematic. We designed, implemented and evaluated an Obstetric Triage System in a large UK maternity unit. This includes a standard clinical triage assessment by a midwife, within 15 min of attendance, leading to assignment to a category of clinical urgency (on a 4-category scale). This guides timing of subsequent standardised immediate care for the eight most common reasons for attendance. A training programme was integral to the introduction. A mixed methods evaluation was conducted. A structured audit of 994 sets of maternity notes before and after implementation identified the number of women seen within 15 min of attendance. Secondary measures reviewed included time to subsequent care and attendance. An inter-operator reliability study using scenarios was completed by midwives. A focus group and two questionnaire studies were undertaken to explore midwives' views of the system and to evaluate the training. In addition a national postal survey of practice in UK maternity units was undertaken in 2015. The structured audit of 974/992 (98%) of notes demonstrated an increase in the number of women seen within 15 min of attendance from 39% before implementation to 54% afterwards (RR (95% CI) 1.4 (1.2, 1.7) p = <0.0001). Excellent inter-operator reliability (ICC 0.961 (95% CI 0.91-0.99)) was demonstrated with breakdown showing consistently good rates. Thematic analysis of focus group data (n = 12) informed the development of the questionnaire which was sent to all appropriate midwives. The response rate was 53/79 (67%) and the midwives reported that the new system helped them manage the department and improved safety. The National Survey (response rate 85/135 [63%]) demonstrated wide variation in where women are seen and staffing models in place. The majority of units 69/85 (81%) did not use a triage system based on clinical assessment to prioritise care. This

  6. Is it possible to predict improved diabetes outcomes following diabetes self-management education: a mixed-methods longitudinal design

    PubMed Central

    Huxley, Caroline; Sturt, Jackie; Dale, Jeremy; Walker, Rosie; Caramlau, Isabela; O'Hare, Joseph P; Griffiths, Frances

    2015-01-01

    Objective To predict the diabetes-related outcomes of people undertaking a type 2 Diabetes Self-Management Education (DSME) programme from their baseline data. Design A mixed-methods longitudinal experimental study. 6 practice nurses and 2 clinical academics undertook blind assessments of all baseline and process data to predict clinical, behavioural and psychological outcomes at 6 months post-DSME programme. Setting Primary care. Participants –31 people with type 2 diabetes who had not previously undertaken DSME. Intervention All participants undertook the Diabetes Manual 1:1 self-directed learning 12-week DSME programme supported by practice nurses trained as Diabetes Manual facilitators. Outcome variables Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), diabetes knowledge, physical activity, waist circumference, self-efficacy, diabetes distress, anxiety, depression, demographics, change talk and treatment satisfaction. These variables were chosen because they are known to influence self-management behaviour or to have been influenced by a DSME programme in empirical evidence. Results Baseline and 6-month follow-up data were available for 27 participants of which 13 (48%) were male, 22 (82%) white British, mean age 59 years and mean duration of type 2 diabetes 9.1 years. Significant reductions were found in HbA1c t(26)=2.35, p=0.03, and diabetes distress t(26)=2.30, p=0.03, and a significant increase in knowledge t(26)=−2.06, p=0.05 between baseline and 6 months. No significant changes were found in waist circumference, physical activity, anxiety, depression or self-efficacy. Accuracy of predictions varied little between clinical academics and practice nurses but greatly between outcome (0–100%). The median and mode accuracy of predicted outcome was 66.67%. Accuracy of prediction for the key outcome of HbA1c was 44.44%. Diabetes distress had the highest prediction accuracy (81.48%). Conclusions Clinicians in this small study were unable to identify individuals likely

  7. Future Sources of Organic Raw Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Irving S.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the need for industrial organization, academic institutions, and national governments to agree on cooperative roles in planning the future raw materials demands of the chemical industry. Political and social concerns, as well as technical and economic considerations, are important to the raw material future of the industry. (MA)

  8. Asymmetric antiproton debuncher: No bad mixing, more good mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Visnjic, V.

    1994-07-01

    An asymmetric lattice for the Fermilab Antiproton Debuncher is designed. The lattice has zero mixing between the pickups and the kickers (bad mixing) while the mixing in the rest of the machine (good mixing) can be varied (even during the operation of the machine) in order to optimize the stochastic cooling. As an example, a lattice with zero bad mixing and twice the good mixing is presented. The betatron cooling rate in this lattice is twice its present value.

  9. Parallel, AA/BB, AB/BA and Balaam's design: efficient and maximin choices when testing the treatment effect in a mixed effects linear regression.

    PubMed

    Candel, Math J J M

    2012-01-01

    When examining the effect of treatment A versus B, there may be a choice between a parallel group design, an AA/BB design, an AB/BA cross-over and Balaam's design. In case of a linear mixed effects regression, it is examined, starting from a flexible function of the costs involved and allowing for subject dropout, which design is most efficient in estimating this effect. For no carry-over, the AB/BA cross-over design is most efficient as long as the dropout rate at the second measurement does not exceed 2ρ/(1 + ρ), ρ being the intraclass correlation. For steady-state carry-over, depending on the costs involved, the dropout rate and ρ, either a parallel design or an AA/BB design is most efficient. For types of carry-over that allow for self carry-over, interest is in the direct treatment effect plus the self carry-over effect, with either an AA/BB or Balaam's design being most efficient. In case of insufficient knowledge on the dropout rate or ρ, a maximin strategy is devised: choose the design that minimizes the maximum variance of the treatment estimator. Such maximin designs are derived for each type of carry-over. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Winchester/Camberley Homes New Construction Test House Design, Construction, and Short-Term Testing in a Mixed-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Mallay, D.; Wiehagen, J.; Wood, A.

    2012-10-01

    The NAHB Research Center partnered with production builder Winchester/Camberley Homes to build a new construction test house in the mixed-humid climate zone of Silver Spring, MD in June 2011. The goal for this house was to improve energy efficiency by 30% over the Building America B10 benchmark through an optimized energy solutions package design that could be constructed on a production basis. This report outlines the features of this house, discusses the energy efficient design, and reports on short-term testing results.

  11. Data Collection Design for Equivalent Groups Equating: Using a Matrix Stratification Framework for Mixed-Format Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbella, Kinge Keka

    2012-01-01

    Mixed-format assessments are increasingly being used in large scale standardized assessments to measure a continuum of skills ranging from basic recall to higher order thinking skills. These assessments are usually comprised of a combination of (a) multiple-choice items which can be efficiently scored, have stable psychometric properties, and…

  12. Data Collection Design for Equivalent Groups Equating: Using a Matrix Stratification Framework for Mixed-Format Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbella, Kinge Keka

    2012-01-01

    Mixed-format assessments are increasingly being used in large scale standardized assessments to measure a continuum of skills ranging from basic recall to higher order thinking skills. These assessments are usually comprised of a combination of (a) multiple-choice items which can be efficiently scored, have stable psychometric properties, and…

  13. Design and optimization of highly nonlinear low-dispersion crystal fiber with high birefringence for four-wave mixing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-Ni; Ren, Li-Yong; Gong, Yong-Kang; Li, Xiao-Hui; Wang, Lei-Ran; Sun, Chuan-Dong

    2010-06-01

    We have proposed a novel type of photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with low dispersion and high nonlinearity for four-wave mixing. This type of fiber is composed of a solid silica core and a cladding with a squeezed hexagonal lattice elliptical airhole along the fiber length. Its dispersion and nonlinearity coefficient are investigated simultaneously by using the full vectorial finite element method. Numerical results show that the proposed highly nonlinear low-dispersion fiber has a total dispersion as low as +/-2.5 ps nm(-1) km(-1) over an ultrabroad wavelength range from 1.43 to 1.8 microm, and the corresponding nonlinearity coefficient and birefringence are about 150 W(-1) km(-1) and 2.5x10(-3) at 1.55 microm, respectively. The proposed PCF with low ultraflattened dispersion, high nonlinearity, and high birefringence can have important application in four-wave mixing.

  14. Design and synthesis of heterocyclic cations for specific DNA recognition: from AT-rich to mixed-base-pair DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Chai, Yun; Paul, Ananya; Rettig, Michael; Wilson, W David; Boykin, David W

    2014-02-07

    The compounds synthesized in this research were designed with the goal of establishing a new paradigm for mixed-base-pair DNA sequence-specific recognition. The design scheme starts with a cell-permeable heterocyclic cation that binds to AT base pair sites in the DNA minor groove. Modifications were introduced in the original compound to include an H-bond accepting group to specifically recognize the G-NH that projects into the minor groove. Therefore, a series of heterocyclic cations substituted with an azabenzimidazole ring has been designed and synthesized for mixed-base-pair DNA recognition. The most successful compound, 12a, had an azabenzimidazole to recognize G and additional modifications for general minor groove interactions. It binds to the DNA site -AAAGTTT- more strongly than the -AAATTT- site without GC and indicates the design success. Structural modifications of 12a generally weakened binding. The interactions of the new compound with a variety of DNA sequences with and without GC base pairs were evaluated by thermal melting analysis, circular dichroism, fluorescence emission spectroscopy, surface plasmon resonance, and molecular modeling.

  15. Phage inhibition of Escherichia coli in ultrahigh-temperature-treated and raw milk.

    PubMed

    McLean, Sarah K; Dunn, Louise A; Palombo, Enzo A

    2013-11-01

    Escherichia coli can contaminate raw milk during the milking process or via environmental contamination in milk-processing facilities. Three bacteriophages, designated EC6, EC9, and EC11, were investigated for their ability to inhibit the growth of three strains of E. coli in ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) treated and raw bovine milk. A cocktail of the three phages completely inhibited E. coli ATCC 25922 and E. coli O127:H6 in UHT milk at 25 °C and under refrigeration temperatures (5-9 °C). The phage cocktail produced similar results in raw milk; however, E. coli ATCC 25922 and O127:H6 in raw milk controls also declined to below the level of detection at both temperatures. This observation indicated that competition by the raw milk microbiota might have contributed to the decline in viable E. coli cells. A cocktail containing EC6 and EC9 completely inhibited E. coli O5:H-, an enterohemorrhagic strain, in UHT milk at both temperatures. In raw milk, the phage cocktail initially inhibited growth of E. coli O5:H- but regrowth occurred following incubation for 9 h at 25 °C and 144 h at 5-9 °C. In contrast to the other E. coli strains, O5:H- was not inhibited in the raw milk controls. This study demonstrates that bacteriophages are effective biocontrol agents against E. coli host strains in UHT and raw bovine milk at various storage temperatures.

  16. Food fears and raw-milk cheese.

    PubMed

    West, Harry G

    2008-07-01

    This paper examines the debate over the safety of raw-milk cheese. Departing from Nestle's categories of "science-based" and "value-based" approaches to risk assessment, the author argues that raw-milk cheese advocates, as well as proponents of pasteurisation, invoke science to support their positions, and measure risk against potential costs and benefits. Additionally, the author argues, each position is animated by, albeit differing, values and their attendant fears. While artisan cheesemakers associations have successfully averted bans on raw-milk cheesemaking in various contexts in recent years, the author concludes that they remain vulnerable to future food scares unless consumer interest in raw-milk cheese is sustained.

  17. 7 CFR 29.6033 - Raw.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Raw. 29.6033 Section 29.6033 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... beginning of the curing process. ...

  18. Our Finished Product--Industry's Raw Product

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, L. Myron

    1978-01-01

    Comparing students in agribusiness sales, supply, and service courses to raw products in need of development, the author discusses the backgrounds of these students and their developing maturity through supervised occupational experience. (BM)

  19. Design and Critical Appraisal of an Accelerated Integration Procedure for Atmospheric GCM/Mixed-Layer Ocean Models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlesinger, Michael E.; Zhao, Zong-Cl; Vickers, Dean

    1989-07-01

    An accelerated integration procedure (AIP) is developed for the OSU atmospheric GCM/mixed-layer ocean model. In this AIP the depth of the mixed-layer ocean is reduced by an acceleration factor fe=12 from 60 m to 5 m and the length of a solar cycle is correspondingly reduced to eliminate the increase in the amplitude of the annual cycle of oceanic temperature which would otherwise occur. Furthermore, the ground bulk heat capacity, ground water field capacity and heat of fusion for sea ice and for snow on sea ice are reduced by fa to accelerate the equilibration of the ground temperature, soil water and sea ice, respectively.The AIP was used for 1 × CO2 and 2 × CO2 simulations with the OSU AGCM/mixed-layer Oman model. The AIP attained the equilibrium climates in these simulations with the computer-time equivalent of about 2.5 unaccelerated solar cycles, but after the switch from the AIP to the normal unaccelerated integration procedure (NIP), the temperatures increased to new equilibrium values. Although additional computer time was required to achieve these new equilibria, the overall 1 × CO2 and 2 × CO2 simulations with the AIP/NIP required respectively only 55% and 28% of the computer time which would have been required with the NIP alone. Thus the AIP was successful in saying a significant amount of computer time.The success of the AIP notwithstanding, an analysis was undertakes to determine the cause of the change in the equilibrium climate following the AIP/NIP switch. Diagnosis of the 1 × CO2 simulation by the OSU AGCM/mixed-layer. ocean model and tests with a latitudinally dependent energy balance model show that it is the increase in the amplitude of the annual cycle of atmospheric temperature from the AIP to the NIP which, acting through the ice-albedo/temperature feedback mechanism, causes the change in the equilibrium climate following the AIP/NIP switch.It is therefore concluded that while the AIP can save a significant amount of computer time in

  20. Effects of egg consumption on carotenoid absorption from co-consumed, raw vegetables12

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Eun; Gordon, Susannah L; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Campbell, Wayne W

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dietary lipids are one of the most effective stimulators of carotenoid absorption, but very limited data exist on the impact of endogenous food sources of lipids to enhance carotenoid absorption. The co-consumption of whole egg with carotenoid-rich foods may increase overall carotenoid absorption via lipid-rich egg yolk. Objective: We designed this study to assess the effects of egg consumption on carotenoid absorption from a carotenoid-rich, raw mixed-vegetable salad. Design: Healthy young men (n = 16) consumed the same salad (all served with 3 g canola oil) with no egg (control), 75 g scrambled whole eggs (1.5 eggs) [low egg (LE)], and 150 g scrambled whole eggs (3 eggs) [high egg (HE)] (a randomized crossover design). Control, LE, and HE meals contained 23 mg, 23.4 mg (0.4 mg from eggs), and 23.8 mg (0.8 mg from eggs) total carotenoids and 3 g, 10.5 g (7.5 g from eggs), and 18 g (15 g from eggs) total lipids, respectively. Blood was collected hourly for 10 h, and the triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fraction was isolated. Total and individual carotenoid contents, including lutein, zeaxanthin , α-carotene, β-carotene, and lycopene in TRL were analyzed, and composite areas under the curve (AUCs) were calculated. Results: The total mean (±SE) carotenoid AUC0–10h in TRL was higher for the HE meal than for LE and control meals [125.7 ± 19.4a compared with 44.8 ± 9.2b compared with 14.9 ± 5.2b nmol/L · 10 h, respectively (values without a common superscript letter differ); P < 0.0001]. The TRL AUC0–10h of lutein and zeaxanthin increased 4–5-fold (P < 0.001), and the TRL AUC0–10h of carotenoid not present in eggs, including α-carotene, β-carotene, and lycopene, increased 3–8-fold (P < 0.01) for the HE meal compared with the control meal. Conclusion: These findings support the claim that co-consuming cooked whole eggs is an effective way to enhance carotenoid absorption from other carotenoid-rich foods such as a raw mixed

  1. Implementation and effects of an individual stress management intervention for family caregivers of an elderly relative living at home: a mixed research design.

    PubMed

    Ducharme, Francine; Lebel, Paule; Lachance, Lise; Trudeau, Denise

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate the implementation and effects of a stress management intervention for family caregivers of elderly persons. The intervention was implemented through an action research design with the collaboration of case managers working in community health centers. A total of 81 caregivers participated in the study. The quasi-experimental design used to test the effects of the intervention showed significant effects on perceived challenge associated with caregiver role, control by self, use of social support, and use of problem solving. Qualitative data demonstrate caregiver empowerment with respect to the caregiving role. This study illustrates the relevance of using a mixed research design in order to provide evidence for changes in practice. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Suppression of secondary flows in a mixed-flow pump impeller by application of three-dimensional inverse design method. Part 2: Experimental validation

    SciTech Connect

    Goto, A.; Takemura, T.; Zangeneh, M.

    1996-07-01

    In Part 1 of this paper, a mixed-flow pump impeller was designed by a fully three-dimensional inverse design method, aimed at suppressing the secondary flows on the blade suction surface. In this part, the internal flow fields of the impeller are investigated experimentally, using flow visualization and phase-locked measurements of the impeller exit flow, in order to validate the effects of secondary flow suppression. The flow fields are compared with those of a conventional impeller, and it is confirmed that the secondary flows on the blade suction surface are well suppressed and the uniformity of the exit flow fields is improved substantially, in both circumferential and spanwise directions. The effects of tip clearance and the number of blades for the inverse designed impeller are also investigated experimentally and numerically.

  3. PIMR: Parallel and Integrated Matching for Raw Data

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhenghao; Yang, Junying; Zhao, Jiaduo; Han, Peng; Chai, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    With the trend of high-resolution imaging, computational costs of image matching have substantially increased. In order to find the compromise between accuracy and computation in real-time applications, we bring forward a fast and robust matching algorithm, named parallel and integrated matching for raw data (PIMR). This algorithm not only effectively utilizes the color information of raw data, but also designs a parallel and integrated framework to shorten the time-cost in the demosaicing stage. Experiments show that compared to existing state-of-the-art methods, the proposed algorithm yields a comparable recognition rate, while the total time-cost of imaging and matching is significantly reduced. PMID:26729132

  4. Mixed-linker approach in designing porous zirconium-based metal-organic frameworks with high hydrogen storage capacity.

    PubMed

    Naeem, Ayesha; Ting, Valeska P; Hintermair, Ulrich; Tian, Mi; Telford, Richard; Halim, Saaiba; Nowell, Harriott; Hołyńska, Małgorzata; Teat, Simon J; Scowen, Ian J; Nayak, Sanjit

    2016-06-14

    Three highly porous Zr(iv)-based metal-organic frameworks, UBMOF-8, UBMOF-9, and UBMOF-31, were synthesized by using 2,2'-diamino-4,4'-stilbenedicarboxylic acid, 4,4'-stilbenedicarboxylic acid, and combination of both linkers, respectively. The mixed-linker UBMOF-31 showed excellent hydrogen uptake of 4.9 wt% and high selectivity for adsorption of CO2 over N2 with high thermal stability and moderate water stability with permanent porosity and surface area of 2552 m(2) g(-1).

  5. Methodological and practical viewpoints of qualitative-driven mixed method design: the case of decentralisation of primary healthcare services in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Regmi, Krishna

    2017-09-11

    Although considerable attention has been paid to the use of quantitative methods in health research, there has been limited focus on decentralisation research using a qualitative-driven mixed method design. Decentralisation presents both a problematic concept and methodological challenges, and is more context-specific and is often multi-dimensional. Researchers often consider using more than one method design when researching phenomena is complex in nature. Aim To explore the effects of decentralisation on the provision of primary healthcare services. Qualitative-driven mixed method design, employing three methods of data collections: focus group discussions (FGDs), semi-structured interviews (SSIs) and participant observations under two components, that is, core component and supplementary components were used. Four FGDs with health service practitioners, three FGDs with district stakeholders, 20 SSIs with health service users and 20 SSIs with national stakeholders were carried out. These were conducted sequentially. NVivo10, a data management program, was utilised to code the field data, employing a content analysis method for searching the underlying themes or concepts in the text material. Findings Both positive and negative experiences related to access, quality, planning, supplies, coordination and supervision were identified. This study suggests some evidence of the effects of decentralisation on health outcomes in general, as well as filling a gap of understanding and examining healthcare through a qualitative-driven mixed methods approach, in particular. Future research in the area of qualitative in-depth understanding of the problems (why decentralisation, why now and what for) would provoke an important data set that benefits the researchers and policy-makers for planning and implementing effective health services.

  6. Recommendations for analysis of repeated-measures designs: testing and correcting for sphericity and use of manova and mixed model analysis.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Richard A

    2017-09-01

    A common experimental design in ophthalmic research is the repeated-measures design in which at least one variable is a within-subject factor. This design is vulnerable to lack of 'sphericity' which assumes that the variances of the differences among all possible pairs of within-subject means are equal. Traditionally, this design has been analysed using a repeated-measures analysis of variance (RM-anova) but increasingly more complex methods such as multivariate anova (manova) and mixed model analysis (MMA) are being used. This article surveys current practice in the analysis of designs incorporating different factors in research articles published in three optometric journals, namely Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics (OPO), Optometry and Vision Science (OVS), and Clinical and Experimental Optometry (CXO), and provides advice to authors regarding the analysis of repeated-measures designs. Of the total sample of articles, 66% used a repeated-measures design. Of those articles using a repeated-measures design, 59% and 8% analysed the data using RM-anova or manova respectively and 33% used MMA. The use of MMA relative to RM-anova has increased significantly since 2009/10. A further search using terms to select those papers testing and correcting for sphericity ('Mauchly's test', 'Greenhouse-Geisser', 'Huynh and Feld') identified 66 articles, 62% of which were published from 2012 to the present. If the design is balanced without missing data then manova should be used rather than RM-anova as it gives better protection against lack of sphericity. If the design is unbalanced or with missing data then MMA is the method of choice. However, MMA is a more complex analysis and can be difficult to set up and run, and care should be taken first, to define appropriate models to be tested and second, to ensure that sample sizes are adequate. © 2017 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2017 The College of Optometrists.

  7. The Obstacles for the Teaching of 8th Grade TR History of Revolution and Kemalism Course According to the Constructivist Approach (An Example of Exploratory Sequential Mixed Method Design)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karademir, Yavuz; Demir, Selcuk Besir

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to ascertain the problems social studies teachers face in the teaching of topics covered in 8th grade TRHRK Course. The study was conducted in line with explanatory sequential mixed method design, which is one of the mixed research method, was used. The study involves three phases. In the first step, exploratory process…

  8. Usability of a Runtime Environment for the Use of IMS Learning Design in Mixed Mode Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klebl, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Starting from the first public draft of IMS Learning Design in November 2002, a research project at the Catholic University Eichstaett-Ingolstadt in Germany was dedicated to the conceptual examination and empirical review of IMS Learning Design Level A. A prototypical runtime environment called "lab005" was developed. It was built based…

  9. Use of computational fluid dynamics as a tool for establishing process design space for mixing in a bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Rathore, A S; Sharma, C; Persad, And A

    2012-01-01

    The concept of "design space" plays an integral part in implementation of quality by design for pharmaceutical products. ICH Q8 defines design space as "the multidimensional combination and interaction of input variables (e.g., material attributes) and process parameters that have been demonstrated to provide assurance of quality. Working within the design space is not considered as a change. Movement out of the design space is considered to be a change and would normally initiate a regulatory post-approval change process. Design space is proposed by the applicant and is subject to regulatory assessment and approval." Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is increasingly being used as a tool for modeling of hydrodynamics and mass transfer. In this study, a laboratory-scale aerated bioreactor is modeled using CFD. Eulerian-Eulerian multiphase model is used along with dispersed k-ε turbulent model. Population balance model is incorporated to account for bubble breakage and coalescence. Multiple reference frame model is used for the rotating region. We demonstrate the usefulness of CFD modeling for evaluating the effects of typical process parameters like impeller speed, gas flow rate, and liquid height on the mass transfer coefficient (k(L)a). Design of experiments is utilized to establish a design space for the above mentioned parameters for a given permissible range of k(L)a.

  10. Efficient one-stationary bistatic synthetic aperture radar raw data generation based on Fourier analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yulin; Wu, Junjie; Li, Zhongyu; Yang, Haiguang; Yang, Jianyu

    2016-01-01

    Raw data generation for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is very powerful for designing systems and testing imaging algorithms. In this paper, a raw data generation method based on Fourier analysis for one-stationary bistatic SAR is presented. In this mode, two-dimensional (2-D) spatial variation is the major problem faced by the fast Fourier transform-based raw data generation. To deal with this problem, a 2-D linearization followed by a 2-D frequency transformation is employed in this method. This frequency transformation can reflect the 2-D spatial variation. Residual phase compensation is also discussed. Numerical simulation verifies the method.

  11. Design study of an irradiation experiment with inert matrix and mixed-oxide fuel at the Halden boiling water reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasemeyer, U.; Joo, H.-K.; Ledergerber, G.

    1999-08-01

    An effective way to reduce the large quantities of plutonium currently accumulated worldwide would be to use uranium-free fuel in light water reactors (LWRs) so that no new plutonium is produced. To test such a new fuel under reactor conditions and in comparison with standard mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel, an irradiation experiment is planned at the Halden boiling water reactor. The behaviour of three fuel rods consisting of uranium-free fuel will be investigated together with three rods made out of uranium-plutonium mixed-oxide fuel in the same assembly. The fuel compositions were adjusted so that all rods produce a similar power. Because of the moderation with D 2O in the Halden reactor, two different surroundings of the considered assembly were examined to analyze the influence of the flux spectrum on the experiment. This showed that the influence of the spectrum on the material behaviour is negligible. The relation between assembly power and average neutron detector signal as well as the burnup or depletion function was calculated. The assumed power history was adapted to a usual LWR schedule. It is possible to reach a burnup of ˜540 MW d kg HM-1 with the uranium-free fuel and ˜54 MW d kg HM-1 with the MOX fuel after five years of irradiation, which is similar to the average burnup reached in commercial LWRs after four years of operation.

  12. Facile preparation of mono-, di- and mixed-carboxylato platinum(IV) complexes for versatile anticancer prodrug design.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jenny Z; Bonnitcha, Paul; Wexselblatt, Ezequiel; Klein, Alice V; Najajreh, Yousef; Gibson, Dan; Hambley, Trevor W

    2013-01-28

    Facile strategies were developed for the versatile functionalization of platinum(IV) axial sites, allowing for easy accessibility to unsymmetric mono- and mixed-carboxylato, as well as symmetric di-substituted platinum(IV) complexes. The first method involves the direct oxidation and carboxylation of the platinum(II) center using an appropriate peroxide and the carboxylate of choice to firstly yield a monocarboxylato monohydroxido platinum(IV) complex. This platinum(IV) intermediate can undergo further carboxylation to give rise to a mixed-carboxylato platinum(IV) complex. The second method involves the activation of the carboxylate of choice by a common carbodiimide coupling reagent, and its reaction with a dihydroxido platinum(IV) precursor to give the monocarboxylato platinum(IV) complex. Uronium salts can be employed to promote efficient dicarboxylation of the dihydroxido platinum(IV) precursor. Lastly, an axial azide pendant group was demonstrated to be suitable for orthogonal "click" conjugation reactions. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Ligand Symmetry Modulation for Designing Mixed-Ligand Metal-Organic Frameworks: Gas Sorption and Luminescence Sensing Properties.

    PubMed

    Chen, Di-Ming; Tian, Jia-Yue; Liu, Chun-Sen

    2016-09-06

    Herein, we report the synthesis of a new mixed-linker Zn(II)-based metal-organic framework (MOF), {[Zn2(atz)2(bpydb)](DMA)8}n (1) (atz = deprotonated 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, bpydb = deprotonated 4,4'-(4,4'-bipyridine-2,6-diyl) dibenzoic acid, DMA = N,N-dimethylacetamide), through symmetry modulation of a triazole ligand. The desymmetrized triazole linkers not only bond to the Zn(II) ions to result in a new helical Zn-triazolate chain building unit but also lead to the formation of a highly porous framework (N2 uptake: 617 cm(3)/g; BET surface area: 2393 m(2)/g) with 1D helical channels. The adsorption properties of desolved 1 were investigated by H2, C2H2, CO2, and CH4 sorption experiments, which showed that 1 exhibited high uptake capacity for H2 at 77 K and C2H2 around room temperature. More importantly, the high C2H2 uptake capacity but low binding energy makes this MOF a promising candidate for effective C2H2 capture from C2H2/CO2 and C2H2/CH4 mixed gases with low regenerative energy cost. In addition, 1 shows potential application for the luminescence sensing of small aromatic molecules picric acid (PA) and p-xylene (PX).

  14. Mixed effect regression analysis for a cluster-based two-stage outcome-auxiliary-dependent sampling design with a continuous outcome.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wangli; Zhou, Haibo

    2012-09-01

    Two-stage design is a well-known cost-effective way for conducting biomedical studies when the exposure variable is expensive or difficult to measure. Recent research development further allowed one or both stages of the two-stage design to be outcome dependent on a continuous outcome variable. This outcome-dependent sampling feature enables further efficiency gain in parameter estimation and overall cost reduction of the study (e.g. Wang, X. and Zhou, H., 2010. Design and inference for cancer biomarker study with an outcome and auxiliary-dependent subsampling. Biometrics 66, 502-511; Zhou, H., Song, R., Wu, Y. and Qin, J., 2011. Statistical inference for a two-stage outcome-dependent sampling design with a continuous outcome. Biometrics 67, 194-202). In this paper, we develop a semiparametric mixed effect regression model for data from a two-stage design where the second-stage data are sampled with an outcome-auxiliary-dependent sample (OADS) scheme. Our method allows the cluster- or center-effects of the study subjects to be accounted for. We propose an estimated likelihood function to estimate the regression parameters. Simulation study indicates that greater study efficiency gains can be achieved under the proposed two-stage OADS design with center-effects when compared with other alternative sampling schemes. We illustrate the proposed method by analyzing a dataset from the Collaborative Perinatal Project.

  15. A “mix-and-match” approach to designing Ca2+ microdomains at membrane-contact sites

    PubMed Central

    Penny, Christopher J; Kilpatrick, Bethan S; Min Han, Jung; Sneyd, James; Patel, Sandip

    2014-01-01

    Ca2+ microdomains are critical for regulating cellular activity and often form at membrane contact sites. Such sites between lysosomes and the ER potentially provide a platform for signaling by the Ca2+ mobilizing messenger NAADP. However, at present we know little of how Ca2+ release events are coordinated at these experimentally intractable junctions. We therefore developed a computational model of lysosome-ER microdomains, which suggested that small leaks of Ca2+ from the lysosome couple to Ca2+-sensitive Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptors on the ER to generate global, microdomain-dependent Ca2+ signals. Here we discuss how the “mix-and-match” arrangement of different Ca2+ signaling proteins on the “source” and “target” membranes might generate functionally heterogeneous Ca2+ microdomains. PMID:25077010

  16. Process Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Thermochemical Pathway by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, A.; Talmadge, M.; Hensley, J.; Worley, M.; Dudgeon, D.; Barton, D.; Groendijk, P.; Ferrari, D.; Stears, B.; Searcy, E. M.; Wright, C. T.; Hess, J. R.

    2011-05-01

    This design report describes an up-to-date benchmark thermochemical conversion process that incorporates the latest research from NREL and other sources. Building on a design report published in 2007, NREL and its subcontractor Harris Group Inc. performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for a biomass-to-ethanol process via indirect gasification. The conceptual design presented herein considers the economics of ethanol production, assuming the achievement of internal research targets for 2012 and nth-plant costs and financing. The design features a processing capacity of 2,205 U.S. tons (2,000 metric tonnes) of dry biomass per day and an ethanol yield of 83.8 gallons per dry U.S. ton of feedstock. The ethanol selling price corresponding to this design is $2.05 per gallon in 2007 dollars, assuming a 30-year plant life and 40% equity financing with a 10% internal rate of return and the remaining 60% debt financed at 8% interest. This ethanol selling price corresponds to a gasoline equivalent price of $3.11 per gallon based on the relative volumetric energy contents of ethanol and gasoline.

  17. Effects of egg consumption on carotenoid absorption from co-consumed, raw vegetables.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Eun; Gordon, Susannah L; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Campbell, Wayne W

    2015-07-01

    Dietary lipids are one of the most effective stimulators of carotenoid absorption, but very limited data exist on the impact of endogenous food sources of lipids to enhance carotenoid absorption. The co-consumption of whole egg with carotenoid-rich foods may increase overall carotenoid absorption via lipid-rich egg yolk. We designed this study to assess the effects of egg consumption on carotenoid absorption from a carotenoid-rich, raw mixed-vegetable salad. Healthy young men (n = 16) consumed the same salad (all served with 3 g canola oil) with no egg (control), 75 g scrambled whole eggs (1.5 eggs) [low egg (LE)], and 150 g scrambled whole eggs (3 eggs) [high egg (HE)] (a randomized crossover design). Control, LE, and HE meals contained 23 mg, 23.4 mg (0.4 mg from eggs), and 23.8 mg (0.8 mg from eggs) total carotenoids and 3 g, 10.5 g (7.5 g from eggs), and 18 g (15 g from eggs) total lipids, respectively. Blood was collected hourly for 10 h, and the triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fraction was isolated. Total and individual carotenoid contents, including lutein, zeaxanthin , α-carotene, β-carotene, and lycopene in TRL were analyzed, and composite areas under the curve (AUCs) were calculated. The total mean (±SE) carotenoid AUC0-10h in TRL was higher for the HE meal than for LE and control meals [125.7 ± 19.4(a) compared with 44.8 ± 9.2(b) compared with 14.9 ± 5.2(b) nmol/L · 10 h, respectively (values without a common superscript letter differ); P < 0.0001]. The TRL AUC(0-10h) of lutein and zeaxanthin increased 4-5-fold (P < 0.001), and the TRL AUC(0-10h) of carotenoid not present in eggs, including α-carotene, β-carotene, and lycopene, increased 3-8-fold (P < 0.01) for the HE meal compared with the control meal. These findings support the claim that co-consuming cooked whole eggs is an effective way to enhance carotenoid absorption from other carotenoid-rich foods such as a raw mixed-vegetable salad. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials

  18. Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides an overview Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System water quality modeling and decision support system designed for environmental impact assessment of mixing zones resulting from wastewater discharge from point sources

  19. Designing mixed species tree plantations for the tropics: balancing ecological attributes of species with landholder preferences in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huong; Lamb, David; Herbohn, John; Firn, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    A mixed species reforestation program known as the Rainforestation Farming system was undertaken in the Philippines to develop forms of farm forestry more suitable for smallholders than the simple monocultural plantations commonly used then. In this study, we describe the subsequent changes in stand structure and floristic composition of these plantations in order to learn from the experience and develop improved prescriptions for reforestation systems likely to be attractive to smallholders. We investigated stands aged from 6 to 11 years old on three successive occasions over a 6 year period. We found the number of species originally present in the plots as trees >5 cm dbh decreased from an initial total of 76 species to 65 species at the end of study period. But, at the same time, some new species reached the size class threshold and were recruited into the canopy layer. There was a substantial decline in tree density from an estimated stocking of about 5000 trees per ha at the time of planting to 1380 trees per ha at the time of the first measurement; the density declined by a further 4.9% per year. Changes in composition and stand structure were indicated by a marked shift in the Importance Value Index of species. Over six years, shade-intolerant species became less important and the native shade-tolerant species (often Dipterocarps) increased in importance. Based on how the Rainforestation Farming plantations developed in these early years, we suggest that mixed-species plantations elsewhere in the humid tropics should be around 1000 trees per ha or less, that the proportion of fast growing (and hence early maturing) trees should be about 30-40% of this initial density and that any fruit tree component should only be planted on the plantation margin where more light and space are available for crowns to develop.

  20. Designing Mixed Species Tree Plantations for the Tropics: Balancing Ecological Attributes of Species with Landholder Preferences in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Huong; Lamb, David; Herbohn, John; Firn, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    A mixed species reforestation program known as the Rainforestation Farming system was undertaken in the Philippines to develop forms of farm forestry more suitable for smallholders than the simple monocultural plantations commonly used then. In this study, we describe the subsequent changes in stand structure and floristic composition of these plantations in order to learn from the experience and develop improved prescriptions for reforestation systems likely to be attractive to smallholders. We investigated stands aged from 6 to 11 years old on three successive occasions over a 6 year period. We found the number of species originally present in the plots as trees >5 cm dbh decreased from an initial total of 76 species to 65 species at the end of study period. But, at the same time, some new species reached the size class threshold and were recruited into the canopy layer. There was a substantial decline in tree density from an estimated stocking of about 5000 trees per ha at the time of planting to 1380 trees per ha at the time of the first measurement; the density declined by a further 4.9% per year. Changes in composition and stand structure were indicated by a marked shift in the Importance Value Index of species. Over six years, shade-intolerant species became less important and the native shade-tolerant species (often Dipterocarps) increased in importance. Based on how the Rainforestation Farming plantations developed in these early years, we suggest that mixed-species plantations elsewhere in the humid tropics should be around 1000 trees per ha or less, that the proportion of fast growing (and hence early maturing) trees should be about 30–40% of this initial density and that any fruit tree component should only be planted on the plantation margin where more light and space are available for crowns to develop. PMID:24751720

  1. Nitrogen metabolism of four raw meat diets in domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Katherine R; Beloshapka, Alison N; Morris, Cheryl L; Swanson, Kelly S

    2011-10-01

    Little nutritional information has been collected from domestic cats fed raw meat diets. The objective of the present study was to evaluate differences in N metabolism of domestic cats fed raw beef-based diet (66 % crude protein (CP) and 20 % fat), bison-based diet (49 % CP and 39 % fat), elk-based diet (79 % CP and 6 % fat) and horse-based diet (60 % CP and 26 % fat). A total of eight intact adult female cats were fed to maintain body weight in a cross-over design. Daily food intake, faecal and urinary outputs, and N metabolism were measured. Dietary N was highly digestible (96.8 (SEM 0.7)) for all treatments. Urinary N accounted for a majority of total N excretion, and differences in total N excretion reflect differences in urinary N. Differences in N intake and N absorption were due to differences in CP levels among diets. N retention was similar to values reported in the literature for domestic cats fed purified and traditional extruded diets. Despite differences in protein concentrations and N intake, all raw meats tested maintained N metabolism.

  2. The effect of passive mixing on pressure drop and oxygen mass fraction using opposing channel flow field design in a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Anant Bir

    This study investigates a flow field with opposing channel design. Previous studies on flow field designs have been focused on improving fuel utilization which often leads to increased pressure drop. This increased pressure drop is typical because standard designs employ either a single flow channel to clear blockages or dead end condition to force the flow through the gas diffusion layer. The disadvantage with these designs is the increased resistance to the flow which requires higher pressure, which becomes a parasitic loss that lowers the system efficiency. For this study the focus was to reduce the pressure drop by providing a less resistive path to the flow. To achieve a less resistive path, the inlet channel was split into two opposing channels. These channels are then recombined only to be split again for the next leg. Therefore, the split channel design should reduce the pressure drop which reduces the parasitic load and ultimately contributes to higher system efficiency. In addition the recombining of the streams at each leg should induce mixing. Having opposing channels should also increase cross flow under the lands to reduce mass transfer loses. The cathode side of the fuel cell is especially sensitive to the mass transport losses since air (oxygen mixed with nitrogen) is used for supplying oxygen unlike the anode side which uses pure hydrogen. To test the hypothesis of having benefits from an opposing channel design, both an experimental and analytical approach was taken. For the experiment, a serpentine flow field and opposing channel flow field plates were compared over several flow rates with compressed air. To test the hypothesis of increased mass transfer, the two flow fields were modeled using a CFD software package, COMSOL. It was found that the opposing channel configuration for high flow rate with multiple entry and exit conditions exhibited significant improvement over the single serpentine channel. Pressure drop was ⅓ less than the

  3. Novel real-time PCR method to detect Escherichia coli O157:H7 in raw milk cheese and raw ground meat.

    PubMed

    Miszczycha, Stéphane D; Ganet, Sarah; Duniere, Lysiane; Rozand, Christine; Loukiadis, Estelle; Thevenot-Sergentet, Delphine

    2012-08-01

    Raw milk, raw milk cheeses, and raw ground meat have been implicated in Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks. Developing methods to detect these bacteria in raw milk and meat products is a major challenge for food safety. The aim of our study was to develop a real-time PCR assay to detect E. coli O157:H7 in raw milk cheeses and raw ground meat. Well-known primers targeting a mutation at position +93 of the uidA gene in E. coli O157:H7 were chosen, and a specific TaqMan-minor groove binder probe was designed. This probe targets another mutation, at position +191 of the uidA gene in E. coli O157:H7. The first step in the study was to evaluate the specificity of this probe with 156 different O157:H7/NM strains and 48 non-O157:H7/NM strains of E. coli. The sensitivity of the method was evaluated by pre- and postinoculation of cheeses and meat enrichments with different E. coli O157:H7 strains. All the E. coli O157:H7 isolates tested were positive, and none of the other bacteria were detected. Our results indicate that this method is sensitive enough to detect 10(2) E. coli O157:H7 isolates per ml of cheese or meat enrichment broth (24 h at 41.5° C) and is more sensitive than the International Organization for Standardization reference method. We can conclude that this new real-time PCR protocol is a useful tool for rapid, specific, and sensitive detection of E. coli O157:H7 in raw milk and raw ground meat products.

  4. Offering “dip” promotes intake of a moderately-liked raw vegetable among preschoolers with genetic sensitivity to bitterness.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jennifer O; Mennella, Julie A; Hughes, Sheryl O; Liu, Yan; Mendoza, Patricia M; Patrick, Heather

    2012-02-01

    Evidence-based strategies for promoting vegetable consumption among children are limited. To determine the effects of providing a palatable “dip” along with repeated exposure to a raw vegetable on preschoolers' liking and intake. One hundred fifty-two predominately Hispanic preschool-aged children studied in Head Start classrooms in 2008. A between-subjects, quasiexperimental design was used. A moderately-liked raw vegetable (broccoli) was offered twice weekly at afternoon snacks for 7 weeks. Classrooms were randomized to receive broccoli in one of four conditions differing in the provision of dip. Bitter taste sensitivity was assessed using 6-n-propylthiouracil. Broccoli was provided in four conditions: with regular salad dressing as a dip, with a light (reduced energy/fat) version of the dressing as a dip, mixed with the regular dressing as a sauce, or plain (without dressing). Mean broccoli intake during 7 weeks of exposure and broccoli liking following exposure. Descriptive statistics were generated. Multilevel models for repeated measures tested effects of condition and bitter sensitivity on mean broccoli intake during exposure and on pre- and post-exposure liking while adjusting for classroom effects and potential covariates. The majority of Hispanic preschoolers (70%) showed sensitivity to the bitter taste of 6-n-propylthiouracil. Children's broccoli liking increased following exposure but did not vary by dip condition or bitter sensitivity. Bitter-sensitive children, however, ate 80% more broccoli with dressing than when served plain (P<0.001); effects did vary based on whether regular or light dressing was provided as a dip or sauce. Dip did not promote broccoli intake among bitter-insensitive children. Providing dip—regular, light, or as a sauce—increased raw broccoli intake among bitter-sensitive Hispanic preschoolers. Findings suggest that offering low-fat dips can promote vegetable intake among some children who are sensitive to bitter tastes.

  5. Fuel fabrication processes, design and experimental conditions for the joint US-Swiss mixed carbide test in FFTF (AC-3 test)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratton, R. W.; Ledergerber, G.; Ingold, F.; Latimer, T. W.; Chidester, K. M.

    1993-09-01

    The preparation of mixed carbide fuel for a joint (US-Swiss) irradiation test in the US Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is described, together with the experiment design and the irradiation conditions. Two fabrication routes were compared. The US produced 66 fuel pins containing pellet fuel via the powder-pellet (dry) route, and the Swiss group produced 25 sphere pac pins of mixed carbide using the internal gelation (wet) route. Both sets of fuel met all the requirements of the specifications concerning stoichiometry, chemical composition and structure. The pin designs were as similar as possible. The test operated successfully in the FFTF for 620 effective full power days until October 1988 and reached over 8% burn up with peak powers of around 80 kW/m. The conclusions were that the choice of sphere pac or pellet fuel for reactor application is dependent on preferred differences in fabrication (e.g. economics and environmental factors) and not on differences in irradiation behaviour.

  6. Crystallographic raw data, education and refereeing.

    PubMed

    Helliwell, John R

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the preservation of raw diffraction data, then addresses the impact on future plans in the education and training of our community with respect to raw diffraction data and its potential reuse, and, thirdly presents the issue of referee access to the underpinning diffraction data and coordinates, as well as the Protein Data Bank Validation Report, in the review process of structural biology articles submitted for publication. Overall I pay tribute to the scientific achievements of Alex Wlodawer, who is also an ardent advocate of the importance of experimental data.

  7. A New Long-Term Care Facilities Model in Nova Scotia, Canada: Protocol for a Mixed Methods Study of Care by Design

    PubMed Central

    Boudreau, Michelle Anne; Jensen, Jan L; Edgecombe, Nancy; Clarke, Barry; Burge, Frederick; Archibald, Greg; Taylor, Anthony; Andrew, Melissa K

    2013-01-01

    Background Prior to the implementation of a new model of care in long-term care facilities in the Capital District Health Authority, Halifax, Nova Scotia, residents entering long-term care were responsible for finding their own family physician. As a result, care was provided by many family physicians responsible for a few residents leading to care coordination and continuity challenges. In 2009, Capital District Health Authority (CDHA) implemented a new model of long-term care called “Care by Design” which includes: a dedicated family physician per floor, 24/7 on-call physician coverage, implementation of a standardized geriatric assessment tool, and an interdisciplinary team approach to care. In addition, a new Emergency Health Services program was implemented shortly after, in which specially trained paramedics dedicated to long-term care responses are able to address urgent care needs. These changes were implemented to improve primary and emergency care for vulnerable residents. Here we describe a comprehensive mixed methods research study designed to assess the impact of these programs on care delivery and resident outcomes. The results of this research will be important to guide primary care policy for long-term care. Objective We aim to evaluate the impact of introducing a new model of a dedicated primary care physician and team approach to long-term care facilities in the CDHA using a mixed methods approach. As a mixed methods study, the quantitative and qualitative data findings will inform each other. Quantitatively we will measure a number of indicators of care in CDHA long-term care facilities pre and post-implementation of the new model. In the qualitative phase of the study we will explore the experience under the new model from the perspectives of stakeholders including family doctors, nurses, administration and staff as well as residents and family members. The proposed mixed method study seeks to evaluate and make policy recommendations related

  8. The Mixed Proportion of Business Knowledge Courses and English Language Courses in Business English Curriculum Design in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Wenzhong; Liu, Xuyang

    2014-01-01

    Business English in China has evolved into a degree programme from an ESP teaching programme in the past decades. The degree programme of Business English major intends to cultivate multi-skilled talents of foreign language to better satisfy the real needs of society and economy through curriculum design and teaching method innovation activities.…

  9. Using an Iterative Mixed-Methods Research Design to Investigate Schools Facing Exceptionally Challenging Circumstances within Trinidad and Tobago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Lisle, Jerome; Seunarinesingh, Krishna; Mohammed, Rhoda; Lee-Piggott, Rinnelle

    2017-01-01

    In this study, methodology and theory were linked to explicate the nature of education practice within schools facing exceptionally challenging circumstances (SFECC) in Trinidad and Tobago. The research design was an iterative quan>QUAL-quan>qual multi-method research programme, consisting of 3 independent projects linked together by overall…

  10. Future Force Warrior, Engineering Design Event Number 4. Virtual Environment Study of Sensor Mix Effects on Ground Soldiers Situational Awareness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) October 2005 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...and PAPR (leg) and PAVS abdomen inlet...........................................................8 Figure 6. FFW design cycle III (leader...71 Figure 42. PAVS, large ( abdomen inlet), belt and leg mounts

  11. Investigation of thermal properties of raw materials of asphalt mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Géber, R.; Simon, A.; Kocserha, I.

    2017-02-01

    Asphalt mixtures are composite materials, which are made of different grades of mineral aggregates and bitumen. During the mixing process mineral materials were blended with bitumen at relatively high temperature (∼200 °C). As the binding process come off in these higher temperature range, thermal properties of asphaltic materials are important. The aim of this project is to reveal the thermal properties of raw materials. During our research two types of mineral aggregates were tested (limestone and dolomite) by different methods. Differential thermal analysis, thermal expansion and thermal conductivity were investigated at technologically important temperatures. The results showed that the structure of mineral materials did not change at elevated temperatures, expansion of samples was neglible, while thermal conductivity changed by temperature.

  12. Orchestrating Proactive and Reactive Mechanisms for Filtering Distracting Information: Brain-Behavior Relationships Revealed by a Mixed-Design fMRI Study.

    PubMed

    Marini, Francesco; Demeter, Elise; Roberts, Kenneth C; Chelazzi, Leonardo; Woldorff, Marty G

    2016-01-20

    Given the information overload often imparted to human cognitive-processing systems, suppression of irrelevant and distracting information is essential for successful behavior. Using a hybrid block/event-related fMRI design, we characterized proactive and reactive brain mechanisms for filtering distracting stimuli. Participants performed a flanker task, discriminating the direction of a target arrow in the presence versus absence of congruent or incongruent flanking distracting arrows during either Pure blocks (distracters always absent) or Mixed blocks (distracters on 80% of trials). Each Mixed block had either 20% or 60% incongruent trials. Activations in the dorsal frontoparietal attention network during Mixed versus Pure blocks evidenced proactive (blockwise) recruitment of a distraction-filtering mechanism. Sustained activations in right middle frontal gyrus during 60% Incongruent blocks correlated positively with behavioral indices of distraction-filtering (slowing when distracters might occur) and negatively with distraction-related behavioral costs (incongruent vs congruent trials), suggesting a role in coordinating proactive filtering of potential distracters. Event-related analyses showed that incongruent trials elicited greater reactive activations in 20% (vs 60%) Incongruent blocks for counteracting distraction and conflict, including in the insula and anterior cingulate. Context-related effects in occipitoparietal cortex consisted of greater target-evoked activations for distracter-absent trials (central-target-only) in Mixed versus Pure blocks, suggesting enhanced attentional engagement. Functional-localizer analyses in V1/V2/V3 revealed less distracter-processing activity in 60% (vs 20%) Incongruent blocks, presumably reflecting tonic suppression by proactive filtering mechanisms. These results delineate brain mechanisms underlying proactive and reactive filtering of distraction and conflict, and how they are orchestrated depending on distraction

  13. Solid propellant processing factor in rocket motor design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The ways are described by which propellant processing is affected by choices made in designing rocket engines. Tradeoff studies, design proof or scaleup studies, and special design features are presented that are required to obtain high product quality, and optimum processing costs. Processing is considered to include the operational steps involved with the lining and preparation of the motor case for the grain; the procurement of propellant raw materials; and propellant mixing, casting or extrusion, curing, machining, and finishing. The design criteria, recommended practices, and propellant formulations are included.

  14. Design in nonlinear mixed effects models: optimization using the Fedorov-Wynn algorithm and power of the Wald test for binary covariates.

    PubMed

    Retout, Sylvie; Comets, Emmanuelle; Samson, Adeline; Mentré, France

    2007-12-10

    We extend the methodology for designs evaluation and optimization in nonlinear mixed effects models with an illustration of the decrease of human immunodeficiency virus viral load after antiretroviral treatment initiation described by a bi-exponential model. We first show the relevance of the predicted standard errors (SEs) given by the computation of the population Fisher information matrix using the R function PFIM, in comparison to those computed with the stochastic approximation expectation-maximization algorithm, implemented in the Monolix software. We then highlight the usefulness of the Fedorov-Wynn (FW) algorithm for designs optimization compared to the Simplex algorithm. From the predicted SE of PFIM, we compute the predicted power of the Wald test to detect a treatment effect as well as the number of subjects needed to achieve a given power. Using the FW algorithm, we investigate the influence of the design on the power and show that, for optimized designs with the same total number of samples, the power increases when the number of subjects increases and the number of samples per subject decreases. A simulation study is also performed with the nlme function of R to confirm this result and show the relevance of the predicted powers compared to those observed by simulation.

  15. Winchester/Camberley Homes New Construction Test House Design, Construction, and Short-Term Testing in a Mixed-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Mallav, D.; Wiehagen, J.; Wood, A.

    2012-10-01

    The NAHB Research Center partnered with production builder Winchester/Camberley Homes to build a DOE Building America New Construction Test House (NCTH). This single family, detached house, located in the mixed-humid climate zone of Silver Spring, MD, was completed in June 2011. The primary goal for this house was to improve energy efficiency by 30% over the Building America B10 benchmark by developing and implementing an optimized energy solutions package design that could be cost effectively and reliably constructed on a production basis using quality management practices. The intent of this report is to outline the features of this house, discuss the implementation of the energy efficient design, and report on short-term testing results. During the interactive design process of this project, numerous iterations of the framing, air sealing, insulation, and space conditioning systems were evaluated for energy performance, cost, and practical implementation. The final design featured numerous advanced framing techniques, high levels of insulation, and the HVAC system entirely within conditioned space. Short-term testing confirmed a very tight thermal envelope and efficient and effective heating and cooling. In addition, relevant heating, cooling, humidity, energy, and wall cavity moisture data will be collected and presented in a future long-term report.

  16. An Indirect Mixed-Sensitivity Approach to Microgravity Vibration Isolation: The Exploitation of Kinematic Coupling In Frequency-weighting Design-Filter Selections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, R. David; Whorton, Mark S.

    2000-01-01

    Many space-science experiments need an active isolation system to provide them with the requisite microgravity environment. The isolation systems planned for use with the International Space Station have been appropriately modeled using relative position relative velocity, and acceleration states. In theory, frequency-weighting design filters can be applied to these state-space models, in order to develop optimal H2 or mixed-norm controllers with desired stability and performance characteristics. In practice, however, the kinematic coupling among the various states can lead, through the associated frequency-weighting-filters, to conflicting demands on the Riccati design "machinery." The results can be numerically ill-conditioned regulator and estimator Riccati equations and/or reduced intuition in the design process. In addition, kinematic coupling can result in a redundancy in the demands imposed by the frequency weights. Failure properly to account for this type of coupling can lead to an unnecessary increase in controller dimensionality and, in turn, controller complexity. This paper suggests a rational approach to the assignment of frequency-weighting design filters, in the presence of the kinematic coupling among states that exists in the microgravity vibration isolation problem.

  17. An Indirect Mixed-Sensitivity Approach to Microgravity Vibration Isolation: The Exploitation of Kinematic Coupling In Frequency-Weighting Design-Filter Selections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, R. David; Whorton, Mark S.

    2000-01-01

    Many space science experiments need an active isolation system to provide them with the requisite microgravity environment. The isolation systems planned for use with the International Space Station have been appropriately modeled using relative position, relative velocity, and acceleration states. In theory, frequency design filters can be applied to these state-space models, in order to develop optimal H, or mixed-norm controllers with desired stability- and performance characteristics. In practice. however, the kinematic coupling among the various states can lead, through the associated frequency-weighting-filters, to conflicting demands on the Riccati design "machinery." The results can be numerically ill-conditioned regulator and estimator Riccati equations and/or reduced intuition in the design process. In addition, kinematic coupling can result in a redundancy in the demands imposed by the frequency weights. Failure properly to account for this type of coupling can lead to an unnecessary increase in controller dimensionality and, in turn, controller complexity. This paper suggests a rational approach to the assignment of frequency weighting design filters, in the presence of the kinematic coupling among states that exists in the microgravity vibration isolation problem.

  18. Design and testing of a boron carbide capsule for spectral-tailoring in mixed-spectrum reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, L.R.; Wittman, R.; Pierson, B.P.; Metz, L.A.; Payne, R.; Finn, E.C.; Friese, J.I.

    2011-07-01

    A boron carbide capsule has been designed and used for spectral-tailoring experiments at the TRIGA reactor at Washington State Univ.. Irradiations were conducted in pulsed mode and in continuous operation for up to 4 h. A cadmium cover was used to reduce thermal heating. The neutron spectrum calculated with the Monte Carlo N-particle transport code was found to be in good agreement with reactor dosimetry measurements using the STAY'SL computer code. The neutron spectrum resembles that of a fast reactor. The design of a capsule using boron carbide fully enriched in {sup 10}B shows that it is possible to produce a neutron spectrum similar to that of {sup 235}U fission. (authors)

  19. Experimental Watershed Study Designs: A Tool for Advancing Process Understanding and Management of Mixed-Land-Use Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbart, J. A.; Kellner, R. E.; Zeiger, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    Advancements in watershed management are both a major challenge, and urgent need of this century. The experimental watershed study (EWS) approach provides critical baseline and long-term information that can improve decision-making, and reduce misallocation of mitigation investments. Historically, the EWS approach was used in wildland watersheds to quantitatively characterize basic landscape alterations (e.g. forest harvest, road building). However, in recent years, EWS is being repurposed in contemporary multiple-land-use watersheds comprising a mosaic of land use practices such as urbanizing centers, industry, agriculture, and rural development. The EWS method provides scalable and transferrable results that address the uncertainties of development, while providing a scientific basis for total maximum daily load (TMDL) targets in increasing numbers of Clean Water Act 303(d) listed waters. Collaborative adaptive management (CAM) programs, designed to consider the needs of many stakeholders, can also benefit from EWS-generated information, which can be used for best decision making, and serve as a guidance tool throughout the CAM program duration. Of similar importance, long-term EWS monitoring programs create a model system to show stakeholders how investing in rigorous scientific research initiatives improves decision-making, thereby increasing management efficiencies through more focused investments. The evolution from classic wildland EWS designs to contemporary EWS designs in multiple-land-use watersheds will be presented while illustrating how such an approach can encourage innovation, cooperation, and trust among watershed stakeholders working to reach the common goal of improving and sustaining hydrologic regimes and water quality.

  20. User-generated quality standards for youth mental health in primary care: a participatory research design using mixed methods

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Tanya; Rose, Diana; Murray, Joanna; Ashworth, Mark; Tylee, André

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To develop user-generated quality standards for young people with mental health problems in primary care using a participatory research model. Methods 50 young people aged 16–25 from community settings and primary care participated in focus groups and interviews about their views and experiences of seeking help for mental health problems in primary care, cofacilitated by young service users and repeated to ensure respondent validation. A second group of young people also aged 16–25 who had sought help for any mental health problem from primary care or secondary care within the last 5 years were trained as focus groups cofacilitators (n=12) developed the quality standards from the qualitative data and participated in four nominal groups (n=28). Results 46 quality standards were developed and ranked by young service users. Agreement was defined as 100% of scores within a two-point region. Group consensus existed for 16 quality standards representing the following aspects of primary care: better advertising and information (three); improved competence through mental health training and skill mix within the practice (two); alternatives to medication (three); improved referral protocol (three); and specific questions and reassurances (five). Alternatives to medication and specific questions and reassurances are aspects of quality which have not been previously reported. Conclusions We have demonstrated the feasibility of using participatory research methods in order to develop user-generated quality standards. The development of patient-generated quality standards may offer a more formal method of incorporating the views of service users into quality improvement initiatives. This method can be adapted for generating quality standards applicable to other patient groups. PMID:24920648

  1. The German Young Olympic Athletes' Lifestyle and Health Management Study (GOAL Study): design of a mixed-method study.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Ansgar; Diehl, Katharina; Giel, Katrin E; Schnell, Alexia; Schubring, Astrid M; Mayer, Jochen; Zipfel, Stephan; Schneider, Sven

    2011-05-31

    In order to perform at top levels, elite athletes have to both protect and risk their health at the same time. Adolescent elite athletes have the additional challenge of coping with substantial physical, psychological and social transformations. The contradictory phenomenon of protecting and risking the adolescent athletes' health in sports challenges the development of health promotion and protection strategies. The GOAL Study (German Young Olympic Athletes' Lifestyle and Health Management Study) analyzes the individual and organizational management of health in adolescent elite sports. We combine quantitative and qualitative approaches in a mixed-method study. This allows us to gather a broad range of representative information on squad athletes from all Olympic disciplines as well as in-depth information on four selected Olympic disciplines (artistic gymnastics, biathlon, handball and wrestling). Within the quantitative section we attempt to identify the young athletes' health and nutrition behavior, their subjective health state and their lay health representations, health-related social networks, and structures of medical attendance. 1138 national team level athletes born between 1992 and 1995 from 51 Olympic disciplines responded to the questionnaire (response rate: 61,75%). The qualitative section investigates the meaning and relevance of health and nutrition within the athletes' sports specific surroundings, the impact of biographic backgrounds on individual health behavior, and sports specific cultures of health, nutrition and risk. We interviewed 24 athletes and 28 coaching and medical experts, and carried out 14 multi-day participant observations at training sessions and competitions. The studies' results will serve as the basis for developing tailored health promotion strategies to be in cooperation with German elite sports associations.

  2. Minimization of Salmonella Contamination on Raw Poultry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many reviews have discussed Salmonella in poultry and suggested best practices to minimize this organism on raw poultry meat. Despite years of research and conscientious control efforts by industry and regulatory agencies, human salmonellosis rates have declined only modestly and Salmonella is stil...

  3. 7 CFR 29.2543 - Raw.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Raw. 29.2543 Section 29.2543 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... tobacco as it appears between the time of harvesting and the beginning of the curing process. [37 FR 13626...

  4. 7 CFR 29.1052 - Raw.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Raw. 29.1052 Section 29.1052 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... curing process. [42 FR 21092, Apr. 25, 1977. Redesignated at 47 FR 51721, Nov. 17, 1982, 48 FR 29671...

  5. 7 CFR 29.3540 - Raw.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Raw. 29.3540 Section 29.3540 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... harvesting and the beginning of the curing process. [30 FR 9207, July 23, 1965. Redesignated at 49 FR 16759...

  6. 7 CFR 29.3051 - Raw.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Raw. 29.3051 Section 29.3051 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... beginning of the curing process. [24 FR 8771, Oct. 29, 1959. Redesignated at 47 FR 51722, Nov. 17, 1982, and...

  7. Quality aspects of raw milk cheeses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cheese has been a part of the human diet for thousands of years and over the centuries cheesemakers have relied on the indigenous microflora and enzymes in raw milk to create the signature quality traits for the many different varieties of cheese found around the world. Although most of the cheese i...

  8. PoroTomo: DTS Raw Data

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Coleman

    2016-03-26

    The submitted data correspond to the complete raw temperature datasets captured by the DTS horizontal and vertical arrays during the PoroTomo Experiment. Files in each submitted resource include: .xml (level 0): Data that includes Stokes, Anti-Stokes, and Temperature data .csv (level 1): Data that includes temperature PT100: Reference probe data

  9. [Coliform bacteria in raw and pasteurized milk].

    PubMed

    Kaloianov, I; Gogov, I

    1977-01-01

    Studied were 360 samples of raw and 1404 samples of pasteurized milk, collected from three milk centers, for the presence of coliform bacteria. It was found that the coli titer of the raw milk varied from 10(-5) up to 10(-7), depending on the season. The regimes of pasteurization applied kill 100 per cent of the present coli organisms. After the thermic treatment the milk was additionally contaminated with coli forms from the containers and the equipment in dependence on the conditions of washing and disinfection. The coli titer of the pasteurized milk varied from 1 to 10(-3). A total of 602 strains of coliform bacteria were isolated from the pasteurized and the raw milk; the bacteria were differentiated by the scheme of Kauffmann. Most commonly encountered were the coli forms of the following genera:Citrobacter (35 per cent), Enterobacter (29.8 per cent), Klebsiella (23.9 per cent), and Escherichia (11.3 per cent). The following species were prevailing in raw milk: Kl. aerogenes, Ent. aerogenes, Ent. cloacae, C. freundi, and C. intermedium. In pasteurized milk dominating were Kl. aerogenes, C. freundi. Ent. aerogenes, and Ent. cloacae.

  10. Recent advances in cured raw ham manufacture.

    PubMed

    Bosse, Ramona; Müller, Anne; Gibis, Monika; Weiss, Agnes; Schmidt, Herbert; Weiss, Jochen

    2016-07-28

    Cured raw hams are a valuable and popular group of meat products. The consumption and international trade have increased during the last years, therefore new technologies to accelerate the production process and to increase product quality and safety are needed. In the current review, an overview of European protected cured raw hams is presented. Furthermore, traditional methods for cured raw ham production together with recent advantages in the techniques for pre-treatment (trimming, blade tenderization, freeze-thawing), curing/salting (tumbling, vacuum impregnation, pulsed pressure, ultrasound, pulsed electric fields, simultaneous thawing/salting), drying/ripening (Quick-Dry-Slice-process, oil drop application, high temperature short time process) and post-processing (vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging, high hydrostatic pressure, high pressure carbon dioxide, high pressure carbon dioxide with ultrasound) are described. Moreover, application techniques and effects of protective cultures and starter cultures, such as molds, yeasts, coagulase-negative staphylococci and lactic acid bacteria, on cured raw ham quality and safety are reviewed.

  11. Upgrading of raw oil into advanced fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The overall objective of the research effort is the determination of the minimum processing requirements to produce high energy density fuels (HEDF) having acceptable fuel specifications. The program encompasses assessing current technology capability; selecting acceptable processing and refining schemes; and generating samples of advanced test fuels. The Phase I Baseline Program is intended to explore the processing alternatives for producing advanced HEDF from two raw synfuel feedstocks, one from Mild Coal Gasification as exemplified by the COALITE process and one from Colorado shale oil. Eight key tasks have been identified as follows: (1) Planning and Environmental Permitting; (2) Transporting and Storage of Raw Fuel Sources and Products; (3) Screening of Processing and Upgrading Schemes; (4) Proposed Upgrading Schemes for Advanced Fuel; (5) Upgrading of Raw Oil into Advanced Fuel (6) Packaging and Shipment of Advanced Fuels; (7) Updated Technical and Economic Assessment; and, (8) Final Report of Phase I Efforts. This topical report summarizes the operations and results of the Phase I Task 5 sample preparation program. The specific objectives of Task 5 were to: Perform laboratory characterization tests on the raw COALITE feed, the intermediate liquids to the required hydroprocessing units and final advanced fuels and byproducts; and produce a minimum of 25-gal of Category I test fuel for evaluation by DOE and its contractors.

  12. Bacterial spores in silage and raw milk.

    PubMed

    te Giffel, M C; Wagendorp, A; Herrewegh, A; Driehuis, F

    2002-08-01

    Spore-forming bacteria can survive food-processing treatments. In the dairy industry, Bacillus and Clostridium species determine the shelf-life of a variety of heat-treated milk products, mainly if the level of post-process contamination is low. In order to minimize problems caused by bacterial spores in foods and food production processes a chain management approach, from raw materials, ingredients and environmental sources to final product storage conditions, is most effective. Silage is considered to be a significant source of contamination of raw milk with spores. PCR-RAPD fingerprinting and heat resistance studies of populations of aerobic spore-formers isolated from grass and maize silage and from raw milk confirmed this assumption. Prevention of outgrowth of aerobic spores in silage will contribute to reduction of the total spore load of raw milk. Therefore, it is important that the silage fermentation process is controlled. Application of cultures of lactic acid bacteria or chemical additives can aid silage fermentation and improve aerobic stability.

  13. A Fast Synthetic Aperture Radar Raw Data Simulation Using Cloud Computing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhixin; Su, Dandan; Zhu, Haijiang; Li, Wei; Zhang, Fan; Li, Ruirui

    2017-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) raw data simulation is a fundamental problem in radar system design and imaging algorithm research. The growth of surveying swath and resolution results in a significant increase in data volume and simulation period, which can be considered to be a comprehensive data intensive and computing intensive issue. Although several high performance computing (HPC) methods have demonstrated their potential for accelerating simulation, the input/output (I/O) bottleneck of huge raw data has not been eased. In this paper, we propose a cloud computing based SAR raw data simulation algorithm, which employs the MapReduce model to accelerate the raw data computing and the Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS) for fast I/O access. The MapReduce model is designed for the irregular parallel accumulation of raw data simulation, which greatly reduces the parallel efficiency of graphics processing unit (GPU) based simulation methods. In addition, three kinds of optimization strategies are put forward from the aspects of programming model, HDFS configuration and scheduling. The experimental results show that the cloud computing based algorithm achieves 4× speedup over the baseline serial approach in an 8-node cloud environment, and each optimization strategy can improve about 20%. This work proves that the proposed cloud algorithm is capable of solving the computing intensive and data intensive issues in SAR raw data simulation, and is easily extended to large scale computing to achieve higher acceleration. PMID:28075343

  14. A Fast Synthetic Aperture Radar Raw Data Simulation Using Cloud Computing.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhixin; Su, Dandan; Zhu, Haijiang; Li, Wei; Zhang, Fan; Li, Ruirui

    2017-01-08

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) raw data simulation is a fundamental problem in radar system design and imaging algorithm research. The growth of surveying swath and resolution results in a significant increase in data volume and simulation period, which can be considered to be a comprehensive data intensive and computing intensive issue. Although several high performance computing (HPC) methods have demonstrated their potential for accelerating simulation, the input/output (I/O) bottleneck of huge raw data has not been eased. In this paper, we propose a cloud computing based SAR raw data simulation algorithm, which employs the MapReduce model to accelerate the raw data computing and the Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS) for fast I/O access. The MapReduce model is designed for the irregular parallel accumulation of raw data simulation, which greatly reduces the parallel efficiency of graphics processing unit (GPU) based simulation methods. In addition, three kinds of optimization strategies are put forward from the aspects of programming model, HDFS configuration and scheduling. The experimental results show that the cloud computing based algorithm achieves 4_ speedup over the baseline serial approach in an 8-node cloud environment, and each optimization strategy can improve about 20%. This work proves that the proposed cloud algorithm is capable of solving the computing intensive and data intensive issues in SAR raw data simulation, and is easily extended to large scale computing to achieve higher acceleration.

  15. Rational design of high-responsivity detectors of terahertz radiation based on distributed self-mixing in silicon field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisauskas, Alvydas; Pfeiffer, Ullrich; Öjefors, Erik; Bolıvar, Peter Haring; Glaab, Diana; Roskos, Hartmut G.

    2009-06-01

    In search of novel detectors of electromagnetic radiation at terahertz frequencies, field-effect transistors (FETs) have recently gained much attention. The current literature studies them with respect to the excitation of plasma waves in the two-dimensional channel. Circuit aspects have been taken into account only to a limited degree. In this paper, we focus on embedding silicon FETs in a proper circuitry to optimize their responsivity to terahertz radiation. This includes impedance-matched antenna coupling and amplification of the rectified signal. Special attention is given to the investigation of high-frequency short-circuiting of the gate and drain contacts by a capacitive shunt, a common approach of high-frequency electronics to induce resistive mixing in transistors. We theoretically study the effect of shunting in the framework of the Dyakonov-Shur plasma-wave theory, with the following key results. In the quasistatic limit, the capacitive shunt induces the longitudinal high-frequency field needed in the FET's channel for resistive mixing. In the non-quasi-static case, the shunt's role is taken over by plasma waves. Rectification can then be described as distributed self-mixing in the transistor's channel. Based on such considerations as well as other circuit-related aspects, we arrive at a rational design for FET-based detectors of terahertz radiation, and implement the first monolithically integrated 0.65 THz focal-plane array including antennas and amplifiers on a single silicon die. The measured performance data compare well with the theoretical predictions.

  16. TElehealth in CHronic disease: mixed-methods study to develop the TECH conceptual model for intervention design and evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Clare; O'Cathain, Alicia; Rogers, Anne; Pope, Catherine; Yardley, Lucy; Fahey, Tom; Lewis, Glyn; Large, Shirley; Edwards, Louisa; Rowsell, Alison; Segar, Julia; Brownsell, Simon; Montgomery, Alan A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a conceptual model for effective use of telehealth in the management of chronic health conditions, and to use this to develop and evaluate an intervention for people with two exemplar conditions: raised cardiovascular disease risk and depression. Design The model was based on several strands of evidence: a metareview and realist synthesis of quantitative and qualitative evidence on telehealth for chronic conditions; a qualitative study of patients’ and health professionals’ experience of telehealth; a quantitative survey of patients’ interest in using telehealth; and review of existing models of chronic condition management and evidence-based treatment guidelines. Based on these evidence strands, a model was developed and then refined at a stakeholder workshop. Then a telehealth intervention (‘Healthlines’) was designed by incorporating strategies to address each of the model components. The model also provided a framework for evaluation of this intervention within parallel randomised controlled trials in the two exemplar conditions, and the accompanying process evaluations and economic evaluations. Setting Primary care. Results The TElehealth in CHronic Disease (TECH) model proposes that attention to four components will offer interventions the best chance of success: (1) engagement of patients and health professionals, (2) effective chronic disease management (including subcomponents of self-management, optimisation of treatment, care coordination), (3) partnership between providers and (4) patient, social and health system context. Key intended outcomes are improved health, access to care, patient experience and cost-effective care. Conclusions A conceptual model has been developed based on multiple sources of evidence which articulates how telehealth may best provide benefits for patients with chronic health conditions. It can be used to structure the design and evaluation of telehealth programmes which aim to be acceptable to

  17. Research design for hydrologic response to watershed treatments in the mixed conifer zone of California's Sierra Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battles, J.; Bales, R.; Conklin, M.; Saksa, P.; Martin, S.

    2008-12-01

    Water quantity response to forest management is of great interest in California's Sierra Nevada, owing to shifts in the rain-snow transition elevation associated with climate change, increasing value of hydropower from high-elevation dams, and the re-examination of adaptive management strategies for wildfire mitigation. In 2006 we initiated a multi-disciplinary research program to inform adaptive management for Forest Service lands in the Sierra Nevada. The forest treatment approach is based on disconnected, overlapping fuel treatment patches (forest thinning) to reduce the rate and intensity of fire. As little as 30% of the area in a given catchment will be treated. Controlling for confounding influences is particularly challenging when the experimental unit is a whole landscape and the inferential reference is an entire region. To isolate water and ecosystem impacts related to forest thinning, we are using a Before After Control Impact (BACI) design in conjunction with mechanistic modeling. BACI compensates for the sparse replication (2 sites) and the non- random assignment of the treatments by providing robust longitudinal controls. BACI design defines two treatments, a control and an impact. For modeling fire and wildlife response we chose subdivided the region into two 40-km2 sub-firesheds; within each is a 1-km2 hydrologic study catchment. The control site in this a measure of natural variation rather than a true control. Meta-replication using parallel studies in the Sierra Nevada with different approaches is also an important component and involves a creative combination of data from multiple sources. Rather than statistical comparisons or traditional hypothesis testing, we will measure the support in the data for our a priori expectations using mechanistic models. We are currently evaluating how to extend this research design to private forest lands with a wider range of management options.

  18. Design and Testing of a 10B4C Capsule for Spectral-Tailoring in Mixed-Spectrum Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Wittman, Richard S.; Metz, Lori A.; Finn, Erin C.; Friese, Judah I.

    2014-04-11

    A boron carbide capsule highly enriched in 10B has been designed and used for spectral-tailoring experiments at the TRIGA reactor at Washington State University. New experiments show that enriching the boron to 96% B-10 results in additional absorption of neutrons in the resonance region thereby producing a neutron spectrum that is much closer to a pure 235U fission spectrum. A cadmium outer cover was used to reduce thermal heating. The neutron spectrum calculated with MCNP was found to be in very good agreement with measured activation rates from neutron fluence monitors.

  19. Design of photonic crystal fibers with highly nonlinear glasses for four-wave-mixing based telecom applications.

    PubMed

    Kanka, Jiri

    2008-12-08

    A fully-vectorial mode solver based on the finite element method is employed in a combination with the downhill simplex method the dispersion optimization of photonic crystal fibers made from highly nonlinear glasses. The nonlinear fibers are designed for telecom applications such as parametric amplification, wavelength conversion, ultra-fast switching and regeneration of optical signals. The optimization is carried in terms of the zero dispersion wavelength, dispersion magnitude and nonlinear coefficient and confinement loss in the wavelength range around 1.55 microm. We restrict our work to the index-guiding fiber structures a small number of hexagonally arrayed air holes.

  20. Mixing and compaction temperatures for Superpave mixes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildirim, Yetkin

    According to Superpave mixture design, gyratory specimens are mixed and compacted at equiviscous binder temperatures corresponding to viscosities of 0.17 and 0.28 Pa.s. respectively. These were the values previously used in the Marshal mix design method to determine optimal mixing and compaction temperatures. In order to estimate the appropriate mixing and compaction temperatures for Superpave mixture design, a temperature-viscosity relationship for the binder needs to be developed (ASTM D 2493, Calculation of Mixing and Compaction Temperatures). The current approach is simple and provides reasonable temperatures for unmodified binders. However, some modified binders have exhibited unreasonably high temperatures for mixing and compaction using this technique. These high temperatures can result in construction problems, damage of asphalt, and production of fumes. Heating asphalt binder to very high temperatures during construction oxidizes the binder and separates the polymer from asphalt binder. It is known that polymer modified asphalt binders have many benefits to the roads, such as; increasing rutting resistance, enhancing low temperature cracking resistance, improving traction, better adhesion and cohesion, elevating tensile strength which are directly related to the service life of the pavement. Therefore, oxidation and separation of the polymer from the asphalt binder results in reduction of the service life. ASTM D 2493 was established for unmodified asphalt binders which are Newtonian fluids at high temperatures. For these materials, viscosity does not depend on shear rate. However, most of the modified asphalt binders exhibit a phenomenon known as pseudoplasticity, where viscosity does depend on shear rate. Thus, at the high shear rates occurring during mixing and compaction, it is not necessary to go to very high temperatures. This research was undertaken to determine the shear rate during compaction such that the effect of this parameter could be

  1. Molecular tectonics of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs): a rational design strategy for unusual mixed-connected network topologies.

    PubMed

    Du, Miao; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Tang, Liang-Fu; Wang, Xiu-Guang; Zhao, Xiao-Jun; Batten, Stuart R

    2007-01-01

    To systematically explore the higher-dimensional network structures with mixed connectivity, a series of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with unusual (3,6)-connected net topologies are presented. These crystalline materials include [{[Mn(btza)2(H2O)2].2 H2O}n] (1), [{[Zn(btza)2(H2O)2].2 H2O}n] (2), [{[Cu(btza)2].H2O}n] (3), and [{[Cd(btza)2].3 H2O}n] (4), which have been successfully assembled through a predesigned three-connected organic component bis(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)acetate (btza) with a variety of octahedral metal cores based on the modular synthetic methodology. The topological paradigms shown in this work cover the 2D CdCl2, 3D (4(2).6)2(4(4).6(2).8(7).10(2)), and pyrite (pyr) types. That is, when properly treated with the familiar first-row divalent metal ions, btza may perfectly furnish the coordination spheres for effective connectivity to result in diverse (3,6)-connected nets. Beyond this, a detailed analysis of network topology for all known 3D (3,6)-connected frameworks in both inorganic and inorganic-organic hybrid materials is described. Specific network connectivity of these MOFs indicates that the metal centers represent the most significant and alterable factor in structural assembly, although they show reliable and similar geometries. In this context, the combination of the distinct d10 AgI ion with btza in different solvents affords two isomorphous MOFs [{[Ag(btza)].glycol}n] (5) and [{[Ag(btza)]CH3OH}n] (6) with a binodal 4-connected 3D SrAl2 (sra) topology. The network structures of MOFs 1-3 and 5 turn out to be more complicated and interesting if one considers the hydrogen bonding between the host coordination frameworks and the intercalated solvent molecules. Furthermore, the role of the included solvents in the generation and stabilization of MOFs 1-6 is also investigated.

  2. Design, synthesis, characterisation and chemical reactivity of mixed-ligand platinum(II) oxadiazoline complexes with potential cytotoxic properties.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Gabriele; Marchant, Anthony; Sayer, James

    2010-09-07

    A series of mixed ligand platinum(II) oxadiazoline complexes bearing 7-nitro-1,3,5-triazaadamantane (7-NO(2)TAA) as a labile and reactive nitrogen ligand has been synthesised from easily accessible starting materials. [2+3] cycloaddition of nitrones R(1)R(2)C-N(+)(Me)O(-) to only one of the nitrile ligands in trans-[PtX(2)(PhCN)(2)] (X = Cl, Br) results in the selective formation of mono-oxadiazoline complexes trans-[PtX(2)(PhCN){N=C(Ph)-O-N(Me)-CR(1)R(2)}] from which the remaining nitrile can be replaced by 7-NO(2)TAA. The resulting complexes trans-[PtX(2)(7-NO(2)TAA) {N=C(Ph)-O-N(Me)-CR(1)R(2)}] and their precursors were characterised by elemental analysis, IR and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy.The suitability of the target complexes as anticancer agents was extrapolated from their general chemical reactivity. They are stable in DMSO, but react with thiols and undergo aquation of a chloro ligand. In the absence of a competing ligand, the coordinated 7-NO(2)TAA ligand slowly hydrolyses in an aqueous medium under release of formaldehyde, and this could induce bioactivity independent of the one typically found with platinum compounds. With nitrogen heterocycles such as pyridine a slow exchange of the 7-NO(2)TAA ligand occurs. A combined DFT/AIM study confirms the reaction observed in the experiment and predicts that other nitrogen heterocycles such as DNA nucleobases should react in the same way. Moreover, the 7-NO(2)TAA should be even more labile in an aqueous medium where protonation of the remaining amines can occur. A PM6 molecular modelling study suggests that the PtCl(oxadiazoline) fragment formed after release of one chloro and the labile 7-NO(2)TAA ligand fits well into the DNA groove and is able to form d(GpG) intrastrand crosslinks similar to the ones observed with cisplatin.

  3. Ethical and policy issues in cluster randomized trials: rationale and design of a mixed methods research study.

    PubMed

    Taljaard, Monica; Weijer, Charles; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Belle Brown, Judith; Binik, Ariella; Boruch, Robert; Brehaut, Jamie C; Chaudhry, Shazia H; Eccles, Martin P; McRae, Andrew; Saginur, Raphael; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Donner, Allan

    2009-07-28

    Cluster randomized trials are an increasingly important methodological tool in health research. In cluster randomized trials, intact social units or groups of individuals, such as medical practices, schools, or entire communities--rather than individual themselves--are randomly allocated to intervention or control conditions, while outcomes are then observed on individual cluster members. The substantial methodological differences between cluster randomized trials and conventional randomized trials pose serious challenges to the current conceptual framework for research ethics. The ethical implications of randomizing groups rather than individuals are not addressed in current research ethics guidelines, nor have they even been thoroughly explored. The main objectives of this research are to: (1) identify ethical issues arising in cluster trials and learn how they are currently being addressed; (2) understand how ethics reviews of cluster trials are carried out in different countries (Canada, the USA and the UK); (3) elicit the views and experiences of trial participants and cluster representatives; (4) develop well-grounded guidelines for the ethical conduct and review of cluster trials by conducting an extensive ethical analysis and organizing a consensus process; (5) disseminate the guidelines to researchers, research ethics boards (REBs), journal editors, and research funders. We will use a mixed-methods (qualitative and quantitative) approach incorporating both empirical and conceptual work. Empirical work will include a systematic review of a random sample of published trials, a survey and in-depth interviews with trialists, a survey of REBs, and in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with trial participants and gatekeepers. The empirical work will inform the concurrent ethical analysis which will lead to a guidance document laying out principles, policy options, and rationale for proposed guidelines. An Expert Panel of researchers, ethicists, health

  4. Mesoscopic spatial designs of nano- and microfiber meshes for tissue-engineering matrix and scaffold based on newly devised multilayering and mixing electrospinning techniques.

    PubMed

    Kidoaki, Satoru; Kwon, Il Kuen; Matsuda, Takehisa

    2005-01-01

    To design a mesoscopically ordered structure of the matrices and scaffolds composed of nano- and microscale fiber meshes for artificial and tissue-engineering devices, two new electrospinning techniques are proposed: multilayering electrospinning and mixing electrospinning. First, the following four kinds of component polymers were individually electrospun to determine the conditions for producing stable nano- and microfibers by optimizing the formulation parameters (solvent and polymer concentration) and operation parameters (voltage, air gap, and flow rate) for each polymer: (a) type I collagen, (b) styrenated gelatin (ST-gelatin), (c) segmented polyurethane (SPU), and (d) poly(ethylene oxide). A trilayered electrospun mesh, in which individual fiber meshes (type I collagen, ST-gelatin, and SPU) were deposited layer by layer, was formed by sequential electrospinning; this was clearly visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The mixed electrospun-fiber mesh composed of SPU and PEO was prepared by simultaneous electrospinning on a stainless-steel mandrel with high-speed rotation and traverse movement. A bilayered tubular construct composed of a thick SPU microfiber mesh as an outer layer and a thin type I collagen nanofiber mesh as an inner layer was fabricated as a prototype scaffold of artificial grafts, and visualized by scanning electron microscopy.

  5. INTRAW, the EU Observatory for raw materials: fostering international cooperation and developing new opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correia, Victor; Allington, Ruth; Keane, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    A secure supply of raw materials is a European priority that extends beyond country borders and national policies. Recent European initiatives have pioneered the development of an EU strategy on raw materials emphasizing the concept of the "added value chain", which continues to pursue the three pillar strategy to: (1) ensure the fair and sustainable supply of raw materials from international markets, promoting international cooperation with developed and developing countries; (2) foster sustainable supply of raw materials from European sources, and (3) reduce consumption of primary raw materials by increasing resource efficiency and promoting recycling. This contribution presents the Horizon 2020 funded project INTRAW, the objective of which is to establish the European Union's International Observatory for Raw Materials. The creation and maintenance of the European Union's International Observatory for Raw Materials is designed to have a strong impact in two dimensions: 1. To narrow the existing gap in aspects of the raw materials knowledge infrastructure in the EU by providing a link with the same knowledge infrastructure in technologically advanced reference countries. This should contribute to the harmonization of mineral policies all over the EU, by providing data that enables evidence-based policies and appropriate, cost-effective management, planning and adaptation decisions by the public sector. This will benefit businesses, industry and society. The Observatory will also provide to policy makers in the EU and its Member States the data they need to facilitate discussion in multilateral forums. 2. To enable a better alignment of the R&I activities among the individual EU members and international cooperation countries AND between the European Union and international cooperation countries by boosting synergies with international research and innovation programmes. This way the EU's role and scientific capabilities in the raw materials area will be

  6. Valorisation of electric arc furnace steel slag as raw material for low energy belite cements.

    PubMed

    Iacobescu, R I; Koumpouri, D; Pontikes, Y; Saban, R; Angelopoulos, G N

    2011-11-30

    In this paper, the valorisation of electric arc furnace steel slag (EAFS) in the production of low energy belite cements is studied. Three types of clinkers were prepared with 0 wt.% (BC), 5 wt.% (BC5) and 10 wt.% (BC10) EAFS, respectively. The design of the raw mixes was based on the compositional indices lime saturation factor (LSF), alumina ratio (AR) and silica ratio (SR). The clinkering temperature was studied for the range 1280-1400°C; firing was performed at 1380°C based on the results regarding free lime and the evolution of microstructure. In order to activate the belite, clinkers were cooled fast by blown air and concurrent crushing. The results demonstrate that the microstructure of the produced clinkers is dominated by belite and alite crystals, with tricalcium aluminate and tetracalcium-alumino-ferrite present as micro-crystalline interstitial phases. The prepared cements presented low early strength development as expected for belite-rich compositions; however the 28-day results were 47.5 MPa, 46.6 MPa and 42.8 MPa for BC, BC5 and BC10, respectively. These values are comparable with OPC CEMI 32.5 N (32.5-52.5 MPa) according to EN 197-1. A fast setting behaviour was also observed, particularly in the case of BC10, whereas soundness did not exceed 1mm.

  7. Effect of mixed convection and u-bends on the design of double-pipe heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelmessih, A.N.; Bell, K.J.

    1999-09-01

    For horizontal flow in the laminar flow regimen, the interaction between natural and forced convection and the effect of the secondary flow induced by an unheated U-bend were considered in developing an empirical correlation for the nearly uniform heat flux condition. The correlation predicts the local peripheral average heat transfer coefficient with an absolute average deviation of 9.9%. In this article the mechanisms involved in laminar flow with the presence of a U-bend are explained. The realistic behavior of the correlation is illustrated. Also, a brief discussion of some of the existing correlations for laminar flow is presented. Four cases showing the practicality of using the correlation in the design of horizontal double-pipe heat exchangers are demonstrated.

  8. Actinobacteria consortium as an efficient biotechnological tool for mixed polluted soil reclamation: Experimental factorial design for bioremediation process optimization.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, Juan Daniel; Raimondo, Enzo Emanuel; Gil, Raúl Andrés; Benimeli, Claudia Susana; Polti, Marta Alejandra

    2017-08-19

    The objective of the present work was to establish optimal biological and physicochemical parameters in order to remove simultaneously lindane and Cr(VI) at high and/or low pollutants concentrations from the soil by an actinobacteria consortium formed by Streptomyces sp. M7, MC1, A5, and Amycolatopsis tucumanensis AB0. Also, the final aim was to treat real soils contaminated with Cr(VI) and/or lindane from the Northwest of Argentina employing the optimal biological and physicochemical conditions. In this sense, after determining the optimal inoculum concentration (2gkg(-1)), an experimental design model with four factors (temperature, moisture, initial concentration of Cr(VI) and lindane) was employed for predicting the system behavior during bioremediation process. According to response optimizer, the optimal moisture level was 30% for all bioremediation processes. However, the optimal temperature was different for each situation: for low initial concentrations of both pollutants, the optimal temperature was 25°C; for low initial concentrations of Cr(VI) and high initial concentrations of lindane, the optimal temperature was 30°C; and for high initial concentrations of Cr(VI), the optimal temperature was 35°C. In order to confirm the model adequacy and the validity of the optimization procedure, experiments were performed in six real contaminated soils samples. The defined actinobacteria consortium reduced the contaminants concentrations in five of the six samples, by working at laboratory scale and employing the optimal conditions obtained through the factorial design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Validation of newly developed and redesigned key indicator methods for assessment of different working conditions with physical workloads based on mixed-methods design: a study protocol.

    PubMed

    Klussmann, Andre; Liebers, Falk; Brandstädt, Felix; Schust, Marianne; Serafin, Patrick; Schäfer, Andreas; Gebhardt, Hansjürgen; Hartmann, Bernd; Steinberg, Ulf

    2017-08-21

    The impact of work-related musculoskeletal disorders is considerable. The assessment of work tasks with physical workloads is crucial to estimate the work-related health risks of exposed employees. Three key indicator methods are available for risk assessment regarding manual lifting, holding and carrying of loads; manual pulling and pushing of loads; and manual handling operations. Three further KIMs for risk assessment regarding whole-body forces, awkward body postures and body movement have been developed de novo. In addition, the development of a newly drafted combined method for mixed exposures is planned. All methods will be validated regarding face validity, reliability, convergent validity, criterion validity and further aspects of utility under practical conditions. As part of the joint project MEGAPHYS (multilevel risk assessment of physical workloads), a mixed-methods study is being designed for the validation of KIMs and conducted in companies of different sizes and branches in Germany. Workplaces are documented and analysed by observations, applying KIMs, interviews and assessment of environmental conditions. Furthermore, a survey among the employees at the respective workplaces takes place with standardised questionnaires, interviews and physical examinations. It is intended to include 1200 employees at 120 different workplaces. For analysis of the quality criteria, recommendations of the COSMIN checklist (COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments) will be taken into account. The study was planned and conducted in accordance with the German Medical Professional Code and the Declaration of Helsinki as well as the German Federal Data Protection Act. The design of the study was approved by ethics committees. We intend to publish the validated KIMs in 2018. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals, presented at international meetings and disseminated to actual users for practical application. © Article

  10. Lime kiln dust as a potential raw material in portland cement manufacturing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M. Michael; Callaghan, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    In the United States, the manufacture of portland cement involves burning in a rotary kiln a finely ground proportional mix of raw materials. The raw material mix provides the required chemical combination of calcium, silicon, aluminum, iron, and small amounts of other ingredients. The majority of calcium is supplied in the form of calcium carbonate usually from limestone. Other sources including waste materials or byproducts from other industries can be used to supply calcium (or lime, CaO), provided they have sufficiently high CaO content, have low magnesia content (less than 5 percent), and are competitive with limestone in terms of cost and adequacy of supply. In the United States, the lime industry produces large amounts of lime kiln dust (LKD), which is collected by dust control systems. This LKD may be a supplemental source of calcium for cement plants, if the lime and cement plants are located near enough to each other to make the arrangement economical.

  11. Modeling and design of lossy waveguide structures for generation of broadband terahertz pulses through difference frequency mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallejo Monsalve, Felipe Antonio

    We present an integral coupled mode theory (CMT), suited to account for high optical losses, to model ultra-broadband terahertz (THz) waveguide emitters (0.1- 20 THz) based on difference frequency generation (DFG) pumped by femtosecond infrared (IR) optical pulses. This integral model works even in the situation where the DFG occurs between several IR and THz modes. We also present a simplified CMT approximation that reproduces the results of the rigorous integral CMT for situations where the THz generation is mediated through single-IR-mode to single-THz-mode interactions. Using the simplified approach we derive a new expression that incorporates loss effects into the coherence length for optical rectification (OR). The expression that we derived for the coherence length can be adapted to describe other second order nonlinear processes such as second harmonic generation. We apply both models to study waveguide emitters whose nonlinear cores are composed of poled guest-host electro-optic (EO) polymer composites, which belong to the 1mm symmetry class and have high nonlinearities. We apply the models to a generic, symmetric, five-layer, metal/cladding/core waveguide structure and provide design strategies for efficient ultra-broadband THz emitters. Two different design strategies are analyzed, one in which the waveguides are designed to have a single-IR-mode and a single-THz-mode guided within the structure, and other where the waveguide is made with a single-THz-mode but admits several IR guided modes. In both strategies the waveguide geometric parameters are optimized to obtain the highest THz conversion efficiencies and broader output bandwidth. The simplified CMT approach is much faster to implement than the integral CMT. Thus, we use the simplified approach to perform a parametric study for different waveguide parameters and pumping wavelengths, in the telecom and short wavelength infrared region, to establish under what conditions the five-layered structure

  12. Enhanced production of raw starch degrading enzyme using agro-industrial waste mixtures by thermotolerant Rhizopus microsporus for raw cassava chip saccharification in ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Trakarnpaiboon, Srisakul; Srisuk, Nantana; Piyachomkwan, Kuakoon; Sakai, Kenji; Kitpreechavanich, Vichien

    2017-09-14

    In the present study, solid-state fermentation for the production of raw starch degrading enzyme was investigated by thermotolerant Rhizopus microsporus TISTR 3531 using a combination of agro-industrial wastes as substrates. The obtained crude enzyme was applied for hydrolysis of raw cassava starch and chips at low temperature and subjected to nonsterile ethanol production using raw cassava chips. The agro-industrial waste ratio was optimized using a simplex axial mixture design. The results showed that the substrate mixture consisting of rice bran:corncob:cassava bagasse at 8 g:10 g:2 g yielded the highest enzyme production of 201.6 U/g dry solid. The optimized condition for solid-state fermentation was found as 65% initial moisture content, 35°C, initial pH of 6.0, and 5 × 10(6) spores/mL inoculum, which gave the highest enzyme activity of 389.5 U/g dry solid. The enzyme showed high efficiency on saccharification of raw cassava starch and chips with synergistic activities of commercial α-amylase at 50°C, which promotes low-temperature bioethanol production. A high ethanol concentration of 102.2 g/L with 78% fermentation efficiency was achieved from modified simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using cofermentation of the enzymatic hydrolysate of 300 g raw cassava chips/L with cane molasses.

  13. Atomically mixed Fe-group nanoalloys: catalyst design for the selective electrooxidation of ethylene glycol to oxalic acid.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takeshi; Sadakiyo, Masaaki; Ooi, Mei Lee; Yamamoto, Tomokazu; Matsumura, Syo; Kato, Kenichi; Takeguchi, Tatsuya; Ozawa, Nobuki; Kubo, Momoji; Yamauchi, Miho

    2015-05-07

    We demonstrate electric power generation via the electrooxidation of ethylene glycol (EG) on a series of Fe-group nanoalloy (NA) catalysts in alkaline media. A series of Fe-group binary NA catalysts supported on carbon (FeCo/C, FeNi/C, and CoNi/C) and monometallic analogues (Fe/C, Co/C, and Ni/C) were synthesized. Catalytic activities and product distributions on the prepared Fe-group NA catalysts in the EG electrooxidation were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry, and compared with those of the previously reported FeCoNi/C, which clarified the contributory factors of the metal components for the EG electrooxidation activity, C2 product selectivity, and catalyst durability. The Co-containing catalysts, such as Co/C, FeCo/C, and FeCoNi/C, exhibit relatively high catalytic activities for EG electrooxidation, whereas the catalytic performances of Ni-containing catalysts are relatively low. However, we found that the inclusion of Ni is a requisite for the prevention of rapid degradation due to surface modification of the catalyst. Notably, FeCoNi/C shows the highest selectivity for oxalic acid production without CO2 generation at 0.4 V vs. the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), resulting from the synergetic contribution of all of the component elements. Finally, we performed power generation using the direct EG alkaline fuel cell in the presence of the Fe-group catalysts. The power density obtained on each catalyst directly reflected the catalytic performances elucidated in the electrochemical experiments for the corresponding catalyst. The catalytic roles and alloying effects disclosed herein provide information on the design of highly efficient electrocatalysts containing Fe-group metals.

  14. Raw Liquid Waste Treatment System and Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A raw sewage treatment process is disclosed in which substantially all the non-dissolved matter, suspended in the sewage water is first separated from the water, in which at least organic matter remains dissolved. The non-dissolved material is pyrolyzed to form an activated carbon and ash material without the addition of any conditioning agents. The activated carbon and ash material is added to the water from which the non-dissolved matter was removed. The activated carbon and ash material adsorbs the organic matter dissolved in the water and is thereafter supplied in a counter flow direction and combined with the incoming raw sewage to at least facilitate the separation of the non-dissolved settleable materials from the sewage water. Carbon and ash material together with the non-dissolved matter which was separated from the sewage water are pyrolyzed to form the activated carbon and ash material.

  15. RAWS: The spaceborne radar wind sounder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Richard K.

    1991-09-01

    The concept of the Radar Wind Sounder (RAWS) is discussed. The goals of the RAWS is to estimate the following three qualities: the echo power, to determine rain rate and surface wind velocity; the mean Doppler frequency, to determine the wind velocity in hydrometers; and the spread of the Doppler frequency, to determine the turbulent spread of the wind velocity. Researchers made significant progress during the first year. The feasibility of the concept seems certain. Studies indicate that a reasonably sized system can measure in the presence of ice clouds and dense water clouds. No sensitivity problems exist in rainy environments. More research is needed on the application of the radar to the measurement of rain rates and winds at the sea surface.

  16. RAWS: The spaceborne radar wind sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Richard K.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of the Radar Wind Sounder (RAWS) is discussed. The goals of the RAWS is to estimate the following three qualities: the echo power, to determine rain rate and surface wind velocity; the mean Doppler frequency, to determine the wind velocity in hydrometers; and the spread of the Doppler frequency, to determine the turbulent spread of the wind velocity. Researchers made significant progress during the first year. The feasibility of the concept seems certain. Studies indicate that a reasonably sized system can measure in the presence of ice clouds and dense water clouds. No sensitivity problems exist in rainy environments. More research is needed on the application of the radar to the measurement of rain rates and winds at the sea surface.

  17. Microfluidic Mixing: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chia-Yen; Chang, Chin-Lung; Wang, Yao-Nan; Fu, Lung-Ming

    2011-01-01

    The aim of microfluidic mixing is to achieve a thorough and rapid mixing of multiple samples in microscale devices. In such devices, sample mixing is essentially achieved by enhancing the diffusion effect between the different species flows. Broadly speaking, microfluidic mixing schemes can be categorized as either “active”, where an external energy force is applied to perturb the sample species, or “passive”, where the contact area and contact time of the species samples are increased through specially-designed microchannel configurations. Many mixers have been proposed to facilitate this task over the past 10 years. Accordingly, this paper commences by providing a high level overview of the field of microfluidic mixing devices before describing some of the more significant proposals for active and passive mixers. PMID:21686184

  18. Iron absorption in raw and cooked bananas: a field study using stable isotopes in women

    PubMed Central

    García, Olga P.; Martínez, Mara; Romano, Diana; Camacho, Mariela; de Moura, Fabiana F.; Abrams, Steve A.; Khanna, Harjeet K.; Dale, James L.; Rosado, Jorge L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Banana is a staple food in many regions with high iron deficiency and may be a potential vehicle for iron fortification. However, iron absorption from bananas is not known. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate total iron absorption from raw and cooked bananas. Design Thirty women (34.9±6.6 years) from rural Mexico were randomly assigned to one of two groups each consuming: 1) 480 g/day of raw banana for 6 days, or 2) 500 g/day of cooked banana for 4 days. Iron absorption was measured after extrinsically labeling with 2 mg of 58Fe and a reference dose of 6 mg 57Fe; analysis was done using ICP-MS. Results Iron content in cooked bananas was significantly higher than raw bananas (0.53 mg/100 g bananas vs. 0.33 mg/100 mg bananas, respectively) (p<0.001). Percent iron absorption was significantly higher in raw bananas (49.3±21.3%) compared with cooked banana (33.9±16.2%) (p=0.035). Total amount of iron absorbed from raw and cooked bananas was similar (0.77±0.33 mg vs. 0.86±0.41 mg, respectively). Conclusion Total amount of absorbed iron is similar between cooked and raw bananas. The banana matrix does not affect iron absorption and is therefore a potential effective target for genetic modification for iron biofortification. PMID:25660254

  19. New raw material for electrical porcelain

    SciTech Connect

    Khristoforov, K.K.; Portnova, I.G.; Omel'chenko, Yu.A.

    1986-09-01

    Research is described in finding new raw materials for the fabrication of porcelain electrical insulators for power transmission lines. The materials tested come from several deposits in the Soviet Union and include alumina minerals, quartz, feldspars, pegmatites, clays, and two kaolins, as well as waste materials recovered from porcelain production. Comparative electrical and mechanical properties, grain sizes, sinterabilities, and mineral compositions are tabulated for the candidate materials.

  20. ROMI 3.1 Least-cost lumber grade mix solver using open source statistical software

    Treesearch

    Rebecca A. Buck; Urs Buehlmann; R. Edward. Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The least-cost lumber grade mix solution has been a topic of interest to both industry and academia for many years due to its potential to help wood processing operations reduce costs. A least-cost lumber grade mix solver is a rough mill decision support system that describes the lumber grade or grade mix needed to minimize raw material or total production cost (raw...

  1. Food safety hazards associated with consumption of raw milk.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Stephen P; Boor, Kathryn J; Murphy, Steven C; Murinda, Shelton E

    2009-09-01

    An increasing number of people are consuming raw unpasteurized milk. Enhanced nutritional qualities, taste, and health benefits have all been advocated as reasons for increased interest in raw milk consumption. However, science-based data to substantiate these claims are limited. People continue to consume raw milk even though numerous epidemiological studies have shown clearly that raw milk can be contaminated by a variety of pathogens, some of which are associated with human illness and disease. Several documented milkborne disease outbreaks occurred from 2000-2008 and were traced back to consumption of raw unpasteurized milk. Numerous people were found to have infections, some were hospitalized, and a few died. In the majority of these outbreaks, the organism associated with the milkborne outbreak was isolated from the implicated product(s) or from subsequent products made at the suspected dairy or source. In contrast, fewer milkborne disease outbreaks were associated with consumption of pasteurized milk during this same time period. Twenty nine states allow the sale of raw milk by some means. Direct purchase, cow-share or leasing programs, and the sale of raw milk as pet food have been used as means for consumers to obtain raw milk. Where raw milk is offered for sale, strategies to reduce risks associated with raw milk and products made from raw milk are needed. Developing uniform regulations including microbial standards for raw milk to be sold for human consumption, labeling of raw milk, improving sanitation during milking, and enhancing and targeting educational efforts are potential approaches to this issue. Development of pre- and postharvest control measures to effectively reduce contamination is critical to the control of pathogens in raw milk. One sure way to prevent raw milk-associated foodborne illness is for consumers to refrain from drinking raw milk and from consuming dairy products manufactured using raw milk.

  2. Why peer assessment helps to improve clinical performance in undergraduate physical therapy education: a mixed methods design.

    PubMed

    Maas, Marjo J M; Sluijsmans, Dominique M A; van der Wees, Philip J; Heerkens, Yvonne F; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    2014-06-13

    Peer Assessment (PA) in health professions education encourages students to develop a critical attitude towards their own and their peers' performance. We designed a PA task to assess students' clinical skills (including reasoning, communication, physical examination and treatment skills) in a role-play that simulated physical therapy (PT) practice. Students alternately performed in the role of PT, assessor, and patient. Oral face-to-face feedback was provided as well as written feedback and scores.This study aims to explore the impact of PA on the improvement of clinical performance of undergraduate PT students. The PA task was analyzed and decomposed into task elements. A qualitative approach was used to explore students' perceptions of the task and the task elements. Semi-structured interviews with second year students were conducted to explore the perceived impact of these task elements on performance improvement. Students were asked to select the elements perceived valuable, to rank them from highest to lowest learning value, and to motivate their choices. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed, using a phenomenographical approach and following template analysis guidelines. A quantitative approach was used to describe the ranking results. Quantitative analyses showed that the perceived impact on learning varied widely. Performing the clinical task in the PT role, was assigned to the first place (1), followed by receiving expert feedback (2), and observing peer performance (3). Receiving peer feedback was not perceived the most powerful task element.Qualitative analyses resulted in three emerging themes: pre-performance, true-performance, and post-performance triggers for improvement. Each theme contained three categories: learning activities, outcomes, and conditions for learning.Intended learning activities were reported, such as transferring prior learning to a new application context and unintended learning activities, such as modelling a peer

  3. Why peer assessment helps to improve clinical performance in undergraduate physical therapy education: a mixed methods design

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Peer Assessment (PA) in health professions education encourages students to develop a critical attitude towards their own and their peers’ performance. We designed a PA task to assess students’ clinical skills (including reasoning, communication, physical examination and treatment skills) in a role-play that simulated physical therapy (PT) practice. Students alternately performed in the role of PT, assessor, and patient. Oral face-to-face feedback was provided as well as written feedback and scores. This study aims to explore the impact of PA on the improvement of clinical performance of undergraduate PT students. Methods The PA task was analyzed and decomposed into task elements. A qualitative approach was used to explore students’ perceptions of the task and the task elements. Semi-structured interviews with second year students were conducted to explore the perceived impact of these task elements on performance improvement. Students were asked to select the elements perceived valuable, to rank them from highest to lowest learning value, and to motivate their choices. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed, using a phenomenographical approach and following template analysis guidelines. A quantitative approach was used to describe the ranking results. Results Quantitative analyses showed that the perceived impact on learning varied widely. Performing the clinical task in the PT role, was assigned to the first place (1), followed by receiving expert feedback (2), and observing peer performance (3). Receiving peer feedback was not perceived the most powerful task element. Qualitative analyses resulted in three emerging themes: pre-performance, true-performance, and post-performance triggers for improvement. Each theme contained three categories: learning activities, outcomes, and conditions for learning. Intended learning activities were reported, such as transferring prior learning to a new application context and unintended learning

  4. Multi-objective Mixed Integer Programming approach for facility layout design by considering closeness ratings, material handling, and re-layout cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purnomo, Muhammad Ridwan Andi; Satrio Wiwoho, Yoga

    2016-01-01

    Facility layout becomes one of production system factor that should be managed well, as it is designated for the location of production. In managing the layout, designing the layout by considering the optimal layout condition that supports the work condition is essential. One of the method for facility layout optimization is Mixed Integer Programming (MIP). In this study, the MIP is solved using Lingo 9.0 software and considering quantitative and qualitative objectives to be achieved simultaneously: minimizing material handling cost, maximizing closeness rating, and minimizing re-layout cost. The research took place in Rekayasa Wangdi as a make to order company, focusing on the making of concrete brick dough stirring machine with 10 departments involved. The result shows an improvement in the new layout for 333,72 points of objective value compared with the initial layout. As the conclusion, the proposed MIP is proven to be used to model facility layout problem under multi objective consideration for a more realistic look.

  5. Readability, suitability and comprehensibility in patient education materials for Swedish patients with colorectal cancer undergoing elective surgery: a mixed method design.

    PubMed

    Smith, Frida; Carlsson, Eva; Kokkinakis, Dimitrios; Forsberg, Markus; Kodeda, Karl; Sawatzky, Richard; Friberg, Febe; Öhlén, Joakim

    2014-02-01

    To characterize education materials provided to patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery to gain a better understanding of how to design readable, suitable, comprehensible materials. Mixed method design. Deductive quantitative analysis using a validated suitability and comprehensibility assessment instrument (SAM+CAM) was applied to patient education materials from 27 Swedish hospitals, supplemented by language technology analysis and deductive and inductive analysis of data from focus groups involving 15 former patients. Of 125 patient education materials used during the colorectal cancer surgery process, 13.6% were rated 'not suitable', 76.8% 'adequate' and 9.6% 'superior'. Professionally developed stoma care brochures were rated 'superior' and 44% of discharge brochures were 'not suitable'. Language technology analysis showed that up to 29% of materials were difficult to comprehend. Focus group analysis revealed additional areas that needed to be included in patient education materials: general and personal care, personal implications, internet, significant others, accessibility to healthcare, usability, trustworthiness and patient support groups. Most of the patient education materials were rated 'adequate' but did not meet the information needs of patients entirely. Discharge brochures particularly require improvement. Using patients' knowledge and integrating manual and automated methods could result in more appropriate patient education materials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mixing in Microfluidic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beskok, A.

    Flow and species transport in micro-scales experience laminar, even Stokes flow conditions. In absence of turbulence, species mixing becomes diffusion dominated, and requires very long mixing length scales (l m ). This creates significant challenges in the design of Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices, where mixing of macromolecules and biological species with very low mass diffusivities are often desired. The objectives of this chapter are to introduce concepts relevant to mixing enhancement in microfluidic systems, and guide readers in the design of new mixers via numerical simulations. A distinguishing feature is the identification of flow kinematics that enhance mixing, followed with systematic characterization of mixing as a function of the Schmidt number at fixed kinematic conditions. In this chapter, we briefly review the routes to achieve chaotic advection in Stokes flow, and then illustrate the characteri-zation of a continuous flow chaotic stirrer via appropriate numerical tools, including the Poincaré section, finite time Lyapunov exponent, and mixing index.

  7. Narrative exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder associated with repeated interpersonal trauma in patients with severe mental illness: a mixed methods design.

    PubMed

    Mauritz, Maria W; Van Gaal, Betsie G I; Jongedijk, Ruud A; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G; Goossens, Peter J J

    2016-01-01

    In the Netherlands, most patients with severe mental illness (SMI) receive flexible assertive community treatment (FACT) provided by multidisciplinary community mental health teams. SMI patients with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are sometimes offered evidence-based trauma-focused treatment like eye movement desensitization reprocessing or prolonged exposure. There is a large amount of evidence for the effectiveness of narrative exposure therapy (NET) within various vulnerable patient groups with repeated interpersonal trauma. Some FACT-teams provide NET for patients with comorbid PTSD, which is promising, but has not been specifically studied in SMI patients. The primary aim is to evaluate NET in SMI patients with comorbid PTSD associated with repeated interpersonal trauma to get insight into whether (1) PTSD and dissociative symptoms changes and (2) changes occur in the present SMI symptoms, care needs, quality of life, global functioning, and care consumption. The second aim is to gain insight into patients' experiences with NET and to identify influencing factors on treatment results. This study will have a mixed methods convergent design consisting of quantitative repeated measures and qualitative semi-structured in-depth interviews based on Grounded Theory. The study population will include adult SMI outpatients (n=25) with comorbid PTSD and receiving NET. The quantitative study parameters will be existence and severity of PTSD, dissociative, and SMI symptoms; care needs; quality of life; global functioning; and care consumption. In a longitudinal analysis, outcomes will be analyzed using mixed models to estimate the difference in means between baseline and repeated measurements. The qualitative study parameters will be experiences with NET and perceived factors for success or failure. Integration of quantitative and qualitative results will be focused on interpreting how qualitative results enhance the understanding of quantitative outcomes

  8. Examining unanswered questions about the home environment and childhood obesity disparities using an incremental, mixed-methods, longitudinal study design: The Family Matters study.

    PubMed

    Berge, Jerica M; Trofholz, Amanda; Tate, Allan D; Beebe, Maureen; Fertig, Angela; Miner, Michael H; Crow, Scott; Culhane-Pera, Kathleen A; Pergament, Shannon; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2017-08-09

    There are disparities in the prevalence of childhood obesity for children from low-income and minority households. Mixed-methods studies that examine home environments in an in-depth manner are needed to identify potential mechanisms driving childhood obesity disparities that have not been examined in prior research. The Family Matters study aims to identify risk and protective factors for childhood obesity in low-income and minority households through a two-phased incremental, mixed-methods, and longitudinal approach. Individual, dyadic (i.e., parent/child; siblings), and familial factors that are associated with, or moderate associations with childhood obesity will be examined. Phase I includes in-home observations of diverse families (n=150; 25 each of African American, American Indian, Hispanic/Latino, Hmong, Somali, and White families). In-home observations include: (1) an interactive observational family task; (2) ecological momentary assessment of parent stress, mood, and parenting practices; (3) child and parent accelerometry; (4) three 24-hour child dietary recalls; (5) home food inventory; (6) built environment audit; (7) anthropometry on all family members; (8) an online survey; and (9) a parent interview. Phase I data will be used for analyses and to inform development of a culturally appropriate survey for Phase II. The survey will be administered at two time points to diverse parents (n=1200) of children ages 5-9. The main aim of the current paper is to describe the Family Matters complex study design and protocol and to report Phase I feasibility data for participant recruitment and study completion. Results from this comprehensive study will inform the development of culturally-tailored interventions to reduce childhood obesity disparities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pre-Test CFD for the Design and Execution of the Enhanced Injection and Mixing Project at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drozda, Tomasz G.; Axdahl, Erik L.; Cabell, Karen F.

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing costs of physics experiments and simultaneous increase in availability and maturity of computational tools it is not surprising that computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is playing an increasingly important role, not only in post-test investigations, but also in the early stages of experimental planning. This paper describes a CFD-based effort executed in close collaboration between computational fluid dynamicists and experimentalists to develop a virtual experiment during the early planning stages of the Enhanced Injection and Mixing project at NASA Langley Research Center. This projects aims to investigate supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) fuel injection and mixing physics, improve the understanding of underlying physical processes, and develop enhancement strategies and functional relationships relevant to flight Mach numbers greater than 8. The purpose of the virtual experiment was to provide flow field data to aid in the design of the experimental apparatus and the in-stream rake probes, to verify the nonintrusive measurements based on NO-PLIF, and to perform pre-test analysis of quantities obtainable from the experiment and CFD. The approach also allowed for the joint team to develop common data processing and analysis tools, and to test research ideas. The virtual experiment consisted of a series of Reynolds-averaged simulations (RAS). These simulations included the facility nozzle, the experimental apparatus with a baseline strut injector, and the test cabin. Pure helium and helium-air mixtures were used to determine the efficacy of different inert gases to model hydrogen injection. The results of the simulations were analyzed by computing mixing efficiency, total pressure recovery, and stream thrust potential. As the experimental effort progresses, the simulation results will be compared with the experimental data to calibrate the modeling constants present in the CFD and validate simulation fidelity. CFD will also be used to

  10. Bounding Estimate for the 'Hot' Channel Temperature and Preliminary Calculation of Mixing in the Lower Plenum for the NGNP Point Design Using CFD

    SciTech Connect

    Richard W. Johnson; R. R. Schultz

    2004-12-01

    The power density in the core of the block next generation nuclear power plant (NGNP) will not be uniform due to geometry, core layout and fuel pin design. Recent calculations performed to optimize the core design indicate that the maximum radial variation will be 1.25 times the average. This significant radial variation in the local power density will create a variation in the temperature of the helium coolant as it cools the core. The coolant channel with the highest outlet temperature is referred to as the ‘hot’ channel. The concern is that the high temperature channels, which exit into the lower plenum as jets, called ‘hot streaking,’ will adversely affect materials in the lower plenum, the exit duct and the turbine, as well as affect the performance of the turbine. The objective of the present study is to determine or bound the maximum exit temperature of the ‘hot’ channel. The maximum hot channel temperature depends on the total coolant flow rate, which has not yet been fixed. Experiments need to be designed to capture the complex physics of the lower-plenum flow to allow assessment and validation of numerical simulations. While preliminary CFD simulations are not yet validated, they can be of use in the planning of the experiments, particularly in estimating where there are regions of high and low turbulence intensity. Mixing of the coolant is related to the turbulence intensity as well as to the overall nature of the mean flow. The purpose of the present task is to provide preliminary flow calculations of the coolant in the lower plenum to examine flow patterns and turbulence intensity.

  11. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section 161.176 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with...

  12. 40 CFR 1065.230 - Raw exhaust flow meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Raw exhaust flow meter. 1065.230... flow meter. (a) Application. You may use measured raw exhaust flow, as follows: (1) Use the actual... the following cases, you may use a raw exhaust flow meter signal that does not give the actual...

  13. 19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.22 Estimated duties on raw sugar. Estimated duties shall be taken on raw sugar, as defined...

  14. 19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.22 Estimated duties on raw sugar. Estimated duties shall be taken on raw sugar, as defined...

  15. 19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.22 Estimated duties on raw sugar. Estimated duties shall be taken on raw sugar, as defined...

  16. 19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.22 Estimated duties on raw sugar. Estimated duties shall be taken on raw sugar, as defined...

  17. 19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.22 Estimated duties on raw sugar. Estimated duties shall be taken on raw sugar, as defined...

  18. 27 CFR 17.165 - Receipt of raw ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Receipt of raw ingredients... PRODUCTS Records § 17.165 Receipt of raw ingredients. For raw ingredients destined to be used in... of receipt; (b) The quantity received; and (c) The identity of the supplier. ...

  19. 27 CFR 17.165 - Receipt of raw ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Receipt of raw ingredients... PRODUCTS Records § 17.165 Receipt of raw ingredients. For raw ingredients destined to be used in... of receipt; (b) The quantity received; and (c) The identity of the supplier. ...

  20. 27 CFR 17.165 - Receipt of raw ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Receipt of raw ingredients... PRODUCTS Records § 17.165 Receipt of raw ingredients. For raw ingredients destined to be used in... of receipt; (b) The quantity received; and (c) The identity of the supplier. ...

  1. 27 CFR 17.165 - Receipt of raw ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Receipt of raw ingredients... PRODUCTS Records § 17.165 Receipt of raw ingredients. For raw ingredients destined to be used in... of receipt; (b) The quantity received; and (c) The identity of the supplier. ...

  2. 27 CFR 17.165 - Receipt of raw ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Receipt of raw ingredients... PRODUCTS Records § 17.165 Receipt of raw ingredients. For raw ingredients destined to be used in... of receipt; (b) The quantity received; and (c) The identity of the supplier. ...

  3. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  4. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  5. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  6. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  7. 40 CFR 1065.230 - Raw exhaust flow meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raw exhaust flow meter. 1065.230... flow meter. (a) Application. You may use measured raw exhaust flow, as follows: (1) Use the actual... the following cases, you may use a raw exhaust flow meter signal that does not give the actual value...

  8. 40 CFR 1065.230 - Raw exhaust flow meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Raw exhaust flow meter. 1065.230... flow meter. (a) Application. You may use measured raw exhaust flow, as follows: (1) Use the actual... the following cases, you may use a raw exhaust flow meter signal that does not give the actual value...

  9. Tylosin production by Streptomyces fradiae using raw cornmeal in airlift bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dubok; Choi, On You; Shin, Hyun-Jae; Chung, Dong-Ok; Shin, Dae-Yewn

    2007-07-01

    Using a 50-l airlift bioreactor, for the effective production of tylosin from Streptomyces fradiae TM-224 using raw cornmeal as the energy source, various environmental factors were studied in flask cultures. The maximum tylosin concentration was obtained at 32 degrees C and pH between 7.0 and 7.5. When seed was inoculated after 24 h of culture, the maximum tylosin concentration, 5.7 g/l, was obtained after 4 days of culture. Various concentrations of raw cornmeal were tested to investigate the optimum initial concentration for the tylosin production. An initial raw cornmeal concentration of 80 g/l gave the highest tylosin concentration, 5.8 g/l, after 5 days of culture. Of the various nitrogen sources, soybean meal and fish meal were found to be the most effective for the production of tylosin. In particular, with the optimal mixing ratio, 12 g/l of soybean meal to 14 g/l of fish meal, 7.2 g/l of tylosin was obtained after 5 days of culture. To compare raw cornmeal and glucose for the production oftylosin in the 50-1 airlift bioreactor for 10 days, fed-batch cultures were carried out under the optimum culture conditions. When raw corn meal was used as the energy source, the tylosin production increased with increasing culture time. The maximum tylosin concentration after 10 days of culture was 13.5 g/l, with a product yield from raw cornmeal of 0.123 g/g of consumed carbon source, which was about 7.2 times higher than that obtained when glucose was used as the carbon source.

  10. Prospection of Portland cement raw material: A case study in the Marmara region of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özgüner, A. M.

    2014-09-01

    Representative sampling of the raw materials used to make Portland cement, correct calculations for the possible clinker mixtures, sufficient reserves of the raw materials and selection of the correct infrastructure for the location of a cement factory are essential to the protection of the great investment in the factory. The results of chemical analyses of pipe samples taken in the field at right angles to the strikes of favourable limestone, clay, shale, and marl outcrops were used in Kind's lime saturation formula for clinker calculations of the possible mixtures. The cement modulus values were calculated using the corresponding clinker oxide ratios and were confirmed to be within the standard intervals for positive cement raw material mixtures. The most promising raw material source, a double lithologic mixture of limestone and mudstone was found during the prospection in north of Bilecik Province, where rhyolitic tuff outcrops with pozzolanic properties also exist. Some marble quarries nearby have been inclined to dispose of their marble wastes for use in cement production to prevent polluting the environment with them. The nearby Gemlik fertiliser factory provides inexpensive waste gypsum that can be used as a cool cement mixing material. The limestone, mudstone and trass raw material reserves in this area were calculated to be sufficient for the factory's requirements for more than 100 years of operation as results of the detailed geological mapping. The regional infrastructure is most suitable for distribution and marketing of cement products. The cement factory described in this study has been producing cement for the last 3 years, after coring and testing of the raw material reserves.

  11. Narrative exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder associated with repeated interpersonal trauma in patients with severe mental illness: a mixed methods design

    PubMed Central

    Mauritz, Maria W.; Van Gaal, Betsie G. I.; Jongedijk, Ruud A.; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.; Goossens, Peter J. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background In the Netherlands, most patients with severe mental illness (SMI) receive flexible assertive community treatment (FACT) provided by multidisciplinary community mental health teams. SMI patients with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are sometimes offered evidence-based trauma-focused treatment like eye movement desensitization reprocessing or prolonged exposure. There is a large amount of evidence for the effectiveness of narrative exposure therapy (NET) within various vulnerable patient groups with repeated interpersonal trauma. Some FACT-teams provide NET for patients with comorbid PTSD, which is promising, but has not been specifically studied in SMI patients. Objectives The primary aim is to evaluate NET in SMI patients with comorbid PTSD associated with repeated interpersonal trauma to get insight into whether (1) PTSD and dissociative symptoms changes and (2) changes occur in the present SMI symptoms, care needs, quality of life, global functioning, and care consumption. The second aim is to gain insight into patients’ experiences with NET and to identify influencing factors on treatment results. Methods This study will have a mixed methods convergent design consisting of quantitative repeated measures and qualitative semi-structured in-depth interviews based on Grounded Theory. The study population will include adult SMI outpatients (n=25) with comorbid PTSD and receiving NET. The quantitative study parameters will be existence and severity of PTSD, dissociative, and SMI symptoms; care needs; quality of life; global functioning; and care consumption. In a longitudinal analysis, outcomes will be analyzed using mixed models to estimate the difference in means between baseline and repeated measurements. The qualitative study parameters will be experiences with NET and perceived factors for success or failure. Integration of quantitative and qualitative results will be focused on interpreting how qualitative results enhance the

  12. On the Challenge of Keeping ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Raw Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiskaridze, V. K.

    2012-08-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) for the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is currently taking data with proton-proton collisions. The TileCal read-out system was initially designed to reconstruct the data in real-time and to store for each channel the signal amplitude, time and quality factor at the required high rate. This approach implied discarding 80% of the raw data that correspond to noise or small signals. Practical experience operating in this scheme with increasing rate have led to several modifications and understanding that some kind of data compression is helpful during data processing and storing. An alternate approach is to use online reconstruction for Level 2 triggering only and to implement a data flow lossless compression scheme for further offiine analysis. A new version of the lossless compression algorithm is proposed which allows to both save the complete raw data and to feed the trigger with the reconstructed signal amplitude and time. It does not increase the data flow as compared to the existing approach and the size of the data fragments transmitted is more stable. We will describe the lossless compression algorithm as a possible upgrade of the Tile data acquisition and highlight some details of the implementation. We will report on its testing and validation and on the overall performance measured on high rate tests, calibration and √ {s} = 7 TeV proton-proton collisions runs.

  13. Atomization and Mixing Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrenberg, A.; Hunt, K.; Duesberg, J.

    1985-01-01

    The primary objective was the obtainment of atomization and mixing performance data for a variety of typical liquid oxygen/hydrocarbon injector element designs. Such data are required to establish injector design criteria and to provide critical inputs to liquid rocket engine combustor performance and stability analysis, and computational codes and methods. Deficiencies and problems with the atomization test equipment were identified, and action initiated to resolve them. Test results of the gas/liquid mixing tests indicated that an assessment of test methods was required. A series of 71 liquid/liquid tests were performed.

  14. Mixed Dementia

    MedlinePlus

    ... community Use our Virtual Library Treatment and outcomes back to top Because most people with mixed dementia are diagnosed with a single type of dementia, physicians often base their prescribing decisions on the type of dementia ...

  15. MDTri: robust and efficient global mixed integer search of spaces of multiple ternary alloys: A DIRECT-inspired optimization algorithm for experimentally accessible computational material design

    DOE PAGES

    Graf, Peter A.; Billups, Stephen

    2017-07-24

    Computational materials design has suffered from a lack of algorithms formulated in terms of experimentally accessible variables. Here we formulate the problem of (ternary) alloy optimization at the level of choice of atoms and their composition that is normal for synthesists. Mathematically, this is a mixed integer problem where a candidate solution consists of a choice of three elements, and how much of each of them to use. This space has the natural structure of a set of equilateral triangles. We solve this problem by introducing a novel version of the DIRECT algorithm that (1) operates on equilateral triangles insteadmore » of rectangles and (2) works across multiple triangles. We demonstrate on a test case that the algorithm is both robust and efficient. Lastly, we offer an explanation of the efficacy of DIRECT -- specifically, its balance of global and local search -- by showing that 'potentially optimal rectangles' of the original algorithm are akin to the Pareto front of the 'multi-component optimization' of global and local search.« less

  16. Design, Development, and Optimization of Sterculia Gum-Based Tablet Coated with Chitosan/Eudragit RLPO Mixed Blend Polymers for Possible Colonic Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Nath, Bipul; Nath, Lila Kanta

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the possible applicability of Sterculia urens gum as a novel carrier for colonic delivery system of a sparingly soluble drug, azathioprine. The study involves designing a microflora triggered colon-targeted drug delivery system (MCDDS) which consists of a central polysaccharide core and is coated to different film thicknesses with blends of chitosan/Eudragit RLPO, and is overcoated with Eudragit L00 to provide acid and intestinal resistance. The microflora degradation property of gum was investigated in rat caecal medium. Drug release study in simulated colonic fluid revealed that swelling force of the gum could concurrently drive the drug out of the polysaccharide core due to the rupture of the chitosan/Eudargit coating in microflora-activated environment. Chitosan in the mixed film coat was found to be degraded by enzymatic action of the microflora in the colon. Release kinetic data revealed that the optimized MCDDS was fitted well into first-order model, and apparent lag time was found to be 6 hours, followed by Higuchi release kinetics. In vivo study in rabbits shows delayed T max, prolonged absorption time, decreased C max, and absorption rate constant (Ka), indicating a reduced systemic toxicity of the drug as compared to other dosage forms.

  17. Design, Development, and Optimization of Sterculia Gum-Based Tablet Coated with Chitosan/Eudragit RLPO Mixed Blend Polymers for Possible Colonic Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Bipul; Nath, Lila Kanta

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the possible applicability of Sterculia urens gum as a novel carrier for colonic delivery system of a sparingly soluble drug, azathioprine. The study involves designing a microflora triggered colon-targeted drug delivery system (MCDDS) which consists of a central polysaccharide core and is coated to different film thicknesses with blends of chitosan/Eudragit RLPO, and is overcoated with Eudragit L00 to provide acid and intestinal resistance. The microflora degradation property of gum was investigated in rat caecal medium. Drug release study in simulated colonic fluid revealed that swelling force of the gum could concurrently drive the drug out of the polysaccharide core due to the rupture of the chitosan/Eudargit coating in microflora-activated environment. Chitosan in the mixed film coat was found to be degraded by enzymatic action of the microflora in the colon. Release kinetic data revealed that the optimized MCDDS was fitted well into first-order model, and apparent lag time was found to be 6 hours, followed by Higuchi release kinetics. In vivo study in rabbits shows delayed Tmax, prolonged absorption time, decreased Cmax, and absorption rate constant (Ka), indicating a reduced systemic toxicity of the drug as compared to other dosage forms. PMID:26555985

  18. Photoautotrophic-heterotrophic biofilm communities: a laboratory incubator designed for growing axenic diatoms and bacteria in defined mixed-species biofilms.

    PubMed

    Buhmann, Matthias; Kroth, Peter G; Schleheck, David

    2012-02-01

    Biofilm communities in the euphotic zone of aquatic habitats comprise photoautotrophic microorganisms, such as diatoms, green algae and cyanobacteria, which produce the organic carbon that fuels the life of a heterotrophic contingent of microorganisms, mostly bacteria. Such photoautotrophic-heterotrophic mixed-species biofilms have received little attention in biofilm research due to a lack of suitable pure-culture laboratory model systems. However, they offer important insight into microbial population dynamics and community interactions during a biofilm-developmental process that shapes highly structured, extremely well-adapted microbial landscapes. Here, we report on the development of a sterile incubation chamber for growing and monitoring axenic phototrophic biofilms, i.e. a sterilizable, illuminated, continuous-flow system for a routine work with pure cultures. The system has been designed to simulate the growth conditions in the shallow, littoral zone of aquatic habitats (horizontal surface, submerged in water, illuminated, aerated). Additional features of the concept include automated photometrical monitoring of biofilm density (as biofilm turbidity), analysis via confocal microscopy, direct harvesting of cells, and options to control illumination, flow velocity, and composition of culture fluid. The application of the system was demonstrated in growth experiments using axenic diatom biofilms, or axenic diatom biofilms co-cultivated with different bacterial strains isolated from epilithic biofilms of an oligotrophic freshwater lake. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potentials of soils amended with raw and carbonized swine solids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this research is to study the greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potentials of the soils amended with raw swine solids and swine biochars made from different thermochemical conditions. Triplicate sets of small pots were designed: 1) control soil with a 50/50 mixture o...

  20. Raw material consumption of the European Union--concept, calculation method, and results.

    PubMed

    Schoer, Karl; Weinzettel, Jan; Kovanda, Jan; Giegrich, Jürgen; Lauwigi, Christoph

    2012-08-21

    This article presents the concept, calculation method, and first results of the "Raw Material Consumption" (RMC) economy-wide material flow indicator for the European Union (EU). The RMC measures the final domestic consumption of products in terms of raw material equivalents (RME), i.e. raw materials used in the complete production chain of consumed products. We employed the hybrid input-output life cycle assessment method to calculate RMC. We first developed a highly disaggregated environmentally extended mixed unit input output table and then applied life cycle inventory data for imported products without appropriate representation of production within the domestic economy. Lastly, we treated capital formation as intermediate consumption. Our results show that services, often considered as a solution for dematerialization, account for a significant part of EU raw material consumption, which emphasizes the need to focus on the full production chains and dematerialization of services. Comparison of the EU's RMC with its domestic extraction shows that the EU is nearly self-sufficient in biomass and nonmetallic minerals but extremely dependent on direct and indirect imports of fossil energy carriers and metal ores. This implies an export of environmental burden related to extraction and primary processing of these materials to the rest of the world. Our results demonstrate that internalizing capital formation has significant influence on the calculated RMC.

  1. Biogenic Amines in Raw and Processed Seafood

    PubMed Central

    Visciano, Pierina; Schirone, Maria; Tofalo, Rosanna; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    The presence of biogenic amines (BAs) in raw and processed seafood, associated with either time/temperature conditions or food technologies is discussed in the present paper from a safety and prevention point of view. In particular, storage temperature, handling practices, presence of microbial populations with decarboxylase activity and availability of free amino acids are considered the most important factors affecting the production of BAs in raw seafood. On the other hand, some food technological treatments such as salting, ripening, fermentation, or marination can increase the levels of BAs in processed seafood. The consumption of high amount of BAs, above all histamine, can result in food borne poisoning which is a worldwide problem. The European Regulation established as maximum limits for histamine, in fishery products from fish species associated with high histidine amounts, values ranging from 100 to 200 mg/kg, while for products which have undergone enzyme maturation treatment in brine, the aforementioned limits rise to 200 and 400 mg/kg. Preventive measures and emerging methods aiming at controlling the production of BAs are also reported for potential application in seafood industries. PMID:22675321

  2. Specialty glass raw materials: Status and developments

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, R.J.; Gray, S.L.

    1996-12-31

    The authors highlight several key raw materials used in the specialty glass industry. The focus here is to update changes and shifts underway in the worldwide availability and processes that will impact both costs and efficient use of these products. The glass types that use these materials generally are those other than container, float, and fiber glass. Those high-volume consumers of glass raw materials are discussed in a companion paper in this volume. In the specialty glass field, the batch materials involve minerals, and the chemicals derived from them, which are less readily available domestically. These are much more critically defined by specifications of assay, contamination, and particle size, resulting in their being more expensive. They are seldom commodity products. The scope of materials for this fragmented industry includes those for leads, borosilicates, aluminosilicates, opals, sealing and frit glasses, optical glass, ophthalmic glass, cathode ray tubes (CRTs) for TV and display, and glass-ceramics as major segments. They use lead oxides, nearly all the alkalies and alkaline earth portions of the periodic table, as well as rare earths, transition element oxides, phosphates, boron minerals and chemicals, zircon, zinc, most of the halogens, and many of the anions. They often require very special particle size specifications. The requirements for these batch materials are often based on chemistry, the absence of contaminants that impact melting, very wide ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum, glass homogeneity, and freedom from solid and gaseous inclusions down to ppm levels in both size and number.

  3. Resource selection of lithic raw materials in the Middle Palaeolithic in southern France.

    PubMed

    Browne, Constance L; Wilson, Lucy

    2011-11-01

    The work reported here uses several approaches to examine the costs and benefits associated with exploiting potential sources of lithic raw material in the Vaucluse, southern France, and then tests the results against the proportions of raw materials from various sources found in the lithic assemblage of a Middle Palaeolithic site, the Bau de l'Aubesier. A previously published equation designed to quantify the attractiveness of each source proves to be significantly correlated with source use, but the results show that it can be improved. We then individually test the components of the attractiveness equation (raw material quality, source extent, terrain difficulty, and the size and abundance of raw material pieces at the source) and additional variables (Calories expended to get from the source to the site using a straight-line route, Calories expended using a least-cost path, surface distance of the source from the site, and distance to the closest used source) using generalized linear models. Since very similar raw materials can be found at more than one source, we combine such similar sources into source areas, and test the area of the source area (AOSA) and the total area of sources within the source area (AOSISA), as two additional independent variables. The best model shows that raw material quality, source extent, abundance of large and very large rocks, and AOSISA, are positively correlated with use of sources, while terrain difficulty, abundance of small and medium rocks, Calories, and AOSA, are negatively correlated with source use. This shows that the hominins at the Bau de l'Aubesier optimized their raw material procurement to get the most good quality material that they could, while minimizing the time and energy spent getting and using it.

  4. Primary care physicians' perceived barriers and facilitators to conservative care for older adults with chronic kidney disease: design of a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Tam-Tham, Helen; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Campbell, David; Thomas, Chandra; Quinn, Robert; Fruetel, Karen; King-Shier, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Guideline committees have identified the need for research to inform the provision of conservative care for older adults with stage 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD) who have a high burden of comorbidity or functional impairment. We will use both qualitative and quantitative methodologies to provide a comprehensive understanding of barriers and facilitators to care for these patients in primary care. Our objectives are to (1) interview primary care physicians to determine their perspectives of conservative care for older adults with stage 5 CKD and (2) survey primary care physicians to determine the prevalence of key barriers and facilitators to provision of conservative care for older adults with stage 5 CKD. A sequential exploratory mixed methods design was adopted for this study. The first phase of the study will involve fundamental qualitative description and the second phase will be a cross-sectional population-based survey. The research is conducted in Alberta, Canada. The participants are primary care physicians with experience in providing care for older adults with stage 5 CKD not planning on initiating dialysis. The first objective will be achieved by undertaking interviews with primary care physicians from southern Alberta. Participants will be selected purposively to include physicians with a range of characteristics (e.g., age, gender, and location of clinical practice). Interviews will be recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using conventional content analysis to generate themes. The second objective will be achieved by undertaking a population-based survey of primary care physicians in Alberta. The questionnaire will be developed based on the findings from the qualitative interviews and pilot tested for face and content validity. Physicians will be provided multiple options to complete the questionnaire including mail, fax, and online methods. Descriptive statistics and associations between demographic factors and barriers and facilitators to

  5. Measuring and understanding the effects of a performance based financing scheme applied to nutrition services in Burundi-a mixed method impact evaluation design.

    PubMed

    Nimpagaritse, Manassé; Korachais, Catherine; Roberfroid, Dominique; Kolsteren, Patrick; Zine Eddine El Idrissi, Moulay Driss; Meessen, Bruno

    2016-06-14

    Malnutrition is a huge problem in Burundi. In order to improve the provision of services at hospital, health centre and community levels, the Ministry of Health is piloting the introduction of malnutrition prevention and care indicators within its performance based financing (PBF) scheme. Paying for units of services and for qualitative indicators is expected to enhance provision and quality of these nutrition services, as PBF has done, in Burundi and elsewhere, for several other services. This paper presents the protocol for the impact evaluation of the PBF scheme applied to malnutrition. The research design consists in a mixed methods model adopting a sequential explanatory design. The quantitative component is a cluster-randomized controlled evaluation design: among the 90 health centres selected for the study, half receive payment related to their results in malnutrition activities, while the other half get a budget allocation. Qualitative research will be carried out both during the intervention period and at the end of the quantitative evaluation. Data are collected from 1) baseline and follow-up surveys of 90 health centres and 6,480 households with children aged 6 to 23 months, 2) logbooks filled in weekly in health centres, and 3) in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. The evaluation aims to provide the best estimate of the impact of the project on malnutrition outcomes in the community as well as outputs at the health centre level (malnutrition care outputs) and to describe quantitatively and qualitatively the changes that took place (or did not take place) within health centres as a result of the program. Although PBF schemes are blooming in low in-come countries, there is still a need for evidence, especially on the impact of revising the list of remunerated indicators. It is expected that this impact evaluation will be helpful for the national policy dialogue in Burundi, but it will also provide key evidence for countries with an existing PBF

  6. Effect of irradiation on the parameters that influence quality characteristics of raw turkey breast meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xi; Moon, Sun Hee; Lee, Hyun Yong; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to elucidate the mechanisms of quality changes in raw turkey breast meat by irradiation. Raw turkey breast meat was irradiated at 0 kGy, 1.5 kGy, 3.0 kGy and 4.5 kGy, and changes in quality parameters including color, lipid and protein oxidation, and off-odor volatiles were determined. Irradiation accelerated lipid and protein oxidation, and increased redness in raw turkey breast meat. However, irradiation had less effect on the volatile profiles of salt-soluble muscle extract than water-soluble muscle extract because the primary radiolytic product from water (hydroxyl radical) had higher chances to react with the water-soluble molecules nearby. The radiolytic degradation products from sulfur-containing amino acids and aldehydes from lipid oxidation were two major volatile compounds responsible for the off-odor of irradiated raw turkey breast meat. Dimethyl disulfide was found only in irradiated raw turkey breast meat, and the amount of dimethyl disulfide linearly increased as the irradiation dose increased, indicating that this compound can be used as a marker for irradiate meat.

  7. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in raw milk and some dairy products

    PubMed Central

    El-Zamkan, Mona A.; Hameed, Karima G. Abdel

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was accomplished to test raw milk and certain dairy products sold in local markets of Qena, Egypt, for the presence of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 samples of raw milk, kareish cheese, and yoghurt (50 samples each) were subjected first to enrichment in Bolton broth at 42°C for 2 days under a microaerobic condition, subsequently campylobacter blood free selective agar plates were cultured and incubated in the same condition of the broth. Based on the morphological and biochemical themes of the growing colonies, it was further classified into Campylobacter spp. The identified isolates were later affirmed by polymerase chain reaction using primers that were designed to locate hipO genes in C. jejuni and glyA in C. coli. Results: Of the total 150 examined samples of raw milk and soft cheese samples; 37 (24.6%) samples were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. C. jejuni was dominating in this study in 20%, 14%, and 8% of the examined raw milk, kareish cheese, and yoghurt samples, respectively. No sample harbored C. coli. Conclusion: Campylobacter spp. could be detected in 24.6% of the investigated samples. C. jejuni isolated from 14% of the total tested samples, while C. coli could not be detected from the examined samples. Campylobacter spp. is rampant in the areas of poor hygienic conditions making products made from raw milk of public health hazard. PMID:27847427

  8. Methodology for Evaluating Raw Material Changes to RSRM Elastomeric Insulation Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mildenhall, Scott D.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) uses asbestos and silicon dioxide filled acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (AS-NBR) as the primary internal insulation to protect the case from heat. During the course of the RSRM Program, several changes have been made to the raw materials and processing of the AS-NBR elastomeric insulation material. These changes have been primarily caused by raw materials becoming obsolete. In addition, some process changes have been implemented that were deemed necessary to improve the quality and consistency of the AS-NBR insulation material. Each change has been evaluated using unique test efforts customized to determine the potential impacts of the specific raw material or process change. Following the evaluations, the various raw material and process changes were successfully implemented with no detectable effect on the performance of the AS-NBR insulation. This paper will discuss some of the raw material and process changes evaluated, the methodology used in designing the unique test plans, and the general evaluation results. A summary of the change history of RSRM AS-NBR internal insulation is also presented.

  9. Considering adaptation of electrical ovens with unit-type releasing to peculiarities of thermal energization of mineral raw materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zvezdin, A. V.; Bryanskikh, T. B.

    2017-01-01

    The paper gives a short overview of technologies of mineral raw material thermal treatment where application of electrical ovens with unit-type releasing is possible. Efficiency of such ovens for vermiculite concentrate and conglomerate roasting is proved by more than 13-years experience of their industrial operation. The paper furthermore considers alternative connections of energotechnological blocks of an oven in order to determine its efficient design for specific technology related to one or another mineral raw material.

  10. Handling 78,000 drums of mixed-waste sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.B.; Harrington, E.S.; Mattus, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now known as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) closed two mixed-waste surface impoundments by removing the sludge and contaminated pond-bottom clay and attempting to process it into durable, nonleachable, concrete monoliths. Interim, controlled, above-ground storage included delisting the stabilized sludge from hazardous to nonhazardous and disposing of the delisted monoliths as Class 1 radioactive waste. Because of schedule constraints and process design and control deficiencies, {approximately}46,000 drums of material in various stages of solidification and {approximately}32,000 barrels of unprocessed sludge are stored. The abandoned treatment facility still contains {approximately}16,000 gal of raw sludge. Such storage of mixed waste does not comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) guidelines. This paper describes actions that are under way to bring the storage of {approximately}78,000 drums of mixed waste into compliance with RCRA. Remediation of this problem by treatment to meet regulatory requirements is the focus of the discussion. 3 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Vegan Triple-Ironman (Raw Vegetables/Fruits)

    PubMed Central

    Leischik, Roman; Spelsberg, Norman

    2014-01-01

    Endurance sport requires a healthy and balanced diet. In this case report we present the findings of an ultra-triathlete (three times Ironman, means 11.4 km swim, 540 km bike, 125 km run in 41:18 h as a whole) living on a raw vegan diet and having finished the competitions under these nutritional conditions. To this end, the vegan ultra triathlete and a control group of 10 Ironman triathletes of similar age living on a mixed diet were investigated, using echocardiography and spiroergometry. In addition, blood samples were taken from the vegan athlete both in the sporting season and in the off-season. The vegan athlete showed no signs of dietary deficiencies or impaired health. In comparison with the control group, the vegan athlete showed a higher oxygen intake at the respiratory compensation point. This case demonstrates that even top-class sporting performance, like that of a three-time Ironman, is possible on a vegan diet. Whether a vegan diet offers advantages or disadvantages for the performance of endurance athletes remains an open question. PMID:24826311

  12. Vegan triple-ironman (raw vegetables/fruits).

    PubMed

    Leischik, Roman; Spelsberg, Norman

    2014-01-01

    Endurance sport requires a healthy and balanced diet. In this case report we present the findings of an ultra-triathlete (three times Ironman, means 11.4 km swim, 540 km bike, 125 km run in 41:18 h as a whole) living on a raw vegan diet and having finished the competitions under these nutritional conditions. To this end, the vegan ultra triathlete and a control group of 10 Ironman triathletes of similar age living on a mixed diet were investigated, using echocardiography and spiroergometry. In addition, blood samples were taken from the vegan athlete both in the sporting season and in the off-season. The vegan athlete showed no signs of dietary deficiencies or impaired health. In comparison with the control group, the vegan athlete showed a higher oxygen intake at the respiratory compensation point. This case demonstrates that even top-class sporting performance, like that of a three-time Ironman, is possible on a vegan diet. Whether a vegan diet offers advantages or disadvantages for the performance of endurance athletes remains an open question.

  13. Ion mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matteson, S.; Nicolet, M.-A.

    1983-01-01

    Recent experimental studies of the ion-mixing phenomenon are summarized. Ion mixing is differentiated from ion implantation and shown to be a useful technique for overcoming the sputter-dependent limitations of implantation processes. The fundamental physical principles of ion/solid interactions are explored. The basic experimental configurations currently in use are characterized: bilayered samples, multilayered samples, and samples with a thin marker layer. A table listing the binary systems (metal-semiconductor or metal-metal) which have been investigated using each configuration is presented. Results are discussed, and some sample data are plotted. The prospects for future application of ion mixing to the alteration of solid surface properties are considered. Practical applications are seen as restricted by economic considerations to the production of small, expensive components or to fields (such as the semiconductor industry) which already have facilities for ion implantation.

  14. Authoring Immersive Mixed Reality Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misker, Jan M. V.; van der Ster, Jelle

    Creating a mixed reality experience is a complicated endeavour. From our practice as a media lab in the artistic domain we found that engineering is “only” a first step in creating a mixed reality experience. Designing the appearance and directing the user experience are equally important for creating an engaging, immersive experience. We found that mixed reality artworks provide a very good test bed for studying these topics. This chapter details three steps required for authoring mixed reality experiences: engineering, designing and directing. We will describe a platform (VGE) for creating mixed reality environments that incorporates these steps. A case study (EI4) is presented in which this platform was used to not only engineer the system, but in which an artist was given the freedom to explore the artistic merits of mixed reality as an artistic medium, which involved areas such as the look and feel, multimodal experience and interaction, immersion as a subjective emotion and game play scenarios.

  15. Noise in raw data from magnetic observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomutov, Sergey Y.; Mandrikova, Oksana V.; Budilova, Ekaterina A.; Arora, Kusumita; Manjula, Lingala

    2017-09-01

    In spite of significant progress in the development of new devices for magnetic measurements, mathematical and computational technologies for data processing and means of communication, the quality of magnetic data accessible through the data centres (for example, World Data Centres or INTERMAGNET) still largely depends on the actual conditions in which observation of the Earth's magnetic field is performed at observatories. Processing of raw data of magnetic measurements by observatory staff plays an important role. It includes effective identification of noise and elimination of its influence on final data. In this paper, on the basis of the experience gained during long-term magnetic monitoring carried out at the observatories of IKIR FEB RAS (Russia) and CSIR-NGRI (India), we present a review of methods commonly encountered in actual practice for noise identification and the possibility of reducing noise influence.

  16. TGA-DTA and chemical composition study of raw material of Bikaner region for electrical porcelain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tak, S. K.; Shekhawat, M. S.; Mangal, R.

    2013-06-01

    Porcelains are vitrified and a fine grained ceramic product, used either glazed or unglazed and is often manufactured from a tri-axial body mix of clays, quartz and alkaline feldspar. Physical properties associated with porcelain include those of permeability, high strength, hardness, glassiness, durability, whiteness, translucence, resonance, brittleness, high resistance to the passage of electricity, high resistance to thermal shock and high elasticity[1,2]. Porcelain insulators are made from three raw materials; clay; feldspar and quartz. For porcelain manufacture the clay is categorized in two groups; ball clay and kaolin, each of which plays an important role, either in the preparation of the product or in the properties of the finished products. The following research highlights the importance that suits these materials for their contributions to the final properties of the product. Keeping this view a TGA-DTA and chemical composition of these raw materials were observed and these materials are found suitable for production of Electrical Porcelain.

  17. Design Considerations for mHealth Programs Targeting Smokers Not Yet Ready to Quit: Results of a Sequential Mixed-Methods Study.

    PubMed

    McClure, Jennifer B; Heffner, Jaimee; Hohl, Sarah; Klasnja, Predrag; Catz, Sheryl L

    2017-03-10

    Mobile health (mHealth) smoking cessation programs are typically designed for smokers who are ready to quit smoking. In contrast, most smokers want to quit someday but are not yet ready to quit. If mHealth apps were designed for these smokers, they could potentially encourage and assist more people to quit smoking. No prior studies have specifically examined the design considerations of mHealth apps targeting smokers who are not yet ready to quit. To inform the user-centered design of mHealth apps for smokers who were not yet ready to quit by assessing (1) whether these smokers were interested in using mHealth tools to change their smoking behavior; (2) their preferred features, functionality, and content of mHealth programs addressing smoking; and (3) considerations for marketing or distributing these programs to promote their uptake. We conducted a sequential exploratory, mixed-methods study. Qualitative interviews (phase 1, n=15) were completed with a demographically diverse group of smokers who were smartphone owners and wanted to quit smoking someday, but not yet. Findings informed a Web-based survey of smokers from across the United States (phase 2, n=116). Data were collected from April to September, 2016. Findings confirmed that although smokers not yet ready to quit are not actively seeking treatment or using cessation apps, most would be interested in using these programs to help them reduce or change their smoking behavior. Among phase 2 survey respondents, the app features, functions, and content rated most highly were (1) security of personal information; (2) the ability to track smoking, spending, and savings; (3) content that adaptively changes with one's needs; (4) the ability to request support as needed; (5) the ability to earn and redeem awards for program use; (6) guidance on how to quit smoking; and (7) content specifically addressing management of nicotine withdrawal, stress, depression, and anxiety. Results generally did not vary by stage of

  18. Design Considerations for mHealth Programs Targeting Smokers Not Yet Ready to Quit: Results of a Sequential Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Heffner, Jaimee; Hohl, Sarah; Klasnja, Predrag; Catz, Sheryl L

    2017-01-01

    Background Mobile health (mHealth) smoking cessation programs are typically designed for smokers who are ready to quit smoking. In contrast, most smokers want to quit someday but are not yet ready to quit. If mHealth apps were designed for these smokers, they could potentially encourage and assist more people to quit smoking. No prior studies have specifically examined the design considerations of mHealth apps targeting smokers who are not yet ready to quit. Objective To inform the user-centered design of mHealth apps for smokers who were not yet ready to quit by assessing (1) whether these smokers were interested in using mHealth tools to change their smoking behavior; (2) their preferred features, functionality, and content of mHealth programs addressing smoking; and (3) considerations for marketing or distributing these programs to promote their uptake. Methods We conducted a sequential exploratory, mixed-methods study. Qualitative interviews (phase 1, n=15) were completed with a demographically diverse group of smokers who were smartphone owners and wanted to quit smoking someday, but not yet. Findings informed a Web-based survey of smokers from across the United States (phase 2, n=116). Data were collected from April to September, 2016. Results Findings confirmed that although smokers not yet ready to quit are not actively seeking treatment or using cessation apps, most would be interested in using these programs to help them reduce or change their smoking behavior. Among phase 2 survey respondents, the app features, functions, and content rated most highly were (1) security of personal information; (2) the ability to track smoking, spending, and savings; (3) content that adaptively changes with one’s needs; (4) the ability to request support as needed; (5) the ability to earn and redeem awards for program use; (6) guidance on how to quit smoking; and (7) content specifically addressing management of nicotine withdrawal, stress, depression, and anxiety

  19. Aerospace Fuels from Nonpetroleum Raw Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, B. A.; Hepp, A. F.; Kulis, M. J.; Jaworske, D. A.

    2013-01-01

    Recycling human metabolic and plastic wastes minimizes cost and increases efficiency by reducing the need to transport consumables and return trash, respectively, from orbit to support a space station crew. If the much larger costs of transporting consumables to the Moon and beyond are taken into account, developing waste recycling technologies becomes imperative and possibly mission enabling. Reduction of terrestrial waste streams while producing energy and/or valuable raw materials is an opportunity being realized by a new generation of visionary entrepreneurs; several relevant technologies are briefly compared, contrasted and assessed for space applications. A two-step approach to nonpetroleum raw materials utilization is presented; the first step involves production of supply or producer gas. This is akin to synthesis gas containing carbon oxides, hydrogen, and simple hydrocarbons. The second step involves production of fuel via the Sabatier process, a methanation reaction, or another gas-to-liquid technology, typically Fischer- Tropsch processing. Optimization to enhance the fraction of product stream relevant to transportation fuels via catalytic (process) development at NASA GRC is described. Energy utilization is a concern for production of fuels whether for operation on the lunar or Martian surface, or beyond. The term "green" relates to not only mitigating excess carbon release but also to the efficiency of energy usage. For space, energy usage can be an essential concern. Other issues of great concern include minimizing impurities in the product stream(s), especially those that are potential health risks and/or could de-grade operations through catalyst poisoning or equipment damage; technologies being developed to remove heteroatom impurities are discussed. Alternative technologies to utilize waste fluids, such as a propulsion option called the resistojet, are discussed. The resistojet is an electric propulsion technology with a powered thruster to

  20. Raw Sewage Harbors Diverse Viral Populations

    PubMed Central

    Cantalupo, Paul G.; Calgua, Byron; Zhao, Guoyan; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Wier, Adam D.; Katz, Josh P.; Grabe, Michael; Hendrix, Roger W.; Girones, Rosina; Wang, David; Pipas, James M.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT At this time, about 3,000 different viruses are recognized, but metagenomic studies suggest that these viruses are a small fraction of the viruses that exist in nature. We have explored viral diversity by deep sequencing nucleic acids obtained from virion populations enriched from raw sewage. We identified 234 known viruses, including 17 that infect humans. Plant, insect, and algal viruses as well as bacteriophages were also present. These viruses represented 26 taxonomic families and included viruses with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), positive-sense ssRNA [ssRNA(+)], and dsRNA genomes. Novel viruses that could be placed in specific taxa represented 51 different families, making untreated wastewater the most diverse viral metagenome (genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples) examined thus far. However, the vast majority of sequence reads bore little or no sequence relation to known viruses and thus could not be placed into specific taxa. These results show that the vast majority of the viruses on Earth have not yet been characterized. Untreated wastewater provides a rich matrix for identifying novel viruses and for studying virus diversity. Importance At this time, virology is focused on the study of a relatively small number of viral species. Specific viruses are studied either because they are easily propagated in the laboratory or because they are associated with disease. The lack of knowledge of the size and characteristics of the viral universe and the diversity of viral genomes is a roadblock to understanding important issues, such as the origin of emerging pathogens and the extent of gene exchange among viruses. Untreated wastewater is an ideal system for assessing viral diversity because virion populations from large numbers of individuals are deposited and because raw sewage itself provides a rich environment for the growth of diverse host species and thus their viruses. These studies suggest that