Science.gov

Sample records for ray cross sections

  1. Inelastic cross sections from gamma-ray measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Ronald Owen

    2010-12-06

    Measurements of gamma rays following neutron induced reactions have been studied with the Germanium Array for Neutron-induced Excitations (GEANIE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) for many years. Gamma-ray excitation functions and coincidence studies provide insight into nuclear reaction mechanisms as well as expanding our knowledge of energy levels and gamma-rays. Samples studied with Ge detectors at LANSCE range from Be to Pu. Fe, Cr and Ti have been considered for use as reference cross sections. An overview of the measurements and efforts to create a reliable neutron-induced gamma-ray reference cross section will be presented.

  2. Light ray tracing through a leaf cross section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, R.; Silva, L. F.

    1973-01-01

    A light ray, incident at about 5 deg to the normal, is geometrically plotted through the drawing of the cross section of a soybean leaf using Fresnel's equations and Snell's law. The optical mediums of the leaf considered for ray tracing are: air, cell sap, chloroplast, and cell wall. The ray is also drawn through the same leaf cross section with cell wall and air as the only optical mediums. The values of the reflection and transmission found from the ray tracing tests agree closely with the experimental results obtained using a Beckman Dk-2A Spectroreflector.

  3. Tables of nuclear cross sections for galactic cosmic rays: Absorption cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    A simple but comprehensive theory of nuclear reactions is presented. Extensive tables of nucleon, deuteron, and heavy-ion absorption cross sections over a broad range of energies are generated for use in cosmic ray shielding studies. Numerous comparisons of the calculated values with available experimental data show agreement to within 3 percent for energies above 80 MeV/nucleon and within approximately 10 percent for energies as low as 30 MeV/nucleon. These tables represent the culmination of the development of the absorption cross section formalism and supersede the preliminary absorption cross sections published previously in NASA TN D-8107, NASA TP-2138, and NASA TM-84636.

  4. Tables of nuclear cross sections for galactic cosmic rays: Absorption cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.

    1985-05-01

    A simple but comprehensive theory of nuclear reactions is presented. Extensive tables of nucleon, deuteron, and heavy-ion absorption cross sections over a broad range of energies are generated for use in cosmic ray shielding studies. Numerous comparisons of the calculated values with available experimental data show agreement to within 3 percent for energies above 80 MeV/nucleon and within approximately 10 percent for energies as low as 30 MeV/nucleon. These tables represent the culmination of the development of the absorption cross section formalism and supersede the preliminary absorption cross sections published previously in NASA TN D-8107, NASA TP-2138, and NASA TM-84636.

  5. EGAF: Measurement and Analysis of Gamma-ray Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firestone, R. B.; Abusaleem, K.; Basunia, M. S.; Bečvář, F.; Belgya, T.; Bernstein, L. A.; Choi, H. D.; Escher, J. E.; Genreith, C.; Hurst, A. M.; Krtička, M.; Renne, P. R.; Révay, Zs.; Rogers, A. M.; Rossbach, M.; Siem, S.; Sleaford, B.; Summers, N. C.; Szentmiklosi, L.; van Bibber, K.; Wiedeking, M.

    2014-05-01

    The Evaluated Gamma-ray Activation File (EGAF) is the result of a 2000-2007 IAEA Coordinated Research Project to develop a database of thermal, prompt γ-ray cross sections, σγ, for all elemental and selected radioactive targets. No previous database of this kind had existed. EGAF was originally based on measurements using guided neutron beams from the Budapest Reactor on all elemental targets from Z=1-82, 90 and 92, except for He and Pm. The EGAF σγ data were published in the Database of Prompt Gamma Rays from Slow Neutron Capture for Elemental Analysis [1]. An international collaboration has formed to continue the EGAF measurements with isotopically enriched targets, derive total radiative thermal neutron cross sections, σ0, extend the σγ data from thermal to 20 MeV neutrons, compile a completed activation data file, improve sections of the Reference Input Parameter Library (RIPL) with more complete and up to date level and γ-ray data, evaluate statistical γ-ray data from reaction studies, and determine recommended neutron separations energies, Sn, for atomic mass evaluations. A new guided neutron beam facility has become available at the Garching (Munich) FRM II Reactor, and high energy neutron experimental facilities are being developed by a Berkeley area collaboration where 5-33 MeV neutron beams are available at the LBNL 88” cyclotron, 2.5 and 14 MeV beams at the University of California, Berkeley neutron generator laboratory, and high flux, 10 nṡcmṡ-2 s-1, neutron pulses available from the LLNL National Ignition Facility (NIF).

  6. Analytical approximations for X-ray cross sections 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggs, Frank; Lighthill, Ruth

    1988-08-01

    This report updates our previous work that provided analytical approximations to cross sections for both photoelectric absorption of photons by atoms and incoherent scattering of photons by atoms. This representation is convenient for use in programmable calculators and in computer programs to evaluate these cross sections numerically. The results apply to atoms of atomic numbers between 1 and 100 and for photon energies greater than or equal to 10 eV. The photoelectric cross sections are again approximated by four-term polynomials in reciprocal powers of the photon energy. There are now more fitting intervals, however, than were used previously. The incoherent-scattering cross sections are based on the Klein-Nishina relation, but use simpler approximate equations for efficient computer evaluation. We describe the averaging scheme for applying these atomic results to any composite material. The fitting coefficients are included in tables, and the cross sections are shown graphically.

  7. Partial (gamma)-Ray Cross Sections for the Reaction 239Pu(n,2n(gamma)i) and the 239Pu(n,2n) Cross Section

    SciTech Connect

    Beacker, J.A.; Bernstein, L.A.; Younes, W.; McNabb, D.P.; Garrett, P.E.; Archer, D.; McGrath, C.A.; Stoyer, M.A.; Chen, H.; Ormand, W.E.; Nelson, R.O.; Chadwick, M.B.; Johns, G.D.; Drake, D.; Young, P.G.; Devlin, M.; Fotiades, N.; Wilburn, W.S.

    2001-09-14

    Absolute partial {gamma}-ray cross sections for production of discrete {gamma} rays in the {sup 239}Pu(n,2n{gamma}i){sup 238}Pu reaction have been measured. The experiments were performed at LANSCE/WNR on the 60R flight line. Reaction {gamma}-rays were measured using the large-scale Compton-suppressed array of Ge detectors, GEANIE. The motivation for this experiment, an overview of the partial {gamma}-ray cross-section measurement, and an introduction to the main experimental issues will be presented. The energy resolution of the Ge detectors allowed identification of reaction {gamma} rays above the background of sample radioactivity and fission {gamma} rays. The use of planar Ge detectors with their reduced sensitivity to neutron interactions and improved line shape was also important to the success of this experiment. Absolute partial {gamma}-ray cross sections are presented for the 6{sub 1}{sup +} {yields} 4{sub 1}{sup +} member of the ground state rotational band in {sup 238}Pu, together with miscellaneous other {gamma}-ray partial cross sections. The n,2n reaction cross section shape and magnitude as a function of neutron energy was extracted from these partial cross sections using nuclear modeling (enhanced Hauser-Feshbach) to relate partial {gamma}-ray cross sections to the n,2n cross section. The critical nuclear modeling issue is the ratio of a partial cross section to the reaction channel cross section, and not the prediction of the absolute magnitude.

  8. The Status of Cross Section Measurements for Neutron-induced Reactions Needed for Cosmic Ray Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sisterson, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    Cosmic ray interactions with lunar rocks and meteorites produce small amounts of radionuclides and stable isotopes. Advances in Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) allow production rates to be measured routinely in well-documented lunar rocks and meteorites. These measurements are analyzed using theoretical models to learn about the object itself and the history of the cosmic rays that fell on it. Good cross section measurements are essential input to the theoretical calculations. Most primary cosmic ray particles are protons so reliable cross sections for proton-induced reactions are essential. A cross section is deemed accurate if measurements made by different experimenters using different techniques result in consistent values. Most cross sections for proton induced reactions are now well measured. However, good cross section measurements for neutron-induced reactions are still needed. These cross sections are required to fully account for all galactic cosmic ray interactions at depth in an extraterrestrial object. When primary galactic cosmic ray (GCR) particles interact with an object many secondary neutrons are produced, which also initiate spallation reactions. Thus, the total GCR contribution to the overall cosmogenic nuclide archive has to include the contribution from the secondary neutron interactions. Few relevant cross section measurements have been reported for neutron-induced reactions at neutron energies greater than approximately 20 MeV. The status of the cross section measurements using quasi-monoenergetic neutron energies at iThemba LABS, South Africa and white neutron beams at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), Los Alamos are reported here.

  9. The Status of Cross Section Measurements for Neutron-induced Reactions Needed for Cosmic Ray Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sisterson, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    Cosmic ray interactions with lunar rocks and meteorites produce small amounts of radionuclides and stable isotopes. Advances in Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) allow production rates to be measured routinely in well-documented lunar rocks and meteorites. These measurements are analyzed using theoretical models to learn about the object itself and the history of the cosmic rays that fell on it. Good cross section measurements are essential input to the theoretical calculations. Most primary cosmic ray particles are protons so reliable cross sections for proton-induced reactions are essential. A cross section is deemed accurate if measurements made by different experimenters using different techniques result in consistent values. Most cross sections for proton induced reactions are now well measured. However, good cross section measurements for neutron-induced reactions are still needed. These cross sections are required to fully account for all galactic cosmic ray interactions at depth in an extraterrestrial object. When primary galactic cosmic ray (GCR) particles interact with an object many secondary neutrons are produced, which also initiate spallation reactions. Thus, the total GCR contribution to the overall cosmogenic nuclide archive has to include the contribution from the secondary neutron interactions. Few relevant cross section measurements have been reported for neutron-induced reactions at neutron energies greater than approximately 20 MeV. The status of the cross section measurements using quasi-monoenergetic neutron energies at iThemba LABS, South Africa and white neutron beams at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), Los Alamos are reported here.

  10. The POPOP4 library and codes for preparing secondary gamma-ray production cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, W. E., III

    1972-01-01

    The POPOP4 code for converting secondary gamma ray yield data to multigroup secondary gamma ray production cross sections and the POPOP4 library of secondary gamma ray yield data are described. Recent results of the testing of uranium and iron data sets from the POPOP4 library are given. The data sets were tested by comparing calculated secondary gamma ray pulse height spectra measured at the ORNL TSR-II reactor.

  11. Extending the frontiers: Reconciling accelerator and cosmic ray p-p cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Block, M. M.; Halzen, F.; Stanev, T.

    2000-10-01

    We simultaneously fit a QCD-inspired parametrization of all accelerator data on forward proton-proton and antiproton-proton scattering amplitudes, together with cosmic ray data (using Glauber theory), to predict proton-air and proton-proton cross sections at energies near {radical}(s){approx_equal}30 TeV. The p-air cosmic ray measurements provide a strong constraint on the inclusive particle production cross section, as well as greatly reducing the errors on the fit parameters--in turn, greatly reducing the errors in the high-energy proton-proton and proton-air cross section predictions. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  12. Estimating Reaction Cross Sections from Measured (Gamma)-Ray Yields: The 238U(n,2n) and 239Pu(n,2n) Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, W

    2002-11-18

    A procedure is presented to deduce the reaction-channel cross section from measured partial {gamma}-ray cross sections. In its simplest form, the procedure consists in adding complementary measured and calculated contributions to produce the channel cross section. A matrix formalism is introduced to provide a rigorous framework for this approach. The formalism is illustrated using a fictitious product nucleus with a simple level scheme, and a general algorithm is presented to process any level scheme. In order to circumvent the cumbersome algebra that can arise in the matrix formalism, a more intuitive graphical procedure is introduced to obtain the same reaction cross-section estimate. The features and limitations of the method are discussed, and the technique is applied to extract the {sup 235}U (n,2n) and {sup 239}Pu(n,2n) cross sections from experimental partial {gamma}-ray cross sections, coupled with (enhanced) Hauser-Feshbach calculations.

  13. Effects of nuclear cross sections at different energies on the radiation hazard from galactic cosmic rays.

    PubMed

    Lin, Z W; Adams, J H

    2007-03-01

    The radiation hazard for astronauts from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) is a major obstacle to long-duration human space exploration. Space radiation transport codes have been developed to calculate the radiation environment on missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. We have studied how uncertainties in fragmentation cross sections at different energies affect the accuracy of predictions from such radiation transport calculations. We find that, in deep space, cross sections at energies between 0.3 and 0.85 GeV/nucleon have the largest effect in solar maximum GCR environments. At the International Space Station, cross sections at higher energies have the largest effect due to the geomagnetic cutoff.

  14. Measurements of gamma-ray production cross sections for shielding materials of space nuclear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orphan, V. J.; John, J.; Hoot, C. G.

    1972-01-01

    Measurements of secondary gamma ray production from neutron interactions have been made over the entire energy range of interest in shielding applications. The epithermal capture gamma ray yields for both resolved gamma ray lines and continuum have been measured from thermal energies to 100 KeV for natural tungsten and U-238, two important candidate shield materials in SNAP reactor systems. Data are presented to illustrate the variation of epithermal capture gamma ray yields with neutron energy. The gamma ray production cross sections from (n,xy) reactions have been measured for Fe and Al from the threshold energies for inelastic scattering to approximately 16 MeV. Typical Fe and Al cross sections obtained with high-neutron energy resolution and averaged over broad neutron-energy groups are presented.

  15. Effects of Nuclear Cross Sections at Different Energies on the Radiation Hazard from Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Z. W.; Adams, J. H., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    The radiation hazard for astronauts from galactic cosmic rays is a major obstacle in long duration human space explorations. Space radiation transport codes have been developed to calculate radiation environment on missions to the Moon, Mars or beyond. We have studied how uncertainties in fragmentation cross sections at different energies affect the accuracy of predictions from such radiation transport. We find that, in deep space, cross sections between 0.3 and 0.85 GeV/u usually have the largest effect on dose-equivalent behind shielding in solar minimum GCR environments, and cross sections between 0.85 and 1.2 GeV/u have the largest effect in solar maximum GCR environments. At the International Space Station, cross sections at higher energies have the largest effect due to the geomagnetic cutoff.

  16. Measurements of the proton-air cross section with high energy cosmic ray experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, Rasha

    2016-07-01

    Detecting Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) enables us to measure the proton-air inelastic cross section σinel p-air at energies that we are unable to access with particle accelerators. The proton-proton cross section σp-p is subsequently inferred from the proton-air cross section at these energies. UHECR experiments have been reportingon the proton-air inelastic cross section starting with the Fly's Eye in 1984 at √s =30 TeV and ending with the most recent result of the Telescope Array experiment at √s = 95 TeV in 2015. In this proceeding, I will summarize the most recent experimental results on the σinel p-air measurements from the UHECR experiments.

  17. Description of alpha-nucleus interaction cross sections for cosmic ray shielding studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John W.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear interactions of high-energy alpha particles with target nuclei important for cosmic ray studies are discussed. Models for elastic, quasi-elastic, and breakup reactions are presented and compared with experimental data. Energy-dependent interaction cross sections and secondary spectra are presented based on theoretical models and the limited experimental data base.

  18. Effects of Nuclear Cross Sections at Different Energies on Space Radiation Exposure from Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Zi-Wei; Adams, James H., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Space radiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) is a major hazard to space crews, especially in long duration human space explorations. For this reason, they will be protected by radiation shielding that fragments the GCR heavy ions. Here we investigate how sensitive the crew's radiation exposure is to nuclear fragmentation cross sections at different energies. We find that in deep space cross sections between about 0.2 and 1.2 GeV/u have the strongest effect on dose equivalent behind shielding in solar minimum GCR environments, and cross sections between about 0.6 and 1.7 GeV/u are the most important at solar maximum'. On the other hand, at the location of the International Space Station, cross sections at_higher -energies, between about 0.6 and 1.7 GeV /u at solar minimum and between about 1.7 and 3.4 GeV/u'at,solar maximum, are the most important This is. due-to the average geomagnetic cutoff for the ISS orbit. We also show the effect of uncertainties in the fragmentation cross sections on the elemental energy spectra behind shielding. These results help to focus the studies of fragmentation cross sections on the proper energy range in order to improve our predictions of crew exposures.

  19. Effects of Nuclear Cross Sections at Different Energies on Space Radiation Exposure from Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Zi-Wei; Adams, James H., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Space radiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) is a major hazard to space crews, especially in long duration human space explorations. For this reason, they will be protected by radiation shielding that fragments the GCR heavy ions. Here we investigate how sensitive the crew's radiation exposure is to nuclear fragmentation cross sections at different energies. We find that in deep space cross sections between about 0.2 and 1.2 GeV/u have the strongest effect on dose equivalent behind shielding in solar minimum GCR environments, and cross sections between about 0.6 and 1.7 GeV/u are the most important at solar maximum'. On the other hand, at the location of the International Space Station, cross sections at_higher -energies, between about 0.6 and 1.7 GeV /u at solar minimum and between about 1.7 and 3.4 GeV/u'at,solar maximum, are the most important This is. due-to the average geomagnetic cutoff for the ISS orbit. We also show the effect of uncertainties in the fragmentation cross sections on the elemental energy spectra behind shielding. These results help to focus the studies of fragmentation cross sections on the proper energy range in order to improve our predictions of crew exposures.

  20. Measurement of gamma-ray total absorption cross sections using a [sup 56]Co source

    SciTech Connect

    Frankle, Christen M.; Moss, Calvin E.

    2008-12-01

    We have used a 150 MBq [sup 56]Co source to perform gamma-ray total absorption cross section measurements with very high precision. The use of [sup 56]Co allowed us to simultaneously measure the total cross section at 15 energies ranging from 0.847 MeV to 3.451 MeV. Seven sample materials were measured: Be, C, Cu, Ta, W, Pb, and U. In general, the measurement precision is better than 0.5% and in all cases better than 1.3%.

  1. X-ray emission cross sections following charge exchange by multiply charged ions of astrophysical interest

    SciTech Connect

    Otranto, S.; Olson, R. E.; Beiersdorfer, P.

    2006-02-15

    State selective nl-electron capture cross sections are presented for highly charged ions with Z=6-10 colliding with atoms and molecules. The energy range investigated was from 1 eV/amu(v=0.006 a.u.)to 100 keV/amu(v=2.0 a.u.). The energy dependence of the l-level populations is investigated. The K shell x-ray emission cross sections are determined by using the calculated state-selective electron capture results as input and then applying hydrogenic branching and cascading values for the photon emission. A major shift in the line emission from being almost solely Lyman-{alpha} transitions at the highest collisions energies to strong high-n to 1s transitions at the lowest energies is observed. The calculated cross sections are in reasonable accord with measurements made by Greenwood et al. [Phys. Rev. A 63, 062707 (2001)], using O{sup 8+} and Ne{sup 10+} on various targets at 3 keV/amu. The calculations are also in accord with x-ray emission cross section data obtained on the EBIT machine at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) where O{sup 8+} and Ne{sup 10+} high resolution measurements were made at a temperature of 10 eV/amu for a series of targets with varying ionization potentials. The Ne{sup 10+} data clearly shows the contribution from multiple capture followed by Auger autoionization in the line emission spectra. Our calculated line emission cross sections are used to provide an ab initio determination of the soft x-ray spectrum of comet C/Linear 1999 S4 that was observed on the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The calculations show that the spectrum is due to the charge exchange of the neutral gases in the comet's coma with the ions of the slow solar wind.

  2. Measurements of K-shell ionization cross sections of Al and L-shell x-ray production cross sections of Se by intermediate-energy electron impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, C. S.; Wu, Y.; Yuan, Y.; Chang, C. H.; Qian, Z. C.; Zhu, J. J.; Moharram, Khalid

    2016-12-01

    The K-shell ionization cross sections of Al (Z = 13) and the total L-shell x-ray production cross sections of Se (Z = 34) from electron impacts with kinetic energies ranging from several keV to several tenths of keV have been measured by using an improved experimental setup. An Al target of monoatomic and grid carbon substrate, which consisted of ultrathin Al film (∼3 nm) deposited onto grid carbon substrate (∼200 nm) with a layer of monoatomic carbon between the film and the grid substrate, was first proposed and measured. In addition, targets of Al film (∼3 nm) and Se film (∼7.8 nm) deposited respectively onto thick carbon substrate (∼2 mm) were also measured. Our experimental results are compared with the distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) theory and experimental data from the literature. It has been observed that within the uncertainties, the DWBA agrees with our experimental measurements of K-shell ionization cross sections of Al and the total L-shell x-ray production cross sections of Se, and our measured data of Al K-shell ionization cross sections are consistent with the available experimental data. This is the first time that experimental data of Se-L-shell x-ray production cross sections in the intermediate-energy region have been published.

  3. Absolute X-ray emission cross section measurements of Fe K transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hell, Natalie; Brown, Gregory V.; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Boyce, Kevin R.; Grinberg, Victoria; Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, Caroline; Leutenegger, Maurice A.; Porter, Frederick Scott; Wilms, Jörn

    2016-06-01

    We have measured the absolute X-ray emission cross sections of K-shell transitions in highly charged L- and K-shell Fe ions using the LLNL EBIT-I electron beam ion trap and the NASA GSFC EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS). The cross sections are determined by using the ECS to simultaneously record the spectrum of the bound-bound K-shell transitions and the emission from radiative recombination from trapped Fe ions. The measured spectrum is then brought to an absolute scale by normalizing the measured flux in the radiative recombination features to their theoretical cross sections, which are well known. Once the spectrum is brought to an absolute scale, the cross sections of the K-shell transitions are determined. These measurements are made possible by the ECS, which consists of a 32 channel array, with 14 channels optimized for detecting high energy photons (hν > 10 keV) and 18 channels optimized for detecting low energy photons (hν < 10 keV). The ECS has a large collection area, relatively high energy resolution, and a large bandpass; all properties necessary for this measurement technique to be successful. These data will be used to benchmark cross sections in the atomic reference data bases underlying the plasma modeling codes used to analyze astrophysical spectra, especially those measured by the Soft X-ray Spectrometer calorimeter instrument recently launched on the Hitomi X-ray Observatory.This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, and supported by NASA grants to LLNL and NASA/GSFC and by ESA under contract No. 4000114313/15/NL/CB.

  4. Proton-air cross section measurement with the ARGO-YBJ cosmic ray experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Aielli, G.; Camarri, P.; Iuppa, R.; Santonico, R.; Bacci, C.; Bussino, S.; Celio, P.; De Vincenzi, M.; James, I.; Mari, S. M.; Montini, P.; Pistilli, P.; Bartoli, B.; Bernardini, P.; Bleve, C.; De Mitri, I.; Mancarella, G.; Martello, D.; Zizzi, G.; Bi, X. J.

    2009-11-01

    The proton-air cross section in the energy range 1-100 TeV has been measured by the ARGO-YBJ cosmic ray experiment. The analysis is based on the primary cosmic ray flux attenuation for different atmospheric depths (i.e. zenith angles) and exploits the detector capabilities of selecting the shower development stage by means of hit multiplicity, density and lateral profile measurements at ground. The effects of shower fluctuations, the contribution of heavier primaries and the uncertainties of the hadronic interaction models, have been taken into account. The results have been used to estimate the total proton-proton cross section at center-of-mass energies between 70 and 500 GeV, where no accelerator data are currently available.

  5. Generalized x-ray scattering cross section from non-equilibrium solids and plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Gregori, G; Glenzer, S H; Landen, O L

    2006-02-07

    We propose a modified x-ray form factor that describes the scattering cross section in warm dense matter valid for both the plasma and the solid (crystalline) state. Our model accounts for the effect of lattice correlations on the electron-electron dynamic structure, as well as provides a smooth transition between the solid and the plasma scattering cross sections. In addition, we generalize the expression of the dynamic structure in the case of a two-temperature system (with different electron and ion temperatures). This work provides a unified description of the x-ray scattering processes in warm and dense matter, as the one encountered in inertial confinement fusion, laboratory astrophysics, material science, and high-energy density physics and it can be used to verify temperature relaxation mechanisms in such environments.

  6. Interactive Graphic User Interface to View Neutron and Gamma-Ray Interaction Cross Sections.

    SciTech Connect

    SUBBAIAH, K. V.

    2001-12-20

    Version 00 VIEW-CXS is an interactive, user-friendly interface to graphically view neutron and gamma-ray cross-sections of isotopes available in different data libraries. The names of isotopes for which the cross-sections are available is shown in a data base grid on the selection of a particular library. Routines have been developed in Visual Basic 6.0 to retrieve required information from each of the binary files or random access files. The present program can fetch data from: 1) ACE random access file used with MCNP code, 2) AMPX binary file used with KENO code, 3) ANISN group cross-sections used with discrete ordinate codes. It is possible to compare the data of cross-sections for any isotope from selected libraries. Besides it is possible to extract a particular nuclear reaction cross-section from ACE library files. Context sensitive help is an attractive feature of the program and aids the novice user to extract the required data.

  7. Electron-ion interaction cross sections determined by x-ray spectroscopy on EBIT

    SciTech Connect

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Cauble, R.; Chantrenne, S.; Chen, M.; Knapp, D.; Marrs, R.; Phillips, T.; Reed, K.; Schneider, M.; Scofield, J.; Wong, K.; Vogel, D.; Zasadzinski, R. ); Wargelin, B. . Space Sciences Lab.); Bitter, M.; von Goeler, S. . Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1991-06-26

    The Livermore electron beam ion trap (EBIT) is used to measure electron-ion interactions with high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy. Measurements are presented of the K{alpha} x-ray emission of heliumlike Fe{sup 24+} that demonstrate the effect of various processes on the spectrum of highly charged heliumlike ions. In particular, we have studied how dielectronic recombination into high-n Rydberg levels and resonance excitation processes contribute to the x-ray emission near threshold for direct electron-impact excitation. From these and other measurements we infer the cross sections for impact excitation of heliumlike titanium, chromium, manganese, and iron. Comparing the results with theoretical cross sections from distorted-wave calculations we find excellent agreement for all transitions but the heliumlike resonance transition from 1s2p {sup 1}P{sub 1} to ground, whose excitation cross section is measured to be 10%--20% smaller than calculated. 36 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Photoneutron and Photofission Cross Sections for URANIUM-238 and THORIUM-232 Using Neutron Capture Gamma Rays.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varhue, Walter John

    The photofission and total photoneutron cross sections of ('238)U and ('232)Th have been measured as a function of energy between 4 and 11 Mev. The photons used were those produced in the neutron capture reaction in the Tangential Beam Port Facility of the University of Virginia Reactor. The capture gamma ray sources used were the following; Al, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, S, and Ti. A computer code was used to calculate the spectrum of each capture gamma ray beam used in the irradiations. This calculation accounted for the attenuation in the beam and the contribution from neutron capture in Al and H. A second code iteratively solved for the best fit cross section curve for the experimentally obtained yield data. In the total photoneutron measurement, the neutrons were counted with a Halpern type detector containing 4 BF(,3) tubes. The intensity of the beam was determined with LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters. The results agree very well with those of previous studies. In the photofission measurement, fission fragments were counted in Lexan polycarbonate, a solid state nuclear track detector. The efficiency of this counting system has been determined analytically as a function of energy with the aid of published experimental measurements of the angular distribution of fission fragments and the etching properties of Lexan. In general the technique has proved to be successful in producing differential photonuclear cross section results. Resolution of the unfolding technique is limited by the density of principal gamma ray lines available from the capture targets. An obvious improvement would be the use of more capture targets. The results and conclusions of previous studies using neutron capture gamma rays have been placed in doubt due to the nature of calculations used to obtain cross values.

  9. Inspection of ball grid array (BGA) solder joints using x-ray cross-sectional images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Young Jun; Ko, Kuk Won; Cho, Hyungsuck; Kim, Hyung C.; Joo, Hyonam; Kim, Sung K.

    1999-08-01

    The ball grid array (BGA) chip is widely used in high density printed circuit board (PCB). However, inspection of defects in the solder joints is difficult by visual or a normal x-ray imaging method, because unlike conventional packages, solder joints of the BGA are located underneath its own package and ball type leads. Therefore, x-ray digital tomosynthesis (DT), which form a cross-sectional image of 3D objects, is needed to image and inspect the solder joints of BGA. In this paper, we propose a series of algorithms for inspecting the solder joints of BGA by using x-ray cross-sectional images that are acquired from the developed DT system. BGA solder joints are examined to check the alignment between the chip and pad on a PCB, bridge, adequate solder volume. The volume of the solder joint is represented by a gray level in the x-ray images: thus solder joints can be examined by use of the gray-level profiles of each joint. To inspect and classify various defects, pattern classification method using a learning vector quantization neural network and a look up table is proposed. The clusters into which a gray-level profile is classified are generated by the learning process of the network by using a number of sampled gray-level profiles. A series of these developed algorithms for inspecting and classifying defects were tested on a number of BGA solder joints. The experimental results show that the proposed method yields satisfactory solutions for inspection based on x-ray cross-sectional images.

  10. Gamma ray production cross section from energetic neutron inelastic scattering for methodical improvements in planetary gamma-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Castaneda, C.M.; Gearhart, R.; Sanii, B.; Englert, P.A.J.; Drake, D.M.; Reedy, R.C.

    1991-12-31

    Planetary Gamma ray spectroscopy can be used to chemically analyze the top soil from planets in future planetary missions. The production from inelastic neutron interaction plays an effective role in the determination on the C and H at the surface. The gamma ray production cross section from the strongest lines excited in the neutron bombardment of Fe have been measured by the use of a time analyzed quasi-mono-energetic neutron beam and a high purity germanium detector. The results from En=6.5, 32, 43, and 65 MeV are presented.

  11. Experimental cross sections for L-shell x-ray production and ionization by protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Javier; Lapicki, Gregory

    2014-05-01

    Tables of compiled cross sections list data for production of individual line and total L x-rays as well as for ionization of L subshells and the total L shell. The present cumulative compilation covers some six decades of measurements on targets from 10Ne to 95Am bombarded by protons ranging from 10 keV to 1 GeV. It includes data published in the period 1954-1992 from tables published in this journal, cross sections that were not reported in those tables, and new data from works published after 1992. Existing empirical, semiempirical, and theoretical analyses based on, and relative to, the pre-1993 database are reviewed. The experimental details are summarized for pre-1993 articles that were not referenced in previous compilations and, continuing the practice of these compilations, for each new publication. Covering the period 1954-December 2012, the present tabulation collects (not counting 2519 new data for L, L,L, L, and L x ray production) circa 15 500 experimental cross sections and enlarges the database from the previously published tables by 94%.

  12. An accelerator test of semi-empirical cross-sections. [for cosmic ray fragmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, K. H.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    1983-01-01

    Experimentally measured yields of isotopes of elements from Mg to K resulting from the fragmentation of Ar-40 are compared with calculated yields based on semiempirical cross-section formulas. Excellent mass resolution is obtained in measurements using a beam of 287 MeV/amu Ar-40 incident on a CH2 target. The resolution is made possible by an Si(Li) detector telescope. Whereas the general agreement between calculation and experiment is good, with an rms difference of approximately 24 percent, attention is called to certain significant differences. It is found that important information for refining the semiempirical calculation of fragmentation cross sections can be obtained from data collected during the calibration of cosmic ray detector systems when such calibrations are performed under suitable conditions.

  13. Monochromators for small cross-section x-ray beams from high heat flux synchrotron sources

    SciTech Connect

    Ice, G.; Riemer, B.; Khounsary, A.

    1996-10-01

    For some x-ray experiments, only a fraction of the intense central cone of x-rays generated by high-power undulator sources can be used; the x-ray source emittance is larger than the useful emittance for the experiment. For example with microfocusing optics, or for coherence experiments, x-ray beams with cross sections less than 0.1 mm{sup 2} are desirable. With such small beams, the total thermal load is small even though the heat flux density is high. Analyses indicate that under these conditions, rather simple crystal cooling techniques can be used. We illustrate the advantages of a small beam monochromator, with a simple x-ray monochromator optimized for x-ray microdiffraction. This monochromator is designed to achieve negligible distortion when subjected to a narrow (0.1 mm wide) beam from an APS undulator operating at 100 mA. It also allows for rapid and repeatable energy scans and rapid cycling between monochromatic and white beam conditions.

  14. Gamma-ray production cross sections from neutron interactions with iron.

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R. O.; Laymon, C. M.; Wender, S. A.; Drake, D. M.; Drosg, Manfred; Bobias, S. G.; McGrath, C. A.

    2002-01-01

    The initial purpose of this experiment was to provide a consistent data base of neutron-induced gamma-ray production cross sections over a large energy range for use in estimating elemental composition of the martian surface by observing gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions on the planet's surface [Bo02]. However, these data should be useful for other projects such as oil-well logging, accelerator transmutation of nuclear waste, shielding calculations, gamma-ray heating for nuclear reactors and verification of nuclear model calculations and databases. The goal of the measurements was to collect data on the strongest gamma rays from many samples of interest. Because of the available beam time this meant that many of the measurcments were rather short. Despite the short running time the large samples used and the good beam intensity resulted in very satisfactory results. The samples, chosen mainly as common constituents of rock and soil and measured in the same few week period, include: B&, BN, C, Al, Mg, Si, S, Cay Ti, Cr, Mn, and Fe. Be was also used as a neutron scatterer that only produces one gamma ray (478 keV from 7Li) with appreciable intensity. Thus Be can serve as a measure of neutron-induced backgrounds. In this first paper we present results for Fe.

  15. The Ultimate Monte Carlo: Studying Cross-Sections With Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas L.

    2007-01-01

    The high-energy physics community has been discussing for years the need to bring together the three principal disciplines that study hadron cross-section physics - ground-based accelerators, cosmic-ray experiments in space, and air shower research. Only recently have NASA investigators begun discussing the use of space-borne cosmic-ray payloads to bridge the gap between accelerator physics and air shower work using cosmic-ray measurements. The common tool used in these three realms of high-energy hadron physics is the Monte Carlo (MC). Yet the obvious has not been considered - using a single MC for simulating the entire relativistic energy range (GeV to EeV). The task is daunting due to large uncertainties in accelerator, space, and atmospheric cascade measurements. These include inclusive versus exclusive cross-section measurements, primary composition, interaction dynamics, and possible new physics beyond the standard model. However, the discussion of a common tool or ultimate MC might be the very thing that could begin to unify these independent groups into a common purpose. The Offline ALICE concept of a Virtual MC at CERN s Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be discussed as a rudimentary beginning of this idea, and as a possible forum for carrying it forward in the future as LHC data emerges.

  16. The Ultimate Monte Carlo: Studying Cross-Sections With Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas L.

    2007-01-01

    The high-energy physics community has been discussing for years the need to bring together the three principal disciplines that study hadron cross-section physics - ground-based accelerators, cosmic-ray experiments in space, and air shower research. Only recently have NASA investigators begun discussing the use of space-borne cosmic-ray payloads to bridge the gap between accelerator physics and air shower work using cosmic-ray measurements. The common tool used in these three realms of high-energy hadron physics is the Monte Carlo (MC). Yet the obvious has not been considered - using a single MC for simulating the entire relativistic energy range (GeV to EeV). The task is daunting due to large uncertainties in accelerator, space, and atmospheric cascade measurements. These include inclusive versus exclusive cross-section measurements, primary composition, interaction dynamics, and possible new physics beyond the standard model. However, the discussion of a common tool or ultimate MC might be the very thing that could begin to unify these independent groups into a common purpose. The Offline ALICE concept of a Virtual MC at CERN s Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be discussed as a rudimentary beginning of this idea, and as a possible forum for carrying it forward in the future as LHC data emerges.

  17. Heavy ion irradiation of crystalline water ice. Cosmic ray amorphisation cross-section and sputtering yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dartois, E.; Augé, B.; Boduch, P.; Brunetto, R.; Chabot, M.; Domaracka, A.; Ding, J. J.; Kamalou, O.; Lv, X. Y.; Rothard, H.; da Silveira, E. F.; Thomas, J. C.

    2015-04-01

    Context. Under cosmic irradiation, the interstellar water ice mantles evolve towards a compact amorphous state. Crystalline ice amorphisation was previously monitored mainly in the keV to hundreds of keV ion energies. Aims: We experimentally investigate heavy ion irradiation amorphisation of crystalline ice, at high energies closer to true cosmic rays, and explore the water-ice sputtering yield. Methods: We irradiated thin crystalline ice films with MeV to GeV swift ion beams, produced at the GANIL accelerator. The ice infrared spectral evolution as a function of fluence is monitored with in-situ infrared spectroscopy (induced amorphisation of the initial crystalline state into a compact amorphous phase). Results: The crystalline ice amorphisation cross-section is measured in the high electronic stopping-power range for different temperatures. At large fluence, the ice sputtering is measured on the infrared spectra, and the fitted sputtering-yield dependence, combined with previous measurements, is quadratic over three decades of electronic stopping power. Conclusions: The final state of cosmic ray irradiation for porous amorphous and crystalline ice, as monitored by infrared spectroscopy, is the same, but with a large difference in cross-section, hence in time scale in an astrophysical context. The cosmic ray water-ice sputtering rates compete with the UV photodesorption yields reported in the literature. The prevalence of direct cosmic ray sputtering over cosmic-ray induced photons photodesorption may be particularly true for ices strongly bonded to the ice mantles surfaces, such as hydrogen-bonded ice structures or more generally the so-called polar ices. Experiments performed at the Grand Accélérateur National d'Ions Lourds (GANIL) Caen, France. Part of this work has been financed by the French INSU-CNRS programme "Physique et Chimie du Milieu Interstellaire" (PCMI) and the ANR IGLIAS.

  18. High energy hadron-nucleus cross sections and their extrapolation to cosmic ray energies

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, J.S.; Pantziris, A.

    1996-02-01

    Old models of the scattering of composite systems based on the Glauber model of multiple diffraction are applied to hadron-nucleus scattering. We obtain an excellent fit iwht only two free parameters to the highest energy hadron-nucleus data available. Because of the quality of the fit and the simplicity of the model it is argued that it should continue to be reliable up to the highest cosmic ray energies. Logarithmic extrapolations of {ital p}-{ital p} and {bar {ital p}}-{ital p} data are used to calculate the proton-air cross sections at very high energy. Finally, it is observed that if the exponential behavior of the {bar {ital p}}-{ital p} diffraction peak continues into the few TeV energy range it will violate partial wave unitarity. We propose a simple modification that will guarantee unitarity throughout the cosmic ray energy region. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  19. Cross Sections for (gamma)-ray Production in the 191Ir (n,xn(gamma)) Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Fotiades, N; Nelson, R O; Devlin, M; Chadwick, M B; Talou, P; Becker, J A; Garrett, P E; Younes, W

    2005-01-11

    Discrete {gamma}-ray spectra have been measured for nuclei populated in {sup 191}Ir(n{sub 4}xn{gamma}) with x{<=}11, as a function of incident neutron energy using neutrons from the 'white' neutron source at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center's WNR facility. The energy of the neutrons was determined using the time-of-flight technique. The data were taken using the GEANIE spectrometer. The cross sections for emission of 202 {gamma} rays of {sup 181-191}Ir were determined for neutron energies 0.2 MeV < E{sub n} < 300 MeV. Comparison with model calculations, using the GNASH reaction model, and with GEANIE results from the similar {sup 193}Ir(n{sub 4}xn{gamma}) reactions is made.

  20. Cometary X-Rays: Line Emission Cross Sections for Multiply Charged Solar Wind Ion Charge Exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Otranto, S; Olson, R E; Beiersdorfer, P

    2006-12-22

    Absolute line emission cross sections are presented for 1 keV/amu charge exchange collisions of multiply charged solar wind ions with H{sub 2}O, H, O, CO{sub 2}, and CO cometary targets. The present calculations are contrasted with available laboratory data. A parameter-free model is used to successfully predict the recently observed x-ray spectra of comet C/LINEAR 1999 S4. We show that the resulting spectrum is extremely sensitive to the time variations of the solar wind composition. Our results suggest that orbiting x-ray satellites may be a viable way to predict the solar wind intensities and composition on the Earth many hours before the ions reach the earth.

  1. Determination of photoneutron cross sections for {sup 197}Au by using laser inverse-Compton scattering gamma-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, O.; Utsunomiya, H.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Kamata, M.; Kondo, T.; Toyokawa, H.; Lui, Y.-W.; Kitatani, F.; Harada, H.; Goko, S.; Nair, C.

    2010-06-01

    We measured photoneutron cross sections for {sup 197}Au with quasi-monochromatic laser inverse-Compton scattering gamma rays. We present results of the measurement in comparison with the existing data.

  2. Light ion induced L X-ray production cross-sections in Au and Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouziane, S.; Amokrane, A.; Toumert, I.

    2008-04-01

    Experimental proton-induced Lα, Lβ, Lγ, Lℓ and Ltot absolute X-ray production cross-sections for Au and Pb in the incident proton energy range between 1 and 2.5 MeV are presented. The experimental results for X-ray production cross-sections are compared to available data given in Sokhi and Crumpton [R.S. Sokhi, D. Crumpton, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 30 (1984) 49], Jesus et al. [A.P. Jesus, J.S. Lopes, J.P. Ribeiro, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Phys. 18 (1985) 2456; A.P. Jesus, T.M. Pinheiro, I.A. Nisa, J.P. Ribeiro, J.S. Lopes, Nucl. Instrum. Methods B15 (1986) 95] and Goudarzi et al. [M. Goudarzi, F. Shokouhi, M. Lamehi-Rachti, P.Olialiy, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B247 (2006) 218]. The given data are also compared with the predictions of ECPSSR model [W. Brandt, G. Lapicki, Phys. Rev. A23 (1981) 1717].

  3. Measurements of absolute M-subshell X-ray production cross sections of Th by electron impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moy, A.; Merlet, C.; Dugne, O.

    2014-08-01

    Measurements of absolute M-subshell X-ray production cross sections for element Th were made by electron impact for energies ranging from the ionization threshold up to 38 keV. Experimental data were obtained by measuring the X-ray intensity emitted from ultrathin Th films deposited onto self-supporting C backing films. The measurements were conducted with an electron microprobe using high-resolution wavelength dispersive spectrometers. Recorded intensities were converted into absolute X-ray production cross sections by means of atomic data and estimation of the number of primary electrons, target thickness, and detector efficiency. Our experimental X-ray production cross sections, the first to be reported for the M subshells of Th, are compared with X-ray production cross sections calculated with the mean of ionization cross sections obtained from the distorted-wave Born approximation. The Mα X-ray production cross section calculated is in excellent agreement with the measurements, allowing future use for standardless quantification in electron probe microanalysis.

  4. The effect of cross-section uncertainties on the derivation of source abundances from cosmic-ray composition observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that the derivation of source abundances from the composition observed near the earth requires that the secondary contribution to the observed nuclidic abundances be calculated from a model of cosmic-ray propagation. A crucial element in such a calculation is the choice of nuclear fragmentation cross sections. Uncertainties in these cross sections give rise to uncertainties in the derived source abundances. It is shown here that the uncertainties in fragmentation cross sections can, in certain important cases, contribute significantly to the uncertainties in cosmic ray source abundances deduced from the observed composition. For this reason, it is essential that reliable estimates of the effect of cross section uncertainties be made when interpreting the source composition deduced from cosmic ray observations. In addition, formulas are presented which can be used to obtain such estimates with a minimum of computational effort.

  5. The abundance of N-14 at the cosmic-ray source - A study using new fragmentation cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, M.; Webber, W. R.

    1989-01-01

    The abundance of N-14 at the Galactic cosmic ray source was examined using new fragmentation cross sections measured by the University of New Hampshire group for 12 different source nuclei (ranging from C-12 to Ni-58) which cover about 70 percent of all cosmic-ray nuclei arriving at earth. A new cross-section program was used to estimate unmeasured cross sections. These cross sections were then incorporated into a Galactic propagation program to calculate the interstellar production of B and N. Results indicate that atomic selection effects alone cannot explain adequately the observed depletion of N-14 relative to O-16 in the cosmic-ray source with respect to the solar corona, indicating that some part of this depletion must have a nuclear/nucleosynthetic origin.

  6. FLUNG: coupled 35-group neutron and 21-group gamma ray, P/sub 3/ cross sections for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Santoro, R.T.; Roussin, R.W.; Barnes, J.M.

    1981-06-01

    A 35-neutron, 21-gamma ray, P/sub 3/ cross section library for 63 nuclides is described. The library, called FLUNG (Fusion Library for Unshielded Neutron-Gamma-Ray Transport), was derived from the VITAMIN-C general purpose fine group library and is useful for the neutronic analysis of fusion reactors and other applications.

  7. 4He-induced L X-ray production cross sections in Pt and Bi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouziane, S.; Amokrane, A.; Toumert, I.; Nourreddine, A.

    2009-05-01

    L shell X-ray production cross sections for 4He on Pt and Bi are measured at 2.0, 2.3 and 3.0 MeV. Good agreement is found with the available data of Balsamo et al. [A. Balsamo, N. De Cesare, F. Murolo, E. Perillo, G. Spadaccini, M. Vigilante, J. Phys. B: Atom. Mol. Opt. Phys. 32 (1999) 5699]. The results are compared with those of theoretical calculations using the ECPSSR model [W. Brandt, G. Lapicki, Phys. Rev. A 23 (1981) 1717]. The difference already observed at low incident ion energy between ECPSSR calculations and measured data for the L β and L γ lines clearly appears in this work.

  8. High-precision gamma-ray total cross-section measurements between 3.45 and 12 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Frankle, Christen M.; Moss, Calvin E.

    2008-12-01

    A Compton-backscatter capability has recently become available at the Duke University Free Electron Laser Laboratory. This capability allows one to produce high fluxes of tunable, nearly monoenergetic gamma rays. Using these gamma-ray beams, we have made high-precision (~0.5%) measurements of the gamma-ray total cross section at 3.45, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, and 12 MeV. The nuclei measured were Be, C, Cu, Ta, W, Pb, and U

  9. Quantitative estimates of the effects of cross section uncertainties on the derivation of GCR source composition. [Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, G. F.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    1983-01-01

    Cosmic-ray source abundance uncertainties, resulting from the cross-section uncertainties, are calculated for the elements carbon through nickel. A significant dominance of cross-section errors in the source abundance uncertainties is found for most of the elements considered, even with uncorrelated partial cross-section errors; much larger uncertainties than those reported previously are found for Ca, N, Na, Al, and S. Propagation errors are noted to preclude a significant determination of source abundances for F, Cl, and Mn. A need for an assessment of the existing cosmic-ray propagation models - especially the propagation cross-sections which they employ - is expressed, motivated by recent improvements in the resolution and statistical accuracy of observations.

  10. Asymptotic behavior of the total cross section of [ital p]-[ital p] scattering and the Akeno cosmic ray data

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, N.N. , Forschugszentrum Juelich Gmbh, 5170 Juelich L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physis, GSP-1, 117940, ul. Kosygina 2, 117 334 Moscow )

    1993-09-01

    I present a new determination of the total cross section for proton-proton collisions from the recent Akeno results on the absorption of cosmic ray protons in [ital p]-air collisions. An extrapolation to SSC energies suggests [sigma][sub tot]([ital p]-[ital p])[approx]160--170 mb. I also comment on a possible sensitivity of the [ital p]-air cross section determinations to assumptions on the inelasticity of nuclear collisions at high energy.

  11. First upper limits on the radar cross section of cosmic-ray induced extensive air showers

    SciTech Connect

    Abbasi, R. U.; Abe, M.; Abou Bakr Othman, M.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Allen, M.; Anderson, R.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Besson, D.; Blake, S. A.; Byrne, M.; Cady, R.; Chae, M. J.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, W. R.; Farhang-Boroujeny, B.; Fujii, T.; Fukushima, M.; Gillman, W. H.; Goto, T.; Hanlon, W.; Hanson, J. C.; Hayashi, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Hibino, K.; Honda, K.; Ikeda, D.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Ishimori, R.; Ito, H.; Ivanov, D.; Jayanthmurthy, C.; Jui, C. C. H.; Kadota, K.; Kakimoto, F.; Kalashev, O.; Kasahara, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kawana, S.; Kawata, K.; Kido, E.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kitamura, S.; Kitamura, Y.; Kunwar, S.; Kuzmin, V.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lan, J.; Lim, S. I.; Lundquist, J. P.; Machida, K.; Martens, K.; Matsuda, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Matthews, J. N.; Minamino, M.; Mukai, K.; Myers, I.; Nagasawa, K.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Nonaka, T.; Nozato, A.; Ogio, S.; Ogura, J.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Oki, K.; Okuda, T.; Ono, M.; Oshima, A.; Ozawa, S.; Park, I. H.; Prohira, S.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Rezazadeh-Reyhani, A.; Rodriguez, D. C.; Rubtsov, G.; Ryu, D.; Sagawa, H.; Sakurai, N.; Sampson, A. L.; Scott, L. M.; Schurig, D.; Shah, P. D.; Shibata, F.; Shibata, T.; Shimodaira, H.; Shin, B. K.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Springer, R. W.; Stokes, B. T.; Stratton, S. R.; Stroman, T. A.; Suzawa, T.; Takai, H.; Takamura, M.; Takeda, M.; Takeishi, R.; Taketa, A.; Takita, M.; Tameda, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, M.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tinyakov, P.; Tkachev, I.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Troitsky, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsutsumi, K.; Uchihori, Y.; Udo, S.; Urban, F.; Vasiloff, G.; Venkatesh, S.; Wong, T.; Yamane, R.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Yang, J.; Yashiro, K.; Yoneda, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshii, H.; Zollinger, R.; Zundel, Z.

    2016-11-19

    TARA (Telescope Array Radar) is a cosmic ray radar detection experiment colocated with Telescope Array, the conventional surface scintillation detector (SD) and fluorescence telescope detector (FD) near Delta, Utah, U.S.A. Furthermore, the TARA detector combines a 40 kW, 54.1 MHz VHF transmitter and high-gain transmitting antenna which broadcasts the radar carrier over the SD array and within the FD field of view, towards a 250 MS/s DAQ receiver. TARA has been collecting data since 2013 with the primary goal of observing the radar signatures of extensive air showers (EAS). Simulations indicate that echoes are expected to be short in duration (~10 µs) and exhibit rapidly changing frequency, with rates on the order 1 MHz/µs. The EAS radar cross-section (RCS) is currently unknown although it is the subject of over 70 years of speculation. One novel signal search technique is described in which the expected radar echo of a particular air shower is used as a matched filter template and compared to waveforms obtained by triggering the radar DAQ using the Telescope Array fluorescence detector. No evidence for the scattering of radio frequency radiation by EAS is obtained to date. Finally, we report the first quantitative RCS upper limits using EAS that triggered the Telescope Array Fluorescence Detector.

  12. First upper limits on the radar cross section of cosmic-ray induced extensive air showers

    DOE PAGES

    Abbasi, R. U.; Abe, M.; Abou Bakr Othman, M.; ...

    2016-11-19

    TARA (Telescope Array Radar) is a cosmic ray radar detection experiment colocated with Telescope Array, the conventional surface scintillation detector (SD) and fluorescence telescope detector (FD) near Delta, Utah, U.S.A. Furthermore, the TARA detector combines a 40 kW, 54.1 MHz VHF transmitter and high-gain transmitting antenna which broadcasts the radar carrier over the SD array and within the FD field of view, towards a 250 MS/s DAQ receiver. TARA has been collecting data since 2013 with the primary goal of observing the radar signatures of extensive air showers (EAS). Simulations indicate that echoes are expected to be short in durationmore » (~10 µs) and exhibit rapidly changing frequency, with rates on the order 1 MHz/µs. The EAS radar cross-section (RCS) is currently unknown although it is the subject of over 70 years of speculation. One novel signal search technique is described in which the expected radar echo of a particular air shower is used as a matched filter template and compared to waveforms obtained by triggering the radar DAQ using the Telescope Array fluorescence detector. No evidence for the scattering of radio frequency radiation by EAS is obtained to date. Finally, we report the first quantitative RCS upper limits using EAS that triggered the Telescope Array Fluorescence Detector.« less

  13. First upper limits on the radar cross section of cosmic-ray induced extensive air showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, R. U.; Abe, M.; Abou Bakr Othman, M.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Allen, M.; Anderson, R.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Besson, D.; Blake, S. A.; Byrne, M.; Cady, R.; Chae, M. J.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, W. R.; Farhang-Boroujeny, B.; Fujii, T.; Fukushima, M.; Gillman, W. H.; Goto, T.; Hanlon, W.; Hanson, J. C.; Hayashi, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Hibino, K.; Honda, K.; Ikeda, D.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Ishimori, R.; Ito, H.; Ivanov, D.; Jayanthmurthy, C.; Jui, C. C. H.; Kadota, K.; Kakimoto, F.; Kalashev, O.; Kasahara, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kawana, S.; Kawata, K.; Kido, E.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kitamura, S.; Kitamura, Y.; Kunwar, S.; Kuzmin, V.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lan, J.; Lim, S. I.; Lundquist, J. P.; Machida, K.; Martens, K.; Matsuda, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Matthews, J. N.; Minamino, M.; Mukai, K.; Myers, I.; Nagasawa, K.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Nonaka, T.; Nozato, A.; Ogio, S.; Ogura, J.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Oki, K.; Okuda, T.; Ono, M.; Oshima, A.; Ozawa, S.; Park, I. H.; Prohira, S.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Rezazadeh-Reyhani, A.; Rodriguez, D. C.; Rubtsov, G.; Ryu, D.; Sagawa, H.; Sakurai, N.; Sampson, A. L.; Scott, L. M.; Schurig, D.; Shah, P. D.; Shibata, F.; Shibata, T.; Shimodaira, H.; Shin, B. K.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Springer, R. W.; Stokes, B. T.; Stratton, S. R.; Stroman, T. A.; Suzawa, T.; Takai, H.; Takamura, M.; Takeda, M.; Takeishi, R.; Taketa, A.; Takita, M.; Tameda, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, M.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tinyakov, P.; Tkachev, I.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Troitsky, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsutsumi, K.; Uchihori, Y.; Udo, S.; Urban, F.; Vasiloff, G.; Venkatesh, S.; Wong, T.; Yamane, R.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Yang, J.; Yashiro, K.; Yoneda, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshii, H.; Zollinger, R.; Zundel, Z.

    2017-01-01

    TARA (Telescope Array Radar) is a cosmic ray radar detection experiment colocated with Telescope Array, the conventional surface scintillation detector (SD) and fluorescence telescope detector (FD) near Delta, Utah, U.S.A. The TARA detector combines a 40 kW, 54.1 MHz VHF transmitter and high-gain transmitting antenna which broadcasts the radar carrier over the SD array and within the FD field of view, towards a 250 MS/s DAQ receiver. TARA has been collecting data since 2013 with the primary goal of observing the radar signatures of extensive air showers (EAS). Simulations indicate that echoes are expected to be short in duration (∼ 10 μs) and exhibit rapidly changing frequency, with rates on the order 1 MHz/μs. The EAS radar cross-section (RCS) is currently unknown although it is the subject of over 70 years of speculation. A novel signal search technique is described in which the expected radar echo of a particular air shower is used as a matched filter template and compared to waveforms obtained by triggering the radar DAQ using the Telescope Array fluorescence detector. No evidence for the scattering of radio frequency radiation by EAS is obtained to date. We report the first quantitative RCS upper limits using EAS that triggered the Telescope Array Fluorescence Detector.

  14. Effect of the Mott cross section on the determination of the charge of ultraheavy cosmic rays from emulsion tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eby, P. B.; Morgan, S. H.; Parnell, T. A.

    1978-01-01

    Energy deposition due to secondary electrons is calculated as a function of distance from the axis of the track of a heavy ion. The calculation incorporates the empirical formulas of Kobetich and Katz (1968) for delta-ray energy dissipation. Both the Mott and Born-approximation expressions for the delta-ray energy distributions are used, and the results are compared. The energy deposition projected along a line perpendicular to the track is also calculated. These results are used to estimate the effect that the use of the Mott cross section would have in the interpretation of photometric measurements on emulsion tracks of trans-iron cosmic-ray particles. It is shown that the use of 50 keV as a characteristic track-formation electron energy to estimate the effect of the Mott cross section systematically overestimates charge as derived from emulsions for Z greater than 20.

  15. How Space Radiation Risk from Galactic Cosmic Rays at the International Space Station Relates to Nuclear Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Zi-Wei; Adams, J. H., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Space radiation risk to astronauts is a major obstacle for long term human space explorations. Space radiation transport codes have thus been developed to evaluate radiation effects at the International Space Station (ISS) and in missions to the Moon or Mars. We study how nuclear fragmentation processes in such radiation transport affect predictions on the radiation risk from galactic cosmic rays. Taking into account effects of the geomagnetic field on the cosmic ray spectra, we investigate the effects of fragmentation cross sections at different energies on the radiation risk (represented by dose-equivalent) from galactic cosmic rays behind typical spacecraft materials. These results tell us how the radiation risk at the ISS is related to nuclear cross sections at different energies, and consequently how to most efficiently reduce the physical uncertainty in our predictions on the radiation risk at the ISS.

  16. Assessment of experimental d-PIGE γ-ray production cross sections for 12C, 14N and 16O and comparison with absolute thick target yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csedreki, L.; Halász, Z.; Kiss, Á. Z.

    2016-08-01

    Measured differential cross sections for deuteron induced γ-ray emission from the reactions 12C(d,pγ)13C, (Eγ = 3089 keV), 14N(d,pγ)15N (Eγ = 8310 keV) and 16O(d,pγ)17O (Eγ = 871 keV) available in the literature were assessed. In order to cross check the assessed γ-ray production cross section data, thick target γ-yields calculated from the differential cross sections were compared with available measured thick target yields. Recommended differential cross section data for each reaction were deduced for particle induced γ-ray emission (PIGE) applications.

  17. X-ray Emission Cross Sections following Charge Exchange by Multiply-Charged Ions of Astrophysical Interest.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otranto, Sebastian; Olson, Ronald; Beiersdorfer, Peter

    2006-05-01

    State selective nl-electron capture cross sections calculated using the classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) model are presented for highly charged ions with Z = 6-10 colliding with atoms and molecules. The energy dependence of the l-level populations is investigated. The calculated cross sections are compared with measurements made by Greenwood et al [1], using O^8+ and Ne^10+ on various targets at 3 keV/amu, and with recent x-ray emission cross sections measured with the EBIT machine at LLNL using O^8+ and Ne^9+,10+ on different targets at 10 eV/amu. We use the calculated cross sections to present an ab initio determination of the soft x-ray spectrum of comet C/Linear 1999 S4 that was observed on the Chandra X-ray Observatory [2]. [1] J. B. Greenwood, I. D. Williams, S. J. Smith and A. Chutjian, Phys. Rev. A 63, 062707 (2001). [2] C. M. Lisse, D. J. Christian, K. Dennerl, K. J. Meech, R. Petre, H. A. Weaver and S. J. Wolk, Science 292, 1343 (2001).

  18. An X-Ray Analysis Database of Photoionization Cross Sections Including Variable Ionization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ping; Cohen, David H.; MacFarlane, Joseph J.; Cassinelli, Joseph P.

    1997-01-01

    Results of research efforts in the following areas are discussed: review of the major theoretical and experimental data of subshell photoionization cross sections and ionization edges of atomic ions to assess the accuracy of the data, and to compile the most reliable of these data in our own database; detailed atomic physics calculations to complement the database for all ions of 17 cosmically abundant elements; reconciling the data from various sources and our own calculations; and fitting cross sections with functional approximations and incorporating these functions into a compact computer code.Also, efforts included adapting an ionization equilibrium code, tabulating results, and incorporating them into the overall program and testing the code (both ionization equilibrium and opacity codes) with existing observational data. The background and scientific applications of this work are discussed. Atomic physics cross section models and calculations are described. Calculation results are compared with available experimental data and other theoretical data. The functional approximations used for fitting cross sections are outlined and applications of the database are discussed.

  19. X-Ray Emission Cross Sections following Charge Exchange by Multiply-Charged Ions of Astrophysical Interest

    SciTech Connect

    Otranto, S; Olson, R E; Beiersdorfer, P

    2005-09-19

    State selective nl-electron capture cross sections are presented for highly charged ions with Z = 6-10 colliding with atoms and molecules. The energy range investigated was from 1 eV/amu (v = 0.006 a.u.) to 100 keV/amu (v =2.0 a.u.). The energy dependence of the l-level populations is investigated. The K-shell x-ray emission cross sections are determined by using the calculated state-selective electron capture results as input and then applying hydrogenic branching and cascading values for the photon emission. A major shift in the line emission from being almost solely Lyman-{alpha} transitions at the highest collisions energies to strong high-n to 1s transitions at the lowest energies is observed. The calculated cross sections are in reasonable accord with measurements made by Greenwood et al, Phys. Rev. A 63, 062707 (2001), using O{sup 8+} and Ne{sup 10+} on various targets at 3 keV/amu. The calculations are also in accord with x-ray emission cross section data obtained on the EBIT machine at LLNL where O{sup 8+} and Ne{sup 10+} high resolution measurements were made at a temperature of 10 eV/amu for a series of targets with varying ionization potentials. The Ne{sup 10+} data clearly shows the contribution from multiple capture followed by Auger autoionization in the line emission spectra. Our calculated line emission cross sections are used to provide an ab initio determination of the soft x-ray spectrum of comet C/Linear 1999 S4 that was observed on the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The calculations show that the spectrum is due to charge exchange of the neutral gases in the comet's coma with the ions of the slow solar wind.

  20. Cometary X-ray emission: theoretical cross sections following charge exchange by multiply charged ions of astrophysical interest

    SciTech Connect

    Otranto, S; Olson, R E; Beiersdorfer, P

    2007-02-13

    The CTMC method is used to calculate emission cross sections following charge exchange collisions involving highly charged ions of astrophysical interest and typical cometary targets. Comparison is made to experimental data obtained on the EBIT machine at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for O{sup 8+} projectiles impinging on different targets at a collision energy of 10 eV/amu. The theoretical cross sections are used together with ion abundances measured by the Advanced Composition Explorer as well as those obtained by a fitting procedure using laboratory emission cross sections in order to reproduce the x-ray spectrum of comet C/LINEAR S4 measured on July 14th 2001.

  1. Risk cross sections and their application to risk estimation in the galactic cosmic-ray environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, S. B.; Nealy, J. E.; Wilson, J. W.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Radiation risk cross sections (i.e. risks per particle fluence) are discussed in the context of estimating the risk of radiation-induced cancer on long-term space flights from the galactic cosmic radiation outside the confines of the earth's magnetic field. Such quantities are useful for handling effects not seen after low-LET radiation. Since appropriate cross-section functions for cancer induction for each particle species are not yet available, the conventional quality factor is used as an approximation to obtain numerical results for risks of excess cancer mortality. Risks are obtained for seven of the most radiosensitive organs as determined by the ICRP [stomach, colon, lung, bone marrow (BFO), bladder, esophagus and breast], beneath 10 g/cm2 aluminum shielding at solar minimum. Spectra are obtained for excess relative risk for each cancer per LET interval by calculating the average fluence-LET spectrum for the organ and converting to risk by multiplying by a factor proportional to R gamma L Q(L) before integrating over L, the unrestricted LET. Here R gamma is the risk coefficient for low-LET radiation (excess relative mortality per Sv) for the particular organ in question. The total risks of excess cancer mortality obtained are 1.3 and 1.1% to female and male crew, respectively, for a 1-year exposure at solar minimum. Uncertainties in these values are estimated to range between factors of 4 and 15 and are dominated by the biological uncertainties in the risk coefficients for low-LET radiation and in the LET (or energy) dependence of the risk cross sections (as approximated by the quality factor). The direct substitution of appropriate risk cross sections will eventually circumvent entirely the need to calculate, measure or use absorbed dose, equivalent dose and quality factor for such a high-energy charged-particle environment.

  2. Risk cross sections and their application to risk estimation in the galactic cosmic-ray environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, S. B.; Nealy, J. E.; Wilson, J. W.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Radiation risk cross sections (i.e. risks per particle fluence) are discussed in the context of estimating the risk of radiation-induced cancer on long-term space flights from the galactic cosmic radiation outside the confines of the earth's magnetic field. Such quantities are useful for handling effects not seen after low-LET radiation. Since appropriate cross-section functions for cancer induction for each particle species are not yet available, the conventional quality factor is used as an approximation to obtain numerical results for risks of excess cancer mortality. Risks are obtained for seven of the most radiosensitive organs as determined by the ICRP [stomach, colon, lung, bone marrow (BFO), bladder, esophagus and breast], beneath 10 g/cm2 aluminum shielding at solar minimum. Spectra are obtained for excess relative risk for each cancer per LET interval by calculating the average fluence-LET spectrum for the organ and converting to risk by multiplying by a factor proportional to R gamma L Q(L) before integrating over L, the unrestricted LET. Here R gamma is the risk coefficient for low-LET radiation (excess relative mortality per Sv) for the particular organ in question. The total risks of excess cancer mortality obtained are 1.3 and 1.1% to female and male crew, respectively, for a 1-year exposure at solar minimum. Uncertainties in these values are estimated to range between factors of 4 and 15 and are dominated by the biological uncertainties in the risk coefficients for low-LET radiation and in the LET (or energy) dependence of the risk cross sections (as approximated by the quality factor). The direct substitution of appropriate risk cross sections will eventually circumvent entirely the need to calculate, measure or use absorbed dose, equivalent dose and quality factor for such a high-energy charged-particle environment.

  3. The measurement capabilities of cross-sectional profile of Nanoimprint template pattern using small angle x-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, Eiji; Taniguchi, Rikiya; Itoh, Masamitsu; Omote, Kazuhiko; Ito, Yoshiyasu; Ogata, Kiyoshi; Hayashi, Naoya

    2016-05-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is one of the most potential candidates for the next generation lithography for semiconductor. It will achieve the lithography with high resolution and low cost. High resolution of NIL will be determined by a high definition template. Nanoimprint lithography will faithfully transfer the pattern of NIL template to the wafer. Cross-sectional profile of the template pattern will greatly affect the resist profile on the wafer. Therefore, the management of the cross-sectional profile is essential. Grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GI-SAXS) technique has been proposed as one of the method for measuring cross-sectional profile of periodic nanostructure pattern. Incident x-rays are irradiated to the sample surface with very low glancing angle. It is close to the critical angle of the total reflection of the x-ray. The scattered x-rays from the surface structure are detected on a two-dimensional detector. The observed intensity is discrete in the horizontal (2θ) direction. It is due to the periodicity of the structure, and diffraction is observed only when the diffraction condition is satisfied. In the vertical (β) direction, the diffraction intensity pattern shows interference fringes reflected to height and shape of the structure. Features of the measurement using x-ray are that the optical constant for the materials are well known, and it is possible to calculate a specific diffraction intensity pattern based on a certain model of the cross-sectional profile. The surface structure is estimated by to collate the calculated diffraction intensity pattern that sequentially while changing the model parameters with the measured diffraction intensity pattern. Furthermore, GI-SAXS technique can be measured an object in a non-destructive. It suggests the potential to be an effective tool for product quality assurance. We have developed a cross-sectional profile measurement of quartz template pattern using GI-SAXS technique. In this

  4. Absolute K-shell ionization cross sections and L{alpha} and L{beta}{sub 1} x-ray production cross sections of Ga and As by 1.5-39-keV electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Merlet, C.; Llovet, X.; Fernandez-Varea, J. M.

    2006-06-15

    Absolute K-shell ionization and L{alpha} and L{beta}{sub 1} x-ray production cross sections for Ga and As have been measured for incident electrons in the energy range from 1.5 to 39 keV. The cross sections were deduced from K{alpha}, L{alpha}, and L{beta}{sub 1} x-ray intensities emitted from ultrathin GaAs samples deposited onto self-supporting carbon films. The x-ray intensities were measured on an electron microprobe equipped with several wavelength-dispersive spectrometers and were converted into absolute cross sections by using estimated values of the target thickness, spectrometer efficiency, and number of incident electrons. Experimental results are compared with cross sections calculated from the plane-wave and distorted-wave Born approximations, the relativistic binary-encounter-Bethe model, the results of two widely used simple analytical formulas, and, whenever possible, experimental data from the literature.

  5. Determination of radiative neutron capture cross sections for unstable nuclei by the {gamma}-ray strength function method

    SciTech Connect

    Utsunomiya, H.; Goriely, S.

    2012-11-12

    An indirect method referred to as the {gamma}-ray strength function method has been devised to determine radiative neutron capture cross sections for unstable nuclei along the valley of {beta}-stability. This method is based on the {gamma}-ray strength function which interconnects radiative neutron capture and photoneutron emission within the statistical model. The method was applied to several unstable nuclei such as {sup 93,95}Zr, {sup 107}Pd, and 121,123Sn. This method offers a versatile application extended to unstable nuclei far from the stability when combined with Coulomb dissociation experiments at RIKEN-RIBF and GSI.

  6. Evaluation of cross-sections for particle induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurbich, A. F.

    2014-07-01

    The extension of the cross-section evaluation procedure to PIGE data was investigated and the first results are reported. Two different cases were studied: the gamma emission accompanying inelastic scattering of protons, and the (p,γ)-reaction. The corresponding theoretical calculations were performed in the framework of R-matrix and DWBA for the (p,p‧γ) reaction on 23Na, and using statistical model for the proton radiative capture by 52Cr. The possibility of achieving a close fit to the experimental data is demonstrated.

  7. Proton induced gamma-ray production cross sections and thick-target yields for boron, nitrogen and silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchand, Benoît; Mizohata, Kenichiro; Räisänen, Jyrki

    2016-07-01

    The excitation functions for the reactions 14N(p,p‧γ)14N, 28Si(p,p‧γ)28Si and 29Si(p,p‧γ)29Si were measured at an angle of 55° by bombarding a thin Si3N4 target with protons in the energy range of 3.6-6.9 MeV. The deduced γ-ray production cross section data is compared with available literature data relevant for ion beam analytical work. Thick-target γ-ray yields for boron, nitrogen and silicon were measured at 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, 6.0 and 6.5 MeV proton energies utilizing thick BN and Si3N4 targets. The measured yield values are put together with available yield data found in the literature. The experimental yield data has been used to cross-check the γ-ray production cross section values by comparing them with calculated thick-target yields deduced from the present and literature experimental excitation curves. All values were found to be in reasonable agreement taking into account the experimental uncertainties.

  8. Gamma-Ray Emission Spectra as a Constraint on Calculations of 234 , 236 , 238U Neutron-Capture Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullmann, J. L.; Krticka, M.; Kawano, T.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Baramsai, B.; Couture, A.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Mosby, S.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Becker, J. A.; Wu, C. Y.; Chyzh, A.

    2015-10-01

    Calculations of the neutron-capture cross section at low neutron energies (10 eV through 100's of keV) are very sensitive to the nuclear level density and radiative strength function. These quantities are often poorly known, especially for radioactive targets, and actual measurements of the capture cross section are usually required. An additional constraint on the calculation of the capture cross section is provided by measurements of the cascade gamma spectrum following neutron capture. Recent measurements of 234 , 236 , 238U(n, γ) emission spectra made using the DANCE 4 π BaF2 array at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center will be presented. Calculations of gamma-ray spectra made using the DICEBOX code and of the capture cross section made using the CoH3 code will also be presented. These techniques may be also useful for calculations of more unstable nuclides. This work was performed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration by Los Alamos National Security, LLC (Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396) and Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (Contract DE-AC52-07NA2734).

  9. X-Ray Emission Cross Sections following Charge Exchange by Multiply-Charged Ions of Astrophysical Interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Ronald

    2006-05-01

    State selective nl-electron capture cross sections are presented for highly charged ions with Z = 6-10 colliding with molecules. The energy range investigated was from 1 eV/amu (v = 1.4x10^6 cm/s) to 100 keV/amu (v = 4.4x10^8 cm/s). The K-shell x-ray emission cross sections are determined by using the calculated state-selective electron capture results as input and then applying the branching and cascading values for the photon emission. A major shift in the line emission from being almost solely Lyman-alpha transitions at the highest collisions energies to strong high-n to 1s transitions at the lowest energies is observed. The calculated emission cross sections are in reasonable accord with measurements made by Greenwood et al^1 for O^8+ and Ne^10+ on various targets at 3 keV/amu. The calculations are also in accord with x-ray emission cross section data obtained on the EBIT machine at LLNL where O^8+ and Ne^10+ high resolution measurements were made at a temperature of 10 eV/amu for a series of targets with varying ionization potentials. The Ne^10+ data clearly show the contribution from multiple capture followed by Auger autoionization in the line emission spectra. Our calculated line emission cross sections are used to provide an ab initio determination of the soft x-ray spectrum of comet C/Linear 1999 S4 that was observed on the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The calculations reproduce the measured spectrum and show that it is due to charge exchange of the neutral gases in the comet's coma with the ions of the slow solar wind. Details of the calculations are presented in a recent paper by Otranto et al^2. 1. J. B. Greenwood, I. D. Williams, S. J. Smith and A. Chutjian, Phys. Rev. A 63, 062707 (2001). 2. S. Otranto, R. E. Olson, and P. Beiersdorfer, Phys. Rev. A (in press).

  10. Accurate Cross Sections for Microanalysis

    PubMed Central

    Rez, Peter

    2002-01-01

    To calculate the intensity of x-ray emission in electron beam microanalysis requires a knowledge of the energy distribution of the electrons in the solid, the energy variation of the ionization cross section of the relevant subshell, the fraction of ionizations events producing x rays of interest and the absorption coefficient of the x rays on the path to the detector. The theoretical predictions and experimental data available for ionization cross sections are limited mainly to K shells of a few elements. Results of systematic plane wave Born approximation calculations with exchange for K, L, and M shell ionization cross sections over the range of electron energies used in microanalysis are presented. Comparisons are made with experimental measurement for selected K shells and it is shown that the plane wave theory is not appropriate for overvoltages less than 2.5 V. PMID:27446747

  11. Differential scattering cross sections for elements with 13 ⩽ Z ⩽ 50 using 59.54 keV gamma rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latha, P.; Abdullah, K. K.; Unnikrishnan, M. P.; Varier, K. M.; Babu, B. R. S.

    2012-03-01

    Coherent and incoherent scattering cross sections have been measured using a high purity germanium detector on elements in the range of Z = 13-50 using 241Am gamma rays. The cross sections have been derived by comparing the net count rate obtained from the Compton peak of aluminum with the elastic/Compton peak of the target element. The measured cross sections for the coherent and incoherent processes are in agreement with the theoretical values.

  12. X-ray-induced electron cascades in dielectrics modeled with XCASCADE code: effect of impact ionization cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, Nikita A.

    2015-05-01

    Characterization of a free-electron laser (FEL) pulse can be done with a pump-probe scheme, using an FEL pump and a visible light probe on an optically transparent solid-state target. With such experimental scheme, pulse duration can be monitored on a shot-to-shot basis. It relies on the changes in optical properties induced by the FEL excitation of electrons. Here we analyze effects of different cross sections used in the modeling of electron kinetics. XCASCADE, a Monte Carlo toolkit for modeling x-ray-induced electron cascades (N. Medvedev, Appl. Phys. B 118 (2015) 417), is used for this purpose. Two different cross sections are compared: atomic BEB model vs complex-dielectric function formalism that accounts for collective effects in solids. It is shown that for photon and electron energies above a few tens of eV, the both models coincide very closely. For lower energies in the VUV regime, the difference in the cross sections become more significant, nevertheless producing qualitatively similar electron kinetics and increase in the density of excited electrons.

  13. Charge exchange and x-ray emission cross sections for multiply charged ions colliding with H{sub 2}O

    SciTech Connect

    Otranto, S.; Olson, R. E.

    2008-02-15

    Total and state selective nl-electron capture cross sections are presented for highly charged ions Z=4-10, 14, 18, and 26 colliding with water molecules. The energy range investigated was from 10 eV/amu (v=0.02 a.u.) to 100 keV/amu (v=2 a.u.). An initialization for the 1B1 and 3A1 orbitals of the water molecule is introduced based on the one center expansion of Moccia and compared to our previous studies based on a hydrogenic approximation within the microcanonical ensemble. The Z dependence of the calculated total cross sections is in reasonable agreement with the recent data of Mawhorter et al. [Phys. Rev. A 75, 032704 (2007)] and is improved over previous results. The energy dependence of the n- and l-level populations is investigated. The K-shell x-ray emission cross sections are determined by using the calculated state-selective electron capture results as input and then applying hydrogenic branching and cascading values for the photon emission. Our results compare favorably with experimental data from the KVI-Groningen, Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory groups.

  14. Jet inclusive cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Del Duca, V.

    1992-11-01

    Minijet production in jet inclusive cross sections at hadron colliders, with large rapidity intervals between the tagged jets, is evaluated by using the BFKL pomeron. We describe the jet inclusive cross section for an arbitrary number of tagged jets, and show that it behaves like a system of coupled pomerons.

  15. Stringent constraints on the dark matter annihilation cross section from subhalo searches with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Berlin, Asher; Hooper, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The dark matter halo of the Milky Way is predicted to contain a very large number of smaller subhalos. As a result of the dark matter annihilations taking place within such objects, the most nearby and massive subhalos could appear as point-like or spatially extended gamma-ray sources, without observable counterparts at other wavelengths. In this paper, we use the results of the Aquarius simulation to predict the distribution of nearby subhalos, and compare this to the characteristics of the unidentified gamma-ray sources observed by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. Focusing on the brightest high latitude sources, we use this comparison to derive limits on the dark matter annihilation cross section. For dark matter particles lighter than ~200 GeV, the resulting limits are the strongest obtained to date, being modestly more stringent than those derived from observations of dwarf galaxies or the Galactic Center. We also derive independent limits based on the lack of unidentified gamma-ray sources with discernible spatial extension, but these limits are a factor of ~2-10 weaker than those based on point-like subhalos. Lastly, we note that four of the ten brightest high-latitude sources exhibit a similar spectral shape, consistent with 30-60 GeV dark matter particles annihilating to b quarks with an annihilation cross section on the order of sigma v ~ (5-10) x 10^-27 cm^3/s, or 8-10 GeV dark matter particles annihilating to taus with sigma v ~ (2.0-2.5) x 10^-27 cm^3/s.

  16. Stringent constraints on the dark matter annihilation cross section from subhalo searches with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlin, Asher; Hooper, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The dark matter halo of the Milky Way is predicted to contain a very large number of smaller subhalos. As a result of the dark matter annihilations taking place within such objects, the most nearby and massive subhalos could appear as pointlike or spatially extended gamma-ray sources, without observable counterparts at other wavelengths. In this paper, we use the results of the Aquarius simulation to predict the distribution of nearby subhalos and compare this to the characteristics of the unidentified gamma-ray sources observed by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. Focusing on the brightest high latitude sources, we use this comparison to derive limits on the dark matter annihilation cross section. For dark matter particles lighter than ˜200 GeV, the resulting limits are the strongest obtained to date, being modestly more stringent than those derived from observations of dwarf galaxies or the Galactic center. We also derive independent limits based on the lack of unidentified gamma-ray sources with discernible spatial extension, but these limits are a factor of ˜2-10 weaker than those based on pointlike subhalos. Lastly, we note that four of the ten brightest high-latitude sources exhibit a similar spectral shape, consistent with 30-60 GeV dark matter particles annihilating to bb¯ with an annihilation cross section on the order of σv ˜(5-10)×10-27 cm3/s or 8-10 GeV dark matter particles annihilating to τ+τ- with σv ˜(1.5-3.0)×10-27 cm3/s.

  17. Fission cross-sections, prompt fission neutron and γ-ray emission in request for nuclear applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambsch, F.-J.; Salvador-Castiñeira, P.; Oberstedt, S.; Göök, A.; Billnert, R.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years JRC-IRMM has been investigating fission cross-sections of 240,242Pu in the fast-neutron energy range relevant for innovative reactor systems and requested in the High Priority Request List (HPRL) of the OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). In addition to that, prompt neutron multiplicities are being investigated for the major isotopes 235U, 239Pu in the neutron-resonance region using a newly developed scintillation detector array (SCINTIA) and an innovative modification of the Frisch-grid ionisation chamber for fission-fragment detection. These data are highly relevant for improved neutron data evaluation and requested by the OECD/Working Party on Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC). Thirdly, also prompt fission γ-ray emission is investigated using highly efficient lanthanide-halide detectors with superior timing resolution. Again, those data are requested in the HPRL for major actinides to solve open questions on an under-prediction of decay heat in nuclear reactors. The information on prompt fission neutron and γ-ray emission is crucial for benchmarking nuclear models to study the de-excitation process of neutron-rich fission fragments. Information on γ-ray emission probabilities is also useful in decommissioning exercises on damaged nuclear power plants like Fukushima Daiichi to which JRC-IRMM is contributing. The results on the 240,242Pu fission cross section, 235U prompt neutron multiplicity in the resonance region and correlations with fission fragments and prompt γ-ray emission for several isotopes will be presented and put into perspective.

  18. Cross section parameterizations for cosmic ray nuclei. 1: Single nucleon removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.

    1992-01-01

    Parameterizations of single nucleon removal from electromagnetic and strong interactions of cosmic rays with nuclei are presented. These parameterizations are based upon the most accurate theoretical calculations available to date. They should be very suitable for use in cosmic ray propagation through interstellar space, the Earth's atmosphere, lunar samples, meteorites, spacecraft walls and lunar and martian habitats.

  19. Partial gamma-ray cross section measurements in 109Ag(n, x n y p gamma) reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Fotiadis, Nikolaos; Devlin, Matthew James; Nelson, Ronald Owen; Carroll, James

    2015-06-02

    We report on absolute partial cross sections for production of discrete γ-rays using 109Ag(n, xnypγ) reactions with x ≤ 7 and y ≤ 1 in a total of 12 reaction channels. The data were taken using the GEANIE spectrometer comprised of 20 high-purity Ge detectors with 20 BGO escape-suppression shields. The broad-spectrum pulsed neutron beam of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center’s (LANSCE) WNR facility provided neutrons in the energy range from 0.2 to 300 MeV. The time-of- flight technique was used to determine the incident neutron energies. Partial γ-ray cross sections have been measured for a total of 109 transitions and for neutron energies 0.8 MeV< En<300 MeV. An estimate of the population of isomers in the (n, n'), (n, 2n) and (n, 3n) channels was made.

  20. Correspondence between theoretical models and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry measurements of femoral cross-sectional growth during adolescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    van der Meulen, M. C.; Marcus, R.; Bachrach, L. K.; Carter, D. R.

    1997-01-01

    We have developed an analytical model of long bone cross-sectional ontogeny in which appositional growth of the diaphysis is primarily driven by mechanical stimuli associated with increasing body mass during growth and development. In this study, our goal was to compare theoretical predictions of femoral diaphyseal structure from this model with measurements of femoral bone mineral and geometry by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Measurements of mid-diaphyseal femoral geometry and structure were made previously in 101 Caucasian adolescents and young adults 9-26 years of age. The data on measured bone mineral content and calculated section modulus were compared with the results of our analytical model of cross-sectional development of the human femur over the same age range. Both bone mineral content and section modulus showed good correspondence with experimental measurements when the relationships with age and body mass were examined. Strong linear relationships were evident for both parameters when examined as a function of body mass.

  1. Laboratory Measurements of Solar-Wind/Comet X-Ray Emission and Charge Exchange Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, A.; Cadez, I.; Greenwood, J. B.; Mawhorter, R. J.; Smith, S. J.; Lozano, J.

    2002-01-01

    The detection of X-rays from comets such as Hyakutake, Hale-Bopp, d Arrest, and Linear as they approach the Sun has been unexpected and exciting. This phenomenon, moreover, should be quite general, occurring wherever a fast solar or stellar wind interacts with neutrals in a comet, a planetary atmosphere, or a circumstellar cloud. The process is, O(+8) + H2O --> O(+7*) + H2O(+), where the excited O(+7*) ions are the source of the X-ray emissions. Detailed modeling has been carried out of X-ray emissions in charge-transfer collisions of heavy solar-wind Highly Charged Ions (HCIs) and interstellar/interplanetary neutral clouds. In the interplanetary medium the solar wind ions, including protons, can charge exchange with interstellar H and He. This can give rise to a soft X-ray background that could be correlated with the long-term enhancements seen in the low-energy X-ray spectrum of ROSAT. Approximately 40% of the soft X-ray background detected by Exosat, ROSAT, Chandra, etc. is due to Charge Exchange (CXE): our whole heliosphere is glowing in the soft X-ray due to CXE.

  2. Relativistic calculations of K-, L- and M-shell X-ray production cross-sections by electron impact for Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn and Uuo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampaio, J. M.; Madeira, T. I.; Guerra, M.; Parente, F.; Indelicato, P.; Santos, J. P.; Marques, J. P.

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we derive X-ray production cross-sections from electron-impact ionization cross-sections for Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn, and Uuo, calculated in the modified relativistic binary-encounter-Bethe model, and using as the only input parameter the binding energies obtained in the Dirac-Fock approach. Radiative and radiationless transition probabilities necessary to compute the inter- and intra-shell atomic yields were calculated in the same approach. Shell electron-impact ionization cross-sections and X-ray production cross-sections are compared with the corresponding cross-sections retrieved from the National Institute of Standards and Technology Reference Database and available experimental data.

  3. Gamma-ray production cross sections in multiple channels for neutron induced reaction on 48Ti for En=1 to 200 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Dashdorj, D; Mitchell, G E; Garrett, P E; Agvaanluvsan, U; Becker, J A; Bernstein, L A; Chadwick, M B; Devlin, M; Fotiades, N; Kawano, T; Nelson, R O; Younes, W

    2006-07-06

    Prompt {gamma}-ray production cross sections were measured on a {sup 48}Ti sample for incident neutron energies from 1 MeV to 200 MeV. Partial {gamma}-ray cross sections for transitions in {sup 45-48}Ti, {sup 45-48}Sc, and {sup 43-45}Ca were determined. The observation of about 130 transitions from 11 different isotopes in the present work provides a demanding test of reaction model calculations, and is the first study in this mass region to extract partial {gamma}-ray cross sections for many different reaction channels over a wide range of incident neutron energies. The neutrons were produced by the Los Alamos National Laboratory spallation neutron source located at the LANSCE/WNR facility. The prompt-reaction {gamma} rays were detected with the large-scale Compton-suppressed GErmanium Array for Neutron Induced Excitations (GEANIE). Event neutron energies were determined by the time-of-flight technique. The {gamma}-ray excitation functions were converted to partial {gamma}-ray cross sections and then compared with model calculations using the enhanced GNASH reaction code. Compound nuclear, pre-equilibrium emission and direct reaction mechanisms are included. Overall the model calculations of the partial {gamma}-ray cross sections are in good agreement with measured values.

  4. Photoneutron cross sections for Au

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, O.; Utsunomiya, H.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Kondo, T.; Kamata, M.; Toyokawa, H.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Goko, S.; Nair, C.; Lui, Y.-W.

    2011-10-28

    Photoneutron cross sections were measured for Au in the entire energy range of the ({gamma},n) channel based on a direct neutron-counting technique with quasimonochromatic {gamma} rays produced in inverse Compton-scattering of laser photons with relativistic electrons. We present results of the measurement in comparison with the past data.

  5. Neutron cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This handbook displays curves of neutron cross sections in the energy range of 0.01 eV to 200 MeV (and associated information) as a function of incident neutron energy. Tables include reference to all data. Information on isomeric state production is also included. This book represents the fourth edition of what was previously known as BNL-325, Neutron Cross Sections, Volume 2, the third edition of which was published in 1976.

  6. Measurement of the neutrino-oxygen neutral-current interaction cross section by observing nuclear deexcitation γ rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, K.; Adam, J.; Aihara, H.; Akiri, T.; Andreopoulos, C.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Assylbekov, S.; Autiero, D.; Barbi, M.; Barker, G. J.; Barr, G.; Bass, M.; Batkiewicz, M.; Bay, F.; Bentham, S. W.; Berardi, V.; Berger, B. E.; Berkman, S.; Bertram, I.; Bhadra, S.; Blaszczyk, F. d. M.; Blondel, A.; Bojechko, C.; Bordoni, S.; Boyd, S. B.; Brailsford, D.; Bravar, A.; Bronner, C.; Buchanan, N.; Calland, R. G.; Caravaca Rodríguez, J.; Cartwright, S. L.; Castillo, R.; Catanesi, M. G.; Cervera, A.; Cherdack, D.; Christodoulou, G.; Clifton, A.; Coleman, J.; Coleman, S. J.; Collazuol, G.; Connolly, K.; Cremonesi, L.; Dabrowska, A.; Danko, I.; Das, R.; Davis, S.; de Perio, P.; De Rosa, G.; Dealtry, T.; Dennis, S. R.; Densham, C.; Dewhurst, D.; Di Lodovico, F.; Di Luise, S.; Drapier, O.; Duboyski, T.; Duffy, K.; Dufour, F.; Dumarchez, J.; Dytman, S.; Dziewiecki, M.; Emery-Schrenk, S.; Ereditato, A.; Escudero, L.; Finch, A. J.; Fiorentini Aguirre, G. A.; Friend, M.; Fujii, Y.; Fukuda, Y.; Furmanski, A. P.; Galymov, V.; Gaudin, A.; Giffin, S.; Giganti, C.; Gilje, K.; Goeldi, D.; Golan, T.; Gomez-Cadenas, J. J.; Gonin, M.; Grant, N.; Gudin, D.; Hadley, D. R.; Haegel, L.; Haesler, A.; Haigh, M. D.; Hamilton, P.; Hansen, D.; Hara, T.; Hartz, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Hastings, N. C.; Hayato, Y.; Hearty, C.; Helmer, R. L.; Hierholzer, M.; Hignight, J.; Hillairet, A.; Himmel, A.; Hiraki, T.; Hirota, S.; Holeczek, J.; Horikawa, S.; Huang, K.; Ichikawa, A. K.; Ieki, K.; Ieva, M.; Ikeda, M.; Imber, J.; Insler, J.; Irvine, T. J.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Ives, S. J.; Iwai, E.; Iwamoto, K.; Iyogi, K.; Izmaylov, A.; Jacob, A.; Jamieson, B.; Johnson, R. A.; Johnson, S.; Jo, J. H.; Jonsson, P.; Jung, C. K.; Kabirnezhad, M.; Kaboth, A. C.; Kajita, T.; Kakuno, H.; Kameda, J.; Kanazawa, Y.; Karlen, D.; Karpikov, I.; Katori, T.; Kearns, E.; Khabibullin, M.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kielczewska, D.; Kikawa, T.; Kilinski, A.; Kim, J.; King, S.; Kisiel, J.; Kitching, P.; Kobayashi, T.; Koch, L.; Kolaceke, A.; Konaka, A.; Kormos, L. L.; Korzenev, A.; Koseki, K.; Koshio, Y.; Kreslo, I.; Kropp, W.; Kubo, H.; Kudenko, Y.; Kumaratunga, S.; Kurjata, R.; Kutter, T.; Lagoda, J.; Laihem, K.; Lamont, I.; Larkin, E.; Laveder, M.; Lawe, M.; Lazos, M.; Lee, K. P.; Licciardi, C.; Lindner, T.; Lister, C.; Litchfield, R. P.; Longhin, A.; Ludovici, L.; Macaire, M.; Magaletti, L.; Mahn, K.; Malek, M.; Manly, S.; Marino, A. D.; Marteau, J.; Martin, J. F.; Martynenko, S.; Maruyama, T.; Marzec, J.; Mathie, E. L.; Matveev, V.; Mavrokoridis, K.; Mazzucato, E.; McCarthy, M.; McCauley, N.; McFarland, K. S.; McGrew, C.; Mefodiev, A.; Metelko, C.; Mezzetto, M.; Mijakowski, P.; Miller, C. A.; Minamino, A.; Mineev, O.; Mine, S.; Missert, A.; Miura, M.; Monfregola, L.; Moriyama, S.; Mueller, Th. A.; Murakami, A.; Murdoch, M.; Murphy, S.; Myslik, J.; Nagasaki, T.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakahata, M.; Nakai, T.; Nakamura, K.; Nakayama, S.; Nakaya, T.; Nakayoshi, K.; Nantais, C.; Naples, D.; Nielsen, C.; Nirkko, M.; Nishikawa, K.; Nishimura, Y.; Nowak, J.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Ohta, R.; Okumura, K.; Okusawa, T.; Oryszczak, W.; Oser, S. M.; Ovsyannikova, T.; Owen, R. A.; Oyama, Y.; Palladino, V.; Palomino, J. L.; Paolone, V.; Payne, D.; Pearce, G. F.; Perevozchikov, O.; Perkin, J. D.; Petrov, Y.; Pickard, L.; Pinzon Guerra, E. S.; Pistillo, C.; Plonski, P.; Poplawska, E.; Popov, B.; Posiadala-Zezula, M.; Poutissou, J.-M.; Poutissou, R.; Przewlocki, P.; Quilain, B.; Radicioni, E.; Ratoff, P. N.; Ravonel, M.; Rayner, M. A. M.; Redij, A.; Reeves, M.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Riccio, C.; Retiere, F.; Robert, A.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Rojas, P.; Rondio, E.; Roth, S.; Rubbia, A.; Ruterbories, D.; Sacco, R.; Sakashita, K.; Sánchez, F.; Sato, F.; Scantamburlo, E.; Scholberg, K.; Schoppmann, S.; Schwehr, J.; Scott, M.; Seiya, Y.; Sekiguchi, T.; Sekiya, H.; Sgalaberna, D.; Shaker, F.; Shiozawa, M.; Short, S.; Shustrov, Y.; Sinclair, P.; Smith, B.; Smith, R. J.; Smy, M.; Sobczyk, J. T.; Sobel, H.; Sorel, M.; Southwell, L.; Stamoulis, P.; Steinmann, J.; Still, B.; Suda, Y.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, K.; Suzuki, S. Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Szeglowski, T.; Tacik, R.; Tada, M.; Takahashi, S.; Takeda, A.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanaka, H. K.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tanaka, M. M.; Taylor, I. J.; Terhorst, D.; Terri, R.; Thompson, L. F.; Thorley, A.; Tobayama, S.; Toki, W.; Tomura, T.; Totsuka, Y.; Touramanis, C.; Tsukamoto, T.; Tzanov, M.; Uchida, Y.; Ueno, K.; Vacheret, A.; Vagins, M.; Vasseur, G.; Wachala, T.; Waldron, A. V.; Walter, C. W.; Wark, D.; Wascko, M. O.; Weber, A.; Wendell, R.; Wilkes, R. J.; Wilking, M. J.; Wilkinson, C.; Williamson, Z.; Wilson, J. R.; Wilson, R. J.; Wongjirad, T.; Yamada, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Yanagisawa, C.; Yano, T.; Yen, S.; Yershov, N.; Yokoyama, M.; Yuan, T.; Yu, M.; Zalewska, A.; Zalipska, J.; Zambelli, L.; Zaremba, K.; Ziembicki, M.; Zimmerman, E. D.; Zito, M.; Żmuda, J.; T2K Collaboration

    2014-10-01

    We report the first measurement of the neutrino-oxygen neutral-current quasielastic (NCQE) cross section. It is obtained by observing nuclear deexcitation γ rays which follow neutrino-oxygen interactions at the Super-Kamiokande water Cherenkov detector. We use T2K data corresponding to 3.01 ×1 020 protons on target. By selecting only events during the T2K beam window and with well-reconstructed vertices in the fiducial volume, the large background rate from natural radioactivity is dramatically reduced. We observe 43 events in the 4-30 MeV reconstructed energy window, compared with an expectation of 51.0, which includes an estimated 16.2 background events. The background is primarily nonquasielastic neutral-current interactions and has only 1.2 events from natural radioactivity. The flux-averaged NCQE cross section we measure is 1.55 ×1 0-38 cm2 with a 68% confidence interval of (1.22 ,2.20 )×1 0-38 cm2 at a median neutrino energy of 630 MeV, compared with the theoretical prediction of 2.01 ×1 0-38 cm2 .

  7. Evaluation of L-shell X-ray production cross sections by impact of {sup 4}He{sup +} ions

    SciTech Connect

    Miranda, J.

    2013-07-03

    A database of published L-subshell X-ray production cross sections due to the impact of {sup 4}He{sup +} ions on several elements is compiled. In order to evaluate the data, they are compared with theoretical calculations using the ECPSSR theory (which modifies the Plane Wave Born Approximation) and its corrections, such as Multiple Ionization of the target atom (MI), United Atom (UA), and Intra-shell coupling (IS) models. It was found that the theory does not predict reliably the experimental results for all elements and energy ranges. Furthermore, a possible universal scaling for the xray production cross sections of the L{sub {alpha}}(L{sub 3}M{sub 4}+L{sub 3}M{sub 5}) and the L{sub {gamma}}(L{sub 2}N{sub 4}+L{sub 1}N{sub 2}+L{sub 1}N{sub 3}+L{sub 1}O{sub 3}+L{sub 1}O{sub 2}+L{sub 2}N{sub 1}+L{sub 2}O{sub 4}) lines is proposed, based on reduced velocity parameters {xi}{sub L}{sup R} and {xi}{sub L1,2}{sup R}, respectively. This scaling seems to be useful for the L{sub {alpha}} experimental points and not so good for the L{sub {gamma}} line, suggesting that more extensive theoretical studies in this direction should be followed.

  8. X-ray cross-sections and crossroads (The International Radiation Physics Society) - Richard Pratt's contributions to both

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbell, J. H.

    2000-08-01

    Some examples of the impact of the theoretical contributions by Richard Pratt and his collaborators on photon cross section compilations at NBS/NIST and elsewhere over the past several decades are presented. Both the theoretical and measurement works which combine to provide this data base, and the contact with the varied user groups in medical applications, nuclear engineering, crystallography and X-ray astronomy, have formed a global crossroads of researchers now embodied in the International Radiation Physics Society (IRPS). Since the founding of the IRPS at the 3rd International Symposium on Radiation Physics (ISRP-3) in Ferrara, Italy, in 1985, the Secretariat for this ``global radiation physics family'' (the IRPS) has resided at the University of Pittsburgh under the direction of Richard Pratt. A brief account of the origins and history of the IRPS, beginning with ISRP-1 in Calcutta in 1974, is presented.

  9. Neutron-Induced Partial γ-ray Cross-Section Measurements on Cu, Ge and Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwan, E.; Esterline, J. H.; Fallin, B.; Howell, C. R.; Hutcheson, A.; Kidd, M. F.; Tonchev, A.; Tornow, W.; Karwowski, H. J.; Kelley, J. H.; Mei, D. M.

    2008-10-01

    In high-precision low-statistic measurements such as those carried out in deep underground low-background environments, naturally-occurring radiation can obscure the region of interest. For example, energetic neutrons produced from natural radioactivity or muon-induced reactions will interact with the experimental apparatus producing a continuous background. A survey of neutron-induced γ-ray transitions in ^natCu, enriched ^76Ge, and ^natPb from 150-4000 keV was carried out at TUNL using pulsed mono-energetic neutron beams, with an emphasis on the region around 2039 keV where the 0νββ decay peak of ^76Ge is expected to appear. Transitions at 2041, 2615, and 3062 keV in the shielding materials of Pb and Cu may either directly interfere with the ^76Ge 0νββ peak at 2039 keV or may produce nearby escape peaks. The rates at which these background peaks occur are needed to determine whether events due to 0νββ decay are observed and whether neutrinos are indeed their own anti-particles.

  10. Photoproduction total cross section and shower development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornet, F.; García Canal, C. A.; Grau, A.; Pancheri, G.; Sciutto, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The total photoproduction cross section at ultrahigh energies is obtained using a model based on QCD minijets and soft-gluon resummation and the ansatz that infrared gluons limit the rise of total cross sections. This cross section is introduced into the Monte Carlo system AIRES to simulate extended air showers initiated by cosmic ray photons. The impact of the new photoproduction cross section on common shower observables, especially those related to muon production, is compared with previous results.

  11. 207Pb(n,2n{gamma})206Pb Cross-Section Measurements by In-Beam Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, P.; Kerveno, M.; Rudolf, G.; Borcea, C.; Jericha, E.; Jokic, S.; Lukic, S.; Mihailescu, L. C.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Pavlik, A.

    2006-03-13

    207Pb(n,2n{gamma})206Pb cross section were measured for incident neutron energies between 6 and 20 MeV with the white neutron beam produced at GELINA. The {gamma}-ray production cross section for the main transition (803 keV, 2+{yields} 0+) in 206Pb is compared to results obtained at Los Alamos and to the TALYS and EMPIRE-II code predictions.

  12. Predicting Proton-Air Cross Sections at {radical}(s) {approx} 30 TeV Using Accelerator and Cosmic Ray Data

    SciTech Connect

    Block, M. M.; Halzen, Francis; Stanev, Todor

    1999-12-13

    We use the high-energy predictions of a QCD-inspired parametrization of all accelerator data on forward proton-proton and antiproton-proton scattering amplitudes, along with Glauber theory, to predict proton-air cross sections at energies near {radical}(s){approx_equal}30 TeV . The parametrization of the proton-proton cross section incorporates analyticity and unitarity and demands that the asymptotic proton is a black disk of soft partons. By comparing with the p -air cosmic ray measurements, our analysis results in a constraint on the inclusive particle production cross section. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.

  13. Log ASCII Standard (LAS) Files for Geophysical (Gamma Ray) Wireline Well Logs and Their Application to Geologic Cross Section C-C' Through the Central Appalachian Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trippi, Michael H.; Crangle, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) regional geologic cross section C-C' (Ryder and others, 2008) displays key stratigraphic intervals in the central Appalachian basin. For this cross section, strata were correlated by using descriptions of well cuttings and gamma ray well log traces. This report summarizes the procedures used to convert gamma ray curves on paper well logs to the digital Log ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) Standard (LAS) format using the third-party software application Neuralog. The procedures could be used with other geophysical wireline logs also. The creation of digital LAS files from paper well logs by using Neuralog is very helpful, especially when dealing with older logs with limited or nonexistent digital data. The LAS files from the gamma ray logs of 11 wells used to construct cross section C-C' are included in this report. They may be downloaded from the index page as a single ZIP file.

  14. Measurement of the keV-neutron capture cross section and capture gamma-ray spectrum of isotopes around N=82 region

    SciTech Connect

    Katabuchi, Tatsuya; Igashira, Masayuki

    2012-11-12

    The keV-neutron capture cross section and capture {gamma}-ray spectra of nuclides with a neutron magic number N= 82, {sup 139}La and {sup 142}Nd, were newly measured by the time-of-flight method. Capture {gamma}-rays were detected with an anti-Compton NaI(T1) spectrometer, and the pulse-height weighting technique was applied to derive the neutron capture cross section. The results were provided with our previous measurements of other nuclides around N= 82, {sup 140}Ce, {sup 141}Pr, {sup 143}Nd and {sup 145}Nd.

  15. Processing of hydrocarbon-containing ices by cosmic ray analogs: Unsaturated compounds production, cross sections and desorption rates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilling, Sergio; Andrade, Diana; Domaracka, Alicja; Rothard, Hermann; Boduch, Philippe; Da Silveira, Enio

    2012-07-01

    The formation of C=C and C\\equivC bonds from the processing of pure c-C_6H_{12} (cyclohexane) and mixed H_2O:NH_3:c-C_6H_{12} (1:0.3:0.7) ices by highly-charged, and energetic ions (219 MeV ^{16}O^{7+} and 632 MeV ^{58}Ni^{24+}) is studied. The experiments simulate the physical chemistry induced by medium-mass and heavy-ion cosmic rays in interstellar ices. The measurements were performed inside a high vacuum chamber at the heavy-ion accelerator GANIL (Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds) in Caen, France. The gas samples were deposited onto a polished CsI substrate previously cooled to 13 K. In-situ analysis was performed by a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry at different ion fluences. Dissociation cross section of cyclohexane and its halflife in astrophysical environments were determined. A comparison between spectra of bombarded ices and young stellar sources indicates that the initial composition of grains in theses environments should contain a mixture of H_2O, NH_3, CO (or CO_2), simple alkanes, and CH_3OH. Several species containing double or triple bounds were identified in the radiochemical products, such as hexene, cyclohexene, benzene, OCN^-, CO, CO_2, as well as several aliphatic and aromatic alkanes and alkynes. The results suggest an alternative scenario for the production of unsaturated carbon chain species (and dehydrogenation) in interstellar ices induced by cosmic ray bombardment.

  16. Measurement of C-12, O-16, and Fe-56 charge changing cross sections in helium at high energy, comparison with cross sections in hydrogen, and application to cosmic-ray propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrando, P.; Webber, W. R.; Goret, P.; Kish, J. C.; Schrier, D. A.; Soutoul, A.; Testard, O.

    1988-01-01

    We present measurements of the spallation cross sections of carbon, oxygen, and iron in helium and hydrogen, at beam energies from 540 to 1600 MeV/nucleon, performed by exposing liquid helium, CH2, and C targets. Charge changing cross sections are reported for fragments down to Ne for Fe + alpha and Fe + p reactions, and down to B for O + alpha, O + p, C + alpha, and C + p reactions. Alpha- to p-induced cross section ratios (sigma(sub alpha)/sigma(sub p)) are determined at the same energy per nucleon. From these measurements an empirical formula for the (sigma(sub alpha)/sigma(sub p)) ratios is derived and is found in good agreement with available isotopic cross sections data from radioactivity and radiochemical techniques. These results are applied to the propagation of heavy charged cosmic rays in an interstellar medium with a helium to hydrogen abundance ratio of 0.10. It is shown that the Sc-Mn/Fe ratio prediction is decreased relative to the B/C ratio when compared to propagation calculations in a pure hydrogen interstellar medium.

  17. The source charge and isotopic abundances of cosmic rays with Z = 9-16 - A study using new fragmentation cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webber, W. R.; Gupta, M.; Soutoul, A.; Ferrando, P.

    1990-01-01

    The cosmic ray source charge and isotopic abundances for charges with Z = 9-16 are reexamined using newly measured fragmentation cross sections in a standard Galactic propagation model. Compared with earlier studies, the cosmic-ray data are now consistent with no excess of Si-29 and Si-30 in the source relative to the solar coronal abundances. The excess of Mg-25 and Mg-26 is now about 1 sigma or less relative to solar coronal isotopic abundances, leaving Ne-22 as the only clearly established neutron-rich isotopic excess in the cosmic ray source. Better estimates of the source abundances of elements obtained using the new cross sections permit the conclusion that high first ionization potential (FIP) elements have a wide spread of compositional differences in the cosmic-ray source relative to solar coronal abundances, whereas elements with a low FIP have a composition similar to the solar corona.

  18. Gamma-Ray Emission Spectra as a Constraint on Calculations of 234,236,238U Neutron-Capture Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Ullmann, John Leonard; Kawano, Toshihiko; Bredeweg, Todd Allen; Baramsai, Bayarbadrakh; Couture, Aaron Joseph; Haight, Robert Cameron; Jandel, Marian; Mosby, Shea Morgan; O'Donnell, John M.; Rundberg, Robert S.; Vieira, David J.; Wilhelmy, Jerry B.; Becker, John A.; Wu, Ching-Yen; Krticka, Milan

    2015-05-28

    Neutron capture cross sections in the “continuum” region (>≈1 keV) and gamma-emission spectra are of importance to basic science and many applied fields. Careful measurements have been made on most common stable nuclides, but physicists must rely on calculations (or “surrogate” reactions) for rare or unstable nuclides. Calculations must be benchmarked against measurements (cross sections, gamma-ray spectra, and <Γγ>). Gamma-ray spectrum measurements from resolved resonances were made with 1 - 2 mg/cm2 thick targets; cross sections at >1 keV were measured using thicker targets. The results show that the shape of capture cross section vs neutron energy is not sensitive to the form of the strength function (although the magnitude is); the generalized Lorentzian E1 strength function is not sufficient to describe the shape of observed gamma-ray spectra; MGLO + “Oslo M1” parameters produces quantitative agreement with the measured 238U(n,γ) cross section; additional strength at low energies (~ 3 MeV) -- likely M1-- is required; and careful study of complementary results on low-lying giant resonance strength is needed to consistently describe observations.

  19. Measurement of keV-neutron capture cross sections and capture gamma-ray spectra of Cs-133 and I-127

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umezawa, Seigo; Igashira, Masayuki; Katabuchi, Tatuya; Dominic, Moraru; Yanagida, Shotaro; Okamiya, Tomohiro

    2017-09-01

    The neutron capture cross sections and the capture gamma-ray spectra of 127I and 133Cs at incident neutron energies from 15 to 100 keV have been measured by the time-of-flight method. Capture gamma-rays were detected with an anti-Compton NaI(Tl) spectrometer, and the pulse-height weighting technique was applied to derive capture yields. The capture cross sections of 127I and 133Cs were determined using the standard capture cross section of 197Au. The total errors of the cross sections were 3.8-5.1%. The obtained cross sections were compared with evaluated values in JENDL-4.0 and ENDF/B-VII.1. For 127I, the energy dependence is different between the present results and the evaluations. For 133Cs, the evaluated values in JENDL-4.0 agree with the present results but the evaluated values in ENDF/B-VII.1 are smaller than the present results by 14%-18%. The capture gamma-ray spectra of 133Cs and 127I were derived by unfolding the pulse height spectra with detector response functions.

  20. Constraining the calculation of U234,236,238(n,γ) cross sections with measurements of the γ -ray spectra at the DANCE facility

    DOE PAGES

    Ullmann, J. L.; Kawano, T.; Baramsai, B.; ...

    2017-08-31

    The cross section for neutron capture in the continuum region has been difficult to calculate accurately. Previous results for 238 U show that including an M 1 scissors-mode contribution to the photon strength function resulted in very good agreement between calculation and measurement. Our paper extends that analysis to 234 , 236 U by using γ -ray spectra measured with the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center to constrain the photon strength function used to calculate the capture cross section. Calculations using a strong scissors-mode contribution reproduced the measured γ -ray spectramore » and were in excellent agreement with the reported cross sections for all three isotopes.« less

  1. Considerations for the use of synchrotron radiation sources to measure sub-keV x-ray photoabsorption cross sections in transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Tirsell, K.G.; Del Grande, N.K.

    1988-02-01

    Sub-keV x-ray photoabsorption cross section measurements in transmission have been made using synchrotron radiation beam lines on the VUV storage ring at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) and on the SPEAR storage ring at Stanford. The experimental considerations associated with making absolute measurements are reviewed, along with techniques for resolving difficulties. Suggestions for future measurements are included.

  2. Measurements of proton induced γ-ray emission cross-sections on Mg from 1.0 to 3.0 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifzadeh, N.; Kakuee, O.; Mohammadi, S.

    2016-04-01

    Differential cross-section of proton induced γ-ray emission from the reactions 24Mg(p,p‧γ)24Mg (Eγ = 1369 keV), 25Mg(p,p‧γ)25Mg (Eγ = 390, 585, 975 keV) and 26Mg(p,γ)27Al (Eγ = 1014 keV) were measured for proton energies from 1 to 3 MeV using a 60 μg/cm2 Mg target evaporated on a 40 μg/cm2 Ag thin film. The γ-rays were collected by a 50% relative efficiency HPGe detector placed at an angle of 90° with respect to the beam direction, while the backscattered protons were collected by an ion implanted Si detector placed at a scattering angle of 165°. Simultaneous collection of γ-ray and RBS spectra is a great advantage of this approach which makes differential cross-section measurements independent on the collected beam charge. Measured cross-section values were compared with the previously reported data in the literature. Absolute γ-ray differential cross-sections were obtained with an overall systematic uncertainty of about ±6% and statistical uncertainty of less than ±5% for proton energies higher than 2.24 MeV.

  3. Theoretical antideuteron-nucleus absorptive cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, W. W.; Norbury, J. W.; Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    Antideuteron-nucleus absorptive cross sections for intermediate to high energies are calculated using an ion-ion optical model. Good agreement with experiment (within 15 percent) is obtained in this same model for (bar p)-nucleus cross sections at laboratory energies up to 15 GeV. We describe a technique for estimating antinucleus-nucleus cross sections from NN data and suggest that further cosmic ray studies to search for antideuterons and other antinuclei be undertaken.

  4. Absolute cross sections of compound nucleus reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capurro, O. A.

    1993-11-01

    The program SEEF is a Fortran IV computer code for the extraction of absolute cross sections of compound nucleus reactions. When the evaporation residue is fed by its parents, only cumulative cross sections will be obtained from off-line gamma ray measurements. But, if one has the parent excitation function (experimental or calculated), this code will make it possible to determine absolute cross sections of any exit channel.

  5. X-Ray Emission Cross Sections following Charge Exchange by Multiply-Charged Ions of Astrophysical Interest

    SciTech Connect

    Otranto, S; Olson, R E; Beiersdorfer, P

    2007-03-12

    The CTMC method is used to calculate emission cross sections following charge exchange processes involving highly charged ions of astrophysical interest and typical cometary targets. Comparison is made to experimental data obtained on the EBIT-I machine at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory LLNL for O{sup 8+} projectiles impinging on different targets at a collision energy of 10 eV/amu. The theoretical cross sections are used together with ion abundances measured by the Advanced Composition Explorer to reproduce cometary spectra. Discrepancies due to different estimated delays of solar wind events between the comet and the Earth-orbiting satellite are discussed.

  6. Quantum radar cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzagorta, Marco

    2010-06-01

    The radar cross section σC is an objective measure of the "radar visibility" of an object. As such, σC is an important concept for the correct characterization of the operational performance of radar systems. Furthermore, σC is equally essential for the design and development of stealth weapon systems and platforms. Recent years have seen the theoretical development of quantum radars, that is, radars that operate with a small number of photons. In this regime, the radar-target interaction is described through photon-atom scattering processes governed by the laws of quantum electrodynamics. As such, it is theoretically inconsistent to use the same σC to characterize the performance of a quantum radar. In this paper we define a quantum radar cross section σQ based on quantum electrodynamics and interferometric considerations. We discuss the theoretical challenges of defining σQ, as well as computer simulations of σC and σQ for simple targets.

  7. The 235U(n,2n(gamma)) Yrast Partial Gamma-Ray Cross Sections: A Report on the 1998 -- 1999 GEANIE Data and Analysis Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, W; Becker, J A; Bernstein, L A; Garret, P E; McGrath, C A; McNabb, D P; Nelson, R O; Devlin, M; Fotiades, N; Johns, G D

    2000-09-01

    Measurements of partial {sup 235}U(n,2n{gamma}) {gamma}-ray cross sections have been carried out as a function of incident neutron energy using the GEANIE spectrometer at LANSCE/WNR. The yields of {gamma} rays resulting from the population of discrete levels in the residual nucleus {sup 234}U have been measured at incident neutron energies in the 1-20-MeV range. These data provide, with the aid of nuclear reaction modeling, a measurement of the {sup 235}U(n,2n) reaction cross section and serve as a proof of principle of the y-ray technique for the parallel 23gPu(n,2n) measurement [l]. This paper presents the analysis of the {gamma}-ray data and the extraction of partial {gamma}-ray cross sections as a function of incident neutron energy. Uncertainties associated with the spectroscopic analysis of the data and validation of the results are discussed in detail.

  8. Inelastic proton-air cross section growth from 0.2 TeV to 10 PeV according to TIEN SHAN experimental cosmic ray data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesterova, N.

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions are made about the increase with energy of the inelastic proton air cross section σp-air from 0.2 TeV (accelerator experiments with fixed targets) to 10 PeV (cosmic rays). Experimental data from the Tien Shan complex array on various components (mainly hadron, Cherenkov light, and electron) of extensive air showers at 0.5-10 PeV of primary cosmic rays are analyzed. They were compared with many results of different calculated models of cosmic ray interactions in the atmosphere. The analysis showed that the rise conforms to (7-9)% per one order of energy. These data correspond better to the QGSJET-II-04 version of the interaction model based on the recent LHC results. This model predicts better the slower rise of the cross-section than previous versions of QGSJET-II and some other models.

  9. X-ray production cross sections at incident photon energies across the M{sub i} (i=1-5) edges of {sub 90}Th

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Rajnish; Shehla,; Kumar, Anil; Puri, Sanjiv

    2015-08-28

    The X-ray production cross sections for the M{sub k} (k= ξ, δ, α, β, ζ, γ, m{sub 1}, m{sub 2}) groups of X-rays have been evaluated at incident photon energies across the M{sub i} (i =1-5) edges of {sub 90}Th using the relativistic Hartree-Fock-Slater model based photoionisation cross sections and recently reported values of the M-shell X-ray emission rates, fluorescence and Coster Kronig yields. Further, the energies of the prominent (M{sub i}-S{sub j}) (S{sub j}=N{sub j}, O{sub j} and i =1-3, j =1-7) resonant Raman scattered (RRS) peaks at different incident photon energies have also been evaluated using the neutral-atom electron binding energies (E{sub sj}) based on the relaxed orbital relativistic Hartree-Fock-Slater model.

  10. Impact of a low-energy enhancement in the gamma-ray strength function on the neutron-capture cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, A. C.; Goriely, S.

    2010-07-15

    A low-energy enhancement of the gamma-ray strength function in several light and medium-mass nuclei has been observed recently in {sup 3}He-induced reactions. The effect of this enhancement on (n,gamma) cross sections is investigated for stable and unstable neutron-rich Fe, Mo, and Cd isotopes. Our results indicate that the radiative neutron capture cross sections may increase considerably due to the low-energy enhancement when approaching the neutron drip line. This could have non-negligible consequences on r-process nucleosynthesis calculations.

  11. L-Shell X-Ray Production Cross Sections of Copper -29, GERMANIUM-32, RUBIDIUM-37, STRONTIUM-38, and Yttrium -39 and M-Shell X-Ray Production Cross Sections of Gold -79, LEAD-82, BISMUTH-83, THORIUM-90, and URANIUM-92 by 70-200 KEV Protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gressett, John David

    L-shell x-ray production cross sections have been measured for thin targets of _{29} Cu, _{32}Ge, _{37}Rb, _{38 }Sr, and _{39}Y. M -shell x-ray production cross sections have been measured for thin targets of _{79}Au, _{82}Pb, _ {83}Bi, _{90} Th, and _{92}U. All targets were irradiated with a beam of H^ {+} ions with energies in a range from 70 to 200 keV. Experimental cross sections are compared to other measurements at higher energies and to first Born (Plane Wave Born Approximation for direct ionization and Oppenheimer-Brinkman-Kramers-Nikolaev approximation for electron capture) and the ECPSSR (Energy loss, Coulomb deflection, Perturbed Stationary State calculations with Relativistic effects) theoretical cross sections.

  12. Neutron capture cross section of 102Pd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, C. L.; Krane, K. S.

    2005-05-01

    The cross sections for radiative neutron capture by 102Pd have been deduced from a measurement of the γ rays emitted by 17.0-d 103Pd. The thermal cross section has been determined to be σ=1.82±0.20 b, and the effective resonance integral is I=23±4 b. We also report thermal and resonance capture cross sections for 108Pd and note possible inconsistencies with the presently accepted values of the 110Pd cross sections.

  13. New Arsenic Cross Section Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Kawano, Toshihiko

    2015-03-04

    This report presents calculations for the new arsenic cross section. Cross sections for 73,74,75 As above the resonance range were calculated with a newly developed Hauser-Feshbach code, CoH3.

  14. Nucleon-Nucleon Total Cross Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.

    2008-01-01

    The total proton-proton and neutron-proton cross sections currently used in the transport code HZETRN show significant disagreement with experiment in the GeV and EeV energy ranges. The GeV range is near the region of maximum cosmic ray intensity. It is therefore important to correct these cross sections, so that predictions of space radiation environments will be accurate. Parameterizations of nucleon-nucleon total cross sections are developed which are accurate over the entire energy range of the cosmic ray spectrum.

  15. Dual X-Ray Absorptiometry Whole Body Composition of Bone Tissue in Rheumatoid Arthritis – a Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    POPESCU, Claudiu; BOJINCA, Violeta; OPRIS, Daniela; IONESCU, Ruxandra

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Previous studies of bone tissue in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) concentrated on regions of interest that were used to diagnose osteoporosis. This study aimed to compare the whole body bone tissue (wbBT) of RA patients with healthy subjects and to identify the RA variables which significantly predict wbBT. Methods: The study was cross-sectionally designed to include postmenopausal RA patients and age-matched healthy female controls. All 107 RA patients and all 104 controls underwent clinical examination, laboratory tests and whole body DXA composition, which recorded total and regional bone indices. Non-parametric standard statistical test and regression models after data normalization were used to assess correlations, associations and differences. Results: Compared to controls, RA patients had significantly lower whole body and regional bone mass (14.9 kg compared to 15.5 kg; p = 0.031). Disease duration (r = -0.402 ; p < 0.001), C-reactive protein (r = -0.279; p = 0.015) and inflammation (2.5% wbBT compared to 2.9%; p = 0.043), radiographic damage (14.3 kg compared to 16.2 kg; p < 0.001), disease activity scores (r = -0.275 ; p = 0.018 for HAQ) are significantly correlated/associated with lower wbBT. Clinical structural damage is associated with lower wbBT and it can significantly predict them (R2 = 0.014; p = 0.001), while glucocorticoid treatment, even in low doses, was associated with lower wbBT percent (2.6% compared to 2.8%; p = 0.045). Treatment with biologics was associated with a lower rate of whole body osteoporosis (0% compared to 22.2%; p = 0.013). Conclusions: The main associated factors with the generalized bone loss in female RA patients are disease duration and disease activity. Clinical structural damage is the most powerful predictor of the whole body bone loss. These results suggest a general disturbance of skeletal bone metabolism in RA and could explain a greater risk of fragility fractures of non

  16. Difference between interaction cross sections and reaction cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Kohama, Akihisa; Iida, Kei; Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro

    2008-12-15

    We study the validity of the substitution of interaction cross sections for total reaction cross sections for a nucleus incident on a target nucleus at relativistic energies. We show that, for incident stable nuclei, the predicted difference between interaction and total reaction cross sections is large enough to probe the nuclear structure, particularly in a mass region of less than around 40. For analyses of the difference, we construct ''pseudo data'' for the reaction cross sections because empirical data are very limited at high energies. The construction of the pseudo data is based on our assumption that empirically unknown total reaction cross sections are precisely predicted by the phenomenological black-sphere model of nuclei that we developed recently. The comparison with the empirical interaction cross sections suggests a significant difference between the reaction and interaction cross sections for stable projectiles on a carbon target, which is of the order of 0-100 mb.

  17. Total and partial cross sections of the 112Sn(α ,γ ) 116Te reaction measured via in-beam γ -ray spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netterdon, L.; Mayer, J.; Scholz, P.; Zilges, A.

    2015-03-01

    Background: The nucleosynthesis of the neutron-deficient p nuclei remains an open question in nuclear astrophysics. Beside uncertainties on the astrophysical side, the nuclear-physics input parameters entering Hauser-Feshbach calculations for the nucleosynthesis of the p nuclei must be put on a firm basis. Purpose: An extended database of experimental data is needed to address uncertainties of the nuclear-physics input parameters for Hauser-Feshbach calculations. Especially α + nucleus optical model potentials at low energies are not well known. The in-beam technique with an array of high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors was successfully applied to the measurement of absolute cross sections of an (α ,γ ) reaction on a heavy nucleus at sub-Coulomb energies. Method: The total and partial cross-section values were measured by means of in-beam γ -ray spectroscopy. For this purpose, the absolute reaction yield was measured using the HPGe detector array HORUS at the FN tandem accelerator at the University of Cologne. Total and partial cross sections were measured at four different α -particle energies from Eα=10.5 MeV to Eα=12 MeV . Results: The measured total cross-section values are in excellent agreement with previous results obtained with the activation technique, which proves the validity of the applied method. With the present measurement, the discrepancy between two older data sets is removed. The experimental data was compared to Hauser-Feshbach calculations using the nuclear reaction code talys. With a modification of the semi-microscopic α + nucleus optical model potential OMP 3, the measured cross-section values are reproduced well. Moreover, partial cross sections could be measured for the first time for an (α ,γ ) reaction. Conclusions: A modified version of the semimicroscopic α + nucleus optical model potential OMP3, as well as modified proton and γ widths, are needed in order to obtain a good agreement between experimental data and theory. It

  18. X-ray emission cross sections following Ar{sup 18+} charge-exchange collisions on neutral argon: The role of the multiple electron capture

    SciTech Connect

    Otranto, S.; Olson, R. E.

    2011-03-15

    X-ray emission originating in charge-exchange collisions between Ar{sup 18+} and neutral argon is studied at impact energies of 5-4000 eV/amu by means of the classical trajectory Monte Carlo method (CTMC). Line emission and charge-exchange cross sections obtained from different CTMC versions based on the one-active electron approximation are contrasted among themselves and against the results obtained by means of a three-active electron code that lets us infer the role of multiple electron capture. The present results are compared to the recent experimental data available from the EBIT groups operating at Livermore, NIST, and Berlin. We were not able to reconcile the major difference in x-ray emission cross sections obtained from in situ measurements made in EBIT, versus those made in an exterior, field-free collision chamber using ions extracted from the EBIT. Our calculations support the extracted beam results.

  19. Bounds on cross sections and lifetimes for dark matter annihilation and decay into charged leptons from gamma-ray observations of dwarf galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Essig, Rouven; Sehgal, Neelima; Strigari, Louis E.

    2009-07-15

    We provide conservative bounds on the dark matter cross section and lifetime from final state radiation produced by annihilation or decay into charged leptons, either directly or via an intermediate particle {phi}. Our analysis utilizes the experimental gamma-ray flux upper limits from four Milky Way dwarf satellites: HESS observations of Sagittarius and VERITAS observations of Draco, Ursa Minor, and Willman 1. Using 90% confidence level lower limits on the integrals over the dark matter distributions, we find that these constraints are largely unable to rule out dark matter annihilations or decays as an explanation of the PAMELA and ATIC/PPB-BETS excesses. However, if there is an additional Sommerfeld enhancement in dwarfs, which have a velocity dispersion {approx}10 to 20 times lower than that of the local Galactic halo, then the cross sections for dark matter annihilating through {phi}'s required to explain the excesses are very close to the cross-section upper bounds from Willman 1. Dark matter annihilation directly into {tau}'s is also marginally ruled out by Willman 1 as an explanation of the excesses, and the required cross section is only a factor of a few below the upper bound from Draco. Finally, we make predictions for the gamma-ray flux expected from the dwarf galaxy Segue 1 for the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. We find that for a sizeable fraction of the parameter space in which dark matter annihilation into charged leptons explains the PAMELA excess, Fermi has good prospects for detecting a gamma-ray signal from Segue 1 after 1 yr of observation.

  20. Bounds on Cross-sections and Lifetimes for Dark Matter Annihilation and Decay into Charged Leptons from Gamma-ray Observations of Dwarf Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Essig, Rouven; Sehgal, Neelima; Strigari, Louis E.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2009-06-19

    We provide conservative bounds on the dark matter cross-section and lifetime from final state radiation produced by annihilation or decay into charged leptons, either directly or via an intermediate particle {phi}. Our analysis utilizes the experimental gamma-ray flux upper limits from four Milky Way dwarf satellites: HESS observations of Sagittarius and VERITAS observations of Draco, Ursa Minor, and Willman 1. Using 90% confidence level lower limits on the integrals over the dark matter distributions, we find that these constraints are largely unable to rule out dark matter annihilations or decays as an explanation of the PAMELA and ATIC/PPB-BETS excesses. However, if there is an additional Sommerfeld enhancement in dwarfs, which have a velocity dispersion {approx} 10 to 20 times lower than that of the local Galactic halo, then the cross-sections for dark matter annihilating through {phi}'s required to explain the excesses are very close to the cross-section upper bounds from Willman 1. Dark matter annihilation directly into {tau}'s is also marginally ruled out by Willman 1 as an explanation of the excesses, and the required cross-section is only a factor of a few below the upper bound from Draco. Finally, we make predictions for the gamma-ray flux expected from the dwarf galaxy Segue 1 for the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. We find that for a sizeable fraction of the parameter space in which dark matter annihilation into charged leptons explains the PAMELA excess, Fermi has good prospects for detecting a gamma-ray signal from Segue 1 after one year of observation.

  1. Measurement of deuteron induced gamma-ray emission differential cross sections on natCl from 1.0 to 2.0 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokar, A.; Kakuee, O.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.

    2016-06-01

    In this research work, measured differential cross sections for gamma-ray emission from the nuclear reactions 35Cl(d,pγ1-0)36Cl (Eγ = 788 keV), 35Cl(d,pγ2-0)36Cl (Eγ = 1165 keV), 37Cl(d,pγ1-0)38Cl (Eγ = 671 keV) and 37Cl(d,pγ2-0)38Cl (Eγ = 755 keV) are presented. For these measurements a thin natural BaCl2 target evaporated onto a 50 μm-thick Mo foil was used. The gamma-rays and backscattered deuterons were detected simultaneously. An HPGe detector placed at an angle of 90° with respect to the beam direction was employed to collect gamma-rays while an ion implanted Si detector placed at a scattering angle of 165° was used to detect backscattered deuterons. The validity of the obtained differential cross sections was verified through a thick target benchmarking experiment. The overall systematic uncertainty of cross section values was estimated to be ±10%.

  2. Measurement of angular dependence of M X-ray production cross-sections in Re, Bi and U at 5.96 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apaydın, G.; Tıraşoǧlu, E.; Söǧüt, Ã.-.

    2008-03-01

    The M X-ray production differential cross sections in Re, Bi and U elements have been measured at the 5.96 keV incident photon energy in an angular range 135° 155°. The measurements were performed using a 55Fe source and a Si(Li) detector. The present results contradict the predictions of Cooper and Zare [ Atomic Collision Processes, Gordon and Breach, New York (1969)] and experimental results of Kumar et al. [J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. 34, 613 (2001)]. that, after photoionization of inner shells, the vacancy state has equal population of magnetic substates and the subsequent X-ray emission is isotropic, but confirm the predictions of the calculations of Flügge et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 7 (1972)] and experimental results of Sharma and Allawadhi [J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. 32, 2343 (1999)] and Ertugrul [Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 119, 345 (1996)]. Total M X-ray production cross sections from the decay at the 5.96 keV photon energies are found to be in good agreement with the calculated theoretical results using the theoretical values of M shell photoionization cross section.

  3. A cohort study using pulmonary function tests and x-ray examination in toner-handling workers: cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses from 2003 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, H; Terunuma, N; Kurosaki, S; Hata, K; Masuda, M; Kochi, T; Yanagi, N; Murase, T; Ogami, A; Higashi, T

    2015-04-01

    This study uses pulmonary function tests and chest x-ray examinations to examine the relationship between toner-handling work and its health effects. The subjects were 1504 male workers in a Japanese toner and photocopier manufacturing company, in the age range from 19 to 50 years in 2003. Personal exposure measurements, pulmonary function tests, chest x-ray examinations, biomarker measurements, and a questionnaire about respiratory symptoms were conducted. The present study reports the results of pulmonary function tests and chest x-ray examinations conducted in the subjects, which includes a cross-sectional study on the toner handling and non-handling workers and a longitudinal study from 2003 to 2008. Few significant findings were suspected to be caused by toner exposure found in pulmonary function indices in both the cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Any obvious fibrotic findings in chest x-ray findings related to the toner exposure could not be found out. No evidence of adverse effects on pulmonary function indices and chest x-rays was present in the toner-handling workers as compared to the nonspecifically exposed workers. Although the toner exposure concentration is quite low in the current well-controlled working environment, even among the toner-handling workers, we would like to continue this study in the future to verify the toner exposure health effects. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Inelastic partial {gamma}-ray cross sections of {sup 150}Sm+n reactions for E{sub n} = 1-15 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Dashdorj, D.; Kawano, T.; Devlin, M.; Fotiades, N.; Nelson, R. O.; Mitchell, G. E.; Becker, J. A.; Garrett, P. E.; Kunieda, S.

    2011-06-28

    The {sup 150}Sm(n,n'{gamma}) reaction was measured from E{sub n} = 1 to 15 MeV at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Cemter (LANSCE). The {gamma} rays were detected with the Compton-suppressed Germanium Array for Neutron Induced Excitations (GEANIE). Measured {gamma}-ray excitation functions were converted to partial {gamma}-ray cross sections, Twenty four individual {gamma}-rays up to E{sub x} = 1.8 MeV in {sup 150}Sm were measured. Results are compared with enhanced Hauser Feshbach model calculations: the spin distribution in the pre-equilibrium reaction is calculated with the quantum mechanical model of Feshbach, Kerman and Koonin. The particle transmission coefficients were calculated with two different global optical model potential parameter sets. We employed the coupled-channel optical model based on the soft rotor model and with spherical potential.

  5. Evaluation of computational models and cross sections used by MCNP6 for simulation of characteristic X-ray emission from thick targets bombarded by kiloelectronvolt electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poškus, A.

    2016-09-01

    This paper evaluates the accuracy of the single-event (SE) and condensed-history (CH) models of electron transport in MCNP6.1 when simulating characteristic Kα, total K (=Kα + Kβ) and Lα X-ray emission from thick targets bombarded by electrons with energies from 5 keV to 30 keV. It is shown that the MCNP6.1 implementation of the CH model for the K-shell impact ionization leads to underestimation of the K yield by 40% or more for the elements with atomic numbers Z < 15 and overestimation of the Kα yield by more than 40% for the elements with Z > 25. The Lα yields are underestimated by more than an order of magnitude in CH mode, because MCNP6.1 neglects X-ray emission caused by electron-impact ionization of L, M and higher shells in CH mode (the Lα yields calculated in CH mode reflect only X-ray fluorescence, which is mainly caused by photoelectric absorption of bremsstrahlung photons). The X-ray yields calculated by MCNP6.1 in SE mode (using ENDF/B-VII.1 library data) are more accurate: the differences of the calculated and experimental K yields are within the experimental uncertainties for the elements C, Al and Si, and the calculated Kα yields are typically underestimated by (20-30)% for the elements with Z > 25, whereas the Lα yields are underestimated by (60-70)% for the elements with Z > 49. It is also shown that agreement of the experimental X-ray yields with those calculated in SE mode is additionally improved by replacing the ENDF/B inner-shell electron-impact ionization cross sections with the set of cross sections obtained from the distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA), which are also used in the PENELOPE code system. The latter replacement causes a decrease of the average relative difference of the experimental X-ray yields and the simulation results obtained in SE mode to approximately 10%, which is similar to accuracy achieved with PENELOPE. This confirms that the DWBA inner-shell impact ionization cross sections are significantly more

  6. Radar cross section of insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, J. R.

    1985-02-01

    X-band measurements of radar cross section as a function of the angle between insect body axis and the plane of polarization are presented. A finding of particular interest is that in larger insects, maximum cross section occurs when the E-vector is perpendicular to the body axis. A new range of measurements on small insects (aphids, and planthoppers) is also described, and a comprehensive summary of insect cross-section data at X-band is given.

  7. Evaluation of cross sections for Lα x-ray production by up to 4 MeV protons in representative elements from silver to uranium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapicki, Gregory

    2009-07-01

    Over the last two decades, Lα x-ray production cross sections have been fitted with a number of empirical formulae. Cross sections obtained from these formulae are averaged and fitted to a new empirical formula. These new empirical cross sections are compared with the results of the plane-wave Born approximation and the ECPSSR theory of Brandt and Lapicki (1981 Phys. Rev. A 23 1717). They are also gauged by the ECPSSR theory that has been corrected with a united atom approach in slow collisions, evaluated with Dirac-Hartree-Slater instead of screened hydrogenic wavefunctions, modified for intra-shell couplings as well as the change of the atomic parameters due to multiple ionizations. The effects of appropriately normalized intra-shell coupling factors and of multiple ionization were found to be small and essentially offset each other. The role of different sets of atomic parameters in conversion of the predictions of these ionization theories for Lα x-ray production in elements from the 47 <= Z2 <= 92 range of target atoms bombarded by up to 4 MeV protons is examined, and the selection of the optimal combination of ionization theory and atomic parameters for a reliable data base for PIXE analysis of elements heavier than palladium is discussed.

  8. Z-dependence analysis of M x-ray production cross sections for heavy elements with 60≤Z≤90 by protons impact

    SciTech Connect

    Deghfel, B.; Kahoul, A.; Nekkab, M.

    2015-03-30

    Motivated by the large deviation between the experiment and the predictions of the most often used model of ionization process by a charged particle, namely ECPSSR model, a large database of experimental M-shell X-ray production cross-sections by protons energies varying from 0.1 to 4.0 MeV for elements with atomic number 60 ≤ Z ≤ 90, is collected from various sources published from 1980 till 2009 to deduce an empirical M x-ray production cross section. This latter is then deduced from the available experimental data as a function of the scaled velocity parameter by using the whole range of elements (collective analysis) or by introducing the dependence of these cross sections on the atomic number of the target, noted as “Z-dependence analysis” in addition to the collective one. The corresponding results and their deviation from the experimental data are presented for selected elements. Also, a comparison is made for selected elements between our results and other theoretical as well as experimental works.

  9. Measurements of proton induced γ-ray emission cross sections on MgF2 target in the energy range 1.95-3.05 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamboni, I.; Siketić, Z.; Jakšić, M.; Bogdanović Radović, I.

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present differential cross sections for γ-ray emission from the reactions 19F(p,p‧γ)19F (Eγ = 110, 197, 1236 and 1349 + 1357 keV), 24Mg(p,p‧γ)24Mg (Eγ = 1369 keV) and 25Mg(p,p‧γ)25Mg (Eγ = 390, 585 and 975 keV). Differential cross sections were measured for proton energies from 1.95 to 3.05 MeV with a 15 keV step and beam energy resolution of 0.06%. Thin reference standard, 54.1 μg/cm2 of MgF2 deposited on thin Mylar foil with additionally evaporated 4 nm Au layer, was used as a target. The γ-rays were detected by a 20% relative efficiency HPGe detector placed at an angle of 135° with respect to the beam direction, while the backscattered protons were collected using silicon surface barrier detector placed at the scattering angle of 165°. Obtained cross sections were compared with the previously measured data available from the literature.

  10. Photonuclear absorption cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.

    1989-01-01

    Neutron multiplicity in photonuclear reactions; invariance of classical electromagnetism; momentum transfer models in ion collisions; cosmic ray electromagnetic interactions; quadrupole excitations in nucleus-nucleus collisons and Y-89 interactions with relativistic nuclei; and the Weizsacker-Williams theory for nucleon emission via electromagnetic excitations in nucleus-nucleus collisions are discussed.

  11. Ultrahigh-energy photonuclear cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Gandhi, R.; Sarcevic, I.; Burrows, A. ); Durand, L.; Pi, H. )

    1990-07-01

    We present results of calculations of the total inelastic photon-air cross sections at ultrahigh energies (up to 10{sup 8} GeV in the laboratory) of relevance to on-going cosmic-ray experiments. The calculations take into account the high-energy QCD structure of the photon and are performed for a variety of photon and proton structure functions. The total inelastic photon-air cross section is obtained from the photon-proton jet cross section via an eikonalization procedure using a QCD-based diffractive model. The results are discussed in the context of the apparent excess muon content of air showers associated with point sources.

  12. Neutron Capture Cross Section of 239Pu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosby, S.; Arnold, C.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Chyzh, A.; Couture, A.; Henderson, R.; Jandel, M.; Kwan, E.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rusev, G.; Ullmann, J. L.; Wu, C. Y.

    2014-05-01

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) has been used to measure the 239Pu(n,γ) cross section from 10 eV to the keV region. Three experimental run conditions were used to characterize the prompt fission γ-ray spectrum across the entire energy regime, measure the cross section in the resolved resonance region, and obtain necessary count rate well into the keV region. The preliminary cross sections are in good agreement with current evaluations from 10 eV to 80 keV.

  13. X-ray analysis of residual stress gradients in TiN coatings by a Laplace space approach and cross-sectional nanodiffraction: a critical comparison.

    PubMed

    Stefenelli, Mario; Todt, Juraj; Riedl, Angelika; Ecker, Werner; Müller, Thomas; Daniel, Rostislav; Burghammer, Manfred; Keckes, Jozef

    2013-10-01

    Novel scanning synchrotron cross-sectional nanobeam and conventional laboratory as well as synchrotron Laplace X-ray diffraction methods are used to characterize residual stresses in exemplary 11.5 µm-thick TiN coatings. Both real and Laplace space approaches reveal a homogeneous tensile stress state and a very pronounced compressive stress gradient in as-deposited and blasted coatings, respectively. The unique capabilities of the cross-sectional approach operating with a beam size of 100 nm in diameter allow the analysis of stress variation with sub-micrometre resolution at arbitrary depths and the correlation of the stress evolution with the local coating microstructure. Finally, advantages and disadvantages of both approaches are extensively discussed.

  14. Measurement of L X-ray fluorescence cross-sections for elements with 45 ⩽ Z ⩽ 50 using synchrotron radiation at 8 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonzi, Edgardo V.; Badiger, Nagappa M.; Grad, Gabriela B.; Barrea, Raúl A.; Figueroa, Rodolfo G.

    2011-10-01

    The L shell fluorescence cross-sections of the elements in range 45 ⩽ Z ⩽ 50 have been determined at 8 keV using Synchrotron radiation. The individual L X-ray photons, Ll, Lα, LβI, LβII, LγI and LγII produced in the target were measured with high resolution Si( Li) detector. The experimental set-up provided a low background by using linearly polarized monoenergetic photon beam, improving the signal-to-noise ratio. The experimental cross-sections obtained in this work were compared with available experimental data from Scofield [1,2] Krause [3,4] and Scofield and Puri et al. [5,6]. These experimental values closely agree with the theoretical values calculated using Scofield and Krause data, except for the case of Lγ, where values measured of this work are slighter higher.

  15. Radar Cross Section Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-30

    Radar 54 17. Measured Range Sidelobe Performance of Chirp Radar 56 18. Range and Cross Range Image of Target Dror.’ŕ Vehicle 57 19. Incoherent rms...the measured range resolution, 4.9 in, closely agrees with the theoretical performance for this weighting. The measured range sidelobe performance...Interval 4.89in. 2% kHz 300 kHz 310 kHz (b) Expanded Scale + 5 ft from Target Figure 17. Measured Range Sidelobe Performance of

  16. XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 8 XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database (Web, free access)   A web database is provided which can be used to calculate photon cross sections for scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production, as well as total attenuation coefficients, for any element, compound or mixture (Z <= 100) at energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV.

  17. X-ray production cross-sections measurements for high-energy alpha particle beams: New dedicated set-up and first results with aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuis, T.; Chêne, G.; Mathis, F.; Marchal, A.; Garnir, H.-P.; Strivay, D.

    2011-12-01

    The "IPNAS" laboratory, in collaboration with the "Centre Européen d'Archéométrie" is partly focused on material analysis by means of IBA techniques: PIXE, PIGE and RBS. A new transport beam line has been developed at our CGR-520 MeV cyclotron to analyze Cultural Heritage objects using these techniques. This facility allows us to produce proton and alpha particle beams with energies up to 20 MeV. A vacuum chamber dedicated to X-ray production and Non-Rutherford cross-section measurements has been recently constructed. After determination of the chamber's geometry for X-ray detection using thin foils of several elements (11 ⩽ Z ⩽ 82) and 3 MeV proton beams, the measurement of the X-ray production cross-sections in the 6-12 MeV energy range has started using alpha particle beams on light element targets. These experiments contribute to the filling a serious lack of experimental values for alpha particles of this particular energy range in databases. The recent decision to focus our work on the alpha particle interaction with light elements was taken because of the high interest of the low Z elements in the field of archaeometry.

  18. Calculations of photo-induced X-ray production cross-sections in the energy range 1-150 keV and average fluorescence yields for Zn, Cd and Hg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampaio, J. M.; Guerra, M.; Parente, F.; Madeira, T. I.; Indelicato, P.; Santos, J. P.; Marques, J. P.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we calculate the K-, L- and M-shells X-ray production, and X-ray fluorescence cross-sections after photo-induced ionization, for Zn, Cd, and Hg, and for incident photon energy range from 1 to 150 keV. For this purpose, the corresponding average fluorescence yields for Zn, Cd, and Hg as well as the photoionization cross-sections were calculated using the Dirac-Fock method. Subshell fluorescence, intrashell and intershell yields are obtained consistently from radiative and radiationless transitions calculated in the exact same method. A comprehensive account of the relations between the X-ray production, X-ray fluorescence cross-sections and the photoionization cross-sections and these yields is presented. Comparisons are made with results from other authors. The obtained values for the photoionization cross-sections are in good agreement with the widely used data of Scofield in the studied energy range. However our results for the X-ray fluorescence cross sections seem to favor some data relatively to others. The energy dependence of the average fluorescence yields is discussed, in particular, the reliability of extrapolated data for lighter elements from measurements and calculations in heavier elements above the inner shell absorption edges is questioned. Tabulated data on photoionization and X-ray production cross-sections are presented for the incident photon energy range 1-150 keV in steps of 1 keV.

  19. Measurements of the line resolved M-shell X-ray production cross sections for 79Au, 82Pb and 83Bi by 100 keV/u proton, C, N, O ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shehla; Kumar, Ajay; Bagdia, C.; Kumar, Anil; Misra, D.; Puri, Sanjiv; Tribedi, L. C.

    2017-05-01

    The cross sections for production of the Mk (k = ξ, αβ, γ, m1) X-rays of 79Au, 82Pb and 83Bi induced by the 100 keV/u proton, C4+, N5+ and O6+ ions have been measured in the present work. The experimental cross sections have been compared with the earlier reported values and those calculated using the ionization cross sections based on the ECPSSR model, the X-ray emission rates based on the Dirac-Fock model, the fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yields based on the Dirac-Hartree-Slater model. In addition, the present measured proton induced X-ray production cross sections have also been compared with those calculated using the Dirac-Hartree-Slater model based ionization cross sections. The intensity ratios among the Mk X-rays have been deduced and compared with the theoretical values. The present measured Mk (k = ξ, αβ, γ, m1) X-ray production cross sections are found to be very high as compared to the theoretical values. The total M X-ray production cross sections for the targets under investigation exhibited Zp2 dependence; Zp denotes the projectile atomic number.

  20. Strong γ-ray emission from neutron unbound states populated in β-decay: Impact on (n,γ) cross-section estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tain, J. L.; Guadilla, V.; Valencia, E.; Algora, A.; Zakari-Issoufou, A.-A.; Rice, S.; Meur, L. Le; Agramunt, J.; Äystö, J.; Batist, L.; Bowry, M.; Briz, J. A.; Bui, V. M.; Caballero-Folch, R.; Cano-Ott, D.; Cucoanes, A.; Elomaa, V.-V.; Eronen, T.; Estevez, E.; Estienne, M.; Fallot, M.; Farrelly, G. F.; Fraile, L. M.; Ganioglu, E.; Garcia, A. R.; Gelletly, W.; Gómez-Hornillos, B.; Gorelov, D.; Gorlychev, V.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Jordan, M. D.; Kankainen, A.; Kolhinen, V. S.; Kondev, F. G.; Koponen, J.; Lebois, M.; Martínez, T.; Mason, P.; Mendoza, E.; Monserrate, M.; Montaner-Pizá, A.; Moore, I.; Nacher, E.; Orrigo, S. E. A.; Penttilä, H.; Podolyák, Zs.; Pohjalainen, I.; Porta, A.; Regan, P. H.; Reinikainen, J.; Reponen, M.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Rissanen, J.; Rubio, B.; Rytkönen, K.; Shiba, T.; Sonnenschein, V.; Sonzogni, A. A.; Vedia, V.; Voss, A.; Wilson, J. N.

    2017-09-01

    Total absorption gamma-ray spectroscopy is used to measure accurately the intensity of γ emission from neutron-unbound states populated in the β-decay of delayed-neutron emitters. From the comparison of this intensity with the intensity of neutron emission one can deduce information on the (n,γ) cross section for unstable neutron-rich nuclei of interest in r process abundance calculations. A surprisingly large γ branching was observed for a number of isotopes. The results are compared with Hauser-Feshbach calculations and discussed.

  1. Strong γ-ray emission from neutron unbound states populated in β-decay: Impact on (n,γ) cross-section estimates

    DOE PAGES

    Tain, J. L.; Guadilla, V.; Valencia, E.; ...

    2017-09-13

    Total absorption gamma-ray spectroscopy is used to measure accurately the intensity of γ emission from neutron-unbound states populated in the β-decay of delayed-neutron emitters. From the comparison of this intensity with the intensity of neutron emission one can deduce information on the (n,γ) cross section for unstable neutron-rich nuclei of interest in r process abundance calculations. A surprisingly large γ branching was observed for a number of isotopes. Here, the results are compared with Hauser-Feshbach calculations and discussed.

  2. Undergraduate Measurements of Neutron Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, S. F.; Vanhoy, J. R.; French, A. J.; Santonil, Z. C.; Crider, B. P.; Peters, E. E.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Prados-Estévez, F. M.; Ross, T. J.; Yates, S. W.

    Undergraduate students at the University of Dallas have investigated basic properties of nuclei through γ-ray and neutron spectroscopy following neutron scattering. The former has been used primarily for nuclear structure investigations, while the latter has been used to measure neutron scattering cross sections important for fission reactor applications. A series of (n,n') and (n,n'γ) measurements have been made on 54Fe and 56Fe to determine neutron cross sections for scattering to excited levels in these nuclei. The former provides the cross sections directly and the latter are used to deduce inelastic neutron scattering cross sections by measuring the γ-ray production cross sections to states not easily resolved in neutron spectroscopy. All measurements have been completed at the University of Kentucky Accelerator Laboratory using a 7-MV Model CN Van de Graaff accelerator, along with the neutron production and neutron and γ-ray detection systems located there. Students participate in accelerator operation, experimental setup, data acquisition, and data analyses. An overview of the research program and student contributions is presented.

  3. Capture cross sections on unstable nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonchev, A. P.; Escher, J. E.; Scielzo, N.; Bedrossian, P.; Ilieva, R. S.; Humby, P.; Cooper, N.; Goddard, P. M.; Werner, V.; Tornow, W.; Rusev, G.; Kelley, J. H.; Pietralla, N.; Scheck, M.; Savran, D.; Löher, B.; Yates, S. W.; Crider, B. P.; Peters, E. E.; Tsoneva, N.; Goriely, S.

    2017-09-01

    Accurate neutron-capture cross sections on unstable nuclei near the line of beta stability are crucial for understanding the s-process nucleosynthesis. However, neutron-capture cross sections for short-lived radionuclides are difficult to measure due to the fact that the measurements require both highly radioactive samples and intense neutron sources. Essential ingredients for describing the γ decays following neutron capture are the γ-ray strength function and level densities. We will compare different indirect approaches for obtaining the most relevant observables that can constrain Hauser-Feshbach statistical-model calculations of capture cross sections. Specifically, we will consider photon scattering using monoenergetic and 100% linearly polarized photon beams. Challenges that exist on the path to obtaining neutron-capture cross sections for reactions on isotopes near and far from stability will be discussed.

  4. Photoelectric absorption cross sections with variable abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balucinska-Church, Monika; Mccammon, Dan

    1992-01-01

    Polynomial fit coefficients have been obtained for the energy dependences of the photoelectric absorption cross sections of 17 astrophysically important elements. These results allow the calculation of X-ray absorption in the energy range 0.03-10 keV in material with noncosmic abundances.

  5. Theoretical X-ray production cross sections at incident photon energies across L{sub i} (i=1-3) absorption edges of Br

    SciTech Connect

    Puri, Sanjiv

    2015-08-28

    The X-ray production (XRP) cross sections, σ{sub Lk} (k = l, η, α, β{sub 6}, β{sub 1}, β{sub 3}, β{sub 4}, β{sub 9,10}, γ{sub 1,5}, γ{sub 2,3}) have been evaluated at incident photon energies across the L{sub i}(i=1-3) absorption edge energies of {sub 35}Br using theoretical data sets of different physical parameters, namely, the L{sub i}(i=1-3) sub-shell the X-ray emission rates based on the Dirac-Fock (DF) model, the fluorescence and Coster Kronig yields based on the Dirac-Hartree-Slater (DHS) model, and two sets of the photoionisation cross sections based on the relativistic Hartree-Fock-Slater (RHFS) model and the Dirac-Fock (DF) model, in order to highlight the importance of electron exchange effects at photon energies in vicinity of absorption edge energies.

  6. Comparison of x-ray absorption spectra between water and ice: New ice data with low pre-edge absorption cross-section

    SciTech Connect

    Sellberg, Jonas A.; Nilsson, Anders; Kaya, Sarp; Segtnan, Vegard H.; Chen, Chen; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Ogasawara, Hirohito; Nordlund, Dennis; Pettersson, Lars G. M.

    2014-07-21

    The effect of crystal growth conditions on the O K-edge x-ray absorption spectra of ice is investigated through detailed analysis of the spectral features. The amount of ice defects is found to be minimized on hydrophobic surfaces, such as BaF{sub 2}(111), with low concentration of nucleation centers. This is manifested through a reduction of the absorption cross-section at 535 eV, which is associated with distorted hydrogen bonds. Furthermore, a connection is made between the observed increase in spectral intensity between 544 and 548 eV and high-symmetry points in the electronic band structure, suggesting a more extended hydrogen-bond network as compared to ices prepared differently. The spectral differences for various ice preparations are compared to the temperature dependence of spectra of liquid water upon supercooling. A double-peak feature in the absorption cross-section between 540 and 543 eV is identified as a characteristic of the crystalline phase. The connection to the interpretation of the liquid phase O K-edge x-ray absorption spectrum is extensively discussed.

  7. The {sup 12}C({sup 3}He,p{gamma}){sup 14}N reaction cross section for {gamma}-ray spectroscopy simulation of fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Proverbio, I.; Nocente, M.; Tardocchi, M.; Gorini, G.; Kiptily, V. G.; Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2010-10-15

    High resolution {gamma}-ray spectroscopy measurements were performed in JET ({sup 3}He)D plasmas with high energy ion populations driven by radio-frequency (RF) heating. One of the first reactions investigated was {sup 12}C({sup 3}He,p{gamma}){sup 14}N, which was observed at low {sup 3}He concentrations. In order to interpret the measurements in this work, cross section data for the {sup 12}C({sup 3}He,p{gamma}){sup 14}N reaction are evaluated. Available data for the population of excited states in {sup 14}N up to the eighth level are assessed in the range E{sub 3He}=0-5 MeV. Discrepancies and gaps in the database have been solved by means of interpolations and consistency analysis. The evaluated cross section data are used to predict the intensity ratio of characteristic 2.31 and 1.63 MeV {gamma}-rays.

  8. Cross sections at hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Paige, F.E.

    1982-01-01

    The predicted cross sections are given for new Z'/sup 0/ bosons, for the Drell-Yan continuum of ..mu../sup +/..mu../sup -/ pairs, for high p/sub T/ hadron jets, for high p/sub T/ single photons, and for the associated production of heavy quarks. These processes have been selected not to cover the most interesting physics, but to provide a representative selection of cross sections for which to compare various energies and luminosities.

  9. Cross Sections of P-Induced Reactions up to 100 MeV for the Interpretation of Solar Cosmic Ray Produced Nuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiekel, T.; Rosel, R.; Herpers, U.; Bodemann, R.; Michel, R.; Dittrich, B.; Hofmann, H. J.; Suter, M.; Wolfli, W.; Holmqvist, B.; Conde, H.; Malmborg, P.

    1992-07-01

    Integral excitation functions for the production of residual nuclides by proton-induced reactions are the basic data for an accurate modelling of the interactions of solar cosmic ray (SCR) particles with extraterrestrial matter. Due to the relatively low energies (<200 MeV/A) of SCR particles the production of nuclear active secondary particles can be widely neglected and theoretical production rate depth profiles can be calculated by simply folding the depth dependent SCR spectra with thin target cross sections of the underlying nuclear reactions. The accuracy of such calculations exclusively depends on the quality of the available cross sections. For many nuclides, in particular for long-lived radionuclides and stable rare gas isotopes, the exis- ting cross section database is neither comprehensive nor reliable. Therefore, we started a series of experiments to improve this situation. Eighteen elements (C, N as Si3N4, O as SiO2, Mg, Al, Si, Ti, V, Mn as Mn/Ni-alloy, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zr, Nb, Rh, Ba as Ba-contai- ning glass, and Au) were irradiated with 94 and 99 MeV protons at the external beam of the TSL-cyclotron at Uppsala. Cross sections were determined using the stacked foil technique. Beam monitoring was done by investigating the production of ^22Na from Al, for which evaluated cross sections exist. Residual nuclides were measured by X-, gamma- and accelerator-mass spectrometry. In order to check the quality of our experimental procedure some target elements (22 <= Z <= 28) were included in the new exper- iments, which had been formerly irradiated at Julich, at Louvain La Neuve, and at IPN Orsay. Comparisons between the earlier measurements (1,2) and the new cross sections showed excellent agreement. Up to now, cross sections were measured for more than 120 different reactions. Here, we report on the results obtained for the target elements C, N, O, Mg, Al, and Si. The status of experimental excitation functions for the production of some radionuclides

  10. Cross-sectional structural parameters from densitometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleek, Tammy M.; Whalen, Robert T.

    2002-01-01

    Bone densitometry has previously been used to obtain cross-sectional properties of bone from a single X-ray projection across the bone width. Using three unique projections, we have extended the method to obtain the principal area moments of inertia and orientations of the principal axes at each scan cross-section along the length of the scan. Various aluminum phantoms were used to examine scanner characteristics to develop the highest accuracy possible for in vitro non-invasive analysis of cross-sectional properties. Factors considered included X-ray photon energy, initial scan orientation, the angle spanned by the three scans (included angle), and I(min)/I(max) ratios. Principal moments of inertia were accurate to within +/-3.1% and principal angles were within +/-1 degrees of the expected value for phantoms scanned with included angles of 60 degrees and 90 degrees at the higher X-ray photon energy (140 kVp). Low standard deviations in the error (0.68-1.84%) also indicate high precision of calculated measurements with these included angles. Accuracy and precision decreased slightly when the included angle was reduced to 30 degrees. The method was then successfully applied to a pair of excised cadaveric tibiae. The accuracy and insensitivity of the algorithms to cross-sectional shape and changing isotropy (I(min)/I(max)) values when various included angles are used make this technique viable for future in vivo studies.

  11. Cross-sectional structural parameters from densitometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleek, Tammy M.; Whalen, Robert T.

    2002-01-01

    Bone densitometry has previously been used to obtain cross-sectional properties of bone from a single X-ray projection across the bone width. Using three unique projections, we have extended the method to obtain the principal area moments of inertia and orientations of the principal axes at each scan cross-section along the length of the scan. Various aluminum phantoms were used to examine scanner characteristics to develop the highest accuracy possible for in vitro non-invasive analysis of cross-sectional properties. Factors considered included X-ray photon energy, initial scan orientation, the angle spanned by the three scans (included angle), and I(min)/I(max) ratios. Principal moments of inertia were accurate to within +/-3.1% and principal angles were within +/-1 degrees of the expected value for phantoms scanned with included angles of 60 degrees and 90 degrees at the higher X-ray photon energy (140 kVp). Low standard deviations in the error (0.68-1.84%) also indicate high precision of calculated measurements with these included angles. Accuracy and precision decreased slightly when the included angle was reduced to 30 degrees. The method was then successfully applied to a pair of excised cadaveric tibiae. The accuracy and insensitivity of the algorithms to cross-sectional shape and changing isotropy (I(min)/I(max)) values when various included angles are used make this technique viable for future in vivo studies.

  12. A cross-sectional study of the radiation dose and image quality of X-ray equipment used in IVR.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Yohei; Chida, Koichi; Kobayashi, Ryota; Zuguchi, Masayuki

    2016-07-01

    There are case reports of injuries caused by the radiation from interventional radiology (IVR) X-ray systems. Therefore, the management of radiation doses in IVR is important. However, no detailed report has evaluated image quality for a large number of IVR X-ray systems. As a result, it is unclear whether the image quality of the X-ray equipment currently used in IVR procedures is optimal. We compared the entrance surface doses and image quality of multiple IVR X-ray systems. This study was conducted in 2014 at 13 medical facilities using 18 IVR X-ray systems. We evaluated image quality and simultaneously measured the radiation dose. Entrance surface doses for fluoroscopy (duration, 1 min) and cineradiography (duration, 10 s) are measured using a 20-cm-thick acrylic plate and skin dose monitor. The image quality (such as spatial resolution and low-contrast detectability) of both fluoroscopy and cineradiography was evaluated using a QC phantom. For fluoroscopy, the average entrance surface dose using the 20-cm-thick acrylic plate was 13.9 (range 2.1-28.2) mGy/min. For cineradiography, the average entrance surface dose was 24.6 (range 5.1-49.3) mGy/10 s. We found positive correlations between radiation doses and image quality scores, in general, especially for fluoroscopy. The differences in surface dose among the 18 IVR X-ray systems were high (max/min, 9.7-fold for cineradiography; 13.4-fold for fluoroscopy). The differences in image quality scores (spatial resolution, low-contrast detectability, and dynamic range) were also very large. In general, there tended to be a correlation between radiation dose and image quality. Periodical measurements of the radiation dose and image quality of the X-ray equipment used for cineradiography and fluoroscopy in IVR are necessary. The need to minimize patient exposure requires that the dose be reduced to the minimum level that will generate an image with an acceptable degree of noise. PACS number(s): 87.57.C, 87.57.uq, 87

  13. Neutron Capture Cross Section of 239Pu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosby, S.; Arnold, C.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rusev, G.; Ullmann, J. L.; Chyzh, A.; Henderson, R.; Kwan, E.; Wu, C. Y.

    2014-09-01

    The 239Pu(n,γ) cross section has been measured over the energy range 10 eV - 10 keV using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) as part of a campaign to produce precision (n,γ) measurements on 239Pu in the keV region. Fission coincidences were measured with a PPAC and used to characterize the prompt fission γ-ray spectrum in this region. The resulting spectra will be used to better characterize the fission component of another experiment with a thicker target to extend the (n,γ) cross section measurement well into the keV region.

  14. Atomic form factors and photoelectric absorption cross-sections near absorption edges in the soft X-ray region

    SciTech Connect

    Chantler, C.

    2006-11-09

    Reliable knowledge of the complex X-ray form factor [Re(f) and Im(f)] and the photoelectric attenuation coefficient ({delta}{sub PE}) is required for crystallography, medical diagnosis, radiation safety and XAFS studies. Key discrepancies in earlier theoretical work are due to the smoothing of edge structure, the use of non-relativistic wave functions, and the lack of appropriate convergence of wave functions. These discrepancies lead to significant corrections for most comprehensive (i.e. all-Z) tabulations. This work has led to a major comprehensive database tabulation [Chantler, C. T. (2000). J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 29, 597-1048] which serves as a sequel and companion to earlier relativistic Dirac-Fock computations [Chantler, C. T. (1995). J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 24, 71-643]. The paper finds that earlier work needs improvement in the near-edge region for soft X-ray energies, and derives new theoretical results of substantially higher accuracy in near-edge soft X-ray regions. Fine grids near edges are tabulated demonstrating the current comparison with alternate theory and with available experimental data. The best experimental data and the observed experimental structure as a function of energy are strong indicators of the validity of the current approach. New developments in experimental measurement hold great promise in making critical comparisons with theory in the near future.

  15. Atomic form factors and photoelectric absorption cross-sections near absorption edges in the soft X-ray region

    SciTech Connect

    Chantler, C.T.

    2003-01-24

    Reliable knowledge of the complex X-ray form factor [Re(f) and Im(f)] and the photoelectric attenuation coefficient ({sigma}PE) is required for crystallography, medical diagnosis, radiation safety and XAFS studies. Key discrepancies in earlier theoretical work are due to the smoothing of edge structure, the use of non-relativistic wave functions, and the lack of appropriate convergence of wave functions. These discrepancies lead to significant corrections for most comprehensive (i.e. all-Z) tabulations. This work has led to a major comprehensive database tabulation [Chantler, C. T. (2000). J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 29, 597-1048] which serves as a sequel and companion to earlier relativistic Dirac-Fock computations [Chantler, C. T. (1995). J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 24, 71-643]. The paper finds that earlier work needs improvement in the near-edge region for soft X-ray energies, and derives new theoretical results of substantially higher accuracy in near-edge soft X-ray regions. Fine grids near edges are tabulated demonstrating the current comparison with alternate theory and with available experimental data. The best experimental data and the observed experimental structure as a function of energy are strong indicators of the validity of the current approach. New developments in experimental measurement hold great promise in making critical comparisons with theory in the near future. This work forms the latest component of the FFAST NIST database [http://physics.nist.gov/PhysRefData/FFast02/Text/cover.html].

  16. Low-energy {sup 18}F(p, {alpha}){sup 15}O cross section measurements relevant to nova {gamma}-ray emission

    SciTech Connect

    Sereville, N. de; Angulo, C.; Leleux, P.; Coc, A.; Kiener, J.; Lefebvre-Schuhl, A.; Tatischeff, V.; Achouri, N. L.; Orr, N. A.; Casarejos, E.; Davinson, T.; Descouvemont, P.; Figuera, P.; Fox, S.; Laird, A.; Mumby-Croft, P.; Vaughan, K.; Hammache, F.; Stefan, I.

    2009-01-15

    During nova outbursts the decay of {sup 18}F is the main source of {gamma}-ray emission at and below 511 keV. In spite of much experimental effort, the quantity of {sup 18}F synthesized still suffers from large uncertainties which arise mainly from the {sup 18}F(p, {alpha}){sup 15}O reaction cross section at low energies. We report here on a new direct measurement carried out at the Louvain-la-Neuve RIB facility of Louvain-la-Neuve using an isobarically pure {sup 18}F beam impinging on a thin polyethylene target. Cross sections down to a center-of-mass energy of 400 keV have been obtained and the results together with previous experimental data were compared to R-matrix calculations. The effect of the relative contribution of the two low-lying 3/2{sup +} resonances as well as the sensitivity of the calculations to the R-matrix radius is studied in detail.

  17. Measurement of the 18Ne(α,p0) 21Na reaction cross section in the burning energy region for x-ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Salter, P J C; Aliotta, M; Davinson, T; Al Falou, H; Chen, A; Davids, B; Fulton, B R; Galinski, N; Howell, D; Lotay, G; Machule, P; Murphy, A StJ; Ruiz, C; Sjue, S; Taggart, M; Walden, P; Woods, P J

    2012-06-15

    The 18Ne(α,p) 21Na reaction provides one of the main HCNO-breakout routes into the rp process in x-ray bursts. The 18Ne(α,p0) 21Na reaction cross section has been determined for the first time in the Gamow energy region for peak temperatures T∼2  GK by measuring its time-reversal reaction 21Na(p,α) 18Ne in inverse kinematics. The astrophysical rate for ground-state to ground-state transitions was found to be a factor of 2 lower than Hauser-Feshbach theoretical predictions. Our reduced rate will affect the physical conditions under which breakout from the HCNO cycles occurs via the 18Ne(α,p) 21Na reaction.

  18. Photon-exposure-dependent photon-stimulated desorption for obtaining photolysis cross section of molecules adsorbed on surface by monochromatic soft x-ray photons.

    PubMed

    Chou, L-C; Jang, C-Y; Wu, Y-H; Tsai, W-C; Wang, S-K; Chen, J; Chang, S-C; Liu, C-C; Shai, Y; Wen, C-R

    2008-12-07

    Photon-exposure-dependent positive- and negative-ion photon-stimulated desorption (PSD) was proposed to study the photoreactions and obtain the photolysis cross sections of molecules adsorbed on a single-crystal surface by monochromatic soft x-ray photons with energy near the core level of adsorbate. The changes in the F(+) and F(-) PSD ion yields were measured from CF(3)Cl molecules adsorbed on Si(111)-7x7 at 30 K (CF(3)Cl dose=0.3x10(15) molecules/cm(2), approximately 0.75 monolayer) during irradiation of monochromatic soft x-ray photons near the F(1s) edge. The PSD ion yield data show the following characteristics: (a) The dissociation of adsorbed CF(3)Cl molecules is due to a combination of direct photodissociation via excitation of F(1s) core level and substrate-mediated dissociation [dissociative attachment and dipolar dissociation induced by the photoelectrons emitting from the silicon substrate]. (b) the F(+) ion desorption is associated with the bond breaking of the surface CF(3)Cl, CF(2)Cl, CFCl, and SiF species. (c) the F(-) yield is mainly due to DA and DD of the adsorbed CF(3)Cl molecules. (d) The surface SiF is formed by reaction of the surface Si atom with the neutral fluorine atom, F(+), or F(-) ion produced by scission of C-F bond of CF(3)Cl, CF(2)Cl, or CFCl species. A kinetic model was proposed for the explanation of the photolysis of this submonolayer CF(3)Cl-covered surface. Based on this model and the variation rates of the F(+)F(-) signals during fixed-energy monochromatic photon bombardment at 690.2 and 692.6 eV [near the F(1s) edge], the photolysis cross section was deduced as a function of energy.

  19. Photon-exposure-dependent photon-stimulated desorption for obtaining photolysis cross section of molecules adsorbed on surface by monochromatic soft x-ray photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, L.-C.; Jang, C.-Y.; Wu, Y.-H.; Tsai, W.-C.; Wang, S.-K.; Chen, J.; Chang, S.-C.; Liu, C.-C.; Shai, Y.; Wen, C.-R.

    2008-12-01

    Photon-exposure-dependent positive- and negative-ion photon-stimulated desorption (PSD) was proposed to study the photoreactions and obtain the photolysis cross sections of molecules adsorbed on a single-crystal surface by monochromatic soft x-ray photons with energy near the core level of adsorbate. The changes in the F+ and F- PSD ion yields were measured from CF3Cl molecules adsorbed on Si(111)-7×7 at 30K (CF3Cl dose=0.3×1015molecules/cm2, ˜0.75 monolayer) during irradiation of monochromatic soft x-ray photons near the F(1s ) edge. The PSD ion yield data show the following characteristics: (a) The dissociation of adsorbed CF3Cl molecules is due to a combination of direct photodissociation via excitation of F(1s ) core level and substrate-mediated dissociation [dissociative attachment and dipolar dissociation induced by the photoelectrons emitting from the silicon substrate]. (b) the F+ ion desorption is associated with the bond breaking of the surface CF3Cl, CF2Cl, CFCl, and SiF species. (c) the F - yield is mainly due to DA and DD of the adsorbed CF3Cl molecules. (d) The surface SiF is formed by reaction of the surface Si atom with the neutral fluorine atom, F +, or F- ion produced by scission of C-F bond of CF3Cl, CF2Cl, or CFCl species. A kinetic model was proposed for the explanation of the photolysis of this submonolayer CF3Cl-covered surface. Based on this model and the variation rates of the F +/F- signals during fixed-energy monochromatic photon bombardment at 690.2 and 692.6eV [near the F(1s ) edge], the photolysis cross section was deduced as a function of energy.

  20. Angular Correlation Between Kx-Rays and Gamma - in a Spherically-Deformed Nuclei and Measurement of Absolute Pair Production Cross-Sections Near Threshold Energies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Ali El Sayed

    1982-03-01

    (i) Measurements of the directional correlations between Kx-rays following internal conversion and (gamma) -rays in ('181)Ta have been made the correlation coefficients are:. A(,22)(K(alpha)(,1) - 133(gamma)) = 0.037 (+OR -) 0.012. A(,44)(K(alpha)(,1) - 133(gamma)) = 0.022 (+OR -) 0.017. A(,22)(K(alpha)(,2) - 133(gamma)) = 0.038 (+OR -) 0.017. A(,44)(K(alpha)(,2) - 133(gamma)) = 0.037 (+OR -) 0.029. The anisotropic correlation measurements in ('181)Ta establish the second known case of this phenomenon. The x-rays follow four internally converted transitions from which 38% of the Kx-rays follow electric-quadrupole internal conversion processes. This anisotropy is caused by the perturbation of the wave functions of the atomic electrons by the static nuclear quadrupole moment which causes a mixture of the two-coupled, two-electron states (VBAR)d'(,3/2), 1s(,1/2), J = 2 > and (VBAR)d'(,5/2), 1s(,1/2), J = 2 > with the unperturbed state (VBAR)1s(,1/2), 1s(,1/2), J = 0 >. The K-shell electrons are then in a quantum state which is an admixture of the three states mentioned above, and K-shell internal conversion results in a d'(,3/2) or d'(,5/2) vacancy in the mixed K-shell state. Accordingly, x-rays form the transition between either 2p(,3/2) or the 2p(,1/2) level, to a d'(,3/2) or d'(,5/2) vacancy, following internal conversion, can result in anisotropic x-ray angular distributions relative to the nuclear symmetry axis. This in turn results in anisotropic directional correlations between Kx-rays and nuclear (gamma)-rays. (ii) Absolute electron-positron pair production cross-sections near threshold energies have been screened. A new technique which is called internal source method is developed. Direct measurements of the cross-section using 2.615 Mev, a mixture of (1.33 + 1.77) Mev, and 1.12 Mev on target materials of Z = 26, 29, 50, 82 and 92 have been obtained. The experimental results agree well with the exact screening calculations for low Z materials; systematic

  1. Cross-Section Measurements for (n,xn) Reactions by In-Beam Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlik, A.; Baumann, P.; Kerveno, M.; Rudolf, G.; Borcea, C.; Mihailescu, L.C.; Jericha, E.; Raskinyte, I.; Jokic, S.; Lukic, S.; Meulders, J.P.; Nolte, R.; Plompen, A.J.M.

    2005-05-24

    The nuclear reactions 207Pb(n,2n)206Pb and 232Th(n,5n)228Th were studied by measuring prompt gamma-ray emission spectra from the interaction of neutrons with an enriched 207Pb sample and a natTh sample. For 207Pb the measurements were performed at the white neutron beam of the GELINA neutron source at IRMM Geel in the neutron energy range up to 20 MeV. The Th measurements were done at the quasi-monoenergetic 7Li(p,n)7Be neutron source at the Universite Catholique de Louvain for five peak neutron energies in the range 29 MeV to 42 MeV. The measurements were complemented by model calculations using the code system EMPIRE-II.

  2. Neutrino cross-sections: Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez, F.

    2015-07-15

    Neutrino-nucleus cross-sections are as of today the main source of systematic errors for oscillation experiments together with neutrino flux uncertainties. Despite recent experimental and theoretical developments, future experiments require even higher precisions in their search of CP violation. We will review the experimental status and explore possible future developments required by next generation of experiments.

  3. Alloying effect on K shell X-ray fluorescence cross-sections and intensity ratios of Cu and Sn in Cu1Sn1-x alloys using the 59.5 keV gamma rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogan, M.; Olgar, M. A.; Cengiz, E.; Tıraşoglu, E.

    2016-09-01

    Kβ/Kα, intensity ratios and σKα,β production cross-sections of Cu and Sn were measured in pure metals and in different alloys which have different compositions (CuxSn1-x x=0.48, 0.41, 0.14 and 0.06). The samples were excited by 59.5 keV γ-rays from 241Am annular radioactive source. K X-rays emitted by samples were counted by an Ultra-LEGe detector with a resolution of 150 eV at 5.9 keV. Comparison of the σKβ production cross-sections and Kβ/Kα X-ray intensity ratio values for Cu and Sn with the theoretical and semi-empirical calculations indicates that they are in the inverse direction with concentration of constituent element in the alloys. The results show that variations in these parameters can be explained with the charge transfer process between the elements which constitute the alloys.

  4. Alloying effect on K X-ray intensity ratios, K X-ray production cross-sections and radiative Auger ratios in superalloys constitute from Al, Ni and Mo elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aylikci, N. Kup; Tiraşoğlu, E.; Karahan, İ. H.; Aylikci, V.; Eskil, M.; Cengiz, E.

    2010-11-01

    In this study, σ production cross-sections, Kβ/ Kα, KLM/ Kα and KMM/ Kβ RAE intensity ratios of Ni and σ,σ production cross-sections, Kβ1,3/ Kα, Kβ2,4/ Kα, Kβ2,4/ Kβ1,3, KLM/ Kα and KMM/ Kβ RAE intensity ratios of Mo have been measured in pure metals and in superalloy specimens. The samples were excited by 59.5 keV γ-rays from a 241Am annular radioactive source. K X-rays emitted by samples were counted by an Ultra-LEGe detector with a resolution of 150 eV at 5.9 keV. The effect of alloying on the fluorescence parameters of Ni and Mo, phase structure, and corrosion behavior were investigated. The X-ray fluorescence parameters of Ni and Mo in superalloys indicate significant differences with respect to the pure metals. These differences are attributed to the reorganization of valence shell electrons and/or charge transfer phenomena in superalloys.

  5. {sup 231}Pa photofission cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Soldatov, A.S.; Rudnikov, V.E.; Smirenkin, G.N.

    1995-12-01

    The measurements of the {sup 231}Pa yield and cross section photofission in the energy range 7-9 MeV are presented. These measurements are a continuation of similar measurements performed for the {gamma}-ray energy range 4.8-7 MeV. The entire collection of experimental data which combine the results obtained in the present work and in Ref. 1 was analyzed.

  6. Line Edge Roughness and Cross Sectional Characterization of Sub-50 nm Structures Using Critical Dimension Small Angle X-ray Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Chengqing; Jones, Ronald L.; Lin, Eric K.; Wu Wenli; Ho, Derek L.; Villarrubia, John S.; Choi, Kwang-Woo; Clarke, James S.; Roberts, Jeanette; Bristol, Robert; Bunday, Benjamin

    2007-09-26

    The need to characterize line edge and line width roughness in patterns with sub-50 nm critical dimensions challenges existing platforms based on electron microscopy and optical scatterometry. The development of x-ray based metrology platforms provides a potential route to characterize a variety of parameters related to line edge roughness by analyzing the diffracted intensity from a periodic array of test patterns. In this study, data from a series of photoresist line/space patterns featuring programmed line width roughness are measured by critical dimension small angle x-ray scattering (CD-SAXS). For samples with designed periodic roughness, CD-SAXS provides the wavelength and amplitude of the periodic roughness through satellite diffraction peaks. For real world applications, the rate of decay of intensity, termed an effective 'Debye-Waller' factor in CD-SAXS, provides an overall measure of the defects of the patterns. CD-SAXS data are compared to values obtained from critical dimension scanning electron microscopy (CD-SEM). Correlations between the techniques exist, however significant differences are observed for the current samples. A tapered cross sectional profile provides a likely explanation for the observed differences between CD-SEM and CD-SAXS measurements.

  7. Cross sections for production of the 15.10 MeV and other astrophysically significant gamma-ray lines through excitation and spallation of sup 12 C and sup 16 O with protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, F. L.; Werntz, C. W.; Crannell, C. J.; Trombka, J. I.; Chang, C. C.

    1986-01-01

    The ratio of the flux of 15.10-MeV gamma rays to the flux of 4.438-MeV gamma rays resulting from excitation of the corresponding states in C-12 as a sensitive measure of the spectrum of the exciting particles produced in solar flares and other cosmic sources. These gamma rays are produced predominantly by interactions with C-12 and O-16, both of which are relatively abundant in the solar photosphere. Gamma ray production cross sections for proton interactions have been reported previously for all important channels except for the production of 15.10-MeV gamma rays from O-16. The first reported measurement of the 15.10-MeV gamma ray production cross section from p + O-16 is presented here. The University of Maryland cyclotron was employed to produce 40-, 65-, and 86-MeV protons which interacted with CH2 and BeO targets. The resultant gamma ray spectra were measured with a high-purity germanium semiconductor detector at 70, 90, 110, 125, and 140 degrees relative to the direction of the incident beam for each proton energy. Other gamma ray lines resulting from direct excitation and spallation reactions with C-12 and 0-16 were observed as well, and their gamma ray production cross sections described.

  8. Cross Sections for the Production of Cosmogenic Nuclides with Protons up to 400 MeV for the Interpretation of Cosmic-Ray-produced Nuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiekel, Th.; Rosel, R.; Herpers, U.; Bodemann, R.; Leya, I.; Gloris, M.; Michel, R.; Dittrich, B.; Kubik, P.; Suter, M.

    1993-07-01

    Integral excitation functions of the cosmogenic nuclides are the basic requirement for the interpretation of interactions between cosmic ray particles and extraterrestrial and terrestrial matter. Together with the knowledge of primary and secondary particle fields inside an irradiated body, model calculations can be developed to interpret abundances of cosmogenic nuclides in dependencies of the irradiation history of the irradiated body and of the cosmic particle ray itself. The quality of those model calculations depends on the quality of the available cross-section database, which is neither comprehensive nor reliable for the most important nuclides like the long-lived radionuclides (i.e., 10Be, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca) and the stable rare gas isotopes. For a systematic investigation in this field of science we carried out several irradiation experiments with protons in the energy region between 45 MeV and 400 MeV at the Paul Scherrer Institut (Villigen, Switzerland) and the Laboratoire Nationale Saturne (Saclay, France) using the stacked foil technique. We included 21 different target elements with Z between 6 and 79 (C, N as Si3N4, O as SiO2, Mg, Al, Si, Ca as CaC2H2O4, Ti, V, Mn as Mn/Ni alloy, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Sr as SrF2, Y, Zr, Nb, Rh, Ba as Ba containing glass and Au) in our experiments. The proton fluxes were monitored via the reaction 27Al(p,3p3n)22Na using the evaluated data of [1]. Residual nuclides were measured by X-, gamma-, and after a chemical separation by accelerator mass spectrometry. In order to check the quality of our experimental procedures we included some target elements in our new experiments for which consistent excitation functions have already been determined [2,3,4]. Our new data show excellent agreement with the earlier measurements. We measured cross sections for more than 120 different reactions. Here we report on the results for target elements with Z up to 28. The exsisting database of experimental excitation functions for the production

  9. L-Shell X-Ray Production Cross Sections for Calcium, Iron, Nickel, Copper, Zinc, Gallium, and Germanium by Hydrogen, Helium, and Lithium Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeir, Michael Ridge

    1992-01-01

    L-shell x-ray production cross sections are presented for Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, and Ge by 0.5- to 5.0-MeV protons and by 0.5- to 8.0-MeV helium ions and Ca, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Ge by 0.75- to 4.5-MeV lithium ions. These measurements are compared to the first Born theory and the perturbed -stationary-state theory with energy-loss, Coulomb deflection, and relativistic corrections (ECPSSR). The results are also compared to previous experimental investigations. The high precision x-ray measurements were performed with a windowless Si(Li) detector. The efficiency of the detector was determined by the use of thin target atomic -field bremsstrahlung produced by 66.5 keV electrons. The measured bremsstrahlung spectra were compared to theoretical bremsstrahlung distributions in order to obtain an efficiency versus energy curve. The targets for the measurement were manufactured by the vacuum evaporation of the target element onto thin foils of carbon. Impurities in the carbon caused interferences in the L-shell x-ray peaks. Special cleansing procedures were developed that reduced the impurity concentrations in the carbon foil, making the use of less than 5 mug/cm^2 targets possible. The first Born theory is seen to greatly overpredict the data at low ion energies. The ECPSSR theory matches the data very well at the high energy region. At low energies, while fitting the data much more closely than the first Born theory, the ECPSSR theory does not accurately predict the trend of the data. This is probably due to the onset of molecular-orbital effects, a mechanism not accounted for in the ECPSSR theory.

  10. Cross Sections for Planetary Escape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tully, C.

    2001-05-01

    Energetic charged-particle bombardment, dissociative recombination and photodissociation processes produce energetic recoil atoms which heat the thermosphere and can lead to escape from a planet affecting the evolution of the atmosphere. In describing these processes by Monte Carlo methods, many of the critical cross sections are not available in the energy range of interest, a few eV to 1 keV. Here we present our recent results for elastic collision and collisional dissociation cross sections relevant to Titan, Triton, Europa and the terrestrial planets [1,2]. Elastic and diffusion cross sections were calculated using both quantum mechanical techniques and the semiclassical JWKB approximation for the collision of ground state oxygen atoms in the energy range 1-10eV [2]. This involved calculation of phase shifts for each of the 18 molecular energy states of O2 which separate to two ground state O atoms. For an O thermosphere the total elastic cross section is close to that typically assumed but the escape depths are shown to be larger than those typically used. Dissociation cross sections of N + N2 were calculated using a semiclassical method, in the energy range 0-30eV. This required treating the vibrational motion quantum mechanically while the rotational and the relative translational motion were treated classically. The evolution of the system was calculated by simultaneous propagation of the classical as well as the quantal degrees of freedom. The solution to the classical part was carried out by solving Hamilton equations of motion using an effective London-Eyring-Polanyi-Sato potential energy surface, calculated by Laganá et al [3]. Propagation of the quantal wavefunction was carried out by solving the time dependent Schrödinger equation using the split operator technique with the help of the fast fourier transform which was used to calculate the second derivatives arising from the kinetic energy operator. This work was supported by NASA's Planetary

  11. Effect of pH treatment on K-shell x-ray intensity ratios and K-shell x-ray-production cross sections in ZnCo alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Kup Aylikci, N.; Aylikci, V.; Tirasoglu, E.; Cengiz, E.; Kahoul, A.; Karahan, I. H.

    2011-10-15

    In this study, empirical and semiempirical K-shell fluorescence yields ({omega}{sub K}) and K{beta}/K{alpha} intensity ratios from the available experimental data for elements with 23{<=}Z{<=}30 were calculated to compare them with elements in different alloys. The experimental data are fitted using the quantity [{omega}{sub K}/(1-{omega}{sub K})]{sup 1/4} vs Z to deduce the empirical K-shell fluorescence yields and K{beta}/K{alpha} intensity ratios. The empirical and semiempirical K-shell fluorescence yield values were used to calculate the K x-ray-production cross-section values for pure Co and Zn elements. Also, {sigma}{sub K{alpha}}, {sigma}{sub K{beta}} production cross sections and K{beta}/K{alpha} intensity ratios of Co and Zn have been measured in pure metals and in different alloy compositions which have different pH values. The samples were excited by 59.5-keV {gamma} rays from a {sup 241}Am annular radioactive source. K x rays emitted by samples were counted by an Ultra-LEGe detector with a resolution of 150 eV at 5.9 keV. The effect of pH values on alloy compositions and the effect of alloying on the fluorescence parameters of Co and Zn were investigated. The x-ray fluorescence parameters of Co and Zn in the alloying system indicate significant differences with respect to the pure metals. These differences are attributed to the reorganization of valence shell electrons and/or charge transfer phenomena.

  12. Total and partial photoneutron cross sections for Pb isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, T.; Utsunomiya, H.; Goriely, S.; Daoutidis, I.; Iwamoto, C.; Akimune, H.; Okamoto, A.; Yamagata, T.; Kamata, M.; Itoh, O.; Toyokawa, H.; Lui, Y.-W.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A. J.

    2012-07-01

    Using quasimonochromatic laser-Compton scattering γ rays, total photoneutron cross sections were measured for 206,207,208Pb near neutron threshold with a high-efficiency 4π neutron detector. Partial E1 and M1 photoneutron cross sections along with total cross sections were determined for 207,208Pb at four energies near threshold by measuring anisotropies in photoneutron emission with linearly polarized γ rays. The E1 strength dominates over the M1 strength in the neutron channel where E1 photoneutron cross sections show extra strength of the pygmy dipole resonance in 207,208Pb near the neutron threshold corresponding to 0.32%-0.42% of the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule. Several μN2 units of B(M1)↑ strength were observed in 207,208Pb just above neutron threshold, which correspond to an M1 cross section less than 10% of the total photoneutron cross section.

  13. Cross-sectional TEM study of the microstructure of superconducting X-ray detectors based on thin W-Al layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sáfrán, G.; Loidl, M.; Meier, O.; Seidel, W.; Pröbst, F.

    2002-06-01

    The relation between structural and morphological properties and the performance of X-ray detectors have been studied by means of cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) and low temperature electrical measurements. The detectors consist of a strip of an aluminium thin film in contact with superconducting phase transition thermometers based on tungsten films at its both ends. Soft X-ray photons are absorbed in the sapphire substrate underneath the Al film and create high energy phonons. These phonons enter the superconducting film and break up Cooper-pairs into quasiparticles which then diffuse into the W films and create correlated thermal signals in both thermometers. XTEM investigations revealed a polycrystalline structure of the Al films above both the bare sapphire and chemically etched areas of the highly oriented W films, while the Al is single crystalline above the intact W film surface showing an orientational relationship: (2 0 0) Al∥(0 2 0) W∥( 0 1 1¯ 2)Al 2O 3 and [0 2¯ 2 ] Al∥[2 0 0] W∥[ 1 0 1¯ 2¯] Al2O3. No remarkable difference in morphology and structure of the layers of the two detector sides was observed. On the other hand, irregular saw-tooth-like interfaces of different profiles of low slope were found between the chemically etched regions of the W sensor films and the overlapping Al diffusion film. The observed strong asymmetry of the correlated signals is attributed to the disturbed quasiparticle propagation through the observed different interface structures of the two detector sides.

  14. Osteoporosis in patients with paralysis after spinal cord injury. A cross sectional study in 46 male patients with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Sabo, D; Blaich, S; Wenz, W; Hohmann, M; Loew, M; Gerner, H J

    2001-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study, 46 male patients with paralysis after spinal cord injury (average age 32 years; injuries sustained from 1 to 26 years ago; 33 Frankel A, 13 Frankel B, C, D) were examined clinically and by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Their bone mineral density (BMD) values were compared with age-related controls and correlated to clinical parameters. BMD was reduced in the proximal femur (p < 0.05) and the distal forearm (p < 0.05), but not in the lumbar spine. Demineralisation was influenced in the proximal femur (Z-score -2.95) by immobilisation after surgical treatment. Patients suffering from complete lesions had significantly lower BMD in the lumbar spine (-1.47) compared with patients with incomplete lesions (+0.02). BMD was not significantly influenced by the level of the lesion and the ambulatory status. Long-term monitoring showed significant demineralisation in the proximal femur (r = -0.36) and the distal forearm (r = -0.4), but not in the lumbar spine (r = -0.21). By correlating BMD with clinical parameters, it can be deduced that, firstly, immobilisation after surgical treatment should be reduced to a minimum; secondly, that every effort must be expended to prevent turning an incomplete into a complete lesion; and finally, that rehabilitation treatment should be lifelong.

  15. Measurement of gamma-ray production cross sections in Li and F induced by protons from 810 to 3700 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachiller Perea, D.; Corvisiero, P.; Jiménez Rey, D.; Joco, V.; Maira Vidal, A.; Muñoz Martin, A.; Zucchiatti, A.

    2017-09-01

    Differential cross sections for the reaction channels 7Li(p,nγ1-0)7Be (Eγ = 429 keV), 7Li(p,pγ1-0) (Eγ = 478 keV), 19F(p,pγ1-0)19F (Eγ = 110 keV), 19F(p,pγ2-0)19F (Eγ = 197 keV) have been measured in the proton energy range 810-3700 keV, with an energy step of 10 keV. The reactions channels 19F(p,pγ3-1)19F (Eγ = 1236 keV), 19F(p,pγ4-1)19F (Eγ = 1349 keV), 19F(p,pγ5-2)19F (Eγ = 1357 keV) have also been investigated in the proton energy range 1915-3225 keV. The experimental set-up, the uncertainty budget, the comparison with other data and the progress assured by new data in the analytical use of standard-less Particle Induced Gamma-ray Emission (PIGE) are discussed.

  16. Cross section dependence of event rates at neutrino telescopes.

    PubMed

    Hussain, S; Marfatia, D; McKay, D W; Seckel, D

    2006-10-20

    We examine the dependence of event rates at neutrino telescopes on the neutrino-nucleon cross section for neutrinos with energy above 1 PeV, and contrast the results with those for cosmic ray experiments. Scaling of the standard model cross sections leaves the rate of upward events essentially unchanged. Details, such as detector depth and cross section inelasticity, can influence rates. Numerical estimates of upward shower, muon, and tau event rates in the IceCube detector confirm these results.

  17. The Elusive p-air cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, M. M.

    2006-09-01

    For the $\\pbar p$ and $pp$ systems, we have used all of the extensive data of the Particle Data Group[K. Hagiwara {\\em et al.} (Particle Data Group), Phys. Rev. D 66, 010001 (2002).]. We then subject these data to a screening process, the ``Sieve'' algorithm[M. M. Block, physics/0506010.], in order to eliminate ``outliers'' that can skew a $\\chi^2$ fit. With the ``Sieve'' algorithm, a robust fit using a Lorentzian distribution is first made to all of the data to sieve out abnormally high $\\delchi$, the individual i$^{\\rm th}$ point's contribution to the total $\\chi^2$. The $\\chi^2$ fits are then made to the sieved data. We demonstrate that we cleanly discriminate between asymptotic $\\ln s$ and $\\ln^2s$ behavior of total hadronic cross sections when we require that these amplitudes {\\em also} describe, on average, low energy data dominated by resonances. We simultaneously fit real analytic amplitudes to the ``sieved'' high energy measurements of $\\bar p p$ and $pp$ total cross sections and $\\rho$-values for $\\sqrt s\\ge 6$ GeV, while requiring that their asymptotic fits smoothly join the the $\\sigma_{\\bar p p}$ and $\\sigma_{pp}$ total cross sections at $\\sqrt s=$4.0 GeV--again {\\em both} in magnitude and slope. Our results strongly favor a high energy $\\ln^2s$ fit, basically excluding a $\\ln s$ fit. Finally, we make a screened Glauber fit for the p-air cross section, using as input our precisely-determined $pp$ cross sections at cosmic ray energies.

  18. Hadronic cross sections, elastic slope and physical bounds

    SciTech Connect

    Fagundes, D. A.; Menon, M. J.

    2013-03-25

    An almost model-independent parametrization for the ratio of the total hadronic cross section to elastic slope is discussed. Its applicability in studies of asymptotia and analyses of extensive air shower in cosmic-ray physics is also outlined.

  19. Measurement of L X-ray fluorescence cross-sections for 74W at excitation energies 12, 14, 15 and 16.5 keV with synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, R.; Rani, A.; Singh, R. M.; Tiwari, M. K.; Singh, A. K.

    2017-02-01

    Ll, Lα, Lβ and Lγ1 X-ray fluorescence cross-sections for 74W have been measured at excitation energies of 12, 14, 15 and 16.5 keV using synchrotron radiations. A Peltier cooled Vortex solid state detector (SII Nano Technology, USA) with an energy resolution of 138 eV at 5.96 keV X-rays was employed for analysis. The experimental results were compared with the theoretical estimates of Krause (1979), Campbell (2003) and Puri et al. (1993) and also compared with existing experimental results (Barrea and Bonzi, 2001b) of L XRF cross sections at the excitation energy of 12 and 14 keV. Present results were found to be closer to the Puri's data in comparison to existing experimental results. For the first time, to our knowledge, L XRF cross section for 74W at energies 15 and 16.5 keV are also being reported here.

  20. Cross sections of X-ray production induced by C and Si ions with energies up to 1 MeV/u on Ti, Fe, Zn, Nb, Ru and Ta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, José Emilio; Zucchiatti, Alessandro; Galán, Patricia; Prieto, Pilar

    2017-09-01

    X-ray production differential cross sections induced by C and Si ions with energies from 1 MeV/u down to 0.25 MeV/u, produced by the CMAM 5 MV tandem accelerator, have been measured for thin targets of Ti, Fe, Zn, Nb, Ru and Ta in a direct way. X-rays have been detected by a fully characterized silicon drift diode and beam currents have been measured by a system of two Faraday cups. Measured cross sections agree in general with previously published results. The ECPSSR theory with the united atoms correction gives absolute values close to the experimental ones for all the studied elements excited by C ions and for Ta, Nb and Ru excited by Si ions. For Ti, Fe and Zn excited by Si, the matching with theory is poor since even the ionization cross section is below the measured data.

  1. Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 107 Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database (Web, free access)   This is a database primarily of total ionization cross sections of molecules by electron impact. The database also includes cross sections for a small number of atoms and energy distributions of ejected electrons for H, He, and H2. The cross sections were calculated using the Binary-Encounter-Bethe (BEB) model, which combines the Mott cross section with the high-incident energy behavior of the Bethe cross section. Selected experimental data are included.

  2. Coherent to incoherent cross section ratio for 59.54 keV gamma rays at scattering angle of 110°

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M. P.; Singh, Bhajan; Sandhu, B. S.; Sharma, Amandeep

    2015-08-28

    The coherent (Rayleigh) to incoherent (Compton) scattering cross-section ratio of elements, in the range 13 ≤ Z ≤ 82, are determined experimentally for 59.54 keV incident gamma photons. An HPGe (High purity germanium) semiconductor detector is employed, at scattering angle of 110°, to record the spectra originating from interactions of incident gamma photons with the target under investigation. The intensity ratio of Rayleigh to Compton scattered peaks observed in the recorded spectra, and corrected for photo-peak efficiency of gamma detector and absorption of photons in the target and air, along with the other required parameters provides the differential cross-section ratio. The measured values of cross-section ratio are found to agree with theoretical predictions based upon non-relativistic form factor, relativistic form factor, modified form factor and S-matrix theory.

  3. Proton-Air Cross Section and Extensive Air Showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, Ralf; Engel, Ralph; Müller, Steffen; Schüssler, Fabian; Unger, Michael

    2009-12-01

    Hadronic cross sections at ultra-high energy have a significant impact on the development of extensive air shower cascades. Therefore the interpretation of air shower data depends critically on hadronic interaction models that extrapolate the cross section from accelerator measurements to the highest cosmic ray energies. We discuss how extreme scenarios of cross section extrapolations can affect the interpretation of air shower data. We find that the theoretical uncertainty of the extrapolated proton-air cross section at ultra-high energies is much larger than suggested by the existing spread of available Monte Carlo model predictions. The impact on the depth of the shower maximum is demonstrated.

  4. Neutron capture cross section of {sup 102}Pd

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, C.L.; Krane, K.S.

    2005-05-01

    The cross sections for radiative neutron capture by {sup 102}Pd have been deduced from a measurement of the {gamma} rays emitted by 17.0-d {sup 103}Pd. The thermal cross section has been determined to be {sigma}=1.82{+-}0.20 b, and the effective resonance integral is I=23{+-}4 b. We also report thermal and resonance capture cross sections for {sup 108}Pd and note possible inconsistencies with the presently accepted values of the {sup 110}Pd cross sections.

  5. Absolute photoneutron cross sections of Sm isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Gheorghe, I.; Glodariu, T.; Utsunomiya, H.; Filipescu, D.; Nyhus, H.-T.; Renstrom, T.; Tesileanu, O.; Shima, T.; Takahisa, K.; Miyamoto, S.

    2015-02-24

    Photoneutron cross sections for seven samarium isotopes, {sup 144}Sm, {sup 147}Sm, {sup 148}Sm, {sup 149}Sm, {sup 150}Sm, {sup 152}Sm and {sup 154}Sm, have been investigated near neutron emission threshold using quasimonochromatic laser-Compton scattering γ-rays produced at the synchrotron radiation facility NewSUBARU. The results are important for nuclear astrophysics calculations and also for probing γ-ray strength functions in the vicinity of neutron threshold. Here we describe the neutron detection system and we discuss the related data analysis and the necessary method improvements for adapting the current experimental method to the working parameters of the future Gamma Beam System of Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics facility.

  6. Cross Sections: No. 1 Hold section at Fr 24 Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cross Sections: No. 1 Hold section at Fr 24 Looking Fwd, No 1 Hold Section at Fr 28 Looking Aft, No 2 Hold Section at Fr 48 Looking Aft, No 3 Hold Section at Fr 70 Looking Aft, No 4 Hold Section at Fr 90 Looking Aft - General John Pope, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  7. Cross sections for proton induced high energy γ -ray emission (PIGE) in reaction 19 F(p, αγ)16 O at incident proton energies between 1.5 and 4 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabanelas, P.; Cruz, J.; Fonseca, M.; Henriques, A.; Lourenço, F.; Luís, H.; Machado, J.; Pires Ribeiro, J.; Sánchez-Benítez, A. M.; Teubig, P.; Velho, P.; Zarza-Moreno, M.; Galaviz, D.; Jesus, A. P.

    2016-08-01

    We have studied the high energy gamma-rays produced in the reaction 19 F(p, αγ)16 O for incident proton energies from 1.5 to 4.0 MeV over NaF/Ag and CaF2/Ag thin targets in two different sets of data. Gamma-rays were detected with a High Purity Ge detector with an angle of 130° with respect to the beam axis. The cross-sections for the high energy gamma-rays of 6.129, 6.915 and 7.115 MeV have been measured for the whole group between 5 and 7.2 MeV with accuracy better than 10%. A new energy range was covered and more points are included in the cross-sections data base expanding the existing set of data. Results are in agreement with previous measurements in similar conditions.

  8. Neutron cross sections: Book of curves

    SciTech Connect

    McLane, V.; Dunford, C.L.; Rose, P.F.

    1988-01-01

    Neuton Cross Sections: Book of Curves represents the fourth edition of what was previously known as BNL-325, Neutron Cross Sections, Volume 2, CURVES. Data is presented only for (i.e., intergrated) reaction cross sections (and related fission parameters) as a function of incident-neutron energy for the energy range 0.01 eV to 200 MeV. For the first time, isometric state production cross sections have been included. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Cross Sections for Inner-Shell Ionization by Electron Impact

    SciTech Connect

    Llovet, Xavier; Powell, Cedric J.; Salvat, Francesc; Jablonski, Aleksander

    2014-03-15

    An analysis is presented of measured and calculated cross sections for inner-shell ionization by electron impact. We describe the essentials of classical and semiclassical models and of quantum approximations for computing ionization cross sections. The emphasis is on the recent formulation of the distorted-wave Born approximation by Bote and Salvat [Phys. Rev. A 77, 042701 (2008)] that has been used to generate an extensive database of cross sections for the ionization of the K shell and the L and M subshells of all elements from hydrogen to einsteinium (Z = 1 to Z = 99) by electrons and positrons with kinetic energies up to 1 GeV. We describe a systematic method for evaluating cross sections for emission of x rays and Auger electrons based on atomic transition probabilities from the Evaluated Atomic Data Library of Perkins et al. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, UCRL-ID-50400, 1991]. We made an extensive comparison of measured K-shell, L-subshell, and M-subshell ionization cross sections and of Lα x-ray production cross sections with the corresponding calculated cross sections. We identified elements for which there were at least three (for K shells) or two (for L and M subshells) mutually consistent sets of cross-section measurements and for which the cross sections varied with energy as expected by theory. The overall average root-mean-square deviation between the measured and calculated cross sections was 10.9% and the overall average deviation was −2.5%. This degree of agreement between measured and calculated ionization and x-ray production cross sections was considered to be very satisfactory given the difficulties of these measurements.

  10. Partial Photoneutron Cross Sections for 207,208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, T.; Utsunomiya, H.; Goriely, S.; Iwamoto, C.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Toyokawa, H.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Lui, Y.-W.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A. J.

    2014-05-01

    Using linearly-polarized laser-Compton scattering γ-rays, partial E1 and M1 photoneutron cross sections along with total cross sections were determined for 207,208Pb at four energies near neutron threshold by measuring anisotropies in photoneutron emission. Separately, total photoneutron cross sections were measured for 207,208Pb with a high-efficiency 4π neutron detector. The partial cross section measurement provides direct evidence for the presence of pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) in 207,208Pb in the vicinity of neutron threshold. The strength of PDR amounts to 0.32%-0.42% of the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule. Several μN2 units of B(M1)↑ strength were observed in 207,208Pb just above neutron threshold, which correspond to M1 cross sections less than 10% of the total photoneutron cross sections.

  11. SNL RML recommended dosimetry cross section compendium

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G.; Luera, T.F.; VanDenburg, J.

    1993-11-01

    A compendium of dosimetry cross sections is presented for use in the characterization of fission reactor spectrum and fluence. The contents of this cross section library are based upon the ENDF/B-VI and IRDF-90 cross section libraries and are recommended as a replacement for the DOSCROS84 multigroup library that is widely used by the dosimetry community. Documentation is provided on the rationale for the choice of the cross sections selected for inclusion in this library and on the uncertainty and variation in cross sections presented by state-of-the-art evaluations.

  12. [Fast neutron cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, G.F.

    1992-10-26

    From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are clean'' and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its data production'' phase.

  13. Cross Sections: No 6 Hold Section at Fr 178 Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cross Sections: No 6 Hold Section at Fr 178 Looking Fwd, No 7 Hold Section at No 154 Looking Fwd, No 7 Hold Section at Fr 195 Looking Fwd Showing Trans 194, No 7 Hold Section at Fr 198 Looking Fwd - General John Pope, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  14. Charm hadroproduction cross-section up to 100 TeV from measurements of the cosmic-ray muon angular distribution Results of the Mount Blanc experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellina, A.; Dettorre Piazzoli, B.; Mannocchi, G.; Picchi, P.; Vernetto, S.; Bilokon, H.

    1985-02-01

    Accurate calculations of the angular distributions of underground conventional and prompt muons have been performed. The dependence of the angular enhancement functions on the primary spectrum, cross-sections, inclusive distributions, K/pi ratio and survival probability have been studied and found to be negligible. The results have been used to interpret the data from the Mont Blanc experiment in the depth range 4200-5800 hg/sq cm. Since the measurements extend over a limited angular range (lesser than 60 deg) the ratio between the flux of prompt to conventional muons of higher energy (greater than 1 TeV) is obtained with large associated statistical errors. In order to obtain the charm production cross-section in the energy region 50-100 TeV, accurate measurements over a very large angular range (greater than 70 deg) at depths higher than 5000 hg/sq cm are required.

  15. Neutron capture by Ru: Neutron cross sections of {sup 96,102,104}Ru and gamma-ray spectroscopy in the decays of {sup 97,103,105}Ru

    SciTech Connect

    Krane, K. S.

    2010-04-15

    Cross sections for radiative capture of neutrons have been measured for stable isotopes of Ru with mass numbers 96,102, and 104. From separate irradiations using thermal and epithermal neutrons, independent values for the thermal cross section and effective resonance integral have been determined. Spectroscopic studies of the gamma rays emitted in the decays of {sup 97,103,105}Ru have enabled improvements in the precision of the energies and intensities of the radiations along with corresponding improvements in the beta-decay feeding intensities and the energies of the levels in the respective daughter nuclei. Similar spectroscopic measurements of the decays of {sup 105}Rh (daughter of {sup 105}Ru) and {sup 96}Tc (produced from n,p reactions on {sup 96}Ru) have resulted in improved gamma-ray energies and intensities in those decays.

  16. Vertically stabilized elongated cross-section tokamak

    DOEpatents

    Sheffield, George V.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a vertically stabilized, non-circular (minor) cross-section, toroidal plasma column characterized by an external separatrix. To this end, a specific poloidal coil means is added outside a toroidal plasma column containing an endless plasma current in a tokamak to produce a rectangular cross-section plasma column along the equilibrium axis of the plasma column. By elongating the spacing between the poloidal coil means the plasma cross-section is vertically elongated, while maintaining vertical stability, efficiently to increase the poloidal flux in linear proportion to the plasma cross-section height to achieve a much greater plasma volume than could be achieved with the heretofore known round cross-section plasma columns. Also, vertical stability is enhanced over an elliptical cross-section plasma column, and poloidal magnetic divertors are achieved.

  17. Measurements of Lα, Lβ, Lγ and M X-ray production cross sections of Os, Ir and Pt by low-energy electron impact: Comparisons of experiment with theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J. L.; An, Z.; Zhu, J. J.; Tan, W. J.; Liu, M. T.

    2017-05-01

    Experimental determinations of Lα, Lβ, Lγ and M X-ray production cross sections and their ratios for Os (Z=76), Ir (Z=77) and Pt (Z=78) by electron impact at incident energies of 6-30 keV are presented. Thin films of the studied elements deposited on thick carbon substrates were employed as targets in the experiments. Enhancements in L- and M-shell characteristic X-ray production due to electron-scattering effects in the double-layer structure target were corrected by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Comparisons were made between the measured Lα, Lβ, Lγ and M X-ray production cross sections and their ratios with the DWBA and PWBA-C-Ex theories and with other experimental data in the literature. In the case of L-subshells, the measured data of Os and Pt agree well with the theoretical values within the experimental uncertainties, but appreciable discrepancies between the experiment and theory exist for Ir; in the case of the M-shell, measured data for Ir show good agreement with theoretical values within the experimental uncertainties, but the measured results are somewhat lower than the theoretical values for Os and Pt. Finally, possible factors that could affect the comparisons between experiment and theory on cross-section ratios are discussed.

  18. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Acetylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Mi-Young; Yoon, Jung-Sik; Cho, Hyuck; Karwasz, Grzegorz P.; Kokoouline, Viatcheslav; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2017-03-01

    Cross section data are compiled from the literature for electron collisions with the acetylene (HCCH) molecule. Cross sections are collected and reviewed for total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational and vibrational states, dissociation, ionization, and dissociative attachment. The data derived from swarm experiments are also considered. For each of these processes, the recommended values of the cross sections are presented. The literature has been surveyed through early 2016.

  19. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Methane

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Mi-Young Yoon, Jung-Sik; Cho, Hyuck; Itikawa, Yukikazu; Karwasz, Grzegorz P.; Kokoouline, Viatcheslav; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2015-06-15

    Cross section data are compiled from the literature for electron collisions with methane (CH{sub 4}) molecules. Cross sections are collected and reviewed for total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational and vibrational states, dissociation, ionization, and dissociative attachment. The data derived from swarm experiments are also considered. For each of these processes, the recommended values of the cross sections are presented. The literature has been surveyed through early 2014.

  20. Annular-Cross-Section CFE Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharnez, Rizwan; Sammons, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed continuous-flow-electrophoresis (CFE) chamber of annular cross section offers advantages over conventional CFE chamber, and wedge-cross-section chamber described in "Increasing Sensitivity in Continuous-Flow Electrophoresis" (MFS-26176). In comparison with wedge-shaped chamber, chamber of annular cross section virtually eliminates such wall effects as electro-osmosis and transverse gradients of velocity. Sensitivity enhanced by incorporating gradient maker and radial (collateral) flow.

  1. Annular-Cross-Section CFE Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharnez, Rizwan; Sammons, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed continuous-flow-electrophoresis (CFE) chamber of annular cross section offers advantages over conventional CFE chamber, and wedge-cross-section chamber described in "Increasing Sensitivity in Continuous-Flow Electrophoresis" (MFS-26176). In comparison with wedge-shaped chamber, chamber of annular cross section virtually eliminates such wall effects as electro-osmosis and transverse gradients of velocity. Sensitivity enhanced by incorporating gradient maker and radial (collateral) flow.

  2. Gluon Saturation and the Total Proton-Air Cross Section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, F.; Durães, F. O.; Szpigel, S.; Navarra, F. S.

    In this work we propose a simple model for the total proton-air cross section, which is an improvement of the minijet model with the inclusion of a window in the pT-spectrum associated to the saturation physics. Our approach introduces a natural cutoff for the perturbative calculations which modifies the energy behavior of this component. The saturated component is calculated with a dipole model. The results are compared with experimental cross sections measured in cosmic ray experiments.

  3. Thermal neutron capture cross sections of tellurium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomandl, I.; Honzátko, J.; von Egidy, T.; Wirth, H.-F.; Belgya, T.; Lakatos, M.; Szentmiklósi, L.; Révay, Zs.; Molnár, G. L.; Firestone, R. B.; Bondarenko, V.

    2003-12-01

    New values for thermal neutron capture cross sections of the tellurium isotopes 122 Te , 124 Te , 125 Te , 126 Te , 128 Te , and 130 Te are reported. These values are based on a combination of newly determined partial γ -ray cross sections obtained from experiments on targets contained natural Te and γ intensities per capture of individual Te isotopes. Isomeric ratios for the thermal neutron capture on the even tellurium isotopes are also given.

  4. Photoproduction models for total cross section and shower development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornet, Fernando; Garcia Canal, Carlos; Grau, Agnes; Pancheri, Giulia; Sciutto, Sergio

    2015-08-01

    A model for the total photoproduction cross section, based on the ansatz that resummation of infrared gluons limits the rise induced by QCD minijets in all the total cross-sections, is used to simulate extended air showers initiated by cosmic rays with the AIRES simulation program. The impact on common shower observables, especially those related with muon production, is analysed and compared with the corresponding results obtained with previous photoproduction models.

  5. Studies of 54,56Fe Neutron Scattering Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, S. F.; Vanhoy, J. R.; French, A. J.; Henderson, S. L.; Howard, T. J.; Pecha, R. L.; Santonil, Z. C.; Crider, B. P.; Liu, S.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Peters, E. E.; Prados-Estévez, F. M.; Ross, T. J.; Yates, S. W.

    2015-05-01

    Elastic and inelastic neutron scattering differential cross sections and γ-ray production cross sections have been measured on 54,56Fe at several incident energies in the fast neutron region between 1.5 and 4.7 MeV. All measurements were completed at the University of Kentucky Accelerator Laboratory (UKAL) using a 7-MV Model CN Van de Graaff accelerator, along with the neutron production and neutron and γ-ray detection systems located there. The facilities at UKAL allow the investigation of both elastic and inelastic scattering with nearly mono-energetic incident neutrons. Time-of-flight techniques were used to detect the scattered neutrons for the differential cross section measurements. The measured cross sections are important for fission reactor applications and also for testing global model calculations such as those found at ENDF, since describing both the elastic and inelastic scattering is important for determining the direct and compound components of the scattering mechanism. The γ-ray production cross sections are used to determine cross sections to unresolved levels in the neutron scattering experiments. Results from our measurements and comparisons to model calculations are presented.

  6. Neutron Capture Cross Sections of 236U and 234U

    SciTech Connect

    Rundberg, R. S.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Bond, E. M.; Haight, R. C.; Hunt, L. F.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Schwantes, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.; Kronenberg, A.

    2006-03-13

    Accurate neutron capture cross sections of the actinide elements at neutron energies up to 1 MeV are needed to better interpret archived nuclear test data, for post-detonation nuclear attribution, and the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative. The Detector for Advance Neutron Capture Experiments, DANCE, has unique capabilities that allow the differentiation of capture gamma rays from fission gamma rays and background gamma rays from scattered neutrons captured by barium isotopes in the barium fluoride scintillators. The DANCE array has a high granularity, 160 scintillators, high efficiency, and nearly 4-{pi} solid angle. Through the use of cuts in cluster multiplicity and calorimetric energy the capture gamma-rays are differentiated from other sources of gamma rays. The preliminary results for the capture cross sections of 236U are in agreement with the ENDF/B-VI evaluation. The preliminary results for 234U lower are than ENDF/B-VI evaluation and are closer to older evaluations.

  7. Cross Section; Half Longitudinal Section Showing Middle Wall Reinforced with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cross Section; Half Longitudinal Section Showing Middle Wall Reinforced with Arch; Part Long Section Showing Inside of External Side Wall; East Entrance; Part Side South External; Part Reflected Plan of Soffite of Floor; Part Reflected Plan of Soffite of Roof - Blenheim Covered Bridge, Spanning Schoharie River, North Blenheim, Schoharie County, NY

  8. Neutrino flux predictions for cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hartz, Mark

    2015-05-15

    Experiments that measure neutrino interaction cross sections using accelerator neutrino sources require a prediction of the neutrino flux to extract the interaction cross section from the measured neutrino interaction rate. This article summarizes methods of estimating the neutrino flux using in-situ and ex-situ measurements. The application of these methods by current and recent experiments is discussed.

  9. Neutrino Cross Sections at Solar Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strigari, Louis

    2017-01-01

    I will review neutrino nucleus cross section measurements and uncertainties for energies applicable to solar neutrinos. I will discuss how these cross sections are important for interpreting solar neutrino experimental data, and highlight the most important neutrino-nucleus interactions that will be relevant for forthcoming dark matter direct detection experiments. NSF PHY-1522717.

  10. Absolute partial photoionization cross sections of ozone.

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, J.; Chemistry

    2008-04-01

    Despite the current concerns about ozone, absolute partial photoionization cross sections for this molecule in the vacuum ultraviolet (valence) region have been unavailable. By eclectic re-evaluation of old/new data and plausible assumptions, such cross sections have been assembled to fill this void.

  11. Cross-sectional anatomy for computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Farkas, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    This self-study guide recognizes that evaluation and interpretation of CT-images demands a firm understanding of both cross-sectional anatomy and the principles of computed tomography. The objectives of this book are: to discuss the basic principles of CT, to stress the importance of cross-sectional anatomy to CT through study of selected cardinal transverse sections of head, neck, and trunk, to explain orientation and interpretation of CT-images with the aid of corresponding cross-sectional preparations.

  12. International Evaluation of Neutron Cross Section Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, A. D.; Pronyaev, V. G.; Smith, D. L.; Larson, N. M.; Chen, Zhenpeng; Hale, G. M.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Gai, E. V.; Oh, Soo-Youl; Badikov, S. A.; Kawano, T.; Hofmann, H. M.; Vonach, H.; Tagesen, S.

    2009-12-01

    Neutron cross section standards are the basis for the determination of most neutron cross sections. They are used for both measurements and evaluations of neutron cross sections. Not many cross sections can be obtained absolutely - most cross sections are measured relative to the cross section standards and converted using evaluations of the standards. The previous complete evaluation of the neutron cross section standards was finished in 1987 and disseminated as the NEANDC/INDC and ENDF/B-VI standards. R-matrix model fits for the light elements and non-model least-squares fits for all the cross sections in the evaluation were the basis of the combined fits for all of the data. Some important reactions and constants are not standards, but they assist greatly in the determination of the standard cross sections and reduce their uncertainties - these data were also included in the combined fits. The largest experimental database used in the evaluation was prepared by Poenitz and included about 400 sets of experimental data with covariance matrices of uncertainties that account for all cross-energy, cross-reaction and cross-material correlations. For the evaluation GMA, a least-squares code developed by Poenitz, was used to fit all types of cross sections (absolute and shape), their ratios, spectrum-averaged cross sections and thermal constants in one full analysis. But, the uncertainties derived in this manner, and especially those obtained in the R-matrix model fits, have been judged to be too low and unrealistic. These uncertainties were substantially increased prior to their release in the recommended data files of 1987. Modified percentage uncertainties were reassigned by the United States Cross Section Evaluation Working Group's Standards Subcommittee for a wide range of energies, and no covariance (or correlation) matrices were supplied at that time. The need to re-evaluate the cross section standards is based on the appearance of a significant amount of precise

  13. Thermal neutron capture cross sections of the potassium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firestone, R. B.; Krtička, M.; Révay, Zs.; Szentmiklosi, L.; Belgya, T.

    2013-02-01

    Precise thermal neutron capture γ-ray cross sections σγ for 39,40,41K were measured on a natural potassium target with the guided neutron beam at the Budapest Reactor. The cross sections were internally standardized using a stoichiometric KCl target with well-known 35Cl(n,γ) γ-ray cross sections [Révay and Molnár, Radiochimica ActaRAACAP0033-823010.1524/ract.91.6.361.20027 91, 361 (2003); Molnár, Révay, and Belgya, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. BNIMBEU0168-583X10.1016/S0168-583X(03)01529-5 213, 32 (2004)]. These data were combined with γ-ray intensities from von Egidy [von Egidy, Daniel, Hungerford, Schmidt, Lieb, Krusche, Kerr, Barreau, Borner, Brissot , J. Phys. G. Nucl. Phys.JPHGBM0305-461610.1088/0305-4616/10/2/013 10, 221 (1984)] and Krusche [Krusche, Lieb, Ziegler, Daniel, von Egidy, Rascher, Barreau, Borner, and Warner, Nucl. Phys. ANUPABL0375-947410.1016/0375-9474(84)90506-2 417, 231 (1984); Krusche, Winter, Lieb, Hungerford, Schmidt, von Egidy, Scheerer, Kerr, and Borner, Nucl. Phys. ANUPABL0375-947410.1016/0375-9474(85)90429-4 439, 219 (1985)] to generate nearly complete capture γ-ray level schemes. Total radiative neutron cross sections were deduced from the total γ-ray cross section feeding the ground state, σ0=Σσγ(GS) after correction for unobserved statistical γ-ray feeding from levels near the neutron capture energy. The corrections were performed with Monte Carlo simulations of the potassium thermal neutron capture decay schemes using the computer code dicebox where the simulated populations of low-lying levels are normalized to the measured cross section depopulating those levels. Comparisons of the simulated and experimental level feeding intensities have led to proposed new spins and parities for selected levels in the potassium isotopes where direct reactions are not a significant contribution. We determined the total radiative neutron cross sections σ0(39K)=2.28±0.04 b, σ0(40K)=90±7 b, and σ0(41K)=1.62±0.03 b from the

  14. K-shell photoionization cross-sections.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daltabuit, E.; Cox, D. P.

    1972-01-01

    Approximate values for the threshold energies, threshold cross sections, and energy dependence of the cross sections for K-shell photoionization are tabulated for H, He, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, and S in all stages of ionization. The approximation of these data is based on the assumptions that the threshold energy is a simple function of the nuclear charge and the number of electrons present in the atom, and that the threshold values and energy dependence of the cross sections are determined only by the threshold energy.

  15. Cross Section Evaluations for Arsenic Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Pruet, J; McNabb, D P; Ormand, W E

    2005-03-10

    The authors present an evaluation of cross sections describing reactions with neutrons incident on the arsenic isotopes with mass numbers 75 and 74. Particular attention is paid to (n,2n) reactions. The evaluation for {sup 75}As, the only stable As isotope, is guided largely by experimental data. Evaluation for {sup 74}As is made through calculations with the EMPIRE statistical-model reaction code. Cross sections describing the production and destruction of the 26.8 ns isomer in {sup 74}As are explicitly considered. Uncertainties and covariances in some evaluated cross sections are also estimated.

  16. Cross Section Sensitivity and Propagated Errors in HZE Exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinbockel, John H.; Wilson, John W.; Blatnig, Steve R.; Qualls, Garry D.; Badavi, Francis F.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2005-01-01

    It has long been recognized that galactic cosmic rays are of such high energy that they tend to pass through available shielding materials resulting in exposure of astronauts and equipment within space vehicles and habitats. Any protection provided by shielding materials result not so much from stopping such particles but by changing their physical character in interaction with shielding material nuclei forming, hopefully, less dangerous species. Clearly, the fidelity of the nuclear cross-sections is essential to correct specification of shield design and sensitivity to cross-section error is important in guiding experimental validation of cross-section models and database. We examine the Boltzmann transport equation which is used to calculate dose equivalent during solar minimum, with units (cSv/yr), associated with various depths of shielding materials. The dose equivalent is a weighted sum of contributions from neutrons, protons, light ions, medium ions and heavy ions. We investigate the sensitivity of dose equivalent calculations due to errors in nuclear fragmentation cross-sections. We do this error analysis for all possible projectile-fragment combinations (14,365 such combinations) to estimate the sensitivity of the shielding calculations to errors in the nuclear fragmentation cross-sections. Numerical differentiation with respect to the cross-sections will be evaluated in a broad class of materials including polyethylene, aluminum and copper. We will identify the most important cross-sections for further experimental study and evaluate their impact on propagated errors in shielding estimates.

  17. C+C Fusion Cross Sections Measurements for Nuclear Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Carnelli, P. F. F.; Rehm, K. E.; Albers, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bertone, P. F.; Digiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Fernandez Niello, J. O.; Henderson, D.; Jiang, C. L.; Lai, J.; Marley, S. T.; Nusair, O.; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R. C.; Paul, M.; Ugalde, C.

    2015-06-01

    Total fusion cross section of carbon isotopes were obtained using the newly developed MUSIC detector. MUSIC is a highly efficient, active target-detector system designed to measure fusion excitation functions with radioactive beams. The present measurements are relevant for understanding x-ray superbursts. The results of the first MUSIC campaign as well as the astrophysical implications are presented in this work.

  18. C+C Fusion Cross Sections Measurements for Nuclear Astrophysics

    DOE PAGES

    Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Carnelli, P. F. F.; Rehm, K. E.; ...

    2015-06-02

    Total fusion cross section of carbon isotopes were obtained using the newly developed MUSIC detector. MUSIC is a highly efficient, active target-detector system designed to measure fusion excitation functions with radioactive beams. The present measurements are relevant for understanding x-ray superbursts. The results of the first MUSIC campaign as well as the astrophysical implications are presented in this work.

  19. Energy dependence of fusion cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Bang, J.M.; Ferreira, L.S.; Maglione, E.; Hansteen, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Observed enhancements of fusion cross sections at low energies are explained as caused by an underestimate of beam energy due to an overestimate of the stopping energy loss. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  20. A nuclear cross section data handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, H.O.M.

    1989-12-01

    Isotopic information, reaction data, data availability, heating numbers, and evaluation information are given for 129 neutron cross-section evaluations, which are the source of the default cross sections for the Monte Carlo code MCNP. Additionally, pie diagrams for each nuclide displaying the percent contribution of a given reaction to the total cross section are given at 14 MeV, 1 MeV, and thermal energy. Other information about the evaluations and their availability in continuous-energy, discrete-reaction, and multigroup forms is provided. The evaluations come from ENDF/B-V, ENDL85, and the Los Alamos Applied Nuclear Science Group T-2. Graphs of all neutron and photon production cross-section reactions for these nuclides have been categorized and plotted. 21 refs., 5 tabs.

  1. Bibliography of photoabsorption cross-section data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, R. D.; Kieffer, L. J.

    1970-01-01

    This bibliography contains only references which report a measured or calculated photoabsorption cross section (relative or normalized) in regions of continuous absorption. The bibliography is current as of January 1, 1970.

  2. The radar cross section of dielectric disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, D. M.

    1982-01-01

    A solution is presented for the backscatter (nonstatic) radar cross section of dielectric disks of arbitrary shape, thickness and dielectric constant. The result is obtained by employing a Kirchhoff type approximation to obtain the fields inside the disk. The internal fields induce polarization and conduction currents from which the scattered fields and the radar cross section can be computed. The solution for the radar cross section obtained in this manner is shown to agree with known results in the special cases of normal incidence, thin disks and perfect conductivity. The solution can also be written as a product of the reflection coefficient of an identically oriented slab times the physical optics solution for the backscatter cross section of a perfectly conducting disk of the same shape. This result follows directly from the Kirchhoff type approximation without additional assumptions.

  3. Dijet cross sections in photoproduction at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ZEUS Collaboration; Breitweg, J.; et al.

    Dijet cross sections are presented using photoproduction data obtained with the ZEUS detector during 1994. These measurements represent an extension of previous results, as the higher statistics allow cross sections to be measured at higher jet transverse energy ( ETjet). Jets are identified in the hadronic final state using three different algorithms, and the cross sections compared to complete next-to-leading order QCD calculations. Agreement with these calculations is seen for the pseudorapidity dependence of the direct photon events with ETjet > 6 GeV and of the resolved photon events with ETjet > 11 GeV. Calculated cross sections for resolved photon processes with 6 GeV < ETjet < 11 GeV lie below the data.

  4. Benchmark cross sections for bottom quark production

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, E.L.

    1988-01-07

    A summary is presented of theoretical expectations for the total cross sections for bottom quark production, for longitudinal and transverse momentum distributions, and for b, /bar b/ momentum correlations at Fermilab fixed target and collider energies.

  5. MODELING AND FISSION CROSS SECTIONS FOR AMERICIUM.

    SciTech Connect

    ROCHMAN, D.; HERMAN, M.; OBLOZINSKY, P.

    2005-05-01

    This is the final report of the work performed under the LANL contract on the modeling and fission cross section for americium isotopes (May 2004-June 2005). The purpose of the contract was to provide fission cross sections for americium isotopes with the nuclear reaction model code EMPIRE 2.19. The following work was performed: (1) Fission calculations capability suitable for americium was implemented to the EMPIRE-2.19 code. (2) Calculations of neutron-induced fission cross sections for {sup 239}Am to {sup 244g}Am were performed with EMPIRE-2.19 for energies up to 20 MeV. For the neutron-induced reaction of {sup 240}Am, fission cross sections were predicted and uncertainties were assessed. (3) Set of fission barrier heights for each americium isotopes was chosen so that the new calculations fit the experimental data and follow the systematics found in the literature.

  6. The radar cross section of dielectric disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    A solution is presented for the backscatter (monostatic) radar cross section of dielectric disks of arbitrary shape, thickness, and dielectric constant. The result is obtained by employing a Kirchhoff-type approximation to obtain the fields inside the disk. The internal fields induce polarization and conduction currents from which the scattered fields and the radar cross section can be computed. The solution for the radar cross section obtained in this manner will be shown to agree with known results in the special cases of normal incidence, thin disks, and perfect conductivity. It will also be shown that the solution can be written as a product of the reflection coefficient of an identically oriented slab times the physical optics solution for the backscatter cross section of a perfectly conducting disk of the same shape. This result follows directly from the Kirchhoff-type approximation without additional assumptions.

  7. Ultraviolet absorption cross sections of hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. L.; Rohatgi, N. K.; Demore, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    Absorption cross-sections of hydrogen peroxide vapor and of neutral aqueous solutions of hydrogen peroxide were measured in the wavelength range from 195 to 350 nm at 296 K. The spectrophotometric procedure is described, and the reported cross-sections are compared with values obtained by other researchers. Photodissociation coefficients of atmospheric H2O2 were calculated for direct absorption of unscattered solar radiation, and the vertical distributions of these coefficients are shown for various solar zenith angles.

  8. High precision neutron inelastic cross section measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olacel, A.; Belloni, F.; Borcea, C.; Boromiza, M.; Dessagne, Ph.; Henning, G.; Kerveno, M.; Negret, A.; Nyman, M.; Pirovano, E.; Plompen, A.

    2017-06-01

    High precision neutron inelastic scattering cross section data are very important for the development of the new generation of nuclear reactors (Gen IV). Our experiments, performed using the GELINA neutron source and the GAINS spectrometer of the European Commission Joint Research Center, Geel, produce highly reliable and precise cross section data. We will present the details of the setup and the data analysis technique allowing production of such unique results, and we will show examples of two experimental results.

  9. Reaction cross sections of unstable nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ozawa, Akira

    2006-11-02

    Experimental studies on reaction cross sections are reviewed. The recent developments of radioactive nuclear beams have enabled us to measure reaction cross-sections for unstable nuclei. Using Glauber-model analysis, effective nuclear matter density distributions of unstable nuclei can be studied. Recent measurements in RIBLL at IMP and RIPS at RIKEN are introduced. The effective matter density distributions for 14-18C are also mentioned.

  10. Shuttle orbiter radar cross-sectional analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, D. W.; James, R.

    1979-01-01

    Theoretical and model simulation studies on signal to noise levels and shuttle radar cross section are described. Pre-mission system calibrations, system configuration, and postmission system calibration of the tracking radars are described. Conversion of target range, azimuth, and elevation into radar centered east north vertical position coordinates are evaluated. The location of the impinging rf energy with respect to the target vehicles body axis triad is calculated. Cross section correlation between the two radars is presented.

  11. Sex- and age-related differences in femoral neck cross-sectional structural changes in mainland Chinese men and women measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jian; Tang, Min; Guo, Bin; Shang, JingJie; Tang, Yongjin; Xu, Hao

    2016-02-01

    We investigated age-related changes in estimated bone strength and cross-sectional structure of the femoral neck (FN) in mainland Chinese men and women (according to age and sex) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A total of 3855 healthy adults (2713 women, 1142 men; ages 25-91years) were analyzed by FN bone mineral density (BMD) assessment and hip structural/strength analysis (HSA), including cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI), cross-sectional area (CSA), section modulus (Z), periosteal diameter (PD), endocortical diameter (ED), and cortical thickness (CT) using DXA. HSA differences between age and sex groups were adjusted for body weight, height and FN BMD. Trends according to age were estimated by linear regression analysis. There was no inverse correlation between HSA parameters and age in young adults. Some HSA parameters (CSMI, CSA, Z, CT) decreased significantly with age, whereas PD and ED increased significantly. Older adults had less estimated bone strength and CT and higher PD and ED (p<0.05) than young adults. Men had greater increases in PD and ED than women across all ages. FN strength decreases with age in both sexes, caused by FN cross-sectional structural deterioration. Indirect comparison of our data with those from other populations showed less age-related FN periosteal apposition in Chinese than Caucasian men, but similar amounts in women. This may partly explain different male/female hip fracture rates among ethnic groups. Chinese men have more structural disadvantages regarding FN geometry during aging than Caucasian men, possibly conferring added susceptibility to hip fracture.

  12. 46 CFR 64.25 - Cross section.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cross section. 64.25 Section 64.25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING...) Circular; or (b) Other than circular and stress analyzed experimentally by the method contained in UG-101...

  13. 46 CFR 64.25 - Cross section.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cross section. 64.25 Section 64.25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING...) Circular; or (b) Other than circular and stress analyzed experimentally by the method contained in UG-101...

  14. Determining (n,γ) cross sections using surrogate reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scielzo, Nicholas; Escher, Jutta

    2009-10-01

    Direct measurements of neutron-reaction cross sections on unstable nuclei are extremely challenging due to the difficulties associated with radioactive targets and neutron beams. Indirect methods, such as the surrogate reaction method, are currently the only feasible way to determine many of the cross sections for radioactive nuclei that are of interest to nuclear astrophysics, nuclear energy, and other applications. We have used the surrogate reaction method to determine (n,γ) cross sections for ^153,155,157Gd nuclei at energies up to 3 MeV through inelastic proton scattering on stable targets. The STARS/LiBerACE silicon and germanium detector arrays were used to detect γ rays in coincidence with the scattered protons to determine γ-ray exit-channel probabilities. Techniques are being explored to extract reliable cross sections at energies for which the Weisskopf-Ewing limit of the Hauser-Feshbach theory is not applicable. This measurement will provide the first determination of the (n,γ) cross section for ^153Gd, an s-process branch-point nucleus with a half-life of 240 days. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  15. abo-cross: Hydrogen broadening cross-section calculator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barklem, P. S.; Anstee, S. D.; O'Mara, B. J.

    2015-07-01

    Line broadening cross sections for the broadening of spectral lines by collisions with neutral hydrogen atoms have been tabulated by Anstee & O'Mara (1995), Barklem & O'Mara (1997) and Barklem, O'Mara & Ross (1998) for s-p, p-s, p-d, d-p, d-f and f-d transitions. abo-cross, written in Fortran, interpolates in these tabulations to make these data more accessible to the end user. This code can be incorporated into existing spectrum synthesis programs or used it in a stand-alone mode to compute line broadening cross sections for specific transitions.

  16. Cross section measurements of radiative KL2,3 RRS in 24Cr and L3M4,5 RRS in 59Pr for Mn Kα1,2 X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Veena; Upmanyu, Arun; Singh, Ranjit; Singh, Gurjot; Sharma, Hitesh; Kumar, Sanjeev; Mehta, D.

    2017-06-01

    The KL2,3 and L3M4,5 radiative resonant Raman scattering (RRS) cross sections have been measured for the quasimonochromatic Mn Kα1,2 X-rays (5.895 keV) in 24Cr (K-shell level width (ΓK) =1.08 eV) and 59 Pr (L3-subshell level width (ΓL3) =3.60 eV), respectively, using targets in metallic and various chemical forms. The incident Mn Kα1,2 X-ray energy is lower than the K-shell binding energy of 24Cr and L3-subshell binding energy of 59Pr by 94 ΓK (Cr) and 94 ΓL3 (Pr), respectively. The experimental measurements were performed with a low energy Ge detector (LEGe) and a radioactive 55Fe annular source in conjunction with 24Cr absorber. The measured cross section values for the 24Cr and 59 Pr elements in their various oxidation states are found to be same within experimental errors. The measurements were further extended to investigate alignment of the intermediate L3-subshell (J =3/2) virtual vacancy states in 59Pr through angular distribution measurements for RRS photon emission, which is found to be isotropic within experimental errors.

  17. L-shell x-ray production cross sections in Nd, Gd, Ho, Yb, Au and Pb for 25-MeV carbon and 32-MeV oxygen ions

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, M.C.; McDaniel, F.D.; Duggan, J.L.; Mehta, R.; Lapicki, G.; Miller, P.D.; Pepmiller, P.L.; Krause, H.; Rosseel, T.M.; Rayburn, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    L-shell x-ray production cross sections in /sub 60/Nd, /sub 64/Gd, /sub 67/Ho, /sub 70/Yb, /sub 79/Au and /sub 82/Pb have been measured for incident 25 MeV /sub 6//sup 12/C/sup +q/(q = 4,5,6) and 32 MeV /sub 8//sup 16/O/sup +q/(q = 5,7,8) ions. Measurements were made on targets ranging in thickness from 1 to 100 ..mu..g/cm/sup 2/. Echancement in the L-shell x-ray production cross section for projectiles with one or two K-shell vacancies over those for projectiles with no K-shell vacancies is observed. The sum of direct ionization to the continuum (DI) plus electron capture (EC) to the L,M,N ... shells and EC to the K-shell of the projectile have been extracted from the data. Calculations in the first Born approximation are approx. 10 times larger than the data. Predictions of the ECPSSR theory that accounts for the energy-loss, Coulomb deflection, perturbed-stationary state, and relativistic effects are in good agreement with the data for both ions.

  18. Reduction Methods for Total Reaction Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, P. R. S.; Mendes Junior, D. R.; Canto, L. F.; Lubian, J.; de Faria, P. N.

    2016-03-01

    The most frequently used methods to reduce fusion and total reaction excitation functions were investigated in a very recent paper Canto et al. (Phys Rev C 92:014626, 2015). These methods are widely used to eliminate the influence of masses and charges in comparisons of cross sections for weakly bound and tightly bound systems. This study reached two main conclusions. The first is that the fusion function method is the most successful procedure to reduce fusion cross sections. Applying this method to theoretical cross sections of single channel calculations, one obtains a system independent curve (the fusion function), that can be used as a benchmark to fusion data. The second conclusion was that none of the reduction methods available in the literature is able to provide a universal curve for total reaction cross sections. The reduced single channel cross sections keep a strong dependence of the atomic and mass numbers of the collision partners, except for systems in the same mass range. In the present work we pursue this problem further, applying the reduction methods to systems within a limited mass range. We show that, under these circumstances, the reduction of reaction data may be very useful.

  19. Differential Cross Sections for Proton-Proton Elastic Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, Ryan B.; Dick, Frank; Norbury, John W.; Blattnig, Steve R.

    2009-01-01

    Proton-proton elastic scattering is investigated within the framework of the one pion exchange model in an attempt to model nucleon-nucleon interactions spanning the large range of energies important to cosmic ray shielding. A quantum field theoretic calculation is used to compute both differential and total cross sections. A scalar theory is then presented and compared to the one pion exchange model. The theoretical cross sections are compared to proton-proton scattering data to determine the validity of the models.

  20. New neutron cross section and fission yield data for SNManalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, R.B.; Molnar, G.L.; Revay, Zs.; Belgya, T.

    2003-05-28

    Neutron cross-section data are fundamental for the design ofnuclear interrogation systems, the maintenance of nuclear materials andwaste, and the understanding the consequences of nuclear catastrophe.Although a large body of nuclear data exists, it is often old,unreliable, or poorly determined. For several years we have collaborated,as part of an IAEA Coordinated Research Project, to precisely measure thepartial thermal neutron gamma ray cross sections for all elements fromhydrogen to uranium at the Budapest Reactor. These data will replace theunreliable tables of Lone et al [1], still widely in use, and will bepublished as an IAEA TECDOC.

  1. Partial photoneutron cross section measurements on 209Bi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gheorghe, Ioana; Filipescu, Dan; Katayama, Seitaro; Utsunomiya, Hiroaki; Belyshev, Sergey; Stopani, Konstantin; Varlamov, Vladimir; Shima, Tatsushi; Lui, Yiu-Wing; Amano, Sho; Miyamoto, Shuji

    2017-09-01

    New data of total and partial (γ,xn) cross sections with x = 1-3 are proposed to be measured by direct neutron multiplicity sorting using Laser Compton scattering (LCS) gamma ray beams at the ELI-NP to solve long standing discrepancies between existing Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (USA) and France Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay photonuclear data. Pioneering experiments are currently performed at the NewSUBARU facility. We present here preliminary results on 209Bi(g,xn) cross section measurements.

  2. Absorption cross sections of stratospheric molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    Two classes of molecular species must be considered in a calculation of photochemical rates in the stratosphere. The first class consists of molecular oxygen and ozone, while the second class contains the remainder of the minor constituents. If accurate values of the transmitted fluxes are required at large optical depths, the cross sections for molecular oxygen and ozone must be known to within a few per cent at least. On the other hand, the photochemical rates for the minor species are given simply by the relevant cross sections. A review of published cross sections is presented, giving attention to molecular oxygen, ozone, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitrous oxide, nitric acid, ammonia, water vapor, hydrogen peroxide, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and sulfur dioxide.

  3. The cross section for double Compton scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Employing elementary methods in nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics, the cross section for gamma sub 0 + e yields e + gamma + gamma is computed for arbitrary energy in the spectrum of the outgoing photons. The final result is given, differential in the energy of one of these photons, for the case where the incident photon is unpolarized and has energy E sub 0 much less than mc-squared, a polarization sum and angular integration being performed for the final-state photons. The cross section has a simple algebraic form resulting from contributions from the sum of squared direct and exchange amplitudes; interference terms from these amplitudes do not contribute to the angular-integrated cross section.

  4. Prospects for Precision Neutrino Cross Section Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Deborah A.

    2016-01-28

    The need for precision cross section measurements is more urgent now than ever before, given the central role neutrino oscillation measurements play in the field of particle physics. The definition of precision is something worth considering, however. In order to build the best model for an oscillation experiment, cross section measurements should span a broad range of energies, neutrino interaction channels, and target nuclei. Precision might better be defined not in the final uncertainty associated with any one measurement but rather with the breadth of measurements that are available to constrain models. Current experience shows that models are better constrained by 10 measurements across different processes and energies with 10% uncertainties than by one measurement of one process on one nucleus with a 1% uncertainty. This article describes the current status of and future prospects for the field of precision cross section measurements considering the metric of how many processes, energies, and nuclei have been studied.

  5. Algorithmic analysis of quantum radar cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzagorta, Marco; Venegas-Andraca, Salvador

    2015-05-01

    Sidelobe structures on classical radar cross section graphs are a consequence of discontinuities in the surface currents. In contrast, quantum radar theory states that sidelobe structures on quantum radar cross section graphs are due to quantum interference. Moreover, it is conjectured that quantum sidelobe structures may be used to detect targets oriented off the specular direction. Because of the high data bandwidth expected from quantum radar, it may be necessary to use sophisticated quantum signal analysis algorithms to determine the presence of stealth targets through the sidelobe structures. In this paper we introduce three potential quantum algorithmic techniques to compute classical and quantum radar cross sections. It is our purpose to develop a computer science-oriented tool for further physical analysis of quantum radar models as well as applications of quantum radar technology in various fields.

  6. Top differential cross section measurements (Tevatron)

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Andreas W.

    2012-01-01

    Differential cross sections in the top quark sector measured at the Fermilab Tevatron collider are presented. CDF used 2.7 fb{sup -1} of data and measured the differential cross section as a function of the invariant mass of the t{bar t} system. The measurement shows good agreement with the standard model and furthermore is used to derive limits on the ratio {kappa}/M{sub Pl} for gravitons which decay to top quarks in the Randall-Sundrum model. D0 used 1.0 fb{sup -1} of data to measure the differential cross section as a function of the transverse momentum of the top-quark. The measurement shows a good agreement to the next-to-leading order perturbative QCD prediction and various other standard model predictions.

  7. Improving activation cross section data with TALYS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzysiuk, Nataliia; Koning, Arjan

    2017-09-01

    Needs for accurate (n,x) activation cross sections for fusion technology have been considered with reference to the current status of the TENDL library. The current work is focused on improving activation cross section data for nuclear reactions relevant mainly for fusion and astrophysical needs. The fits have been performed with the TALYS-1.8 code by means of nuclear model parameter variation, mostly for the optical model and level densities, followed by comparison to recent experimental data taken from EXFOR and other evaluated nuclear databases. The updated cross section data are going to be adopted into the new version of TENDL. The improvements have been performed both for differential as well as integral data sets.

  8. Covariance Evaluation Methodology for Neutron Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Herman,M.; Arcilla, R.; Mattoon, C.M.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Oblozinsky, P.; Pigni, M.; Pritychenko, b.; Songzoni, A.A.

    2008-09-01

    We present the NNDC-BNL methodology for estimating neutron cross section covariances in thermal, resolved resonance, unresolved resonance and fast neutron regions. The three key elements of the methodology are Atlas of Neutron Resonances, nuclear reaction code EMPIRE, and the Bayesian code implementing Kalman filter concept. The covariance data processing, visualization and distribution capabilities are integral components of the NNDC methodology. We illustrate its application on examples including relatively detailed evaluation of covariances for two individual nuclei and massive production of simple covariance estimates for 307 materials. Certain peculiarities regarding evaluation of covariances for resolved resonances and the consistency between resonance parameter uncertainties and thermal cross section uncertainties are also discussed.

  9. New Parameterization of Neutron Absorption Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Ram K.; Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1997-01-01

    Recent parameterization of absorption cross sections for any system of charged ion collisions, including proton-nucleus collisions, is extended for neutron-nucleus collisions valid from approx. 1 MeV to a few GeV, thus providing a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for any system of collision pairs (charged or uncharged). The parameters are associated with the physics of the problem. At lower energies, optical potential at the surface is important, and the Pauli operator plays an increasingly important role at intermediate energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than earlier published results.

  10. Infrared absorption cross sections of alternative CFCs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clerbaux, Cathy; Colin, Reginald; Simon, Paul C.

    1994-01-01

    Absorption cross sections have obtained in the infrared atmospheric window, between 600 and 1500 cm(exp -1), for 10 alternative hydrohalocarbons: HCFC-22, HCFC-123, HCFC-124, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, HCFC-225ca, HCFC-225cb, HFC-125, HFC-134a, and HFC-152a. The measurements were made at three temperatures (287K, 270K and 253K) with a Fourier transform spectrometer operating at 0.03 cm(exp -1) apodized resolution. Integrated cross sections are also derived for use in radiative models to calculate the global warming potentials.

  11. Cross section for 246Cm subbarrier fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, A. A.; Bergman, A. A.; Berlev, A. I.; Koptelov, E. A.; Samylin, B. F.; Trufanov, A. M.; Fursov, B. I.; Shorin, V. S.

    2010-10-01

    The cross section for 246Cm fission induced by neutrons of energy in the range 0.1 eV-20 keV was measured by the neutron lead slowing-down spectrometer (LSDS-100) of the Institute for Nuclear Research (INR, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow). The parameters of the resonance area and of the fission width were evaluated for several low-lying s-wave neutron resonances. The parameters of the intermediate structure in the cross section for the subbarrier fusion of 246Cm nuclei were found. The results obtained in this way were compared with available experimental data and with recommended evaluated data.

  12. Optical Model and Cross Section Uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Herman,M.W.; Pigni, M.T.; Dietrich, F.S.; Oblozinsky, P.

    2009-10-05

    Distinct minima and maxima in the neutron total cross section uncertainties were observed in model calculations using spherical optical potential. We found this oscillating structure to be a general feature of quantum mechanical wave scattering. Specifically, we analyzed neutron interaction with 56Fe from 1 keV up to 65 MeV, and investigated physical origin of the minima.We discuss their potential importance for practical applications as well as the implications for the uncertainties in total and absorption cross sections.

  13. Multigroup cross section library for GFR2400

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čerba, Štefan; Vrban, Branislav; Lüley, Jakub; Haščík, Ján; Nečas, Vladimír

    2017-09-01

    In this paper the development and optimization of the SBJ_E71 multigroup cross section library for GFR2400 applications is discussed. A cross section processing scheme, merging Monte Carlo and deterministic codes, was developed. Several fine and coarse group structures and two weighting flux options were analysed through 18 benchmark experiments selected from the handbook of ICSBEP and based on performed similarity assessments. The performance of the collapsed version of the SBJ_E71 library was compared with MCNP5 CE ENDF/B VII.1 and the Korean KAFAX-E70 library. The comparison was made based on integral parameters of calculations performed on full core homogenous models.

  14. New Parameterization of Neutron Absorption Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Ram K.; Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1997-06-01

    Recent parameterization of absorption cross sections for any system of charged ion collisions, including proton-nucleus collisions, is extended for neutron-nucleus collisions valid from approx. 1 MeV to a few GeV, thus providing a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for any system of collision pairs (charged or uncharged). The parameters are associated with the physics of the problem. At lower energies, optical potential at the surface is important, and the Pauli operator plays an increasingly important role at intermediate energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than earlier published results.

  15. Precise neutron inelastic cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Negret, Alexandru

    2012-11-20

    The design of a new generation of nuclear reactors requires the development of a very precise neutron cross section database. Ongoing experiments performed at dedicated facilities aim to the measurement of such cross sections with an unprecedented uncertainty of the order of 5% or even smaller. We give an overview of such a facility: the Gamma Array for Inelastic Neutron Scattering (GAINS) installed at the GELINA neutron source of IRMM, Belgium. Some of the most challenging difficulties of the experimental approach are emphasized and recent results are shown.

  16. Universal Parameterization of Absorption Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.

    1999-01-01

    Our prior nuclear absorption cross sections model is extended for light systems (A less than or equal to 4) where either both projectile and target are light particles or one is a light particle and the other is a medium or heavy nucleus. The agreement with experiment is excellent for these cases as well. Present work in combination with our original model provides a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for light, medium, and heavy systems, a very valuable input for radiation protection studies.

  17. Total cross sections for +/-atom collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gien, T. T.

    1987-03-01

    The total cross sections for electron and positron scatterings by lithium, sodium, and potassium in the intermediate energy range from 40 to 1000 eV are calculated using the modified Glauber and second Born approximations. A model potential approach is developed to enable an exact inclusion of the core-interaction effects. Within this approach, the positron cross sections are predicted to be somewhat smaller than those of electron scattering. Calculations have also been performed with the consideration of the inert-core and frozen-core assumption and the use of the Clementi wave function to represent the target electrons. Comparison to existing experimental data is made.

  18. Radiative neutron capture cross section from 236U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baramsai, B.; Jandel, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Bond, E. M.; Roman, A. R.; Rusev, G.; Walker, C. L.; Couture, A.; Mosby, S.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.; Kawano, T.

    2017-08-01

    The 236U(n ,γ ) reaction cross section has been measured for the incident neutron energy range from 10 eV to 800 keV by using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) γ -ray calorimeter at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The cross section was determined with the ratio method, which is a technique that uses the 235U(n ,f ) reaction as a reference. The results of the experiment are reported in the resolved and unresolved resonance energy regions. Individual neutron resonance parameters were obtained below 1 keV incident energy by using the R -matrix code sammy. The cross section in the unresolved resonance region is determined with improved experimental uncertainty. It agrees with both ENDF/B-VII.1 and JEFF-3.2 nuclear data libraries. The results above 10 keV agree better with the JEFF-3.2 library.

  19. Cross Sections From Scalar Field Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Dick, Frank; Norman, Ryan B.; Nasto, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    A one pion exchange scalar model is used to calculate differential and total cross sections for pion production through nucleon- nucleon collisions. The collisions involve intermediate delta particle production and decay to nucleons and a pion. The model provides the basic theoretical framework for scalar field theory and can be applied to particle production processes where the effects of spin can be neglected.

  20. Reaction cross section of 22C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togano, Yasuhiro; Samurai Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    Reaction cross section of 22C on a carbon target at an energy of 240 MeV/nucleon have been measured by using the transmission method. The most neutron-rich carbon isotopes 22C is a candidate of a two-neutron halo nucleus. Tanaka et al. [1] measured the reaction cross section of 22C on a hydrogen target at 40 MeV/nucleon. It is showed 22C to have a large matter radius of 5 . 9 +/- 0 . 9 fm, which is much larger than the ones of carbon isotopes with N <= 14 , suggesting 22C is the halo nucleus. This reported radius has a large uncertainty due to a lack of statistics. To deduce a more accurate matter radius of 22C, the measurement of reaction cross section with higher statistics at a higher beam energy are required. The experiment was performed by using the SAMURAI spectrometer at RIBF. The 22C beam at 240 MeV/nucleon was impinged on a carbon target, and the reaction product was identified by using SAMURAI spectrometer. In the present talk, the extracted reaction cross section and derived matter density distribution of 22C will be presented.

  1. Cotton fibre cross-section properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    From a structural perspective the cotton fibre is a singularly discrete, elongated plant cell with no junctions or inter-cellular boundaries. Its form in nature is essentially unadulterated from the field to the spinning mill where its cross-section properties, as for any textile fibre, are central ...

  2. Neutron capture cross section of Am241

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandel, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Bond, E. M.; Chadwick, M. B.; Clement, R. R.; Couture, A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Haight, R. C.; Kawano, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Parker, W. E.; Wu, C. Y.; Becker, J. A.

    2008-09-01

    The neutron capture cross section of Am241 for incident neutrons from 0.02 eV to 320 keV has been measured with the detector for advanced neutron capture experiments (DANCE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The thermal neutron capture cross section was determined to be 665±33 b. Our result is in good agreement with other recent measurements. Resonance parameters for En<12 eV were obtained using an R-matrix fit to the measured cross section. The results are compared with values from the ENDF/B-VII.0, Mughabghab, JENDL-3.3, and JEFF-3.1 evaluations. Γn neutron widths for the first three resonances are systematically larger by 5-15% than the ENDF/B-VII.0 values. The resonance integral above 0.5 eV was determined to be 1553±7 b. Cross sections in the resolved and unresolved energy regions above 12 eV were calculated using the Hauser-Feshbach theory incorporating the width-fluctuation correction of Moldauer. The calculated results agree well with the measured data, and the extracted averaged resonance parameters in the unresolved resonance region are consistent with those for the resolved resonances.

  3. Testing (Validating?) Cross Sections with ICSBEP Benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    Kahler, Albert C. III

    2012-06-28

    We discuss how to use critical benchmarks from the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments to determine the applicability of specific cross sections to the end-user's problem of interest. Particular attention is paid to making sure the selected suite of benchmarks includes the user's range of applicability (ROA).

  4. Future experimental programme for neutrino cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolognesi, Sara

    2017-09-01

    The neutrino-nucleus interaction modelling is crucial for a precise measurement of neutrino oscillations. The advantages and the drawbacks of the planned strategies to measure the neutrino-nucleus cross section with different detector technologies will be discussed. The present document summarizes a talk given on these topics at Neutrino 2016 conference.

  5. Neutron inelastic cross section measurements for natTi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olacel, Adina; Belloni, Francesca; Borcea, Catalin; Boromiza, Marian; Dessagne, Philippe; Henning, Gregoire; Kerveno, Maëlle; Negret, Alexandru; Nyman, Markus; Pirovano, Elisa; Plompen, Arjan

    2017-09-01

    A neutron inelastic scattering experiment was performed at the GELINA (Geel Electron LINear Accelerator) neutron source of the European Commission Joint Research Centre Geel (EC-JRC Geel) with the aim of determining the reaction cross sections for the stable isotopes of natural titanium. A 235U fission chamber was used to monitor neutrons with energies up to 20 MeV. The GAINS (Gamma Array for Inelastic Neutron Scattering) spectrometer was employed to detect the γ rays resulting from the decay of the excited nuclei. We determined the γ-ray production cross sections of the first transitions in the 46,48,49,50Ti isotopes. The experimental values were compared with previous reported results and also with theoretical calculations performed with the TALYS 1.8 code using the default input parameters. Uncertainties of around 5% were obtained for the strongest observed transitions.

  6. Very high energy proton-proton cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibig, Tadeusz

    2009-05-01

    The recent Pierre Auger Observatory result suggesting a coincidence of extensive air showers arrival directions with “nearby” active galactic nuclei and HiRes discovery of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin cutoff indicates protons to be only or at least the strongly dominant component of primary extra galactic cosmic ray flux. However, showers initiated by these ultrahigh energy particles developed faster than predicted by the simulation calculations with conventional interaction models. This could be evidence of the substantial increase of the p-air cross section. The progress in understanding the proton-proton cross section description allows us to examine this possibility, and eventually reject it as an explanation of the ultrahigh energy cosmic ray “pure proton” controversy.

  7. Very high energy proton-proton cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Wibig, Tadeusz

    2009-05-01

    The recent Pierre Auger Observatory result suggesting a coincidence of extensive air showers arrival directions with 'nearby' active galactic nuclei and HiRes discovery of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin cutoff indicates protons to be only or at least the strongly dominant component of primary extra galactic cosmic ray flux. However, showers initiated by these ultrahigh energy particles developed faster than predicted by the simulation calculations with conventional interaction models. This could be evidence of the substantial increase of the p-air cross section. The progress in understanding the proton-proton cross section description allows us to examine this possibility, and eventually reject it as an explanation of the ultrahigh energy cosmic ray 'pure proton' controversy.

  8. Perspectives of primary health care physicians on diagnosing and referring patients with apparent osteolytic lesions on plain X-ray films: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Alyami, Ali; Alshomrani, Yasser; Suqaty, Rayyan; Futtiny, Shaddy; Alnaqib, Faisal; Albarakati, Muath; Alhazmi, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    The identification and diagnosis of musculoskeletal symptoms are major challenges for primary care physicians. A lack of clinical suspicion, limited exposure, and referral of patients to nonspecialized centers can delay the management of cases, which in turn can increase morbidity and mortality. Four different sets of X-ray films were shown to 91 primary health care physicians. The first two were normal, whereas the third and fourth showed bone lesions. Participants were asked to indicate the presence of an abnormality, the diagnosis, and the approach to referral if required. There was a variation in the results for the first two sets of normal X-ray films. Most participants (73.6%) were able to diagnose the first case correctly. However, 73.6% of participants were unable to diagnose the second case correctly. A high percentage of participants (90.1%) were able to detect abnormalities in Cases 3 and 4, with nearly all participants indicating that they would refer patients to centers other than bone oncology centers in the western region of Saudi Arabia if they suspected bone tumors. Only 25.8% of participants were aware of these bone oncology centers. Physicians in many primary health care centers need practice in reading normal X-ray films to avoid unnecessary referral of patients to specialized medical centers. We recommend the development of a new system for referring patients suspected to have bone tumors to avoid a delay in the management of cases and to decrease morbidity and mortality.

  9. Sketching cross sections with a portable microcomputer

    SciTech Connect

    Kimberley, M.M.

    1985-02-01

    Computer applications have been carried to the field long ago by geophysicists and their dog houses. The advent of inexpensive battery-powered microcomputers promises to allow the field geologist to participate in this application. The field geologist may record data directly onto a computer-readable medium and calculate statistics or plot a cross section. A program for routine plotting of cross sections in the field has been developed and field-tested. The program proved to be useful to 30 computer-illiterate geologists on a 6-week mapping project in New Mexico. The program allows the user to control vertical exaggeration and displays the correct apparent dip along the chosen line of section. Cubic-spline interpolation is used to plot both topography and folded bedding planes. The program executes in Pascal on an Apple IIc in a few seconds.

  10. Cross sections for production of 70 discrete-energy gamma rays created by neutron interactions with sup 56 Fe for E sub n to 40 MeV: Tabulated data

    SciTech Connect

    Dickens, J.K.; Todd, J.H.; Larson, D.C.

    1990-09-01

    Inelastic and nonelastic neutron interactions with {sup 56}Fe have been studied for incident neutron energies between 0.8 and 41 MeV. An iron sample isotopically enriched in the mass 56 isotope was used. Gamma rays representing 70 transitions among levels in residual nuclei were identified, and production cross sections were deduced. The reactions studied were {sup 56}Fe(n,n{prime}){sup 56}Fe, {sup 56}Fe(n,p){sup 56}Mn, {sup 56}Fe(n,2n){sup 55}Fe, {sup 56}Fe(n,d + n,np){sup 55}Mn, {sup 56}Fe(n,t + n,nd + n,2np){sup 54}Mn, {sup 56}Fe(n,{alpha}){sup 53}Cr, {sup 56}Fe(n,n{alpha}){sup 52}Cr, and {sup 56}Fe(n,3n){sup 54}Fe. Values obtained for production cross sections as functions of incident neutron energy are presented in tabular form. 38 refs., 7 figs., 12 tabs.

  11. Plantarflexory osteotomy for a plantar flexed first ray? A cross-sectional study of the relationship between frontal plane forefoot deformity and lateral intermetatarsal angle in 190 patients.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Naohiro; Jolley, Tyler V; Jupiter, Daniel C

    2013-01-01

    Many surgeons consider performing plantarflexory osteotomy when a lateral weightbearing radiograph shows an elevated first metatarsal. In our study, we clinically evaluated the first metatarsal position in terms of the forefoot-to-rearfoot relationship and radiographically evaluated the lateral intermetatarsal angle in 190 patients. We divided the subjects into forefoot varus, valgus, and neutral groups and compared their mean lateral intermetatarsal angle. The mean lateral intermetatarsal angle for those with forefoot varus, valgus, and neutral was 1.4° ± 3.10°, 1.3° ± 3.30°, and 0.4° ± 2.67°, respectively. Neither analysis of variance nor post hoc tests showed any significant difference among the groups. We hypothesized that the ground reacting force alters the first ray position on the weightbearing radiographs; thus, it would not be advisable to rely solely on this angular measurement for surgical decision-making.

  12. Absolute np and pp cross section determinations aimed at improving the standard for cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Laptev, Alexander B; Haight, Robert C; Tovesson, Fredrik; Arndt, Richard A; Briscoe, William J; Paris, Mark W; Strakovsky, Igor I; Workman, Ron L

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of present research is a keeping improvement of the standard for cross section measurements of neutron-induced reactions. The cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1000 MeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PW As) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-V11.0 and JENDL-4.0 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Also a comparison of evaluated data with recent experimental data was made to check a quality of evaluation. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

  13. Absolute np and pp Cross Section Determinations Aimed At Improving The Standard For Cross Section Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Laptev, A. B.; Haight, R. C.; Tovesson, F.; Arndt, R. A.; Briscoe, W. J.; Paris, M. W.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Workman, R. L.

    2011-06-01

    Purpose of present research is a keeping improvement of the standard for cross section measurements of neutron-induced reactions. The cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1 GeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PWAs) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL-4.0 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Also a comparison of evaluated data with recent experimental data was made to check a quality of evaluation. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

  14. Rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friese, Daniel H.; Beerepoot, Maarten T. P.; Ruud, Kenneth

    2014-11-01

    Rotational averaging of tensors is a crucial step in the calculation of molecular properties in isotropic media. We present a scheme for the rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections. We extend existing literature on rotational averaging to even-rank tensors of arbitrary order and derive equations that require only the number of photons as input. In particular, we derive the first explicit expressions for the rotational average of five-, six-, and seven-photon absorption cross sections. This work is one of the required steps in making the calculation of these higher-order absorption properties possible. The results can be applied to any even-rank tensor provided linearly polarized light is used.

  15. Rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections.

    PubMed

    Friese, Daniel H; Beerepoot, Maarten T P; Ruud, Kenneth

    2014-11-28

    Rotational averaging of tensors is a crucial step in the calculation of molecular properties in isotropic media. We present a scheme for the rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections. We extend existing literature on rotational averaging to even-rank tensors of arbitrary order and derive equations that require only the number of photons as input. In particular, we derive the first explicit expressions for the rotational average of five-, six-, and seven-photon absorption cross sections. This work is one of the required steps in making the calculation of these higher-order absorption properties possible. The results can be applied to any even-rank tensor provided linearly polarized light is used.

  16. Universal Parameterization of Absorption Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a simple universal parameterization of total reaction cross sections for any system of colliding nuclei that is valid for the entire energy range from a few AMeV to a few AGeV. The universal picture presented here treats proton-nucleus collision as a special case of nucleus-nucleus collision, where the projectile has charge and mass number of one. The parameters are associated with the physics of the collision system. In general terms, Coulomb interaction modifies cross sections at lower energies, and the effects of Pauli blocking are important at higher energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than all earlier published results.

  17. Proton Pair Production Cross Sections at BESIII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaorong

    Using data samples collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII collider, the Born cross section of e + e - to pbar{p} at 12 center-of-mass energies from 2232.4 to 3671.0 MeV is provided. The corresponding effective electromagnetic form factor of the proton is deduced under the assumption that the electric and magnetic form factors are equal. In addition, the ratio of electric to magnetic form factors are extracted for the data samples with larger statistics. The measured cross sections are in agreement with recent results from BaBar, improving the overall uncertainty by about 30%. The |GE/GM| ratios are close to unity and consistent with BaBar results in the same q2 region.

  18. Extinction cross section of a dielectric strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowerah, Subratananda; Chakrabarti, Aloknath

    1988-05-01

    The problem of scattering of a plane electromagnetic wave by a dielectric strip is formulated in terms of an uncoupled system of three-part Wiener-Hopf equations by using a set of approximate boundary conditions derived and utilized recently. The resulting Wiener-Hopf problems are solved approximately for sufficiently large values of the width of the strip by using Jones' method (1964). An analytical formula is derived for the excitation cross section of the strip under consideration from which numerical values are obtained in specific situations and the results are presented graphically. The radar cross section of the strip is also computed for several special circumstances and these are presented separately.

  19. Fusion cross sections measurements with MUSIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnelli, P. F. F.; Fernández Niello, J. O.; Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Rehm, K. E.; Albers, M.; Digiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Henderson, D.; Jiang, C. L.; Nusair, O.; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R. C.; Ugalde, C.; Paul, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bertone, P. F.; Lai, J.; Marley, S. T.

    2014-09-01

    The interaction between exotic nuclei plays an important role for understanding the reaction mechanism of the fusion processes as well as for the energy production in stars. With the advent of radioactive beams new frontiers for fusion reaction studies have become accessible. We have performed the first measurements of the total fusion cross sections in the systems 10 , 14 , 15C + 12C using a newly developed active target-detector system (MUSIC). Comparison of the obtained cross sections with theoretical predictions show a good agreement in the energy region accessible with existing radioactive beams. This type of comparison allows us to calibrate the calculations for cases that cannot be studied in the laboratory with the current experimental capabilities. The high efficiency of this active detector system will allow future measurements with even more neutron-rich isotopes. The interaction between exotic nuclei plays an important role for understanding the reaction mechanism of the fusion processes as well as for the energy production in stars. With the advent of radioactive beams new frontiers for fusion reaction studies have become accessible. We have performed the first measurements of the total fusion cross sections in the systems 10 , 14 , 15C + 12C using a newly developed active target-detector system (MUSIC). Comparison of the obtained cross sections with theoretical predictions show a good agreement in the energy region accessible with existing radioactive beams. This type of comparison allows us to calibrate the calculations for cases that cannot be studied in the laboratory with the current experimental capabilities. The high efficiency of this active detector system will allow future measurements with even more neutron-rich isotopes. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE Office of Nuclear Physics under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 and the Universidad Nacional de San Martin, Argentina, Grant SJ10/39.

  20. Fusion cross sections and the new dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Swiatecki, W.J.

    1981-05-01

    The prediction of the need for an extra push over the interaction barrier in order to make the heavier nuclei fuse is made the basis of a simple algebraic theory for the energy-dependence of the fusion cross-section. A comparison with recent experiments promises to provide a quantitative test of the New Dynamics (the theory of macroscopic nuclear shape evolutions based on the one-body dissipation concept).

  1. How to Calculate Colourful Cross Sections Efficiently

    SciTech Connect

    Gleisberg, Tanju; Hoeche, Stefan; Krauss, Frank

    2008-09-03

    Different methods for the calculation of cross sections with many QCD particles are compared. To this end, CSW vertex rules, Berends-Giele recursion and Feynman-diagram based techniques are implemented as well as various methods for the treatment of colours and phase space integration. We find that typically there is only a small window of jet multiplicities, where the CSW technique has efficiencies comparable or better than both of the other two methods.

  2. Inclusive jet cross section at D0

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharjee, M.

    1996-09-01

    Preliminary measurement of the central ({vert_bar}{eta}{vert_bar} {<=} 0.5) inclusive jet cross sections for jet cone sizes of 1.0, 0.7, and 0.5 at D{null} based on the 1992-1993 (13.7 {ital pb}{sup -1}) and 1994-1995 (90 {ital pb}{sup -1}) data samples are presented. Comparisons to Next-to-Leading Order (NLO) Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) calculations are made.

  3. Inclusive jet cross section measurement at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Pagliarone, C.

    1996-08-01

    The CDF Collaboration has measured the inclusive jet cross section using 1992-93 collider data at 1.8 TeV. The CDF measurement is in very good agreement with NLO QCD predictions for transverse energies (E{sub T}) below 200 GeV. However, it is systematically higher than NLO QCD predictions for E{sub T} above 200 GeV.

  4. Active-beam cross-sectional modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesnik, Carlos E. S.; Ortega-Morales, Miguel

    2000-06-01

    A finite-element based analysis for modeling active composite beams with embedded anisotropic actuation is presented. It is derived from three-dimensional electroelasticity, where the original problem is reduced via the variational asymptotic method. The resulting cross-sectional analysis takes into consideration passive and active anisotropic and nonhomogeneous materials, and represents general (thin-walled, thick-walled, solid) cross-sectional geometries. The formulation requires neither the costly use of 3-D finite element discretization nor the loss of accuracy inherent to any simplified representation of the cross section. The developed formulation is numerically implemented in VABS-A, and several numerical and experimental tests cases are used to support validation of the proposed theory. Also, the effect of the presence of a core in originally hallow configurations is presented and counter-intuitive conclusions are discussed. The generality of the method and accuracy of the results increase confidence at the design stage that the active beam structure will perform as expected and, consequently, should lower costs from experimental tests and further adjustments.

  5. Quality Quantification of Evaluated Cross Section Covariances

    SciTech Connect

    Varet, S.; Dossantos-Uzarralde, P.

    2015-01-15

    Presently, several methods are used to estimate the covariance matrix of evaluated nuclear cross sections. Because the resulting covariance matrices can be different according to the method used and according to the assumptions of the method, we propose a general and objective approach to quantify the quality of the covariance estimation for evaluated cross sections. The first step consists in defining an objective criterion. The second step is computation of the criterion. In this paper the Kullback-Leibler distance is proposed for the quality quantification of a covariance matrix estimation and its inverse. It is based on the distance to the true covariance matrix. A method based on the bootstrap is presented for the estimation of this criterion, which can be applied with most methods for covariance matrix estimation and without the knowledge of the true covariance matrix. The full approach is illustrated on the {sup 85}Rb nucleus evaluations and the results are then used for a discussion on scoring and Monte Carlo approaches for covariance matrix estimation of the cross section evaluations.

  6. Ultrahigh energy neutrino-nucleon cross section and radiative corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Sigl, G.

    1998-03-01

    Several proposals exist to detect cosmic neutrinos of energy from tens of GeV up to the highest energies observed for cosmic rays, {approximately}10{sup 20}eV, or possibly even beyond. Detection efficiencies depend crucially on the neutrino-nucleon cross section at these energies at which radiative corrections beyond the lowest order approximation could become non-negligible. The differential cross sections can be modified by more than 50{percent} in some regions of phase space. Estimates of corrections to the quantities most relevant for neutrino detection at these energies give, however, less dramatic effects: The average inelasticity in the outgoing lepton is increased from {approx_equal}0.19 to {approx_equal}0.24. The inclusive cross section is reduced by roughly half a percent. The dominant uncertainty of the standard model ultrahigh energy neutrino-nucleon cross section therefore still comes from uncertainties of the parton distributions in the nucleon at very low momentum fractions. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  7. Three Dimensional Cross-Sectional Properties From Bone Densitometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleek, Tammy M.; Whalen, Robert T.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Bone densitometry has previously been used to obtain cross-sectional properties of bone in a single scan plane. Using three non-coplanar scans, we have extended the method to obtain the principal area Moments of inertia and orientations of the principal axes at each cross-section along the length of the scan. Various 5 aluminum phantoms were used to examine scanner characteristics to develop the highest accuracy possible for in vitro non-invasive analysis of mass distribution. Factors considered included X-ray photon energy, initial scan orientation, the included angle of the 3 scans, and Imin/Imax ratios. Principal moments of inertia were accurate to within 3.1% and principal angles were within 1 deg. of the expected value for phantoms scanned with included angles of 60 deg. and 90 deg. at the higher X-ray photon energy. Low standard deviations in error also 10 indicate high precision of calculated measurements with these included angles. Accuracy and precision decreased slightly when the included angle was reduced to 30 deg. The method was then successfully applied to a pair of excised cadaveric tibiae. The accuracy and insensitivity of the algorithms to cross-sectional shape and changing isotropy (Imin/Imax) values when various included angles are used make this technique viable for future in vivo studies.

  8. Upscattering Cross Sections for Ultra Cold Neutrons from Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seestrom, Susan J.; UCNτ Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The scattering of ultracold neutrons (UCNs) to energies above the escape potential of a trap is called upscattering. Upscattering due to interaction with residual gases is a potential loss mechanism for UCNs stored in a trap that can impact the extracted neutron lifetime. We have developed a method for measuring the cross sections for UCN upscattering from gases stored in a small measurement cell. Upscattered neutrons are measured directly in a 3He ionization chamber and transmitted UCN strike a 10B-coated surface at the edges of the measurement cell. The transmitted UCNs are then counted with a HPGe gamma-ray detector that counts 478 keV γ-rays from the 10B(n , αγ) 7Li reaction. The analysis was guided by Monte Carlo descriptions of the LANL UCN source output. We will present cross sections measured for various noble and polyatomic gases, compare these results to calculated cross sections based on models of gas scattering kernels, and use these to estimate the impact of gas upscattering on the measurement of the neutron lifetime.

  9. Averaging cross section data so we can fit it

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.

    2014-10-23

    The 56Fe cross section we are interested in have a lot of fluctuations. We would like to fit the average of the cross section with cross sections calculated within EMPIRE. EMPIRE is a Hauser-Feshbach theory based nuclear reaction code, requires cross sections to be smoothed using a Lorentzian profile. The plan is to fit EMPIRE to these cross sections in the fast region (say above 500 keV).

  10. Preliminary cross section of Englebright Lake sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Noah P.; Hampton, Margaret A.

    2003-01-01

    Overview -- The Upper Yuba River Studies Program is a CALFED-funded, multidisciplinary investigation of the feasibility of introducing anadromous fish species to the Yuba River system upstream of Englebright Dam. Englebright Lake (Figure 1 on poster) is a narrow, 14-km-long reservoir located in the northern Sierra Nevada, northeast of Marysville, CA. The dam was completed in 1941 for the primary purpose of trapping sediment derived from mining operations in the Yuba River watershed. Possible management scenarios include lowering or removing Englebright Dam, which could cause the release of stored sediments and associated contaminants, such as mercury used extensively in 19th-century hydraulic gold mining. Transport of released sediment to downstream areas could increase existing problems including flooding and mercury bioaccumulation in sport fish. To characterize the extent, grain size, and chemistry of this sediment, a coring campaign was done in Englebright Lake in May and June 2002. More than twenty holes were drilled at 7 different locations along the longitudinal axis of the reservoir (Figure 4 on poster), recovering 6 complete sequences of post-reservoir deposition and progradation. Here, a longitudinal cross section of Englebright Lake is presented (Figure 5 on poster), including pre-dam and present-day topographic profiles, and sedimentologic sections for each coring site. This figure shows the deltaic form of the reservoir deposit, with a thick upper section consisting of sand and gravel overlying silt, a steep front, and a thinner lower section dominated by silt. The methodologies used to create the reservoir cross section are discussed in the lower part of this poster.

  11. Top Production Cross Sections at D0

    SciTech Connect

    Kvita, Jiri

    2009-07-01

    We report on measurements of the ttbar production cross section at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV at the D0 experiment during Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron collider. We use candidate events in lepton+jets and dilepton final states. In the most sensitive channel (lepton+jets channel), a neural network algorithm that uses lifetime information to identify b-quark jets is used to distinguish signal from background processes. We also present measurements of single top quark production at D0 using several multivariate techniques to separate signal from background.

  12. Critical behavior of cross sections at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dremin, I. M.

    2016-07-01

    Recent experimental data on elastic scattering of high energy protons show that the critical regime has been reached at LHC energies. The approach to criticality is demonstrated by increase of the ratio of elastic to total cross sections from ISR to LHC energies. At LHC it reaches the value which can result in principal change of the character of proton interactions. The treatment of new physics of hollowed toroid-like hadrons requires usage of another branch of the unitarity condition. Its further fate is speculated and interpreted with the help of the unitarity condition in combination with present experimental data. The gedanken experiments to distinguish between different possibilities are proposed.

  13. Neutron absorption cross section of uranium-236

    SciTech Connect

    Macklin, R.L.; Alexander, C.W.

    1988-11-01

    U-236 neutron absorption was measured as a function of neutron time-of-flight from 20 eV to 1 MeV. The neutron flux was monitored with a /sup 6/Li glass scintillator. Average cross sections from 3 keV to 1 MeV were derived. Estimated uncertainties were less than 5% below 600 keV and increased to 9.5% at 1 MeV. Resonance parametrization from 20 eV to a few keV remains to be done. 17 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Nuclear interaction cross sections for proton radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, M. B.; Jones, D. T. L.; Arendse, G. J.; Cowley, A. A.; Richter, W. A.; Lawrie, J. J.; Newman, R. T.; Pilcher, J. V.; Smit, F. D.; Steyn, G. F.; Koen, JW; Stander, JA

    Model calculations of proton-induced nuclear reaction cross sections are described for biologically-important targets. Measurements made at the National Accelerator Centre are presented for double-differential proton, deuteron, triton, helium-3 and alpha particle spectra, for 150 and 200 MeV protons incident on C, N, and O. These data are needed for Monte Carlo simulations of radiation transport and absorbed dose in proton therapy. Data relevant to the use of positron emission tomography to locate the Bragg peak are also described.

  15. Improved activation cross sections for vanadium and titanium

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, D.W.; Arthur, E.D.

    1983-01-01

    Vanadium alloys such as V-20Ti and V-Cr-Ti are attractive candidates for use as structural materials in fusion-reactor blankets. The virtual absence of long-lived activation products in these alloys suggest the possibility of reprocessing on an intermediate time scale. We have employed the modern Hauser-Feshbach nuclear-model code GNASH to calculate cross sections for neutron-activation reactions in /sup 50/V and /sup 51/V, to allow a more accurate assessment of induced radioactivity in vanadium alloys. In addition, cross sections are calculated for the reactions /sup 46/Ti(n,2n) and /sup 45/Ti(n,2n) in order to estimate the production of /sup 44/Ti, a 1.2-MeV gamma-ray source with a half-life of 47 years.

  16. Pion production cross sections and associated parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradbury, J. N.

    Negative pions have been used for radiotherapy at the meson factories LAMPF (USA), SIN (Switzerland), and TRIUMF (Canada) and have been planned for use at new meson facilities under construction (USSR) and at proposed dedicated medical facilities. Providing therapeutically useful dose rates of pions requires a knowledge of the pion production cross sections as a function of primary proton energy (500 to 1000 MeV), pion energy (less than or equal to100 MeV), production angle, and target material. The current status of the data base in this area is presented including theoretical guidelines for extrapolation purposes. The target material and geometry, as well as the proton and pion beam parameters, will affect the electron (and muon) contamination in the beam which may have an important effect on both the LET characteristics of the dose and the dose distribution. In addition to cross-section data, channel characteristics such as length of pion trajectory, solid-angle acceptance, and momentum analysis will affect dose rate, distribution, and quality. Such considerations are briefly addressed in terms of existing facilities and proposed systems.

  17. Total cross sections for neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinn, C. R.; Elster, Ch.; Thaler, R. M.; Weppner, S. P.

    1995-02-01

    Measurements of neutron total cross sections are both extensive and extremely accurate. Although they place a strong constraint on theoretically constructed models, there are relatively few comparisons of predictions with experiment. The total cross sections for neutron scattering from 16O and 40Ca are calculated as a function of energy from 50 to 700 MeV laboratory energy with a microscopic first-order optical potential derived within the framework of the Watson expansion. Although these results are aleady in qualitative agreement with the data, the inclusion of medium corrections to the propagator is essential to correctly predict the energy dependence given by the experiment. In the region between 100 and 200 MeV, where off-shell tρ calculations for both 16O and 40Ca overpredict the experiment, the modification due to the nuclear medium reduces the calculated values. Above 300 MeV these corrections are very small and depending on the employed nuclear mean field tend to compensate for the underprediction of the off-shell tρ results.

  18. A computer code for predicting gamma production cross sections by neutron inelastic scattering from light nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, M. C.

    1972-01-01

    Gamma-ray production cross section by the inelastic scattering of neutrons from light nuclei are considered. The applicability of optical model potential is discussed. Based on experimental data, a cascade approach is developed to calculate the inelastic gamma production cross sections. In the case of O-16 using computer code LINGAP in conjunction with ABACUS-2; results are compared with reported values.

  19. Threshold photoneutron cross sections for {sup 208,207,206}Pb isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, T.; Utsunomiya, H.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Iwamoto, C.; Kamata, M.; Itoh, O.; Toyokawa, H.; Lui, Y.-W.

    2010-06-01

    Photoneutron cross sections for three Pb isotopes ({sup 206}Pb, {sup 207}Pb, {sup 208}Pb) near neutron threshold were measured with the laser inverse-Compton scattering gamma rays at the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology. The cross section data are presented.

  20. Accurate universal parameterization of absorption cross sections II--neutron absorption cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    1997-01-01

    A recent parameterization (here after referred as paper I, Ref. [4]) of absorption cross sections for any system of charged ions collisions including proton -nucleus collisions, is extended for neutron-nucleus collisions valid from approximately 1 MeV to a few GeV, thus providing a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for any system of collision pair (charged and/or uncharged). The parameters are associated with the physics of the problem. At lower energies, the optical potential at the surface is important and the Pauli operator plays an increasingly important role at intermediate energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than earlier published results.

  1. Accurate universal parameterization of absorption cross sections II — neutron absorption cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1997-06-01

    A recent parameterization (here after referred as paper I, Ref. [4]) of absorption cross sections for any system of charged ions collisions including proton -nucleus collisions, is extended for neutron-nucleus collisions valid from ˜ 1 MeV to a few GeV, thus providing a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for any system of collision pair (charged and/or uncharged). The parameters are associated with the physics of the problem. At lower energies, the optical potential at the surface is important and the Pauli operator plays an increasingly important role at intermediate energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than earlier published results.

  2. Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC) Cross Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This drawing shows a cross-section view of the test cell at the heart of the Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC) that flew on two Spacelab missions. The middle and lower drawings depict the volume of the silicone oil layer that served as the atmosphere as the steel ball rotated and an electrostatic field pulled the oil inward to mimic gravity's effects during the experiments. The GFFC thus produced flow patterns that simulated conditions inside the atmospheres of Jupiter and the Sun and other stars. The principal investigator was John Hart of the University of Colorado at Boulder. It was managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). An Acrobat PDF copy of this drawing is available at http://microgravity.nasa.gov/gallery. (Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center)

  3. Neutrino Cross Sections at Supernova Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholberg, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Neutrinos with energies between a few and a few tens of MeV are relevant for a number of physics topics. Notably, this is the energy range corresponding to emission of neutrinos from supernovae. In addition, it is relevant for studies of solar, reactor and atmospheric neutrinos, as well as for physics using accelerator-produced neutrinos from pions or radioactive nuclei decaying at rest. Surprisingly, with the exception of interactions on electrons and protons, the interactions of neutrinos with matter in this energy range are quite poorly understood, both theoretically and experimentally. This talk will describe neutrino physics and astrophysics in the supernova-neutrino energy range, the state of knowledge of cross sections on relevant nuclei, and initiatives for experimental measurements.

  4. Lunar Radar Cross Section at Low Frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, P.; Kennedy, E. J.; Kossey, P.; McCarrick, M.; Kaiser, M. L.; Bougeret, J.-L.; Tokarev, Y. V.

    2002-01-01

    Recent bistatic measurements of the lunar radar cross-section have extended the spectrum to long radio wavelength. We have utilized the HF Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) radar facility near Gakona, Alaska to transmit high power pulses at 8.075 MHz to the Moon; the echo pulses were received onboard the NASA/WIND spacecraft by the WAVES HF receiver. This lunar radar experiment follows our previous use of earth-based HF radar with satellites to conduct space experiments. The spacecraft was approaching the Moon for a scheduled orbit perturbation when our experiment of 13 September 2001 was conducted. During the two-hour experiment, the radial distance of the satellite from the Moon varied from 28 to 24 Rm, where Rm is in lunar radii.

  5. Top cross section measurement at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Compostella, Gabriele; /INFN, CNAF /Padua U.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the latest measurements of the t{bar t} pair production cross section performed by the CDF Collaboration analyzing p{bar p} collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV from Fermilab Tevatron, as presented at the XVIII International Workshop on Deep-Inelastic Scattering and Related Subjects. In order to test Standard Model predictions, several analysis methods are explored and all the top decay channels are considered, to better constrain the properties of the top quark and to search for possible sources of new physics affecting the pair production mechanism. Experimental results using an integrated luminosity up to 5.1 fb{sup -1} are presented.

  6. Angle-averaged Compton cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Nickel, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    The scattering of a photon by an individual free electron is characterized by six quantities: ..cap alpha.. = initial photon energy in units of m/sub 0/c/sup 2/; ..cap alpha../sub s/ = scattered photon energy in units of m/sub 0/c/sup 2/; ..beta.. = initial electron velocity in units of c; phi = angle between photon direction and electron direction in the laboratory frame (LF); theta = polar angle change due to Compton scattering, measured in the electron rest frame (ERF); and tau = azimuthal angle change in the ERF. We present an analytic expression for the average of the Compton cross section over phi, theta, and tau. The lowest order approximation to this equation is reasonably accurate for photons and electrons with energies of many keV.

  7. Systematics of isotopic production cross sections from interactions of relativistic 40Ca in hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.-X.; Albergo, S.; Caccia, Z.; Costa, S.; Crawford, H. J.; Cronqvist, M.; Engelage, J.; Greiner, L.; Guzik, T. G.; Insolia, A.; Knott, C. N.; Lindstrom, P. J.; McMahon, M.; Mitchell, J. W.; Potenza, R.; Russo, G. V.; Soutoul, A.; Testard, O.; Tull, C. E.; Tuvé, C.; Waddington, C. J.; Webber, W. R.; Wefel, J. P.

    1997-09-01

    The isotopic production cross sections for 40Ca projectiles at 357, 565, and 763 MeV/nucleon interacting in a liquid hydrogen target have been measured by the Transport Collaboration at the LBL HISS facility. The systematics of these cross sections are studied, and the results indicate that nuclear structure effects are present in the isotope production process during the relativistic collisions. The newly measured cross sections are also compared with those predicted by semiempirical and parametric formulas, but the predictions do not fully describe the systematics such as the energy dependence. The consequences of the cross section systematics in galactic cosmic ray studies are also discussed.

  8. Hadron cross sections at ultra high energies and unitarity bounds on diffraction dissociation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yodh, G. B.; Gaisser, T. K.

    1985-01-01

    It was shown that if unitarity bounds on diffractive cross sections are valid at ultra high energies then diffractive dominance models which ascribe the increase in total hadron-hadron cross sections to diffractive processes only are ruled out. Calculations also show that cosmic ray cross sections derived from air shower experiments at ultra high energies clearly rule out models for hadron-hadron cross sections with nat.log ns energy dependence and favor those with nat.log n(2)s variation.

  9. Single-level resonance parameters fit nuclear cross-sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drawbaugh, D. W.; Gibson, G.; Miller, M.; Page, S. L.

    1970-01-01

    Least squares analyses of experimental differential cross-section data for the U-235 nucleus have yielded single level Breit-Wigner resonance parameters that fit, simultaneously, three nuclear cross sections of capture, fission, and total.

  10. Experiments on Antiprotons: Antiproton-Nucleon Cross Sections

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Chamberlain, Owen; Keller, Donald V.; Mermond, Ronald; Segre, Emilio; Steiner, Herbert M.; Ypsilantis, Tom

    1957-07-22

    In this paper experiments are reported on annihilation and scattering of antiprotons in H{sub 2}O , D{sub 2}O, and O{sub 2}. From the data measured it is possible to obtain an antiproton-proton and an antiproton-deuteron cross section at 457 Mev (lab). Further analysis gives the p-p and p-n cross sections as 104 mb for the p-p reaction cross section and 113 mb for the p-n reaction cross section. The respective annihilation cross sections are 89 and 74 mb. The Glauber correction necessary in order to pass from the p-d to the p-n cross section by subtraction of the p-p cross section is unfortunately large and somewhat uncertain. The data are compared with the p-p and p-n cross sections and with other results on p-p collisions.

  11. Total and ionization cross sections of electron scattering by fluorocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antony, B. K.; Joshipura, K. N.; Mason, N. J.

    2005-02-01

    Electron impact total cross sections (50-2000 eV) and total ionization cross sections (threshold to 2000 eV) are calculated for typical plasma etching molecules CF4, C2F4, C2F6, C3F8 and CF3I and the CFx (x = 1-3) radicals. The total elastic and inelastic cross sections are determined in the spherical complex potential formalism. The sum of the two gives the total cross section and the total inelastic cross section is used to calculate the total ionization cross sections. The present total and ionization cross sections are found to be consistent with other theories and experimental measurements, where they exist. Our total cross section results for CFx (x = 1-3) radicals presented here are first estimates on these species.

  12. Excitation and Charge Exchange Phenomena in Astronomical Objects: Measurement of Cross Sections and Lifetimes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara; Smith, S.; Lozano, J.; Cadez, I.; Greewnood, J.; Mawhovter, R.; Williams, I.; Niimura, M.

    2003-01-01

    This document addresses extreme ultraviolet radiation and X-ray emissions from comets, planets and heliospheric gases focusing on the measurement of charge-exchange cross sections and radiative lifetimes. Highly-charged heavy ions present in the solar wind, and their abundance relative to the total oxygen-ion abundance are detailed. The plan for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory high-charge ion facility is outlined detailing its ability to measure absolute collisional excitation cross sections, absolute charge-exchange cross sections, lifetimes of metastable ion levels, and X-ray emission spectra following charge changes.

  13. Excitation and Charge Exchange Phenomena in Astronomical Objects: Measurement of Cross Sections and Lifetimes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara; Smith, S.; Lozano, J.; Cadez, I.; Greewnood, J.; Mawhovter, R.; Williams, I.; Niimura, M.

    2003-01-01

    This document addresses extreme ultraviolet radiation and X-ray emissions from comets, planets and heliospheric gases focusing on the measurement of charge-exchange cross sections and radiative lifetimes. Highly-charged heavy ions present in the solar wind, and their abundance relative to the total oxygen-ion abundance are detailed. The plan for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory high-charge ion facility is outlined detailing its ability to measure absolute collisional excitation cross sections, absolute charge-exchange cross sections, lifetimes of metastable ion levels, and X-ray emission spectra following charge changes.

  14. Gamma Efficiency Simulations towards Coincidence Measurements for Fusion Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heine, M.; Courtin, S.; Fruet, G.; Jenkins, D. G.; Montanari, D.; Morris, L.; Regan, P. H.; Rudigier, M.; Symochko, D.

    2016-10-01

    With the experimental station STELLA (STELlar LAboratory) we will measure fusion cross sections of astrophysical relevance making use of the coincident detection of charged particles and gamma rays for background reduction. For the measurement of gamma rays from the de-excitation of fusion products a compact array of 36 UK FATIMA LaBr3 detectors is designed based on efficiency studies with Geant4. The photo peak efficiency in the region of interest compares to other gamma detection systems used in this field. The features of the internal decay of 138La is used in a background study to obtain an online calibration of the gamma detectors. Background data are fit to the Monte Carlo model of the self activity assuming crude exponential behavior of external background. Accuracy in the region of interest is of the order of some keV in this first study.

  15. Dark Matter Annihilation Cross-Section Limits of Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies with the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Gamma-Ray Observatory and on the design of a Water Cherenkov Detector Prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proper, Megan Longo

    I present an indirect search for Dark Matter using the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) gamma-ray observatory. There is significant evidence for dark matter within the known Universe, and we can set constraints on the dark matter annihilation cross-section using dark matter rich sources. Dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) are low luminosity galaxies with little to no gas or dust, or recent star formation. In addition, the total mass of a dwarf spheroidal galaxy, as inferred from gravitational effects observed within the galaxy, is many times more than the luminous mass, making them extremely dark matter rich. For these reasons dSphs are prime targets for indirect dark matter searches with gamma rays. Dark matter annihilation cross-section limits are presented for 14 dSphs within the HAWC field of view, as well as a combined limit with all sources. The limits presented here are for dark matter masses ranging from 0.5 TeV to 1000 TeV. At lower dark matter masses, the HAWC-111 limits are not competitive with other gamma-ray experiments, however it will be shown that HAWC is currently dominating in the higher dark matter mass range. The HAWC observatory is a water Cherenkov detector and consists of 300 Water Cherenkov Detectors (WCDs). The detector is located at 4100 m above sea level in the Sierra Negra region of Mexico at latitude 18°59'41" N and longitude 97°18'28" W. Each WCD is instrumented with three 8 inch photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) and one 10 inch high efficiency PMT, anchored to the bottom of a 5 m deep by 7.3 m diameter steel tank. The tank contains a multilayer hermetic plastic bag, called a bladder, which holds 200,000 L of ultra-purified water. I will also present the design, deployment, and operation of a WCD prototype for HAWC built at Colorado State University (CSU). The CSU WCD was the only full-size prototype outside of the HAWC site. It was instrumented with 7 HAWC PMTs and scintillator paddles both under and above the volume of water. In

  16. Measurements of neutron capture cross section for {sup 207,208}Pb

    SciTech Connect

    Segawa, M.; Toh, Y.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Koizumi, M.; Fukahori, T.; Iwamoto, N.; Iwamoto, O.; Oshima, M.; Hatsukawa, Y.; Nagai, Y.; Igashira, M.; Kamada, S.; Tajika, M.

    2014-05-02

    The neutron capture cross sections for {sup 207,208}Pb have been measured in the neutron energy region from 10 to 110 keV. The γ-rays cascaded from a capture state to the ground state or low-lying states of {sup 208,209}Pb were observed for the first time, using an anti-Compton Nal(Tl) spectrometer and a TOF method. The observed discrete γ-ray energy spectra enabled us to determine neutron capture cross sections for {sup 207,208}Pb with small systematic errors, since we could distinguish γ-ray of {sup 207,208}Pb(n,γ) reactions from background γ-ray with use of the γ-ray spectra. The obtained cross sections include both contributions of resonance and direct capture components different from the previous TOF measurements.

  17. Electron Elastic-Scattering Cross-Section Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 64 NIST Electron Elastic-Scattering Cross-Section Database (PC database, no charge)   This database provides values of differential elastic-scattering cross sections, corresponding total elastic-scattering cross sections, phase shifts, and transport cross sections for elements with atomic numbers from 1 to 96 and for electron energies between 50 eV and 20,000 eV (in steps of 1 eV).

  18. Mental Visualization of Objects from Cross-Sectional Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Bing; Klatzky, Roberta L.; Stetten, George D.

    2012-01-01

    We extended the classic anorthoscopic viewing procedure to test a model of visualization of 3D structures from 2D cross-sections. Four experiments were conducted to examine key processes described in the model, localizing cross-sections within a common frame of reference and spatiotemporal integration of cross sections into a hierarchical object…

  19. Inclusive Neutrino Cross Section Measurements at MINERvA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tice, Brian

    2012-10-01

    MINERvA part 4. The knowledge of inclusive neutrino cross sections is valuable for neutrino oscillation experiments. Determination of the A dependence of the cross section can help determine the role of nuclear effects in neutrino scattering, which is poorly known and difficult to model. Preliminary ratios of cross sections on carbon, iron and lead will be shown.

  20. Mental Visualization of Objects from Cross-Sectional Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Bing; Klatzky, Roberta L.; Stetten, George D.

    2012-01-01

    We extended the classic anorthoscopic viewing procedure to test a model of visualization of 3D structures from 2D cross-sections. Four experiments were conducted to examine key processes described in the model, localizing cross-sections within a common frame of reference and spatiotemporal integration of cross sections into a hierarchical object…

  1. Viscous Flow through Pipes of Various Cross-Sections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekner, John

    2007-01-01

    An interesting variety of pipe cross-sectional shapes can be generated, for which the Navier-Stokes equations can be solved exactly. The simplest cases include the known solutions for elliptical and equilateral triangle cross-sections. Students can find pipe cross-sections from solutions of Laplace's equation in two dimensions, and then plot the…

  2. Thermal neutron capture cross section for 56Fe(n ,γ )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firestone, R. B.; Belgya, T.; Krtička, M.; Bečvář, F.; Szentmikloṡi, L.; Tomandl, I.

    2017-01-01

    The 56Fe(n ,γ ) thermal neutron capture cross section and the 57Fe level scheme populated by this reaction have been investigated in this work. Singles γ -ray spectra were measured with an isotopically enriched 56Fe target using the guided cold neutron beam at the Budapest Reactor, and γ γ -coincidence data were measured with a natural Fe target at the LWR-15 research reactor in Řež, Czech Republic. A detailed level scheme consisting of 448 γ rays populating/depopulating 97 levels and the capture state in 57Fe has been constructed, and ≈99 % of the total transition intensity has been placed. The transition probability of the 352-keV γ ray was determined to be Pγ(352 ) =11.90 ±0.07 per 100 neutron captures. The 57Fe level scheme is substantially revised from earlier work and ≈33 previously assigned levels could not be confirmed while a comparable number of new levels were added. The 57Feγ -ray cross sections were internally calibrated with respect to 1H and 32Sγ -ray cross section standards using iron(III) acetylacetonate (C15H21FeO6) and iron pyrite (FeS2) targets. The thermal neutron cross section for production of the 352-keV γ -ray cross section was determined to be σγ(352 ) =0.2849 ±0.015 b. The total 56Fe(n ,γ ) thermal radiative neutron cross section is derived from the 352-keV γ -ray cross section and transition probability as σ0=2.394 ±0.019 b. A least-squares fit of the γ rays to the level scheme gives the 57Fe neutron separation energy Sn=7646.183 ±0.018 keV.

  3. Parameterized Cross Sections for Pion Production in Proton-Proton Collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blattnig, Steve R.; Swaminathan, Sudha R.; Kruger, Adam T.; Ngom, Moussa; Norbury, John W.; Tripathi, R. K.

    2000-01-01

    An accurate knowledge of cross sections for pion production in proton-proton collisions finds wide application in particle physics, astrophysics, cosmic ray physics, and space radiation problems, especially in situations where an incident proton is transported through some medium and knowledge of the output particle spectrum is required when given the input spectrum. In these cases, accurate parameterizations of the cross sections are desired. In this paper much of the experimental data are reviewed and compared with a wide variety of different cross section parameterizations. Therefore, parameterizations of neutral and charged pion cross sections are provided that give a very accurate description of the experimental data. Lorentz invariant differential cross sections, spectral distributions, and total cross section parameterizations are presented.

  4. Photoneutron cross sections for {sup 96}Zr: A systematic experimental study of photoneutron and radiative neutron capture cross sections for zirconium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Utsunomiya, H.; Akimune, H.; Kondo, T.; Itoh, O.; Kamata, M.; Yamagata, T.; Goriely, S.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Goko, S.; Toyokawa, H.; Yamada, K.; Lui, Y.-W.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A. J.

    2010-03-15

    Photoneutron cross sections were measured for {sup 96}Zr near neutron threshold with quasimonochromatic laser-Compton-scattering {gamma}-ray beams. A systematic analysis of photoneutron and radiative neutron capture data for zirconium isotopes within the statistical model calculation leads to a unified picture of low-energy {gamma}-ray strengths for zirconium isotopes that is described by the HFB + QRPA model of E1 strength supplemented with an extra {gamma} strength attributed to a giant M1 resonance. Results of the systematic analysis including radiative neutron capture cross sections for radioactive {sup 95}Zr and {sup 93}Zr nuclei are presented.

  5. Cross sectional study of osteoporosis among women.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Tripti; Verma, A K

    2013-04-01

    Osteoporosis is a major public health problem, associated with substantial morbidity and socio-economic burden. An early detection can help in reducing the fracture rates and overall socio-economic burden. The present study was carried out to screen the bone status (osteopenia and osteoporosis) above the age of 35 yrs in the women. A community based cross sectional study was carried out in 158 women by calculating WHO T-scores utilizing calcaneal QUS as diagnostic tool. The prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia was found to be 13.3% ± 5.29% and 48.1% ± 7.79% respectively. Statistical association of prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis was found to be significant with age group; gravida status; attainment of menopause; body weight and physically active status of the women. The statistical association was not significant in relation to the rank status of their husband, as well as dietary pattern of the women but still it has to be substantiated by conducting larger community based trials in future. The present study found that there was statistically significant relationship between age group and the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis. There was a negative correlation between age of the women and BMD. Besides age, gravida status and menopausal status have negative correlation with BMD while positive correlation with physically active lifestyle. The results were found to be non-significant in relation to rank status of husband and dietary pattern.

  6. Spectroscopy and Photoabsorption Cross Sections of FNO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burley, J. D.; Miller, C. E.; Johnston, H. S.

    1993-04-01

    The spectroscopy and photoabsorption cross sections of nitrosyl fluoride are investigated in the spectral region 350-180 nm. Results for 350-250 nm are in good agreement with the initial measurements of Johnston and Bertin and later measurements from Solgadi and Flament and Huber et al. The spectrum is assigned to a series of vibrational progressions which arise from (0, 0, 0)″ and involve excitation of the ν' 1 mode. Excitations to ( n, 0, 0)' and ( n, 0, 1)' make up the bulk of the spectrum, with promotions to ( n, 1, 0)', ( n, 0, 2)', and ( n, 1, 2)' becoming dominant at higher energies. Analysis of the spectrum results in values of ν' 1 = 1096 cm -1, ν' 2 = 480cm -1 and ν' 3 = 349 cm -1 for the excited state FNO frequencies. The experimental basis for the assignment of ν' 1 and ν' 3 is distinctly stronger than that for ν' 2. Below 250 nm, a broad, featureless continuum absorption is observed, which rises in intensity from σ = 1.77 × 10 -20cm 2 at 245 nm to 5.24 × 10 -19cm 2 at 180 nm.

  7. Abdominal sarcoidosis: cross-sectional imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Gezer, Naciye Sinem; Başara, Işıl; Altay, Canan; Harman, Mustafa; Rocher, Laurence; Karabulut, Nevzat; Seçil, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. The lungs and the lymphoid system are the most commonly involved organs. Extrapulmonary involvement is reported in 30% of patients, and the abdomen is the most common extrapulmonary site with a frequency of 50%–70%. Although intra-abdominal sarcoidosis is usually asymptomatic, its presence may affect the prognosis and treatment options. The lesions are less characteristic and may mimick neoplastic or infectious diseases such as lymphoma, diffuse metastasis, and granulomatous inflammation. The liver and spleen are the most common abdominal sites of involvement. Sarcoidosis of the gastrointestinal system, pancreas, and kidneys are extremely rare. Adenopathy which is most commonly found in the porta hepatis, exudative ascites, and multiple granulomatous nodules studding the peritoneum are the reported manifestations of abdominal sarcoidosis. Since abdominal sarcoidosis is less common and long-standing, unrecognized disease can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Imaging contributes to diagnosis and management of intra-abdominal sarcoidosis. In this report we reviewed the cross-sectional imaging findings of hepatobiliary, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary sarcoidosis. PMID:25512071

  8. Normalization of experimental electron cross sections.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdonina, N.; Felfli, Z.; Msezane, A. Z.

    1997-10-01

    Absolute experimental electron-impact differential cross sections (DCSs) can be obtained through an extrapolation of the relative generalized oscillator strength (GOS) values at some given impact energy E to zero momentum transfer squared K^2, the optical oscillator strength (OOS) [1]. We propose to normalize the relative experimental DCS data to the corresponding OOS value by extrapolating the GOS to K^2 = 0 without involving the nonphysical region. This is possible only by simultaneously increasing E and decreasing K^2 so that K^2 = 0 corresponds to E = ∞. Thus is avoided a divergence of fracd(GOS)d(K^2) at K^2 = 0 [2]. Another advantage of our method is that, over a wide range of small K^2 values the contribution of higher order terms of the Born series to the GOS function is negligible, contrary to the constant E case in which even order K^2 terms are non-Born [2]. Thus first Born approximation can be used to normalize relative experimental DCSs to the OOS. This method is applicable to both the excitation and ionization of atomic and molecular targets by electron impact. The latter case generalizes the method of ref. [3]. ^*Supported by AFOSR, NSF and DoE Div. of Chemical Sciences, OBES. ^1 E. N. Lassettre et al., J. Chem. Phys \\underline50, (1829) ^2 W. M. Huo, J. Chem. Phys \\underline71, 1593 (1979) ^3 A. Saenz, W Weyrich and P. Froelich, J. Phys. B \\underline29, 97 (1996)

  9. APPARATUS FOR MEASURING TOTAL NEUTRON CROSS SECTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Cranberg, L.

    1959-10-13

    An apparatus is described for measuring high-resolution total neutron cross sections at high counting rate in the range above 50-kev neutron energy. The pulsed-beam time-of-flight technique is used to identify the neutrons of interest which are produced in the target of an electrostatic accelerator. Energy modulation of the accelerator . makes it possible to make observations at 100 energy points simultaneously. 761O An apparatus is described for monitoring the proton resonance of a liquid which is particulariy useful in the continuous purity analysis of heavy water. A hollow shell with parallel sides defines a meander chamber positioned within a uniform magnetic fieid. The liquid passes through an inlet at the outer edge of the chamber and through a spiral channel to the central region of the chamber where an outlet tube extends into the chamber perpendicular to the magnetic field. The radiofrequency energy for the monitor is coupled to a coil positioned coaxially with the outlet tube at its entrance point within the chamber. The improvement lies in the compact mechanical arrangement of the monitor unit whereby the liquid under analysis is subjected to the same magnetic field in the storage and sensing areas, and the entire unit is shielded from external electrostatic influences.

  10. Cross-sectional imaging in Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Akira; Saotome, Takao; Yamasaki, Michio; Maeda, Kiyosumi; Nitta, Norihisa; Takahashi, Masashi; Tsujikawa, Tomoyuki; Fujiyama, Yoshihide; Murata, Kiyoshi; Sakamoto, Tsutomu

    2004-01-01

    The role of cross-sectional imaging in the diagnosis of Crohn disease has expanded with recent technologic advances in computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging that allow rapid acquisition of high-resolution images of the intestines. To acquire images of diagnostic quality, administration of a fairly large amount of intraluminal contrast agent prior to examination and scanning with intravenous contrast material injection are necessary. Both CT and MR imaging are reported to have a sensitivity of over 95% for the detection of Crohn disease; however, they may not allow early diagnosis. Colonoscopy and conventional enteroclysis studies are indicated for patients with early-stage disease. At more advanced stages, CT and MR imaging can help identify and characterize pathologically altered bowel segments as well as extraluminal lesions (eg, fistulas, abscesses, fibrofatty proliferation, increased vascularity of the vasa recta, mesenteric lymphadenopathy). These modalities can also clearly depict inflammatory lesion activity and conditions that require elective gastrointestinal surgery, thereby aiding in treatment planning. In the clinical setting, CT is currently the imaging modality of choice at most institutions; however, it is expected that MR imaging will soon play a comparable role. CT or MR imaging should be included in a comprehensive evaluation of patients with Crohn disease, along with conventional imaging and clinical and laboratory tests.

  11. [Fast neutron cross section measurements]. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, G.F.

    1992-10-26

    From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are ``clean`` and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its ``data production`` phase.

  12. Graphs of the cross sections in the Alternate Monte Carlo Cross Section library at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Seamon, R.E.; Soran, P.D.

    1980-06-01

    Graphs of all neutron cross sections and photon production cross sections on the Alternate Monte Carlo Cross Section (AMCCS) library have been plotted along with local neutron heating numbers. The values of ..nu..-bar, the average number of neutrons per fission, are also plotted for appropriate isotopes.

  13. Graphs of the cross sections in the recommended Monte Carlo cross-section library at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Soran, P.D.; Seamon, R.E.

    1980-05-01

    Graphs of all neutron cross sections and photon production cross sections on the Recommended Monte Carlo Cross Section (RMCCS) library have been plotted along with local neutron heating numbers. Values for anti ..nu.., the average number of neutrons per fission, are also given.

  14. Krypton Production Cross Sections and Production Rates in Simulation Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilabert, E.; Lavielle, B.; Schiekel, Th.; Herpers, U.; Neumann, S.; Michel, R.

    1995-09-01

    The stacked-foil technique was used to measured proton induced excitation functions from Sr targets (SrF2). The irradiations were performed at the Laboratoire National Saturne in Saclay (F), the Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala (S) and the Paul Scherrer Institute in Villigen (CH) with primary energies from 45 to 400 MeV. After gamma-spectrometric measurement of short and medium-lived radionuclides and after sufficient cooling, stable and long lived Kr isotopes were measured at Centre Etude Nucleaire in Bordeaux (F). Deduced cross sections were corrected for the production of secondary protons and neutrons by a method developed by Lupke[1]. There are no literature data which can be compared with the cross sections from this work. Theoretical calculations of cross sections were performed using two approaches. The first one was using the hybrid model of preequilibrium reactions with the code AREL[2]. The second was using the Intra-Nuclear-Cascade/Evaporation model in the form of the High Energy Transport Code (HETC)[3]. This study shows that for energies above 200 MeV, the spallation model is better suited to explain the nuclear reactions whereas the preequilibrium model leads to underestimation of the experimental data. For energies above 200 MeV, HETC should be preferred to AREL calculations. In physical models describing galactic cosmic ray (GCR) interactions with matter [4], cross sections of both, proton and neutron-induced reactions, are important parameters. Using the measured cross sections for proton-induced reactions from this work and the experimental Kr depth profiles obtained from Sr targets in the LNS172 simulation experiment [5], we established a set of excitation functions for neutron-induced reactions, which now excellently describes the production rate depth profiles from the simulation experiment. Before measuring experimental cross sections for Kr from Sr, the theoretical depth profiles calculated with pure theoretical excitation functions showed

  15. Allergic conjunctivitis: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, A; Piliego, F; Castegnaro, A; Lazzarini, D; La Gloria Valerio, A; Mattana, P; Fregona, I

    2015-06-01

    Ocular allergy is a common disease in daily practice. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate clinical aspects of and therapeutic approaches to ocular allergy in Italy. Of the 3685 patients affected by ocular allergy and enrolled by 304 ophthalmologists nationally, 3545 were eligible to be included in the statistical analysis. A questionnaire was administered in office to record demographic data, comorbidities, trigger factors, number of conjunctivitis episodes, and past treatments. Signs and symptoms were graded according to their severity, frequency, and duration. Mean age of enrolled patients was 38 ± 19 years. Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (55% of patients) was equally distributed among the different age groups, while perennial allergic conjunctivitis (18%) increased with age and vernal keratoconjunctivitis (9%) was more frequent under the age of 18. Itching and redness were reported in 90% and 85%, respectively; lid skin involvement was observed in 22% of cases and keratitis in 11%. Pollen sensitivities were indicated as the most frequent triggers; however, exposure to non-specific environmental conditions, pollutants, and cigarette smoke was frequently reported. Only 35% of patients underwent a diagnostic evaluation of specific allergic sensitization, with positive allergy tests found in 82% of this subset. With regard to treatment, topical decongestants were used in 43% of patients, corticosteroids in 41%, antihistamines in 29%, systemic antihistamines in 27%, and mast cell stabilizers in 15%. This survey provided useful epidemiological information regarding the clinical characteristics and treatment options of a large cohort of patients affected by different forms of ocular allergy. An understanding of ocular allergic disease, its incidence, demographics, and treatment paradigms provides important information towards understanding its pharmacoeconomics and burden on the national health system. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Measurements of neutron cross sections for chromium, yttrium and terbium at 134 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekimoto, Shun; Okumura, Shintaro; Yashima, Hiroshi; Ninomiya, Kazuhiko; Shima, Tatsushi; Takahashi, Naruto; Shinohara, Atsushi; Hagiwara, Masayuki; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Nishiizumi, Kunihiko; Caffee, Marc; Shibata, Seiichi; Ohtsuki, Tsutomu

    2014-09-01

    Neutron-induced reaction cross sections are essential to cosmochemists aiming to decipher the cosmic-ray irradiation history. These cross section data also serve as a comprehensive nuclear database for estimating residual radioactivities in accelerator facilities. Neutron cross sections in the energy range above 100 MeV have scarcely been measured experimentally; exceptions are for the target materials C, Cu, Pb, Bi. In many instances the neutron cross section is based on the corresponding proton cross section, the assumption being that above 100 MeV they are similar. In this work, we measured reaction cross sections of radionuclides produced through nuclear spallation reactions from Cr, Y and Tb induced by neutrons at 134 MeV. The irradiations were carried out using neutrons produced through Li-7 (p,n) reaction at N0 beam line in RCNP. To estimate quasi-monoenergetic neutron induced cross sections, the target stacks were irradiated on the two angles of 0 and 25 degrees for the axis of the primary proton beam. The results will be compared to the cross section data for the same target materials with 197, 287 and 386 MeV neutrons in our previous work. Neutron-induced reaction cross sections are essential to cosmochemists aiming to decipher the cosmic-ray irradiation history. These cross section data also serve as a comprehensive nuclear database for estimating residual radioactivities in accelerator facilities. Neutron cross sections in the energy range above 100 MeV have scarcely been measured experimentally; exceptions are for the target materials C, Cu, Pb, Bi. In many instances the neutron cross section is based on the corresponding proton cross section, the assumption being that above 100 MeV they are similar. In this work, we measured reaction cross sections of radionuclides produced through nuclear spallation reactions from Cr, Y and Tb induced by neutrons at 134 MeV. The irradiations were carried out using neutrons produced through Li-7 (p,n) reaction at N0

  17. Advanced Neutron Source Cross Section Libraries (ANSL-V): ENDF/B-V based multigroup cross-section libraries for advanced neutron source (ANS) reactor studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, W.E. III; Arwood, J.W.; Greene, N.M.; Moses, D.L.; Petrie, L.M.; Primm, R.T. III; Slater, C.O.; Westfall, R.M.; Wright, R.Q.

    1990-09-01

    Pseudo-problem-independent, multigroup cross-section libraries were generated to support Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Reactor design studies. The ANS is a proposed reactor which would be fueled with highly enriched uranium and cooled with heavy water. The libraries, designated ANSL-V (Advanced Neutron Source Cross Section Libraries based on ENDF/B-V), are data bases in AMPX master format for subsequent generation of problem-dependent cross-sections for use with codes such as KENO, ANISN, XSDRNPM, VENTURE, DOT, DORT, TORT, and MORSE. Included in ANSL-V are 99-group and 39-group neutron, 39-neutron-group 44-gamma-ray-group secondary gamma-ray production (SGRP), 44-group gamma-ray interaction (GRI), and coupled, 39-neutron group 44-gamma-ray group (CNG) cross-section libraries. The neutron and SGRP libraries were generated primarily from ENDF/B-V data; the GRI library was generated from DLC-99/HUGO data, which is recognized as the ENDF/B-V photon interaction data. Modules from the AMPX and NJOY systems were used to process the multigroup data. Validity of selected data from the fine- and broad-group neutron libraries was satisfactorily tested in performance parameter calculations.

  18. Crosstalk in rectangular cross-section heterogeneous multicore fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorova, Olga N.; Astapovich, Maxim S.; Semjonov, Sergey L.

    2016-09-01

    Using neighboring cores with different mode propagation constants (indexes) is a well-known way to reduce crosstalk in multicore fiber (MCF). However, in actual field-deployed fiber, random bends can cause a reduction in the difference between the mode indexes of neighboring cores, which consequently increases crosstalk. The level of crosstalk induced by bending in both rectangular cross-section and circular cross-section heterogeneous MCF with cores arranged in a line was investigated. The experimental results obtained indicate that in contrast to circular cross-section MCF, no bending-induced crosstalk occurs in rectangular cross-section MCF wound on the mandrel without special control of cross-section orientation. Thus, to eliminate undesirable bending-induced crosstalk in heterogeneous MCF a rectangular cross-section should be employed.

  19. Color dipole cross section and inelastic structure function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Yu Seon; Kim, C. S.; Luu, Minh Vu; Reno, Mary Hall

    2014-11-01

    Instead of starting from a theoretically motivated form of the color dipole cross section in the dipole picture of deep inelastic scattering, we start with a parametrization of the deep inelastic structure function for electromagnetic scattering with protons, and then extract the color dipole cross section. Using the parametrizations of F 2(ξ = x or W 2 , Q 2) by Donnachie-Landshoff and Block et al., we find the dipole cross section from an approximate form of the presumed dipole cross section convoluted with the perturbative photon wave function for virtual photon splitting into a color dipole with massless quarks. The color dipole cross section determined this way reproduces the original structure function within about 10% for 0 .1 GeV2 ≤ Q 2 ≤10 GeV2. We discuss the dipole cross section at large and small dipole sizes and compare our results with other parametrizations.

  20. Coupled multigroup cross sections for hydrogen interactions in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wienke, B. R.; Morel, J. E.; Cayton, T. E.; Howell, R. B.

    1985-10-01

    Using analytical fits to the experimental cross sections for H 3 H 2, and H 2+ interactions in plasmas, developed by Gryzinski, Riviere, Jones, and Freeman, we obtain coupled multigroup cross sections and rate coefficients for hydrogen transport applications. Multigroup cross sections and rate coefficients, for specified energy group boundaries, plasma particle and temperature profiles, and cylindrical plasma confinement radius, are generated against a spatially dependent, local Maxwellian scattering background. Cross sections are formatted for direct use in production multigroup S n, Monte Carlo, or specific transport applications. Ten coupled hydrogen reactions are included and resulting cross sections for ionization, scattering, and production can be coupled or decoupled. Reactions treated include H, H 2 ionization by electrons and protons, H, H 2 charge exchange, and H 2, H 2+ dissociative mechanisms. We detail the formalism used to compute effective cross sections and rates and give practicle results for two fusion reactors.

  1. Nuclear fragmentation cross sections for NASA database development

    SciTech Connect

    Zeitlin, Cary J.; Heilbronn, Lawrence H.; Miller, Jack; Fukumura, Akifumi; Iwata, Yoshi; Murakami, Takeshi; MacGibbon, Jane; Pinsky, Lawrence; Wilson, Thomas

    2001-08-24

    Heavy ions with energies of hundreds to thousands of MeV/nucleon are present in the Galactic Cosmic Rays and will be a source of risk to astronaut health when long-duration crewed missions are undertaken. Nuclear interactions of these GCR ions in shielding materials must be accurately modeled by transport codes in order to estimate the dose and dose equivalent at points inside a spacecraft. Uncertainties in the nuclear fragmentation cross sections are propagated into these estimates, and the overall uncertainties increase as shielding depth increases. A program of fragmentation cross section measurements has therefore been undertaken to reduce these uncertainties, using GCR-like ion species and energies in particle accelerators in the United States, at the Brookhaven National Laboratory's Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) and in Japan at the National Institute of Radiological Science's Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). An extensive set of data has been obtained with beams ranging from helium to iron and including most of the species that are prominent in the GCR.

  2. NASA-Lewis experiences with multigroup cross sections and shielding calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lahti, G. P.

    1972-01-01

    The nuclear reactor shield analysis procedures employed at NASA-Lewis are described. Emphasis is placed on the generation, use, and testing of multigroup cross section data. Although coupled neutron and gamma ray cross section sets are useful in two dimensional Sn transport calculations, much insight has been gained from examination of uncoupled calculations. These have led to experimental and analytic studies of areas deemed to be of first order importance to reactor shield calculations. A discussion is given of problems encountered in using multigroup cross sections in the resolved resonance energy range. The addition to ENDF files of calculated and/or measured neutron-energy-dependent capture gamma ray spectra for shielding calculations is questioned for the resonance region. Anomalies inherent in two dimensional Sn transport calculations which may overwhelm any cross section discrepancies are illustrated.

  3. Final Report - Nucelar Astrophysics & Neutron Cross Section Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, Robert F.

    2005-02-01

    This enduring research program of 28 years has taken advantage of the excellent research facility of ORELA at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The fruitful collaborations include a number of scientists from ORNL and some from LASL. This program which has ranged from nuclear structure determinations to astrophysical applications has resulted in the identification and/or the refinement of the nuclear properties of more than 5,000 nuclear energy levels or compound energy states. The nuclei range from 30Si to 250Cf, the probes range from thermal to 50 MeV neutrons, and the studies range from capture gamma ray spectra to total and differential scattering and absorption cross sections.

  4. Projectile and Lab Frame Differential Cross Sections for Electromagnetic Dissociation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Adamczyk, Anne; Dick, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Differential cross sections for electromagnetic dissociation in nuclear collisions are calculated for the first time. In order to be useful for three - dimensional transport codes, these cross sections have been calculated in both the projectile and lab frames. The formulas for these cross sections are such that they can be immediately used in space radiation transport codes. Only a limited amount of data exists, but the comparison between theory and experiment is good.

  5. Left atrial vascularised thrombus diagnosed by transoesophageal cross sectional echocardiography.

    PubMed Central

    Taams, M A; Gussenhoven, E J; Lancée, C T

    1987-01-01

    This report describes a patient with a Björk-Shiley mitral valve prosthesis in whom transoesophageal cross sectional echocardiography revealed a large vascularised mass within the left atrial appendage with smoke-like opacification of blood flow in the left atrium. Transoesophageal cross sectional echocardiography gave a detailed image of the lesion which was unobtainable with precordial cross sectional echocardiography. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 PMID:3426904

  6. Measured microwave scattering cross sections of three meteorite specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    Three meteorite specimens were used in a microwave scattering experiment to determine the scattering cross sections of stony meteorites and iron meteorites in the frequency range from 10 to 14 GHz. The results indicate that the stony meteorites have a microwave scattering cross section that is 30 to 50 percent of their projected optical cross section. Measurements of the iron meteorite scattering were inconclusive because of specimen surface irregularities.

  7. Analytical formulation of the quantum electromagnetic cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandsema, Matthew J.; Narayanan, Ram M.; Lanzagorta, Marco

    2016-05-01

    It has been found that the quantum radar cross section (QRCS) equation can be written in terms of the Fourier transform of the surface atom distribution of the object. This paper uses this form to provide an analytical formulation of the quantum radar cross section by deriving closed form expressions for various geometries. These expressions are compared to the classical radar cross section (RCS) expressions and the quantum advantages are discerned from the differences in the equations. Multiphoton illumination is also briefly discussed.

  8. High E{sub T} jet cross sections at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Flaugher, B.; CDF Collaboration

    1996-08-01

    The inclusive jet cross section for {ital p}{ital {anti p}} collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV as measured by the CDF collaboration will be presented. Preliminary CDF measurements of the {Sigma} E{sub T} cross section at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV and the central inclusive jet cross section at {radical}s = 0.630 TeV will also be shown.

  9. Giant dipole resonance parameters with uncertainties from photonuclear cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plujko, V. A.; Capote, R.; Gorbachenko, O. M.

    2011-09-01

    Updated values and corresponding uncertainties of isovector giant dipole resonance (IVGDR or GDR) model parameters are presented that are obtained by the least-squares fitting of theoretical photoabsorption cross sections to experimental data. The theoretical photoabsorption cross section is taken as a sum of the components corresponding to excitation of the GDR and quasideuteron contribution to the experimental photoabsorption cross section. The present compilation covers experimental data as of January 2010.

  10. Photon scattering cross sections of H2 and He measured with synchrotron radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ice, G. E.

    1977-01-01

    Total (elastic + inelastic) differential photon scattering cross sections have been measured for H2 gas and He, using an X-ray beam. Absolute measured cross sections agree with theory within the probable errors. Relative cross sections (normalized to theory at large S) agree to better than one percent with theoretical values calculated from wave functions that include the effect of electron-electron Coulomb correlation, but the data deviate significantly from theoretical independent-particle (e.g., Hartree-Fock) results. The ratios of measured absolute He cross sections to those of H2, at any given S, also agree to better than one percent with theoretical He-to-H2 cross-section ratios computed from correlated wave functions. It appears that photon scattering constitutes a very promising tool for probing electron correlation in light atoms and molecules.

  11. Macro-scale deformation behavior and characterization of deformation mechanisms below µm-scale in experimentally deformed Boom Clay by using the combination of triaxial compression, X-ray µ-CT imaging, DIC, BIB cross sectioning, and SEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oelker, Anne; Desbois, Guillaume; Urai, Janos L.; Bésuelle, Pierre; Viggiani, Gioacchino; Levasseur, Séverine

    2017-04-01

    Boom Clay is one formation being studied in Belgium as a potential host rock for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste. This poorly indurated clay presents in its natural state favorable properties against the migration of radionuclides: low permeability, low solute diffusion rates, good retention and sorption capacity for many radionuclides and good self-sealing capacity. During construction of disposal galleries, stress redistribution will lead to perturbation of the clay and the formation around galleries of the so-called "Excavation disturbed Zone" (EdZ). The study of deformation mechanisms and evolution of Boom Clay properties at macro but also micro scale allows to assess in a more mechanistic way the evolution of Boom Clay properties in this EdZ. In this work, we show microstructural investigations of Boom Clay deformed in undrained triaxial compression by linking conventional stress/strain curves with Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging of broad-ion-beam (BIB) milled cross-sections to deduce deformation mechanisms based on microstructures at sub-micron resolution. Two specimens, collected in Mol (Belgium) at the European Underground Laboratories (URL) on HADES level, were analyzed: The major principal stress σ1 was applied parallel as well as perpendicular to the bedding direction with an initial mean normal effective stress of 4.5 MPa and an initial pore water pressure of 2.3 MPa, which are equal to the in-situ values. Linking the resulting DIC-derived maps of incremental strains with the corresponding stress/strain curve give not only information about the moment of the shear band development, but also on the way strain evolves within the specimen throughout the rest. Incremental DIC analysis of X-ray tomographic scans performed during loading tests give a time evolution of the strain field, and subsequently allow to detect strain localization which appears close to the stress peak. Regions with a

  12. Capture cross sections from (p,d) reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escher, J. E.; Burke, J. T.; Casperson, R. J.; Hughes, R. O.; Ota, S.; Scielzo, N. D.

    2017-09-01

    Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions involving unstable targets are important for many applications, but can often not be measured directly. Several indirect methods have been proposed to determine neutron capture cross sections for unstable isotopes. We consider an approach that aims at constraining statistical calculations of capture cross sections with data obtained from light-ion transfer reactions such as (p,d). We discuss the theoretical descriptions that have to be developed in order to extract meaningful cross section constraints from such data and show some benchmark results.

  13. Flow in tubes of non-circular cross-sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quadir, Raushan Ara

    Laminar, viscous, incompressible flow in tubes of noncircular cross sections is investigated. The specific aims of the investigation are (1) to look at the problems of both developing flow and fully developed flow, (2) to consider noncircular cross sections in a more systematic manner than has been done in the past, and (3) to develop a relatively simple finite element technique for producing accurate numerical solutions of flow in tubes of fairly arbitrary cross sections. Fully developed flow in tubes is governed by a Poisson type equation for the mainstream velocity. Both analytical and numerical solutions are considered. The cross sections studied include elliptic and rectangular cross sections of different aspect ratios, some triangular cross sections, and a series of crescent-shaped cross sections. The physical characteristics of the flow are examined in a systematic manner in order to determine how these characteristics are affected by certain geometrical features of the cross section. Solutions fall into three basic categories depending on the shape of the cross section. In the first category, which includes circular and elliptic cross sections, solutions are possible in closed form. In the second, including rectangular and some triangular cross sections, solutions are in the form of infinite series. In the third, including cross sections of more complicated or irregular shapes, only numerical solutions are possible. Results of calculations of velocity profiles, flow rate, pumping power, and friction factor are presented in a way which can be useful for engineering applications. In numerical studies of both developing and fully developed flow finite element techniques are used. Results are obtained for tubes of rectangular and elliptic cross sections of different aspect ratios, for tubes of crescent-shaped cross sections, and a tube whose cross section is an oval of Cassini. For fully developed flow, results are compared with the corresponding exact

  14. Initial cross section for photodissociation of phosgene on Ag(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X.-L.; White, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    The initial cross section for UV photodissociation of phosgene (Cl2CO) on Ag(111) at 100 K has been measured. With photon energies greater than 2.6 eV, submonolayer Cl2CO is readily photodissociated to surface Cl(a) and gas phase CO(g). The evolution of CO during photodissociation is readily monitored and used to calculate the initial photodissociation rate and cross section. The cross section is higher than the gas phase absorption cross section and is in the range of 10-18-10-19 cm2. It depends on the wavelength and the Cl2CO coverage.

  15. Inclusive Cross Section Production of J/ψ in LEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osati, T.; Abubakri, B.

    2017-02-01

    Cross section production is one of the observable quantities in the hadronic systems. Inclusive cross section production J/ψ may be calculated through the use of the fragmentation c → J/ψ. In this paper we calculate the inclusive cross section production J/ψ about the pole of Z 0 in the e + e ‑ annihilation, through the lowest order regim of perturbative of QCD ananlyticaly. The obtained results arrive an excellent agreement with the exprimental data to produce the inclusive cross section production c → J/ψ.

  16. Thermal Neutron Capture Cross Section of {sup 22}Ne

    SciTech Connect

    Belgya, T.; Uberseder, E.; Petrich, D.; Kaeppeler, F.

    2009-01-28

    The radiative thermal neutron capture cross section of the astrophysically important {sup 22}Ne nucleus has been measured at the guided cold neutron beam of the Budapest Research Reactor. High-pressure gas-bottles filled with mixtures of enriched {sup 22}Ne and CH{sub 4} were used. The cross section was determined by means of the comparator method, and an improved decay-scheme obtained in this work. The new value for the thermal neutron cross section is 52.7{+-}0.7 mb, 18% larger than the accepted value. The influence of the new cross section on the astrophysical reaction rate is under investigation.

  17. Neutron-capture Cross Sections from Indirect Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Escher, J E; Burke, J T; Dietrich, F S; Ressler, J J; Scielzo, N D; Thompson, I J

    2011-10-18

    Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions play an important role in models of astrophysical environments and simulations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Providing reliable cross section data remains a formidable task, and direct measurements have to be complemented by theoretical predictions and indirect methods. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f) reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

  18. Comparisons of cross-section predictions for relativistic iron and argon beams with semiempirical fragmentation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Lawrence W.; Tripathi, Ram K.; Khan, Ferdous

    1993-01-01

    Cross-section predictions with semi-empirical nuclear fragmentation models from the Langley Research Center and the Naval Research Laboratory are compared with experimental data for the breakup of relativistic iron and argon projectile nuclei in various targets. Both these models are commonly used to provide fragmentation cross-section inputs into galactic cosmic ray transport codes for shielding and exposure analyses. Overall, the Langley model appears to yield better agreement with the experimental data.

  19. Striking behavior of photoneutron cross sections for {sup 90}Zr near threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Utsunomiya, H.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Kondo, T.; Iwamoto, C.; Itoh, O.; Kamata, M.; Io, M.; Kususe, K.; Teramoto, T.; Goriely, S.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Goko, S.; Toyokawa, H.; Yamada, K.; Lui, Y.-W.

    2011-10-28

    Photoneutron cross sections for {sup 90}Zr near neutron threshold were examined with a photon difference technique using laser Compton scattering {gamma}-ray beams. The cross section decreasing in the vicinity of neutron threshold exhibited a steep rise within 150 keV above the threshold. We draw attention to a possible relation of this striking behavior to the 3P valence neutron resonance known in neutron capture in the mass region A{approx_equal}90.

  20. Cross-Section of Icy Soil

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-05-28

    This diagram shows a possible configuration of ice-rich and dry soil in the upper meter 3 feet of Mars. The ice-rich soil was detected by the gamma ray spectrometer suite of instruments aboard NASA Mars Odyssey spacecraft.

  1. Cross Section Calculations and Comparison to Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Ford, W. P.; Dewet, W. C.; Werneth, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding fragmentation of galactic cosmic ray nuclei in collisions within spacecraft structures and human tissues is an important element in assessing biological risk to crew members from this radiation source. Over the past four decades, various models have been developed to describe these important processes. Some models invoke semi-classical concepts based upon geometric descriptions of collisions between spherical nuclei.

  2. Nonlinear effects in the inclusive inelastic proton-air cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannini, A. V.; Durães, F. O.

    2013-03-01

    In this work we propose a simple model for the total proton-air cross section, which is an improvement of the eikonalized minijet model, with the inclusion of the effects of the first nonlinear corrections to the DGLAP equations. The gluon saturation limits are determined in the DGLAP+GLRMQ approach for the free proton and the inclusive inelastic proton-air cross section is described within the Glauber and multiple scattering approximations. The results are compared with experimental cross sections including recent data obtained by cosmic ray experiments.

  3. Nonlinear effects in the inclusive inelastic proton-air cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Giannini, A. V.; Duraes, F. O.

    2013-03-25

    In this work we propose a simple model for the total proton-air cross section, which is an improvement of the eikonalized minijet model, with the inclusion of the effects of the first nonlinear corrections to the DGLAP equations. The gluon saturation limits are determined in the DGLAP+GLRMQ approach for the free proton and the inclusive inelastic proton-air cross section is described within the Glauber and multiple scattering approximations. The results are compared with experimental cross sections including recent data obtained by cosmic ray experiments.

  4. Charge Exchange Cross Sections for Multiply-Charged Ions Colliding with Water

    SciTech Connect

    Otranto, S.; Olson, R. E.

    2009-03-10

    The classical trajectory Monte Carlo method is used to calculate total and state selective nl-electron capture cross sections for highly charged ions Z = 4-10, 14, 18 and 26 colliding with water. The initialization for the 1B1 and 3A1 orbitals of the water molecule is based on a Slater orbital expansion. The Z-dependence of the calculated total cross sections is in reasonable agreement with recent data. The K-shell x-ray emission cross sections are determined from the calculated state-selective electron capture results.

  5. Neutron Fission of 235,237,239U and 241,243Pu: Cross Sections, Integral Cross Sections and Cross Sections on Excited States

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, W; Britt, H C

    2003-07-10

    In a recent paper submitted to Phys. Rev. C they have presented estimates for (n,f) cross sections on a series of Thorium, Uranium and Plutonium isotopes over the range E{sub n} = 0.1-2.5 MeV. The (n,f) cross sections for many of these isotopes are difficult or impossible to measure in the laboratory. The cross sections were obtained from previous (t,pf) reaction data invoking a model which takes into account the differences between (t,pf) and (n,f) reaction processes, and which includes improved estimates for the neutron compound formation process. The purpose of this note is: (1) to compare the estimated cross sections to current data files in both ENDF and ENDL databases; (2) to estimate ratios of cross sections relatively to {sup 235}U integrated over the ''tamped flattop'' critical assembly spectrum that was used in the earlier {sup 237}U report; and (3) to show the effect on the integral cross sections when the neutron capturing state is an excited rotational state or an isomer. The isomer and excited state results are shown for {sup 235}U and {sup 237}U.

  6. Section Builder: A finite element tool for analysis and design of composite beam cross-sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarty, Uttam Kumar

    SectionBuilder is an innovative finite element based tool, developed for analysis and design of composite beam cross-sections. The tool can handle the cross-sections with parametric shapes and arbitrary configurations. It can also handle arbitrary lay-ups for predefined beam cross-section geometries in a consistent manner. The material properties for each layer of the cross-section can be defined on the basis of the design requirements. This tool is capable of dealing with multi-cell composite cross-sections with arbitrary lay-ups. It has also the benefit of handling the variation of thickness of skin and D-spars for beams such as rotor blades. A typical cross-section is considered as a collection of interconnected walls. Walls with arbitrary lay-ups based on predefined geometries and material properties are generated first. The complex composite beam cross-sections are developed by connecting the walls using various types of connectors. These connectors are compatible with the walls, i.e., the thickness of the layers of the walls must match with those of the connectors at the place of connection. Cross-sections are often reinforced by core material for constructing realistic rotor blade cross-sections. The tool has the ability to integrate core materials into the cross-sections. A mapped mesh is considered for meshing parametric shapes, walls and various connectors, whereas a free mesh is considered for meshing the core materials. A new algorithm based on the Delaunay refinement algorithm is developed for creating the best possible free mesh for core materials. After meshing the cross-section, the tool determines the sectional properties using finite element analysis. This tool computes sectional properties including stiffness matrix, compliance matrix, mass matrix, and principal axes. A visualization environment is integrated with the tool for visualizing the stress and strain distributions over the cross-section.

  7. Total cross sections for positrons scattered elastically from helium based on new measurements of total ionization cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diana, L. M.; Chaplin, R. L.; Brooks, D. L.; Adams, J. T.; Reyna, L. K.

    1990-01-01

    An improved technique is presented for employing the 2.3m spectrometer to measure total ionization cross sections, Q sub ion, for positrons incident on He. The new ionization cross section agree with the values reported earlier. Estimates are also presented of total elastic scattering cross section, Q sub el, obtained by subtracting from total scattering cross sections, Q sub tot, reported in the literature, the Q sub ion and Q sub Ps (total positronium formation cross sections) and total excitation cross sections, Q sub ex, published by another researcher. The Q sub ion and Q sub el measured with the 3m high resolution time-of-flight spectrometer for 54.9eV positrons are in accord with the results from the 2.3m spectrometer. The ionization cross sections are in fair agreement with theory tending for the most part to be higher, especially at 76.3 and 88.5eV. The elastic cross section agree quite well with theory to the vicinity of 50eV, but at 60eV and above the experimental elastic cross sections climb to and remain at about 0.30 pi a sub o sq while the theoretical values steadily decrease.

  8. Proton proton total cross-sections at VHE from accelerator data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Peraza, J.; Sánchez-Hertz, A.; Alvarez-Madrigal, M.; Gallegos-Cruz, A.; Velasco, J.; Faus-Golfe, A.

    2005-06-01

    Up-to-date estimates of proton-proton total cross-sections, σtotpp, at very high energies in the literature were obtained from cosmic rays (>1017 eV) by approximations using the measured proton-air cross-section at these energies. As σtotpp are measured with present day high energy colliders up to nearly 2 TeV in the centre of mass (~1015 eV in the laboratory), several proven theoretical, empirical and semi-empirical parametrizations for interpolation at accelerator energies were used to extrapolate these measured values to get reasonable estimates of cross-sections at higher cosmic ray energies (~1017 eV). The cross-section estimates from these two methods disagree by a discrepancy beyond statistical error. Here we use a phenomenological model based on the 'multiple diffraction' approach to successfully describe data at accelerator energies. Using this model, we then estimate σtotpp at cosmic ray energies. The model free-parameters used in the fit depend on only two physical observables: the differential cross-section and the parameter ρ. The model estimates of σtotpp are then compared with total cross-section data. Using regression analysis, we determine confidence error bands, analysing the sensitivity of our predictions to the data used in the extrapolations. This work reduces the width of the confidence band around 'multiple diffraction' model fits of accelerator data. With the data at 546 GeV and 1.8 TeV, our extrapolations are compatible with only the Akeno cosmic ray data, predicting a slower rise with energy than do other cosmic ray results and other extrapolation methods. We discuss our results within the context of constraints expected from future accelerator and cosmic ray experimental results.

  9. Measurement of 150-Sm(n,2ngammai) 149-Sm cross sections between threshold and 20 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J; Becker, J; Dashdorj, D; Dietrich, F S; Garrett, P; Hoffman, R; Younes, W; Nelson, R; Devlin, M; Fotiades, N

    2004-08-02

    Absolute partial {gamma}-ray cross sections for the production of discrete {gamma}-rays from the reaction {sup 150}Sm(n,2n{gamma}{sub i}){sup 149}Sm were measured using the GEANIE {gamma}-ray spectrometer coupled with the intense white neutron source at WNR/LANSCE. The measurements were made for incident neutron energies between threshold (8.04 MeV) and 20 MeV. The partial cross sections for 21 {gamma}-rays were extracted from the data. Of these, 17 were compared to calculations performed using the enhanced Hauser-Feshbach code STAPRE. The partial {gamma}-ray cross sections of the observed parallel decay paths to the ground state were summed, forming a lower bound for the (n,2n) reaction channel. A combination of theory and experiment was then used to deduce the (n,2n) reaction channel cross section.

  10. Electron induced inelastic and ionization cross section for plasma modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Pankaj; Mahato, Dibyendu; Kaur, Jaspreet; Antony, Bobby

    2016-09-01

    The present paper reports electron impact total inelastic and ionization cross section for silicon, germanium, and tin tetrahalides at energies varying from ionization threshold of the target to 5000 eV. These cross section data over a wide energy domain are very essential to understand the physico-chemical processes involved in various environments such as plasma modeling, semiconductor etching, atmospheric sciences, biological sciences, and radiation physics. However, the cross section data on the above mentioned molecules are scarce. In the present article, we report the computation of total inelastic cross section using spherical complex optical potential formalism and the estimation of ionization cross section through a semi-empirical method. The present ionization cross section result obtained for SiCl4 shows excellent agreement with previous measurements, while other molecules have not yet been investigated experimentally. Present results show more consistent behaviour than previous theoretical estimates. Besides cross sections, we have also studied the correlation of maximum ionization cross section with the square root of the ratio of polarizability to ionization potential for the molecules with known polarizabilities. A linear relation is observed between these quantities. This correlation is used to obtain approximate polarizability volumes for SiBr4, SiI4, GeCl4, GeBr4, and GeI4 molecules.

  11. On the measurement of absorption cross sections of gaseous media

    SciTech Connect

    Gamalii, V.F.; Toptygin, D.D.

    1995-02-01

    A new technique for experimental determination of integral absorption cross sections of gaseous media by the method of modulation intracavity laser spectroscopy (MILS) is proposed. A formula relating the integral absorption cross section to the spectral position of radiation spectral condensation peaks in the absorption line wings is derived. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Cross sections for scattering of electrons on BF_3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radmilovic-Radjenovic, M.; Varambhia, H. N.; Vranic, M.; Tennyson, J.; Petrovic, Z. Lj.

    2008-07-01

    We calculate cross sections for elastic scattering and electronic excitation of BF_3 molecules by low energy electrons. The R-Matrix code Quantemol-N has been used for calculations. The cross sections indicate the presence of a shape resonance of symmetry B_1 (A_2'' in D_3h) at around 4.5 eV.

  13. Analysis of cross sections using various nuclear potential

    SciTech Connect

    Aziz, Azni Abdul; Kassim, Hasan Abu; Yusof, Norhasliza; Muhammad Zamrun, F.

    2014-05-02

    The relevant astrophysical reaction rates which are derived from the reaction cross sections are necessary input to the reaction network. In this work, we analyse several theoretical models of the nuclear potential which give better prediction of the cross sections for some selected reactions.

  14. First measurement of the charged current cross section at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, T.; Andreev, V.; Andrieu, B.; Appuhn, R.-D.; Arpagaus, M.; Babaev, A.; Bán, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Barth, M.; Bassler, U.; Beck, H. P.; Behrend, H.-J.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Bergstein, H.; Bernardi, G.; Bernet, R.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Besançon, M.; Biddulph, P.; Bizot, J. C.; Blobel, V.; Borras, K.; Boudry, V.; Braemer, A.; Brasse, F.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Brune, C.; Büngener, L.; Bürger, J.; Büsser, F. W.; Buniatian, A.; Burke, S.; Buschhorn, G.; Campbell, A. J.; Carli, T.; Charles, F.; Clarke, D.; Clegg, A. B.; Colombo, M.; Coughlan, J. A.; Courau, A.; Coutures, Ch.; Cozzika, G.; Criegee, L.; Cussans, D. G.; Cvach, J.; Dagoret, S.; Dainton, J. B.; Danilov, M.; Dann, A. W. E.; Dau, W. D.; Daum, K.; David, M.; Deffur, E.; Delcourt, B.; Del Buono, L.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.; Dollfus, C.; Dowell, J. D.; Dreis, H. B.; Duboc, J.; Düllmann, D.; Dünger, O.; Duhm, H.; Ebert, J.; Ebert, T. R.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Ehrlichmann, H.; Eichenberger, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellison, R. J.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Evrard, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Feeken, D.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Ferrarotto, F.; Flamm, K.; Flauger, W.; Fleischer, M.; Flieser, M.; Flügge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Fominykh, B.; Forbush, M.; Formánek, J.; Foster, J. M.; Franke, G.; Fretwurst, E.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamerdinger, K.; Garvey, J.; Gayler, J.; Gebauer, M.; Gellrich, A.; Genzel, H.; Gerhards, R.; Goerlach, U.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Goldner, D.; Goodall, A. M.; Gorelov, I.; Goritchev, P.; Grab, C.; Grässler, H.; Grässler, R.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, G.; Gruber, C.; Haack, J.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Hamon, O.; Hampel, M.; Hanlon, E. M.; Hapke, M.; Haynes, W. J.; Heatherington, J.; Hedberg, V.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herma, R.; Herynek, I.; Hildesheim, W.; Hill, P.; Hilton, C. D.; Hladký, J.; Hoeger, K. C.; Höppner, M.; Huet, Ph.; Hufnagel, H.; Ibbotson, M.; Itterbeck, H.; Jabiol, M.-A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jacobsson, C.; Jaffre, M.; Janoth, J.; Jansen, T.; Jönsson, L.; Johannsen, K.; Johnson, D. P.; Johnson, L.; Jung, H.; Kalmus, P. I. P.; Kant, D.; Kazarian, S.; Kaschowitz, R.; Kasselmann, P.; Kathage, U.; Kaufmann, H. H.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kermiche, S.; Keuker, C.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Knies, G.; Ko, W.; Köhler, T.; Kolanoski, H.; Kole, F.; Kolya, S. D.; Korbel, V.; Korn, M.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S. K.; Krasny, M. W.; Krehbiel, H.; Krücker, D.; Krüger, U.; Krüner-Marquis, M.; Kubenka, J. P.; Küster, H.; Kuhlen, M.; Kurča, T.; Kurzhöfer, J.; Kuznik, B.; Lacour, D.; Lamarche, F.; Lander, R.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Lanius, P.; Laporte, J. F.; Lebedev, A.; Leverenz, C.; Levonian, S.; Ley, Ch.; Lindner, A.; Lindström, G.; Linsel, F.; Lipinski, J.; Loch, P.; Lohmander, H.; Lopez, G. C.; Lüers, D.; Lüke, D.; Magnussen, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mani, S.; Marage, P.; Marshall, R.; Martens, J.; Martin, R.; Martyn, H.-U.; Martyniak, J.; Masson, S.; Mavroidis, A.; Maxfield, S. J.; McMahon, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Mercer, D.; Merz, T.; Meyer, C. A.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milone, V.; Milstead, D.; Moreau, F.; Morris, J. V.; Müller, G.; Murín, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Nawrath, G.; Newman, P. R.; Newton, D.; Neyret, D.; Nguyen, H. K.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nisius, R.; Nowak, G.; Noyes, G. W.; Nyberg-Werther, M.; Oberlack, H.; Obrock, U.; Olsson, J. E.; Panitch, A.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peppel, E.; Perez, E.; Phillips, J. P.; Pichler, Ch.; Pitzl, D.; Pope, G.; Prell, S.; Prosi, R.; Rädel, G.; Raupach, F.; Reimer, P.; Reinshagen, S.; Ribarics, P.; Riech, V.; Riedlberger, J.; Riess, S.; Rietz, M.; Robertson, S. M.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rosenbauer, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Royon, C.; Rüter, K.; Ruffer, M.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sahlmann, N.; Sanchez, E.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Savitsky, M.; Schacht, P.; Schleper, P.; von Schlippe, W.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, D.; Schöning, A.; Schröder, V.; Schulz, M.; Schwab, B.; Schwind, A.; Seehausen, U.; Sefkow, F.; Sell, R.; Semenov, A.; Shekelyan, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shooshtari, H.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Siegmon, G.; Siewert, U.; Sirois, Y.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Smirnov, P.; Smith, J. R.; Soloviev, Y.; Spitzer, H.; Staroba, P.; Steenbock, M.; Steffen, P.; Steinberg, R.; Stella, B.; Stephens, K.; Stier, J.; Stiewe, J.; Stösslein, U.; Strachota, J.; Straumann, U.; Struczinski, W.; Sutton, J. P.; Tapprogge, S.; Taylor, R. E.; Tchernyshov, V.; Thiebaux, C.; Thompson, G.; Tichomirov, I.; Truöl, P.; Turnau, J.; Tutas, J.; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallée, C.; Van Esch, P.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vartapetian, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vecko, M.; Verrecchia, P.; Villet, G.; Wacker, K.; Wagener, A.; Walker, I. W.; Walther, A.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Wegner, A.; Wellisch, H. P.; West, L. R.; Willard, S.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.-G.; Wolff, Th.; Wright, A. E.; Wünsch, E.; Wulff, N.; Yiou, T. P.; Žáček, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zimmer, M.; Zimmermann, W.; Zomer, F.; Zuber, K.; H1 Collaboration

    1994-03-01

    The cross section of the charged current process e-p → ve + hadrons is measured at HERA for transverse momenta of the hadron system larger than 25 GeV. The size of the cross section exhibits the W propagator.

  15. Benchmark Calculations of Electron-Impact Differential Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, I.; Bostock, C. J.; Fursa, D. V.; Hines, C. W.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Stelbovics, A. T.

    2011-05-11

    The calculation of electron-atom excitation and ionization cross section is considered in both the non-relativistic and relativistic scattering theory. We consider electron collisions with H, He, Cs, and Hg. Differential cross sections for elastic scattering and ionization are presented.

  16. Learning of Cross-Sectional Anatomy Using Clay Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Kim, Ji-Young; Choe, Yeon Hyeon

    2009-01-01

    We incorporated clay modeling into gross anatomy and neuro-anatomy courses to help students understand cross-sectional anatomy. By making clay models, cutting them and comparing cut surfaces to CT and MR images, students learned how cross-sectional two-dimensional images were created from three-dimensional structure of human organs. Most students…

  17. Learning of Cross-Sectional Anatomy Using Clay Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Kim, Ji-Young; Choe, Yeon Hyeon

    2009-01-01

    We incorporated clay modeling into gross anatomy and neuro-anatomy courses to help students understand cross-sectional anatomy. By making clay models, cutting them and comparing cut surfaces to CT and MR images, students learned how cross-sectional two-dimensional images were created from three-dimensional structure of human organs. Most students…

  18. Cross sections for electron collisions with nitric oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Itikawa, Yukikazu

    2016-09-15

    Cross section data are reviewed for electron collisions with nitric oxide. Collision processes considered are total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational, vibrational, and electronic states, ionization, and dissociative electron attachment. After a survey of the literature (up to the end of 2015), recommended values of the cross section are determined, as far as possible.

  19. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Carbon Monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Itikawa, Yukikazu

    2015-03-15

    Cross section data are collected and reviewed for electron collisions with carbon monoxide. Collision processes included are total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational, vibrational and electronic states, ionization, and dissociation. For each process, recommended values of the cross sections are presented, when possible. The literature has been surveyed through to the end of 2013.

  20. How Fast Is the Growth of Total Cross Section at High Energies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleem, F.; Rashid, Haris; Tahir, Sohail Afzal; Faridi, M. Ayub; Afzal, Qadeer, M.

    2003-07-01

    Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and Large Hadron Colliders have special agenda for the measurements of the total cross sections at high energies giving us an opportunity to touch cosmic ray energies. Recent analyses of the cosmic ray data together with earlier experimental measurements at ISR and SPS gives us an insight about the behaviour of this important parameter at asymptotic energies. We will study the growth of total cross section at high energies in the light of various theoretical approaches with special reference to measurements at RHIC and LHC.

  1. Temperature-dependent high resolution absorption cross sections of propane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beale, Christopher A.; Hargreaves, Robert J.; Bernath, Peter F.

    2016-10-01

    High resolution (0.005 cm-1) absorption cross sections have been measured for pure propane (C3H8). These cross sections cover the 2550-3500 cm-1 region at five temperatures (from 296 to 700 K) and were measured using a Fourier transform spectrometer and a quartz cell heated by a tube furnace. Calibrations were made by comparison to the integrated cross sections of propane from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. These are the first high resolution absorption cross sections of propane for the 3 μm region at elevated temperatures. The cross sections provided may be used to monitor propane in combustion environments and in astronomical sources such as the auroral regions of Jupiter, brown dwarfs and exoplanets.

  2. Fission Cross Section Measurements of Actinides at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    F. Tovesson; A. B. Laptev; T. S. Hill

    2011-08-01

    Fission cross sections of a range of actinides have been measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in support of nuclear energy applications. By combining measurement at two LANSCE facilities, Lujan Center and the Weapons Neutron Research center (WNR), differential cross sections can be measured from sub-thermal energies up to 200 MeV. Incident neutron energies are determined using the time-of-flight method, and parallel-plate ionization chambers are used to measure fission cross sections relative to the 235U standard. Recent measurements include the 233, 238U, 239-242Pu, and 243Am neutron-induced fission cross sections. In this paper preliminary results for fission cross sections of 243Am and 233U will be presented.

  3. On river cross-sectional change in the Niger Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abam, T. K. S.; Omuso, W. O.

    2000-08-01

    A network of dominantly distributary river systems dissects the superficial deposits of the Niger Delta comprising alluvial sediments. Changes in river cross-sections are instigated mainly by bank failures, fluctuations in discharge, and bed degradation by fluvial processes. The relative importance of factors causing river cross-sectional change was ranked, based on a deterministic sensitivity technique involving partial differentiation of soil properties, flow characteristics, and geometrical parameters of the river channels. Analysis suggests that steep bank inclination and high flow velocity/discharge are the major causes of cross-sectional change, while interlocking of soil grains is the major erosion-restraining factor. Sensitivity coefficients were used further to generate susceptibility indices, indicating the vulnerability of channel cross-sections to change. Based on this, the risks of channel cross-sectional change were compared at different sites.

  4. Temperature-dependent absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicovich, J. M.; Wine, P. H.

    1988-01-01

    Relative absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor were measured over the temperature ranges 285-381 K for lambda = 230 nm-295 nm and 300-381 K for lambda = 193 nm-350 nm. The well established 298 K cross sections at 202.6 and 228.8 nm were used as an absolute calibration. A significant temperature dependence was observed at the important tropospheric photolysis wavelengths lambda over 300 nm. Measured cross sections were extrapolated to lower temperatures, using a simple model which attributes the observed temperature dependence to enhanced absorption by molecules possessing one quantum of O-O stretch vibrational excitation. Upper tropospheric photodissociation rates calculated using the extrapolated cross sections are about 25 percent lower than those calculated using currently recommended 298 K cross sections.

  5. Electron collision cross section sets of TMS and TEOS vapours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, S.; Takahashi, K.; Satoh, K.; Itoh, H.

    2017-05-01

    Reliable and detailed sets of electron collision cross sections for tetramethylsilane [TMS, Si(CH3)4] and tetraethoxysilane [TEOS, Si(OC2H5)4] vapours are proposed. The cross section sets of TMS and TEOS vapours include 16 and 20 kinds of partial ionization cross sections, respectively. Electron transport coefficients, such as electron drift velocity, ionization coefficient, and longitudinal diffusion coefficient, in those vapours are calculated by Monte Carlo simulations using the proposed cross section sets, and the validity of the sets is confirmed by comparing the calculated values of those transport coefficients with measured data. Furthermore, the calculated values of the ionization coefficient in TEOS/O2 mixtures are compared with measured data to confirm the validity of the proposed cross section set.

  6. DPA Cross Section Library FermiDPA 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Pronskikh, V. S.; Mokhov, N. V.

    2013-06-05

    DPA cross section library FermiDPA 1.0 based on the industry standard NRT model calculations is described. The library contains DPA cross sections for neutrons in the energy range 10$^{-5}$ eV 20 (150) MeV. Calculations used neutron-induced reaction cross sections from ENDFB-VII database of evaluated nuclear data. The NJOY99 nuclear data processing system's module HEATR was applied to calculate NRT model radiation damage cross sections. The FermiDPA 1.0 library is a database of 395 text files (for 395 known isotopes) with DPA cross sections. It is code-independent and can be implemented in any transport code.

  7. Fission cross section measurements of actinides at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Tovesson, Fredrik; Laptev, Alexander B; Hill, Tony S

    2010-01-01

    Fission cross sections of a range of actinides have been measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in support of nuclear energy applications. By combining measurement at two LANSCE facilities, Lujan Center and the Weapons Neutron Research center (WNR), differential cross sections can be measured from sub-thermal energies up to 200 MeV. Incident neutron energies are determined using the time-of-flight method, and parallel-plate ionization chambers are used to measure fission cross sections relative to the {sup 235}U standard. Recent measurements include the {sup 233,238}U, {sup 239,242}Pu and {sup 243}Am neutron-induced fission cross sections. In this paper preliminary results for cross section data of {sup 243}Am and {sup 233}U will be presented.

  8. Temperature-dependent absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicovich, J. M.; Wine, P. H.

    1988-03-01

    Relative absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor were measured over the temperature ranges 285-381 K for lambda = 230 nm-295 nm and 300-381 K for lambda = 193 nm-350 nm. The well established 298 K cross sections at 202.6 and 228.8 nm were used as an absolute calibration. A significant temperature dependence was observed at the important tropospheric photolysis wavelengths lambda over 300 nm. Measured cross sections were extrapolated to lower temperatures, using a simple model which attributes the observed temperature dependence to enhanced absorption by molecules possessing one quantum of O-O stretch vibrational excitation. Upper tropospheric photodissociation rates calculated using the extrapolated cross sections are about 25 percent lower than those calculated using currently recommended 298 K cross sections.

  9. Manpower Planning Models. 2. Cross Sectional Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-01

    numerous places including Debreu and Herstein [1953 ]. Section 8 is essentially taken from Branchflower [1970]. The reader interested in pursuing the...in a Graded Manpower System," Man. Sei. (Theory) Vol. 20, pp 76-84 (1973). ’ Debreu, G. and Herstein , I. N., "Non-negative Square Matrices

  10. Effect of pre-equilibrium spin distribution on neutron-induced reaction cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Dashdorj, D.; Mitchell, G. E.; Becker, J. A.; Wu, C. Y.; Chadwick, M. B.; Devlin, M.; Fotiades, N.; Kawano, T.; Nelson, R. O.; Garrett, P. E.; Kunieda, S.

    2008-04-17

    Cross section measurements were made of prompt gamma-ray production as a function of neutron energy using the germanium array for neutron induced excitations (GEANIE) at LANSCE. Measuring the prompt reaction gamma rays as a function of incident neutron energy provides more precise understanding of the spins populated by the pre-equilibrium reaction. The effect of the spin distribution in pre-equilibrium reactions has been investigated using the GNASH reaction code. Widely used classical theories such as the exciton model usually assume that the spin distribution of the pre-equilibrium reaction is the same as the spin distribution of the compound nucleus reaction mechanism. In the present approach, the pre-equilibrium reaction spin distribution was calculated using the quantum mechanical theory of Feshbach, Kerman, and Koonin (FKK). This pre-equilibrium spin distribution was incorporated into the GNASH code and the gamma-ray production cross sections were calculated and compared with experimental data. Spin distributions peak at lower spin when calculated with the FKK formulation than with the Compound Nuclear theory. The measured partial gamma-ray cross sections reflect this spin difference. Realistic treatment of the spin distribution improves the accuracy of calculations of gamma-ray production cross sections.

  11. Cross-section adjustment techniques for BWR adaptive simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jessee, Matthew Anderson

    Computational capability has been developed to adjust multi-group neutron cross-sections to improve the fidelity of boiling water reactor (BWR) modeling and simulation. The method involves propagating multi-group neutron cross-section uncertainties through BWR computational models to evaluate uncertainties in key core attributes such as core k-effective, nodal power distributions, thermal margins, and in-core detector readings. Uncertainty-based inverse theory methods are then employed to adjust multi-group cross-sections to minimize the disagreement between BWR modeling predictions and measured plant data. For this work, measured plant data were virtually simulated in the form of perturbed 3-D nodal power distributions with discrepancies with predictions of the same order of magnitude as expected from plant data. Using the simulated plant data, multi-group cross-section adjustment reduces the error in core k-effective to less than 0.2% and the RMS error in nodal power to 4% (i.e. the noise level of the in-core instrumentation). To ensure that the adapted BWR model predictions are robust, Tikhonov regularization is utilized to control the magnitude of the cross-section adjustment. In contrast to few-group cross-section adjustment, which was the focus of previous research on BWR adaptive simulation, multigroup cross-section adjustment allows for future fuel cycle design optimization to include the determination of optimal fresh fuel assembly designs using the adjusted multi-group cross-sections. The major focus of this work is to efficiently propagate multi-group neutron cross-section uncertainty through BWR lattice physics calculations. Basic neutron cross-section uncertainties are provided in the form of multi-group cross-section covariance matrices. For energy groups in the resolved resonance energy range, the cross-section uncertainties are computed using an infinitely-dilute approximation of the neutron flux. In order to accurately account for spatial and

  12. Upper bound on the spin-flip cross section from unitarity, total cross section and the forward slope

    SciTech Connect

    Sakmar, I.A.

    1981-03-01

    For the spin 0--spin 1/2 particle scattering we give a method to construct an upper bound on the spin-flip cross section with the variational calculus using as constraints the total cross section, the forward slope and the full unitarity.

  13. Systematics of cross sections for target K-vacancy production in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yong

    Cross sections for K-shell ionization by heavy ions have been determined from the measurements of target K x-ray yields. The measurements were performed with Ar, Kr, and Xe ions at energies from 2.5 to 25 MeV/amu and self-supported metallic foil targets of Al, Ti, Cu, Zr, Ag, Sm, and Ta. The x-ray yields were measured with a Si(Li) detector, while the projectile ions were counted in coincidence with the x-rays using a plastic scintillation detector. In addition, the amount of secondary K-shell ionization and the degree of simultaneous L-shell ionization in primary K-shell ionizing collisions were assessed by performing high-resolution x-ray measurements on targets of Al, Ti, V, Co, and Cu with a curved crystal spectrometer. The results of the high resolution measurements revealed that the apparent average L-shell spectator vacancy fraction at the time of Kalpha x-ray emission, pL, may be represented by a universal function of the Geometrical Model's parameter X for Z2 = 17-32. Multiple-vacancy Kalpha fluorescence yields and corrections for K-shell ionization by secondary processes were determined with the aid of the high resolution spectra for the targets Al, Ti, and Cu. Fluorescence yields for the other targets were determined using an extrapolation procedure. The resulting K-vacancy production cross sections for 2.5 to 6 MeV/amu projectiles were compared with a limited amount of available experimental data and shown to be in relatively good agreement. The ECPSSR predictions for all the targets except Al agreed reasonably well with experimental cross sections for Ar projectiles. The experimental cross sections for K-vacancy production in Al, Ti, Cu, Zr, and Ag were greatly deviated from the ECPSSR predictions. The cross sections for Kr on Sm and Ta were in good agreement with theory. The scaling properties of the Kalpha x-ray production cross sections were examined and a semiempirical "universal" curve was deduced that reproduces the measured cross sections to

  14. Damage accumulation in closed cross-section, laminated, composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucinell, Ronald B.

    1996-01-01

    . Space structures typically have closed cross-sections, absent of free edges. As a result, composite material characterization data generated using finite width flat specimens does not accurately reflect the performance of the composite materials used in a closed cross-section structural configuration. Several investigators have recognized the need to develop characterization techniques for composite materials in closed cross-sectioned structures. In these investigations test methods were developed and cylindrical specimens were evaluated. The behavior of the cylindrical specimens were observed to depart from behavior typical of flat coupons. However, no attempts were made to identify and monitor the progression of damage in these cylindrical specimens during loading. The identification and monitoring of damage is fundamental to the characterization of composite materials in closed cross-section configurations. In the study reported here, a closed cross-sectioned test method was developed to monitor damage progression in 2 in. diameter cylindrical specimens and 1.5 in. finite width flat coupons subjected to quasi-static, tensile loading conditions. Damage in these specimen configurations was monitored using pulse echo ultrasonic, acoustic emission, and X-ray techniques.

  15. Cross-Sectional Drawing Techniques And The Artist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, William A.

    1980-07-01

    Although Democritus, a Greek pholosopher of the fifth century B.C. described the use of cross-sections in analyzing a solid form, this method was not extensively developed in art until the Renaissance. The earliest treatise documenting the integration of the cross-section and linear perspective is Piero della Francesca's De prospective pingendi (c. 1480), in which a drawing of the human head is mathematically conceived and plotted by means of cross-section contours. Piero's method anticipates contemporary biostereometric techniques and current theories of visual perception. Outside of theoretical treatises the complete cross-section rarely occurs in art, though certain pictorial elements such as the religious halo can be interpreted as cross-sections. The chan-ging representation of the halo in art of the Medieval, Renaissance and Baroque periods parallels the development of the artist's concepts and techniques for representing form and space. During the Renaissance and Baroque periods the widespread use of contour hatching, a drawing technique based on the cross-section, indicates that the cross-section concept has played a greater role in pictorial representation than has generally been recognized.

  16. Diffusion cross sections for potassium ? and ? levels in rare gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahyaei-Moayyed, F.; Hickman, A. P.; Streater, A. D.

    1996-02-01

    We have used a light-induced drift (LID) experiment to determine ratios of cross sections for diffusion of potassium in the excited 0953-4075/29/3/011/img3, 0953-4075/29/3/011/img4 and the ground 0953-4075/29/3/011/img5 levels in five rare gases. The measured ratios are combined with the ground-state cross sections and statistically averaged excited cross sections, available from a previously reported light induced diffusive pulling experiment, to obtain the absolute cross sections for individual fine structure levels. We also report calculated cross sections based on available potential curves and a coupled-channel theory. Rough qualitative agreement is generally found between the absolute cross sections inferred from experiment and the theoretical values. The light-induced drift experiments, however, measure ratios of cross section differences that are highly sensitive to the potential curves. It is found that the available potential curves are not adequate for predicting these measured ratios.

  17. Electron impact ionization cross sections of beryllium-tungsten clusters*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukuba, Ivan; Kaiser, Alexander; Huber, Stefan E.; Urban, Jan; Probst, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We report calculated electron impact ionization cross sections (EICSs) of beryllium-tungsten clusters, BenW with n = 1,...,12, from the ionization threshold to 10 keV using the Deutsch-Märk (DM) and the binary-encounter-Bethe (BEB) formalisms. The positions of the maxima of DM and BEB cross sections are mostly close to each other. The DM cross sections are more sensitive with respect to the cluster size. For the clusters smaller than Be4W they yield smaller cross sections than BEB and vice versa larger cross sections than BEB for clusters larger than Be6W. The maximum cross section values for the singlet-spin groundstate clusters range from 7.0 × 10-16 cm2 at 28 eV (BeW) to 54.2 × 10-16 cm2 at 43 eV (Be12W) for the DM cross sections and from 13.5 × 10-16 cm2 at 43 eV (BeW) to 38.9 × 10-16 cm2 at 43 eV (Be12W) for the BEB cross sections. Differences of the EICSs in different isomers and between singlet and triplet states are also explored. Both the DM and BEB cross sections could be fitted perfectly to a simple expression used in modeling and simulation codes in the framework of nuclear fusion research. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Atomic Cluster Collisions (7th International Symposium)", edited by Gerardo Delgado Barrio, Andrey Solov'Yov, Pablo Villarreal, Rita Prosmiti.Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjd/e2015-60583-7

  18. Review of electron impact excitation cross sections for copper atom

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, N.W.; Hazi, A.U.

    1982-02-01

    Excitation of atomic copper by electron impact plays an important role in the copper vapor laser and accurate cross sections are needed for understanding and modeling laser performance. During the past seven years, there have been several attempts to normalize the relative elastic and inelastic cross sections measured by Trajmar and coworkers. However, each of these efforts have yielded different cross sections, and the uncertainty in the correct normalization of the data has been a source of confusion and concern for the kinetic modeling efforts. This difficulty has motivated us to review previous work on the electron impact excitation of copper atom and to perform new calculations of the inelastic cross sections using the impact parameter method. In this memorandum we review the previous attempts to normalize the experimental data and provide a critical assessment of the accuracy of the resulting cross sections. We also present new theoretical cross sections for the electron impact excitation of the /sup 2/S ..-->.. /sup 2/P/sup 0/ and /sup 2/S ..-->.. /sup 2/D transitions in copper. When the experimental cross sections are renormalized to the results of the impact parameter calculations, they are a factor of three smaller than those published in the latest paper of Trajmar et. al. At impact energies above 60 eV the excitation cross sections obtained with the impact parameter method agree well with the results of the very recent, unpublished, close-coupling calculations of Henry. This agreement suggests that the present normalization of the experimental cross sections is probably the most reliable one obtained to date.

  19. Fission cross sections in the intermediate energy region

    SciTech Connect

    Lisowski, P.W.; Gavron, A.; Parker, W.E.; Ullmann, J.L.; Balestrini, S.J. ); Carlson, A.D.; Wasson, O.A. ); Hill, N.W. )

    1991-01-01

    Until recently there has been very little cross section data for neutron-induced fission in the intermediate energy region, primarily because no suitable neutron source has existed. At Los Alamos, the WNR target-4 facility provides a high-intensity source of neutrons nearly ideal for fission measurements extending from a fraction of a MeV to several hundred MeV. This paper summarizes the status of fission cross section data in the intermediate energy range (En > 30 MeV) and presents our fission cross section data for {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U compared to intranuclear cascade and statistical model predictions.

  20. Infrared absorption cross sections of propane broadened by hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, A.; Hargreaves, R. J.; Billinghurst, B.; Bernath, P. F.

    2017-09-01

    Fourier transform infrared absorption cross-sections of pure propane (C3H8) and propane broadened with H2 have been calculated from transmittance spectra recorded at temperatures from 292 K to 205 K. Transmittance spectra were recorded at the Canadian Light Source (CLS) Far-Infrared beamline, utilizing both the synchrotron source and the internal glowbar source. The absorption cross-sections have been calibrated to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) reference cross-sections of propane and can be used to interpret astronomical observations of giant planets such as Jupiter and Saturn as well as exoplanets.

  1. Actinide neutron-induced fission cross section measurements at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Tovesson, Fredrik K; Laptev, Alexander B; Hill, Tony S

    2010-01-01

    Fission cross sections of a range of actinides have been measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in support of nuclear energy applications in a wide energy range from sub-thermal energies up to 200 MeV. A parallel-plate ionization chamber are used to measure fission cross sections ratios relative to the {sup 235}U standard while incident neutron energies are determined using the time-of-flight method. Recent measurements include the {sup 233,238}U, {sup 239-242}Pu and {sup 243}Am neutron-induced fission cross sections. Obtained data are presented in comparison with ex isting evaluations and previous data.

  2. The 208Pb(n,γ) cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, H.; Rochow, W.; Käppeler, F.; Rauscher, T.

    2003-05-01

    The Maxwellian average neutron capture (MAC) cross section of 208Pb has been reinvestigated. With the activation technique cross section measurements were performed at 25, 30, 52, 104, 149, and 215 keV. At 30 keV we succeeded to measure the direct p-wave capture part of the 208Pb capture cross section. The s-process at the termination of the synthesis has been analyzed. Independent calculations of s- and r-process yield a consistent decomposition for the Pb and Bi isotopic s- and r-contributions.

  3. Neutron total scattering cross sections of elemental antimony

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.; Whalen, J.F.

    1982-11-01

    Neutron total cross sections are measured from 0.8 to 4.5 MeV with broad resolutions. Differential-neutron-elastic-scattering cross sections are measured from 1.5 to 4.0 MeV at intervals of 50 to 200 keV and at scattering angles distributed between 20 and 160 degrees. Lumped-level neutron-inelastic-scattering cross sections are measured over the same angular and energy range. The exPerimental results are discussed in terms of an optical-statistical model and are compared with respective values given in ENDF/B-V.

  4. Interactions of relativistic 36Ar and 40Ar nuclei in hydrogen: Isotopic production cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knott, C. N.; Albergo, S.; Caccia, Z.; Chen, C.-X.; Costa, S.; Crawford, H. J.; Cronqvist, M.; Engelage, J.; Greiner, L.; Guzik, T. G.; Insolia, A.; Lindstrom, P. J.; Mitchell, J. W.; Potenza, R.; Russo, G. V.; Soutoul, A.; Testard, O.; Tull, C. E.; Tuvé, C.; Waddington, C. J.; Webber, W. R.; Wefel, J. P.

    1997-07-01

    The interactions of 36Ar projectile nuclei with energies of 361, 546, and 765 MeV/nucleon and 40Ar nuclei with 352 MeV/nucleon, have been studied in a liquid-hydrogen target as part of a program to study interactions of relevance to the problem of cosmic-ray propagation in the interstellar medium. We have measured the cross sections for the production of isotopic fragments of the projectile nuclei in these interactions. The variations of these cross sections with mass, charge, and energy, are examined for insights into any systematic features of this type of fragmentation reaction that might aid predictions of other, unmeasured cross sections. These cross sections are also compared with the values derived from the most commonly used prediction techniques. It is suggested that these techniques could be improved by taking account of the systematic features identified here.

  5. Systematics of isotopic production cross sections from interactions of relativistic {sup 40}Ca in hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.; Guzik, T.G.; McMahon, M.; Wefel, J.P.; Albergo, S.; Caccia, Z.; Costa, S.; Insolia, A.; Potenza, R.; Russo, G.V.; Tuve, C.; Crawford, H.J.; Cronqvist, M.; Engelage, J.; Greiner, L.; Knott, C.N.; Waddington, C.J.; Lindstrom, P.J.; Tull, C.E.; Mitchell, J.W.; Webber, W.R.

    1997-09-01

    The isotopic production cross sections for {sup 40} Ca projectiles at 357, 565, and 763 MeV/nucleon interacting in a liquid hydrogen target have been measured by the Transport Collaboration at the LBL HISS facility. The systematics of these cross sections are studied, and the results indicate that nuclear structure effects are present in the isotope production process during the relativistic collisions. The newly measured cross sections are also compared with those predicted by semiempirical and parametric formulas, but the predictions do not fully describe the systematics such as the energy dependence. The consequences of the cross section systematics in galactic cosmic ray studies are also discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  6. Proton-air and proton-proton cross sections from air shower data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsley, J.

    1985-01-01

    Data on the fluctuations in depth of maximum development of cosmic ray air showers, corrected for the effects of mixed primary composition and shower development fluctuations, yield values of the inelastic proton-air cross section for laboratory energies in the range 10 to the 8th power to 10 to the 10th power GeV. From these values of proton-air cross section, corresponding values of the proton-proton total cross section are derived by means of Glauber theory and geometrical scaling. The resulting values of proton-proton cross section are inconsistent with a well known 1n(2)s extrapolation of ISR data which is consistent with SPS data; they indicate a less rapid rate of increase in the interval 540 sq root of s 100000 GeV.

  7. Partial Photoneutron Cross Sections for the Isomeric State {sup 180}Ta{sup m}

    SciTech Connect

    Goko, S.; Utsunomiya, H.; Makinaga, A.; Kaihori, T.; Hohara, S.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Goriely, S.; Lui, Y.-W.; Toyokawa, H.; Koning, A.J.; Hilaire, S.

    2006-05-19

    Photoneutron cross sections for {sup 181}Ta({gamma},n){sup 180}Ta{sup m} were determined from simultaneous measurements of total cross sections ({sigma}{sup tot}) and ground-state cross sections ({sigma}{sup gs}) for {sup 180}Ta in photodisintegration of {sup 181}Ta with laser Compton-backscattered {gamma} rays. Techniques of direct neutron counting and photoactivation were used for the measurement of {sigma}{sup tot} and {sigma}{sup gs}, respectively. The partial cross sections for the isomeric state serves as a novel probe of the nuclear level density of {sup 180}Ta. Implications for the p- and s-process nucleosynthesis of {sup 180}Ta{sup m} are given.

  8. Measurement of electron impact collisional excitation cross sections of Ni to Ge-like gold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, M. J.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Jordan, N.; Scofield, J. H.; Reed, K. J.; Brown, G. V.; Hansen, S. B.; Porter, F. S.; Kelley, R.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Boyce, K. R.

    2017-03-01

    We have measured the collisional excitation cross sections for the 3d→4f and 3d→5f excitations in Au ions near the Ni-like charge state by using beam plasmas created in the Livermore electron beam ion trap EBIT-I. The cross sections have been experimentally determined at approximately 1, 2 and 3 keV above the threshold energy, ET, for the 3d→4f excitations (ET ˜ 2.5 keV) and at approximately 0.1, 1 and 2 keV above the threshold energy for the 3d→5f excitations (ET ˜ 3.3 keV). The cross section measurements were made possible by using the GSFC x-ray microcalorimeter at the Livermore EBIT facility. The absolute cross sections are determined from the ratio of the intensity of the collisionally excited bound-bound transitions to the intensity of the radiative recombination lines produced in EBIT-I plasmas. The effects of polarization and Auger decay channels are accounted for in the cross section determination. Measured cross sections are compared with those from HULLAC, DWS and FAC calculations. The measurements demonstrate that some errors exist in the calculated excitation cross sections.

  9. Measurement of electron impact collisional excitation cross sections of Ni to Ge-like gold

    DOE PAGES

    May, M. J.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Jordan, N.; ...

    2017-03-01

    We have measured the collisional excitation cross sections for the 3d→4f and 3d→5f excitations in Au ions near the Ni-like charge state by using beam plasmas created in the Livermore electron beam ion trap EBIT-I. The cross sections have been experimentally determined at approximately 1, 2 and 3 keV above the threshold energy, ET, for the 3d→4f excitations (ET ~2.5 keV) and at approximately 0.1, 1 and 2 keV above the threshold energy for the 3d→5f excitations (ET ~3.3 keV). The cross section measurements were made possible by using the GSFC x-ray microcalorimeter at the Livermore EBIT facility. The absolutemore » cross sections are determined from the ratio of the intensity of the collisionally excited bound-bound transitions to the intensity of the radiative recombination lines produced in EBIT-I plasmas. The effects of polarization and Auger decay channels are accounted for in the cross section determination. Measured cross sections are compared with those from HULLAC, DWS and FAC calculations. Finally, the measurements demonstrate that some errors exist in the calculated excitation cross sections.« less

  10. New Methods for the Determination of Total Radiative Thermal Neutron Capture Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, R. B.; Krticka, M.; McNabb, D. P.; Sleaford, B.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Belgya, T.; Revay, Zs.

    2008-04-17

    Precise gamma-ray thermal neutron capture cross sections have been measured at the Budapest Reactor for all elements with Z = 1-83,92 except for He and Pm. These measurements and additional data from the literature been compiled to generate the Evaluated Gamma-ray Activation File (EGAF), which is disseminated by LBNL and the IAEA. These data are nearly complete for most isotopes with Z<20 so the total radiative thermal neutron capture cross sections can be determined directly from the decay scheme. For light isotopes agreement with the recommended values is generally satisfactory although large discrepancies exist for {sup 11}B, {sup 12,13}C, {sup 15}N, {sup 28,30}Si, {sup 34}S, {sup 37}Cl, and {sup 40,41}K. Neutron capture decay data for heavier isotopes are typically incomplete due to the contribution of unresolved continuum transitions so only partial radiative thermal neutron capture cross sections can be determined. The contribution of the continuum to the neutron capture decay scheme arises from a large number of unresolved levels and transitions and can be calculated by assuming that the fluctuations in level densities and transition probabilities are statistical. We have calculated the continuum contribution to neutron capture decay for the palladium isotopes with the Monte Carlo code DICEBOX. These calculations were normalized to the experimental cross sections deexciting low excitation levels to determine the total radiative thermal neutron capture cross section. The resulting palladium cross sections values were determined with a precision comparable to the recommended values even when only one gamma-ray cross section was measured. The calculated and experimental level feedings could also be compared to determine spin and parity assignments for low-lying levels.

  11. A genetic algorithm to reduce stream channel cross section data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berenbrock, C.

    2006-01-01

    A genetic algorithm (GA) was used to reduce cross section data for a hypothetical example consisting of 41 data points and for 10 cross sections on the Kootenai River. The number of data points for the Kootenai River cross sections ranged from about 500 to more than 2,500. The GA was applied to reduce the number of data points to a manageable dataset because most models and other software require fewer than 100 data points for management, manipulation, and analysis. Results indicated that the program successfully reduced the data. Fitness values from the genetic algorithm were lower (better) than those in a previous study that used standard procedures of reducing the cross section data. On average, fitnesses were 29 percent lower, and several were about 50 percent lower. Results also showed that cross sections produced by the genetic algorithm were representative of the original section and that near-optimal results could be obtained in a single run, even for large problems. Other data also can be reduced in a method similar to that for cross section data.

  12. Proton-air inelastic cross section at S(1/2) = 30 TeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baltrusaitis, R. M.; Cassiday, G. L.; Cooper, R.; Elbert, J. W.; Gerhardy, P. R.; Ko, S.; Loh, E. C.; Mizumoto, Y.; Sokolsky, P.; Steck, D.

    1985-01-01

    The distribution of the maxima of high energy cosmic ray induced extensive air showers in the atmosphere was measured as a function of atmospheric depth. From the exponential tail of this distribution, it was determined that the proton-air inelastic cross section at 30 TeV center-of-mass energy to be 540 + or - 40mb.

  13. Section B, general view of steel cross with new World ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section B, general view of steel cross with new World Trade Center 7 in background, looking northwest. (BH) - World Trade Center Site, Bounded by Vesey, Church, Liberty Streets, & Route 9A, New York County, NY

  14. Photocopy of "sheet 6 of 8" showing cross section of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of "sheet 6 of 8" showing cross section of house, front elevation, fire finder stand, hip roof cap, and shiplap roof sheathing. - Badger Mountain Lookout, .125 mile northwest of Badger Mountain summit, East Wenatchee, Douglas County, WA

  15. Scaling Cross Sections for Ion-atom Impact Ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Igor D. Kaganovich; Edward Startsev; Ronald C. Davidson

    2003-06-06

    The values of ion-atom ionization cross sections are frequently needed for many applications that utilize the propagation of fast ions through matter. When experimental data and theoretical calculations are not available, approximate formulas are frequently used. This paper briefly summarizes the most important theoretical results and approaches to cross section calculations in order to place the discussion in historical perspective and offer a concise introduction to the topic. Based on experimental data and theoretical predictions, a new fit for ionization cross sections is proposed. The range of validity and accuracy of several frequently used approximations (classical trajectory, the Born approximation, and so forth) are discussed using, as examples, the ionization cross sections of hydrogen and helium atoms by various fully stripped ions.

  16. 12. CLOSEUP VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF SPILLWAY FIFTY FEET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. CLOSE-UP VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF SPILLWAY FIFTY FEET FROM LAKESHORE, SHOWING REMAINS OF SPILLWAY TIMBERS, LOOKING WEST - Three Bears Lake & Dams, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  17. Radiative neutron capture cross sections on 176Lu at DANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roig, O.; Jandel, M.; Méot, V.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A. J.; Haight, R. C.; Keksis, A. L.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.

    2016-03-01

    The cross section of the neutron capture reaction 176Lu(n ,γ ) has been measured for a wide incident neutron energy range with the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The thermal neutron capture cross section was determined to be (1912 ±132 ) b for one of the Lu natural isotopes, 176Lu. The resonance part was measured and compared to the Mughabghab's atlas using the R -matrix code, sammy. At higher neutron energies the measured cross sections are compared to ENDF/B-VII.1, JEFF-3.2, and BRC evaluated nuclear data. The Maxwellian averaged cross sections in a stellar plasma for thermal energies between 5 keV and 100 keV were extracted using these data.

  18. 20. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF HORSE MESA, SHOWING RIGHT SPILLWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF HORSE MESA, SHOWING RIGHT SPILLWAY SUPERSTRUCTURE AND CONCRETE PLACEMENT LINES August 2, 1927 - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  19. 36. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF ORIGINAL HORSE MESA DAM POWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF ORIGINAL HORSE MESA DAM POWER PLANT, LOOKING NORTH. ONLY TWO OF THE THREE UNITS ARE VISIBLE - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  20. Cross section for the subthreshold fission of {sup 236}U

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseev, A. A.; Bergman, A. A.; Berlev, A. I.; Koptelov, E. A.; Samylin, B. F.; Trufanov, A. M.; Fursov, B. I.; Shorin, V. S.

    2008-08-15

    The cross section for {sup 236}U fission in the neutron-energy range E{sub n} = 0.001-20 keV was measured by using the INR RAS (Institute of Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow) LSDS-100 neutron spectrometer of the lead slowing-down spectrometer type. The resonance fission areas of the resonances at 5.45 eV and 1.28 keV were found, and the fission widths of these resonances were evaluated. The cross section for the {sup 238}U(n, f) fission process was measured, and the threshold sensitivity of the LSDS-100 to small values of fission cross sections was estimated. The well-known intermediate structure in the cross section for the neutron-induced subbarrier fission of {sup 236}U was confirmed.

  1. Cross section for the subthreshold fission of 236U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, A. A.; Bergman, A. A.; Berlev, A. I.; Koptelov, E. A.; Samylin, B. F.; Trufanov, A. M.; Fursov, B. I.; Shorin, V. S.

    2008-08-01

    The cross section for 236U fission in the neutron-energy range E n = 0.001 20 keV was measured by using the INR RAS (Institute of Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow) LSDS-100 neutron spectrometer of the lead slowing-down spectrometer type. The resonance fission areas of the resonances at 5.45 eV and 1.28 keV were found, and the fission widths of these resonances were evaluated. The cross section for the 238U( n, f) fission process was measured, and the threshold sensitivity of the LSDS-100 to small values of fission cross sections was estimated. The well-known intermediate structure in the cross section for the neutron-induced subbarrier fission of 236U was confirmed.

  2. Superstructure Main Bridge, Cross Sections, Cantilever Structure Huey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Superstructure - Main Bridge, Cross Sections, Cantilever Structure - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  3. Total cross sections for ultracold neutrons scattered from gases

    DOE PAGES

    Seestrom, Susan Joyce; Adamek, Evan R.; Barlow, Dave; ...

    2017-01-30

    Here, we have followed up on our previous measurements of upscattering of ultracold neutrons (UCNs) from a series of gases by making measurements of total cross sections on the following gases hydrogen, ethane, methane, isobutene, n-butane, ethylene, water vapor, propane, neopentane, isopropyl alcohol, and 3He. The values of these cross sections are important for estimating the loss rate of trapped neutrons due to residual gas and are relevant to neutron lifetime measurements using UCNs. The effects of the UCN velocity and path-length distributions were accounted for in the analysis using a Monte Carlo transport code. Results are compared to ourmore » previous measurements and with the known absorption cross section for 3He scaled to our UCN energy. We find that the total cross sections for the hydrocarbon gases are reasonably described by a function linear in the number of hydrogen atoms in the molecule.« less

  4. Total cross sections for ultracold neutrons scattered from gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seestrom, S. J.; Adamek, E. R.; Barlow, D.; Blatnik, M.; Broussard, L. J.; Callahan, N. B.; Clayton, S. M.; Cude-Woods, C.; Currie, S.; Dees, E. B.; Fox, W.; Hoffbauer, M.; Hickerson, K. P.; Holley, A. T.; Liu, C.-Y.; Makela, M.; Medina, J.; Morley, D. J.; Morris, C. L.; Pattie, R. W.; Ramsey, J.; Roberts, A.; Salvat, D. J.; Saunders, A.; Sharapov, E. I.; Sjue, S. K. L.; Slaughter, B. A.; Walstrom, P. L.; Wang, Z.; Wexler, J.; Womack, T. L.; Young, A. R.; Vanderwerp, J.; Zeck, B. A.

    2017-01-01

    We have followed up on our previous measurements of upscattering of ultracold neutrons (UCNs) from a series of gases by making measurements of total cross sections on the following gases hydrogen, ethane, methane, isobutene, n -butane, ethylene, water vapor, propane, neopentane, isopropyl alcohol, and 3He . The values of these cross sections are important for estimating the loss rate of trapped neutrons due to residual gas and are relevant to neutron lifetime measurements using UCNs. The effects of the UCN velocity and path-length distributions were accounted for in the analysis using a Monte Carlo transport code. Results are compared to our previous measurements and with the known absorption cross section for 3He scaled to our UCN energy. We find that the total cross sections for the hydrocarbon gases are reasonably described by a function linear in the number of hydrogen atoms in the molecule.

  5. 56. CROSS SECTION OF POWERHOUSE, PROJECT 1933, EXHIBIT F, SANTA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. CROSS SECTION OF POWERHOUSE, PROJECT 1933, EXHIBIT F, SANTA ANA POWERHOUSE NO. 1. SCE drawing no. 5206856 (no date; FERC no. 1933-46). - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-1 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  6. 8. VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF THE EASTERNMOST WALL SEGMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF THE EASTERNMOST WALL SEGMENT THAT SHOWS THE TRENCHING AND 1960 PIPELINE CORRIDOR BETWEEN THE WALL SEGMENTS, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST - Rock Wall, North side of Battle Creek Canyon, Shingletown, Shasta County, CA

  7. 4. DETAIL VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURE, SHOWING EXTERIOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURE, SHOWING EXTERIOR FACINGS LINED WITH RUBBLE BACKING AND EARTH INFILL, LOOKING EAST - Rock Wall, North side of Battle Creek Canyon, Shingletown, Shasta County, CA

  8. A new technique for dosimetry reaction cross-section evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Badikov, S.A.

    2011-07-01

    Document available in abstract form only, full text of document follows: An objective of this paper is a unification of the procedure for dosimetry reaction cross-section evaluation. A set of requirements for the unified evaluation procedure is presented. A new code (ORTHO) was developed in order to meet these requirements. A statistical model, an algorithm, and the basic formulae employed in the code are described. The code was used for Ti48(n,p) reaction cross-section evaluation. The results of the evaluation are compared to International Reactor Dosimetry File (IRDF)-2002 data. The evaluated cross-sections and their correlations from this work are in good agreement with the IRDF-2002 evaluated data, whereas the uncertainties of the evaluated cross-sections are inconsistent. (authors)

  9. Neutral pion cross section measurement at K2K

    SciTech Connect

    Mariani, C.

    2007-12-21

    In this paper we report the measurement of the rate of the single {pi}{sup o} production in the K2K close detector. Neutral current single {pi}{sup o} production is measured in Oxygen, in the 1 KT detector. The cross section ratio relative to the total charged current cross section is found to be: 0.063{+-}0.001(stat.){+-}0.006(syst.) in good agreement with the Monte Carlo expectation. Inclusive charged current {pi}{sup o} production is measured in C{sub 8}H{sub 8}, in the SciBar detector, the cross section ratio for these processes relative to the charged current quasi elastic neutrino cross section is found to be 0.306{+-}0.023(stat.){+-}0.025(syst.) showing an excess of (39{+-}15)% (statistical and systematic error added in quadrature) with respect to the prediction of our reference Monte Carlo.

  10. Stellar (n ,γ ) cross sections of 23Na

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uberseder, E.; Heil, M.; Käppeler, F.; Lederer, C.; Mengoni, A.; Bisterzo, S.; Pignatari, M.; Wiescher, M.

    2017-02-01

    The cross section of the 23Na(n ,γ )24Na reaction was measured via the activation method at the Karlsruhe 3.7 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. NaCl samples were exposed to quasistellar neutron spectra at k T =5.1 and 25 keV produced via the 18O(p ,n )18F and 7Li(p ,n )7Be reactions, respectively. The derived capture cross sections <σ> kT =5 keV=9.1 ±0.3 mb and <σ> kT =25 keV=2.03 ±0.05 mb are significantly lower than reported in literature. These results were used to substantially revise the radiative width of the first 23Na resonance and to establish an improved set of Maxwellian average cross sections. The implications of the lower capture cross section for current models of s -process nucleosynthesis are discussed.

  11. Theory in Evaluation of Actinide Fission and Capture Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, J. Eric

    2005-05-24

    We discuss the possibilities and limitations of the use of theory as a tool in the evaluation of actinide fission and capture cross sections. We consider especially the target 235U as an example. We emphasize the roles of intermediate structure in the fission cross section and of level width fluctuations in both intermediate structure and fine structure, noting that these lead to a breakdown of Hauser-Feshbach theory at sub-barrier and near-barrier energies. At higher energies (where fluctuation-averaged Hauser-Feshbach theory is applicable) semi-quantitative and intuitive representations of transition state spectra and barrier level density functions have to be tested against experimental data wherever these are available. Adjustment of the fission cross section against inelastic scattering to the much better known levels of the residual nucleus should then lead to a fairly sound estimate of the capture cross section. We compare such estimates with evaluated and experimental data for 235U.

  12. Photocopy of longitudinal, cross sections and roof plan of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of longitudinal, cross sections and roof plan of the C.B. & Q. R.R. roundhouse and locomotive shops. June 1980. - Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, Roundhouse & Shops, Broadway & Spring Streets, Aurora, Kane County, IL

  13. Local Deplanation Of Double Reinforced Beam Cross Section Under Bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltov, Anguel; Yanakieva, Ana

    2015-12-01

    Bending of beams, double reinforced by means of thin composite layers, is considered in the study. Approximate numerical solution is proposed, considering transitional boundary areas, where smooth quadratic transition of the elasticity modulus and deformations take place. Deplanation of the cross section is also accounted for in the areas. Their thickness is found equalizing the total stiffness of the cross section and the layer stiffness. Deplanation of the cross section of the transitional area is determined via the longitudinal deformation in the reinforcing layer, accounting for the equilibrium between the internal and the external moment, generated by the longitudinal stresses in the cross section. A numerical example is given as an illustration demonstrating model's plausibility. The model allows the design and the calculation of recycled concrete beams double reinforced by means of thin layers. The approach is in agreement with modern design of nearly zero energy buildings (NZEB).

  14. Inelastic cross sections for electron interactions in liquid water

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, R.N.; Ritchie, R.H.; Turner, J.E.; Wright, H.A.

    1982-01-01

    The task was to develop a set of cross sections for electron inelastic processes in liquid water suitable for use in a Monte Carlo transport calculation. Results are plotted as inverse mean free paths vs electron energy. (DLC)

  15. Electron-Impact Total Ionization Cross Sections of Hydrocarbon Ions

    PubMed Central

    Irikura, Karl K.; Kim, Yong-Ki; Ali, M. A.

    2002-01-01

    The Binary-Encounter-Bethe (BEB) model for electron-impact total ionization cross sections has been applied to CH2+, CH3+, CH4+, C2H2+, C2H4+, C2H6+ and H3O+. The cross sections for the hydrocarbon ions are needed for modeling cool plasmas in fusion devices. No experimental data are available for direct comparison. Molecular constants to generate total ionization cross sections at arbitrary incident electron energies using the BEB formula are presented. A recent experimental result on the ionization of H3O+ is found to be almost 1/20 of the present theory at the cross section peak. PMID:27446718

  16. 28. CROSS SECTION OF A RECTANGULAR COKE OVEN SHOWING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. CROSS SECTION OF A RECTANGULAR COKE OVEN SHOWING THE INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF THE OVEN. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

  17. 15. Power plant elevations and cross sections, sheet 64 of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Power plant elevations and cross sections, sheet 64 of 130 - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  18. Absorption cross sections of the ClO dimer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huder, K. J.; DeMore, W. B.

    1995-01-01

    The absorption cross sections of the ClO dimer, ClOOCl, are important to the photochemistry of ozone depletion in the Antarctic. In this work, new measurements were made of the dimer cross sections at 195 K. the results yield somewhat lower values in the long wavelength region, compared to those currently recommended in the NASA data evaluation (JPL 94-26). The corresponding solar photodissociation rates in the Antarctic are reduced by about 40%.

  19. Top Quark Pair Production Cross Section at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Reinhild Yvonne

    2015-09-25

    The top quark, discovered in 1995 by the CDF and D0 collaborations at the Tevatron proton antiproton collider at Fermilab, has undergone intense studies in the last 20 years. Currently, CDF and D0 converge on their measurements of top-antitop quark production cross sections using the full Tevatron data sample. In these proceedings, the latest results on inclusive and differential measurements of top-antitop quark production cross sections at the Tevatron are reported.

  20. Relativistic corrections in K-shell ionization cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Sheth, C.V.

    1984-03-01

    Relativistic effects on a modified version of Rutherford's scattering cross section are considered up to first-order in the Born approximation for relativistic velocities in the binary-encounter approximation (BEA). The predicted cross sections with protons as projectile are lower than the previous theoretical values at low energies and are seen to be in better agreement with measurements. An approximate relativistic correction factor which accounts for orbital electrons only is compared with exact Dirac corrections, within the BEA model.

  1. Enhancing the optical cross section of quantum antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingfeng; Zhou, Ming; Ying, Lei; Chen, Xuewen; Yu, Zongfu

    2017-01-01

    The classical radio-frequency antenna theory indicates that large cross sections can be realized through directional radiation. In this paper, a similar principle is applied in quantum systems, in which quantum antennas, constructed by a cluster of quantum two-level systems, explore the collective excitation of two-level systems to realize large directivity. Both the optical cross section and the coherent time can be dramatically enhanced in free space, far exceeding the case of a single two-level system.

  2. Experimental nuclear cross sections for spacecraft shield analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peelle, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Experiments have been performed to validate and to supplement the intranuclear cascade model as a method for estimating cross sections of importance to spacecraft shield design. The experimental situation is inconclusive particularly for neutron-producing reactions, but is relatively sound for reaction cross sections and for proton spectra at several hundred MeV at medium forward angles. Secondary photon contributions are imprecisely known.

  3. Asymptotic neutrino-nucleon cross section and saturation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Fiore, R.; Papa, A.; Jenkovszky, L.L.; Kotikov, A.V.; Paccanoni, F.

    2006-03-01

    In this paper we present a simple analytic expression for the (spin-averaged) neutrino-nucleon cross section for ultrahigh energies at twist-2, obtained as the asymptotic limit of our previous findings. This expression gives values for the cross section in remarkable numerical agreement with the previous numerical evaluation in the energy region relevant for forthcoming neutrino experiments. Moreover, we discuss the role and the relevance of saturation and recombination effects in our approach, in comparison with other recent suggestions.

  4. A Cross-Sectional Comparison of Army Advertising Attributes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    that identifies the needs and characteristics of individuals in the Armys’ prime market , as well as their exposure to Army advertising . One way the Army...U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences N Research Report 1578 A Cross-Sectional Comparison I of Army Advertising ...62785A 791 2105 H01 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) A Cross-Sectional Comparison of Army Advertising Attributes 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S

  5. Differential cross sections for positron-xenon elastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Marler, J. P.; Surko, C. M.; McEachran, R. P.; Stauffer, A. D.

    2006-06-15

    Absolute measurements of differential cross sections for the elastic scattering of positrons from xenon are made at 2, 5 and 8 eV using a trap-based beam and the technique of measuring scattering cross sections in a strong magnetic field. Calculations are carried out using the relativistic Dirac equations with a static plus polarization potential. Generally good absolute agreement is found between experiment and theory.

  6. On the interweaving of partial cross sections of different parity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devries, P. L.; George, T. F.

    1979-01-01

    Partial cross sections of definite parity, calculated for electronic-rotational energy transfer in the F +H2 collision system, interweave with increasing total angular momentum J. An explanation, in terms of diabatic curve crossings induced by the centrifugal potential in the body-fixed coordinate system, predicts the interweaving to occur only in systems having half-integer J.

  7. Status of the Neutron Cross-Section Standards Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Carlson, Allan D.; Vonach, Herbert

    2005-05-01

    A new evaluation of the neutron cross-section standards is now underway. This evaluation has been supported by the Working Party on International Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC), the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG), and an International Atomic Energy Agency Coordinated Research Program (CRP). The CRP has had the dominant role in producing these evaluations. An important goal is to produce the standards needed for the upcoming new ENDF/B-VII library. Since most neutron cross-section measurements are made relative to neutron cross-section standards, the standards evaluation is of crucial importance. The standard reactions to be evaluated are: H(n,n), 3He(n,p), 6Li(n,t), 10B(n,α), 10B(n,α1γ), C(n,n), Au(n,γ), 235U(n,f), and 238U(n,f). These standards should receive international acceptance to ensure that all evaluation projects use the same set of standards. The last complete evaluation of the standards dates back almost 20 years. In the meantime quite a number of new and improved measurements have occurred for the cross-section standards. International efforts are presently underway to update the experimental database and to improve the evaluation process. Due to the need for high-energy standards, the energy range is being extended to 200 MeV for some of the cross-section standards.

  8. Photodissociation cross section of ClOOCl at 330 nm.

    PubMed

    Jin, Bing; Chen, I-Cheng; Huang, Wen-Tsung; Lien, Chien-Yu; Guchhait, Nikhil; Lin, Jim J

    2010-04-15

    The photolysis rate of ClOOCl is crucial in the catalytic destruction of polar stratospheric ozone. In this work, we determined the photodissociation cross section of ClOOCl at 330 nm with a molecular beam and with mass-resolved detection. The photodissociation cross section is the product of the absorption cross section and the dissociation quantum yield. We formed an effusive molecular beam of ClOOCl at a nozzle temperature of 200 or 250 K and determined its photodissociation probability by measuring the decrease of the ClOOCl intensity upon laser irradiation. By comparing with a reference molecule (Cl(2)), of which the absorption cross section and dissociation quantum yield are well-known, we determined the absolute photodissociation cross section of ClOOCl at 330 nm to be (2.31 +/- 0.11) x 10(-19) cm(2) at 200 K and (2.47 +/- 0.12) x 10(-19) cm(2) at 250 K. Impurity interference has been a well-recognized problem in conventional spectroscopic studies of ClOOCl; our mass-resolved measurement directly overcomes such a problem. This measurement of the ClOOCl photolysis cross section at 330 nm is particularly useful in constraining its atmospheric photolysis rate, which in the polar stratosphere peaks near this wavelength.

  9. Krypton charge exchange cross sections for Hall effect thruster models

    SciTech Connect

    Hause, Michael L.; Prince, Benjamin D.; Bemish, Raymond J.

    2013-04-28

    Following discharge from a Hall effect thruster, charge exchange occurs between ions and un-ionized propellant atoms. The low-energy cations produced can disturb operation of onboard instrumentation or the thruster itself. Charge-exchange cross sections for both singly and doubly charged propellant atoms are required to model these interactions. While xenon is the most common propellant currently used in Hall effect thrusters, other propellants are being considered, in particular, krypton. We present here guided-ion beam measurements and comparisons to semiclassical calculations for Kr{sup +} + Kr and Kr{sup 2+} + Kr cross sections. The measurements of symmetric Kr{sup +} + Kr charge exchange are in good agreement with both the calculations including spin-orbit effects and previous measurements. For the symmetric Kr{sup 2+} + Kr reaction, we present cross section measurements for center-of-mass energies between 1 eV and 300 eV, which spans energies not previously examined experimentally. These cross section measurements compare well with a simple one-electron transfer model. Finally, cross sections for the asymmetric Kr{sup 2+} + Kr {yields} Kr{sup +} + Kr{sup +} reaction show an onset near 12 eV, reaching cross sections near constant value of 1.6 A{sup 2} with an exception near 70-80 eV.

  10. General Constraints on Cross Sections Deduced from Surrogate Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, W

    2003-08-14

    Cross sections that cannot be measured in the laboratory, e.g. because the target lifetime is too short, can be inferred indirectly from a different reaction forming the same compound system, but with a more accessible beam/target combination (the ''surrogate-reaction'' technique). The reactions share the same compound system and a common decay mechanism, but they involve different formation processes. Therefore, an implicit constraint is imposed on the inferred cross section deduced from the measured surrogate-reaction data, through the common decay mechanism. In this paper, the mathematical consequences of this implicit constraint are investigated. General formulas are derived from upper and lower bounds on the inferred cross section, estimated from surrogate data in a procedure which does not require any modeling of the common decay process. As an example, the formulas developed here are applied to the case of the {sup 235}U(n,f) cross section, deduced from {sup 234}U(t,pf) surrogate data. The calculated bounds are not very tight in this particular case. However, by introducing a few qualitative assumptions about the physics of the fission process, meaningful bounds on the deduced cross section are obtained. Upper and lower limits for the cross-section ratio of the (n,f) reaction on the {sup 235}U isomer at E{sub x} = 77 eV relative to the (n,f) reaction on the ground state are also calculated. The generalization of this technique to other surrogate reactions is discussed.

  11. Thermoelastic damping in microrings with circular cross-section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pu; Fang, Yuming; Zhang, Jianrun

    2016-01-01

    Predicting thermoelastic damping (TED) is crucial in the design of high Q micro-resonators. Microrings are often critical components in many micro-resonators. Some analytical models for TED in microrings have already been developed in the past. However, the previous works are limited to the microrings with rectangular cross-section. The temperature field in the rectangular cross-section is one-dimensional. This paper deals with TED in the microrings with circular cross-section. The temperature field in the circular cross-section is two-dimensional. This paper first presents a 2-D analytical model for TED in the microrings with circular cross-section. Only the two-dimensional heat conduction in the circular cross-section is considered. The heat conduction along the circumferential direction of the microring is neglected in the 2-D model. Then the 2-D model has been extended to cover the circumferential heat conduction, and a 3-D analytical model for TED has been developed. The analytical results from the present 2-D and 3-D models show good agreement with the numerical results of FEM model. The limitations of the present 2-D analytical model are assessed.

  12. Coulomb and nuclear effects in breakup and reaction cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Descouvemont, P.; Canto, L. F.; Hussein, M. S.

    2017-01-01

    We use a three-body continuum discretized coupled channel (CDCC) model to investigate Coulomb and nuclear effects in breakup and reaction cross sections. The breakup of the projectile is simulated by a finite number of square integrable wave functions. First we show that the scattering matrices can be split in a nuclear term and in a Coulomb term. This decomposition is based on the Lippmann-Schwinger equation and requires the scattering wave functions. We present two different methods to separate both effects. Then, we apply this separation to breakup and reaction cross sections of 7Li+208Pb . For breakup, we investigate various aspects, such as the role of the α +t continuum, the angular-momentum distribution, and the balance between Coulomb and nuclear effects. We show that there is a large ambiguity in defining the Coulomb and nuclear breakup cross sections, since both techniques, although providing the same total breakup cross sections, strongly differ for the individual components. We suggest a third method which could be efficiently used to address convergence problems at large angular momentum. For reaction cross sections, interference effects are smaller, and the nuclear contribution is dominant above the Coulomb barrier. We also draw attention to different definitions of the reaction cross section which exist in the literature and which may induce small, but significant, differences in the numerical values.

  13. Updated ozone absorption cross section will reduce air quality compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofen, E. D.; Evans, M. J.; Lewis, A. C.

    2015-07-01

    Photometric ozone measurements rely upon an accurate value of the ozone absorption cross section at 253.65 nm. This has recently been reevaluated by Viallon et al. (2015) as 1.8 % smaller than the accepted value (Hearn, 1961) used for the preceding fifty years. Thus, ozone measurements that applied the older cross section systematically underestimate the amount of ozone in air. We correct the reported historical surface data from North America and Europe and find that this modest change in cross section has a significant impact on the number of locations that are out of compliance with air quality regulations if the air quality standards remain the same. We find 18, 23, and 20 % increases in the number of sites that are out of compliance with current US, Canadian, and European ozone air quality health standards for the year 2012. Should the new cross section value be applied, it would impact attainment of air quality standards and compliance with relevant clean air acts, unless the air quality target values themselves were also changed proportionately. We draw attention to how a small change in gas metrology has a global impact on attainment and compliance with legal air quality standards. We suggest that further laboratory work to evaluate the new cross section is needed and suggest three possible technical and policy responses should the new cross section be adopted.

  14. Updated ozone absorption cross section will reduce air quality compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofen, E. D.; Evans, M. J.; Lewis, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Photometric ozone measurements rely upon an accurate value of the ozone absorption cross section at 253.65 nm. This has recently been re-evaluated by Viallon et al. (2015) as 1.8 % smaller than the accepted value (Hearn, 1961) used for the preceding 50 years. Thus, ozone measurements that applied the older cross section systematically underestimate the amount of ozone in air. We correct the reported historical surface data from North America and Europe and find that this modest change in cross section has a significant impact on the number of locations that are out of compliance with air quality regulations if the air quality standards remain the same. We find 18, 23, and 20 % increases in the number of sites that are out of compliance with current US, Canadian, and European ozone air quality health standards for the year 2012. Should the new cross-section value be applied, it would impact attainment of air quality standards and compliance with relevant clean air acts, unless the air quality target values themselves were also changed proportionately. We draw attention to how a small change in gas metrology has a global impact on attainment and compliance with legal air quality standards. We suggest that further laboratory work to evaluate the new cross section is needed and suggest three possible technical and policy responses should the new cross section be adopted.

  15. Electron cross-sections and transport in liquids and biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Ronald; Casey, M.; Cocks, D.; Konvalov, D.; Brunger, M. J.; Garcia, G.; Petrovic, Z.; McEachran, R.; Buckman, S. J.; de Urquijo, J.

    2016-09-01

    Modelling of electron induced processes in plasma medicine and radiation damage is reliant on accurate self-consistent sets of cross-sections for electrons in tissue. These cross-sections (and associated transport theory) must accurately account not only the electron-biomolecule interactions but also for the soft-condensed nature of tissue. In this presentation, we report on recent swarm experiments for electrons in gaseous water and tetrahydrofuran using the pulsed-Townsend experiment, and the associated development of self-consistent cross-section sets that arise from them. We also report on the necessary modifications to gas-phase cross-sections required to accurately treat electron transport in liquids. These modifications involve the treatment of coherent scattering and screening of the electron interaction potential as well as the development of a new transport theory to accommodate these cross-sections. The accuracy of the ab-initio cross-sections is highlighted through comparison of theory and experiment for electrons in liquid argon and xenon.

  16. Cross section measurements at LANSCE for defense, science and applications

    DOE PAGES

    Nelson, Ronald O.; Schwengner, R.; Zuber, K.

    2015-05-28

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) has three neutron sources that are used for nuclear science measurements. These sources are driven by an 800 MeV proton linear accelerator and cover an energy range from sub-thermal to hundreds of MeV. Research at the facilities is performed under the auspices of a US DOE user program under which research proposals are rated for merit by a program advisory committee and are scheduled based on merit and availability of beam time. A wide variety of instruments is operated at the neutron flight paths at LANSCE including neutron detector arrays, gamma-ray detector arrays,more » fission fragment detectors, and charged particle detectors. These instruments provide nuclear data for multiple uses that range from increasing knowledge in fundamental science to satisfying data needs for diverse applications such as nuclear energy, global security, and industrial applications. In addition, highlights of recent research related to cross sections measurements are presented, and future research initiatives are discussed.« less

  17. Cross section measurements at LANSCE for defense, science and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Ronald O.; Schwengner, R.; Zuber, K.

    2015-05-28

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) has three neutron sources that are used for nuclear science measurements. These sources are driven by an 800 MeV proton linear accelerator and cover an energy range from sub-thermal to hundreds of MeV. Research at the facilities is performed under the auspices of a US DOE user program under which research proposals are rated for merit by a program advisory committee and are scheduled based on merit and availability of beam time. A wide variety of instruments is operated at the neutron flight paths at LANSCE including neutron detector arrays, gamma-ray detector arrays, fission fragment detectors, and charged particle detectors. These instruments provide nuclear data for multiple uses that range from increasing knowledge in fundamental science to satisfying data needs for diverse applications such as nuclear energy, global security, and industrial applications. In addition, highlights of recent research related to cross sections measurements are presented, and future research initiatives are discussed.

  18. Cross Section Measurements at LANSCE for Defense, Science and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Ronald O.

    2015-05-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) has three neutron sources that are used for nuclear science measurements. These sources are driven by an 800 MeV proton linear accelerator and cover an energy range from sub-thermal to hundreds of MeV. Research at the facilities is performed under the auspices of a US DOE user program under which research proposals are rated for merit by a program advisory committee and are scheduled based on merit and availability of beam time. A wide variety of instruments is operated at the neutron flight paths at LANSCE including neutron detector arrays, gamma-ray detector arrays, fission fragment detectors, and charged particle detectors. These instruments provide nuclear data for multiple uses that range from increasing knowledge in fundamental science to satisfying data needs for diverse applications such as nuclear energy, global security, and industrial applications. Highlights of recent research related to cross sections measurements are presented, and future research initiatives are discussed.

  19. Measurement of Total Cross Sections at Pohang Neutron Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Guinyun; Meaze, A.K.M.M.H.; Ahmed, Hossain; Son, Dongchul; Lee, Young Seok; Kang, Hengsik; Cho, Moo-Hyun; Ko, In Soo; Namkung, Won; Ro, Tae-Ik.; Chung, Won-Chung; Kim, Young Ae; Yoo, Kun Joong; Chang, Jong Hwa

    2005-05-24

    The Pohang Neutron Facility, which consists of an electron linear accelerator, a water-cooled Ta target with a water moderator, and a time-of-flight path with an 11 m length has been operated since 2000. We report the status activities on the neutron total cross-section measurements in the neutron energy region from 0.01 eV to 100 eV by the neutron time-of-flight method at Pohang Neutron Facility. A 6Li-ZnS(Ag) scintillator with a diameter of 12.5 cm and a thickness of 1.5 cm has been used as a neutron detector. The background level has been determined by using notch-filters of Co, In, and Cd sheets. In order to reduce the gamma rays from Bremsstrahlung and that from neutron capture, we have employed a neutron-gamma separation system based on their different pulse shape. The present measurements for Ag, Hf, and Ta samples are compared with the previous ones and the evaluated data in ENDF/B-VI. The resonance parameters for Ag and Hf samples have been extracted from the transmission data by using the SAMMY code.

  20. Measured data used in the Watusi cross-section sets

    SciTech Connect

    Mustafa, M; Nethaway, D R

    1999-02-09

    In this document we list the experimental data that were used to make up the major cross- section sets that we use in the Watusi code to calculate the amount of detector activation in device tests. In order to use experimental data to make up a cross-section set, it is often necessary to extrapolate the cross sections down to either the threshold energy or to 0.01 keV, and to extrapolate up to 20 MeV. We then fit the data to a function so that we can get a smoothed set of interpolated values at up to 321 energy points. The combined data are then processed with the Hiroshima code into flux-weighted, group-averaged cross sections for use with the output from the different physics design codes. We typically use the standard 53 or 175 energy group structures. In a recent companion memo 1 we described the make up of all of the cross-section sets in detail, giving references to both the experimental data and the theoretical calculations that were used. The following sections have the experimental data, in the form of energy-cross section pairs, for the titanium, chromium, bromine, krypton, yttrium, zirconium, iodine, europium, lutetium, and bismuth sets. The other cross-section sets are not directly based on enough experimental data to warrant their listing here. Many of the reactions used in these sets are based on calculated cross sections. In making these calculations certain parameters are sometimes adjusted so that the calculated cross sections match experimental data. In some of these cases we have made a further normalization to give a closer agreement to selected experimental data, and such normalizations are noted in this document. In other cases no further normalization was made. In Table 1 we summarize the reactions for which we present the experimental data given in Tables 2-46. In Figs. 1-35 we show plots of the experimental data together with the actual excitation functions used in the cross-section sets. Some reactions in the current sets are based on

  1. Average cross section measurement for 162Er (γ, n) reaction compared with theoretical calculations using TALYS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vagena, E.; Stoulos, S.

    2017-01-01

    Bremsstrahlung photon beam delivered by a linear electron accelerator has been used to experimentally determine the near threshold photonuclear cross section data of nuclides. For the first time, (γ, n) cross section data was obtained for the astrophysical important nucleus 162Er. Moreover, theoretical calculations have been applied using the TALYS 1.6 code. The effect of the gamma ray strength function on the cross section calculations has been studied. A satisfactorily reproduction of the available experimental data of photonuclear cross section at the energy region below 20 MeV could be achieved. The photon flux was monitored by measuring the photons yield from seven well known (γ, n) reactions from the threshold energy of each reaction up to the end-point energy of the photon beam used. An integrated cross-section 87 ± 14 mb is calculated for the photonuclear reaction 162Er (γ, n) at the energy 9.2-14 MeV. The effective cross section estimated using the TALYS code range between 89 and 96 mb depending on the γ-strength function used. To validate the method for the estimation of the average cross-section data of 162Er (γ, n) reaction, the same procedure has been performed to calculate the average cross-section data of 197Au (γ, n) and 55Mn (γ, n) reactions. In this case, the photons yield from the rest well known (γ, n) reactions was used in order to monitoring the photon flux. The results for 162Er (γ, n), 197Au (γ, n) and 55Mn (γ, n) are found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values obtained by TALYS 1.6. So, the present indirect process could be a valuable tool to estimate the effective cross section of (γ, n) reaction for various isotopes using bremsstrahlung beams.

  2. 45. Cross Section through the Power House, from Construction Drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Cross Section through the Power House, from Construction Drawing 2042-F-23, entitled General Arrangement of Power Plant, Sections. (Original drawing, in the possession of Wyre Dick and Company, Livingston, New Jersey.) - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Engine Terminal, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  3. 44. Cross section of the Blacksmith Shop from Construction Drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Cross section of the Blacksmith Shop from Construction Drawing 2042-F-15, entitled Machine and Blacksmith Shop; Plan, Elevations, and Sections. (Original drawing, in the possession of Wyre Dick and Company, Livingston, New Jersey.) - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Engine Terminal, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  4. b Quark production cross sections and the b {minus} {bar b} correlated production cross section at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, B.T.; CDF Collaboration

    1993-09-01

    Recent results on b quark and B meson production cross sections have been obtained at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV proton-antiproton collisions using the Collider Detector Facility (CDF) at Fermilab, using the exclusive decay modes B{sup {+-}} {yields}J/{Psi} K{sup {+-}} and B{sup 0} {yields} J/{Psi} K*. Another measurement made using data from the 1988--89 run on the correlated b + {bar b} cross section is also presented.

  5. ANSL-V: ENDF/B-V based multigroup cross-section libraries for Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, W.E. III; Arwood, J.W.; Greene, N.M.; Petrie, L.M.; Primm, R.T. III; Waddell, M.W.; Webster, C.C.; Westfall, R.M.; Wright, R.Q.

    1987-01-01

    Multigroup P3 neutron, P0-P3 secondary gamma ray production (SGRP), and P6 gamma ray interaction (GRI) cross section libraries have been generated to support design work on the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor. The libraries, designated ANSL-V (Advanced Neutron Source Cross-Section Libraries), are data bases in a format suitable for subsequent generation of problem dependent cross sections. The ANSL-V libraries are available on magnetic tape from the Radiation Shielding Information Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  6. Measurement of proton-induced target fragmentation cross sections in carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, K.; Nishio, T.; Tanaka, S.; Tsuneda, M.; Sugiura, A.; Ieki, K.

    2016-02-01

    In proton therapy, positron emitter nuclei are generated via the target nuclear fragmentation reactions between irradiated proton and nuclei constituting a human body. The proton-irradiated volume can be confirmed with measurement of annihilation γ-rays from the generated positron emitter nuclei. To achieve the high accuracy of proton therapy, in vivo dosimetry, i.e., evaluation of the irradiated dose during the treatment is important. To convert the measured activity distribution to irradiated dose, cross-sectional data for positron emitter production is necessary, which is currently insufficient in the treatment area. The purpose of this study is to collect cross-sectional data of 12C (p , pn)11C and 12C (p , p 2 n)10C reactions between the incident proton and carbon nuclei, which are important target nuclear fragmentation reactions, to estimate the range and exposure dose distribution in the patient's body. Using planar-type PET capable of measuring annihilation γ-rays at high positional resolution and thick polyethylene target, we measured cross-sectional data in continuous wide energy range. The cross section of 12C (p , pn)11C is in good agreement with existing experimental data. The cross section of 12C (p , p 2 n)10C is reported for the first data in the low-energy range of 67.6-10.5 MeV near the Bragg peak of proton beam.

  7. Effect of wave function on the proton induced L XRP cross sections for {sub 62}Sm and {sub 74}W

    SciTech Connect

    Shehla,; Kaur, Rajnish; Kumar, Anil; Puri, Sanjiv

    2015-08-28

    The L{sub k}(k= 1, α, β, γ) X-ray production cross sections have been calculated for {sub 74}W and {sub 62}Sm at different incident proton energies ranging 1-5 MeV using theoretical data sets of different physical parameters, namely, the Li(i=1-3) sub-shell X-ray emission rates based on the Dirac-Fork (DF) model, the fluorescence and Coster Kronig yields based on the Dirac- Hartree-Slater (DHS) model and two sets the proton ionization cross sections based on the DHS model and the ECPSSR in order to assess the influence of the wave function on the XRP cross sections. The calculated cross sections have been compared with the measured cross sections reported in the recent compilation to check the reliability of the calculated values.

  8. Determining the partial photoionization cross-sections of ethyl radicals.

    PubMed

    FitzPatrick, B L; Maienschein-Cline, M; Butler, L J; Lee, S-H; Lin, J J

    2007-12-13

    Using a crossed laser-molecular beam scattering apparatus, these experiments photodissociate ethyl chloride at 193 nm and detect the Cl and ethyl products, resolved by their center-of-mass recoil velocities, with vacuum ultraviolet photoionization. The data determine the relative partial cross-sections for the photoionization of ethyl radicals to form C2H5+, C2H4+, and C2H3+ at 12.1 and 13.8 eV. The data also determine the internal energy distribution of the ethyl radical prior to photoionization, so we can assess the internal energy dependence of the photoionization cross-sections. The results show that the C2H4++H and C2H3++H2 dissociative photoionization cross-sections strongly depend on the photoionization energy. Calibrating the ethyl radical partial photoionization cross-sections relative to the bandwidth-averaged photoionization cross-section of Cl atoms near 13.8 eV allows us to use these data in conjunction with literature estimates of the Cl atom photoionization cross-sections to put the present bandwidth-averaged cross-sections on an absolute scale. The resulting bandwidth-averaged cross-section for the photoionization of ethyl radicals to C2H5+ near 13.8 eV is 8+/-2 Mb. Comparison of our 12.1 eV data with high-resolution ethyl radical photoionization spectra allows us to roughly put the high-resolution spectrum on the same absolute scale. Thus, one obtains the photoionization cross-section of ethyl radicals to C2H5+ from threshold to 12.1 eV. The data show that the onset of the C2H4++H dissociative photoionization channel is above 12.1 eV; this result offers a simple way to determine whether the signal observed in photoionization experiments on complex mixtures is due to ethyl radicals. We discuss an application of the results for resolving the product branching in the O+allyl bimolecular reaction.

  9. Measurement of the 242Pu neutron capture cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckner, M. Q.; Wu, C. Y.; Henderson, R. A.; Bucher, B.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Baramsai, B.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; Mosby, S.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.; Chyzh, A.; Dance Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Precision (n,f) and (n, γ) cross sections are important for the network calculations of the radiochemical diagnostic chain for the U.S. DOE's Stockpile Stewardship Program. 242Pu(n, γ) cross section is relevant to the network calculations of Pu and Am. Additionally, new reactor concepts have catalyzed considerable interest in the measurement of improved cross sections for neutron-induced reactions on key actinides. To date, little or no experimental data has been reported on 242Pu(n, γ) for incident neutron energy below 50 keV. A new measurement of the 242Pu(n, γ) reaction was performed with the DANCE together with an improved PPAC for fission-fragment detection at LANSCE during FY14. The relative scale of the 242Pu(n, γ) cross section spans four orders of magnitude for incident neutron energies from thermal to ~ 30 keV. The absolute scale of the 242Pu(n, γ) cross section is set according to the measured 239Pu(n,f) resonance at 7.8 eV; the target was spiked with 239Pu for this measurement. The absolute 242Pu(n, γ) neutron capture cross section is ~ 30% higher than the cross section reported in ENDF for the 2.7 eV resonance. Latest results to be reported. Funded by U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344 (LLNL) and DE-AC52-06NA25396 (LANL). U.S. DOE/NNSA Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development. Isotopes (ORNL).

  10. Inclined Bodies of Various Cross Sections at Supersonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Leland H.

    1958-01-01

    To aid in assessing effects of cross-sectional shape on body aerodynamics, the forces and moments have been measured for bodies with circular, elliptic, square, and triangular cross sections at Mach numbers 1.98 and 3.88. Results for bodies with noncircular cross sections have been compared with results for bodies of revolution having the same axial distribution of cross-sectional area (and, thus, the same equivalent fineness ratio). Comparisons have been made for bodies of fineness ratios 6 and 10 at angles of attack from 0 deg to about 20 deg and for Reynolds numbers, based on body length, of 4.0 x 10(exp 6) and 6.7 x 10(exp 6). The results of this investigation show that distinct aerodynamic advantages can be obtained by using bodies with noncircular cross sections. At certain angles of bank, bodies with elliptic, square, and triangular cross sections develop considerably greater lift and lift-drag ratios than equivalent bodies of revolution. For bodies with elliptic cross sections, lift and pitching-moment coefficients can be correlated with corresponding coefficients for equivalent circular bodies. It has been found that the ratios of lift and pitching-moment coefficients for an elliptic body to those for an equivalent circular body are practically constant with change in both angle of attack and Mach number. These lift and moment ratios are given very accurately by slender-body theory. As a result of this agreement, the method of NACA Rep. 1048 for computing forces and moments for bodies of revolution has been simply extended to bodies with elliptic cross sections. For the cases considered (elliptic bodies of fineness ratios 6 and 10 having cross-sectional axis ratios of 1.5 and 2), agreement of theory with experiment is very good. As a supplement to the force and moment results, visual studies of the flow over bodies have been made by use of the vapor-screen, sublimation, and white-lead techniques. Photographs from these studies are included in the report.

  11. SENSIT: a cross-section and design sensitivity and uncertainty analysis code. [In FORTRAN for CDC-7600, IBM 360

    SciTech Connect

    Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1980-01-01

    SENSIT computes the sensitivity and uncertainty of a calculated integral response (such as a dose rate) due to input cross sections and their uncertainties. Sensitivity profiles are computed for neutron and gamma-ray reaction cross sections of standard multigroup cross section sets and for secondary energy distributions (SEDs) of multigroup scattering matrices. In the design sensitivity mode, SENSIT computes changes in an integral response due to design changes and gives the appropriate sensitivity coefficients. Cross section uncertainty analyses are performed for three types of input data uncertainties: cross-section covariance matrices for pairs of multigroup reaction cross sections, spectral shape uncertainty parameters for secondary energy distributions (integral SED uncertainties), and covariance matrices for energy-dependent response functions. For all three types of data uncertainties SENSIT computes the resulting variance and estimated standard deviation in an integral response of interest, on the basis of generalized perturbation theory. SENSIT attempts to be more comprehensive than earlier sensitivity analysis codes, such as SWANLAKE.

  12. Improved empirical parameterization for projectile fragmentation cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, B.

    2017-03-01

    A new empirical parametrization is developed for calculating the fragment cross sections in projectile fragmentation reactions at high energies (>100 MeV/nucleon). The new parametrization, FRACS, consists of two main parts, i.e., the mass yield and the isobaric distribution, on the basis of previous parametrizations. The formalism for the mass yield is improved to describe the target and the projectile energy dependences observed in measured fragmentation cross sections. The parametrization of the isobaric distribution is also modified to reproduce recent experimental data. Furthermore, an additional term is proposed and first implemented in the FRACS parametrization to account for the evident odd-even staggering effect observed in many experimental cross sections. Comparisons with extensive cross sections measured in various fragmentation reactions reveal that FRACS is in much better agreement with experimental data and can reproduce measured cross sections in most cases within a factor of 1.84, which is a much smaller rms deviation as compared to that of the recent parametrization EPAX3.

  13. Modelling interaction cross sections for intermediate and low energy ions.

    PubMed

    Toburen, L H; Shinpaugh, J L; Justiniano, E L B

    2002-01-01

    When charged particles slow in tissue they undergo electron capture and loss processes that can have profound effects on subsequent interaction cross sections. Although a large amount of data exists for the interaction of bare charged particles with atoms and molecules, few experiments have been reported for these 'dressed' particles. Projectile electrons contribute to an impact-parameter-dependent screening of the projectile charge that precludes straightforward scaling of energy loss cross sections from those of bare charged particles. The objective of this work is to develop an analytical model for the energy-loss-dependent effects of screening on differential ionisation cross sections that can be used in track structure calculations for high LET ions. As a first step a model of differential ionisation cross sections for bare ions has been combined with a simple screening model to explore cross sections for intermediate and low energy dressed ions in collisions with atomic and molecular gas targets. The model is described briefly and preliminary results compared to measured ejected electron energy spectra.

  14. Theoretical Formalism To Estimate the Positron Scattering Cross Section.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suvam; Dutta, Sangita; Naghma, Rahla; Antony, Bobby

    2016-07-21

    A theoretical formalism is introduced in this article to calculate the total cross sections for positron scattering. This method incorporates positron-target interaction in the spherical complex optical potential formalism. The study of positron collision has been quite subtle until now. However, recently, it has emerged as an interesting area due to its role in atomic and molecular structure physics, astrophysics, and medicine. With the present method, the total cross sections for simple atoms C, N, and O and their diatomic molecules C2, N2, and O2 are obtained and compared with existing data. The total cross section obtained in the present work gives a more consistent shape and magnitude than existing theories. The characteristic dip below 10 eV is identified due to the positronium formation. The deviation of the present cross section with measurements at energies below 10 eV is attributed to the neglect of forward angle-discrimination effects in experiments, the inefficiency of additivity rule for molecules, empirical treatment of positronium formation, and the neglect of annihilation reactions. In spite of these deficiencies, the present results show consistent behavior and reasonable agreement with previous data, wherever available. Besides, this is the first computational model to report positron scattering cross sections over the energy range from 1 to 5000 eV.

  15. Progress on FP13 Total Cross Section Measurements Capability

    SciTech Connect

    Ullmann, John Leonard; Couture, Aaron Joseph; Koehler, Paul E.; Mocko, Michal; Mosby, Shea Morgan; Wender, Stephen Arthur

    2016-09-26

    An accurate knowledge of the neutron capture cross section is important for many applications. Experimental measurements are important since theoretical calculations of capture have been notoriously difficult, with the ratio of measured to calculated cross sections often a factor of 2 or more in the 10 keV to 1 MeV region. However, a direct measurement of capture cannot be made on many interesting radioactive nuclides because of their short half-life or backgrounds caused by their nuclear decay. On the other hand, neutron transmission measurements of the total cross section are feasible for a wide range of radioactive nuclides since the detectors are far from the sample, and often are less sensitive to decay radiation. The parameters extracted from a total cross section measurement, which include the average resonance spacing, the neutron strength function, and the average total radiation width, (Γγ), provide tight constraints on the calculation of the capture cross section, and when applied produce much more accurate results. These measurements can be made using the intense epithermal neutron flux at the Lujan Center on relatively small quantities of target material. It was the purpose of this project to investigate and develop the capability to make these measurements. A great deal of progress was made towards establishing this capability during 2016, including setting up the flight path and obtaining preliminary results, but more work remains to be done.

  16. 242Pu absolute neutron-capture cross section measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckner, M. Q.; Wu, C. Y.; Henderson, R. A.; Bucher, B.; Chyzh, A.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Baramsai, B.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; Mosby, S.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.

    2017-09-01

    The absolute neutron-capture cross section of 242Pu was measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center using the Detector for Advanced Neutron-Capture Experiments array along with a compact parallel-plate avalanche counter for fission-fragment detection. During target fabrication, a small amount of 239Pu was added to the active target so that the absolute scale of the 242Pu(n,γ) cross section could be set according to the known 239Pu(n,f) resonance at En,R = 7.83 eV. The relative scale of the 242Pu(n,γ) cross section covers four orders of magnitude for incident neutron energies from thermal to ≈ 40 keV. The cross section reported in ENDF/B-VII.1 for the 242Pu(n,γ) En,R = 2.68 eV resonance was found to be 2.4% lower than the new absolute 242Pu(n,γ) cross section.

  17. Electromagnetic Dissociation Cross Sections using Weisskopf-Ewing Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamczyk, Anne M.; Norbury, John W.

    2011-01-01

    It is important that accurate estimates of crew exposure to radiation are obtained for future long-term space missions. Presently, several space radiation transport codes exist to predict the radiation environment, all of which take as input particle interaction cross sections that describe the nuclear interactions between the particles and the shielding material. The space radiation transport code HZETRN uses the nuclear fragmentation model NUCFRG2 to calculate Electromagnetic Dissociation (EMD) cross sections. Currently, NUCFRG2 employs energy independent branching ratios to calculate these cross sections. Using Weisskopf-Ewing (WE) theory to calculate branching ratios, however, is more advantageous than the method currently employed in NUCFRG2. The WE theory can calculate not only neutron and proton emission, as in the energy independent branching ratio formalism used in NUCFRG2, but also deuteron, triton, helion, and alpha particle emission. These particles can contribute significantly to total exposure estimates. In this work, photonuclear cross sections are calculated using WE theory and the energy independent branching ratios used in NUCFRG2 and then compared to experimental data. It is found that the WE theory gives comparable, but mainly better agreement with data than the energy independent branching ratio. Furthermore, EMD cross sections for single neutron, proton, and alpha particle removal are calculated using WE theory and an energy independent branching ratio used in NUCFRG2 and compared to experimental data.

  18. Statistical Features of the Thermal Neutron Capture Cross Sections

    DOE PAGES

    Hussein, M. S.; Carlson, B. V.; Kerman, A. K.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we discuss the existence of huge thermal neutron capture cross sections in several nuclei. The values of the cross sections are several orders of magnitude bigger than expected at these very low energies. We lend support to the idea that this phenomenon is random in nature and is similar to what we have learned from the study of parity violation in the actinide region. The idea of statistical doorways is advanced as a unified concept in the delineation of large numbers in the nuclear world. The average number of maxima per unit mass, < nA > inmore » the capture cross section is calculated and related to the underlying cross section correlation function and found to be < nA > = 3/(π√2γA), where γA is a characteristic mass correlation width which designates the degree of remnant coherence in the system. Finally, we trace this coherence to nucleosynthesis which produced the nuclei whose neutron capture cross sections are considered here.« less

  19. Statistical Features of the Thermal Neutron Capture Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein, M. S.; Carlson, B. V.; Kerman, A. K.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we discuss the existence of huge thermal neutron capture cross sections in several nuclei. The values of the cross sections are several orders of magnitude bigger than expected at these very low energies. We lend support to the idea that this phenomenon is random in nature and is similar to what we have learned from the study of parity violation in the actinide region. The idea of statistical doorways is advanced as a unified concept in the delineation of large numbers in the nuclear world. The average number of maxima per unit mass, < nA > in the capture cross section is calculated and related to the underlying cross section correlation function and found to be < nA > = 3/(π√2γA), where γA is a characteristic mass correlation width which designates the degree of remnant coherence in the system. Finally, we trace this coherence to nucleosynthesis which produced the nuclei whose neutron capture cross sections are considered here.

  20. Electron Impact Ionization Cross Sections in Rb and Cs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddish, T. J.; Lukomski, M.; Sutton, S.; Kedzierski, W.; McConkey, J. W.; Bartschat, K.; Bartlett, P. L.; Stelbovics, A. T.; Bray, I.

    2006-05-01

    We present a new atom trapping technique for determining absolute, total ionisation cross sections (TICS) out of an excited atom. The novel feature of this method is in utilizing Doppler cooling of neutral atoms to determine ionisation cross sections. This fluorescence-monitoring experiment, which is a variant of the `trap loss' technique, has enabled us to obtain the experimental electron impact ionisation cross sections out of the Cs 6^2P3/2 excited state between 7 - 400 eV. New CCC, R-Matrix with Pseudo-States (RMPS), and Born approximation single ionisation cross sections (SICS) are also presented for both the ground and excited states of Cs and Rb, and compared with the available experimental data. The comparison of the results reveals the importance of the autoionisation and multiple ionisation contributions to the TICS. The autoionisation contribution appears to be substantial for ionisation out of the Cs 6^2P and Rb 5^2P excited states; ˜ 3-4 larger than the direct ionisation contribution predicted by CCC at ˜ 30-50 eV. This surprising result shows the importance of multi-electron processes in determining the ionisation cross sections of heavy alkali atoms.

  1. Experience With the SCALE Criticality Safety Cross Section Libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, S.M.

    2000-08-21

    This report provides detailed information on the SCALE criticality safety cross-section libraries. Areas covered include the origins of the libraries, the data on which they are based, how they were generated, past experience and validations, and performance comparisons with measured critical experiments and numerical benchmarks. The performance of the SCALE criticality safety cross-section libraries on various types of fissile systems are examined in detail. Most of the performance areas are demonstrated by examining the performance of the libraries vs critical experiments to show general trends and weaknesses. In areas where directly applicable critical experiments do not exist, performance is examined based on the general knowledge of the strengths and weaknesses of the cross sections. In this case, the experience in the use of the cross sections and comparisons with the results of other libraries on the same systems are relied on for establishing acceptability of application of a particular SCALE library to a particular fissile system. This report should aid in establishing when a SCALE cross-section library would be expected to perform acceptably and where there are known or suspected deficiencies that would cause the calculations to be less reliable. To determine the acceptability of a library for a particular application, the calculational bias of the library should be established by directly applicable critical experiments.

  2. Characteristic plateau in the L1 -subshell ionization cross section of Ag induced by proton collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavčič, M.; Šmit, Ž.

    2009-12-01

    A characteristic dependence of the proton-induced 2s subshell ionization cross section generated by the nodal structure of the 2s wave function was probed via high-resolution measurements of the Lβ3 (L1-M3) and Lβ6 (L3-N1) x-ray lines of Ag. The intensity ratio of the measured lines depends strongly on the proton energy exhibiting a pronounced maximum around 0.4 MeV. The experimental intensities are critically compared to the theoretically predicted values. The latter were obtained using the ionization cross sections calculated within the semiclassical approximation employing hydrogenlike and Dirac-Fock electron wave functions.

  3. Parameterizations of Inclusive Cross Sections for Kaon, Proton, and Antiproton Production in Proton-Proton Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norbury, John W.

    2009-05-01

    Inclusive kaon, proton, and antiproton production from high-energy proton-proton collisions is studied. Various available parameterizations of Lorentz-invariant, differential cross sections, as a function of transverse momentum and rapidity, are compared with experimental data. This paper shows that the Badhwar parameterization provides the best fit for charged kaon production. For proton production, the Alper parameterization is best and for antiproton production the Carey parameterization works best. The formulae for these cross sections are suitable for use in high-energy cosmic ray transport codes.

  4. Pion cross section parametrizations for intermediate energy, nucleus-nucleus collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Norbury, John W.

    2009-03-15

    Space radiation and cosmic ray transport codes require simple and accurate models for hadron production in intermediate energy, nucleus-nucleus collisions. Several arithmetic parametrization models for pion production are compared to laboratory frame data. It is found that models based on high energy parametrizations are unable to describe intermediate energy, differential cross section data. However, simple thermal model parametrizations, when appropriately transformed from the center of momentum to the laboratory frame, are able to account for the data. Heavy ion transport codes that require algebraic cross section formulas can therefore use arithmetic parametrizations at high energy, but should use thermal model parametrizations at intermediate energy.

  5. Report on 241,242Am(n,x) surrogate cross section measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, J T; Ressler, J J; Gostic, J; Henderson, R A; Bernstein, L A; Escher, J E; Bleuel, D; Kritcher, A; Matoon, C; Scielzo, N D; Stoyer, M A

    2011-02-16

    The main goal of this measurement is to determine the {sup 242}Am(n,f) and {sup 241}Am(n,f) cross sections via the surrogate {sup 243}Am. Gamma-ray data was also collected for the purpose of measuring the (n,2n) cross-sections. The experiment was conducted using the STARS/LIBERACE experimental facility located at the 88 Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory the first week of February 2011. A description of the experiment and status of the data analysis follow.

  6. Transmission of mirror light pipes with triangular, rectangular, rhombic and hexagonal cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, Ian

    2010-06-15

    This paper derives expressions for the transmission of mirror light pipes (MLP) with cross sections exhibiting congruent symmetry. These include rectangular, triangular, rhombic and hexagonal cross sections. For the case of rectangular MLP the transmissions calculated by this method are the same as the transmissions calculated by integrated ray trace methods. Measurements of the transmission of rectangular and triangular MLP were made and compared with calculated transmissions. It is shown that calculated transmissions are consistent with measured transmissions provided a reflectance that varies with incidence angle on the aperture of the MLP is used. A simple expression for this variation was found from the experimental measurements. (author)

  7. Performing Neutron Cross-Section Measurements at RIA

    SciTech Connect

    Ahle, L E

    2003-05-20

    The Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) is a proposed accelerator for the low energy nuclear physics community. Its goal is to understand the natural abundances of the elements heavier than iron, explore the nuclear force in systems far from stability, and study symmetry violation and fundamental physics in nuclei. To achieve these scientific goals, RIA promises to produce isotopes far from stability in sufficient quantities to allow experiments. It would also produce near stability isotopes at never before seen production rates, as much as 10{sup 12} pps. Included in these isotopes are many that are important to stockpile stewardship, such as {sup 87}Y, {sup 146-50}Eu, and {sup 231}Th. Given the expected production rates at RIA and a reasonably intense neutron source, one can expect to make {approx} 10 {micro}g targets of nuclei with a half-life of {approx}1 day. Thus, it will be possible at RIA to obtain experimental information on the neutron cross section for isotopes that have to date only been determined by theory. There are two methods to perform neutron cross-section measurements, prompt and delayed. The prompt method tries to measure each reaction as it happens. The exact technique employed will depend on the reaction of interest, (n,2n), (n,{gamma}), (n,p), etc. The biggest challenge with this method is designing a detector system that can handle the gamma ray background from the target. The delayed method, which is the traditional radiochemistry method for determining the cross-section, irradiates the targets and then counts the reaction products after the fact. While this allows one to avoid the target background, the allowed fraction of target impurities is extremely low. This is especially true for the desired reaction product with the required impurity fraction on the order of 10{sup -9}. This is particularly problematic for (n,2n) and (n,{gamma}) reactions, whose reaction production cannot be chemically separated from the target. In either case, the

  8. On two-parameter models of photon cross sections: application to dual-energy CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Jeffrey F; Li, Sicong; Devic, Slobodan; Whiting, Bruce R; Lerma, Fritz A

    2006-11-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the theoretically achievable accuracy in estimating photon cross sections at low energies (20-1000 keV) from idealized dual-energy x-ray computed tomography (CT) images. Cross-section estimation from dual-energy measurements requires a model that can accurately represent photon cross sections of any biological material as a function of energy by specifying only two characteristic parameters of the underlying material, e.g., effective atomic number and density. This paper evaluates the accuracy of two commonly used two-parameter cross-section models for postprocessing idealized measurements derived from dual-energy CT images. The parametric fit model (PFM) accounts for electron-binding effects and photoelectric absorption by power functions in atomic number and energy and scattering by the Klein-Nishina cross section. The basis-vector model (BVM) assumes that attenuation coefficients of any biological substance can be approximated by a linear combination of mass attenuation coefficients of two dissimilar basis substances. Both PFM and BVM were fit to a modern cross-section library for a range of elements and mixtures representative of naturally occurring biological materials (Z = 2-20). The PFM model, in conjunction with the effective atomic number approximation, yields estimated the total linear cross-section estimates with mean absolute and maximum error ranges of 0.6%-2.2% and 1%-6%, respectively. The corresponding error ranges for BVM estimates were 0.02%-0.15% and 0.1%-0.5%. However, for photoelectric absorption frequency, the PFM absolute mean and maximum errors were 10.8%-22.4% and 29%-50%, compared with corresponding BVM errors of 0.4%-11.3% and 0.5%-17.0%, respectively. Both models were found to exhibit similar sensitivities to image-intensity measurement uncertainties. Of the two models, BVM is the most promising approach for realizing dual-energy CT cross-section measurement.

  9. Pion photoproduction cross section at large momentum transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Sjoegren, Johan

    2015-02-27

    The Real Compton Scattering experiment was performed in Hall A at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. It was designed to measure, for Compton scattering and π0-photoproduction, the differential cross section over a range of kinematic points and the polarisation transfer to the proton at a single kinematic point. The full range of the experiment in Mandelstam variables t and s was 1.6-6.46 GeV2 and 4.82-10.92 GeV2 respectively with beam energies of 2-6 GeV. The motivation for the experiment is to test the cross section and polarisation transfer predictions of perturbative QCD versus that of predictions from Generalised Parton Distribution models. This thesis will give an overview of the pertinent theory, experimental setup in Hall A and the extracting of the π0-photoproduction cross section.

  10. Cross-Sectional Transport Imaging in a Multijunction Solar Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Haegel, Nancy M.; Ke, Chi-Wen; Taha, Hesham; Guthrey, Harvey; Fetzer, C. M.; King, Richard

    2015-06-14

    Combining highly localized electron-beam excitation at a point with the spatial resolution capability of optical near-field imaging, we have imaged carrier transport in a cross-sectioned multijunction (GaInP/GaInAs/Ge) solar cell. We image energy transport associated with carrier diffusion throughout the full width of the middle (GaInAs) cell and luminescent coupling from point excitation in the top cell GaInP to the middle cell. Supporting cathodoluminescence and near-field photoluminescence measurements demonstrate excitation-dependent Fermi level splitting effects that influence cross-sectioned spectroscopy results as well as transport limitations on the spatial resolution of cross-sectional measurements.

  11. Large cross sections for transitions with a small energy difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, J. H.; Shakov, Kh. Kh.

    2009-05-01

    Cross sections for transitions between states with small differences in energy can be quite large. An example is the 1s-2p transition in atomic hydrogen caused by the impact of a fast charged particle [1] or a photon [3]. In such cases the actual cross section may become much larger than the simple geometric cross section. Such transitions are often difficult to observe in the laboratory. However, they can be evaluated numerically. This effect can be significant in analysis of astrophysical data, as pointed out by T. Nandi [2]. I discuss a few examples of calculations and give a physical explanation for this effect. [4pt] [1] J.H. McGuire, D. J. Land, J. G. Brennan and G. Basbas, Phys. Rev. A19, 2180 (1979).[0pt] [2] Kh.Kh. Shakov and J.H. McGuire, Phys. Rev. A67 033405 (2003). [0pt] [3] T. Nandi, private communication, 2008.

  12. Reaction cross sections of the deformed halo nucleus 31Ne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urata, Y.; Hagino, K.; Sagawa, H.

    2012-10-01

    Using the Glauber theory, we calculate reaction cross sections for the deformed halo nucleus 31Ne. To this end, we assume that the 31Ne nucleus takes the 30Ne+n structure. To take into account the rotational excitation of the core nucleus 30Ne, we employ the particle-rotor model (PRM). We compare the results to those in the adiabatic limit of PRM, that is, the Nilsson model, and show that the Nilsson model works reasonably well for the reaction cross sections of 31Ne. We also investigate the dependence of the reaction cross sections on the ground-state properties of 31Ne, such as the deformation parameter and the p-wave component in the ground-state wave function.

  13. Absorption Cross-Sections of Sodium Diatomic Molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Zeng-Shevan

    1985-01-01

    The absorption cross sections of sodium dimers were studied using a heat pipe over operating in the non-heat-pipe mode. Three wavelength regions were observed. They are in the red, the green-blue, and the near ultraviolet regions. The absorption cross section depends on the wavelength of the incident light. Representative peak values for the v"=0 progression in the red and green-blue regions are 2.59 A sup 2 (average value) and 11.77 A sup 2 (T sub ave=624 K). The value for the C greater than X transitions is several tenths A sup 2. The cross sections were measured from absorption spectra taken as a function of temperature.

  14. 63Ni (n ,γ ) cross sections measured with DANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigand, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Göbel, K.; Heftrich, T.; Jandel, M.; Käppeler, F.; Lederer, C.; Kivel, N.; Korschinek, G.; Krtička, M.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Ostermöller, J.; Plag, R.; Reifarth, R.; Schumann, D.; Ullmann, J. L.; Wallner, A.

    2015-10-01

    The neutron capture cross section of the s -process branch nucleus 63Ni affects the abundances of other nuclei in its region, especially 63Cu and 64Zn. In order to determine the energy-dependent neutron capture cross section in the astrophysical energy region, an experiment at the Los Alamos National Laboratory has been performed using the calorimetric 4 π BaF2 array DANCE. The (n ,γ ) cross section of 63Ni has been determined relative to the well-known 197Au standard with uncertainties below 15%. Various 63Ni resonances have been identified based on the Q value. Furthermore, the s -process sensitivity of the new values was analyzed with the new network calculation tool NETZ.

  15. High Energy Measurement of the Deuteron Photodisintegration Differential Cross Section

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte, Elaine

    2002-05-01

    New measurements of the high energy deuteron photodisintegration differential cross section were made at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, Virginia. Two experiments were performed. Experiment E96-003 was performed in experimental Hall C. The measurements were designed to extend the highest energy differential cross section values to 5.5 GeV incident photon energy at forward angles. This builds upon previous high energy measurements in which scaling consistent with the pQCD constituent counting rules was observed at 90 degrees and 70 degrees in the center of mass. From the new measurements, a threshold for the onset of constituent counting rule scaling seems present at transverse momentum approximately 1.3 GeV/c. The second experiment, E99-008, was performed in experimental Hall A. The measurements were designed to explore the angular distribution of the differential cross section at constant energy. The measurements were made symmetric about 90 degrees

  16. Neutron scattering cross section measurements for Fe56

    DOE PAGES

    Ramirez, A. P. D.; Vanhoy, J. R.; Hicks, S. F.; ...

    2017-06-09

    Elastic and inelastic differential cross sections for neutron scattering from 56Fe have been measured for several incident energies from 1.30 to 7.96 MeV at the University of Kentucky Accelerator Laboratory. Scattered neutrons were detected using a C6D6 liquid scintillation detector using pulse-shape discrimination and time-of-flight techniques. The deduced cross sections have been compared with previously reported data, predictions from evaluation databases ENDF, JENDL, and JEFF, and theoretical calculations performed using different optical model potentials using the TALYS and EMPIRE nuclear reaction codes. The coupled-channel calculations based on the vibrational and soft-rotor models are found to describe the experimental (n,n0) andmore » (n,n1) cross sections well.« less

  17. Phenomenological barrier parameters for total reaction cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phookan, C. K.; Kalita, K.

    2016-01-01

    A phenomenological formula for total reaction cross section is introduced for reactions induced by three types of projectiles. The formula is based on Wong's formula in which, the barrier parameters are calculated from the Bass, Aage Winther and the Akyuz Winther potentials. For the reactions studied, we find that a uniform correction of the barrier parameters can account for the total reaction cross section satisfactorily. An unusually large deviation of the barrier parameters is noticed for the reaction {}8{B} + {}^{58}{Ni}. Arguments are given that most likely the radius of the proton halo nucleus {}8{B} is not well accounted by the above potentials and hence, an increase in the effective radius of {}^8{B} is proposed. Analysis is also presented for the reaction {}^{11}{Li} + {}^{208}{Pb} by making the assumption that its reduced total reaction cross section lies on the same trajectory as that for other halo reactions.

  18. Lactiferous vessel detection from microscopic cross-sectional images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jariyawatthananon, Jirapath; Cooharojananone, Nagul; Lipikorn, Rajalida

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents the methods to detect and segment lactiferous vessels or rubber latex vessels from gray scale microscopic cross-sectional images using polynomial curve-fitting with maximum and minimum stationary points. Polynomial curve-fitting is used to detect the location of lactiferous vessels from an image of a non-dyed cross-sectional slice which was taken by a digital camera through microscope lens. The lactiferous vessels are then segmented from an image using maximum and minimum stationary points with morphological closing operation. Two species of rubber trees of age between one to two years old are sampled namely, RRIM600 and RRIT251. Two data sets contain 30 microscopic cross-sectional images of one-year old rubber tree's stems from each species are used in the experiments and the results reveal that most of the lactiferous vessel areas can be segmented correctly.

  19. Total cross sections of beauty and charmed mesons on protons

    SciTech Connect

    Fridman, A.; Meshkov, S.

    1991-06-01

    Using a simple scaling law we predict the values of the total cross sections {sigma}(B{plus_minus}p), {sigma}B{sub d,s}{sup 0}, {sigma}({bar B}{sub d,s}{sup 0}P), {sigma}(D{sub d,s}{sup {plus_minus}}P), {sigma}(D{sup 0}p), {sigma}({bar D}{sup 0}p) from known total K{sub p} cross sections. We assume that mesons with the same light valence quark, q, and differing only by their heavy valence quark content, Q, have total cross sections on protons which scale as the inverse of the nth power of the reduced mass of the meson. We predict that {sigma}(Q{bar q})p > {sigma}({bar Q}q)p.

  20. Pion Total Cross Section in Nucleon - Nucleon Collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.

    2009-01-01

    Total cross section parameterizations for neutral and charged pion production in nucleon - nucleon collisions are compared to experimental data over the projectile momentum range from threshold to 300 GeV. Both proton - proton and proton - neutron reactions are considered. Overall excellent agreement between parameterizations and experiment is found, except for notable disagreements near threshold. In addition, the hypothesis that the neutral pion production cross section can be obtained from the average charged pion cross section is checked. The theoretical formulas presented in the paper obey this hypothesis for projectile momenta below 500 GeV. The results presented provide a test of engineering tools used to calculate the pion component of space radiation.