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Sample records for ray muons recorded

  1. A propose for a counting and recording system for cosmic ray (muon) telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, Carlos Roberto; Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Dal Lago, Alisson; Campos, Alexandre

    2012-07-01

    A multidirecional high energy cosmic ray (muon) telescope is operational at the Southern Space Observatory, in Sao Martinho da Serra, RS, Brazil. This telescope is part of the Global Muon Detector Network (GMDN) and aims to study and forecast Space Weather. This paper proposes a new counting, correlation and recording solution based on an embedded system able to interface observational data by internet for remote monitoring. It is built around a Rabbit 3000 microcontroller with TCP/IP Ethernet 10Base-T connectivity. It is able to detect and count the 200ns pulses generated by the sensor system (scintillator plastics coupled with photomultipliers) during a specified period of time (generally one second). A preliminary version of a monitoring web page was developed and it is able to show the cosmic ray (muon) data of one detector in real time. The current system is an attempt to improve the reliability of the telescope when comparing to the recording system based on a personal computer, currently under operation. One advantage is the easy maintenance, since all the counting and correlation boards currently under operation can be replaced by an embedded system. Besides, as the hardware is of-the-shelf, it is only necessary to develop software routines, which is based on royalty-free libraries.

  2. A proposal of a counting and recording system for cosmic ray muon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, C. R.; Campos, A.; Schuch, N. J.; Dal Lago, A.

    2013-02-01

    A multidirecional high energy cosmic ray (muon) telescope is operational at the Southern Space Observatory, in Sao Martinho da Serra, RS, Brazil. This telescope is part of the Global Muon Detector Network (GMDN) and aims to study and forecast Space Weather. This paper proposes a new counting, correlation and recording solution based on an embedded system able to interface observational data by internet for remote monitoring. It is built around a Rabbit 3000 microcontroller with TCP/IP Ethernet 10Base-T connectivity. It is able to detect and count 200 ns pulses generated by the sensor system (scintillator plastics coupled with photomultipliers) during a specified period of time (generally one second). A preliminary version of a monitoring web page was developed and it is able to show the cosmic ray (muon) data of one detector in real time. The current system is an attempt to improve the reliability of the telescope when comparing to the recording system based on a personal computer, currently under operation. One advantage is the easy maintenance, since all the counting and correlation boards currently under operation can be replaced by an embedded system. Besides, as the hardware is off-the-shelf, it is only necessary to develop software routines, which is based on royalty-free libraries.

  3. Muon acceleration in cosmic-ray sources

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Spencer R.; Mikkelsen, Rune E.; Becker Tjus, Julia

    2013-12-20

    Many models of ultra-high energy cosmic-ray production involve acceleration in linear accelerators located in gamma-ray bursts, magnetars, or other sources. These transient sources have short lifetimes, which necessitate very high accelerating gradients, up to 10{sup 13} keV cm{sup –1}. At gradients above 1.6 keV cm{sup –1}, muons produced by hadronic interactions undergo significant acceleration before they decay. This muon acceleration hardens the neutrino energy spectrum and greatly increases the high-energy neutrino flux. Using the IceCube high-energy diffuse neutrino flux limits, we set two-dimensional limits on the source opacity and matter density, as a function of accelerating gradient. These limits put strong constraints on different models of particle acceleration, particularly those based on plasma wake-field acceleration, and limit models for sources like gamma-ray bursts and magnetars.

  4. Noninvasive Reactor Imaging Using Cosmic-Ray Muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyadera, H.; Fujita, K.; Karino, Y.; Kume, N.; Nakayama, K.; Sano, Y.; Sugita, T.; Yoshioka, K.; Morris, C. L.; Bacon, J. D.; Borozdin, K. N.; Perry, J. O.; Mizokami, S.; Otsuka, Y.; Yamada, D.

    2015-10-01

    Cosmic-ray-muon imaging is proposed to assess the damages to the Fukushima Daiichi reactors. Simulation studies showed capability of muon imaging to reveal the core conditions.The muon-imaging technique was demonstrated at Toshiba Nuclear Critical Assembly, where the uranium-dioxide fuel assembly was imaged with 3-cm spatial resolution after 1 month of measurement.

  5. Applications of Cosmic Ray Muon Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guardincerri, E.; Durham, J. M.; Morris, C. L.; Rowe, C. A.; Poulson, D. C.; Bacon, J. D.; Plaud-Ramos, K.; Morley, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Dome of Santa Maria del Fiore, Florence Cathedral, was built between 1420 and 1436 by architect Filippo Brunelleschi and it is now cracking under its own weight. Engineering efforts are underway to model the dome's structure and reinforce it against further deterioration. According to some scholars, Brunelleschi might have built reinforcement structures into the dome itself; however, the only confirmed known subsurface reinforcement is a chain of iron and stone around the dome's base. Tomography with cosmic ray muons is a non-destructive imaging method that can be used to image the interior of the wall and therefore ascertain the layout and status of any iron substructure in the dome. We will show the results from a muon tomography measurement of iron hidden in a mockup of the dome's wall performed at Los Alamos National Lab in 2015. The sensitivity of this technique, and the status of this project will be also discussed. At last, we will show results on muon attenuation radiography of larger shallow targets.

  6. The muon content of gamma-ray showers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, P. G.; Protheroe, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    The result of a calculation of the expected number of muons in gamma ray initiated and cosmic ray initiated air showers using a realistic model of hadronic collisions in an effort to understand the available experimental results and to assess the feasibility of using the muon content of showers as a veto to reject cosmic ray initiated showers in ultra-high energy gamma ray astronomy are reported. The possibility of observing very-high energy gamma-ray sources by detecting narrow angle anisotropies in the high energy muon background radiation are considered.

  7. Developing a cosmic ray muon sampling capability for muon tomography and monitoring applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatzidakis, S.; Chrysikopoulou, S.; Tsoukalas, L. H.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a cosmic ray muon sampling capability using a phenomenological model that captures the main characteristics of the experimentally measured spectrum coupled with a set of statistical algorithms is developed. The "muon generator" produces muons with zenith angles in the range 0-90° and energies in the range 1-100 GeV and is suitable for Monte Carlo simulations with emphasis on muon tomographic and monitoring applications. The muon energy distribution is described by the Smith and Duller (1959) [35] phenomenological model. Statistical algorithms are then employed for generating random samples. The inverse transform provides a means to generate samples from the muon angular distribution, whereas the Acceptance-Rejection and Metropolis-Hastings algorithms are employed to provide the energy component. The predictions for muon energies 1-60 GeV and zenith angles 0-90° are validated with a series of actual spectrum measurements and with estimates from the software library CRY. The results confirm the validity of the phenomenological model and the applicability of the statistical algorithms to generate polyenergetic-polydirectional muons. The response of the algorithms and the impact of critical parameters on computation time and computed results were investigated. Final output from the proposed "muon generator" is a look-up table that contains the sampled muon angles and energies and can be easily integrated into Monte Carlo particle simulation codes such as Geant4 and MCNP.

  8. Cosmic rays muon flux measurements at Belgrade shallow underground laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Veselinović, N. Dragić, A. Maletić, D. Joković, D. Savić, M. Banjanac, R. Udovičić, V. Aničin, I.

    2015-02-24

    The Belgrade underground laboratory is a shallow underground one, at 25 meters of water equivalent. It is dedicated to low-background spectroscopy and cosmic rays measurement. Its uniqueness is that it is composed of two parts, one above ground, the other bellow with identical sets of detectors and analyzing electronics thus creating opportunity to monitor simultaneously muon flux and ambient radiation. We investigate the possibility of utilizing measurements at the shallow depth for the study of muons, processes to which these muons are sensitive and processes induced by cosmic rays muons. For this purpose a series of simulations of muon generation and propagation is done, based on the CORSIKA air shower simulation package and GEANT4. Results show good agreement with other laboratories and cosmic rays stations.

  9. The Determination of the Muon Magnetic Moment from Cosmic Rays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amsler, C.

    1974-01-01

    Describes an experiment suited for use in an advanced laboratory course in particle physics. The magnetic moment of cosmic ray muons which have some polarization is determined with an error of about five percent. (Author/GS)

  10. Large-scale anisotropy of the cosmic-ray muon flux in Kamiokande

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munakata, K.; Kiuchi, T.; Yasue, S.; Kato, C.; Mori, S.; Hirata, K. S.; Kihara, K.; Oyama, Y.; Mori, M.; Fujita, K.; Hatakeyama, S.; Koga, M.; Maruyama, T.; Suzuki, A.; Ishizuka, T.; Miyano, K.; Okazawa, H.; Fukuda, Y.; Hayakawa, T.; Inoue, K.; Ishihara, K.; Ishino, H.; Joukou, S.; Kajita, T.; Kasuga, S.; Koshio, Y.; Kumita, T.; Matsumoto, K.; Nakahata, M.; Nakamura, K.; Okumura, K.; Sakai, A.; Shiozawa, M.; Suzuki, J.; Suzuki, Y.; Tomoeda, T.; Totsuka, Y.; Horiuchi, T.; Nishijima, K.; Koshiba, M.; Suda, T.; Suzuki, A. T.; Hara, T.; Nagashima, Y.; Takita, M.; Yamaguchi, T.; Hayato, Y.; Kaneyuki, K.; Suzuki, T.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanimori, T.; Tasaka, S.; Ichihara, E.; Miyamoto, S.; Nishikawa, K.

    1997-07-01

    The large-scale anisotropy of cosmic-ray primaries in the celestial coordinate was studied using cosmic-ray muons recorded in a large water Cherenkov detector, Kamiokande. The right-ascension distribution of the muon arrival directions deviated from an isotropic distribution with a 2.8 standard deviation, and agreed well with the first harmonics with an amplitude of (5.6+/-1.9)×10-4 and a phase of 8.0°+/-19.1°. This is the deepest underground observation of the large-scale anisotropy of cosmic rays, and agrees with observations with other underground experiments and extensive air-shower array experiments.

  11. Scintillation light from cosmic-ray muons in liquid argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittington, D.; Mufson, S.; Howard, B.

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports the results of an experiment to directly measure the time-resolved scintillation signal from the passage of cosmic-ray muons through liquid argon. Scintillation light from these muons is of value to studies of weakly-interacting particles in neutrino experiments and dark matter searches. The experiment was carried out at the TallBo dewar facility at Fermilab using prototype light guide detectors and electronics developed for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment. Two models are presented for the time structure of the scintillation light, a phenomenological model and a composite model. Both models find τT = 1.52 μs for the decay time constant of the Ar2* triplet state. These models also show that the identification of the ``early'' light fraction in the phenomenological model, FE ≈ 25% of the signal, with the total light from singlet decays is an underestimate. The total fraction of singlet light is FS ≈ 36%, where the increase over FE is from singlet light emitted by the wavelength shifter through processes with long decay constants. The models were further used to compute the experimental particle identification parameter Fprompt, the fraction of light coming in a short time window after the trigger compared with the light in the total recorded waveform. The models reproduce quite well the typical experimental value ~0.3 found by dark matter and double β-decay experiments, which suggests this parameter provides a robust metric for discriminating electrons and muons from more heavily ionizing particles.

  12. Muon multiplicities measured using an underground cosmic-ray array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuusiniemi, P.; Enqvist, T.; Bezrukov, L.; Fynbo, H.; Inzhechik, L.; Joutsenvaara, J.; Loo, K.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Petkov, V.; Slupecki, M.; Trzaska, W. H.; Virkajärvi, A.

    2016-05-01

    EMMA (Experiment with Multi-Muon Array) is an underground detector array designed for cosmic-ray composition studies around the knee energy (or ~ 1 — 10 PeV). It operates at the shallow depth in the Pyhasalmi mine, Finland. The array consists of eleven independent detector stations ~ 15 m2 each. Currently seven stations are connected to the DAQ and the rest will be connected within the next few months. EMMA will determine the multiplicity, the lateral density distribution and the arrival direction of high-energy muons event by event. The preliminary estimates concerning its performance together with an example of measured muon multiplicities are presented.

  13. Muon Production in Relativistic Cosmic-Ray Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Spencer

    2009-07-27

    Cosmic-rays with energies up to 3x1020 eV have been observed. The nuclear composition of these cosmic rays is unknown but if the incident nuclei are protons then the corresponding center of mass energy is sqrt snn = 700 TeV. High energy muons can be used to probe the composition of these incident nuclei. The energy spectra of high-energy (> 1 TeV) cosmic ray induced muons have been measured with deep underground or under-ice detectors. These muons come from pion and kaon decays and from charm production in the atmosphere. Terrestrial experiments are most sensitive to far-forward muons so the production rates aresensitive to high-x partons in the incident nucleus and low-x partons in the nitrogen/oxygen targets. Muon measurements can complement the central-particle data collected at colliders.This paper will review muon production data and discuss some non-perturbative (soft) models that have been used to interpret the data. I will show measurements of TeV muon transverse momentum (pT) spectra in cosmic-ray air showers fromMACRO, and describe how the IceCube neutrino observatory and the proposed Km3Net detector will extend these measurements to a higher pT region where perturbative QCD should apply. With a 1 km2 surface area, the full IceCube detector should observe hundreds of muons/year with pT in the pQCD regime.

  14. The Nagoya cosmic-ray muon spectrometer 3, part 3: Automatic film scanning equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shibata, S.; Kamiya, Y.; Iijima, K.; Iida, S.

    1985-01-01

    In the regular operation of the Nagoya cosmic-ray muon spectrometer, about 2000 events per day will be recorded on the photographic film. To derive the track locations from such a huge number of photographs with high accuracy in a short time, an automatic film scanning device has been developed.

  15. Gamma rays from muons from WIMPs: Implementation of radiative muon decays for dark matter analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaffidi, Andre; Freese, Katherine; Li, Jinmian; Savage, Christopher; White, Martin; Williams, Anthony G.

    2016-06-01

    Dark matter searches in gamma ray final states often make use of the fact that photons can be produced from final state muons. Modern Monte Carlo generators and dark matter codes include the effects of final state radiation from muons produced in the dark matter annihilation process itself, but neglect the O (1 %) radiative correction that arises from the subsequent muon decay. After implementing this correction we demonstrate the effect that it can have on dark matter phenomenology by considering the case of dark matter annihilation to four muons via scalar mediator production. We first show that the AMS-02 positron excess can no longer easily be made consistent with this final state once the Fermi-LAT dwarf limits are calculated with the inclusion of radiative muon decays, and we next show that the Fermi-LAT galactic center gamma excess can be improved with this final state after inclusion of the same effect. We provide code and tables for the implementation of this effect in the popular dark matter code micrOMEGAs, providing a solution for any model producing final state muons.

  16. Muon spectrum in air showers initiated by gamma rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, S. A.; Streitmatter, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    An analytic representation for the invariant cross-section for the production of charged pions in gamma P interactions was derived by using the available cross-sections. Using this the abundance of muons in a gamma ray initiated air shower is calculated.

  17. Simulation of atmospheric temperature effects on cosmic ray muon flux

    SciTech Connect

    Tognini, Stefano Castro; Gomes, Ricardo Avelino

    2015-05-15

    The collision between a cosmic ray and an atmosphere nucleus produces a set of secondary particles, which will decay or interact with other atmosphere elements. This set of events produced a primary particle is known as an extensive air shower (EAS) and is composed by a muonic, a hadronic and an electromagnetic component. The muonic flux, produced mainly by pions and kaons decays, has a dependency with the atmosphere’s effective temperature: an increase in the effective temperature results in a lower density profile, which decreases the probability of pions and kaons to interact with the atmosphere and, consequently, resulting in a major number of meson decays. Such correlation between the muon flux and the atmosphere’s effective temperature was measured by a set of experiments, such as AMANDA, Borexino, MACRO and MINOS. This phenomena can be investigated by simulating the final muon flux produced by two different parameterizations of the isothermal atmospheric model in CORSIKA, where each parameterization is described by a depth function which can be related to the muon flux in the same way that the muon flux is related to the temperature. This research checks the agreement among different high energy hadronic interactions models and the physical expected behavior of the atmosphere temperature effect by analyzing a set of variables, such as the height of the primary interaction and the difference in the muon flux.

  18. Subsurface density mapping of the earth with cosmic ray muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki K. M.

    2013-10-01

    Since its original discovery by Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen in 1895, one of the directions of researchers pursued was an application of x-ray radiography to larger objects, while the advent of high voltage x-ray tubes allowed radiographs of industrial objects to be produced in a reasonable amount of time. In spite of the great motivation we have to survey the earth's interior, we now know that x rays are not sufficiently penetrative to successfully target geophysical objects. Our current knowledge about the cross sections of the muon with matter solves the problem about this x-ray's inspectable size limit. These particles do not interact strongly with matter, and those with relativistic momentum travel long distances penetrating deep into rock. By tracking the ray paths of the muon after passing through the object, the method gives researchers the ability to study the earth in new ways. The purpose of this article is to review recent progress in probing the earth's interior with muons.

  19. Measurement of cosmic-ray muons and muon-induced neutrons in the Aberdeen Tunnel Underground Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blyth, S. C.; Chan, Y. L.; Chen, X. C.; Chu, M. C.; Cui, K. X.; Hahn, R. L.; Ho, T. H.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Hu, B. Z.; Kwan, K. K.; Kwok, M. W.; Kwok, T.; Lau, Y. P.; Leung, J. K. C.; Leung, K. Y.; Lin, G. L.; Lin, Y. C.; Luk, K. B.; Luk, W. H.; Ngai, H. Y.; Ngan, S. Y.; Pun, C. S. J.; Shih, K.; Tam, Y. H.; Tsang, R. H. M.; Wang, C. H.; Wong, C. M.; Wong, H. L. H.; Wong, K. K.; Yeh, M.; Zhang, B. J.; Aberdeen Tunnel Experiment Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    We have measured the muon flux and production rate of muon-induced neutrons at a depth of 611 m water equivalent. Our apparatus comprises three layers of crossed plastic scintillator hodoscopes for tracking the incident cosmic-ray muons and 760 L of a gadolinium-doped liquid scintillator for producing and detecting neutrons. The vertical muon intensity was measured to be Iμ=(5.7 ±0.6 )×10-6 cm-2 s-1 sr-1 . The yield of muon-induced neutrons in the liquid scintillator was determined to be Yn=(1.19 ±0.08 (stat)±0.21 (syst))×10-4 neutrons /(μ .g .cm-2 ) . A fit to the recently measured neutron yields at different depths gave a mean muon energy dependence of ⟨Eμ⟩ 0.76 ±0.03 for liquid-scintillator targets.

  20. Measurement of cosmic-ray muons and muon-induced neutrons in the Aberdeen Tunnel Underground Laboratory

    DOE PAGES

    Yeh, M.; Chan, Y. L.; Chen, X. C.; Chu, M. C.; Cui, K. X.; Hahn, R. L.; Ho, T. H.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Hu, B. Z.; Kwan, K. K.; et al

    2016-04-07

    In this study, we have measured the muon flux and production rate of muon-induced neutrons at a depth of 611 m water equivalent. Our apparatus comprises three layers of crossed plastic scintillator hodoscopes for tracking the incident cosmic-ray muons and 760 L of a gadolinium-doped liquid scintillator for producing and detecting neutrons. The vertical muon intensity was measured to be Iμ = (5.7±0.6)×10–6 cm–2 s–1 sr–1. The yield of muon-induced neutrons in the liquid scintillator was determined to be Yn = (1.19 ± 0.08(stat) ± 0.21(syst)) × 10–4 neutrons/(μ•g•cm–2). A fit to the recently measured neutron yields at different depthsmore » gave a mean muon energy dependence of < Eμ >0.76±0.03 for liquid-scintillator targets.« less

  1. Radiographic Images Produced by Cosmic-Ray Muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfaro, Rubén

    2006-09-01

    An application of high energy physics instrumentation is to look for structure or different densities (materials) hidden in a matrix (tons) of material. By tracing muons produced by primary Cosmic Rays, it has been possible to generate a kind of radiographs which shows the inner structure of dense containers, monuments or mountains. In this paper I review the basics principles of such techniques with emphasis in the Sun Pyramid project, carried out by IFUNAM in collaboration with Instituto Nacioanal de Antropologia e Historia.

  2. High-energy cosmic ray muons in the Earth's atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Kochanov, A. A.; Sinegovskaya, T. S.; Sinegovsky, S. I.

    2013-03-15

    We present the calculations of the atmospheric muon fluxes at energies 10-10{sup 7} GeV based on a numerical-analytical method for solving the hadron-nucleus cascade equations. It allows the non-power-law behavior of the primary cosmic ray (PCR) spectrum, the violation of Feynman scaling, and the growth of the total inelastic cross sections for hadron-nucleus collisions with increasing energy to be taken into account. The calculations have been performed for a wide class of hadron-nucleus interaction models using directly the PCR measurements made in the ATIC-2 and GAMMA experiments and the parameterizations of the primary spectrum based on a set of experiments. We study the dependence of atmospheric muon flux characteristics on the hadronic interaction model and the influence of uncertainties in the PCR spectrum and composition on the muon flux at sea level. Comparison of the calculated muon energy spectra at sea level with the data from a large number of experiments shows that the cross sections for hadron-nucleus interactions introduce the greatest uncertainty in the energy region that does not include the knee in the primary spectrum.

  3. High-energy cosmic ray muons in the Earth's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochanov, A. A.; Sinegovskaya, T. S.; Sinegovsky, S. I.

    2013-03-01

    We present the calculations of the atmospheric muon fluxes at energies 10-107 GeV based on a numerical-analytical method for solving the hadron-nucleus cascade equations. It allows the non-power-law behavior of the primary cosmic ray (PCR) spectrum, the violation of Feynman scaling, and the growth of the total inelastic cross sections for hadron-nucleus collisions with increasing energy to be taken into account. The calculations have been performed for a wide class of hadron-nucleus interaction models using directly the PCR measurements made in the ATIC-2 and GAMMA experiments and the parameterizations of the primary spectrum based on a set of experiments. We study the dependence of atmospheric muon flux characteristics on the hadronic interaction model and the influence of uncertainties in the PCR spectrum and composition on the muon flux at sea level. Comparison of the calculated muon energy spectra at sea level with the data from a large number of experiments shows that the cross sections for hadron-nucleus interactions introduce the greatest uncertainty in the energy region that does not include the knee in the primary spectrum.

  4. Inspection of Alpine glaciers with cosmic-ray muon radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Ryuichi; Ariga, Akitaka; Ariga, Tomoko; Ereditato, Antonio; Lechmann, Alessandro; Mair, David; Scampoli, Paola; Schlunegger, Fritz; Vladymyrov, Mykhailo

    2016-04-01

    Radiography using cosmic-ray muons represents a challenging method for probing the bedrock topography beneath Alpine glaciers. We present the current status of our feasibility study at Eiger glacier, situated on the western flank of the Eiger in the Jungfrau region, Central Swiss Alps. The muon radiography is a technique that has been recently developed to investigate the internal density profiles of geoscientific targets. It is based on the measurement of the absorption of the cosmic-ray muons inside a material. Because the energy spectrum of cosmic-ray muons and the energy dependence of muon range have been studied well during the past years, the attenuation of the muon flux can be used to derive the column density, i.e. the density integrated along the muon trajectories, of geoscientific targets. This technique has recently been applied for non-invasive inspection of volcanoes, nuclear reactors, seismic faults, caves and etc. The greatest advantage of the method in the field of glacier studies is that it yields a unique solution of the density underneath a glacier without any assumption of physical properties inside the target. Large density contrasts, as expected between glacier ice (˜ 1.0g/cm3) and bedrock (˜ 2.5g/cm3), would allow us to elucidate the shape of the bedrock in high resolution. Accordingly, this technology will provide for the first time information on the bedrock surface beneath a steep and non-accessible Alpine glacier, in a complementary way with respect to other exploration methods (drilling, ground penetrating radar, seismic survey, gravity explorations and etc.). Our first aim is to demonstrate the feasibility of the method through a case study at the Eiger glacier, situated in the Central Swiss Alps. The Eiger glacier straddles the western flank of the Eiger between 3700 and 2300 m above sea level (a.s.l.). The glacier has shortened by about 150 m during the past 30 years in response to the ongoing global warming, causing a concern for

  5. Cosmic ray sun shadow in Soudan 2 underground muon flux.

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, W. W. M.; Alner, G. J.; Ayres, D. S.; Barrett, W. L.; Bode, C.; Fields, T. H.; Goodman, M. C.; Joffe-Minor, T.; Price, L. E.; Seidlein, R.; Soudan 2 Collaboration; Thron, J. L.

    1999-06-23

    The absorption of cosmic rays by the sun produces a shadow at the earth. The angular offset and broadening of the shadow are determined by the magnitude and structure of the interplanetary magnetic field (IPMF) in the inner solar system. The authors report the first measurement of the solar cosmic ray shadow by detection of deep underground muon flux in observations made during the entire ten-year interval 1989 to 1998. The sun shadow varies significantly during this time, with a 3.3{sigma} shadow observed during the years 1995 to 1998.

  6. SurveillanceRadiographic imaging with cosmic-ray muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borozdin, Konstantin N.; Hogan, Gary E.; Morris, Christopher; Priedhorsky, William C.; Saunders, Alexander; Schultz, Larry J.; Teasdale, Margaret E.

    2003-03-01

    Despite its enormous success, X-ray radiography has its limitations: an inability to penetrate dense objects, the need for multiple projections to resolve three-dimensional structure, and health risks from radiation. Here we show that natural background muons, which are generated by cosmic rays and are highly penetrating, can be used for radiographic imaging of medium-to-large, dense objects, without these limitations and with a reasonably short exposure time. This inexpensive and harmless technique may offer a useful alternative for detecting dense materials - for example, a block of uranium concealed inside a truck full of sheep.

  7. The Nagoya cosmic-ray muon spectrometer 3, part 4: Track reconstruction method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shibata, S.; Kamiya, Y.; Iijima, K.; Iida, S.

    1985-01-01

    One of the greatest problems in measuring particle trajectories with an optical or visual detector system, is the reconstruction of trajectories in real space from their recorded images. In the Nagoya cosmic-ray muon spectrometer, muon tracks are detected by wide gap spark chambers and their images are recorded on the photographic film through an optical system of 10 mirrors and two cameras. For the spatial reconstruction, 42 parameters of the optical system should be known to determine the configuration of this system. It is almost impossible to measure this many parameters directly with usual techniques. In order to solve this problem, the inverse transformation method was applied. In this method, all the optical parameters are determined from the locations of fiducial marks in real space and the locations of their images on the photographic film by the non-linear least square fitting.

  8. Response of the D0 calorimeter to cosmic ray muons

    SciTech Connect

    Kotcher, J.

    1992-10-01

    The D0 Detector at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is a large multipurpose detector facility designed for the study of proton-antiproton collision products at the center-of-mass energy of 2 TeV. It consists of an inner tracking volume, hermetic uranium/liquid argon sampling calorimetry, and an outer 47{pi} muon detector. In preparation for our first collider run, the collaboration organized a Cosmic Ray Commissioning Run, which took place from February--May of 1991. This thesis is a detailed study of the response of the central calorimeter to cosmic ray muons as extracted from data collected during this run. We have compared the shapes of the experimentally-obtained pulse height spectra to the Landau prediction for the ionization loss in a continuous thin absorber in the four electromagnetic and four hadronic layers of the calorimeter, and find good agreement after experimental effects are folded in. We have also determined an absolute energy calibration using two independent methods: one which measures the response of the electronics to a known amount of charge injected at the preamplifiers, and one which uses a carry-over of the calibration from a beam test of central calorimeter modules. Both absolute energy conversion factors agree with one another, within their errors. The calibration determined from the test beam carryover, relevant for use with collider physics data, has an error of 2.3%. We believe that, with further study, a final error of {approx}1% will be achieved. The theory-to-experiment comparison of the peaks (or most probable values) of the muon spectra was used to determine the layer-to-layer consistency of the muon signal. We find that the mean response in the 3 fine hadronic layers is (12 {plus_minus} 2%) higher than that in the 4 electromagnetic layers. These same comparisons have been used to verify the absolute energy conversion factors. The conversion factors work well for the electromagnetic sections.

  9. Cosmic ray muon charge ratio in the MINOS far detector

    SciTech Connect

    Beall, Erik B.

    2005-12-01

    The MINOS Far Detector is a 5.4 kiloton (5.2 kt steel plus 0.2 kt scintillator plus aluminum skin) magnetized tracking calorimeter located 710 meters underground in the Soudan mine in Northern Minnesota. MINOS is the first large, deep underground detector with a magnetic field and thus capable of making measurements of the momentum and charge of cosmic ray muons. Despite encountering unexpected anomalies in distributions of the charge ratio (N{sub μ+/Nμ-) of cosmic muons, a method of canceling systematic errors is proposed and demonstrated. The result is Reff = 1.346 ± 0.002 (stat) ± 0.016 (syst) for the averaged charge ratio, and a result for a rising fit to slant depth of R(X) = 1.300 ± 0.008 (stat) ± 0.016 (syst) + (1.8 ± 0.3) x 10-5 x X, valid over the range of slant depths from 2000 < X < 6000 MWE. This slant depth range corresponds to minimum surface muon energies between 750 GeV and 5 TeV.

  10. Cosmic-Ray Muon Intensity Deep Underground versus Depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, B. S.; Sellschop, J. P. F.; Crouch, M. F.; Kropp, W. R.; Sobel, H. W.; Gurr, H. S.; Lathrop, J.; Reines, F.

    Cosmic-ray muons produced in the earth's atmosphere were measured at a depth of 8.71×104 g cm-2 with a large-area (170 m2) liquid-scintillation-detector hodoscope. These data taken together with those of other workers lead to an improved muon vertical-depth intensity curve, Iv(h)=aμe-h/λ, where Iv(h)= vertical intensity, aμ=(1.04-0.12+0.21)×10-6 cm-2 sec-1 sr-1, λ=(8.04-0.20+0.36)×104 g cm-2, and h = depth in g cm-2. A comparison of these results with those expected from the sea-level muon spectra via an improved calculation may indicate the need for an increased energy loss, probably via the photonuclear interaction as suggested by Keuffel el al. The results are not inconsistent with the presence of the X process of Keuffel et al.

  11. Studies on Cosmic Ray Sidereal Anisotropy with the Multidirectional Muon Telescope at Ooty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, H.; Fujimoto, K.; Gupta, S. K.; Hayashi, Y.; Ishida, Y.; Ito, N.; Jain, A.; Kawakami, S.; Nonaka, T.; Oshima, A.; Sivaprasad, K.; Tamaki, S.; Tanaka, H.; Tonwar, S. C.; Yoshikoshi, T.

    2003-07-01

    We have developed a multidirectional telescope capable of recording individual muons with angular accuracy of about 5 degrees. This muon telescope consists of ˜ 3000 proportional counters with total area of ˜ 420 m2 with threshold energy > 1 GeV. The telescope is a component of the GRAPES-3 experiment at Ooty in southern India (N 11.4, E 76.7 and 2200m altitude). The very large muon counting rate ˜ 1.8 × 108 per hour, achieved due to the very large area of the telescope, gives us great advantage for cosmic ray modulation studies. The analysis of data with such high statistics enables us to have a sensitive measurement of sidereal variation within a single year of observation. Further, since our telescope is located near the Equator, we are able to observe both the Northern and the Southern hemispheres simultaneously. We present here the results on the sidereal variation obtained with this multidirectional muon telescope for the observational period, 2000-2001. We report here on Tail-in and Loss-corn anisotropies through detailed analysis. We also discuss other possible explanations for the present observations.

  12. Investigation of the relative abundance of heavy versus light nuclei in primary cosmic rays using underground muon bundles

    SciTech Connect

    Sundaralingam, N.

    1993-06-08

    We study multiple muon events (muon bundles) recorded underground at a depth of 2090 mwe. To penetrate to this depth, the muons must have energies above 0.8 TeV at the Earth`s surface; the primary cosmic ray nuclei which give rise to the observed muon bundles have energies at incidence upon the upper atmosphere of 10 to 10{sup 5}TeV. The events are detected using the Soudan 2 experiment`s fine grained tracking calorimeter which is surrounded by a 14 m {times}10 m {times} 31 m proportional tube array (the ``active shield``). Muon bundles which have at least one muon traversing the calorimeter, are reconstructed using tracks in the calorimeter together with hit patterns in the proportional tube shield. All ionization pulses are required to be coincident within 3 microseconds. A goal of this study is to investigate the relative nuclear abundances in the primary cosmic radiation around the ``knee`` region (10{sup 3} {minus} 10{sup 4} TeV) of the incident energy spectrum. Four models for the nuclear composition of cosmic rays are considered: The Linsley model, the Constant Mass Composition model (CMC), the Maryland model and the Proton-poor model. A Monte Carlo which incorporates one model at a time is used to simulate events which are then reconstructed using the same computer algorithms that are used for the data. Identical cuts and selections are applied to the data and to the simulated events.

  13. Alignment of the Near Detector scintillator modules using cosmic ray muons

    SciTech Connect

    Ospanov, Rustem; Lang, Karol; /Texas U.

    2008-05-01

    The authors describe the procedures and the results of the first alignment of the Near Detector. Using 15.5 million cosmic ray muon tracks, collected from October, 2004 through early january, 2005, they derive the effective transverse positions of the calorimeter scintillator modules. The residuals from straight line fits indicate that the current alignment has achieved better than 1 mm precision. They estimate the size of the remaining misalignment and using tracks recorded with a magnetic field test the effect of the magnetic field on the alignment.

  14. Temperature Effect in Secondary Cosmic Rays (MUONS) Observed at the Ground: Analysis of the Global MUON Detector Network Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mendonça, R. R. S.; Braga, C. R.; Echer, E.; Dal Lago, A.; Munakata, K.; Kuwabara, T.; Kozai, M.; Kato, C.; Rockenbach, M.; Schuch, N. J.; Jassar, H. K. Al; Sharma, M. M.; Tokumaru, M.; Duldig, M. L.; Humble, J. E.; Evenson, P.; Sabbah, I.

    2016-10-01

    The analysis of cosmic ray intensity variation seen by muon detectors at Earth's surface can help us to understand astrophysical, solar, interplanetary and geomagnetic phenomena. However, before comparing cosmic ray intensity variations with extraterrestrial phenomena, it is necessary to take into account atmospheric effects such as the temperature effect. In this work, we analyzed this effect on the Global Muon Detector Network (GMDN), which is composed of four ground-based detectors, two in the northern hemisphere and two in the southern hemisphere. In general, we found a higher temperature influence on detectors located in the northern hemisphere. Besides that, we noticed that the seasonal temperature variation observed at the ground and at the altitude of maximum muon production are in antiphase for all GMDN locations (low-latitude regions). In this way, contrary to what is expected in high-latitude regions, the ground muon intensity decrease occurring during summertime would be related to both parts of the temperature effect (the negative and the positive). We analyzed several methods to describe the temperature effect on cosmic ray intensity. We found that the mass weighted method is the one that best reproduces the seasonal cosmic ray variation observed by the GMDN detectors and allows the highest correlation with long-term variation of the cosmic ray intensity seen by neutron monitors.

  15. Detection of high-Z objects using multiple scattering of cosmic ray muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priedhorsky, William C.; Borozdin, Konstantin N.; Hogan, Gary E.; Morris, Christopher; Saunders, Alexander; Schultz, Larry J.; Teasdale, Margaret E.

    2003-10-01

    We demonstrate that high-Z material can be detected and located in three dimensions using radiographs formed by cosmic-ray muons. Detection of high-Z material hidden inside large volume of ordinary cargo is an important and timely task given the danger associated with illegal transport of uranium and heavier elements. Existing radiography techniques are inefficient for shielded material, often expensive and involve radiation hazards, real and perceived. We recently demonstrated that radiographs can be formed using cosmic-ray muons [K. N. Borozdin et al., Nature (London) 422, 277 (2003)]. Here, we show that compact, high-Z objects can be detected and located in three dimensions with muon radiography. The natural flux of cosmic-ray muons [P. K. F. Grieder, Cosmic Rays at Earth (Elsevier, New York, 2001)], approximately 10 000 m-2 min-1, can form useful images in ˜1 min, using large-area muon detectors like those used in high-energy physics.

  16. Characterising encapsulated nuclear waste using cosmic-ray muon tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarkson, A.; Hamilton, D. J.; Hoek, M.; Ireland, D. G.; Johnstone, J. R.; Kaiser, R.; Keri, T.; Lumsden, S.; Mahon, D. F.; McKinnon, B.; Murray, M.; Nutbeam-Tuffs, S.; Shearer, C.; Yang, G.; Zimmerman, C.

    2015-03-01

    Tomographic imaging techniques using the Coulomb scattering of cosmic-ray muons have been shown previously to successfully identify and characterise low- and high-Z materials within an air matrix using a prototype scintillating-fibre tracker system. Those studies were performed as the first in a series to assess the feasibility of this technology and image reconstruction techniques in characterising the potential high-Z contents of legacy nuclear waste containers for the U.K. Nuclear Industry. The present work continues the feasibility study and presents the first images reconstructed from experimental data collected using this small-scale prototype system of low- and high-Z materials encapsulated within a concrete-filled stainless-steel container. Clear discrimination is observed between the thick steel casing, the concrete matrix and the sample materials assayed. These reconstructed objects are presented and discussed in detail alongside the implications for future industrial scenarios.

  17. A New Approach in Coal Mine Exploration Using Cosmic Ray Muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darijani, Reza; Negarestani, Ali; Rezaie, Mohammad Reza; Fatemi, Syed Jalil; Akhond, Ahmad

    2016-08-01

    Muon radiography is a technique that uses cosmic ray muons to image the interior of large scale geological structures. The muon absorption in matter is the most important parameter in cosmic ray muon radiography. Cosmic ray muon radiography is similar to X-ray radiography. The main aim in this survey is the simulation of the muon radiography for exploration of mines. So, the production source, tracking, and detection of cosmic ray muons were simulated by MCNPX code. For this purpose, the input data of the source card in MCNPX code were extracted from the muon energy spectrum at sea level. In addition, the other input data such as average density and thickness of layers that were used in this code are the measured data from Pabdana (Kerman, Iran) coal mines. The average thickness and density of these layers in the coal mines are from 2 to 4 m and 1.3 gr/cm3, respectively. To increase the spatial resolution, a detector was placed inside the mountain. The results indicated that using this approach, the layers with minimum thickness about 2.5 m can be identified.

  18. Imaging Spent Fuel in Dry Storage Casks with Cosmic Ray Muons

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, J. Matthew; Dougan, Arden

    2015-11-05

    Highly energetic cosmic ray muons are a natural source of ionizing radiation that can be used to make tomographic images of the interior of dense objects. Muons are capable of penetrating large amounts of shielding that defeats typical radiographic probes like neutrons or photons. This is the only technique which can examine spent nuclear fuel rods sealed inside dry casks.

  19. Overview of the GEM muon system cosmic ray test program at the SSCL

    SciTech Connect

    Milner, E.C.

    1993-04-01

    Muon track resolution exceeding 75-{mu}m per plane is one of the main strengths of the GEM detector design, and will be crucial in searches for Higgs Bosons, heavy Z-Bosons, technicolor, and supersymmetry. Achieving this resolution coal requires improved precision in muon chambers and their alignment. A cosmic ray test stand known as the Texas Test Rio, (TTR) has been created at the SSCL for studying candidate GEM muon chamber technologies. Test results led to selecting Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC) as the GEM muon system baseline chamber technology.

  20. Cosmic ray energy spectrum measurement with the Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Detector Array (AMANDA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirkin, Dmitry Aleksandrovich

    AMANDA-II is a neutrino telescope composed of 677 optical sensors organized along 19 strings buried deep in the Antarctic ice cap. It is designed to detect Cherenkov light produced by cosmic-ray- and neutrino-induced charged leptons. The majority of events recorded by AMANDA-II are caused by muons which are produced in the atmosphere by high-energy cosmic rays. The leading uncertainties in simulating such events come from the choice of the high-energy model used to describe the first interaction of the cosmic rays, uncertainties in our knowledge and implementation of the ice properties at the depth of the detector, and individual optical module sensitivities. Contributions from uncertainties in the atmospheric conditions and muon cross sections in ice are smaller. The downgoing muon simulation was substantially improved by using the extensive air shower generator CORSIKA to describe the shower development in the atmosphere, and by writing a new software package for the muon propagation (MMC), which reduced computational and algorithm errors below the level of uncertainties of the muon cross sections in ice. A method was developed that resulted in a flux measurement of cosmic rays with energies 1.5--200 TeV per nucleon (95% of primaries causing low-multiplicity events in AMANDA-II have energies in this range) independent of ice model and optical module sensitivities. Predictions of six commonly used high-energy interaction models (QGSJET, VENUS, NEXUS, DPMJET, HDPM, and SIBYLL) are compared to data. The best agreement with direct measurements is achieved with QGSJET, VENUS, and NEXUS. Assuming a power-law energy spectrum (phi0,i · E -gammai) for cosmic-ray components from hydrogen to iron (i = H,..., Fe) and their mass distribution according to Wiebel-South (Wiebel-South & Biermann, 1999), phi 0,i and gammai were corrected to achieve the best description of the data. For the hydrogen component, values of phi0,H = 0.106 +/- 0.007 m-2 sr-1s-1TeV-1 , gammaH = 2

  1. A new method for imaging nuclear threats using cosmic ray muons

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, C. L.; Bacon, Jeffrey; Borozdin, Konstantin; Miyadera, Haruo; Perry, John; Rose, Evan; Watson, Scott; White, Tim; Aberle, Derek J.; Green, Jesse Andrew; McDuff, George G.; Lukic, Zarija; Milner, Edward C.

    2013-08-29

    Muon tomography is a technique that uses cosmic ray muons to generate three-dimensional images of volumes using information contained in the Coulomb scattering of the muons. Advantages of this technique are the ability of cosmic rays to penetrate significant overburden and the absence of any additional dose delivered to subjects under study beyond the natural cosmic ray flux. Disadvantages include the relatively long exposure times and poor position resolution and complex algorithms needed for reconstruction. Furthermore, we demonstrate a new method for obtaining improved position resolution and statistical precision for objects with spherical symmetry.

  2. The stopping rate of negative cosmic-ray muons near sea level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spannagel, G.; Fireman, E. L.

    1971-01-01

    A production rate of 0.065 + or - 0.003 Ar-37 atom/kg min of K-39 at 2-mwe depth below sea level was measured by sweeping argon from potassium solutions. This rate is unaffected by surrounding the solution by paraffin and is attributed to negative muon captures and the electromagnetic interaction of fast muons, and not to nucleonic cosmic ray component. The Ar-37 yield from K-39 by the stopping of negative muons in a muon beam of a synchrocyclotron was measured to be 8.5 + or - 1.7%. The stopping rate of negative cosmic ray muons at 2-mwe depth below sea level from these measurements and an estimated 17% electromagnetic production is 0.63 + or - 0.13 muon(-)/kg min. Previous measurements on the muon stopping rate vary by a factor of 5. Our value is slightly higher but is consistent with two previous high values. The sensitivity of the Ar-37 radiochemical method for the detection of muons is considerably higher than that of the previous radiochemical methods and could be used to measure the negative muon capture rates at greater depths.

  3. Seasonal modulations of the underground cosmic-ray muon energy

    SciTech Connect

    Malgin, A. S.

    2015-08-15

    The parameters of the seasonal modulations in the intensity of muons and cosmogenic neutrons generated by them at a mean muon energy of 280 GeV have been determined in the LVD (Large Volume Detector) experiment. The modulations of muons and neutrons are caused by a temperature effect, the seasonal temperature and density variations of the upper atmospheric layers. The analysis performed here leads to the conclusion that the variations in the mean energy of the muon flux are the main source of underground cosmogenic neutron variations, because the energy of muons is more sensitive to the temperature effect than their intensity. The parameters of the seasonal modulations in the mean energy of muons and the flux of cosmogenic neutrons at the LVD depth have been determined from the data obtained over seven years of LVD operation.

  4. The spectrum of cosmic ray muons obtained with 100-ton scintillation detector underground and the analysis of recent experimental data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khalchukov, F. F.; Korolkova, E. V.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Malgin, A. S.; Ryazhskaya, O. G.; Zatsepin, G. T.

    1985-01-01

    The vertical muon spectrum up to 15 TeV obtained with the underground installation is presented. Recent experimental data dealing with horizontal and vertical cosmic ray muon spectra are analyzed and discussed.

  5. Results of investigation of muon fluxes of superhigh energy cosmic rays with X-ray emulsion chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanenko, I. P.; Ivanova, M. A.; Kuzmichev, L. A.; Ilyina, N. P.; Mandritskaya, K. V.; Osipova, E. A.; Rakobolskaya, I. V.; Zatsepin, G. T.

    1985-01-01

    The overall data from the investigation of the cosmic ray muon flux in the range of zenith angles (0-90) deg within the energy range (3.5 to 5.0) TeV is presented. The exposure of large X-ray emulsion chambers underground was 1200 tons. year. The data were processe using the method which was applied in the experiment Pamir and differred from the earlier applied one. The obtained value of a slope power index of the differential energy spectrum of the global muon flux is =3.7 that corresponds to the slope of the pion generation differential spectrum, gamma sub PI = 2.75 + or - .04. The analysis of the muon zenith-angular distribution showed that the contribution of rapid generation muons in the total muon flux agree the best with the value .2% and less with .7% at a 90% reliability level.

  6. MLSD-OSEM reconstruction algorithm for cosmic ray muon radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Ziran; Chen, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Li; Xing, Yuxiang

    2008-03-01

    Cosmic ray muon radiography which has a good penetrability and sensitivity to high-Z materials is an effective way for detecting shielded nuclear materials. Reconstruction algorithm is the key point of this technique. Currently, there are two main algorithms about this technique. One is the Point of Closest Approach (POCA) reconstruction algorithm which uses the track information to reconstruct; the other is the Maximum Likelihood estimation, such as the Maximum Likelihood Scattering (MLS) and the Maximum Likelihood Scattering and Displacement (MLSD) reconstruction algorithms which are proposed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The performance of MLSD is better than MLS. Since MLSD reconstruction algorithm includes scattering and displacement information while MLS reconstruction algorithm only includes scattering information. In order to get this Maximum Likelihood estimation, in this paper, we propose to use EM method to get the estimation (MLS-EM and MLSD-EM). Then, in order to saving reconstruction time we use the OS technique to accelerate MLS and MLSD reconstruction algorithm with the initial value set to be the result of the POCA reconstruction algorithm. That is, the Maximum Likelihood Scattering-OSEM (MLS-OSEM) and the Maximum Likelihood Scattering and Displacement-OSEM (MLSD-OSEM). Numerical simulations show that the MLSD-OSEM is an effective algorithm and the performance of MLSD-OSEM is better than MLS-OSEM.

  7. The Nagoya cosmic-ray muon spectrometer 3, part 2: Track detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shibata, S.; Iijima, K.; Kamiya, Y.; Iida, S.

    1985-01-01

    The twelve wide gap spark chambers were utilized as the track detectors of the Nagoya cosmic-ray muon spectrometer not only to obtain the precise locations of particles, but also to get some information about the correspondences between segments of trajectories. The area of each chamber is 150 x 70 sq cm and the width of a gap is 5 cm. The gas used is He at the atmospheric pressure. Each three pairs of them are placed on both sides of the deflection magnet. All images of sparks for each event are projected through the mirror system and recorded by two cameras stereoscopically. The mean detection efficiency of each chamber is 95 + or - 2% and the spacial resolution (jitter and drift) obtained from the prototype-experiment is 0.12 mm. Maximum detectable momentum of the spectrometer is estimated at about 10 TeV/c taking into account these characteristics together with the effects of the energy loss and multiple Coulomb scattering of muons in the iron magnet.

  8. Measurement Over Large Solid Angle of Low Energy Cosmic Ray Muon Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiner, H. F., III; Schwitters, R. F.

    2015-12-01

    Recent advancements in portable muon detectors have made cosmic ray imaging practical for many diverse applications. Working muon attenuation detectors have been built at the University of Texas and are already successfully being used to image tunnels, structures, and Mayan pyramids. Most previous studies have focused on energy measurements of the cosmic ray spectrum from of 1 GeV or higher. We have performed an accurate measurement of the ultra-low energy (<2 GeV in E cos θ) muon spectrum down to the acceptance level of our detector, around one hundred MeV. Measurements include angular dependence, with acceptance approaching horizontal. Measurements were made underwater using a custom enclosure in Lake Travis, Austin, TX. This measurement will allow more accurate predictions and simulations of attenuation for small (<5 m) targets for muon tomography.

  9. Detection of High-Z Objects using Multiple Scattering of Cosmic Ray Muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, Gary E.; Borozdin, Konstantin N.; Gomez, John; Morris, Christopher; Priedhorsky, William C.; Saunders, Alexander; Schultz, Larry J.; Teasdale, Margaret E.

    2004-02-01

    Detection of high-Z material hidden inside a large volume of ordinary cargo is an important and timely task given the danger associated with illegal transport of uranium and heavier elements. Existing radiography techniques are inefficient for shielded material, often expensive and involve radiation hazards, real and perceived. We recently demonstrated that radiographs can be formed using cosmic-ray muons. Here, we show that compact, high-Z objects can be detected and located in 3 dimensions with muon radiography. The natural flux of cosmic-ray muons, approximately 10,000 m-2min-1, can generate a reliable detection signal in a fraction of a minute, using large-area muon detectors as used in particle and nuclear physics.

  10. A transition radiation detector prototype to measure the energy of muons in cosmic ray laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellotti, R.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Castellano, M.; De Cataldo, G.; De Marzo, C.; Enriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Fusco, P.; Giglietto, N.; Mongelli, M.; Nappi, E.; Perchiazzi, M.; Sacchetti, A.; Spinelli, P.

    1991-07-01

    We have developed and tested a transition radiation detector prototype suitable to measure the energy of muons in cosmic ray laboratories. The technical solutions adopted, based on extruded tubes as detectors and foam or fiber mats as radiators, allow to cover very large areas with a low number of channels and ensure stability of operation. Using an argon-carbon dioxide gas mixture it is possible to explore the muon energy range up to 1 TeV.

  11. Angular distribution of muons produced by cosmic ray neutrinos in rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boliev, M. M.; Buckevich, A. V.; Chudakov, A. E.; Leonov-Vendrovsky, A. V.; Mikheyev, S. P.; Zakidyshev, V. N.

    1985-01-01

    Measurement of the upgoing muons flux, produced by cosmic ray neutrinos is aiming at: (1) search for neutrino oscillation; (2); search for extraterrestrial neutrinos from local sources; and (3); search for any hypothetical neutral penetrating radiation different from neutrinos. Experimental data of the Baksan underground telescope on intensity of upward muons for three years of living time, was analyzed having in mind mainly neutrino oscillation.

  12. Non-Invasive Imaging of Reactor Cores Using Cosmic Ray Muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner, Edward

    2011-10-01

    Cosmic ray muons penetrate deeply in material, with some passing completely through very thick objects. This penetrating quality is the basis of two distinct, but related imaging techniques. The first measures the number of cosmic ray muons transmitted through parts of an object. Relatively fewer muons are absorbed along paths in which they encounter less material, compared to higher density paths, so the relative density of material is measured. This technique is called muon transmission imaging, and has been used to infer the density and structure of a variety of large masses, including mine overburden, volcanoes, pyramids, and buildings. In a second, more recently developed technique, the angular deflection of muons is measured by trajectory-tracking detectors placed on two opposing sides of an object. Muons are deflected more strongly by heavy nuclei, since multiple Coulomb scattering angle is approximately proportional to the nuclear charge. Therefore, a map showing regions of large deflection will identify the location of uranium in contrast to lighter nuclei. This technique is termed muon scattering tomography (MST) and has been developed to screen shipping containers for the presence of concealed nuclear material. Both techniques are a good way of non-invasively inspecting objects. A previously unexplored topic was applying MST to imaging large objects. Here we demonstrate extending the MST technique to the task of identifying relatively thick objects inside very thick shielding. We measured cosmic ray muons passing through a physical arrangement of material similar to a nuclear reactor, with thick concrete shielding and a heavy metal core. Newly developed algorithms were used to reconstruct an image of the ``mock reactor core,'' with resolution of approximately 30 cm.

  13. Measurement of cosmic-ray muons with the Distributed Electronic Cosmic-ray Observatory, a network of smartphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenbroucke, J.; BenZvi, S.; Bravo, S.; Jensen, K.; Karn, P.; Meehan, M.; Peacock, J.; Plewa, M.; Ruggles, T.; Santander, M.; Schultz, D.; Simons, A. L.; Tosi, D.

    2016-04-01

    Solid-state camera image sensors can be used to detect ionizing radiation in addition to optical photons. We describe the Distributed Electronic Cosmic-ray Observatory (DECO), an app and associated public database that enables a network of consumer devices to detect cosmic rays and other ionizing radiation. In addition to terrestrial background radiation, cosmic-ray muon candidate events are detected as long, straight tracks passing through multiple pixels. The distribution of track lengths can be related to the thickness of the active (depleted) region of the camera image sensor through the known angular distribution of muons at sea level. We use a sample of candidate muon events detected by DECO to measure the thickness of the depletion region of the camera image sensor in a particular consumer smartphone model, the HTC Wildfire S. The track length distribution is fit better by a cosmic-ray muon angular distribution than an isotropic distribution, demonstrating that DECO can detect and identify cosmic-ray muons despite a background of other particle detections. Using the cosmic-ray distribution, we measure the depletion thickness to be 26.3 ± 1.4 μm. With additional data, the same method can be applied to additional models of image sensor. Once measured, the thickness can be used to convert track length to incident polar angle on a per-event basis. Combined with a determination of the incident azimuthal angle directly from the track orientation in the sensor plane, this enables direction reconstruction of individual cosmic-ray events using a single consumer device. The results simultaneously validate the use of cell phone camera image sensors as cosmic-ray muon detectors and provide a measurement of a parameter of camera image sensor performance which is not otherwise publicly available.

  14. Discriminating cosmic muons and X-rays based on rise time using a GEM detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hui-Yin; Zhao, Sheng-Ying; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Xian-Ming; Qi, Hui-Rong; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Ke-Yan; Hu, Bi-Tao; Zhang, Yi

    2016-08-01

    Gas electron multiplier (GEM) detectors have been used in cosmic muon scattering tomography and neutron imaging over the last decade. In this work, a triple GEM device with an effective readout area of 10 cm × 10 cm is developed, and a method of discriminating between cosmic muons and X-rays based on rise time is tested. The energy resolution of the GEM detector is tested by 55Fe ray source to prove the GEM detector has a good performance. Analysis of the complete signal-cycles allows us to get the rise time and pulse heights. The experiment result indicates that cosmic muons and X-rays can be discriminated with an appropriate rise time threshold. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11135002, 11275235, 11405077, 11575073)

  15. Lifetime of Cosmic-Ray Muons and the Standard Model of Fundamental Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherji, Sahansha; Shevde, Yash; Majewski, Walerian

    2015-04-01

    Muon is one of the twelve fundamental particles of matter, having the longest free-particle lifetime. It decays into three other leptons through an exchange of the weak vector bosons W+/W-. Muons are present in the secondary cosmic ray showers in the atmosphere, reaching the sea level. By detecting time delay between arrival of the muon and an appearance of the decay electron in our single scintillation detector (donated by the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA), we measured muon's lifetime at rest. It compares well with the value predicted by the Standard Model of Particles. From the lifetime we were able to calculate the ratio gw /MW of the weak coupling constant gw (an analog of the electric charge) to the mass of the W-boson MW. Using further Standard Model relations and an experimental value for MW, we calculated the weak coupling constant, the electric charge of the muon, and the vacuum expectation value of the Higgs field. We determined the sea-level flux of cosmic muons.

  16. Primary chemical composition from simultaneous recording of muons induced cascades and accompanying muon group underground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakatanov, V. N.; Boziev, S. N.; Chudakov, A. E.; Novoseltsev, Y. F.; Novoseltseva, M. V.; Stenkin, Y. F.; Voevodsky, A. V.

    1985-01-01

    A new method to estimate the mean atomic number of primary cosmic rays in energy range 10 to the 3rd power to 10 to the 5th power Gev/nucleon is suggested. The Baksan underground scintillation telescope data are used for this analysis. The results of 7500 h run of this experiment are presented.

  17. Muon content of gamma ray induced EAS from Cygnus X-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, P. R.; Nash, W. F.; Saich, M. R.; Stanley, G. B.

    1985-01-01

    During 1984 the Leeds group (Lambert et al, OG 2,1-6) have observed emission above 5 times 10 to the 14th power eV in July, September and October at phi approximately 0.6. These observations were made with an array which included the Nottingham 10 sq m muon detector. A search for muons in events at the phase peak and off source has yielded the following results: (1) for 42 on source events we find an average muon density of 0.63 muons m(-2) at a mean core distance Bar R = 32 m and mean primary energy approximately 25 times 10 to the 15th power eV; (2) for 21 off source events average muon density = 1.6 m(-2), Bar R = 32 m with mean primary energy approximately 2.0 x 10 to the 15th power eV; (3) for 11 of the 42 on source events, zero muons were recorded in the 10 sq ms. For these events Bar R = 41 m and mean primary energy approximately 1.5 x 10 to the 15th power eV; (4) for 8 of the 21 off source events, zero muons were recorded in the 10 sq ms. For these events Bar R = 37 m and mean primary energy approximately 1.5 times 10 to the 15th power eV. For all the events the mean zenith angle was approximately 16 deg. A more detailed comparison of on source and further off source events will be presented.

  18. Intensity of Upward Muon Flux Due to Cosmic-Ray Neutrinos Produced in the Atmosphere

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Lee, T. D.; Robinson, H.; Schwartz, M.; Cool, R.

    1963-06-01

    Calculations were performed to determine the upward going muon flux leaving the earth's surface after production by cosmic-ray neutrinos in the crust. Only neutrinos produced in the earth's atmosphere are considered. Rates of the order of one per 100 sq m/day might be expected if an intermediate boson exists and has a mass less than 2 Bev. (auth)

  19. Special Relativity in the School Laboratory: A Simple Apparatus for Cosmic-Ray Muon Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, P.; Hedgeland, H.

    2015-01-01

    We use apparatus based on two Geiger-Müller tubes, a simple electronic circuit and a Raspberry Pi computer to illustrate relativistic time dilation affecting cosmic-ray muons travelling through the atmosphere to the Earth's surface. The experiment we describe lends itself to both classroom demonstration to accompany the topic of special relativity…

  20. High-energy multiple muons and heavy primary cosmic-rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizutani, K.; Sato, T.; Takahashi, T.; Higashi, S.

    1985-01-01

    Three-dimensional simulations were carried out on high-energy multiple muons. On the lateral spread, the comparison with the deep underground observations indicates that the primary cosmic rays include heavy nuclei of high content. A method to determine the average mass number of primary particles in the energy around 10 to the 15th power eV is suggested.

  1. The composition of cosmic rays near the Bend (10 to the 15th power eV) from a study of muons in air showers at sea level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, J. A.; Gupta, S. C.; Freudenreich, H. T.; Sivaprasad, K.; Tonwar, S. C.; Yodh, G. B.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Goodman, M. C.; Bogert, M. C.; Burnstein, R.

    1985-01-01

    The distribution of muons near shower cores was studied at sea level at Fermilab using the E594 neutrino detector to sample the muon with E testing 3 GeV. These data are compared with detailed Monte Carlo simulations to derive conclusions about the composition of cosmic rays near the bend in the all particle spectrum. Monte Carlo simulations generating extensive air showers (EAS) with primary energy in excess of 50 TeV are described. Each shower record contains details of the electron lateral distribution and the muon and hadron lateral distributions as a function of energy, at the observation level of 100g/cm. The number of detected electrons and muons in each case was determined by a Poisson fluctuation of the number incident. The resultant predicted distribution of muons, electrons, the rate events are compared to those observed. Preliminary results on the rate favor a heavy primary dominated cosmic ray spectrum in energy range 50 to 1000 TeV.

  2. Generation of Runaway Electrons Induced by Cosmic-Ray Muons in Thunderstorm Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torii, T.; Nishijima, T.; Sugita, T.; Kawasaki, Z.

    2004-05-01

    Gamma ray dose-rate increases associated with winter thunderstorm activities have been observed in the coastal areas facing the Sea of Japan [1]. In order to investigate the generation of energetic photons which originate in thunderstorm electric fields, we have calculated the behavior of secondary cosmic ray electrons and photons in electric fields with Monte Carlo method. In the calculation, the electron and photon fluxes have increased greatly in the region where the field strength exceeds about 280 P(z) kV/m-atm, and these energy spectra show a large increase in the energy region up to several MeV [2]. In addition to the analysis of the electromagnetic component of cosmic rays, we have carried out the Monte Carlo transport calculations of the cosmic-ray muons and associated particles (e.g. knock-on electrons and bremsstrahlung photons) in thunderstorm electric fields, using GEANT4 code [3]. Muons form a large part of the secondary cosmic-rays and directly reach the regions of strong electric fields owing to their high penetrability in the atmosphere. Therefore, they can serve as the source of a considerable amount of runaway electrons, through their ionization process with air molecules, and their decay into energetic electrons. The electron and photon fluxes show notable increases in the strong electric field, while the muon flux does not fluctuate significantly. These results indicate that the production of energetic electrons by cosmic ray muons plays an important role in the enhancement of electron and photon fluxes in thunderstorm electric fields. Finally, we discuss a feasibility of muon-triggered lightning deduced from the muon transport calculation inside thunderstorm electric fields. From the calculation results, we estimate that the irradiation of muon beams rapidly increases energy deposition in the region of strong electric fields, and produce numerous electron - ion pairs. These productions may induce the lightning discharge by the runaway

  3. Monte Carlo simulation for background study of geophysical inspection with cosmic-ray muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Ryuichi; Taketa, Akimichi; Miyamoto, Seigo; Kasahara, Katsuaki

    2016-08-01

    Several attempts have been made to obtain a radiographic image inside volcanoes using cosmic-ray muons (muography). Muography is expected to resolve highly heterogeneous density profiles near the surface of volcanoes. However, several prior works have failed to make clear observations due to contamination by background noise. The background contamination leads to an overestimation of the muon flux and consequently a significant underestimation of the density in the target mountains. To investigate the origin of the background noise, we performed a Monte Carlo simulation. The main components of the background noise in muography are found to be low-energy protons, electrons and muons in case of detectors without particle identification and with energy thresholds below 1 GeV. This result was confirmed by comparisons with actual observations of nuclear emulsions. This result will be useful for detector design in future works, and in addition some previous works of muography should be reviewed from the view point of background contamination.

  4. Imaging the density profile of a volcano interior with cosmic-ray muon radiography combined with classical gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okubo, S.; Tanaka, H. K. M.

    2012-04-01

    Cosmic-ray muon radiography has the potential to reveal the density structure of gigantic objects. It utilizes the strong penetration ability of high-energy muons. By measuring the number of muons that travel through a target object, the average density can be calculated along the muon path. Since muons travel in straight paths through matter, specially designed detectors can generate density maps with higher spatial resolution than those obtained with conventional geophysical methods. However, this technique has a few notable limitations in that it can only be applied to near-surface structures above the muon sensor and strongly depends on the characteristics of the local topography. This is due to the fact that almost all cosmic-ray muons arrive only from the upper hemisphere. Geological structures, e.g. volcanoes, that allow for muon detectors to be placed on a slope directly below the point of interest are thus the best candidates for this technique. The drawback of muon radiography that only the horizontally integrated density above the sensor is measured with a time resolution larger than several weeks may be partly remedied by combining its results with gravity data, as they are both sensitive to target density while complementary to each other in several aspects. An example of such a combination is presented: real-time monitoring of magma head height in a volcano conduit.

  5. The possibilities of Cherenkov telescopes to perform cosmic-ray muon imaging of volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, Daniele; Catalano, Osvaldo; Cusumano, Giancarlo; Del Santo, Melania; Maccarone, Maria Concetta; Mineo, Teresa; Pareschi, Giovanni; Vercellone, Stefano; Zuccarello, Luciano

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic activity is regulated by the interaction of gas-liquid flow with conduit geometry. Hence, the quantitative understanding of the inner shallow structure of a volcano is mandatory to forecast the occurrence of dangerous stages of activity and mitigate volcanic hazards. Among the techniques used to investigate the underground structure of a volcano, muon imaging offers some advantages, as it provides a fine spatial resolution, and does not require neither spatially dense measurements in active zones, nor the implementation of cost demanding energizing systems, as when electric or active seismic sources are utilized. The principle of muon radiography is essentially the same as X-ray radiography: muons are more attenuated by higher density parts inside the target and thus information about its inner structure are obtained from the differential muon absorption. Up-to-date, muon imaging of volcanic structures has been mainly accomplished with detectors that employ planes of scintillator strips. These telescopes are exposed to different types of background noise (accidental coincidence of vertical shower particles, horizontal high-energy electrons, flux of upward going particles), whose amplitude is high relative to the tiny flux of interest. An alternative technique is based on the detection of the Cherenkov light produced by muons. The latter can be imaged as an annular pattern that contains the information needed to reconstruct both direction and energy of the particle. Cherenkov telescopes have never been utilized to perform muon imaging of volcanoes. Nonetheless, thanks to intrinsic features, they offer the possibility to detect the through-target muon flux with negligible levels of background noise. Under some circumstances, they would also provide a better spatial resolution and acceptance than scintillator-based telescopes. Furthermore, contrarily to the latter systems, Cherenkov detectors allow in-situ measurements of the open-sky energy spectrum of

  6. The Nagoya cosmic-ray muon spectrometer 3, part 1: Preliminary observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamiya, Y.; Shibata, S.; Iijima, K.; Iida, S.

    1985-01-01

    There are some discrepancies among the data of absolute muon intensities at large zenth angles. Through the analysis of the data obtained in the previous measurement by Nagoya Cosmic Ray Spectrometer, one of the sources of these discrepancies has been found to be the ambiguity induced by the selection criteria with which genuine muons are distinguished from the backgrounds. To remove the ambiguity of this kind, it is necessary to know the amount of the backgrounds and their characteristics in detail. Some features of the background events were reported from the observations by using this triggering system of Nagoya Cosmic Ray Spectrometer. In this paper, the results of extended observations using track detector together with this system are reported.

  7. The cosmic ray muon tomography facility based on large scale MRPC detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuewu; Zeng, Ming; Zeng, Zhi; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Ziran; Yue, Xiaoguang; Luo, Zhifei; Yi, Hengguan; Yu, Baihui; Cheng, Jianping

    2015-06-01

    Cosmic ray muon tomography is a novel technology to detect high-Z material. A prototype of TUMUTY with 73.6 cm×73.6 cm large scale position sensitive MRPC detectors has been developed and is introduced in this paper. Three test kits have been tested and image is reconstructed using MAP algorithm. The reconstruction results show that the prototype is working well and the objects with complex structure and small size (20 mm) can be imaged on it, while the high-Z material is distinguishable from the low-Z one. This prototype provides a good platform for our further studies of the physical characteristics and the performances of cosmic ray muon tomography.

  8. Special relativity in the school laboratory: a simple apparatus for cosmic-ray muon detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, P.; Hedgeland, H.

    2015-05-01

    We use apparatus based on two Geiger-Müller tubes, a simple electronic circuit and a Raspberry Pi computer to illustrate relativistic time dilation affecting cosmic-ray muons travelling through the atmosphere to the Earth’s surface. The experiment we describe lends itself to both classroom demonstration to accompany the topic of special relativity and to extended investigations for more inquisitive students.

  9. Measurement of the Cosmic Ray and Neutrino-Induced Muon Flux at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    SNO collaboration; Aharmim, B.; Ahmed, S.N.; Andersen, T.C.; Anthony, A.E.; Barros, N.; Beier, E.W.; Bellerive, A.; Beltran, B.; Bergevin, M.; Biller, S.D.; Boudjemline, K.; Boulay, M.G.; Burritt, T.H.; Cai, B.; Chan, Y.D.; Chen, M.; Chon, M.C.; Cleveland, B.T.; Cox-Mobrand, G.A.; Currat, C.A.; Dai, X.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Deng, H.; Detwiler, J.; Doe, P.J.; Dosanjh, R.S.; Doucas, G.; Drouin, P.-L.; Duncan, F.A.; Dunford, M.; Elliott, S.R.; Evans, H.C.; Ewan, G.T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Fleurot, F.; Ford, R.J.; Formaggio, J.A.; Gagnon, N.; Goon, J.TM.; Grant, D.R.; Guillian, E.; Habib, S.; Hahn, R.L.; Hallin, A.L.; Hallman, E.D.; Hargrove, C.K.; Harvey, P.J.; Harvey, P.J.; Heeger, K.M.; Heintzelman, W.J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R.L.; Hemingway, R.J.; Henning, R.; Hime, A.; Howard, C.; Howe, M.A.; Huang, M.; Jamieson, B.; Jelley, N.A.; Klein, J.R.; Kos, M.; Kruger, A.; Kraus, C.; Krauss, C.B.; Kutter, T.; Kyba, C.C.M.; Lange, R.; Law, J.; Lawson, I.T.; Lesko, K.T.; Leslie, J.R.; Levine, I.; Loach, J.C.; Luoma, S.; MacLellan, R.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H.B.; Maneira, J.; Marino, A.D.; Martin, R.; McCauley, N.; McDonald, A.B.; McGee, S.; Mifflin, C.; Miller, M.L.; Monreal, B.; Monroe, J.; Noble, A.J.; Oblath, N.S.; Okada, C.E.; O?Keeffe, H.M.; Opachich, Y.; Orebi Gann, G.D.; Oser, S.M.; Ott, R.A.; Peeters, S.J.M.; Poon, A.W.P.; Prior, G.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, B.C.; Robertson, R.G.H.; Rollin, E.; Schwendener, M.H.; Secrest, J.A.; Seibert, S.R.; Simard, O.; Simpson, J.J.; Sinclair, D.; Skensved, P.; Smith, M.W.E.; Sonley, T.J.; Steiger, T.D.; Stonehill, L.C.; Tagg, N.; Tesic, G.; Tolich, N.; Tsui, T.; Van de Water, R.G.; VanDevender, B.A.; Virtue, C.J.; Waller, D.; Waltham, C.E.; Wan Chan Tseung, H.; Wark, D.L.; Watson, P.; Wendland, J.; West, N.; Wilkerson, J.F.; Wilson, J.R.; Wouters, J.M.; Wright, A.; Yeh, M.; Zhang, F.; Zuber, K.

    2009-02-16

    Results are reported on the measurement of the atmospheric neutrino-induced muon flux at a depth of 2 kilometers below the Earth's surface from 1229 days of operation of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). By measuring the flux of through-going muons as a function of zenith angle, the SNO experiment can distinguish between the oscillated and un-oscillated portion of the neutrino flux. A total of 514 muon-like events are measured between -1 {le} cos {theta}{sub zenith} 0.4 in a total exposure of 2.30 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup 2} s. The measured flux normalization is 1.22 {+-} 0.09 times the Bartol three-dimensional flux prediction. This is the first measurement of the neutrino-induced flux where neutrino oscillations are minimized. The zenith distribution is consistent with previously measured atmospheric neutrino oscillation parameters. The cosmic ray muon flux at SNO with zenith angle cos {theta}{sub zenith} > 0.4 is measured to be (3.31 {+-} 0.01 (stat.) {+-} 0.09 (sys.)) x 10{sup -10} {micro}/s/cm{sup 2}.

  10. Measurement of the Cosmic Ray and Neutrino-Induced Muon Flux at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    SNO collaboration; Aharmim, B.; Ahmed, S. N.; Andersen, T. C.; Anthony, A. E.; Barros, N.; Beier, E. W.; Bellerive, A.; Beltran, B.; Bergevin, M.; Biller, S. D.; Boudjemline, K.; Boulay, M. G.; Burritt, T. H.; Cai, B.; Chan, Y. D.; Chen, M.; Chon, M. C.; Cleveland, B. T.; Cox-Mobrand, G. A.; Currat, C. A.; Dai, X.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Deng, H.; Detwiler, J.; Doe, P. J.; Dosanjh, R. S.; Doucas, G.; Drouin, P.-L.; Duncan, F. A.; Dunford, M.; Elliott, S. R.; Evans, H. C.; Ewan, G. T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Fleurot, F.; Ford, R. J.; Formaggio, J. A.; Gagnon, N.; Goon, J. TM.; Grant, D. R.; Guillian, E.; Habib, S.; Hahn, R. L.; Hallin, A. L.; Hallman, E. D.; Hargrove, C. K.; Harvey, P. J.; Harvey, P. J.; Heeger, K. M.; Heintzelman, W. J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R. L.; Hemingway, R. J.; Henning, R.; Hime, A.; Howard, C.; Howe, M. A.; Huang, M.; Jamieson, B.; Jelley, N. A.; Klein, J. R.; Kos, M.; Kruger, A.; Kraus, C.; Krauss, C. B.; Kutter, T.; Kyba, C. C. M.; Lange, R.; Law, J.; Lawson, I. T.; Lesko, K. T.; Leslie, J. R.; Levine, I.; Loach, J. C.; Luoma, S.; MacLellan, R.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H. B.; Maneira, J.; Marino, A. D.; Martin, R.; McCauley, N.; McDonald, A. B.; McGee, S.; Mifflin, C.; Miller, M. L.; Monreal, B.; Monroe, J.; Noble, A. J.; Oblath, N. S.; Okada, C. E.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Opachich, Y.; Orebi Gann, G. D.; Oser, S. M.; Ott, R. A.; Peeters, S. J. M.; Poon, A. W. P.; Prior, G.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, B. C.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rollin, E.; Schwendener, M. H.; Secrest, J. A.; Seibert, S. R.; Simard, O.; Simpson, J. J.; Sinclair, D.; Skensved, P.; Smith, M. W. E.; Sonley, T. J.; Steiger, T. D.; Stonehill, L. C.; Tagg, N.; Tesic, G.; Tolich, N.; Tsui, T.; Van de Water, R. G.; VanDevender, B. A.; Virtue, C. J.; Waller, D.; Waltham, C. E.; Wan Chan Tseung, H.; Wark, D. L.; Watson, P.; Wendland, J.; West, N.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wilson, J. R.; Wouters, J. M.; Wright, A.; Yeh, M.; Zhang, F.; Zuber, K.

    2009-07-10

    Results are reported on the measurement of the atmospheric neutrino-induced muon flux at a depth of 2 kilometers below the Earth's surface from 1229 days of operation of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). By measuring the flux of through-going muons as a function of zenith angle, the SNO experiment can distinguish between the oscillated and un-oscillated portion of the neutrino flux. A total of 514 muon-like events are measured between -1 {le} cos {theta}{sub zenith} 0.4 in a total exposure of 2.30 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup 2} s. The measured flux normalization is 1.22 {+-} 0.09 times the Bartol three-dimensional flux prediction. This is the first measurement of the neutrino-induced flux where neutrino oscillations are minimized. The zenith distribution is consistent with previously measured atmospheric neutrino oscillation parameters. The cosmic ray muon flux at SNO with zenith angle cos {theta}{sub zenith} > 0.4 is measured to be (3.31 {+-} 0.01 (stat.) {+-} 0.09 (sys.)) x 10{sup -10} {micro}/s/cm{sup 2}.

  11. The Search for Muon Neutrinos from Northern HemisphereGamma-Ray Bursts with AMANDA

    SciTech Connect

    IceCube Collaboration; Klein, Spencer; Achterberg, A.

    2007-05-08

    We present the results of the analysis of neutrino observations by the Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Detector Array (AMANDA) correlated with photon observations of more than 400 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in the Northern Hemisphere from 1997 to 2003. During this time period, AMANDA's effective collection area for muon neutrinos was larger than that of any other existing detector. Based on our observations of zero neutrinos during and immediately prior to the GRBs in the dataset, we set the most stringent upper limit on muon neutrino emission correlated with gamma-ray bursts. Assuming a Waxman-Bahcall spectrum and incorporating all systematic uncertainties, our flux upper limit has a normalization at 1 PeV of E{sup 2}{Phi}{sub {nu}} {le} 6.0 x 10{sup -9} GeV cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}sr{sup -1}, with 90% of the events expected within the energy range of {approx}10 TeV to {approx}3 PeV. The impact of this limit on several theoretical models of GRBs is discussed, as well as the future potential for detection of GRBs by next generation neutrino telescopes. Finally, we briefly describe several modifications to this analysis in order to apply it to other types of transient point sources.

  12. Spectrum and Charge Ratio of Vertical Cosmic Ray Muons up to Momenta of 2.5 TeV/c

    SciTech Connect

    Schmelling, M.; Hashim, N.O.; Grupen, C.; Luitz, S.; Maciuc, F.; Mailov, A.; Muller, A.-S.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmeling, S.; Tcaciuc, R.; Wachsmuth, H.; Zuber, K.; /Dresden, Tech. U.

    2012-09-14

    The ALEPH detector at LEP has been used to measure the momentum spectrum and charge ratio of vertical cosmic ray muons underground. The sea-level cosmic ray muon spectrum for momenta up to 2.5 TeV/c has been obtained by correcting for the overburden of 320 meter water equivalent (mwe). The results are compared with Monte Carlo models for air shower development in the atmosphere. From the analysis of the spectrum the total flux and the spectral index of the cosmic ray primaries is inferred. The charge ratio suggests a dominantly light composition of cosmic ray primaries with energies up to 10{sup 15} eV.

  13. Development of low noise cosmic ray muon detector for imaging density structure of Usu Volcano, Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusagaya, T.; Tanaka, H.; Taketa, A.; Oshima, H.; Maekawa, T.

    2012-12-01

    We are developing low noise cosmic ray muon detector to image a density structure of Usu Volcano, Hokkaido, Japan by muon radiography. Intensity of cosmic ray muon penetrating through the object is expressed as a function of the product of muon path length and density along muon path. And, the intensity of penetrating muon steeply decreases if muon path length becomes longer or density along muon path becomes larger. The detector that we are developing is called hodoscope that consists of multiple Position Sensitive Detectors (PSDs). A PSD has NxM grids consisting of N vertically aligned Scintillation Counters (SC: a plastic scintillator attached to a photo multiplier tube) and M horizontally aligned SCs. We can identify a muon path direction with two or more PSDs by connecting muon-detecting points in each PSD. But, Usu Volcano is so large that the intensity of penetrating muon becomes lower, and then noise rate becomes higher: the count of penetrating cosmic ray muon is estimated to be a few counts per month with the detector of which has the cross-section area of one square meter and the solid angle of 0.01 steradian. The noise is defined as a particle other than the muon penetrating the observed object such as electrons, photons, vertically arriving muons and so on. If noise rate becomes higher, the measured intensity of penetrating muon becomes higher than the theoretical intensity of that. Then we get a wrong result as if there were matter of lower density relative to real. So we need to develop a low noise detector. The ElectroMagnetic (EM) shower that consists of many electrons and photons is thought to be one of noise. When EM shower reaches the detector, each PSD detects arriving particles and detecting points are sometimes connected by a straight line. In that case, we cannot discriminate the penetrating muon from EM shower, and we count it as a muon event. This results noise. In order to discriminate the noise event, the use of more PSDs for our

  14. Neutron production by cosmic-ray muons in various materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manukovsky, K. V.; Ryazhskaya, O. G.; Sobolevsky, N. M.; Yudin, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    The results obtained by studying the background of neutrons produced by cosmic-raymuons in underground experimental facilities intended for rare-event searches and in surrounding rock are presented. The types of this rock may include granite, sedimentary rock, gypsum, and rock salt. Neutron production and transfer were simulated using the Geant4 and SHIELD transport codes. These codes were tuned via a comparison of the results of calculations with experimental data—in particular, with data of the Artemovsk research station of the Institute for Nuclear Research (INR, Moscow, Russia)—as well as via an intercomparison of results of calculations with the Geant4 and SHIELD codes. It turns out that the atomic-number dependence of the production and yield of neutrons has an irregular character and does not allow a description in terms of a universal function of the atomic number. The parameters of this dependence are different for two groups of nuclei—nuclei consisting of alpha particles and all of the remaining nuclei. Moreover, there are manifest exceptions from a power-law dependence—for example, argon. This may entail important consequences both for the existing underground experimental facilities and for those under construction. Investigation of cosmic-ray-induced neutron production in various materials is of paramount importance for the interpretation of experiments conducted at large depths under the Earth's surface.

  15. Feasibility of Sea-level Cosmic-Ray Muon-Capture SNM Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, L; Bernstein, A

    2005-03-11

    The first part of this report argues the average time between signal events for X-rays from negative muon capture on SNM is from a few to a few 10's of minutes, depending on how sophisticated one care's to make the detector. The second part of this report argues that the recoil proton background in the energy resolution window can be orders of magnitude larger than the expected signal. How could one evade this result? Firstly, one could conceive of a very highly segmented muon counter (or electromagnetic calorimeter) system to actually detect a stopping muon. This would be extraordinarily expensive for a large area and volume of a cargo container. There are also quite a few assumptions we applied to make the calculations tractable. For instance, we assumed the detector was fully efficient for a neutron recoil. probably something like 25% or 50% is more appropriate. However, probably the biggest uncertainty is the neutron energy spectrum. The Boehm et al. paper discusses the range of spectrum parameterizations, some of which are considerably softer and will lower the high-energy proton yield. This outcome is certainly possible. However, given the difference between signal and background rates, it would take a considerable change in detector parameters and particle yields to change the basic conclusion that this technique does not appear promising.

  16. Assessing the feasibility of interrogating nuclear waste storage silos using cosmic-ray muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosino, F.; Bonechi, L.; Cimmino, L.; D'Alessandro, R.; Ireland, D. G.; Kaiser, R.; Mahon, D. F.; Mori, N.; Noli, P.; Saracino, G.; Shearer, C.; Viliani, L.; Yang, G.

    2015-06-01

    Muon radiography is a fast growing field in applied scientific research. In recent years, many detector technologies and imaging techniques using the Coulomb scattering and absorption properties of cosmic-ray muons have been developed for the non-destructive assay of various structures across a wide range of applications. This work presents the first results that assess the feasibility of using muon radiography to interrogate waste silos within the U.K. Nuclear Industry. Two such approaches, using different techniques that exploit each of these properties, have previously been published, and show promising results from both simulation and experimental data for the detection of shielded high-Z materials and density variations from volcanic assay. Both detection systems used are based on scintillator and photomultiplier technologies. Results from dedicated simulation studies using both these proven technologies and image reconstruction techniques are presented for an intermediate-sized legacy nuclear waste storage facility filled with concrete and an array of uranium samples. Both results highlight the potential to identify uranium objects of varying thicknesses greater than 5 cm within real-time durations of several weeks. Increased contributions from Coulomb scattering within the concrete matrix of the structure hinder the ability of both approaches to resolve similar objects of 2 cm dimensions even with increased statistics. These results are all dependent on both the position of the objects within the facility and the locations of the detectors. Results for differing thicknesses of concrete, which reflect the non-standard composition of these complex, legacy structures under interrogation, are also presented alongside studies performed for a series of data collection durations. It is anticipated that with further research and optimisation of detector technologies and geometries, muon radiography in one, or both of these forms, will play a key role in future

  17. Wavelet and Multitaper spectral analysis of cosmic ray muon and neutron data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, M. R.; Gonzalez, W. D.; Echer, E.; Guarnieri, F. L.; Vieira, L. E. A.; de Lucas, A.; Dal Lago, A.; Munakata, K.; Kuwabara, T.; Schuch, N. J.

    Many times series in geophysics may contain dominant periodic signals These signals can vary in both amplitude and frequency over long periods of time The wavelet analysis is a powerful toll to spectral analyses of time series because this analysis decomposes a time series into time frequency space simultaneously One gets information on both the amplitude of the interest periodic signal within the series and how this amplitude varies with time In this work we will make a spectral wavelet and multitaper analysis of muon and neutron cosmic ray and compare these two kinds of spectral analysis and particles with each other and will find the mainly periodicities in these time series

  18. Investigating the Anisotropic Scintillation Response in Anthracene through Neutron, Gamma-Ray, and Muon Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Patricia; Brubaker, Erik

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports a series of measurements that characterize the directional dependence of the scintillation response of crystalline anthracene to incident DT neutrons, DD neutrons, Cs-137 gamma rays, and, for the first time, cosmic ray muons. The neutron measurements give the amplitude and pulse shape dependence on the proton recoil direction over one hemisphere of the crystal, confirming and extending previous results in the literature. In similar measurements using incident gamma rays, no directional effect is evident, and any anisotropy with respect to the electron recoil direction is constrained to have a magnitude of less than a tenth of that present in the proton recoil events. Cosmic muons are measured at two directions, and no anisotropy is observed. This set of observations indicates that high dE/dx is necessary for an anisotropy to be present for a given type of scintillation event, which in turn could be used to discriminate among different hypotheses for the underlying causes of the anisotropy, which are not well understood.

  19. Investigating the anisotropic scintillation response in anthracene through neutron, gamma-ray, and muon measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Schuster, Patricia; Brubaker, Erik

    2016-05-05

    Our paper reports a series of measurements that characterize the directional dependence of the scintillation response of crystalline anthracene to incident DT neutrons, DD neutrons, 137Cs gamma rays, and, for the first time, cosmic ray muons. Moreover, the neutron measurements give the amplitude and pulse shape dependence on the proton recoil direction over one hemisphere of the crystal, confirming and extending previous results in the literature. In similar measurements using incident gamma rays, no directional effect is evident, and any anisotropy with respect to the electron recoil direction is constrained to have a magnitude of less than a tenth ofmore » that present in the proton recoil events. Cosmic muons are measured at two directions, and no anisotropy is observed. Our set of observations indicates that high dE/dx is necessary for an anisotropy to be present for a given type of scintillation event, which in turn could be used to discriminate among different hypotheses for the underlying causes of the anisotropy, which are not well understood.« less

  20. Study of cosmic ray events with high muon multiplicity using the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The ALICE Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    ALICE is one of four large experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, specially designed to study particle production in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Located 52 meters underground with 28 meters of overburden rock, it has also been used to detect muons produced by cosmic ray interactions in the upper atmosphere. In this paper, we present the multiplicity distribution of these atmospheric muons and its comparison with Monte Carlo simulations. This analysis exploits the large size and excellent tracking capability of the ALICE Time Projection Chamber. A special emphasis is given to the study of high multiplicity events containing more than 100 reconstructed muons and corresponding to a muon areal density ρμ > 5.9 m-2. Similar events have been studied in previous underground experiments such as ALEPH and DELPHI at LEP. While these experiments were able to reproduce the measured muon multiplicity distribution with Monte Carlo simulations at low and intermediate multiplicities, their simulations failed to describe the frequency of the highest multiplicity events. In this work we show that the high multiplicity events observed in ALICE stem from primary cosmic rays with energies above 1016 eV and that the frequency of these events can be successfully described by assuming a heavy mass composition of primary cosmic rays in this energy range. The development of the resulting air showers was simulated using the latest version of QGSJET to model hadronic interactions. This observation places significant constraints on alternative, more exotic, production mechanisms for these events.

  1. Multiple muons in MACRO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinz, R.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of the multiple muon events in the Monopole Astrophysics and Cosmic Ray Observatory detector was conducted to determine the cosmic ray composition. Particular emphasis is placed on the interesting primary cosmic ray energy region above 2000 TeV/nucleus. An extensive study of muon production in cosmic ray showers has been done. Results were used to parameterize the characteristics of muon penetration into the Earth to the location of a detector.

  2. Energy spectrum of cascade showers induced by cosmic ray muons in the range from 50 GeV to 5 TeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashitkov, V. D.; Kirina, T. M.; Klimakov, A. P.; Kokoulin, R. P.; Petrukhin, A. A.; Yumatov, V. I.

    1985-01-01

    The energy spectrum of cascade showers induced by electromagnetic interactions of high energy muons of horizontal cosmic ray flux in iron absorber was measured. The total observation time exceeded 22,000 hours. Both the energy spectrum and angular distributions of cascade showers are fairly described in terms of the usual muon generation processes, with a single power index of the parent meson spectrum over the muon energy range from 150 GeV to 5 TeV.

  3. A comprehensive comparison for simulations of cosmic-ray muons underground

    SciTech Connect

    Villano, A. N.; Cushman, P.; Kennedy, A.; Empl, A.; Lindsay, S.

    2013-08-08

    The two leading simulation frameworks used for the simulation of cosmic-ray muons underground are FLUKA and Geant4. There have been in the past various questions raised as to the equivalence of these codes regarding cosmogenically produced neutrons and radioactivity in an underground environment. Many experiments choose one of these frameworks, and because they typically have different geometries or locations, the issues relating to code comparison are compounded. We report on an effort to compare the results of each of these codes in simulations which have simple geometry that is consistent between the two codes. It is seen that in terms of integrated neutron flux and neturon capture statistics the codes agree well in a broad sense. There are, however, differences that will be subject of further study. Comparisons of the simulations to available data are considered and the difficulties of such comparisons are pointed out.

  4. Visualization of the Internal Structure of Volcanoes with Cosmic-ray Muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki K. M.

    2016-09-01

    High-energy muons that are produced via the reaction between primary cosmic rays and the Earth's atmosphere can be used as a radiographic probe to explore the density distribution in gigantic objects including shallow parts of a volcano's interior. This new subterranean imaging technique is called muography. So far, muographic results have been acquired from eight volcanoes around the world as well as various targets including limestone caves, fault zones, industrial plants, and historical ruins. Taking all of the observational data together, it appears that muography can serve as a new and alternative high-resolution imaging technique, providing a fresh approach to Earth studies. This review describes observational studies in which muography has been used to explore the Earth's interior. Particular attention is paid to muography of magma convection and pathways in volcanoes around the world. The results are summarized here, and an outlook regarding anticipated future observations is briefly discussed.

  5. A high resolution resistive plate chamber tracking system developed for cosmic ray muon tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baesso, P.; Cussans, D.; Thomay, C.; Velthuis, J. J.; Burns, J.; Steer, C.; Quillin, S.

    2013-08-01

    This work describes the performance of a muon tracker built with high resolution glass resistive plate chambers. The tracker is the result of a collaboration between University of Bristol and the Atomic Weapon Establishment to develop a reliable and cost effective system to scan shipping containers in search of special nuclear materials. The current setup consists of 12 detection layers, each comprised of a resistive plate chamber read out by 1.5 mm pitch strips. For most of the layers we achieved an efficiency better than 95%, a purity above 95% and a signal-to-noise ratio better than 300. A spatial resolution better than 500μm was obtained for most layers, thus satisfying the main requirements to apply resistive plate chambers to cosmic ray tomography.

  6. A Prototype Scintillating-Fibre Tracker for the Cosmic-ray Muon Tomography of Legacy Nuclear Waste Containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, R.; Clarkson, A.; Hamilton, D. J.; Hoek, M.; Ireland, D. G.; Johnston, J. R.; Keri, T.; Lumsden, S.; Mahon, D. F.; McKinnon, B.; Murray, M.; Nutbeam-Tuffs, S.; Shearer, C.; Staines, C.; Yang, G.; Zimmerman, C.

    2014-03-01

    Cosmic-ray muons are highly-penetrative charged particles observed at sea level with a flux of approximately 1 cm-2 min-1. They interact with matter primarily through Coulomb scattering which can be exploited in muon tomography to image objects within industrial nuclear waste containers. This paper presents the prototype scintillating-fibre detector developed for this application at the University of Glasgow. Experimental results taken with test objects are shown in comparison to results from GEANT4 simulations. These results verify the simulation and show discrimination between the low, medium and high-Z materials imaged.

  7. Interaction of cosmic ray muons with spent nuclear fuel dry casks and determination of lower detection limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatzidakis, S.; Choi, C. K.; Tsoukalas, L. H.

    2016-08-01

    The potential non-proliferation monitoring of spent nuclear fuel sealed in dry casks interacting continuously with the naturally generated cosmic ray muons is investigated. Treatments on the muon RMS scattering angle by Moliere, Rossi-Greisen, Highland and, Lynch-Dahl were analyzed and compared with simplified Monte Carlo simulations. The Lynch-Dahl expression has the lowest error and appears to be appropriate when performing conceptual calculations for high-Z, thick targets such as dry casks. The GEANT4 Monte Carlo code was used to simulate dry casks with various fuel loadings and scattering variance estimates for each case were obtained. The scattering variance estimation was shown to be unbiased and using Chebyshev's inequality, it was found that 106 muons will provide estimates of the scattering variances that are within 1% of the true value at a 99% confidence level. These estimates were used as reference values to calculate scattering distributions and evaluate the asymptotic behavior for small variations on fuel loading. It is shown that the scattering distributions between a fully loaded dry cask and one with a fuel assembly missing initially overlap significantly but their distance eventually increases with increasing number of muons. One missing fuel assembly can be distinguished from a fully loaded cask with a small overlapping between the distributions which is the case of 100,000 muons. This indicates that the removal of a standard fuel assembly can be identified using muons providing that enough muons are collected. A Bayesian algorithm was developed to classify dry casks and provide a decision rule that minimizes the risk of making an incorrect decision. The algorithm performance was evaluated and the lower detection limit was determined.

  8. Measurements of cosmic ray muons with multi-wire proportional chambers with a prototype setup for KASCADE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathes, Hermann-Josef

    1993-03-01

    The cosmic ray experiment KASCADE (German acronym for Karlsruhe Shower Core and Array Detector) designed for measuring simultaneously the electromagnetic, muonic, and hadronic components of extensive air showers to determine the primary cosmic ray mass composition in the energy range 300 Tev to 100 Btu is described. Beneath the central hadron calorimeter of this experiment, measurements of muons with an energy threshold of 2 GeV are planned. Four large position sensitive multi-wire proportional chambers were brought into operation after the required supply units were installed. This test setup was extended with a trigger system for cosmic ray muons. The trigger allows muon detection efficiencies and the spatial resolution of the chambers to be measured. To enhance the content of multiple track events in the data a trigger system for air showers was required. A small detector array was installed with the possibility to determine roughly the arrival direction of the shower. For that configuration of chambers an algorithm for track reconstruction was developed. It led to satisfying results for single and double track events. It is demonstrated that the determination of hits with only one chamber is influenced by the ambiguities resulting from the chamber layout. In addition this effect is shown to be enhanced by electronic noise and electromagnetic background. An extension with a time measuring system of an accuracy better than 2 ns allowed the arrival times of the muons to be measured for some events. The resulting arrival time distribution could be qualitatively understood.

  9. An Educational MONTE CARLO Simulation/Animation Program for the Cosmic Rays Muons and a Prototype Computer-Driven Hardware Display.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalkanis, G.; Sarris, M. M.

    1999-01-01

    Describes an educational software program for the study of and detection methods for the cosmic ray muons passing through several light transparent materials (i.e., water, air, etc.). Simulates muons and Cherenkov photons' paths and interactions and visualizes/animates them on the computer screen using Monte Carlo methods/techniques which employ…

  10. Study of cosmic ray events with high muon multiplicity using the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Collaboration: ALICE Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    ALICE is one of four large experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, specially designed to study particle production in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Located 52 meters underground with 28 meters of overburden rock, it has also been used to detect muons produced by cosmic ray interactions in the upper atmosphere. In this paper, we present the multiplicity distribution of these atmospheric muons and its comparison with Monte Carlo simulations. This analysis exploits the large size and excellent tracking capability of the ALICE Time Projection Chamber. A special emphasis is given to the study of high multiplicity events containing more than 100 reconstructed muons and corresponding to a muon areal density ρ{sub μ} > 5.9 m{sup −2}. Similar events have been studied in previous underground experiments such as ALEPH and DELPHI at LEP. While these experiments were able to reproduce the measured muon multiplicity distribution with Monte Carlo simulations at low and intermediate multiplicities, their simulations failed to describe the frequency of the highest multiplicity events. In this work we show that the high multiplicity events observed in ALICE stem from primary cosmic rays with energies above 10{sup 16} eV and that the frequency of these events can be successfully described by assuming a heavy mass composition of primary cosmic rays in this energy range. The development of the resulting air showers was simulated using the latest version of QGSJET to model hadronic interactions. This observation places significant constraints on alternative, more exotic, production mechanisms for these events.

  11. Observation of Periodic and Transient Cosmic Ray Flux Variations by the Daejeon Neutron Monitor and the Seoul muon Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Suyeon; Kang, Jeongsoo

    2013-09-01

    Recently, two instruments of cosmic ray are operating in South Korea. One is Seoul muon detector after October 1999 and the other is Daejeon neutron monitor (Kang et al. 2012) after October 2011. The former consists of four small plastic scintillators and the latter is the standard 18 NM 64 type. In this report, we introduce the characteristics of both instruments. We also analyze the flux variations of cosmic ray such as diurnal variation and Forbush decrease. As the result, the muon flux shows the typical seasonal and diurnal variations. The neutron flux also shows the diurnal variation. The phase which shows the maximum flux in the diurnal variation is around 13-14 local time. We found a Forbush decrease on 7 March 2012 by both instruments. It is also identified by Nagoya multi-direction muon telescope and Oulu neutron monitor. The observation of cosmic ray at Jangbogo station as well as in Korean peninsula can support the important information on space weather in local area. It can also enhance the status of Korea in the international community of cosmic ray experiments.

  12. The knee in the cosmic ray energy spectrum from the simultaneous EAS charged particles and muon density spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijay, Biplab; Banik, Prabir; Bhadra, Arunava

    2016-09-01

    In this work we examine with the help of Monte Carlo simulation whether a consistent primary energy spectrum of cosmic rays emerges from both the experimentally observed total charged particles and muon size spectra of cosmic ray extensive air showers considering primary composition may or may not change beyond the knee of the energy spectrum. It is found that EAS-TOP observations consistently infer a knee in the primary energy spectrum provided the primary is pure unchanging iron whereas no consistent primary spectrum emerges from simultaneous use of the KASCADE observed total charged particle and muon spectra. However, it is also found that when primary composition changes across the knee the estimation of spectral index of total charged particle spectrum is quite tricky, depends on the choice of selection of points near the knee in the size spectrum.

  13. The spatial density gradient of galactic cosmic rays and its solar cycle variation observed with the Global Muon Detector Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozai, Masayoshi; Munakata, Kazuoki; Kato, Chihiro; Kuwabara, Takao; Bieber, John W.; Evenson, Paul; Rockenbach, Marlos; Lago, Alisson Dal; Schuch, Nelson J.; Tokumaru, Munetoshi; Duldig, Marcus L.; Humble, John E.; Sabbah, Ismail; Al Jassar, Hala K.; Sharma, Madan M.; Kóta, Jozsef

    2014-12-01

    We derive the long-term variation of the three-dimensional (3D) anisotropy of approximately 60 GV galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) from the data observed with the Global Muon Detector Network (GMDN) on an hourly basis and compare it with the variation deduced from a conventional analysis of the data recorded by a single muon detector at Nagoya in Japan. The conventional analysis uses a north-south (NS) component responsive to slightly higher rigidity (approximately 80 GV) GCRs and an ecliptic component responsive to the same rigidity as the GMDN. In contrast, the GMDN provides all components at the same rigidity simultaneously. It is confirmed that the temporal variations of the 3D anisotropy vectors including the NS component derived from two analyses are fairly consistent with each other as far as the yearly mean value is concerned. We particularly compare the NS anisotropies deduced from two analyses statistically by analyzing the distributions of the NS anisotropy on hourly and daily bases. It is found that the hourly mean NS anisotropy observed by Nagoya shows a larger spread than the daily mean due to the local time-dependent contribution from the ecliptic anisotropy. The NS anisotropy derived from the GMDN, on the other hand, shows similar distribution on both the daily and hourly bases, indicating that the NS anisotropy is successfully observed by the GMDN, free from the contribution of the ecliptic anisotropy. By analyzing the NS anisotropy deduced from neutron monitor (NM) data responding to lower rigidity (approximately 17 GV) GCRs, we qualitatively confirm the rigidity dependence of the NS anisotropy in which the GMDN has an intermediate rigidity response between NMs and Nagoya. From the 3D anisotropy vector (corrected for the solar wind convection and the Compton-Getting effect arising from the Earth's orbital motion around the Sun), we deduce the variation of each modulation parameter, i.e., the radial and latitudinal density gradients and the parallel

  14. Underwater measurements of muon intensity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedorov, V. M.; Pustovetov, V. P.; Trubkin, Y. A.; Kirilenkov, A. V.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental measurements of cosmic ray muon intensity deep underwater aimed at determining a muon absorption curve are of considerable interest, as they allow to reproduce independently the muon energy spectrum at sea level. The comparison of the muon absorption curve in sea water with that in rock makes it possible to determine muon energy losses caused by nuclear interactions. The data available on muon absorption in water and that in rock are not equivalent. Underground measurements are numerous and have been carried out down to the depth of approx. 15km w.e., whereas underwater muon intensity have been measured twice and only down to approx. 3km deep.

  15. Muon and neutrino fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, P. G.; Protheroe, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    The result of a new calculation of the atmospheric muon and neutrino fluxes and the energy spectrum of muon-neutrinos produced in individual extensive air showers (EAS) initiated by proton and gamma-ray primaries is reported. Also explained is the possibility of detecting atmospheric nu sub mu's due to gamma-rays from these sources.

  16. SEARCH FOR MUON NEUTRINOS FROM GAMMA-RAY BURSTS WITH THE IceCube NEUTRINO TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Abbasi, R.; Aguilar, J. A.; Andeen, K.; Baker, M.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Adams, J.; Ahlers, M.; Auffenberg, J.; Becker, K.-H.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Bazo Alba, J. L.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Berdermann, J.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J. K.

    2010-02-10

    We present the results of searches for high-energy muon neutrinos from 41 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in the northern sky with the IceCube detector in its 22 string configuration active in 2007/2008. The searches cover both the prompt and a possible precursor emission as well as a model-independent, wide time window of -1 hr to +3 hr around each GRB. In contrast to previous searches with a large GRB population, we do not utilize a standard Waxman-Bahcall GRB flux for the prompt emission but calculate individual neutrino spectra for all 41 GRBs from the burst parameters measured by satellites. For all of the three time windows, the best estimate for the number of signal events is zero. Therefore, we place 90% CL upper limits on the fluence from the prompt phase of 3.7 x 10{sup -3} erg cm{sup -2} (72 TeV-6.5 PeV) and on the fluence from the precursor phase of 2.3 x 10{sup -3} erg cm{sup -2} (2.2-55 TeV), where the quoted energy ranges contain 90% of the expected signal events in the detector. The 90% CL upper limit for the wide time window is 2.7 x 10{sup -3} erg cm{sup -2} (3 TeV-2.8 PeV) assuming an E {sup -2} flux.

  17. Search for muon neutrinos from Gamma-Ray Bursts with the IceCube neutrino telescope

    SciTech Connect

    IceCube Collaboration; Abbasi, R

    2010-01-19

    We present the results of searches for high-energy muon neutrinos from 41 gamma- ray bursts (GRBs) in the northern sky with the IceCube detector in its 22-string con-figuration active in 2007/2008. The searches cover both the prompt and a possible precursor emission as well as a model-independent, wide time window of -1 h to +3 haround each GRB. In contrast to previous searches with a large GRB population, we do not utilize a standard Waxman?Bahcall GRB flux for the prompt emission but calcu- late individual neutrino spectra for all 41 GRBs from the burst parameters measured by satellites. For all three time windows the best estimate for the number of signal events is zero. Therefore, we place 90percent CL upper limits on the fluence from the prompt phase of 3.7 x 10-3 erg cm-2 (72TeV - 6.5 PeV) and on the fluence from the precursor phase of 2.3 x 10-3 erg cm-2 (2.2TeV - 55TeV), where the quoted energy ranges contain 90percent of the expected signal events in the detector. The 90percent CL upper limit for the wide time window is 2.7 x 10-3 erg cm-2 (3TeV - 2.8 PeV) assuming an E-2 flux.

  18. Gamma-ray astronomy with muons: Sensitivity of IceCube to PeVatrons in the Southern sky

    SciTech Connect

    Halzen, Francis; O'Murchadha, Aongus; Kappes, Alexander

    2009-10-15

    Northern hemisphere TeV gamma-ray observatories such as Milagro and Tibet AS{gamma} have demonstrated the importance of all-sky instruments by discovering previously unidentified sources that may be the PeVatrons producing cosmic rays up to the knee in the cosmic ray spectrum. We evaluate the potential of IceCube to identify similar sources in the southern sky by detailing an analytic approach to determine fluxes of muons from TeV gamma-ray showers. We apply this approach to known gamma-ray sources such as supernova remnants. We find that, similar to Milagro, detection is possible in 10 years for pointlike PeVatrons with fluxes stronger than several 10{sup -11} particles TeV{sup -1} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}.

  19. A new X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy for extraterrestrial materials using a muon beam

    PubMed Central

    Terada, K.; Ninomiya, K.; Osawa, T.; Tachibana, S.; Miyake, Y.; Kubo, M. K.; Kawamura, N.; Higemoto, W.; Tsuchiyama, A.; Ebihara, M.; Uesugi, M.

    2014-01-01

    The recent development of the intense pulsed muon source at J-PARC MUSE, Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex/MUon Science Establishment (106 s−1 for a momentum of 60 MeV/c), enabled us to pioneer a new frontier in analytical sciences. Here, we report a non-destructive elemental analysis using µ− capture. Controlling muon momentum from 32.5 to 57.5 MeV/c, we successfully demonstrate a depth-profile analysis of light elements (B, C, N, and O) from several mm-thick layered materials and non-destructive bulk analyses of meteorites containing organic materials. Muon beam analysis, enabling a bulk analysis of light to heavy elements without severe radioactivation, is a unique analytical method complementary to other non-destructive analyses. Furthermore, this technology can be used as a powerful tool to identify the content and distribution of organic components in future asteroidal return samples. PMID:24861282

  20. A new X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy for extraterrestrial materials using a muon beam.

    PubMed

    Terada, K; Ninomiya, K; Osawa, T; Tachibana, S; Miyake, Y; Kubo, M K; Kawamura, N; Higemoto, W; Tsuchiyama, A; Ebihara, M; Uesugi, M

    2014-05-27

    The recent development of the intense pulsed muon source at J-PARC MUSE, Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex/MUon Science Establishment (10(6) s(-1) for a momentum of 60 MeV/c), enabled us to pioneer a new frontier in analytical sciences. Here, we report a non-destructive elemental analysis using µ(-) capture. Controlling muon momentum from 32.5 to 57.5 MeV/c, we successfully demonstrate a depth-profile analysis of light elements (B, C, N, and O) from several mm-thick layered materials and non-destructive bulk analyses of meteorites containing organic materials. Muon beam analysis, enabling a bulk analysis of light to heavy elements without severe radioactivation, is a unique analytical method complementary to other non-destructive analyses. Furthermore, this technology can be used as a powerful tool to identify the content and distribution of organic components in future asteroidal return samples.

  1. Observation of cosmic ray sidereal time variation by Grapes III muon telescope at Ooty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, H.; Fujimoto, K.; Gupta, S. K.; Hayashi, Y.; Ito, N.; Jain, Kawakami S.; Mohanty, D. K.; Nonaka, T.; Noto, S.; Ravindran, K. C.; Satomi, K.; Sivaprasad, K.; Tanaka, H.; Tonwar, S. C.; Toyofuku, T.; Viswanathan, K.; Yoshikoshi, T.

    2001-08-01

    We analyzed the sidereal time variation on the data of muons counting rate observed by the large muon telescope of GRAPES III ( total area 560 m2 , muon's energy > 1GeV) over 3 years at Ooty ( 11.4deg latitude, 76.7deg longitude). Their counting rate is around 53,000 counts /sec and this high counting rate is great advantage for modulation measurement. The analysis based on the data of such high-statistics enable us to compare the sidereal diurnal variation even with each single year's result. We observed the Tail-in and Loss corn anisotropies through detailed analysis. We newly started the measurement of direction of individual muons with accuracy of about 8 degrees from 1999. We present some results on the siderealdailyvariation obtained by this systemtoo.

  2. Measurement of integrated flux of cosmic ray muons at sea level using the INO-ICAL prototype detector

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, S.; Acharya, B.S.; Majumder, G.; Mondal, N.K.; Samuel, D.; Satyanarayana, B. E-mail: acharya@tifr.res.in E-mail: nkm@tifr.res.in E-mail: bsn@tifr.res.in

    2012-07-01

    The India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) collaboration is planning to set-up a magnetized Iron-CALorimeter (ICAL) to study atmospheric neutrino oscillations with precise measurements of oscillations parameters. The ICAL uses 50 kton iron as target mass and about 28800 Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) of 2 m × 2 m in area as active detector elements. As part of its R and D program, a prototype detector stack comprising 12 layers of RPCs of 1 m × 1 m in area has been set-up at Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) to study the detector parameters using cosmic ray muons. We present here a study of muon flux measurement at sea level and lower latitude. (Site latitude: 18°54'N, longitude: 72°48'E.)

  3. Average Spatial Distribution of Cosmic Rays behind the Interplanetary Shock—Global Muon Detector Network Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozai, M.; Munakata, K.; Kato, C.; Kuwabara, T.; Rockenbach, M.; Dal Lago, A.; Schuch, N. J.; Braga, C. R.; Mendonça, R. R. S.; Jassar, H. K. Al; Sharma, M. M.; Duldig, M. L.; Humble, J. E.; Evenson, P.; Sabbah, I.; Tokumaru, M.

    2016-07-01

    We analyze the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) density and its spatial gradient in Forbush Decreases (FDs) observed with the Global Muon Detector Network (GMDN) and neutron monitors (NMs). By superposing the GCR density and density gradient observed in FDs following 45 interplanetary shocks (IP-shocks), each associated with an identified eruption on the Sun, we infer the average spatial distribution of GCRs behind IP-shocks. We find two distinct modulations of GCR density in FDs, one in the magnetic sheath and the other in the coronal mass ejection (CME) behind the sheath. The density modulation in the sheath is dominant in the western flank of the shock, while the modulation in the CME ejecta stands out in the eastern flank. This east-west asymmetry is more prominent in GMDN data responding to ˜60 GV GCRs than in NM data responding to ˜10 GV GCRs, because of the softer rigidity spectrum of the modulation in the CME ejecta than in the sheath. The geocentric solar ecliptic-y component of the density gradient, G y , shows a negative (positive) enhancement in FDs caused by the eastern (western) eruptions, while G z shows a negative (positive) enhancement in FDs caused by the northern (southern) eruptions. This implies that the GCR density minimum is located behind the central flank of IP-shocks and propagating radially outward from the location of the solar eruption. We also confirmed that the average G z changes its sign above and below the heliospheric current sheet, in accord with the prediction of the drift model for the large-scale GCR transport in the heliosphere.

  4. New evidence from Soudan 1 for underground muons associated with Cygnus X-3

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres, D.S.

    1986-06-05

    The Soudan 1 experiment has obtained additional evidence for underground muons associated with the x-ray pulsar Cygnus X-3. We report the preliminary analysis of data recorded during the October 1985 radio outburst of Cygnus X-3, which show a significant excess of muons for a narrow range of Cygnus X-3 phases.

  5. A prototype scintillating-fibre tracker for the cosmic-ray muon tomography of legacy nuclear waste containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahon, D. F.; Clarkson, A.; Hamilton, D. J.; Hoek, M.; Ireland, D. G.; Johnstone, J. R.; Kaiser, R.; Keri, T.; Lumsden, S.; McKinnon, B.; Murray, M.; Nutbeam-Tuffs, S.; Shearer, C.; Staines, C.; Yang, G.; Zimmerman, C.

    2013-12-01

    Cosmic-ray muons are highly penetrative charged particles observed at sea level with a flux of approximately 1 cm-2 min-1. They interact with matter primarily through Coulomb scattering which can be exploited in muon tomography to image objects within industrial nuclear waste containers. A prototype scintillating-fibre detector has been developed for this application, consisting of two tracking modules above and below the volume to be assayed. Each module comprises two orthogonal planes of 2 mm fibres. The modular configuration allows the reconstruction of the initial and scattered muon trajectories which enable the container content, with respect to atomic number Z, to be determined. Fibre signals are read out by Hamamatsu H8500 MAPMTs with two fibres coupled to each pixel via dedicated pairing schemes developed to avoid space point ambiguities and retain the high spatial resolution of the fibres. A likelihood-based image reconstruction algorithm was developed and tested using a GEANT4 simulation of the prototype system. Images reconstructed from this simulation are presented in comparison with experimental results taken with test objects. These results verify the simulation and show discrimination between the low, medium and high-Z materials imaged.

  6. Investigation of cosmic-ray muon induced processes by the MIREDO facility.

    PubMed

    Bikit, K; Mrdja, D; Bikit, I; Veskovic, M

    2014-05-01

    The MIREDO (Muon Induced Rare Event Dynamic Observatory) spectrometer system is primarily developed for the study of cosmic muon induced processes in different materials. Exploration of such interactions can be important for ultra-low background experiments. The system is based on the 100% relative efficiency ultra-low-background HPGe spectrometer. With the addition of two plastic scintillators and a fast-slow coincidence circuit, the coincidence events between the plastic detectors and the HPGe spectrometer have been investigated. First results derived for a CaO powder sample, placed in a Marinelli beaker, are presented and discussed.

  7. Measurement of muon intensity by Cerenkov method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Z. H.; Li, G. J.; Bai, G. Z.; Liu, J. G.; Geng, Q. X.; Ling, J.

    1985-01-01

    Optical detection is an important technique in studies and observations of air showers, muons and relevant phenomena. The muon intensity is measured in a proper energy range and to study some problems about Cerenkov radiation of cosmic rays are studied, by a muon-telescope operated with Cerenkov detector. It is found that the measured muon intensity agrees with the integral energy spectrum of cosmic ray muons.

  8. Relevance of multiple muons detected underground to the mass composition of primary cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabelski, J.; Wdowczyk, J.; Wolfendale, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    Calculations have been made of the expected frequencies of multiple muons in the Soudan underground proton decay detector. It is concluded that the flux of heavy nuclei (z 10) in the range 10 to the 15th power to 10 to the 16th power eV/nucleus is at most 25% of the total particle flux in the same range.

  9. A new X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy for extraterrestrial materials using a muon beam.

    PubMed

    Terada, K; Ninomiya, K; Osawa, T; Tachibana, S; Miyake, Y; Kubo, M K; Kawamura, N; Higemoto, W; Tsuchiyama, A; Ebihara, M; Uesugi, M

    2014-01-01

    The recent development of the intense pulsed muon source at J-PARC MUSE, Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex/MUon Science Establishment (10(6) s(-1) for a momentum of 60 MeV/c), enabled us to pioneer a new frontier in analytical sciences. Here, we report a non-destructive elemental analysis using µ(-) capture. Controlling muon momentum from 32.5 to 57.5 MeV/c, we successfully demonstrate a depth-profile analysis of light elements (B, C, N, and O) from several mm-thick layered materials and non-destructive bulk analyses of meteorites containing organic materials. Muon beam analysis, enabling a bulk analysis of light to heavy elements without severe radioactivation, is a unique analytical method complementary to other non-destructive analyses. Furthermore, this technology can be used as a powerful tool to identify the content and distribution of organic components in future asteroidal return samples. PMID:24861282

  10. The EEE Project: An extended network of muon telescopes for the study of cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panetta, M. P.

    2016-07-01

    The EEE (Extreme Energy Event) Project's goal is the study of high energy Extensive Air Showers (EAS) over a very large area, using an array of muon telescopes, based on position-sensitive Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPCs). Young students are directly involved in assembling and monitoring the telescopes, with the aim to introduce them to advanced physics research. At present the array is composed of more than 40 stations, distributed on a total area of 3 ×105km2. Most of them are independently taking data since several years. A new combined run (RUN-1) has started in February 2015, with 35 telescopes taking data simultaneously for a collected statistics larger than 4 ×109 reconstructed events. An overview of the experiment and some results from studies on correlated muons from the same EAS, and on solar events as Forbush decreases, will be shown.

  11. Search for Gamma Rays above 100 TeV from the Crab Nebula with the Tibet Air Shower Array and the 100 m2 muon Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amenomori, M.; Bi, X. J.; Chen, D.; Chen, T. L.; Chen, W. Y.; Cui, S. W.; Danzengluobu; Ding, L. K.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Z. Y.; Gou, Q. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; He, H. H.; He, Z. T.; Hibino, K.; Hotta, N.; Hu, Haibing; Hu, H. B.; Huang, J.; Jia, H. Y.; Jiang, L.; Kajino, F.; Kasahara, K.; Katayose, Y.; Kato, C.; Kawata, K.; Kozai, M.; Labaciren; Le, G. M.; Li, A. F.; Li, H. J.; Li, W. J.; Liu, C.; Liu, J. S.; Liu, M. Y.; Lu, H.; Meng, X. R.; Miyazaki, T.; Mizutani, K.; Munakata, K.; Nakajima, T.; Nakamura, Y.; Nanjo, H.; Nishizawa, M.; Niwa, T.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohta, I.; Ozawa, S.; Qian, X. L.; Qu, X. B.; Saito, T.; Saito, T. Y.; Sakata, M.; Sako, T. K.; Shao, J.; Shibata, M.; Shiomi, A.; Shirai, T.; Sugimoto, H.; Takita, M.; Tan, Y. H.; Tateyama, N.; Torii, S.; Tsuchiya, H.; Udo, S.; Wang, H.; Wu, H. R.; Xue, L.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yamauchi, K.; Yang, Z.; Yasue, S.; Yuan, A. F.; Yuda, T.; Zhai, L. M.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Ying; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X. X.; Tibet ASγ Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    A 100 m2 muon detector (MD) was successfully constructed under the existing Tibet air shower (AS) array in the late fall of 2007. The sensitivity of the Tibet AS array to cosmic gamma rays can be improved by selecting muon-poor events with the MD. Our MC simulation of the MD response reasonably agrees with the experimental data in terms of the charge distribution for one-muon events and the background rejection power. Using the data collected by the Tibet AS array and the 100 m2 MD taken from 2008 March to 2010 February, we search for continuous gamma-ray emission from the Crab Nebula above ˜100 TeV. No significant excess is found, and the most stringent upper limit is obtained above 140 TeV.

  12. Search for 100 TeV gamma rays from the Crab Nebula with the Tibet Air Shower Array and the 100 m2 muon detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sako, Takashi

    2016-07-01

    The 100 m ^{2} muon detector (MD) was constructed under the Tibet air shower (AS) array in the late autumn of 2007. By selecting muon-poor events with the MD, the sensitivity of the Tibet AS array to cosmic gamma rays can be improved. Our MC simulation of the MD response is in reasonable agreement with the experimental data, with regard to the charge distribution for one-muon events and the background rejection power. Using the data taken from 2008 March to 2010 February by the Tibet AS array and the 100 m ^{2} MD, we search for continuous 100 TeV gamma-ray emission from the Crab Nebula. No significant excess is detected, and the world's best upper limit is obtained above 140 TeV.

  13. SEARCH FOR GAMMA RAYS ABOVE 100 TeV FROM THE CRAB NEBULA WITH THE TIBET AIR SHOWER ARRAY AND THE 100 m{sup 2} MUON DETECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Amenomori, M.; Bi, X. J.; Chen, W. Y.; Ding, L. K.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Gou, Q. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; He, H. H.; Hu, H. B.; Huang, J.; Chen, D.; Chen, T. L.; Danzengluobu; Hu, Haibing; Cui, S. W.; He, Z. T.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Z. Y.; Hibino, K.; Hotta, N.; Collaboration: Tibet ASγ Collaboration; and others

    2015-11-10

    A 100 m{sup 2} muon detector (MD) was successfully constructed under the existing Tibet air shower (AS) array in the late fall of 2007. The sensitivity of the Tibet AS array to cosmic gamma rays can be improved by selecting muon-poor events with the MD. Our MC simulation of the MD response reasonably agrees with the experimental data in terms of the charge distribution for one-muon events and the background rejection power. Using the data collected by the Tibet AS array and the 100 m{sup 2} MD taken from 2008 March to 2010 February, we search for continuous gamma-ray emission from the Crab Nebula above ∼100 TeV. No significant excess is found, and the most stringent upper limit is obtained above 140 TeV.

  14. Underground water Cherenkov muon detector array with the Tibet air shower array for gamma-ray astronomy in the 100 TeV region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amenomori, M.; Ayabe, S.; Bi, X. J.; Chen, D.; Cui, S. W.; Danzengluobu; Ding, L. K.; Ding, X. H.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Z. Y.; Gao, X. Y.; Geng, Q. X.; Guo, H. W.; He, H. H.; He, M.; Hibino, K.; Hotta, N.; Hu, Haibing; Hu, H. B.; Huang, J.; Huang, Q.; Jia, H. Y.; Kajino, F.; Kasahara, K.; Katayose, Y.; Kato, C.; Kawata, K.; Labaciren; Le, G. M.; Li, A. F.; Li, J. Y.; Lu, H.; Lu, S. L.; Meng, X. R.; Mizutani, K.; Mu, J.; Munakata, K.; Nagai, A.; Nanjo, H.; Nishizawa, M.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohta, I.; Onuma, H.; Ouchi, T.; Ozawa, S.; Ren, J. R.; Saito, T.; Saito, T. Y.; Sakata, M.; Sako, T. K.; Sasaki, T.; Shibata, M.; Shiomi, A.; Shirai, T.; Sugimoto, H.; Takita, M.; Tan, Y. H.; Tateyama, N.; Torii, S.; Tsuchiya, H.; Udo, S.; Wang, B.; Wang, H.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y. G.; Wu, H. R.; Xue, L.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yan, C. T.; Yang, X. C.; Yasue, S.; Ye, Z. H.; Yu, G. C.; Yuan, A. F.; Yuda, T.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, N. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Yi; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X. X.

    2007-06-01

    We propose to build a large water-Cherenkov-type muon-detector array (Tibet MD array) around the 37 000 m2 Tibet air shower array (Tibet AS array) already constructed at 4300 m above sea level in Tibet, China. Each muon detector is a waterproof concrete pool, 6 m wide × 6 m long × 1.5 m deep in size, equipped with a 20 inch-in-diameter PMT. The Tibet MD array consists of 240 muon detectors set up 2.5 m underground. Its total effective area will be 8640 m2 for muon detection. The Tibet MD array will significantly improve gamma-ray sensitivity of the Tibet AS array in the 100 TeV region (10 1000 TeV) by means of gamma/hadron separation based on counting the number of muons accompanying an air shower. The Tibet AS+MD array will have the sensitivity to gamma rays in the 100 TeV region by an order of magnitude better than any other previous existing detectors in the world.

  15. First measurement of radioactive isotope production through cosmic-ray muon spallation in Super-Kamiokande IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Abe, K.; Haga, Y.; Hayato, Y.; Ikeda, M.; Iyogi, K.; Kameda, J.; Kishimoto, Y.; Miura, M.; Moriyama, S.; Nakahata, M.; Nakajima, T.; Nakano, Y.; Nakayama, S.; Orii, A.; Sekiya, H.; Shiozawa, M.; Takeda, A.; Tanaka, H.; Tomura, T.; Wendell, R. A.; Irvine, T.; Kajita, T.; Kametani, I.; Kaneyuki, K.; Nishimura, Y.; Richard, E.; Okumura, K.; Labarga, L.; Fernandez, P.; Gustafson, J.; Kachulis, C.; Kearns, E.; Raaf, J. L.; Stone, J. L.; Sulak, L. R.; Berkman, S.; Nantais, C. M.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tobayama, S.; Goldhaber, M.; Carminati, G.; Griskevich, N. J.; Kropp, W. R.; Mine, S.; Renshaw, A.; Smy, M. B.; Sobel, H. W.; Takhistov, V.; Weatherly, P.; Ganezer, K. S.; Hartfiel, B. L.; Hill, J.; Hong, N.; Kim, J. Y.; Lim, I. T.; Himmel, A.; Li, Z.; Scholberg, K.; Walter, C. W.; Wongjirad, T.; Ishizuka, T.; Tasaka, S.; Jang, J. S.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Smith, S. N.; Friend, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakamura, K.; Oyama, Y.; Sakashita, K.; Sekiguchi, T.; Tsukamoto, T.; Suzuki, A. T.; Takeuchi, Y.; Yano, T.; Hirota, S.; Huang, K.; Ieki, K.; Kikawa, T.; Minamino, A.; Nakaya, T.; Suzuki, K.; Takahashi, S.; Fukuda, Y.; Choi, K.; Itow, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Mijakowski, P.; Frankiewicz, K.; Hignight, J.; Imber, J.; Jung, C. K.; Li, X.; Palomino, J. L.; Wilking, M. J.; Yanagisawa, C.; Ishino, H.; Kayano, T.; Kibayashi, A.; Koshio, Y.; Mori, T.; Sakuda, M.; Kuno, Y.; Tacik, R.; Kim, S. B.; Okazawa, H.; Choi, Y.; Nishijima, K.; Koshiba, M.; Suda, Y.; Totsuka, Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Bronner, C.; Hartz, M.; Martens, K.; Marti, Ll.; Suzuki, Y.; Vagins, M. R.; Martin, J. F.; de Perio, P.; Konaka, A.; Chen, S.; Wilkes, R. J.; Super-Kamiokande Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic-ray-muon spallation-induced radioactive isotopes with β decays are one of the major backgrounds for solar, reactor, and supernova relic neutrino experiments. Unlike in scintillator, production yields for cosmogenic backgrounds in water have not been exclusively measured before, yet they are becoming more and more important in next generation neutrino experiments designed to search for rare signals. We have analyzed the low-energy trigger data collected at Super-Kamiokande IV in order to determine the production rates of 12B, 12N, 16N, 11Be, 9Li, 8He, 9C, 8Li, 8B, and 15C. These rates were extracted from fits to time differences between parent muons and subsequent daughter β 's by fixing the known isotope lifetimes. Since >9Li can fake an inverse-beta-decay reaction chain via a β +n cascade decay, producing an irreducible background with detected energy up to a dozen MeV, a dedicated study is needed for evaluating its impact on future measurements; the application of a neutron tagging technique using correlated triggers was found to improve this 9Li measurement. The measured yields were generally found to be comparable with theoretical calculations, except the cases of the isotopes 9Li / 8B and 9Li.

  16. Observation of an excess of cosmic ray muons of energies 2 TeV from the direction of Cygnus X-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battistoni, G.; Bellotti, E.; Bloise, C.; Bologna, G.; Campana, P.; Castagnoli, C.; Castellina, A.; Chiarella, V.; Ciocio, A.; Cundy, D.

    1985-01-01

    A high flux of muons from the Cygnus X-3 direction has been observed in NUSEX experiment at depths greater than 4600 hg/sq cm s.r. The excess muons show the 4.8 hour modulation in arrival time typical of this source. A study of this modulation was done in order to find the best value of the period and of the period derivative. The muon flux underground from NUSEX and SOUDAN (1800 hg/sq cm) experiments are used to determine the energy spectrum at sea level. The shape and the absolute intensities are found similar to those attributed to gamma rays responsible for production of air showers detected in direction of Cygnus X-3 in the energy range 10 to the 12th power to 10 to the 15th power eV.

  17. Cosmic ray modulation and noise level on the extended multidirectional muons detector telescope installed in south of Brazil: preliminary analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, C. R.; Savian, J. F.; da Silva, M. R.; da Silva, S. M.; da Silva, C. W.; Dal Lago, A.; Kuwabara, T.; Munakata, K.; Bieber, J. W.; Schuch, N. J.; All

    Because of the large detector mass required to detect high-energy cosmic rays ground-based instruments remain the state-of-the-art method for studying these particles At energies up to 100 GeV primary galactic cosmic rays experience significant variation in response to solar wind disturbances such as interplanetary coronal mass ejections ICMEs In this way ground-based detectors can provide unique information on conditions in the near-earth interplanetary medium Since 2001 a prototype multidirectional high energy 50 GeV cosmic-ray muons detector telescope was operating in the Southern Space Observatory SSO CRSPE INPE - MCT Brazil geomagnetic coordinates 19o 13 S and 16o 30 E In December 2005 an upgrade increased the collection area in 600 becoming two layers of 28 m2 each The objective of this work is to analyze cosmic ray count rates observed by ground-based detector in order to find both variations not associated with interplanetary structures possible associated with the noise from the instrument and decrease rates caused by cosmic ray modulation due to interplanetary structures near Earth We use 1 minute resolution data from the extended telescope collected since January 2006 which is the first data since the update of the instrument on December 2005 We also use the disturbance storm time Dst index from Kyoto plasma and interplanetary magnetic field from the ACE satellite In the future this study will help to separate cosmic ray modulation caused by interplanetary structures from those variations in short periods less than 1 month

  18. Observation of high energy atmospheric neutrinos with antarctic muon and neutrino detector array

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, J.; Andres, E.; Bai, X.; Barouch, G.; Barwick, S.W.; Bay, R.C.; Becka, T.; Becker, K.-H.; Bertrand, D.; Binon, F.; Biron, A.; Booth, J.; Botner, O.; Bouchta, A.; Bouhali, O.; Boyce, M.M.; Carius, S.; Chen, A.; Chirkin, D.; Conrad, J.; Cooley, J.; Costa, C.G.S.; Cowen, D.F.; Dalberg, E.; De Clercq, C.; DeYoung, T.; Desiati, P.; Dewulf, J.-P.; Doksus, P.; Edsjo, J.; Ekstrom, P.; Feser, T.; Frere, J.-M.; Gaisser, T.K.; Gaug, M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hardtke, R.; Hauschildt, T.; Hellwig, M.; Heukenkamp, H.; Hill, G.C.; Hulth, P.O.; Hundertmark, S.; Jacobsen, J.; Karle, A.; Kim, J.; Koci, B.; Kopke, L.; Kowalski, M.; Lamoureux, J.I.; Leich, H.; Leuthold, M.; Lindahl, P.; Liubarsky, I.; Loaiza, P.; Lowder, D.M.; Madsen, J.; Marciniewski, P.; Matis, H.S.; McParland, C.P.; Miller, T.C.; Minaeva, Y.; Miocinovic, P.; Mock, P.C.; Morse, R.; Neunhoffer, T.; Niessen, P.; Nygren, D.R.; Ogelman, H.; Olbrechts, Ph.; Perez de los Heros, C.; Pohl, A.C.; Porrata, R.; Price, P.B.; Przybylski, G.T.; Rawlins, K.; Reed, C.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Richter, S.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Romenesko, P.; Ross, D.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, D.; Schwarz, R.; Silvestri, A.; Solarz, M.; Spiczak, G.M.; Spiering, C.; Starinsky, N.; Steele, D.; Steffen, P.; Stokstad, R.G.; Streicher, O.; Sudhoff, P.; Sulanke, K.-H.; Taboada, I.; Thollander, L.; Thon, T.; Tilav, S.; Vander Donckt, M.; Walck, C.; Weinheimer, C.; Wiebusch, C.H.; Wiedeman, C.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Woschnagg, K.; Wu, W.; Yodh, G.; Young, S.

    2002-05-07

    The Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Detector Array (AMANDA) began collecting data with ten strings in 1997. Results from the first year of operation are presented. Neutrinos coming through the Earth from the Northern Hemisphere are identified by secondary muons moving upward through the array. Cosmic rays in the atmosphere generate a background of downward moving muons, which are about 10{sup 6} times more abundant than the upward moving muons. Over 130 days of exposure, we observed a total of about 300 neutrino events. In the same period, a background of 1.05 x 10{sup 9} cosmic ray muon events was recorded. The observed neutrino flux is consistent with atmospheric neutrino predictions. Monte Carlo simulations indicate that 90 percent of these events lie in the energy range 66 GeV to 3.4 TeV. The observation of atmospheric neutrinos consistent with expectations establishes AMANDA-B10 as a working neutrino telescope.

  19. Muon-pair production by atmospheric muons in CosmoALEPH.

    PubMed

    Maciuc, F; Grupen, C; Hashim, N-O; Luitz, S; Mailov, A; Müller, A-S; Putzer, A; Sander, H-G; Schmeling, S; Schmelling, M; Tcaciuc, R; Wachsmuth, H; Ziegler, Th; Zuber, K

    2006-01-20

    Data from a dedicated cosmic ray run of the ALEPH detector were used in a study of muon trident production, i.e., muon pairs produced by muons. Here the overburden and the calorimeters are the target materials while the ALEPH time projection chamber provides the momentum measurements. A theoretical estimate of the muon trident cross section is obtained by developing a Monte Carlo simulation for muon propagation in the overburden and the detector. Two muon trident candidates were found to match the expected theoretical pattern. The observed production rate implies that the nuclear form factor cannot be neglected for muon tridents.

  20. On muon energy spectrum in muon groups underground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakatanov, V. N.; Chudakov, A. E.; Novoseltsev, Y. F.; Novoseltseva, M. V.; Stenkin, Y. V.

    1985-01-01

    A method is described which was used to measure muon energy spectrum characteristics in muon groups underground using mu-e decays recording. The Baksan Telescope's experimental data on mu-e decays intensity in muon groups of various multiplicities are analyzed. The experimental data indicating very flat spectrum does not however represent the total spectrum in muon groups. Obviously the muon energy spectrum depends strongly on a distance from the group axis. The core attraction effect makes a significant distortion, making the spectrum flatter. After taking this into account and making corrections for this effect the integral total spectrum index in groups has a very small depencence on muon multiplicity and agrees well with expected one: beta=beta (sub expected) = 1.75.

  1. Development of a novel micro pattern gaseous detector for cosmic ray muon tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biglietti, M.; Canale, V.; Franchino, S.; Iengo, P.; Iodice, M.; Petrucci, F.

    2016-07-01

    We propose a novel detector (Thick Groove Detector, TGD) designed for cosmic ray tomography with a spatial resolution of ~500 μm, trying to keep the construction procedure as simple as possible and to reduce the operating costs. The TGD belongs to the category of MPGDs with an amplification region less than 1 mm wide formed by alternate anode/cathode microstrips layers at different heights. A first 10×10 cm2 prototype has been built, divided in four sections with different test geometries. We present the construction procedure and the first results in terms of gain and stability. Preliminary studies with cosmic rays are also reported.

  2. Measurement of the multiple-muon charge ratio in the MINOS Far Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamson, P.; Anghel, I.; Aurisano, A.; Barr, G.; Bishai, M.; Blake, A.; Bock, G. J.; Bogert, D.; Cao, S. V.; Carroll, T. J.; Castromonte, C. M.; Chen, R.; Childress, S.; Coelho, J. A. B.; Corwin, L.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; de Jong, J. K.; de Rijck, S.; Devan, A. V.; Devenish, N. E.; Diwan, M. V.; Escobar, C. O.; Evans, J. J.; Falk, E.; Feldman, G. J.; Flanagan, W.; Frohne, M. V.; Gabrielyan, M.; Gallagher, H. R.; Germani, S.; Gomes, R. A.; Goodman, M. C.; Gouffon, P.; Graf, N.; Gran, R.; Grzelak, K.; Habig, A.; Hahn, S. R.; Hartnell, J.; Hatcher, R.; Holin, A.; Huang, J.; Hylen, J.; Irwin, G. M.; Isvan, Z.; James, C.; Jensen, D.; Kafka, T.; Kasahara, S. M. S.; Koizumi, G.; Kordosky, M.; Kreymer, A.; Lang, K.; Ling, J.; Litchfield, P. J.; Lucas, P.; Mann, W. A.; Marshak, M. L.; Mayer, N.; McGivern, C.; Medeiros, M. M.; Mehdiyev, R.; Meier, J. R.; Messier, M. D.; Miller, W. H.; Mishra, S. R.; Moed Sher, S.; Moore, C. D.; Mualem, L.; Musser, J.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Newman, H. B.; Nichol, R. J.; Nowak, J. A.; O'Connor, J.; Orchanian, M.; Pahlka, R. B.; Paley, J.; Patterson, R. B.; Pawloski, G.; Perch, A.; Pfützner, M. M.; Phan, D. D.; Phan-Budd, S.; Plunkett, R. K.; Poonthottathil, N.; Qiu, X.; Radovic, A.; Rebel, B.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rubin, H. A.; Sail, P.; Sanchez, M. C.; Schneps, J.; Schreckenberger, A.; Schreiner, P.; Sharma, R.; Sousa, A.; Tagg, N.; Talaga, R. L.; Thomas, J.; Thomson, M. A.; Tian, X.; Timmons, A.; Todd, J.; Tognini, S. C.; Toner, R.; Torretta, D.; Tzanakos, G.; Urheim, J.; Vahle, P.; Viren, B.; Weber, A.; Webb, R. C.; White, C.; Whitehead, L.; Whitehead, L. H.; Wojcicki, S. G.; Zwaska, R.; Minos Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The charge ratio, Rμ=Nμ+/Nμ- , for cosmogenic multiple-muon events observed at an underground depth of 2070 mwe has been measured using the magnetized MINOS Far Detector. The multiple-muon events, recorded nearly continuously from August 2003 until April 2012, comprise two independent data sets imaged with opposite magnetic field polarities, the comparison of which allows the systematic uncertainties of the measurement to be minimized. The multiple-muon charge ratio is determined to be Rμ=1.104 ±0.006 (stat)-0.010+0.009(syst) . This measurement complements previous determinations of single-muon and multiple-muon charge ratios at underground sites and serves to constrain models of cosmic-ray interactions at TeV energies.

  3. Measurement of the multiple-muon charge ratio in the MINOS Far Detector

    DOE PAGES

    Adamson, P.

    2016-03-30

    The charge ratio, Rμ = Nμ+/Nμ-, for cosmogenic multiple-muon events observed at an underground depth of 2070 mwe has been measured using the magnetized MINOS Far Detector. The multiple-muon events, recorded nearly continuously from August 2003 until April 2012, comprise two independent data sets imaged with opposite magnetic field polarities, the comparison of which allows the systematic uncertainties of the measurement to be minimized. The multiple-muon charge ratio is determined to be Rμ = 1.104±0.006(stat)-0.010+0.009(syst). As a result, this measurement complements previous determinations of single-muon and multiple-muon charge ratios at underground sites and serves to constrain models of cosmic-ray interactions atmore » TeV energies.« less

  4. Material discrimination using scattering and stopping of cosmic ray muons and electrons: Differentiating heavier from lighter metals as well as low-atomic weight materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanpied, Gary; Kumar, Sankaran; Dorroh, Dustin; Morgan, Craig; Blanpied, Isabelle; Sossong, Michael; McKenney, Shawn; Nelson, Beth

    2015-06-01

    Reported is a new method to apply cosmic-ray tomography in a manner that can detect and characterize not only dense assemblages of heavy nuclei (like Special Nuclear Materials, SNM) but also assemblages of medium- and light-atomic-mass materials (such as metal parts, conventional explosives, and organic materials). Characterization may enable discrimination between permitted contents in commerce and contraband (explosives, illegal drugs, and the like). Our Multi-Mode Passive Detection System (MMPDS) relies primarily on the muon component of cosmic rays to interrogate Volumes of Interest (VOI). Muons, highly energetic and massive, pass essentially un-scattered through materials of light atomic mass and are only weakly scattered by conventional metals used in industry. Substantial scattering and absorption only occur when muons encounter sufficient thicknesses of heavy elements characteristic of lead and SNM. Electrons are appreciably scattered by light elements and stopped by sufficient thicknesses of materials containing medium-atomic-mass elements (mostly metals). Data include simulations based upon GEANT and measurements in the HMT (Half Muon Tracker) detector in Poway, CA and a package scanner in both Poway and Socorro NM. A key aspect of the present work is development of a useful parameter, designated the "stopping power" of a sample. The low-density regime, comprising organic materials up to aluminum, is characterized using very little scattering but a strong variation in stopping power. The medium-to-high density regime shows a larger variation in scattering than in stopping power. The detection of emitted gamma rays is another useful signature of some materials.

  5. Muon colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.B. |; Sessler, A.; Skrinsky, A.

    1996-01-01

    Muon Colliders have unique technical and physics advantages and disadvantages when compared with both hadron and electron machines. They should thus be regarded as complementary. Parameters are given of 4 TeV and 0.5 TeV high luminosity {micro}{sup +}{micro}{sup {minus}}colliders, and of a 0.5 TeV lower luminosity demonstration machine. We discuss the various systems in such muon colliders, starting from the proton accelerator needed to generate the muons and proceeding through muon cooling, acceleration and storage in a collider ring. Problems of detector background are also discussed.

  6. Cosmic-ray exposure records and origins of meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reedy, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    The cosmic-ray records of meteorites are used to infer much about their origins and recent histories. The methods used to interpret meteorites' cosmic-ray records, especially identifying simple or complex exposure histories, often are inadequate. Spallogenic radionuclides, stable nuclides, and measurements of products that have location-sensitive production rates, such as the tracks of heavy cosmic-ray nuclei or neutron-capture nuclides, are very useful in accurately determining a meteorite's history. Samples from different, known locations of a meteorite help in studying the cosmic-ray record. Such extensive sets of meteorite measuremetns, plus theoretical modeling of complex histories, improves the ability to predict the production of cosmogenic nuclides in meteorites, to distinguish simple and complex exposure histories, and to better determine exposure ages.

  7. Recent Advances and Field Trial Results Integrating Cosmic Ray Muon Tomography with Other Data Sources for Mineral Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schouten, D.

    2015-12-01

    CRM GeoTomography Technologies, Inc. is leading the way in applying muon tomography to discovery and definition of dense ore bodies for mineral exploration and resource estimation. We have successfully imaged volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits at mines in North America using our suite of field-proven muon tracking detectors, and are at various stages of development for other applications. Recently we developed in-house inversion software that integrates data from assays, surface and borehole gravity, and underground muon flux measurements. We have found that the differing geophysical data sources provide complementary information and that dramatic improvements in inversion results are attained using various inversion performance metrics related to the excess tonnage of the mineral deposits, as well as their spatial extents and locations. This presentation will outline field tests of muon tomography performed by CRM Geotomography in some real world examples, and will demonstrate the effectiveness of joint muon tomography, assay and gravity inversion techniques in field tests (where data are available) and in simulations.

  8. Cosmic muons, as messengers from the Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Brancus, I. M.; Rebel, H.

    2015-02-24

    Penetrating from the outer space into the Earth atmosphere, primary cosmic rays are producing secondary radiation by the collisions with the air target subsequently decaying in hadrons, pions, muons, electrons and photons, phenomenon called Extensive air Shower (EAS). The muons, considered as the “penetrating” component, survive the propagation to the Earth and even they are no direct messenger of the Universe, they reflect the features of the primary particles. The talk gives a description of the development of the extensive air showers generating the secondary particles, especially the muon component. Results of the muon flux and of the muon charge ratio, (the ratio between the positive and the negative muons), obtained in different laboratories and in WILLI experiment, are shown. At the end, the contribution of the muons measured in EAS to the investigation of the nature of the primary cosmic rays is emphasized in KASCADE and WILLI-EAS experiments.

  9. Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.

    2009-10-19

    Parameters are given of muon colliders with center of mass energies of 1.5 and 3 TeV. Pion production is from protons on a mercury target. Capture, decay, and phase rotation yields bunch trains of both muon signs. Six dimensional cooling reduces the emittances until the trains are merged into single bunches, one of each sign. Further cooling in 6 dimensions is then applied, followed by final transverse cooling in 50 T solenoids. After acceleration the muons enter the collider ring. Ongoing R&D is discussed.

  10. The design and performance of a scintillating-fibre tracker for the cosmic-ray muon tomography of legacy nuclear waste containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarkson, A.; Hamilton, D. J.; Hoek, M.; Ireland, D. G.; Johnstone, J. R.; Kaiser, R.; Keri, T.; Lumsden, S.; Mahon, D. F.; McKinnon, B.; Murray, M.; Nutbeam-Tuffs, S.; Shearer, C.; Staines, C.; Yang, G.; Zimmerman, C.

    2014-05-01

    Tomographic imaging techniques using the Coulomb scattering of cosmic-ray muons are increasingly being exploited for the non-destructive assay of shielded containers in a wide range of applications. One such application is the characterisation of legacy nuclear waste materials stored within industrial containers. The design, assembly and performance of a prototype muon tomography system developed for this purpose are detailed in this work. This muon tracker comprises four detection modules, each containing orthogonal layers of Saint-Gobain BCF-10 2 mm-pitch plastic scintillating fibres. Identification of the two struck fibres per module allows the reconstruction of a space point, and subsequently, the incoming and Coulomb-scattered muon trajectories. These allow the container content, with respect to the atomic number Z of the scattering material, to be determined through reconstruction of the scattering location and magnitude. On each detection layer, the light emitted by the fibre is detected by a single Hamamatsu H8500 MAPMT with two fibres coupled to each pixel via dedicated pairing schemes developed to ensure the identification of the struck fibre. The PMT signals are read out to standard charge-to-digital converters and interpreted via custom data acquisition and analysis software. The design and assembly of the detector system are detailed and presented alongside results from performance studies with data collected after construction. These results reveal high stability during extended collection periods with detection efficiencies in the region of 80% per layer. Minor misalignments of millimetre order have been identified and corrected in software. A first image reconstructed from a test configuration of materials has been obtained using software based on the Maximum Likelihood Expectation Maximisation algorithm. The results highlight the high spatial resolution provided by the detector system. Clear discrimination between the low, medium and high

  11. Muon muon collider: Feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-18

    A feasibility study is presented of a 2 + 2 TeV muon collider with a luminosity of L = 10{sup 35} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. The resulting design is not optimized for performance, and certainly not for cost; however, it does suffice--the authors believe--to allow them to make a credible case, that a muon collider is a serious possibility for particle physics and, therefore, worthy of R and D support so that the reality of, and interest in, a muon collider can be better assayed. The goal of this support would be to completely assess the physics potential and to evaluate the cost and development of the necessary technology. The muon collider complex consists of components which first produce copious pions, then capture the pions and the resulting muons from their decay; this is followed by an ionization cooling channel to reduce the longitudinal and transverse emittance of the muon beam. The next stage is to accelerate the muons and, finally, inject them into a collider ring which has a small beta function at the colliding point. This is the first attempt at a point design and it will require further study and optimization. Experimental work will be needed to verify the validity of diverse crucial elements in the design.

  12. Cosmic-ray record in solar system matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reedy, R. C.; Arnold, J. R.; Lal, D.

    1983-01-01

    The interaction of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar cosmic rays (SCR) with bodies in the solar system is discussed, and what the record of that interaction reveals about the history of the solar system is considered. The influence of the energy, charge, and mass of the particles on the interaction is addressed, showing long-term average fluxes of solar protons, predicted production rates for heavy-nuclei tracks and various radionuclides as a function of depth in lunar rock, and integral fluxes of protons emitted by solar flares. The variation of the earth's magnetic field, the gardening of the lunar surface, and the source of meteorites and cosmic dust are studied using the cosmic ray record. The time variation of GCR, SCR, and VH and VVH nuclei is discussed for both the short and the long term.

  13. The first muon beam from a new highly-intense DC muon source, MuSIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Nam Hoai; MuSIC Collaboration

    2012-09-01

    A new DC muon source, MuSIC, is now under construction at Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University, Japan. The MuSIC adopts a new pion/muon collection system and a curved transport solenoid. These techniques are important in realization of future muon programs such as the muon to electron conversion experiments (COMET/Mu2e), neutrino factories, and muon colliders. The pion capture magnet and a part of the transport solenoid have been built and beam tests were carried out to assess the MuSIC's performance. Muon lifetime measurements and muonic X-ray measurements have been used for estimation of muon yield of the MuSIC. The result indicates that the MuSIC would be one of the most intense DC muon beams in the world.

  14. Muon Muon Collider: Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Gallardo, J.C.; Palmer, R.B.; Tollestrup, A.V.; Sessler, A.M.; Skrinsky, A.N.; Ankenbrandt, C.; Geer, S.; Griffin, J.; Johnstone, C.; Lebrun, P.; McInturff, A.; Mills, Frederick E.; Mokhov, N.; Moretti, A.; Neuffer, D.; Ng, K.Y.; Noble, R.; Novitski, I.; Popovic, M.; Qian, C.; Van Ginneken, A. /Fermilab /Brookhaven /Wisconsin U., Madison /Tel Aviv U. /Indiana U. /UCLA /LBL, Berkeley /SLAC /Argonne /Sobolev IM, Novosibirsk /UC, Davis /Munich, Tech. U. /Virginia U. /KEK, Tsukuba /DESY /Novosibirsk, IYF /Jefferson Lab /Mississippi U. /SUNY, Stony Brook /MIT /Columbia U. /Fairfield U. /UC, Berkeley

    2012-04-05

    A feasibility study is presented of a 2 + 2 TeV muon collider with a luminosity of L = 10{sup 35} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The resulting design is not optimized for performance, and certainly not for cost; however, it does suffice - we believe - to allow us to make a credible case, that a muon collider is a serious possibility for particle physics and, therefore, worthy of R and D support so that the reality of, and interest in, a muon collider can be better assayed. The goal of this support would be to completely assess the physics potential and to evaluate the cost and development of the necessary technology. The muon collider complex consists of components which first produce copious pions, then capture the pions and the resulting muons from their decay; this is followed by an ionization cooling channel to reduce the longitudinal and transverse emittance of the muon beam. The next stage is to accelerate the muons and, finally, inject them into a collider ring wich has a small beta function at the colliding point. This is the first attempt at a point design and it will require further study and optimization. Experimental work will be needed to verify the validity of diverse crucial elements in the design. Muons because of their large mass compared to an electron, do not produce significant synchrotron radiation. As a result there is negligible beamstrahlung and high energy collisions are not limited by this phenomena. In addition, muons can be accelerated in circular devices which will be considerably smaller than two full-energy linacs as required in an e{sup +} - e{sup -} collider. A hadron collider would require a CM energy 5 to 10 times higher than 4 TeV to have an equivalent energy reach. Since the accelerator size is limited by the strength of bending magnets, the hadron collider for the same physics reach would have to be much larger than the muon collider. In addition, muon collisions should be cleaner than hadron collisions. There are many detailed particle

  15. Observation of muon intensity variations by season with the MINOS Near Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, P.; et al.

    2014-07-22

    A sample of 1.53$\\times$10$^{9}$ cosmic-ray-induced single muon events has been recorded at 225 meters-water-equivalent using the MINOS Near Detector. The underground muon rate is observed to be highly correlated with the effective atmospheric temperature. The coefficient $\\alpha_{T}$, relating the change in the muon rate to the change in the vertical effective temperature, is determined to be 0.428$\\pm$0.003(stat.)$\\pm$0.059(syst.). An alternative description is provided by the weighted effective temperature, introduced to account for the differences in the temperature profile and muon flux as a function of zenith angle. Using the latter estimation of temperature, the coefficient is determined to be 0.352$\\pm$0.003(stat.)$\\pm$0.046(syst.).

  16. GEANT4 simulation of a scintillating-fibre tracker for the cosmic-ray muon tomography of legacy nuclear waste containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarkson, A.; Hamilton, D. J.; Hoek, M.; Ireland, D. G.; Johnstone, J. R.; Kaiser, R.; Keri, T.; Lumsden, S.; Mahon, D. F.; McKinnon, B.; Murray, M.; Nutbeam-Tuffs, S.; Shearer, C.; Staines, C.; Yang, G.; Zimmerman, C.

    2014-05-01

    Cosmic-ray muons are highly penetrative charged particles that are observed at the sea level with a flux of approximately one per square centimetre per minute. They interact with matter primarily through Coulomb scattering, which is exploited in the field of muon tomography to image shielded objects in a wide range of applications. In this paper, simulation studies are presented that assess the feasibility of a scintillating-fibre tracker system for use in the identification and characterisation of nuclear materials stored within industrial legacy waste containers. A system consisting of a pair of tracking modules above and a pair below the volume to be assayed is simulated within the GEANT4 framework using a range of potential fibre pitches and module separations. Each module comprises two orthogonal planes of fibres that allow the reconstruction of the initial and Coulomb-scattered muon trajectories. A likelihood-based image reconstruction algorithm has been developed that allows the container content to be determined with respect to the scattering density λ, a parameter which is related to the atomic number Z of the scattering material. Images reconstructed from this simulation are presented for a range of anticipated scenarios that highlight the expected image resolution and the potential of this system for the identification of high-Z materials within a shielded, concrete-filled container. First results from a constructed prototype system are presented in comparison with those from a detailed simulation. Excellent agreement between experimental data and simulation is observed showing clear discrimination between the different materials assayed throughout.

  17. The Gran Sasso muon puzzle

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Martinez, Enrique; Mahbubani, Rakhi E-mail: rakhi@cern.ch

    2012-07-01

    We carry out a time-series analysis of the combined data from three experiments measuring the cosmic muon flux at the Gran Sasso laboratory, at a depth of 3800 m.w.e. These data, taken by the MACRO, LVD and Borexino experiments, span a period of over 20 years, and correspond to muons with a threshold energy, at sea level, of around 1.3 TeV. We compare the best-fit period and phase of the full muon data set with the combined DAMA/NaI and DAMA/LIBRA data, which spans the same time period, as a test of the hypothesis that the cosmic ray muon flux is responsible for the annual modulation detected by DAMA. We find in the muon data a large-amplitude fluctuation with a period of around one year, and a phase that is incompatible with that of the DAMA modulation at 5.2σ. Aside from this annual variation, the muon data also contains a further significant modulation with a period between 10 and 11 years and a power well above the 99.9% C.L threshold for noise, whose phase corresponds well with the solar cycle: a surprising observation for such high energy muons. We do not see this same period in the stratospheric temperature data.

  18. CMS muon detector and trigger performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sung Keun; CMS Collaboration

    2011-06-01

    The CMS muon system has been in full operation since its commissioning with several million events of cosmic ray data. The muon system of the CMS experiment consists of three independent detectors: Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) both in the barrel and the endcap, Drift Tubes (DTs) in the barrel, and Cathode Strip Chambers (CSCs) in the endcap region. In this report, the performance of each of these muon detectors and their trigger response are presented.

  19. Muon g−2 and Galactic Centre γ-ray excess in a scalar extension of the 2HDM type-X

    SciTech Connect

    Hektor, Andi; Kannike, Kristjan; Marzola, Luca

    2015-10-12

    We consider an extension of the lepto-specific 2HDM with an extra singlet S as a dark matter candidate. Taking into account theoretical and experimental constraints, we investigate the possibility to address both the γ-ray excess detected at the Galactic Centre and the discrepancy between the Standard Model prediction and experimental results of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon. Our analyses reveal that the SS→τ{sup +}τ{sup −} and SS→bb-bar channels reproduce the Galactic Centre excess, with an emerging dark matter candidate which complies with the bounds from direct detection experiments, measurements of the Higgs boson invisible decay width and observations of the dark matter relic abundance. Addressing the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon imposes further strong constraints on the model. Remarkably, under these conditions, the SS→bb-bar channel still allows for the fitting of the Galactic Centre. We also comment on a scenario allowed by the model where the SS→τ{sup +}τ{sup −} and SS→bb-bar channels have comparable branching ratios, which possibly yield an improved fitting of the Galactic Centre excess.

  20. Muon g - 2 and Galactic Centre γ-ray excess in a scalar extension of the 2HDM type-X

    SciTech Connect

    Hektor, Andi; Kannike, Kristjan; Marzola, Luca E-mail: kristjan.kannike@cern.ch

    2015-10-01

    We consider an extension of the lepto-specific 2HDM with an extra singlet S as a dark matter candidate. Taking into account theoretical and experimental constraints, we investigate the possibility to address both the γ-ray excess detected at the Galactic Centre and the discrepancy between the Standard Model prediction and experimental results of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon. Our analyses reveal that the SS → τ{sup +} τ{sup −} and SS → b  b-bar channels reproduce the Galactic Centre excess, with an emerging dark matter candidate which complies with the bounds from direct detection experiments, measurements of the Higgs boson invisible decay width and observations of the dark matter relic abundance. Addressing the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon imposes further strong constraints on the model. Remarkably, under these conditions, the SS → b  b-bar channel still allows for the fitting of the Galactic Centre. We also comment on a scenario allowed by the model where the SS → τ{sup +} τ{sup −} and SS → b  b-bar channels have comparable branching ratios, which possibly yield an improved fitting of the Galactic Centre excess.

  1. The cosmic ray proton, helium and CNO fluxes in the 100 TeV energy region from TeV muons and EAS atmospheric Cherenkov light observations of MACRO and EAS-TOP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aglietta, M.; Alessandro, B.; Antonioli, P.; Arneodo, F.; Bergamasco, L.; Bertaina, M.; Castagnoli, C.; Castellina, A.; Chiavassa, A.; Cini, G.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Di Sciascio, G.; Fulgione, W.; Galeotti, P.; Ghia, P. L.; Iacovacci, M.; Mannocchi, G.; Morello, C.; Navarra, G.; Saavedra, O.; Stamerra, A.; Trinchero, G. C.; Valchierotti, S.; Vallania, P.; Vernetto, S.; Vigorito, C.; Ambrosio, M.; Antolini, R.; Baldini, A.; Barbarino, G. C.; Barish, B. C.; Battistoni, G.; Becherini, Y.; Bellotti, R.; Bemporad, C.; Bernardini, P.; Bilokon, H.; Bower, C.; Brigida, M.; Bussino, S.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Campana, D.; Carboni, M.; Caruso, R.; Cecchini, S.; Cei, F.; Chiarella, V.; Chiarusi, T.; Choudhary, B. C.; Coutu, S.; Cozzi, M.; De Cataldo, G.; Dekhissi, H.; De Marzo, C.; De Mitri, I.; Derkaoui, J.; De Vincenzi, M.; Di Credico, A.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Forti, C.; Fusco, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giannini, G.; Giglietto, N.; Giorgini, M.; Grassi, M.; Grillo, A.; Guarino, F.; Gustavino, C.; Habig, A.; Hanson, K.; Heinz, R.; Iarocci, E.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katsavounidis, I.; Kearns, E.; Kim, H.; Kyriazopoulou, S.; Lamanna, E.; Lane, C.; Levin, D. S.; Lipari, P.; Longley, N. P.; Longo, M. J.; Loparco, F.; Maaroufi, F.; Mancarella, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Margiotta, A.; Marini, A.; Martello, D.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Michael, D. G.; Monacelli, P.; Montaruli, T.; Monteno, M.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nicolò, D.; Nolty, R.; Orth, C.; Osteria, G.; Palamara, O.; Patera, V.; Patrizii, L.; Pazzi, R.; Peck, C. W.; Perrone, L.; Petrera, S.; Popa, V.; Rainò, A.; Reynoldson, J.; Ronga, F.; Satriano, C.; Scapparone, E.; Scholberg, K.; Sciubba, A.; Sioli, M.; Sirri, G.; Sitta, M.; Spinelli, P.; Spinetti, M.; Spurio, M.; Steinberg, R.; Stone, J. L.; Sulak, L. R.; Surdo, A.; Tarlé, G.; Togo, V.; Vakili, M.; Walter, C. W.; Webb, R.; EAS-TOP Collaboration

    2004-06-01

    The primary cosmic ray (CR) proton, helium and CNO fluxes in the energy range 80-300 TeV are studied at the National Gran Sasso Laboratories by means of EAS-TOP (Campo Imperatore, 2005 m a.s.l.) and MACRO (deep underground, 3100 m w.e., the surface energy threshold for a muon reaching the detector being Eμth≈1.3 TeV). The measurement is based on: (a) the selection of primaries based on their energy/nucleon (i.e., with energy/nucleon sufficient to produce a muon with energy larger than 1.3 TeV) and the reconstruction of the shower geometry by means of the muons recorded by MACRO in the deep underground laboratories; (b) the detection of the associated atmospheric Cherenkov light (C.l.) signals by means of the C.l. detector of EAS-TOP. The C.l. density at core distance r>100 m is directly related to the total primary energy E0. Proton and helium ("p + He") and proton, helium and CNO ("p + He + CNO") primaries are thus selected at E0≃80 TeV, and at E0≃250 TeV, respectively. Their flux is measured: J p+ He(80 TeV)=(1.8±0.4)×10 -6 m -2 s -1 sr -1 TeV -1, and J p+ He+ CNO(250 TeV)=(1.1±0.3)×10 -7 m -2 s -1 sr -1 TeV -1, their relative weights being: J p+ He/J p+ He+ CNO(250 TeV)=0.78±0.17 . By using the measurements of the proton spectrum obtained from the direct experiments and hadron flux data in the atmosphere, we obtain for the relative weights of the three components at 250 TeV: Jp: JHe: JCNO=(0.20±0.08):(0.58±0.19):(0.22±0.17). This corresponds to the dominance of helium over proton primaries at 100-1000 TeV, and a possible non-negligible contribution from CNO. The lateral distribution of Cherenkov light in Extensive Air Showers (EASs), which is related to the rate of energy deposit of the primary in the atmosphere, is measured for a selected proton and helium primary beam, and good agreement is found when compared with the one calculated with the CORSIKA/QGSJET simulation model.

  2. Borehole Muon Detector Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonneville, A.; Flygare, J.; Kouzes, R.; Lintereur, A.; Yamaoka, J. A. K.; Varner, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations have spurred investigation into carbon sequestration methods. One of the possibilities being considered, storing super-critical CO2 in underground reservoirs, has drawn more attention and pilot projects are being supported worldwide. Monitoring of the post-injection fate of CO2 is of utmost importance. Generally, monitoring options are active methods, such as 4D seismic reflection or pressure measurements in monitoring wells. We propose here to develop a 4-D density tomography of subsurface CO2 reservoirs using cosmic-ray muon detectors deployed in a borehole. Muon detection is a relatively mature field of particle physics and there are many muon detector designs, though most are quite large and not designed for subsurface measurements. The primary technical challenge preventing deployment of this technology in the subsurface is the lack of miniaturized muon-tracking detectors capable of fitting in standard boreholes and that will resist the harsh underground conditions. A detector with these capabilities is being developed by a collaboration supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. Current simulations based on a Monte Carlo modeling code predict that the incoming muon angle can be resolved with an error of approximately two degrees, using either underground or sea level spectra. The robustness of the design comes primarily from the use of scintillating rods as opposed to drift tubes. The rods are arrayed in alternating layers to provide a coordinate scheme. Preliminary testing and measurements are currently being performed to test and enhance the performance of the scintillating rods, in both a laboratory and a shallow underground facility. The simulation predictions and data from the experiments will be presented.

  3. Information extraction from muon radiography data

    SciTech Connect

    Borozdin, K. N.; Asaki, T. J.; Chartrand, R.; Hengartner, N. W.; Hogan, G. E.; Morris, C. L.; Priedhorsky, W. C.; Schirato, R.C.; Schultz, L. J.; Sottile, M. J.; Vixie, K. R.; Wohlberg, B. E.; Blanpied, G.

    2004-01-01

    Scattering muon radiography was proposed recently as a technique of detection and 3-d imaging for dense high-Z objects. High-energy cosmic ray muons are deflected in matter in the process of multiple Coulomb scattering. By measuring the deflection angles we are able to reconstruct the configuration of high-Z material in the object. We discuss the methods for information extraction from muon radiography data. Tomographic methods widely used in medical images have been applied to a specific muon radiography information source. Alternative simple technique based on the counting of high-scattered muons in the voxels seems to be efficient in many simulated scenes. SVM-based classifiers and clustering algorithms may allow detection of compact high-Z object without full image reconstruction. The efficiency of muon radiography can be increased using additional informational sources, such as momentum estimation, stopping power measurement, and detection of muonic atom emission.

  4. Imaging the Subsurface with Upgoing Muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonal, N.; Preston, L. A.; Schwellenbach, D.; Dreesen, W.; Green, A.

    2014-12-01

    We assess the feasibility of imaging the subsurface using upgoing muons. Traditional muon imaging focuses on more-prevalent downgoing muons. Muons are subatomic particles capable of penetrating the earth's crust several kilometers. Downgoing muons have been used to image the Pyramid of Khafre of Giza, various volcanoes, and smaller targets like cargo. Unfortunately, utilizing downgoing muons requires below-target detectors. For aboveground objects like a volcano, the detector is placed at the volcano's base and the top portion of the volcano is imaged. For underground targets like tunnels, the detector would have to be placed below the tunnel in a deeper tunnel or adjacent borehole, which can be costly and impractical for some locations. Additionally, detecting and characterizing subsurface features like voids from tunnels can be difficult. Typical characterization methods like sonar, seismic, and ground penetrating radar have shown mixed success. Voids have a marked density contrast with surrounding materials, so using methods sensitive to density variations would be ideal. High-energy cosmic ray muons are more sensitive to density variation than other phenomena, including gravity. Their absorption rate depends on the density of the materials through which they pass. Measurements of muon flux rate at differing directions provide density variations of the materials between the muon source (cosmic rays and neutrino interactions) and detector, much like a CAT scan. Currently, tomography using downgoing muons can resolve features to the sub-meter scale. We present results of exploratory work, which demonstrates that upgoing muon fluxes appear sufficient to achieve target detection within a few months. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  5. Search for muon neutrinos from gamma-ray bursts with the ANTARES neutrino telescope using 2008 to 2011 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Albert, A.; Samarai, I. Al; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Marti, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Bogazzi, C.; Bouhou, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Cârloganu, C.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charif, Z.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Classen, F.; Coniglione, R.; Core, L.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Curtil, C.; De Bonis, G.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Dumas, A.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Fehn, K.; Fermani, P.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fusco, L. A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giacomelli, G.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; James, C. W.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lambard, E.; Lambard, G.; Larosa, G.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Martini, S.; Michael, T.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Müller, C.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richter, R.; Rivière, C.; Robert, A.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sanguineti, M.; Schmid, J.; Schnabel, J.; Schulte, S.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Shanidze, R.; Sieger, C.; Simeone, F.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tayalati, Y.; Trovato, A.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vernin, P.; Visser, E.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Yatkin, K.; Yepes, H.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.; Baerwald, P.

    2013-11-01

    Aims: We search for muon neutrinos in coincidence with GRBs with the ANTARES neutrino detector using data from the end of 2007 to 2011. Methods: Expected neutrino fluxes were calculated for each burst individually. The most recent numerical calculations of the spectra using the NeuCosmA code were employed, which include Monte Carlo simulations of the full underlying photohadronic interaction processes. The discovery probability for a selection of 296 GRBs in the given period was optimised using an extended maximum-likelihood strategy. Results: No significant excess over background is found in the data, and 90% confidence level upper limits are placed on the total expected flux according to the model. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgFull Table 2 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/559/A9

  6. Muons in gamma showers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanev, T.; Vankov, C. P.; Halzen, F.

    1985-01-01

    Muon production in gamma-induced air showers, accounting for all major processes. For muon energies in the GeV region the photoproduction is by far the most important process, while the contribution of micron + micron pair creation is not negligible for TeV muons. The total rate of muons in gamma showers is, however, very low.

  7. Atmospheric muons and neutrinos, and the neutrino-induced muon flux underground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liland, A.

    1985-01-01

    The diffusion equation for neutrino-induced cosmic ray muons underground was solved. The neutrino-induced muon flux and charge ratio underground have been calculated. The calculated horizontal neutrino-induced muon flux in the energy range 0.1 - 10000 GeV is in agreement with the measured horizontal flux. The calculated vertical flux above 2 GeV is in agreement with the measured vertical flux. The average charge ratio of neutrino-induced muons underground was found to be mu+/mu- = 0.40.

  8. On the record of galactic cosmic ray flux and traffic break-ups in iron meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regnier, S.; Lavielle, B.; Marti, K.; Simonoff, G. N.

    1984-01-01

    Iron meteorites contain the record of the galactic cosmic ray intensity over a 100 to 1000 Myr time scale. A method was developed to calculate the cosmic ray exposure ages of iron meteorites. Discrepanices between exposure ages are discussed.

  9. SOLAR CYCLE DEPENDENCE OF THE DIURNAL ANISOTROPY OF 0.6 TeV COSMIC-RAY INTENSITY OBSERVED WITH THE MATSUSHIRO UNDERGROUND MUON DETECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Munakata, K.; Mizoguchi, Y.; Kato, C.; Yasue, S.; Mori, S.; Takita, M.; Kota, J.

    2010-04-01

    We analyze the temporal variation of the diurnal anisotropy of sub-TeV cosmic-ray intensity observed with the Matsushiro (Japan) underground muon detector over two full solar activity cycles in 1985-2008. We find an anisotropy component in the solar diurnal anisotropy superimposed on the Compton-Getting anisotropy due to Earth's orbital motion around the Sun. The phase of this additional anisotropy is almost constant at {approx}15:00 local solar time corresponding to the direction perpendicular to the average interplanetary magnetic field at Earth's orbit, while the amplitude varies between a maximum (0.043% +- 0.002%) and minimum ({approx}0.008% +- 0.002%) in a clear correlation with the solar activity. We find a significant time lag between the temporal variations of the amplitude and the sunspot number (SSN) and obtain the best correlation coefficient of +0.74 with the SSN delayed for 26 months. We suggest that this anisotropy might be interpreted in terms of the energy change due to the solar-wind-induced electric field expected for galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) crossing the wavy neutral sheet. The average amplitude of the sidereal diurnal variation over the entire period is 0.034% +- 0.003%, which is roughly one-third of the amplitude reported from air shower and deep-underground muon experiments monitoring multi-TeV GCR intensity suggesting a significant attenuation of the anisotropy due to the solar modulation. We find, on the other hand, only a weak positive correlation between the sidereal diurnal anisotropy and the solar activity cycle in which the amplitude in the 'active' solar activity epoch is about twice the amplitude in the 'quiet' solar activity epoch. This implies that only one-fourth of the total attenuation varies in correlation with the solar activity cycle and/or the solar magnetic cycle. We finally examine the temporal variation of the 'single-band valley depth' (SBVD) quoted by the Milagro experiment and, in contrast with recent Milagro

  10. Development of a Portable Muon Witness System

    SciTech Connect

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Kouzes, Richard T.; Orrell, John L.

    2011-01-01

    Since understanding and quantifying cosmic ray induced radioactive backgrounds in copper and germanium are important to the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, methods are needed for monitoring the levels of such backgrounds produced in materials being transported and processed for the experiment. This report focuses on work conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to develop a muon witness system as a one way of monitoring induced activities. The operational goal of this apparatus is to characterize cosmic ray exposure of materials. The cosmic ray flux at the Earth’s surface is composed of several types of particles, including neutrons, muons, gamma rays and protons. These particles induce nuclear reactions, generating isotopes that contribute to the radiological background. Underground, the main mechanism of activation is by muon produced spallation neutrons since the hadron component of cosmic rays is removed at depths greater than a few tens of meters. This is a sub-dominant contributor above ground, but muons become predominant in underground experiments. For low-background experiments cosmogenic production of certain isotopes, such as 68Ge and 60Co, must be accounted for in the background budgets. Muons act as minimum ionizing particles, depositing a fixed amount of energy per unit length in a material, and have a very high penetrating power. Using muon flux measurements as a “witness” for the hadron flux, the cosmogenic induced activity can be quantified by correlating the measured muon flux and known hadronic production rates. A publicly available coincident muon cosmic ray detector design, the Berkeley Lab Cosmic Ray Detector (BLCRD), assembled by Juniata College, is evaluated in this work. The performance of the prototype is characterized by assessing its muon flux measurements. This evaluation is done by comparing data taken in identical scenarios with other cosmic ray telescopes. The prototype is made of two plastic scintillator paddles with

  11. A method for detection of muon induced electromagnetic showers with the ANTARES detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, J. A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Assis Jesus, A. C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J. J.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigi, A.; Bigongiari, C.; Bogazzi, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouhou, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Cârloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charif, Z.; Charvis, P.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ernenwein, J. P.; Escoffier, S.; Fermani, P.; Ferri, M.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J. L.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giordano, V.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartman, J.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; Hsu, C. C.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lefèvre, D.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J. A.; Meli, A.; Montaruli, T.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Reed, C.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Rivière, C.; Robert, A.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Ruiz-Rivas, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Sapienza, P.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J. P.; Schüssler, F.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Wijnker, G.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2012-05-01

    The primary aim of ANTARES is neutrino astronomy with upward going muons created in charged current muon neutrino interactions in the detector and its surroundings. Downward going muons are background for neutrino searches. These muons are the decay products of cosmic-ray collisions in the Earth's atmosphere far above the detector. This paper presents a method to identify and count electromagnetic showers induced along atmospheric muon tracks with the ANTARES detector. The method is applied to both cosmic muon data and simulations and its applicability to the reconstruction of muon event energies is demonstrated.

  12. CMS muon detector and trigger performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccolo, Davide; CMS Collaboration

    2011-02-01

    In the CMS experiment at the LHC proton-proton collider, a key role will be played by the muon system that is embedded inside the iron yoke used to close the magnetic flux of the CMS solenoid. The muon system of the CMS experiment performs three main tasks: triggering of muons, identifying muons, and assisting the central tracker in order to measure the momentum and charge of high-pt muons in the pseudorapidity region |η|≤2.4. The system is composed by a central barrel and two closing endcaps. Three independent technologies are used to reconstruct and trigger muons: Drift Tubes (DT) in the barrel, Cathode Strips Chambers (CSC) in the endcaps and Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) in both barrel and endcap regions. All the detectors will contribute to the tracking and triggering of muons. Towards the end of 2008 and in 2009 the CMS experiment was commissioned with many millions of cosmic rays. These data have been fundamental to check the performance of the three sub-detectors and of the trigger response. In this paper the results in terms of the detection and trigger performance at the level of each sub-detector and at the level of the full muon system will be reported.

  13. Imaging Fukushima Daiichi reactors with muons

    SciTech Connect

    Miyadera, Haruo; Borozdin, Konstantin N.; Greene, Steve J.; Milner, Edward C.; Morris, Christopher L.; Lukic, Zarija; Masuda, Koji; Perry, John O.

    2013-05-15

    A study of imaging the Fukushima Daiichi reactors with cosmic-ray muons to assess the damage to the reactors is presented. Muon scattering imaging has high sensitivity for detecting uranium fuel and debris even through thick concrete walls and a reactor pressure vessel. Technical demonstrations using a reactor mockup, detector radiation test at Fukushima Daiichi, and simulation studies have been carried out. These studies establish feasibility for the reactor imaging. A few months of measurement will reveal the spatial distribution of the reactor fuel. The muon scattering technique would be the best and probably the only way for Fukushima Daiichi to make this determination in the near future.

  14. Imaging Fukushima Daiichi reactors with muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyadera, Haruo; Borozdin, Konstantin N.; Greene, Steve J.; Lukić, Zarija; Masuda, Koji; Milner, Edward C.; Morris, Christopher L.; Perry, John O.

    2013-05-01

    A study of imaging the Fukushima Daiichi reactors with cosmic-ray muons to assess the damage to the reactors is presented. Muon scattering imaging has high sensitivity for detecting uranium fuel and debris even through thick concrete walls and a reactor pressure vessel. Technical demonstrations using a reactor mockup, detector radiation test at Fukushima Daiichi, and simulation studies have been carried out. These studies establish feasibility for the reactor imaging. A few months of measurement will reveal the spatial distribution of the reactor fuel. The muon scattering technique would be the best and probably the only way for Fukushima Daiichi to make this determination in the near future.

  15. The longitudinal development of muons in cosmic ray air showers at energies 10(15) - 10(17) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between longitudinal development of muons and conventional equi-intensity cuts is carefully investigated. The development of muons in Extensive Air Showers (EAS) has been calculated using simulation with a scaling violation model at the highest energies and mixed primary composition. Profiles of equi-intensity cuts expected at observation altitudes of 550, 690 and 930/sq cm can fit the observed data very well.

  16. Cosmic-ray record in solar system matter

    SciTech Connect

    Reedy, R.C.; Arnold, J.R.; Lal, D.

    1983-01-14

    The energetic nuclei in cosmic rays interact with meteoroids, the moon, planets, and other solar system matter. The nucleides and heavy nuclei tracks produced by the cosmic-ray particles in these targets contain a wealth of information about the history of the objects and temporal ans spatial variations in the particle fluxes. Most lunar samples and many meteorites ahve complex histories of cosmic-ray exposure from erosion, gardening, fragmentation, orbital changes, and other processes. There appear to be variations in the past fluxes of solar particles, and possibly also galactic cosmic rays, on time scales of 10/sup 4/ to 10/sup 7/ years.

  17. Muons in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory: Mean number in highly inclined events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Aranda, V. M.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fujii, T.; Gaior, R.; García, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; González, N.; Gookin, B.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Islo, K.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Mallamaci, M.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J. J.; Matthews, A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Newton, D.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrov, Y.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Tepe, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zuccarello, F.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    We present the first hybrid measurement of the average muon number in air showers at ultrahigh energies, initiated by cosmic rays with zenith angles between 62° and 80°. The measurement is based on 174 hybrid events recorded simultaneously with the surface detector array and the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The muon number for each shower is derived by scaling a simulated reference profile of the lateral muon density distribution at the ground until it fits the data. A 1019 eV shower with a zenith angle of 67°, which arrives at the surface detector array at an altitude of 1450 m above sea level, contains on average (2.68 ±0.04 ±0.48 (sys))×107 muons with energies larger than 0.3 GeV. The logarithmic gain d ln Nμ/d ln E of muons with increasing energy between 4 ×1018 eV and 5 ×1019 eV is measured to be (1.029 ±0.024 ±0.030 (sys)) .

  18. Muons in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory: Mean number in highly inclined events

    DOE PAGES

    Aab, Alexander

    2015-03-09

    We present the first hybrid measurement of the average muon number in air showers at ultra-high energies, initiated by cosmic rays with zenith angles between 62° and 80° . Our measurement is based on 174 hybrid events recorded simultaneously with the Surface Detector array and the Fluorescence Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The muon number for each shower is derived by scaling a simulated reference profile of the lateral muon density distribution at the ground until it fits the data. A 1019 eV shower with a zenith angle of 67°, which arrives at the Surface Detector array at anmore » altitude of 1450 m above sea level, contains on average (2.68 ± 0.04 ± 0.48 (sys.)) × 107 muons with energies larger than 0.3 GeV. Finally, the logarithmic gain d ln Nµ/d ln E of muons with increasing energy between 4 × 1018 eV and 5 × 1019 eV is measured to be (1.029 ± 0.024 ± 0.030 (sys.)).« less

  19. Muons in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory: Mean number in highly inclined events

    SciTech Connect

    Aab, Alexander

    2015-03-09

    We present the first hybrid measurement of the average muon number in air showers at ultra-high energies, initiated by cosmic rays with zenith angles between 62° and 80° . Our measurement is based on 174 hybrid events recorded simultaneously with the Surface Detector array and the Fluorescence Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The muon number for each shower is derived by scaling a simulated reference profile of the lateral muon density distribution at the ground until it fits the data. A 1019 eV shower with a zenith angle of 67°, which arrives at the Surface Detector array at an altitude of 1450 m above sea level, contains on average (2.68 ± 0.04 ± 0.48 (sys.)) × 107 muons with energies larger than 0.3 GeV. Finally, the logarithmic gain d ln Nµ/d ln E of muons with increasing energy between 4 × 1018 eV and 5 × 1019 eV is measured to be (1.029 ± 0.024 ± 0.030 (sys.)).

  20. Muon Catalyzed Fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armour, Edward A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Muon catalyzed fusion is a process in which a negatively charged muon combines with two nuclei of isotopes of hydrogen, e.g, a proton and a deuteron or a deuteron and a triton, to form a muonic molecular ion in which the binding is so tight that nuclear fusion occurs. The muon is normally released after fusion has taken place and so can catalyze further fusions. As the muon has a mean lifetime of 2.2 microseconds, this is the maximum period over which a muon can participate in this process. This article gives an outline of the history of muon catalyzed fusion from 1947, when it was first realised that such a process might occur, to the present day. It includes a description of the contribution that Drachrnan has made to the theory of muon catalyzed fusion and the influence this has had on the author's research.

  1. SNM detection by active muon interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Jason, Andrew J; Miyadera, Haruo; Turchi, Peter J

    2010-01-01

    Muons are charged particles with mass between the electron and proton and can be produced indirectly through pion decay by interaction of a charged-particle beam with a target. There are several distinct features of the muon interaction with matter attractive as a probe for detection of SNM at moderate ranges. These include muon penetration of virtually any amount of material without significant nuclear interaction until stopped by ionization loss in a short distance. When stopped, high-energy penetrating x-rays (in the range of 6 MeV for uranium,) unique to isotopic composition are emitted in the capture process. The subsequent interaction with the nucleus produces additional radiation useful in assessing SNM presence. A focused muon beam can be transported through the atmosphere, at a range limited mainly by beam-size growth through scattering. A muonbeam intensity of > 10{sup 9} /second is required for efficient interrogation and, as in any other technique, dose limits are to be respected. To produce sufficient muons a high-energy (threshold {approx}140 MeV) high-intensity (<1 mA) proton or electron beam is needed implying the use of a linear accelerator to bombard a refractory target. The muon yield is fractionally small, with large angle and energy dispersion, so that efficient collection is necessary in all dimensions of phase space. To accomplish this Los Alamos has proposed a magnetic collection system followed by a unique linear accelerator that provides the requisite phase-space bunching and allows an energy sweep to successively stop muons throughout a large structure such as a sea-going vessel. A possible maritime application would entail fitting the high-gradient accelerators on a large ship with a helicopter-borne detection system. We will describe our experimental results for muon effects and particle collection along with our current design and program for a muon detection system.

  2. Catching Cosmic Rays with a DSLR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibbernsen, Kendra

    2010-01-01

    Cosmic rays are high-energy particles from outer space that continually strike the Earth's atmosphere and produce cascades of secondary particles, which reach the surface of the Earth, mainly in the form of muons. These particles can be detected with scintillator detectors, Geiger counters, cloud chambers, and also can be recorded with commonly…

  3. Joint Tomographic Imaging of 3-­-D Density Structure Using Cosmic Ray Muons and High-­-Precision Gravity Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, C. A.; Guardincerri, E.; Roy, M.; Dichter, M.

    2015-12-01

    As part of the CO2 reservoir muon imaging project headed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboraory (PNNL) under the U.S. Department of Energy Subsurface Technology and Engineering Research, Development, and Demonstration (SubTER) iniative, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the University of New Mexico (UNM) plan to leverage the recently decommissioned and easily accessible Tunnel Vault on LANL property to test the complementary modeling strengths of muon radiography and high-precision gravity surveys. This tunnel extends roughly 300 feet into the hillside, with a maximum depth below the surface of approximately 300 feet. We will deploy LANL's Mini Muon Tracker (MMT), a detector consisting of 576 drift tubes arranged in alternating parallel planes of orthogonally oriented tubes. This detector is capable of precise determination of trajectories for incoming muons with angular resolution of a few milliradians. We will deploy the MMT at several locations within the tunnel, to obtain numerous crossing muon trajectories and permit a 3D tomographic image of the overburden to be built. In the same project, UNM will use a Scintrex digital gravimeter to collect high-precision gravity data from a dense grid on the hill slope above the tunnel as well as within the tunnel itself. This will provide both direct and differential gravity readings for density modeling of the overburden. By leveraging detailed geologic knowledge of the canyon and the lithology overlying the tunnel, as well as the structural elements, elevations and blueprints of the tunnel itself, we will evaluate the muon and gravity data both independently and in a simultaneous, joint inversion to build a combined 3D density model of the overburden.

  4. Installation for the study of the angular distribution of cosmic muons with super-high energies at large zenith angles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borog, V. V.; Kirillov-Ugryumov, V. G.; Petrukhin, A. A.; Shestakov, V. V.

    1975-01-01

    An installation consisting of an ionization calorimeter and a counter hodoscope can be used to record cascade showers caused by the electromagnetic interactions of muons with superhigh energies in the cosmic ray horizontal flux. The direction of the muons is determined by a hodoscope consisting of 2196 counters. The information obtained makes it possible to restore the angular and energy distribution of the cosmic muons, which, in turn, makes it possible to determine the mechanism of their generation. The accuracy with which the angle of the passing particle is determined is discussed in detail in addition to the causes which can introduce distortions, such as shower accompaniment of neutrons, escape of shower electrons from the calorimeter, random coincidences, etc.

  5. Imaging a vertical shaft from a tunnel using muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonal, N.; Preston, L. A.; Dorsey, D. J.; Schwellenbach, D.; Green, A.; Smalley, D.

    2015-12-01

    We use muon technology to image a vertical shaft from a tunnel. The density of the materials through which cosmic ray muons pass influences the flux of muons because muons are more attenuated by higher density material. Additionally, muons can travel several kilometers allowing measurements through deep rock. Density maps are generated from muon flux measurements to locate subsurface features like tunnel structures and ore bodies. Additionally, muon data can be jointly inverted with other data such as gravity and seismic to produce higher quality earth models than produced from a single method. We collected several weeks of data in a tunnel to image a vertical shaft. The minimum length of rock between the vertical shaft and the detector is 120 meters and the diameter of the vertical shaft is 4.6 meters. The rock the muons traveled through consists of Tertiary age volcanic tuff and steeply dipping, small-displacement faults. Results will be presented for muon flux in the tunnel and Monte-Carlo simulations of this experiment. Simulations from both GEANT4 (Geometry And Tracking version 4) and MCNP6 (Monte-Carlo N-Particle version 6) models will be compared. The tunnel overburden from muon measurements is also estimated and compared with actual the overburden. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  6. The response of the EAS muon component in the GAMMA installation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zazyan, M. Z.; Garyaka, A. P.; Martirosov, R. M.; Procureur, J.

    2001-04-01

    The response of the EAS muon component is studied by the detector simulation program ARES developed for the GAMMA experiment on Mt. Aragats (ANI Cosmic Ray Observatory, Armenia). Comparisons of experimental data with predictions of detector response simulations on the muon lateral distribution and the distribution of the muon size are presented.

  7. Muon cooling: longitudinal compression.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yu; Antognini, Aldo; Bertl, Wilhelm; Hildebrandt, Malte; Khaw, Kim Siang; Kirch, Klaus; Papa, Angela; Petitjean, Claude; Piegsa, Florian M; Ritt, Stefan; Sedlak, Kamil; Stoykov, Alexey; Taqqu, David

    2014-06-01

    A 10  MeV/c positive muon beam was stopped in helium gas of a few mbar in a magnetic field of 5 T. The muon "swarm" has been efficiently compressed from a length of 16 cm down to a few mm along the magnetic field axis (longitudinal compression) using electrostatic fields. The simulation reproduces the low energy interactions of slow muons in helium gas. Phase space compression occurs on the order of microseconds, compatible with the muon lifetime of 2  μs. This paves the way for the preparation of a high-quality low-energy muon beam, with an increase in phase space density relative to a standard surface muon beam of 10^{7}. The achievable phase space compression by using only the longitudinal stage presented here is of the order of 10^{4}.

  8. Muon Cooling: Longitudinal Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Yu; Antognini, Aldo; Bertl, Wilhelm; Hildebrandt, Malte; Khaw, Kim Siang; Kirch, Klaus; Papa, Angela; Petitjean, Claude; Piegsa, Florian M.; Ritt, Stefan; Sedlak, Kamil; Stoykov, Alexey; Taqqu, David

    2014-06-01

    A 10 MeV/c positive muon beam was stopped in helium gas of a few mbar in a magnetic field of 5 T. The muon "swarm" has been efficiently compressed from a length of 16 cm down to a few mm along the magnetic field axis (longitudinal compression) using electrostatic fields. The simulation reproduces the low energy interactions of slow muons in helium gas. Phase space compression occurs on the order of microseconds, compatible with the muon lifetime of 2 μs. This paves the way for the preparation of a high-quality low-energy muon beam, with an increase in phase space density relative to a standard surface muon beam of 107. The achievable phase space compression by using only the longitudinal stage presented here is of the order of 104.

  9. Application of emulsion imaging system for cosmic-ray muon radiography to explore the internal structure of Teide and Cumbre Vieja volcanoes in the Canary Islands, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez Perez, P. A.; Tanaka, H.; Miyamoto, S.; Perez, N.; Barrancos, J.; Padron, E.; Hernandez, I.

    2012-12-01

    The internal structure of volcanoes, especially in their up per part, is product of past eruptions. Therefore, the knowledge of the internal structure of a volcano is of great importance for understanding its behaviour and to forecast the nature and style of the next eruptions. For these reasons, during past years scientists have made a big effort to investigate the internal structure of the volcanoes with different geophysical techniques, including deep drilling, passive and active seismic tomography, geoelectrics and magnetotellurics and gravimetry. One of the limits of conventional geophysical methods is the spatial resolution, which typically ranges between some tens of meters up to 1 km. In this sense, the radiography of active volcanoes based on natural muons, even if limited to the external part of the volcano, represents an important tool for investigating the internal structure of a volcano at higher spatial resolution (Macedonio and Martini, 2009). Moreover, muon radiography is able to resolve density contrasts of the order of 1-3%, significantly greater than the resolution obtained with conventional methods. As example, the experiment of muon radiography carried out at Mt. Asama volcano by Tanaka et al., 2007, allowed the reconstruction of the density map of the cone and detection of a dense region that corresponds to the position and shape of a lava deposit created during the last eruption in 2004. In the framework of a research project financed by the Canary Agency of Research, Innovation and Information Society, we will implement muon measurements at Teide volcano in Tenerife Island and Cumbre Vieja volcano in La Palma Island, Canary Islands, to radiographically image the subsurface structure of these two volcanic edifices. The data analysis will involve the study both of the shallow structure of both volcanoes and of the requirements for the implementation of the muon detectors. Both Cumbre Vieja and Teide are two active volcanoes that arouse great

  10. Application of emulsion imaging system for cosmic-ray muon radiography to explore the internal structure of Teide and Cumbre Vieja volcanoes in the Canary Islands, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Iñigo; Hernández, Pedro; Pérez, Nemesio; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Miyamoto, Seygo; Barrancos, José; Padrón, Eleazar

    2013-04-01

    The internal structure of volcanoes, especially in their up per part, is product of past eruptions. Therefore, the knowledge of the internal structure of a volcano is of great importance for understanding its behaviour and to forecast the nature and style of the next eruptions. For these reasons, during past years scientists have made a big effort to investigate the internal structure of the volcanoes with different geophysical techniques, including deep drilling, passive and active seismic tomography, geoelectrics and magnetotellurics and gravimetry. One of the limits of conventional geophysical methods is the spatial resolution, which typically ranges between some tens of meters up to 1 km. In this sense, the radiography of active volcanoes based on natural muons, even if limited to the external part of the volcano, represents an important tool for investigating the internal structure of a volcano at higher spatial resolution (Macedonio and Martini, 2009). Moreover, muon radiography is able to resolve density contrasts of the order of 1-3%, significantly greater than the resolution obtained with conventional methods. As example, the experiment of muon radiography carried out at Mt. Asama volcano by Tanaka et al., 2007, allowed the reconstruction of the density map of the cone and detection of a dense region that corresponds to the position and shape of a lava deposit created during the last eruption in 2004. In the framework of a research project financed by the Canary Agency of Research, Innovation and Information Society, we will implement muon measurements at Teide volcano in Tenerife Island and Cumbre Vieja volcano in La Palma Island, Canary Islands, to radiographically image the subsurface structure of these two volcanic edifices. The data analysis will involve the study both of the shallow structure of both volcanoes and of the requirements for the implementation of the muon detectors. Both Cumbre Vieja and Teide are two active volcanoes that arouse great

  11. Multiple muons of conventional and exotic origin in DUMAND

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grieder, K. F.

    1985-01-01

    A first summary of results from a theoretical analysis, based on hadron - muon cascade calculations, that yield relative intensities of very high energy multiple muons originating from ultra high energy interactions initiated by primary protons and iron nuclei in the atmosphere, under consideration of normal as well as direct and exotic production channels is presented. Lateral density distributions and target diagrams will be presented which show that only very large detectors, such as DUMAND, will be able to record multiple muons of conventional origin reliably. This, however, is a prerequisite for any primary mass determination based on multiple muon data.

  12. Silicon meets cyclotron: muon spin resonance of organosilicon radicals.

    PubMed

    West, Robert; Samedov, Kerim; Percival, Paul W

    2014-07-21

    Muons, generated at a high-powered cyclotron, can capture electrons to form muonium atoms. Muon spin resonance spectra can be recorded for organosilyl radicals obtained by addition of muonium atoms to silylenes and silenes. We present a brief summary of progress in this new area since the first such experiments were reported in 2008.

  13. Local anisotropy of muon flux - The basis of the method of muon diagnostics of extra-terrestrial space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astapov, I. I.; Barbashina, N. S.; Dmitrieva, A. N.; Kokoulin, R. P.; Petrukhin, A. A.; Shutenko, V. V.; Yakovleva, E. I.; Yashin, I. I.

    2015-12-01

    A new method for the analysis of spatial and angular characteristics of the cosmic ray muon flux registered in the hodoscopic mode using a single setup - the muon hodoscope - is presented. Various parameters of the muon flux anisotropy and methods of calculation of these parameters are discussed. It is shown that the horizontal projection of the muon flux relative anisotropy vector which characterizes lateral (horizontal) displacement of the muon flux angular distribution is the sensitive parameter to a variety of nonstationary processes in the heliosphere. The experimental data on the variation of the muon flux anisotropy during the passage of various irregularities in the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field in the Earth's vicinity are presented.

  14. Noise reduction in muon tomography for detecting high density objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benettoni, M.; Bettella, G.; Bonomi, G.; Calvagno, G.; Calvini, P.; Checchia, P.; Cortelazzo, G.; Cossutta, L.; Donzella, A.; Furlan, M.; Gonella, F.; Pegoraro, M.; Rigoni Garola, A.; Ronchese, P.; Squarcia, S.; Subieta, M.; Vanini, S.; Viesti, G.; Zanuttigh, P.; Zenoni, A.; Zumerle, G.

    2013-12-01

    The muon tomography technique, based on multiple Coulomb scattering of cosmic ray muons, has been proposed as a tool to detect the presence of high density objects inside closed volumes. In this paper a new and innovative method is presented to handle the density fluctuations (noise) of reconstructed images, a well known problem of this technique. The effectiveness of our method is evaluated using experimental data obtained with a muon tomography prototype located at the Legnaro National Laboratories (LNL) of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN). The results reported in this paper, obtained with real cosmic ray data, show that with appropriate image filtering and muon momentum classification, the muon tomography technique can detect high density materials, such as lead, albeit surrounded by light or medium density material, in short times. A comparison with algorithms published in literature is also presented.

  15. Telecommunication using muon beams

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Richard C.

    1976-01-01

    Telecommunication is effected by generating a beam of mu mesons or muons, varying a property of the beam at a modulating rate to generate a modulated beam of muons, and detecting the information in the modulated beam at a remote location.

  16. Measurement of the muon content in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veberič, Darko

    2016-07-01

    The muon content of extensive air showers produced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays is an observable sensitive to the composition of primary particles and to the properties of hadronic interactions governing the evolution of air-shower cascades. We present different methods for estimation of the number of muons at the ground and the muon production depth. These methods use measurements of the longitudinal, lateral, and temporal distribution of particles in air showers recorded by the detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The results, obtained at about 140 TeV center-of-mass energy for proton primaries, are compared to the predictions of LHC-tuned hadronic-interaction models used in simulations with different primary masses. The models exhibit a deficitin the predicted muon content. The combination of these results with other independent mass composition analyses, such as those involving the depth of shower maximum observablemax, provide additional constraints on hadronic-interaction models for energies beyond the reach of the LHC.

  17. Observation of thermomagnetically recorded domains with high-resolution magnetic soft x-ray microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunashima, S.; Takagi, Nayuki; Yamaguchi, Atushi; Kume, Minoru; Fischer, P.; Kumazawa, M.

    2003-04-01

    Magnetic domains were thermomagnetically recorded on TbFeCo films using laser pulsed magnetic field modulation (LP-MFM) and light intensity modulation (LIM). The domains were observed with high resolution magnetic transmission X-ray microscopy (M-TXM) before and after the heat treatment in order to clarify the recording characteristics and the thermal stability of recorded domains. From the results of M-TXM images, it was found that isolated single marks whose lengths are much smaller than 100 nm can be recorded by LP-MFM but their mark lengths become often longer than designed. It was further confirmed that the heat treatment at 120 degree C for 50 hours does not influence significantly the crescent-shaped magnetic domains of 100 nm in width recorded using LP-MFM method and circular domains of 150 nm in diameter recorded using LIM method.

  18. Muon Collider Progress: Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2011-09-10

    A muon collider would be a powerful tool for exploring the energy-frontier with leptons, and would complement the studies now under way at the LHC. Such a device would offer several important benefits. Muons, like electrons, are point particles so the full center-of-mass energy is available for particle production. Moreover, on account of their higher mass, muons give rise to very little synchrotron radiation and produce very little beamstrahlung. The first feature permits the use of a circular collider that can make efficient use of the expensive rf system and whose footprint is compatible with an existing laboratory site. The second feature leads to a relatively narrow energy spread at the collision point. Designing an accelerator complex for a muon collider is a challenging task. Firstly, the muons are produced as a tertiary beam, so a high-power proton beam and a target that can withstand it are needed to provide the required luminosity of ~1 × 10{sup 34} cm{sup –2}s{sup –1}. Secondly, the beam is initially produced with a large 6D phase space, which necessitates a scheme for reducing the muon beam emittance (“cooling”). Finally, the muon has a short lifetime so all beam manipulations must be done very rapidly. The Muon Accelerator Program, led by Fermilab and including a number of U.S. national laboratories and universities, has undertaken design and R&D activities aimed toward the eventual construction of a muon collider. Design features of such a facility and the supporting R&D program are described.

  19. The Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S

    2010-05-17

    We describe the scientific motivation for a new type of accelerator, the muon collider. This accelerator would permit an energy-frontier scientific program and yet would fit on the site of an existing laboratory. Such a device is quite challenging, and requires a substantial R&D program. After describing the ingredients of the facility, the ongoing R&D activities of the Muon Accelerator Program are discussed. A possible U.S. scenario that could lead to a muon collider at Fermilab is briefly mentioned.

  20. The Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2011-01-05

    We describe the scientific motivation for a new type of accelerator, the muon collider. This accelerator would permit an energy-frontier scientific program and yet would fit on the site of an existing laboratory. Such a device is quite challenging, and requires a substantial R&D program. After describing the ingredients of the facility, the ongoing R&D activities of the Muon Accelerator Program are discussed. A possible U.S. scenario that could lead to a muon collider at Fermilab is briefly mentioned.

  1. Muons and neutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanev, T.

    1986-01-01

    The first generation of large and precise detectors, some initially dedicated to search for nucleon decay has accumulated significant statistics on neutrinos and high-energy muons. A second generation of even better and bigger detectors are already in operation or in advanced construction stage. The present set of experimental data on muon groups and neutrinos is qualitatively better than several years ago and the expectations for the following years are high. Composition studies with underground muon groups, neutrino detection, and expected extraterrestrial neutrino fluxes are discussed.

  2. Muon Tracking to Detect Special Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Schwellenbach, D.; Dreesen, W.; Green, J. A.; Tibbitts, A.; Schotik, G.; Borozdin, K.; Bacon, J.; Midera, H.; Milner, C.; Morris, C.; Perry, J.; Barrett, S.; Perry, K.; Scott, A.; Wright, C.; Aberle, D.

    2013-03-18

    Previous experiments have proven that nuclear assemblies can be imaged and identified inside of shipping containers using vertical trajectory cosmic-ray muons with two-sided imaging. These experiments have further demonstrated that nuclear assemblies can be identified by detecting fission products in coincidence with tracked muons. By developing these technologies, advanced sensors can be designed for a variety of warhead monitoring and detection applications. The focus of this project is to develop tomographic-mode imaging using near-horizontal trajectory muons in conjunction with secondary particle detectors. This will allow imaging in-situ without the need to relocate the objects and will enable differentiation of special nuclear material (SNM) from other high-Z materials.

  3. Muon trackers for imaging a nuclear reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kume, N.; Miyadera, H.; Morris, C. L.; Bacon, J.; Borozdin, K. N.; Durham, J. M.; Fuzita, K.; Guardincerri, E.; Izumi, M.; Nakayama, K.; Saltus, M.; Sugita, T.; Takakura, K.; Yoshioka, K.

    2016-09-01

    A detector system for assessing damage to the cores of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear reactors by using cosmic-ray muon tomography was developed. The system consists of a pair of drift-tube tracking detectors of 7.2× 7.2-m2 area. Each muon tracker consists of 6 x-layer and 6 y-layer drift-tube detectors. Each tracker is capable of measuring muon tracks with 12 mrad angular resolutions, and is capable of operating under 50-μ Sv/h radiation environment by removing gamma induced background with a novel time-coincidence logic. An estimated resolution to observe nuclear fuel debris at Fukushima Daiichi is 0.3 m when the core is imaged from outside the reactor building.

  4. Measurements of the muon content of air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valiño, I.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2015-08-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory offers a unique window to study cosmic rays and particle physics at energies above 3 EeV (corresponding to a centre-of-mass energy of 75 TeV in proton-proton collisions) inaccessible to accelerator experiments. We discuss the different methods of estimating the number of muons in showers recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory, which is an observable sensitive to primary mass composition and to properties of the hadronic interactions in the shower. The muon content, derived from data with these methods, is presented and compared to predictions from the post-LHC hadronic interaction models for different primary composition. We find that models do not reproduce well the Auger observations, displaying a deficit of muons at the ground. In the light of these results, a better understanding of ultra-high energy extensive air showers and hadronic interactions is crucial to determine the composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. We report on the upgrade plans of the Pierre Auger Observatory to achieve this science goal.

  5. RECORD-SETTING COSMIC-RAY INTENSITIES IN 2009 AND 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Mewaldt, R. A.; Davis, A. J.; Leske, R. A.; Stone, E. C.; Cummings, A. C.; Labrador, A. W.; Lave, K. A.; Binns, W. R.; Israel, M. H.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.; Christian, E. R.; De Nolfo, G. A.; Von Rosenvinge, T. T.

    2010-11-01

    We report measurements of record-setting intensities of cosmic-ray nuclei from C to Fe, made with the Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer carried on the Advanced Composition Explorer in orbit about the inner Sun-Earth Lagrangian point. In the energy interval from {approx}70 to {approx}450 MeV nucleon{sup -1}, near the peak in the near-Earth cosmic-ray spectrum, the measured intensities of major species from C to Fe were each 20%-26% greater in late 2009 than in the 1997-1998 minimum and previous solar minima of the space age (1957-1997). The elevated intensities reported here and also at neutron monitor energies were undoubtedly due to several unusual aspects of the solar cycle 23/24 minimum, including record-low interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) intensities, an extended period of reduced IMF turbulence, reduced solar-wind dynamic pressure, and extremely low solar activity during an extended solar minimum. The estimated parallel diffusion coefficient for cosmic-ray transport based on measured solar-wind properties was 44% greater in 2009 than in the 1997-1998 solar-minimum period. In addition, the weaker IMF should result in higher cosmic-ray drift velocities. Cosmic-ray intensity variations at 1 AU are found to lag IMF variations by 2-3 solar rotations, indicating that significant solar modulation occurs inside {approx}20 AU, consistent with earlier galactic cosmic-ray radial-gradient measurements. In 2010, the intensities suddenly decreased to 1997 levels following increases in solar activity and in the inclination of the heliospheric current sheet. We describe the conditions that gave cosmic rays greater access to the inner solar system and discuss some of their implications.

  6. Observation of muons from Cygnus X-3 in the NUSEX experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piazzoli, B. D.

    1986-01-01

    Ground based observations by means of Cerenkov light detectors and air shower arrays have established that Cyngus X-3 is a powerful source of high energy particles. The detection of a 10 to the 15th power eV signal was first reported by the Kiel experiment. Air showers with large age parameter were accepted in order to select those generated by primary gamma rays. At variance with the expectation, the muon density associated with these events was found to be surprisingly high. This puzzling result stimulated a temporal analysis of the muons recorded in Nucleon Stability Experiment (NUSEX) coming from the region around the source. A positive signal was found suggesting the presentation of this result. The analysis of the data recorded during the 2.4 years of effective working time is presented with a fine tuning of the period and the energy spectrum of the muons from the Cygnus X-3 direction derived assuming consistency between NUSEX and SOUDAN results.

  7. Prototype Performance of Novel Muon Telescope Detector at STAR.

    SciTech Connect

    Ruan,L.

    2008-04-05

    Research on a large-area, cost-effective Muon Telescope Detector (MTD) has been carried out for RHIC and for next generation detectors at future QCD Lab. We utilize state-of-the-art multi-gap resistive plate chambers with large modules and long readout strips in detector design. The results from cosmic ray and beam test will be presented to address intrinsic timing and spatial resolution for a Long-MRPC. The prototype performance of a novel muon telescope detector at STAR will be reported, including muon identification capability, timing and spatial resolution.

  8. Prototype performance of novel muon telescope detector at STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Ruan,L.; Ames, V.

    2008-02-04

    Research on a large-area, cost-effective Muon Telescope Detector has been carried out for RHIC and for next generation detectors at future QCD Lab. We utilize state-of-the-art multi-gap resistive plate chambers with large modules and long readout strips in detector design [l]. The results from cosmic ray and beam test will be presented to address intrinsic timing and spatial resolution for a Long-MRF'C. The prototype performance of a novel muon telescope detector at STAR will be reported, including muon identification capability, timing and spatial resolution.

  9. Muon transfer from hot muonic hydrogen atoms to neon

    SciTech Connect

    Jacot-Guillarmod, R. . Inst. de Physique); Bailey, J.M. ); Beer, G.A.; Knowles, P.E.; Mason, G.R.; Olin, A. ); Beveridge, J.L.; Marshall, G.M.; Brewer, J.H.; Forster, B.M. ); Huber, T.M. ); Kammel, P.; Zmeskal, J.

    1992-01-01

    A negative muon beam has been directed on adjacent solid layers of hydrogen and neon. Three targets differing by their deuterium concentration were investigated. Muonic hydrogen atoms can drift to the neon layer where the muon is immediately transferred. The time structure of the muonic neon X-rays follows the exponential law with a disappearance rate corresponding to the one of [mu][sup [minus]p] atoms in each target. The rates [lambda][sub pp[mu

  10. Fukushima Daiichi Muon Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyadera, Haruo

    2015-10-01

    Japanese government announced cold-shutdown condition of the reactors at Fukushima Daiichi by the end of 2011, and mid- and long-term roadmap towards decommissioning has been drawn. However, little is known for the conditions of the cores because access to the reactors has been limited by the high radiation environment. The debris removal from the Unit 1 - 3 is planned to start as early as 2020, but the dismantlement is not easy without any realistic information of the damage to the cores, and the locations and amounts of the fuel debris. Soon after the disaster of Fukushima Daiichi, several teams in the US and Japan proposed to apply muon transmission or scattering imagings to provide information of the Fukushima Daiichi reactors without accessing inside the reactor building. GEANT4 modeling studies of Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1 and 2 showed clear superiority of the muon scattering method over conventional transmission method. The scattering method was demonstrated with a research reactor, Toshiba Nuclear Critical Assembly (NCA), where a fuel assembly was imaged with 3-cm resolution. The muon scattering imaging of Fukushima Daiichi was approved as a national project and is aiming at installing muon trackers to Unit 2. A proposed plan includes installation of muon trackers on the 2nd floor (operation floor) of turbine building, and in front of the reactor building. Two 7mx7m detectors were assembled at Toshiba and tested.

  11. Design of a muon tomography system with a plastic scintillator and wavelength-shifting fiber arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Woo Jin; Kim, Hyun-Il; An, Su Jung; Lee, Chae Young; Baek, Cheol-Ha; Chung, Yong Hyun

    2013-12-01

    Recently, monitoring nuclear materials to avoid nuclear terrorism has become an important area of national security. It can be difficult to detect gamma rays from nuclear material because they are easily shielded by shielding material. Muon tomography using multiple -Coulomb scattering derived from muons can be utilized to detect special nuclear materials (SNMs) such as uranium-235 and plutonium-239. We designed a muon tomography system composed of four detector modules. The incident and scattered muon tracks can be calculated by two top and two bottom detectors, respectively. 3D tomographic images are obtained by extracting the crossing points of muon tracks with a point-of-closest-approach algorithm. The purpose of this study was to optimize the muon tomography system using Monte Carlo simulation code. The effects of the geometric parameters of the muon tomography system on material Z-discrimination capability were simulated and evaluated.

  12. Investigation of the energy characteristics of EAS muon component with the NEVOD-DECOR setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanov, A. G.; Barbashina, N. S.; Dushkin, L. I.; Kindin, V. V.; Kokoulin, R. P.; Kompaniets, K. G.; Mannocchi, G.; Petrukhin, A. A.; Romanenkova, E. V.; Saavedra, O.; Trinchero, G.; Khomyakov, V. A.; Khokhlov, S. S.; Chernov, D. V.; Shutenko, V. V.; Yurina, E. A.; Yashin, I. I.

    2016-02-01

    Investigations of the energy characteristics of muon component with the increase of the primary cosmic rays energy can be a key to solving ‘muon puzzle’ - the problem of excess of EAS muons (observed in several experiments at high - ALEPH, DELPHI - and ultrahigh energies - DECOR, Pierre Auger Observatory) in comparison with the expected flux. The measurements results of the energy deposit of inclined muon bundles in water depending on the zenith angle and the local density of muons are presented. As a measure of the energy deposit, the total number of photoelectrons registered by PMTs of the Cherenkov water calorimeter NEVOD was used. The local density of muons, which gives an estimate of the energy of primary particles was obtained from the data of coordinate-tracking detector DECOR. The experimental data are compared with the results of calculations based on simulations of the muon component of EAS by means of the CORSIKA code.

  13. Muon Reconstruction and Identification in CMS

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, A.

    2010-02-10

    We present the design strategies and status of the CMS muon reconstruction and identification identification software. Muon reconstruction and identification is accomplished through a variety of complementary algorithms. The CMS muon reconstruction software is based on a Kalman filter technique and reconstructs muons in the standalone muon system, using information from all three types of muon detectors, and links the resulting muon tracks with tracks reconstructed in the silicon tracker. In addition, a muon identification algorithm has been developed which tries to identify muons with high efficiency while maintaining a low probability of misidentification. The muon identification algorithm is complementary by design to the muon reconstruction algorithm that starts track reconstruction in the muon detectors. The identification algorithm accepts reconstructed tracks from the inner tracker and attempts to quantify the muon compatibility for each track using associated calorimeter and muon detector hit information. The performance status is based on detailed detector simulations as well as initial studies using cosmic muon data.

  14. Study of photonuclear muon interactions at Baksan underground scintillation telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakatanov, V. N.; Chudakov, A. E.; Dadykin, V. L.; Novoseltsev, Y. F.; Achkasov, V. M.; Semenov, A. M.; Stenkin, Y. V.

    1985-01-01

    The method of pion-muon-electron decays recording was used to distinguish between purely electron-photon and hadronic cascades, induced by high energy muons underground. At energy approx. 1 Tev a ratio of the number of hadronic to electromagnetic cascades was found equal 0.11 + or - .03 in agreement with expectation. But, at an energy approx. 4 Tev a sharp increase of this ratio was indicated though not statistically sound (0.52 + or - .13).

  15. Characterization of the atmospheric muon flux in IceCube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Archinger, M.; Argüelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; Beiser, E.; BenZvi, S.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Brown, A. M.; Buzinsky, N.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Christy, B.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Fuchs, T.; Glagla, M.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gaior, R.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Gier, D.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Gretskov, P.; Groh, J. C.; Groß, A.; Ha, C.; Haack, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hansmann, B.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hellwig, D.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Holzapfel, K.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jero, K.; Jurkovic, M.; Kaminsky, B.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, J.; Kheirandish, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Koirala, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Konietz, R.; Koob, A.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, G.; Kroll, M.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leuner, J.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meli, A.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Middlemas, E.; Miller, J.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke, A.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Pandya, H.; Paul, L.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Pütz, J.; Quinnan, M.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Reimann, R.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Richter, S.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ryckbosch, D.; Saba, S. M.; Sabbatini, L.; Sander, H.-G.; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheriau, F.; Schimp, M.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schulte, L.; Seckel, D.; Seunarine, S.; Shanidze, R.; Smith, M. W. E.; Soldin, D.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stahlberg, M.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stanisha, N. A.; Stasik, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Strahler, E. A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Turcati, A.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Santen, J.; Vanheule, S.; Veenkamp, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallraff, M.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Whitehorn, N.; Wichary, C.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yáñez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zoll, M.

    2016-05-01

    Muons produced in atmospheric cosmic ray showers account for the by far dominant part of the event yield in large-volume underground particle detectors. The IceCube detector, with an instrumented volume of about a cubic kilometer, has the potential to conduct unique investigations on atmospheric muons by exploiting the large collection area and the possibility to track particles over a long distance. Through detailed reconstruction of energy deposition along the tracks, the characteristics of muon bundles can be quantified, and individual particles of exceptionally high energy identified. The data can then be used to constrain the cosmic ray primary flux and the contribution to atmospheric lepton fluxes from prompt decays of short-lived hadrons. In this paper, techniques for the extraction of physical measurements from atmospheric muon events are described and first results are presented. The multiplicity spectrum of TeV muons in cosmic ray air showers for primaries in the energy range from the knee to the ankle is derived and found to be consistent with recent results from surface detectors. The single muon energy spectrum is determined up to PeV energies and shows a clear indication for the emergence of a distinct spectral component from prompt decays of short-lived hadrons. The magnitude of the prompt flux, which should include a substantial contribution from light vector meson di-muon decays, is consistent with current theoretical predictions. The variety of measurements and high event statistics can also be exploited for the evaluation of systematic effects. In the course of this study, internal inconsistencies in the zenith angle distribution of events were found which indicate the presence of an unexplained effect outside the currently applied range of detector systematics. The underlying cause could be related to the hadronic interaction models used to describe muon production in air showers.

  16. Muon and Tau Neutrinos Spectra from Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fargion, Daniele; Moscato, Federica

    2003-12-01

    Most power-full solar flare as the ones occurred on 23th February 1956, September 29th 1989, 28th October and on 2nd-4th November 2003 are sources of cosmic rays, X, gamma and neutrino bursts. These flares took place both on front or in the edge and in the hidden solar disk. The 4th November event was the most powerful X event in the highest known rank category X28 just at horizons. The observed and estimated total flare energy (EFL ≃ 1031div 1033 erg) should be a source of a prompt secondary neutrino burst originated, by proton-proton-pion production on the sun itself; a more delayed and spread neutrino flux signal arise by the solar charged flare particles reaching the terrestrial atmosphere. These first earliest prompt solar neutrino burst might be observed, in a few neutrino clustered events, in present or future largest neutrino underground detectors as Super-Kamiokande one, in time correlation with the X-Radio flare. The onset in time correlation has great statistical significance. Our first estimate on the neutrino number events detection at the Super-Kamiokande II Laboratory for horizontal or hidden flare is found to be few events: NeV_bar{ν}_e≃ 0.63&etae ()/(35 MeV) ()/(1031 erg); and NeV_bar{ν}μ ≃ 3.58()/(200 MeV) ()/(1031erg) η,SUB>μ, where η≃ 1, Eνμ > 113 MeV. Our first estimates of neutrino signals in largest underground detectors hint for few events in correlation with X, gamma, radio onser. Our approximated spectra for muons and taus from these rare solar eruption are shown over the most common background. The muon and tau signature is very peculiar and characteristic over electron and anti-electron neutrino fluxes. The rise of muon neutrinos will be detectable above the minimal muon threshold Eν ≃ 113 MeV energy, or above the pion and Δ ° thresholds (Eν≃ 151 and 484 MeV). Any large neutrino flare event record might also verify the expected neutrino flavour mixing leading to a few as well as a comparable

  17. Energy spectrum of cascades generated by muons in Baksan underground scintillation telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakatanov, V. N.; Chudakov, A. E.; Novoseltsev, Y. F.; Novoseltseva, M. V.; Achkasov, V. M.; Semenov, A. M.; Stenkin, Y. V.

    1985-01-01

    Spectrum of cascades generated by cosmic ray muons underground is presented. The mean zenith angle of the muon arrival is theta=35 deg the depth approx. 1000 hg/sq cm. In cascades energy range 700 GeV the measured spectrum is in agreement with the sea-level integral muon spectrum index gamma=3.0. Some decrease of this exponent has been found in the range 4000 Gev.

  18. Multi-muon events at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Ptochos, F.; /Cyprus U.

    2009-07-01

    We report a study of multi-muon events produced at the Fermilab Tevatron collider and recorded by the CDF II detector. In a data set acquired with a dedicated dimuon trigger and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2100 pb{sup -1}, we isolate a significant sample of events in which at least one of the identified muons has large impact parameter and is produced outside the beam pipe of radius 1.5 cm. We are unable to fully account for the number and properties of the events through standard model processes in conjunction with our current understanding of the CDF II detector, trigger and event reconstruction. Several topological and kinematic properties of these events are also presented. In contrast, the production cross section and kinematics of events in which both muon candidates are produced inside the beam pipe are successfully modeled by known QCD processes which include heavy flavor production. The presence of these anomalous multi-muon events offers a plausible resolution to long-standing inconsistencies related to b{bar b} production and decay.

  19. Data Collection and Recording on the Wisconsin/GSFC X-ray Quantum Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, Laura; X-ray Astrophysics Group at the University of Wisconsin-Madison

    2016-01-01

    The Wisconsin/GSFC X-ray Quantum Calorimeter (XQC) is an astronomical X-ray sounding rocket payload which uses a micro-calorimeter array to detect low (less than1keV) X-rays. Three different devices were evaluated to upgrade XQC's data collection and recording system. The system takes incoming data from XQC's pixel sensors and stores it to a memory card. The upgrade is a much smaller board and much more compact storage device. The Terasic DE0-Nano, Terasic DE0-Nano SoC, and the BeagleBone Black were tested to determine which would suit the needs of XQC best. The device needed to take incoming data, store it to an SD card, and be able to output it through a USB connection. The Terasic DE0-Nano is a simple FPGA, but needed some peripheral additions for an SD card slot and USB readout. The Terasic DE0-Nano SoC was a powerful FPGA and hard processor running Linux combined. It was able to do what was needed, but pulled too much power in the process. The BeagleBone Black had a microcontroller and also ran Linux. This last device ended up being the best choice, as it did not require too much power and had a very easy system already in place for USB readout. The only difficulty to deal with was programming the microcontroller in assembly language. This device is necessary due to the telemetry on XQC not being able to send all of the data down during the flight. It records valuable data about low energy X-rays so that the X-ray Astrophysics Groups at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and Goddard Space Flight Center can analyze and resolve the spectrum of the soft X-ray background.Later, using the digital logic on a Terasic DE0-Nano FPGA, a data simulator for the BeagleBone Black data collection and recording device was created. Programmed with Quartus II, the simulator uses basic digital logic components to fabricate trackable data signals and related timing signals to send to the data management device, as well as other timing signals that are asynchronous to the rest of

  20. The tracker systems for the muon ionization cooling experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidt, C.

    2013-08-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will be the first experiment to demonstrate muon ionization cooling in the momentum range of 140-240 MeV/c. The experiment is a single-particle experiment where the input and output beam emittances are constructed from an ensemble of selected single-muon candidates. The fiber trackers are placed in a solenoidal field of 4 T (one before and one after the cooling channel) to measure the muon 4-momentum and provide the basic information for determining the emittances. This paper gives a brief overview of MICE and then describes the details of the fiber tracker assemblies, the unique construction technique used (which for the first time used 350 μm diameter scintillating fiber), the readout electronics and performance with respect to light yield, hit resolution and tracking efficiency as measured in a recent cosmic-ray test of the two final tracker systems.

  1. Equivalent dose rate by muons to the human body.

    PubMed

    Băcioiu, I

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, the relative sensitivity from different human tissues of the human body, at a ground level, from muon cosmic radiation has been studied. The aim of this paper was to provide information on the equivalent dose rates received from atmospheric muons to human body, at the ground level. The calculated value of the effective dose rate by atmospheric muons plus the radiation levels of the natural annual background radiation dose, at the ground level, in the momentum interval of cosmic ray muon (0.2-120.0 GeV/c) is about 2.106±0.001 mSv/y, which is insignificant in comparison with the values of the doses from the top of the atmosphere.

  2. Characterization of muon and gamma radiations at the PTOLEMY site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, Susannah; Gentile, Charles; Tully, Chris; Zapata, Sandra; Chris Tully Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    PTOLEMY is an experimental project at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory designed to determine the present day number density of relic neutrinos through measurement of electrons produced from neutrino capture on tritium. The weak interaction cross section for relic neutrino interactions necessitates high sensitivity measurements that could be influenced by high energy particles, like muons and gamma ray photons, which induce nuclear transitions and secondary electrons. Muons produced from the collision of cosmic rays with atmospheric nuclei are a significant source of background radiation at and below Earth's surface. The muon flux is measured by the coincidence of minimum ionization radiation loss in two plastic scintillator paddles. The spectrum of gamma ray photons is measured using sodium iodide based scintillators. These measurements will provide a characterization of the background and rates at the PTOLEMY site.

  3. Non-destructive Elemental Analysis Using Negative Muon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, Michael K.

    2016-09-01

    A negative muon implanted into materials is captured by an atom and forms a muonic atom with emission of muonic X-rays. The X-ray energy is characteristic to the atomic number of the atom which captured the muon. By measuring the energy of the muonic X-ray induced by the negative muon implanted into the sample material with a kinetic energy tuned to stop at a chosen depth from the sample surface, the elemental composition of the sample at the specific depth from the surface is revealed. This elemental analysis method has unique in non-destructive, multi-element, and depth-selective characteristics. The method is being developed at the J-PARC/MUSE facility.

  4. Volcanoes muon imaging using Cherenkov telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalano, O.; Del Santo, M.; Mineo, T.; Cusumano, G.; Maccarone, M. C.; Pareschi, G.

    2016-01-01

    A detailed understanding of a volcano inner structure is one of the key-points for the volcanic hazards evaluation. To this aim, in the last decade, geophysical radiography techniques using cosmic muon particles have been proposed. By measuring the differential attenuation of the muon flux as a function of the amount of rock crossed along different directions, it is possible to determine the density distribution of the interior of a volcano. Up to now, a number of experiments have been based on the detection of the muon tracks crossing hodoscopes, made up of scintillators or nuclear emulsion planes. Using telescopes based on the atmospheric Cherenkov imaging technique, we propose a new approach to study the interior of volcanoes detecting of the Cherenkov light produced by relativistic cosmic-ray muons that survive after crossing the volcano. The Cherenkov light produced along the muon path is imaged as a typical annular pattern containing all the essential information to reconstruct particle direction and energy. Our new approach offers the advantage of a negligible background and an improved spatial resolution. To test the feasibility of our new method, we have carried out simulations with a toy-model based on the geometrical parameters of ASTRI SST-2M, i.e. the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope currently under installation onto the Etna volcano. Comparing the results of our simulations with previous experiments based on particle detectors, we gain at least a factor of 10 in sensitivity. The result of this study shows that we resolve an empty cylinder with a radius of about 100 m located inside a volcano in less than 4 days, which implies a limit on the magma velocity of 5 m/h.

  5. High Response Twin-Objective Actuator with Radial Tilt Function for Blu-ray Disc Recorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seok Jung; Heor, Tae Youn; Kim, Tae Kyung; Ahn, Young Man; Chung, Chong Sam; Park, Soo Han

    2005-05-01

    We have developed Blu-ray Disc (BD) optical pick-up with a twin-objective lens actuator which is compatible with compact disc (CD) and digital versatile disc (DVD) in the high-speed BD-read only memory (ROM) and BD Recorder. In order to readout CD and DVD in BD Recorder, we adopted twin-objective lens actuator in consideration of optical utilization efficiency, optical performance and insurance of sufficient working distance (WD). This twin-objective lens actuator has two objectives in radial direction, one is for CD/DVD and the other is for BD. Through our careful investigation in design process, this actuator has extremely high AC sensitivities and good 2nd resonance characteristics in consideration of twin-objective actuator. Also, this actuator has linearity in wide focus range, that is to say, more than ± 1.0 mm and has radial tilt function which is tilt range more than 7 deg.

  6. Muon-hadron detector of the carpet-2 array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzhappuev, D. D.; Kudzhaev, A. U.; Klimenko, N. F.

    2016-05-01

    The 1-GeV muon-hadron detector of the Carpet-2 multipurpose shower array at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory, Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences (INR, Moscow, Russia) is able to record simultaneously muons and hadrons. The procedure developed for this device makes it possible to separate the muon and hadron components to a high degree of precision. The spatial and energy features of the muon and hadron extensive-air-shower components are presented. Experimental data from the Carpet-2 array are contrasted against data from the EAS-TOP and KASCADE arrays and against the results of the calculations based on the CORSIKA (GHEISHA + QGSJET01) code package and performed for primary protons and iron nuclei.

  7. Study of characteristics of Forbush decreases detected in 2006 - 2011 by means of muon hodoscope URAGAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbashina, N. S.; Astapov, I. I.; Borog, V. V.; Dmitrieva, A. N.; Kokoulin, R. P.; Kompaniets, K. G.; Mishutina, Yu N.; Petrukhin, A. A.; Shutenko, V. V.; Sit'ko, O. A.; Yakovleva, E. I.; Yashin, I. I.

    2013-02-01

    Results of the study of variations of cosmic ray muon flux at the Earth surface during Forbush decreases (FD) registered in 2006 - 2011 by means of muon hodoscope URAGAN both for the integral counting rate and for different angular intervals are presented. Dependences of the amplitude of the decrease of cosmic ray muon intensity on the energy of primary particles in the energy region above 10 GeV during different phases of the FD were obtained. On the basis of the analysis of spatial-angular distribution of muon flux, values of the horizontal projections of the local anisotropy vector were calculated and their dynamics was studied. Energy, angular and temporal characteristics of Forbush decreases determined from cosmic ray muon data are compared with basic parameters characterizing conditions of near-Earth space before and during FD.

  8. Mass composition studies of Ultra High Energy cosmic rays through the measurement of the Muon Production Depths at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Collica, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory (Auger) in Argentina studies Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) physics. The flux of cosmic rays at these energies (above 1018 eV) is very low (less than 100 particle/km2-year) and UHECR properties must be inferred from the measurements of the secondary particles that the cosmic ray primary produces in the atmosphere. These particles cascades are called Extensive Air Showers (EAS) and can be studied at ground by deploying detectors covering large areas. The EAS physics is complex, and the properties of secondary particles depend strongly on the first interaction, which takes place at an energy beyond the ones reached at accelerators. As a consequence, the analysis of UHECRs is subject to large uncertainties and hence many of their properties, in particular their composition, are still unclear. Two complementary techniques are used at Auger to detect EAS initiated by UHE- CRs: a 3000 km2 surface detector (SD) array of water Cherenkov tanks which samples particles at ground level and fluorescence detectors (FD) which collect the ultraviolet light emitted by the de-excitation of nitrogen nuclei in the atmosphere, and can operate only in clear, moonless nights. Auger is the largest cosmic rays detector ever built and it provides high-quality data together with unprecedented statistics. The main goal of this thesis is the measurement of UHECR mass composition using data from the SD of the Pierre Auger Observatory. Measuring the cosmic ray composition at the highest energies is of fundamental importance from the astrophysical point of view, since it could discriminate between different scenarios of origin and propagation of cosmic rays. Moreover, mass composition studies are of utmost importance for particle physics. As a matter of fact, knowing the composition helps in exploring the hadronic interactions at ultra-high energies, inaccessible to present accelerator experiments.

  9. Distribution of Sea Level Muons at Zenith Angles below 10 TeV Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, M.

    The moderate energy primary cosmic ray nucleon spectrum has been constructed fro the direct measurements of Webber et al., Seo et al., Menn et al. along with the other results surveyed by Swordy. The sea leve muon energy spectra at different zenith angles have been derived from the decay of non-prompt mesons by adopting standard diffusion equation of hadronic cascades. The contribution of charmed mesons to muon spectrum has also been accounted following standard procedure. Our estimated tota muon energy spectra have been found comparable with the global spectrograph muon flux results of MARS, DEIS, MSU and other groups.

  10. Muon capture for the front end of a muon collider

    SciTech Connect

    Neuffer, D.; Yoshikawa, C.; /MUONS Inc., Batavia

    2011-03-01

    We discuss the design of the muon capture front end for a {mu}{sup +}-{mu}{sup -} Collider. In the front end, a proton bunch on a target creates secondary pions that drift into a capture transport channel, decaying into muons. A sequence of rf cavities forms the resulting muon beams into strings of bunches of differing energies, aligns the bunches to (nearly) equal central energies, and initiates ionization cooling. The muons are then cooled and accelerated to high energy into a storage ring for high-energy high luminosity collisions. Our initial design is based on the somewhat similar front end of the International Design Study (IDS) neutrino factory.

  11. Muon identification with Muon Telescope Detector at the STAR experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, T. C.; Ma, R.; Huang, B.; Huang, X.; Ruan, L.; Todoroki, T.; Xu, Z.; Yang, C.; Yang, S.; Yang, Q.; Yang, Y.; Zha, W.

    2016-10-01

    The Muon Telescope Detector (MTD) is a newly installed detector in the STAR experiment. It provides an excellent opportunity to study heavy quarkonium physics using the dimuon channel in heavy ion collisions. In this paper, we report the muon identification performance for the MTD using proton-proton collisions at √{ s }=500 GeV with various methods. The result using the Likelihood Ratio method shows that the muon identification efficiency can reach up to ∼90% for muons with transverse momenta greater than 3 GeV/c and the significance of the J / ψ signal is improved by a factor of 2 compared to using the basic selection.

  12. Search for muon-neutrino emission from GeV and TeV gamma-ray flaring blazars using five years of data of the ANTARES telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Collaboration: ANTARES Collaboration

    2015-12-01

    The ANTARES telescope is well-suited for detecting astrophysical transient neutrino sources as it can observe a full hemisphere of the sky at all times with a high duty cycle. The background due to atmospheric particles can be drastically reduced, and the point-source sensitivity improved, by selecting a narrow time window around possible neutrino production periods. Blazars, being radio-loud active galactic nuclei with their jets pointing almost directly towards the observer, are particularly attractive potential neutrino point sources, since they are among the most likely sources of the very high-energy cosmic rays. Neutrinos and gamma rays may be produced in hadronic interactions with the surrounding medium. Moreover, blazars generally show high time variability in their light curves at different wavelengths and on various time scales. This paper presents a time-dependent analysis applied to a selection of flaring gamma-ray blazars observed by the FERMI/LAT experiment and by TeV Cherenkov telescopes using five years of ANTARES data taken from 2008 to 2012. The results are compatible with fluctuations of the background. Upper limits on the neutrino fluence have been produced and compared to the measured gamma-ray spectral energy distribution.

  13. Muon spin rotation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The bulk of the muon spin rotation research work centered around the development of the muon spin rotation facility at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The collimation system was both designed and fabricated at Virginia State University. This improved collimation system, plus improvements in detectors and electronics enabled the acquisition of spectra free of background out to 15 microseconds. There were two runs at Brookhaven in 1984, one run was devoted primarily to beam development and the other run allowed several successful experiments to be performed. The effect of uniaxial strain on an Fe(Si) crystal at elevated temperature (360K) was measured and the results are incorporated herein. A complete analysis of Fe pulling data taken earlier is included.

  14. Muon Collider design status

    SciTech Connect

    Alexahin, Y.; /Fermilab

    2010-09-01

    Muon Collider (MC) - proposed by G.I. Budker and A.N. Skrinsky a few decades ago - is now considered as the most exciting option for the energy frontier machine in the post-LHC era. A national Muon Accelerator Program (MAP) is being formed in the USA with the ultimate goal of building a MC at the Fermilab site with c.o.m. energy in the range 1.5-3 TeV and luminosity of {approx} 1.5 {center_dot} 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. As the first step on the way to MC it envisages construction of a Neutrino Factory (NF) for high-precision neutrino experiments. The baseline scheme of the NF-MC complex is presented and possible options for its main components are discussed.

  15. NK Muon Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Koizumi, G.

    1988-09-28

    The NK Muon Beam will be a modified version of the existing NT beam line. The decision to employ a modified version of the NT beam line was made based on considerations of cost and availability of the beam line. Preliminary studies considered use of other beam lines, e.g., the NW beam line, and even of moving the bubble chamber with its superconducting coils but were rejected for reasons such as cost, personnel limitations, and potential conflicts with other users.

  16. X-ray diffraction recording from single axonemes of eukaryotic flagella.

    PubMed

    Nishiura, Masaya; Toba, Shiori; Takao, Daisuke; Miyashiro, Daisuke; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Matsuo, Tatsuhito; Kamimura, Shinji; Oiwa, Kazuhiro; Yagi, Naoto; Iwamoto, Hiroyuki

    2012-06-01

    We report the first X-ray diffraction patterns recorded from single axonemes of eukaryotic flagella with a diameter of only <0.2 μm, by using the technique of cryomicrodiffraction. A spermatozoon isolated from the testis of a fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, either intact or demembranated, was mounted straight in a glass capillary, quickly frozen and its 800-μm segment was irradiated end-on with intense synchrotron radiation X-ray microbeams (diameter, ~2 μm) at 74 K. Well-defined diffraction patterns were recorded, consisting of a large number of isolated reflection spots, extending up to 1/5 nm(-1). These reflections showed a tendency to peak every 20°, i.e., the patterns had features of an 18-fold rotational symmetry as expected from the 9-fold rotational symmetry of axonemal structure. This means that the axonemes remain untwisted, even after the manual mounting procedure. The diffraction patterns were compared with the results of model calculations based on a published electron micrograph of the Drosophila axoneme. The comparison provided information about the native state of axoneme, including estimates of axonemal diameter, interdoublet spacing, and masses of axonemal components relative to those of microtubules (e.g., radial spokes, dynein arms, and proteins associated with accessory singlet microtubules). When combined with the genetic resource of Drosophila, the technique presented here will serve as a powerful tool for studying the structure-function relationship of eukaryotic flagella in general. PMID:22503702

  17. X-ray diffraction recording from single axonemes of eukaryotic flagella.

    PubMed

    Nishiura, Masaya; Toba, Shiori; Takao, Daisuke; Miyashiro, Daisuke; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Matsuo, Tatsuhito; Kamimura, Shinji; Oiwa, Kazuhiro; Yagi, Naoto; Iwamoto, Hiroyuki

    2012-06-01

    We report the first X-ray diffraction patterns recorded from single axonemes of eukaryotic flagella with a diameter of only <0.2 μm, by using the technique of cryomicrodiffraction. A spermatozoon isolated from the testis of a fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, either intact or demembranated, was mounted straight in a glass capillary, quickly frozen and its 800-μm segment was irradiated end-on with intense synchrotron radiation X-ray microbeams (diameter, ~2 μm) at 74 K. Well-defined diffraction patterns were recorded, consisting of a large number of isolated reflection spots, extending up to 1/5 nm(-1). These reflections showed a tendency to peak every 20°, i.e., the patterns had features of an 18-fold rotational symmetry as expected from the 9-fold rotational symmetry of axonemal structure. This means that the axonemes remain untwisted, even after the manual mounting procedure. The diffraction patterns were compared with the results of model calculations based on a published electron micrograph of the Drosophila axoneme. The comparison provided information about the native state of axoneme, including estimates of axonemal diameter, interdoublet spacing, and masses of axonemal components relative to those of microtubules (e.g., radial spokes, dynein arms, and proteins associated with accessory singlet microtubules). When combined with the genetic resource of Drosophila, the technique presented here will serve as a powerful tool for studying the structure-function relationship of eukaryotic flagella in general.

  18. Upper limit on the prompt muon flux derived from the LVD underground experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Aglietta, M.; Alpat, B.; Alyea, E. D.; Antonioli, P.; Badino, G.; Bari, G.; Basile, M.; Berezinsky, V. S.; Bersani, F.; Bertaina, M.

    1999-12-01

    We present the analysis of the muon events with all muon multiplicities collected during 21804 h of operation of the first LVD tower. The measured depth-angular distribution of muon intensities has been used to obtain the normalization factor A the power index {gamma} of the primary all-nucleon spectrum, and the ratio R{sub c} of the prompt muon flux to that of {pi} mesons--the main parameters which determine the spectrum of cosmic ray muons at the sea level. The values of {gamma}=2.77{+-}0.05 (68% C.L.) and R{sub c}<2.0x10{sup -3} (95% C.L.) have been obtained. The upper limit to the prompt muon flux favors the models of charm production based on QGSM and the dual parton model. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.

  19. The OPERA muon spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garfagnini, A.; Bergnoli, A.; Brugnera, R.; Carrara, E.; Ciesielski, R.; Dal Corso, F.; Dusini, S.; Fanin, C.; Longhin, A.; Stanco, L.; Cazes, A.; Cecchetti, A.; Di Troia, C.; Dulach, B.; Felici, G.; Mengucci, A.; Orecchini, D.; Paoloni, A.; Spinetti, M.; Terranova, F.; Ventura, M.; Votano, L.; Candela, A.; D'Incecco, M.; Gustavino, C.; Lindozzi, M.

    2007-03-01

    The OPERA experiment will study νμ to ντ oscillations through τ appearance on the 732 km long CERN to Gran Sasso baseline. The magnet yokes of the two muon spectrometers are instrumented with 48 planes of high resistivity bakelite Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) operated in streamer mode. Each plane covers about 70 m2. A general introduction to the system installation and commissioning will be given. Four RPC planes were instrumented and the first tests were performed confirming a good behavior of the installed RPCs in terms of intrinsic noise and operating currents. The measured noise maps agree with those obtained in the extensive quality test performed at surface. Counting rates are below 20 Hz/m2. Single and multiple cosmic muon tracks were also reconstructed. The estimated efficiency is close to the geometrical limit and the very first measurements of the absolute and differential muon flux are in agreement with the expectations. Finally, a description of the readout electronics and of the slow control system is given.

  20. Muon and neutrino results from KGF experiment at a depth of 7000 hg/square cm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Menon, M. G. K.; Mondal, N. K.; Narasimham, V. S.; Streekantan, B. V.; Hayashi, Y.; Ito, N.; Kawakami, S.; Miyake, S.

    1985-01-01

    The KGF nucleon decay experiment at a depth of 7000 hg/sq cm has provided valuable data on muons and neutrinos. The detector comprised of 34 crossed layers of proportional counters (cross section 10 x 10 sq cm; lengths 4m and 6m) sandwiched between 1.2 cm thick iron plates can record tracks of charged particles to an accuracy of 1 deg from tracks that traverse the whole of the detector. A special two-fold coincidence system enables the detector to record charged particles that enter at very large zenith angles. In a live time of 3.6 years about 2600 events have been recorded. These events include atmospheric muons, neutrino induced muons from rock, stopping muons, showers and events which have their production vertex inside the detectors. The results on atmospheric muons and neutrino events are presented.

  1. Muon Colliders and Neutrino Factories *

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geer, Steve

    2009-11-01

    Over the past decade, there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture, and accelerate O(1021) muons per year. These developments have paved the way for a new type of neutrino source (neutrino factory) and a new type of very high energy lepton-antilepton collider (muon collider). This article reviews the motivation, design, and research and development for future neutrino factories and muon colliders.

  2. Muon Colliders and Neutrino Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, Steve; /Fermilab

    2009-11-01

    Over the past decade, there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture, and accelerate {Omicron}(10{sup 21}) muons per year. These developments have paved the way for a new type of neutrino source (neutrino factory) and a new type of very high energy lepton-antilepton collider (muon collider). This article reviews the motivation, design, and research and development for future neutrino factories and muon colliders.

  3. Muon colliders and neutrino factories

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, S.; /Fermilab

    2010-09-01

    Over the last decade there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture and accelerate {Omicron}(10{sup 21}) muons/year. This development prepares the way for a new type of neutrino source (Neutrino Factory) and a new type of very high energy lepton-antilepton collider (Muon Collider). This article reviews the motivation, design and R&D for Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders.

  4. Multiple 10Be records revealing the history of cosmic-ray variations across the Iceland Basin excursion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiuchi, Kazuho; Kamata, Kanae; Maejima, Shun; Sasaki, Sho; Sasaki, Nobuyoshi; Yamazaki, Toshitsugu; Fujita, Shuji; Motoyama, Hideaki; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki

    2016-04-01

    Cosmogenic 10Be is a proxy of cosmic-ray flux, and its natural records provide vital information about the past intensity variability of the geomagnetic field and solar activity. 10Be records also serve as powerful tools for global synchronization among a variety of paleoarchives and for elucidating sedimentary processes on natural remanent magnetization acquisition. However, high-resolution (multi-decadal to multi-centennial) records of 10Be are scarce, especially those older than several tens of thousands of years. Here we present multiple high-resolution 10Be records of the Iceland Basin geomagnetic excursion interval (ca. 170-200 kyr ago) obtained from sediment cores (authigenic 10Be/9Be ratio) and an ice core (atmospheric 10Be flux). Comparing sedimentary 10Be records with relative paleointensity from the same cores, we found differences in the magnetic lock-in depth, even between adjacent cores. The 10Be-proxy records from the sediment and ice cores exhibit common characteristics: an asymmetric large-scale variation, a ∼7-kyr quasi-plateau around the maximum with a characteristic mid-term depression, and multi-millennial fluctuations in cosmic-ray flux during this interval. Minimal-synchronized and stacked 10Be records show that maximum cosmic-ray flux occurred 188.5-190.0 kyr ago and was double the present flux. A wavelet analysis of the stacked curve reveals dominant 4-kyr and secondary 8-kyr periodicities, both of which can be interpreted as intrinsic geomagnetic cycles. The wavelet spectrum of the high-resolution ice-core record shows a periodicity of 1.7 kyr and somewhat intermingled multi-centennial cycles around the maxima of 10Be, which likely represent solar cycles in this period. High-resolution 10Be records from multiple paleoarchives provide both a robust proxy record of cosmic-ray flux and a valuable tool for detailed global synchronization based on cosmic-ray variations.

  5. Investigation of the solar influence on the cosmic muon flux using WILLI detector

    SciTech Connect

    Saftoiu, A.; Brancus, I. M.; Duma, M.; Mitrica, B.; Petcu, M.; Toma, G.; Bercuci, A.; Haungs, A.; Rebel, H.; Sima, O.

    2010-11-24

    A fesibility study to explore the capability of the WILLI detector to observe the solar events/activity by recording the muon intensity at ground level is presented.The WILLI detector, set up in National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest, is a 1 m{sup 2} incident area sampling calorimeter. It can measure simultaneously muon events with the muon energy {>=}0.4 GeV and, if the muons are stopped in the detector, and muon energy between 0.4muons pass the minimum of 2 plates of the detector stack.Taking into account muon events with energy {>=}0.4 GeV, a modulation of the muon intensity as a diurnal variation is observed. Muon events for a smaller energy range (0.4-0.6 GeV) seem to exhibit an aperiodic variation of the muon intensity, which could be correlated with magnetic activity indicated by the planetary K{sub p} index.

  6. Investigation of the solar influence on the cosmic muon flux using WILLI detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saftoiu, A.; Bercuci, A.; Brancus, I. M.; Duma, M.; Haungs, A.; Mitrica, B.; Petcu, M.; Rebel, H.; Sima, O.; Toma, G.

    2010-11-01

    A fesibility study to explore the capability of the WILLI detector to observe the solar events/activity by recording the muon intensity at ground level is presented. The WILLI detector, set up in National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest, is a 1 m2 incident area sampling calorimeter. It can measure simultaneously muon events with the muon energy >=0.4 GeV and, if the muons are stopped in the detector, and muon energy between 0.4muons pass the minimum of 2 plates of the detector stack. Taking into account muon events with energy >=0.4 GeV, a modulation of the muon intensity as a diurnal variation is observed. Muon events for a smaller energy range (0.4-0.6 GeV) seem to exhibit an aperiodic variation of the muon intensity, which could be correlated with magnetic activity indicated by the planetary Kp index.

  7. From Neutrino Factory to Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, S.; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    Both Muon Colliders and Neutrino Factories require a muon source capable of producing and capturing {Omicron}(10{sup 21}) muons/year. This paper reviews the similarities and differences between Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider accelerator complexes, the ongoing R&D needed for a Muon Collider that goes beyond Neutrino Factory R&D, and some thoughts about how a Neutrino Factory on the CERN site might eventually be upgraded to a Muon Collider.

  8. Study of High pT Muons in IceCube

    SciTech Connect

    IceCube Collaboration; Gerhardt, Lisa; Klein, Spencer

    2009-06-01

    Muons with a high transverse momentum (p{sub T}) are produced in cosmic ray air showers via semileptonic decay of heavy quarks and the decay of high p{sub T} kaons and pions. These high p{sub T} muons have a large lateral separation from the shower core muon bundle. IceCube is well suited for the detection of high p{sub T} muons. The surface shower array can determine the energy, core location and direction of the cosmic ray air shower while the in-ice array can reconstruct the energy and direction of the high p{sub T} muon. This makes it possible to measure the decoherence function (lateral separation spectrum) at distances greater than 150 meters. The muon p{sub T} can be determined from the muon energy (measured by dE/dx) and the lateral separation. The high p{sub T} muon spectrum may also be calculated in a perturbative QCD framework; this spectrum is sensitive to the cosmic-ray composition.

  9. Physical applications of muon catalysis: Muon capture in hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filchenkov, V. V.

    2016-07-01

    Results of theoretical and experimental research on capture of negative muons in hydrogen are reported with an emphasis on the accompanying phenomenon of muon catalysis in hydrogen and subtleties of the experimental method. A conclusion is drawn that precise determination of the capture rate is important for refining the standard model.

  10. Electron and muon parameters of EAS and the composition of primary cosmic rays in 10(15) to approximately 10(16) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, T.; Mackeown, P. K.

    1985-01-01

    Estimation of the relative intensities of protons and heavy nuclei in primary cosmic rays in the energy region 10 to the 15th power approx. 10 to the 17th power eV, was done by a systematic comparison between all available observed data on various parameters of extensive air showers (EAS) and the results of simulation. The interaction model used is an extrapolation of scaling violation indicated by recent pp collider results. A composition consisting of various percentages of Fe in an otherwise pure proton beam was assumed. Greatest overall consistency between the data and the simulation is found when the Fe fraction is in the region of 25%.

  11. Observation of seasonal variation of atmospheric multiple-muon events in the MINOS Near and Far Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamson, P.; Anghel, I.; Aurisano, A.; Barr, G.; Bishai, M.; Blake, A.; Bock, G. J.; Bogert, D.; Cao, S. V.; Castromonte, C. M.; Childress, S.; Coelho, J. A. B.; Corwin, L.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; de Jong, J. K.; Devan, A. V.; Devenish, N. E.; Diwan, M. V.; Escobar, C. O.; Evans, J. J.; Falk, E.; Feldman, G. J.; Frohne, M. V.; Gallagher, H. R.; Gomes, R. A.; Goodman, M. C.; Gouffon, P.; Graf, N.; Gran, R.; Grzelak, K.; Habig, A.; Hahn, S. R.; Hartnell, J.; Hatcher, R.; Holin, A.; Huang, J.; Hylen, J.; Irwin, G. M.; Isvan, Z.; James, C.; Jensen, D.; Kafka, T.; Kasahara, S. M. S.; Koizumi, G.; Kordosky, M.; Kreymer, A.; Lang, K.; Ling, J.; Litchfield, P. J.; Lucas, P.; Mann, W. A.; Marshak, M. L.; Mayer, N.; McGivern, C.; Medeiros, M. M.; Mehdiyev, R.; Meier, J. R.; Messier, M. D.; Miller, W. H.; Mishra, S. R.; Moed Sher, S.; Moore, C. D.; Mualem, L.; Musser, J.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Newman, H. B.; Nichol, R. J.; Nowak, J. A.; O'Connor, J.; Orchanian, M.; Osprey, S.; Pahlka, R. B.; Paley, J.; Patterson, R. B.; Pawloski, G.; Perch, A.; Phan-Budd, S.; Plunkett, R. K.; Poonthottathil, N.; Qiu, X.; Radovic, A.; Rebel, B.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rubin, H. A.; Sanchez, M. C.; Schneps, J.; Schreckenberger, A.; Schreiner, P.; Sharma, R.; Sousa, A.; Tagg, N.; Talaga, R. L.; Thomas, J.; Thomson, M. A.; Tian, X.; Timmons, A.; Tognini, S. C.; Toner, R.; Torretta, D.; Urheim, J.; Vahle, P.; Viren, B.; Weber, A.; Webb, R. C.; White, C.; Whitehead, L.; Whitehead, L. H.; Wojcicki, S. G.; Zwaska, R.; Minos Collaboration

    2015-06-01

    We report the first observation of seasonal modulations in the rates of cosmic ray multiple-muon events at two underground sites, the MINOS Near Detector with an overburden of 225 mwe, and the MINOS Far Detector site at 2100 mwe. At the deeper site, multiple-muon events with muons separated by more than 8 m exhibit a seasonal rate that peaks during the summer, similar to that of single-muon events. In contrast and unexpectedly, the rate of multiple-muon events with muons separated by less than 5-8 m, and the rate of multiple-muon events in the smaller, shallower Near Detector, exhibit a seasonal rate modulation that peaks in the winter.

  12. Observation of seasonal variation of atmospheric multiple-muon events in the MINOS Near and Far Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, P.; Bishai, M.; Diwan, M. V.; Isvan, Z.; Ling, J.; Viren, B.

    2015-06-09

    We report the first observation of seasonal modulations in the rates of cosmic ray multiple-muon events at two underground sites, the MINOS Near Detector with an overburden of 225 mwe, and the MINOS Far Detector site at 2100 mwe. At the deeper site, multiple-muon events with muons separated by more than 8 m exhibit a seasonal rate that peaks during the summer, similar to that of single-muon events. Conversely, the rate of multiple-muon events with muons separated by less than 5–8 m, and the rate of multiple-muon events in the smaller, shallower Near Detector, exhibit a seasonal rate modulation that peaks in the winter.

  13. Observation of seasonal variation of atmospheric multiple-muon events in the MINOS Near and Far Detectors

    DOE PAGES

    Adamson, P.; Bishai, M.; Diwan, M. V.; Isvan, Z.; Ling, J.; Viren, B.

    2015-06-09

    We report the first observation of seasonal modulations in the rates of cosmic ray multiple-muon events at two underground sites, the MINOS Near Detector with an overburden of 225 mwe, and the MINOS Far Detector site at 2100 mwe. At the deeper site, multiple-muon events with muons separated by more than 8 m exhibit a seasonal rate that peaks during the summer, similar to that of single-muon events. Conversely, the rate of multiple-muon events with muons separated by less than 5–8 m, and the rate of multiple-muon events in the smaller, shallower Near Detector, exhibit a seasonal rate modulation thatmore » peaks in the winter.« less

  14. Observation of seasonal variation of atmospheric multiple-muon events in the MINOS near and far detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, P.

    2015-06-09

    We report the first observation of seasonal modulations in the rates of cosmic ray multiple-muon events at two underground sites, the MINOS Near Detector with an overburden of 225 mwe, and the MINOS Far Detector site at 2100 mwe. Thus, at the deeper site, multiple-muon events with muons separated by more than 8 m exhibit a seasonal rate that peaks during the summer, similar to that of single-muon events. In contrast and unexpectedly, the rate of multiple-muon events with muons separated by less than 5–8 m, and the rate of multiple-muon events in the smaller, shallower Near Detector, exhibit a seasonal rate modulation that peaks in the winter.

  15. Electron-muon ranger: performance in the MICE muon beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, D.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Barber, G.; Barclay, P.; de Bari, A.; Bayes, R.; Bayliss, V.; Bene, P.; Bertoni, R.; Blackmore, V. J.; Blondel, A.; Blot, S.; Bogomilov, M.; Bonesini, M.; Booth, C. N.; Bowring, D.; Boyd, S.; Bradshaw, T. W.; Bravar, U.; Bross, A. D.; Cadoux, F.; Capponi, M.; Carlisle, T.; Cecchet, G.; Charnley, C.; Chignoli, F.; Cline, D.; Cobb, J. H.; Colling, G.; Collomb, N.; Coney, L.; Cooke, P.; Courthold, M.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Debieux, S.; DeMello, A.; Dick, A.; Dobbs, A.; Dornan, P.; Drielsma, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Franchini, P.; Francis, V.; Fry, L.; Gallagher, A.; Gamet, R.; Gardener, R.; Gourlay, S.; Grant, A.; Graulich, J. S.; Greis, J.; Griffiths, S.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, O. M.; Hanson, G. G.; Hart, T. L.; Hartnett, T.; Hayler, T.; Heidt, C.; Hills, M.; Hodgson, P.; Hunt, C.; Husi, C.; Iaciofano, A.; Ishimoto, S.; Kafka, G.; Kaplan, D. M.; Karadzhov, Y.; Kim, Y. K.; Kuno, Y.; Kyberd, P.; Lagrange, J.-B.; Langlands, J.; Lau, W.; Leonova, M.; Li, D.; Lintern, A.; Littlefield, M.; Long, K.; Luo, T.; Macwaters, C.; Martlew, B.; Martyniak, J.; Masciocchi, F.; Mazza, R.; Middleton, S.; Moretti, A.; Moss, A.; Muir, A.; Mullacrane, I.; Nebrensky, J. J.; Neuffer, D.; Nichols, A.; Nicholson, R.; Nicola, L.; Noah Messomo, E.; Nugent, J. C.; Oates, A.; Onel, Y.; Orestano, D.; Overton, E.; Owens, P.; Palladino, V.; Pasternak, J.; Pastore, F.; Pidcott, C.; Popovic, M.; Preece, R.; Prestemon, S.; Rajaram, D.; Ramberger, S.; Rayner, M. A.; Ricciardi, S.; Roberts, T. J.; Robinson, M.; Rogers, C.; Ronald, K.; Rothenfusser, K.; Rubinov, P.; Rucinski, P.; Sakamato, H.; Sanders, D. A.; Sandström, R.; Santos, E.; Savidge, T.; Smith, P. J.; Snopok, P.; Soler, F. J. P.; Speirs, D.; Stanley, T.; Stokes, G.; Summers, D. J.; Tarrant, J.; Taylor, I.; Tortora, L.; Torun, Y.; Tsenov, R.; Tunnell, C. D.; Uchida, M. A.; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Virostek, S.; Vretenar, M.; Warburton, P.; Watson, S.; White, C.; Whyte, C. G.; Wilson, A.; Wisting, H.; Yang, X.; Young, A.; Zisman, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a detailed study of ionization cooling to evaluate the feasibility of the technique. To carry out this program, MICE requires an efficient particle-identification (PID) system to identify muons. The Electron-Muon Ranger (EMR) is a fully-active tracking-calorimeter that forms part of the PID system and tags muons that traverse the cooling channel without decaying. The detector is capable of identifying electrons with an efficiency of 98.6%, providing a purity for the MICE beam that exceeds 99.8%. The EMR also proved to be a powerful tool for the reconstruction of muon momenta in the range 100-280 MeV/c.

  16. Electron-Muon Ranger: Performance in the MICE muon beam

    DOE PAGES

    Adams, D.

    2015-12-16

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a detailed study of ionization cooling to evaluate the feasibility of the technique. To carry out this program, MICE requires an efficient particle-identification (PID) system to identify muons. The Electron-Muon Ranger (EMR) is a fully-active tracking-calorimeter that forms part of the PID system and tags muons that traverse the cooling channel without decaying. The detector is capable of identifying electrons with an efficiency of 98.6%, providing a purity for the MICE beam that exceeds 99.8%. Lastly, the EMR also proved to be a powerful tool for the reconstruction of muon momenta inmore » the range 100–280 MeV/c.« less

  17. Electron-Muon Ranger: Performance in the MICE muon beam

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.

    2015-12-16

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a detailed study of ionization cooling to evaluate the feasibility of the technique. To carry out this program, MICE requires an efficient particle-identification (PID) system to identify muons. The Electron-Muon Ranger (EMR) is a fully-active tracking-calorimeter that forms part of the PID system and tags muons that traverse the cooling channel without decaying. The detector is capable of identifying electrons with an efficiency of 98.6%, providing a purity for the MICE beam that exceeds 99.8%. Lastly, the EMR also proved to be a powerful tool for the reconstruction of muon momenta in the range 100–280 MeV/c.

  18. Muon Spin Rotation Spectroscopy - Utilizing Muons in Solid State Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Suter, Andreas

    2012-10-17

    Over the past decades muon spin rotation techniques (mSR) have established themselves as an invaluable tool to study a variety of static and dynamic phenomena in bulk solid state physics and chemistry. Common to all these approaches is that the muon is utilized as a spin microprobe and/or hydrogen-like probe, implanted in the material under investigation. Recent developments extend the range of application to near surface phenomena, thin film and super-lattice studies. After briefly summarizing the production of so called surface muons used for bulk studies, and discussing the principle differences between pulsed and continuous muon beams, the production of keV-energy muon sources will be discussed. A few topical examples from different active research fields will be presented to demonstrate the power of these techniques.

  19. Observation of Thermomagnetically Recorded Magnetic Domains in TbFeCo Films with Soft X-Ray Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Naoyuki; Fischer, Peter; Tsunashima, Shigeru; Kumazawa, Masayuki; Ishida, Hiroki; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Noguchi, Hitoshi; Kume, Minoru

    2001-04-01

    We observed thermomagnetically recorded domains of various sizes with magnetic transmission X-ray microscopy (M-TXM) in order to clarify the recording characteristics. The domains were recorded on TbFeCo films by laser-pumped magnetic field modulation (LP-MFM) using a 635 nm laser diode. Typical images of magnetic domains in TbFeCo films were taken at the Fe L3-edge, and it was confirmed that the crescent-shaped domains could be recorded with high quality for mark lengths down to 100 nm.

  20. A Search for Nontriggered Gamma-Ray Bursts in the BATSE Continuous Records: First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, B. E.; Tikhomirova, Ya.; Stepanov, M.; Kompaneets, D.; Berezhnoy, A.; Svensson, R.

    2000-09-01

    An off-line scan for nontriggered gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in the BATSE daily records at 1024 ms time resolution covering about 7 yr of observations gave 1353 nontriggered and 1581 triggered GRBs. The scan efficiency was measured by adding artificial test bursts to the data. The logN-logP distribution could be extended down to peak fluxes, P~0.1 photons cm-2 s-1. Previous indications of a turnover at small P are not confirmed. The logN-logP distribution cannot be fitted with a standard candle model with a nonevolving GRB source population, assuming that there are no large non-GRB contaminations. It is likely that the intrinsic luminosity function of GRBs is wide.

  1. A drift chamber tracking system for muon scattering tomography applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, J.; Quillin, S.; Stapleton, M.; Steer, C.; Snow, S.

    2015-10-01

    Muon scattering tomography (MST) allows the identification of shielded high atomic number (high-Z) materials by measuring the scattering angle of cosmic ray muons passing through an inspection region. Cosmic ray muons scatter to a greater degree due to multiple Coulomb scattering in high-Z materials than low-Z materials, which can be measured as the angular difference between the incoming and outgoing trajectories of each muon. Measurements of trajectory are achieved by placing position sensitive particle tracking detectors above and below the inspection volume. By localising scattering information, the point at which a series of muons scatter can be used to reconstruct an image, differentiating high, medium and low density objects. MST is particularly useful for differentiating between materials of varying density in volumes that are difficult to inspect visually or by other means. This paper will outline the experimental work undertaken to develop a prototype MST system based on drift chamber technology. The planar drift chambers used in this prototype measure the longitudinal interaction position of an ionising particle from the time taken for elections, liberated in the argon (92.5%), carbon dioxide (5%), methane (2.5%) gas mixture, to reach a central anode wire. Such a system could be used to enhance the detection of shielded radiological material hidden within regular shipping cargo.

  2. Ionization Cooling for Muon Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Alexahin, Y.; Neuffer, D.; Prebys, E.

    2014-09-18

    Possible application for muon experiments such as mu2e is discussed of the initial part of the ionization cooling channel originally developed for muon collider. It is shown that with the FNAL Booster as the proton driver the mu2e sensitivity can be increased by two orders of magnitude compared to the presently considered experiment.

  3. High luminosity muon collider design

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.; Gallardo, J.

    1996-10-01

    Muon Colliders have unique technical and physics advantages and disadvantages when compared with both hadron and electron machines. They should be regarded as complementary. Parameters are given of 4 TeV high luminosity {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup {minus}} collider, and of a 0.5 TeV lower luminosity demonstration machine. We discuss the various systems in such muon colliders.

  4. Muon collider design

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R. |; Sessler, A.; Skrinsky, A.

    1996-03-01

    The possibility of muon colliders was introduced by Skrinsky et al., Neuffer, and others. More recently, several workshops and collaboration meetings have greatly increased the level of discussion. In this paper we present scenarios for 4 TeV and 0.5 TeV colliders based on an optimally designed proton source, and for a lower luminosity 0.5 TeV demonstration based on an upgraded version of the AGS. It is assumed that a demonstration version based on upgrades of the FERMILAB machines would also be possible. 53 refs., 25 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. Muon g-2 Experiment at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Frederick

    2015-10-01

    A new experiment at Fermilab will measure the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon with a precision of 140 parts per billion (ppb). This measurement is motivated by the results of the Brookhaven E821 experiment that were first released more than a decade ago, which reached a precision of 540 ppb. As the corresponding Standard Model predictions have been refined, the experimental and theoretical values have persistently differed by about 3 standard deviations. If the Brookhaven result is confirmed at Fermilab with this improved precision, it will constitute definitive evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model. The experiment observes the muon spin precession frequency in flight in a well-calibrated magnetic fi eld; the improvement in precision will require both 20 times as many recorded muon decay events as in E821 and a reduction by a factor of 3 in the systematic uncertainties. This paper describes the current experimental status as well as the plans for the upgraded magnet, detector and storage ring systems that are being prepared for the start of beam data collection in 2017.

  6. A terrestrial gamma-ray flash recorded at the Lightning Observatory in Gainesville, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, M. D.; Rakov, V. A.; Mallick, S.; Dwyer, J. R.; Nag, A.; Heckman, S.

    2015-12-01

    A terrestrial gamma-ray flash (TGF) observed at ground level is presented. It was recorded at the Lightning Observatory in Gainesville, Florida, on June 13, 2014. Ground-based observations of TGFs are very rare. To date, only two positively identified ones are found in the literature. Our TGF was associated with a single-stroke negative cloud-to-ground discharge. It had a duration of 16 μs and consisted of 6 pulses, two of which exceeded the upper measurement limit of 5.7 MeV. The pulses apparently corresponded to individual photons, which is a characteristic feature of TGFs. The TGF began 191 μs after the return-stroke electric field peak. The stepped leader duration was as short as 3.9 ms. There was essentially no energetic radiation detected during the leader process. The NLDN-reported return-stroke peak current was as high as 224 kA. The characteristics and occurrence context of the LOG-recorded TGF are compared to those of the two similar events found in the literature. In all three cases there was evidence of a channel carrying appreciable current to ground at the time of TGF, and the associated (preceding or concurrent) cloud-to-ground discharge processes were unusually intense.

  7. MUON STORAGE RINGS - NEUTRINO FACTORIES

    SciTech Connect

    PARSA,Z.

    2000-05-30

    The concept of a muon storage ring based Neutrino Source (Neutrino Factory) has sparked considerable interest in the High Energy Physics community. Besides providing a first phase of a muon collider facility, it would generate more intense and well collimated neutrino beams than currently available. The BNL-AGS or some other proton driver would provide an intense proton beam that hits a target, produces pions that decay into muons. The muons must be cooled, accelerated and injected into a storage ring with a long straight section where they decay. The decays occurring in the straight sections of the ring would generate neutrino beams that could be directed to detectors located thousands of kilometers away, allowing studies of neutrino oscillations with precisions not currently accessible. For example, with the neutrino source at BNL, detectors at Soudan, Minnesota (1,715 km), and Gran Sasso, Italy (6,527 km) become very interesting possibilities. The feasibility of constructing and operating such a muon-storage-ring based Neutrino-Factory, including geotechnical questions related to building non-planar storage rings (e.g. at 8{degree} angle for BNL-Soudan, and 3{degree} angle for BNL-Gran Sasso) along with the design of the muon capture, cooling, acceleration, and storage ring for such a facility is being explored by the growing Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Collaboration (NFMCC). The authors present overview of Neutrino Factory concept based on a muon storage ring, its components, physics opportunities, possible upgrade to a full muon collider, latest simulations of front-end, and a new bowtie-muon storage ring design.

  8. Muon radiography in Russia with emulsion technique. First experiments future perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, A. B.; Bagulya, A. V.; Chernyavsky, M. M.; Konovalova, N. S.; Polukhina, N. G.; Shchedrina, T. V.; Starkov, N. I.; Tioukov, V. E.; Vladymyrov, M. S.; Managadze, A. K.; Roganova, T. M.; Orurk, O. I.; Zemskova, S. G.

    2015-12-31

    Cosmic ray muon radiography is a novel technique for imaging the internal structures of massive objects. It exploits the capability of high energy muons from cosmic-rays in order to obtain a density map of investigated object and trying to guess information on the variation in the density distribution. Nuclear emulsions are tracking detectors well suited to be employed in this context since they have an excellent angular resolution (few mrad), they are cheap, compact and robust, easily transportable, able to work in harsh environments, and do not require power supply. This work presents the first successful results in the field of muon radiography in Russia with nuclear emulsions.

  9. Evidence from the Soudan 1 experiment for underground muons associated with Cygnus X-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayres, D. S. E.

    1986-01-01

    The Soudan 1 experiment has yielded evidence for an average underground muon flux of approximately 7 x 10 to the minus 11th power/sq cm/s which points back to the X-ray binary Cygnus X-3, and which exhibits the 4.8 h periodicity observed for other radiation from this source. Underground muon events which seem to be associated with Cygnus X-3 also show evidence for longer time variability of the flux. Such underground muons cannot be explained by any conventional models of the propagation and interaction of cosmic rays.

  10. An X-ray refractive lens comprising two sections cut from a gramophone record for a portable total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunimura, Shinsuke; Kawai, Jun

    2009-08-01

    An X-ray refractive lens is assembled from two sections cut from a gramophone record. The refractive lens is placed in a portable total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometer, and it is used for collimation of the incident X-ray beams. A TXRF spectrum measured with the refractive lens is compared with that measured with a waveguide. Compared with the refractive lens, the waveguide enhances the intensities of the X-rays illuminating an analyte. Therefore, fluorescent X-ray intensities increase when using the waveguide. On the other hand, the vertical angular divergence of the incident X-ray beams is smaller when using the refractive lens, and the smaller angular divergence results in a reduction of the scattering of the incident X-rays from a sample holder. Therefore, the spectral background is reduced when using the refractive lens, resulting in an increase of the signal to background ratios of the fluorescent X-rays. Detection limits for 3d transition metals obtained with the refractive lens are sub-nanograms to a few nanograms, and the detection limits are similar to those obtained with the waveguide.

  11. Development of Nuclear Emulsion Detector for Muon Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishio, A.; Morishima, K.; Kuwabara, K.; Nakamura, M.

    Muon radiography is the non-destructive testing technique of large-scale constructions with cosmic ray muon. Cosmic ray muon has high penetrating power and it always comes from the whole sky. In the same way of taking a X-ray photograph, we can obtain integrated density of constructions which thickness are several tens to several hundreds. We had ever applied this technique to nuclear reactors, volcanos, and so on. Nuclear emulsion is three dimensional track detector with micrometric position accuracy. Thanks to high position resolution, Nuclear emulsion has mrad angular resolution. In addition, the features which require no power supply and can observe in a large area suitable for muon radiography. In Nagoya University, we launched emulsion manufacturing equipment at 2010. It has become possible to flexible development of our detector and succeeded to development of high sensitive nuclear emulsion film (Nagoya emulsion). An important factor is the temperature characteristic to withstand the outdoor observation as a detector to be used in the muon radiography. There is a phenomenon of a latent image fading, whichit is well known in the photographic industry, and this phenomenon is known that temperature and water are involved. So we examined temperature and humidity characteristic of latent image fading about Nagoya emulsion. As a result, we found latent image fading is strongly depends on both temperature and humidity. By dehydrating emulsion film in RH8%, over 95% (Grain Density>40) detection efficiency of muon track keeps over 3months in 25degree, for 2months in 35degree. Additionally it was showed in this test that increasing back ground noise "fog", which may have occurred by sealing emulsion film in a narrow space, is reduced by buffer space in the bag.

  12. First measurements of muon production rate using a novel pion capture system at MuSIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, S.; D'Arcy, R.; Fukuda, M.; Hatanaka, K.; Hino, Y.; Kuno, Y.; Lancaster, M.; Mori, Y.; Nam, T. H.; Ogitsu, T.; Sakamoto, H.; Sato, A.; Truong, N. M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yoshida, M.; Wing, M.

    2013-02-01

    The MuSIC (Muon Science Innovative Channel) beam line at RCNP (Research Centre for Nuclear Physics), Osaka will be the most intense source of muons in the world. A proton beam is incident on a target and, by using a novel capture solenoid, guides the produced pions into the beam line where they subsequently decay to muons. This increased muon flux will allow more precise measurements of cLFV (charged Lepton Flavour Violation) as well as making muon beams more economically feasible. Currently the first 36° of solenoid beam pipe have been completed and installed for testing with low proton current of 1 nA. Measurements of the total particle flux and the muon life time were made. The measurements were taken using thin plastic scintillators coupled to MPPCs (Multi-Pixel Photon Counter) that surrounded a magnesium or copper stopping target. The scintillators were used to record which particles stopped and their subsequent decay times giving a muon yield of 8.5 × 105 muons W-1proton beam or 3 × 108 muons s-1 when using the RCNP's full power (400 W).

  13. Lateral distribution of high energy muons in EAS of sizes Ne approximately equals 10(5) and Ne approximately equals 10(6)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bazhutov, Y. N.; Ermakov, G. G.; Fomin, G. G.; Isaev, V. I.; Jarochkina, Z. V.; Kalmykov, N. N.; Khrenov, B. A.; Khristiansen, G. B.; Kulikov, G. V.; Motova, M. V.

    1985-01-01

    Muon energy spectra and muon lateral distribution in EAS were investigated with the underground magnetic spectrometer working as a part of the extensive air showers (EAS) array. For every registered muon the data on EAS are analyzed and the following EAS parameters are obtained, size N sub e, distance r from the shower axis to muon, age parameter s. The number of muons with energy over some threshold E associated to EAS of fixed parameters are measured, I sub reg. To obtain traditional characteristics, muon flux densities as a function of the distance r and muon energy E, muon lateral distribution and energy spectra are discussed for hadron-nucleus interaction model and composition of primary cosmic rays.

  14. Research and Development of Future Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Yonehara, K.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    Muon collider is a considerable candidate of the next generation high-energy lepton collider machine. A novel accelerator technology must be developed to overcome several intrinsic issues of muon acceleration. Recent research and development of critical beam elements for a muon accelerator, especially muon beam phase space ionization cooling channel, are reviewed in this paper.

  15. The MICE spectrometers for the measurement of muon beam emittance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Hideyuki

    2010-11-01

    Tracking detectors based on 350-μm scintillating fibers have been developed to measure muon-beam emittance at the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), the goal of which is to demonstrate ionization cooling by constructing and testing part of a cooling channel designed for a Neutrino Factory. The upstream and downstream trackers were assembled at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in 2008 and 2009. The mechanical design and construction (including quality assurance) procedures used for the trackers are described in this paper. Results from the cosmic-ray test performed for the upstream tracker at RAL in 2008 are also presented.

  16. Muon transfer from hot muonic hydrogen atoms to neon

    SciTech Connect

    Jacot-Guillarmod, R.; Bailey, J.M.; Beer, G.A.; Knowles, P.E.; Mason, G.R.; Olin, A.; Beveridge, J.L.; Marshall, G.M.; Brewer, J.H.; Forster, B.M.; Huber, T.M.; Kammel, P.; Zmeskal, J.; Kunselman, A.R.; Petitjean, C.

    1992-12-31

    A negative muon beam has been directed on adjacent solid layers of hydrogen and neon. Three targets differing by their deuterium concentration were investigated. Muonic hydrogen atoms can drift to the neon layer where the muon is immediately transferred. The time structure of the muonic neon X-rays follows the exponential law with a disappearance rate corresponding to the one of {mu}{sup {minus}p} atoms in each target. The rates {lambda}{sub pp{mu}} and {lambda}{sub pd} can be extracted.

  17. Low Cost, Low Power, Passive Muon Telescope For Interrogating Martian Sub-Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naudet, C. J.; Tanaka, H.; Kedar, S.; Plaut, J. J.; Webb, F.

    2012-12-01

    Muon radiography is a technique that uses naturally occurring showers of muons (penetrating particles generated by cosmic rays) to image the interior of geological structures in much the same way as standard X-ray radiography. Unlike gamma rays and neutrons that penetrate only a few meters of rock, muons can traverse through up to several kilometers of a geological target. Recent development and application of the technique to terrestrial volcanoes, caves, and mines have demonstrated that a low-power, passive muon detector can image deep into kilometer-scale geological structures and provide unprecedentedly crisp density profile images of their interior. Preliminary estimates of muon production on Mars indicate that the near-horizontal Martian mu-on flux, which is used for muon radiography of surface features, is at least as strong as that on Earth, making the technique suitable for geological exploration of Mars. The muon telescope represents an entirely new class of instruments for planetary exploration, providing a wholly new type of measurement for delineation of potentially habitable subsurface environments through detection of caves, sub-surface ice, and water, and for the interpretation of composition and evolutionary state of the Martian surface. Muon radiography is a proven, sim-ple, low cost, and efficient technology that could detect subsurface radiation-shielded habitable environments that would not be detectable by any other technique available today. Thanks to its low power and low data rate demands, it could be integrated as a secondary instrument on future missions with minimal impact on primary mission operations. A mission that includes a muon detector could set the stage for a future mission to directly explore subsurface habitable envi-ronments on Mars. Developing the technology now would position it favorably for a surface mission in the 2018-2024 time period to explore Martian regions with previously-identified po-tential trace gas sources

  18. Probing beyond the Standard Model with Muons

    SciTech Connect

    Hisano, Junji

    2008-02-21

    Muon's Properties are the most precisely studied among unstable particles. After discovery of muons in 40's, the studies of muons contributed to construction and establishment of the standard model in the particle physics. Now we are going to LHC era, however, precision frontier is still important in the particle physics. In this article, we review roles of muon physics in the particle physics. Muon g-2, lepton flavor violation (LFV) in muon decay, and electric dipole moment (EDM) of muon are mainly discussed.

  19. Quasi-isochronous Muon Collection Channels

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, C.; Ankenbrandt, C.; Neuffer, D.; /Fermilab

    2010-05-01

    Intense muon beams have many potential applications, including neutrino factories and muon colliders. However, muons are produced as tertiary beams, resulting in diffuse phase space distributions. To make useful beams, the muons must be rapidly cooled before they decay. An idea conceived recently for the collection and cooling of muon beams, namely, the use of a Quasi-Isochronous Helical Channel (QIHC) to facilitate capture of muons into RF buckets, has been developed further. The resulting distribution could be cooled quickly and coalesced into a single bunch to optimize the luminosity of a muon collider. After a brief elaboration of the QIHC concept, recent developments are described.

  20. Muon Simulation at the Daya Bay SIte

    SciTech Connect

    Mengyun, Guan; Jun, Cao; Changgen, Yang; Yaxuan, Sun; Luk, Kam-Biu

    2006-05-23

    With a pretty good-resolution mountain profile, we simulated the underground muon background at the Daya Bay site. To get the sea-level muon flux parameterization, a modification to the standard Gaisser's formula was introduced according to the world muon data. MUSIC code was used to transport muon through the mountain rock. To deploy the simulation, first we generate a statistic sample of sea-level muon events according to the sea-level muon flux distribution formula; then calculate the slant depth of muon passing through the mountain using an interpolation method based on the digitized data of the mountain; finally transport muons through rock to get underground muon sample, from which we can get results of muon flux, mean energy, energy distribution and angular distribution.

  1. Muon Collider Task Force Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ankenbrandt, C.; Alexahin, Y.; Balbekov, V.; Barzi, E.; Bhat, C.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Bross, A.; Burov, A.; Drozhdin, A.; Finley, D.; Geer, S.; /Fermilab /Argonne /Brookhaven /Jefferson Lab /LBL, Berkeley /MUONS Inc., Batavia /UCLA /UC, Riverside /Mississippi U.

    2007-12-01

    Muon Colliders offer a possible long term path to lepton-lepton collisions at center-of-mass energies {radical}s {ge} 1 TeV. In October 2006 the Muon Collider Task Force (MCTF) proposed a program of advanced accelerator R&D aimed at developing the Muon Collider concept. The proposed R&D program was motivated by progress on Muon Collider design in general, and in particular, by new ideas that have emerged on muon cooling channel design. The scope of the proposed MCTF R&D program includes muon collider design studies, helical cooling channel design and simulation, high temperature superconducting solenoid studies, an experimental program using beams to test cooling channel RF cavities and a 6D cooling demonstration channel. The first year of MCTF activities are summarized in this report together with a brief description of the anticipated FY08 R&D activities. In its first year the MCTF has made progress on (1) Muon Collider ring studies, (2) 6D cooling channel design and simulation studies with an emphasis on the HCC scheme, (3) beam preparations for the first HPRF cavity beam test, (4) preparations for an HCC four-coil test, (5) further development of the MANX experiment ideas and studies of the muon beam possibilities at Fermilab, (6) studies of how to integrate RF into an HCC in preparation for a component development program, and (7) HTS conductor and magnet studies to prepare for an evaluation of the prospects for of an HTS high-field solenoid build for a muon cooling channel.

  2. Laser-Assisted Muon Decay

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Aihua; Li Shumin; Berakdar, Jamal

    2007-06-22

    We show theoretically that the muon lifetime can be changed dramatically by embedding the decaying muon in a strong linearly polarized laser field. Evaluating the S-matrix elements taking all electronic multiphoton processes into account we find that a CO{sub 2} laser with an electric field amplitude of 10{sup 6} V cm{sup -1} results in an order of magnitude shorter lifetime of the muon. We also analyze the dependencies of the decay rate on the laser frequency and intensity.

  3. Muon Colliders and Neutrino Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, Daniel M.

    2015-05-29

    Muon colliders and neutrino factories are attractive options for future facilities aimed at achieving the highest lepton-antilepton collision energies and precision measurements of Higgs boson and neutrino mixing matrix parameters. The facility performance and cost depend on how well a beam of muons can be cooled. Recent progress in muon cooling design studies and prototype tests nourishes the hope that such facilities could be built starting in the coming decade. The status of the key technologies and their various demonstration experiments is summarized. Prospects "post-P5" are also discussed.

  4. Muon front end for the neutrino factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, C. T.; Stratakis, D.; Prior, G.; Gilardoni, S.; Neuffer, D.; Snopok, P.; Alekou, A.; Pasternak, J.

    2013-04-01

    In the neutrino factory, muons are produced by firing high-energy protons onto a target to produce pions. The pions decay to muons and pass through a capture channel known as the muon front end, before acceleration to 12.6 GeV. The muon front end comprises a variable frequency rf system for longitudinal capture and an ionization cooling channel. In this paper we detail recent improvements in the design of the muon front end.

  5. Muon ID - taking care of lower momenta muons

    SciTech Connect

    Milstene, C.; Fisk, G.; Para, A.; /Fermilab

    2005-12-01

    In the Muon package under study, the tracks are extrapolated using an algorithm which accounts for the magnetic field and the ionization (dE/dx). We improved the calculation of the field dependent term to increase the muon detection efficiency at lower momenta using a Runge-Kutta method. The muon identification and hadron separation in b-bbar jets is reported with the improved software. In the same framework, the utilization of the Kalman filter is introduced. The principle of the Kalman filter is described in some detail with the propagation matrix, with the Runge-Kutta term included, and the effect on low momenta for low momenta single muons particles is described.

  6. The Atmospheric Muon Charge Ratio at the MINOS Near Detector

    SciTech Connect

    de Jong, J.K.; /IIT, Chicago /Oxford U.

    2011-11-01

    The magnetized MINOS near detector can accurately determine the charge sign of atmospheric muons, this facilitates a measurement of the atmospheric muon charge ratio. To reduce the systematic error associated with geometric bias and acceptance we have combined equal periods of data obtained with opposite magnetic field polarities. We report a charge ratio of 1.2666 {+-} 0.0015(stat.){sub -0.0088}{sup +0.0096}(syst.) at a mean E{sub {mu},0{sup cos}}({theta}) = 63 GeV. This measurement is consistent with the world average but significantly lower than the earlier observation at the MINOS far detector. This increase is shown to be consistent with the hypothesis that a greater fraction of the observed muons arise from kaon decay within the cosmic ray shower.

  7. Front-end electronics for the Muon Portal project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garozzo, S.; Marano, D.; Bonanno, G.; Grillo, A.; Romeo, G.; Timpanaro, M. C.; Lo Presti, D.; Riggi, F.; Russo, V.; Bonanno, D.; La Rocca, P.; Longhitano, F.; Bongiovanni, D. G.; Fallica, G.; Valvo, G.

    2016-10-01

    The Muon Portal Project was born as a joint initiative between Italian research and industrial partners, aimed at the construction of a real-size working detector prototype to inspect the content of traveling containers by means of secondary cosmic-ray muon radiation and recognize potentially dangerous hidden materials. The tomographic image is obtained by reconstructing the incoming and outgoing muon trajectories when crossing the inspected volume, employing two tracker planes located above and below the container under inspection. In this paper, the design and development of the front-end electronics of the Muon Portal detector is presented, with particular emphasis being devoted to the photo-sensor devices detecting the scintillation light and to the read-out circuitry which is in charge of processing and digitizing the analog pulse signals. In addition, the remote control system, mechanical housing, and thermal cooling system of all structural blocks of the Muon Portal tracker are also discussed, demonstrating the effectiveness and functionality of the adopted design.

  8. Study of the muon-induced neutron background with the LVD detector

    SciTech Connect

    Menghetti, H.; Selvi, M.

    2005-09-08

    High energy neutrons, generated as a product of cosmic muon interaction in the rock or in the detector passive material, represent the most dangerous background for a large list of topics like reactor neutrino studies, the search for SN relic neutrinos, solar antineutrinos, etc.Up to now there are few measurements of the muon-produced neutron flux at large depth underground. Moreover it is difficult to reproduce the measured data with Monte Carlo simulation because of the large uncertainties in the neutron production and propagation models.We present here the results of such a measurement with the LVD detector, which is well suited for the detection of neutrons produced by cosmic-ray muons, reporting the neutron flux at various distances from the muon track, for different neutron energies (E > 20 MeV) and as a function of the muon track length in scintillator.

  9. Concept and Layout of the EAS muon arrival time distribution measurements on Mt. Aragats Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathes, Hermann Josef

    1999-08-01

    The lateral and longitudinal profiles of the EAS development show specific features depending on the primary mass due to various particle interaction parameters influencing the development of the particle cascade in the atmosphere. The large muon detector of the ANI Cosmic Ray Observatory on Mt. Aragats gives a good opportunity to measure muon arrival times. In view of a possible extension of the muon underground installation EAS simulations have been performed. They consider various detector configurations with respect to the EAS core position. The observed muon time dispersion show specific trends with increasing radial distance and primary mass. Particularly, simulations based on the GEANT package had been done to study the faked detector signals due to secondaries generated in the surrounding material. A design for upgrading the muon detector array is presented which implies additional fast timing photomultipliers attached to the existing scintillation detectors.

  10. LINACS FOR FUTURE MUON FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Slawomir Bogacz, Rolland Johnson

    2008-10-01

    Future Muon Colliders (MC) and Neutrino Factories (NF) based on muon storage rings will require innovative linacs to: produce the muons, cool them, compress longi-tudinally and ‘shape’ them into a beam and finally to rap-idly accelerate them to multi-GeV (NF) and TeV (MC) energies. Each of these four linac applications has new requirements and opportunities that follow from the na-ture of the muon in that it has a short lifetime (τ = 2.2 μsec) in its own rest frame, it is produced in a tertiary process into a large emittance, and its electron, photon, and neutrino decay products can be more than an annoy-ance. As an example, for optimum performance, the linac repetition rates should scale inversely with the laboratory lifetime of the muon in its storage ring, something as high as 1 kHz for a 40 GeV Neutrino Factory or as low as 20 Hz for a 5 TeV Muon Collider. A superconducting 8 GeV Linac capable of CW operation is being studied as a ver-satile option for muon production [1] for colliders, facto-ries, and muon beams for diverse purposes. A linac filled with high pressure hydrogen gas and imbedded in strong magnetic fields has been proposed to rapidly cool muon beams [2]. Recirculating Linear Accelerators (RLA) are possible because muons do not generate significant syn-chrotron radiation even at extremely high energy and in strong magnetic fields. We will describe the present status of linacs for muon applications; in particular the longitu-dinal bunch compression in a single pass linac and multi-pass acceleration in the RLA, especially the optics and technical requirements for RLA designs, using supercon-ducting RF cavities capable of simultaneous acceleration of both μ+ and μ- species, with pulsed linac quadrupoles to allow the maximum number of passes. The design will include the optics for the multi-pass linac and droplet-shaped return arcs.

  11. Muon spin rotation in solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stronach, C. E.

    1983-01-01

    The muon spin rotation (MuSR) technique is used to probe the microscopic electron density in materials. High temperature MuSR and magnetization measurements in nickel are in progress to allow an unambiguous determination of the muon impurity interaction and the impurity induced change in local spin density. The first results on uniaxial stress induced frequency shifts in an Fe single crystal are also reported.

  12. Absolute spectrum and charge ratio of cosmic ray muons in the energy region from 0.2 GeV to 100 GeV at 600 m above sea level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Pascale, M. P.; Morselli, A.; Picozza, P.; Golden, R. L.; Grimani, C.; Kimbell, B. L.; Stephens, S. A.; Stochaj, S. J.; Webber, W. R.; Basini, G.

    1993-01-01

    We have determined the momentum spectrum and charge ratio of muons in the region from 250 MeV/c to 100 GeV/c using a superconducting magnetic spectrometer. The absolute differential spectrum of muons obtained in this experiment at 600 m above sea level is in good agreement with the previous measurements at sea level. The differential spectrum can be represented by a power law with a varying index, which is consistent with zero below 450 MeV/c and steepens to a value of -2.7 +/- 0.1 between 20 and 100 GeV/c. The integral f1ux of muons measured in this experiment span a very large range of momentum and is in excellent agreement with the earlier results. The positive to negative muon ratio appears to be constant in the entire momentum range covered in this experiment within the errors and the mean value is 1.220 +/- 0.044. The absolute momentum spectrum and the charge ratio measured in this experiment are also consistent with the theoretical expectations. This is the only experiment which covers a wide range of nearly three decades in momentum from a very low momentum.

  13. Muon Colliders: The Next Frontier

    ScienceCinema

    Tourun, Yagmur [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois, United States

    2016-07-12

    Muon Colliders provide a path to the energy frontier in particle physics but have been regarded to be "at least 20 years away" for 20 years. I will review recent progress in design studies and hardware R&D and show that a Muon Collider can be established as a real option for the post-LHC era if the current vigorous R&D effort revitalized by the Muon Collider Task Force at Fermilab can be supported to its conclusion. All critical technologies are being addressed and no show-stoppers have emerged. Detector backgrounds have been studied in detail and appear to be manageable and the physics can be done with existing detector technology. A muon facility can be built through a staged scenario starting from a low-energy muon source with unprecedented intensity for exquisite reach for rare processes, followed by a Neutrino Factory with ultrapure neutrino beams with unparalleled sensitivity for disentangling neutrino mixing, leading to an energy frontier Muon Collider with excellent energy resolution.

  14. Muon Colliders: The Next Frontier

    SciTech Connect

    Tourun, Yagmur

    2009-07-29

    Muon Colliders provide a path to the energy frontier in particle physics but have been regarded to be 'at least 20 years away' for 20 years. I will review recent progress in design studies and hardware R&D and show that a Muon Collider can be established as a real option for the post-LHC era if the current vigorous R&D effort revitalized by the Muon Collider Task Force at Fermilab can be supported to its conclusion. All critical technologies are being addressed and no show-stoppers have emerged. Detector backgrounds have been studied in detail and appear to be manageable and the physics can be done with existing detector technology. A muon facility can be built through a staged scenario starting from a low-energy muon source with unprecedented intensity for exquisite reach for rare processes, followed by a Neutrino Factory with ultrapure neutrino beams with unparalleled sensitivity for disentangling neutrino mixing, leading to an energy frontier Muon Collider with excellent energy resolution.

  15. Muon Colliders: The Next Frontier

    SciTech Connect

    Tourun, Yagmur

    2009-07-29

    Muon Colliders provide a path to the energy frontier in particle physics but have been regarded to be "at least 20 years away" for 20 years. I will review recent progress in design studies and hardware R&D and show that a Muon Collider can be established as a real option for the post-LHC era if the current vigorous R&D effort revitalized by the Muon Collider Task Force at Fermilab can be supported to its conclusion. All critical technologies are being addressed and no show-stoppers have emerged. Detector backgrounds have been studied in detail and appear to be manageable and the physics can be done with existing detector technology. A muon facility can be built through a staged scenario starting from a low-energy muon source with unprecedented intensity for exquisite reach for rare processes, followed by a Neutrino Factory with ultrapure neutrino beams with unparalleled sensitivity for disentangling neutrino mixing, leading to an energy frontier Muon Collider with excellent energy resolution.

  16. Performance of the Muon Identification at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archilli, F.; Baldini, W.; Bencivenni, G.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Cadeddu, S.; Campana, P.; Cardini, A.; Ciambrone, P.; Cid Vidal, X.; Deplano, C.; De Simone, P.; Falabella, A.; Frosini, M.; Furcas, S.; Furfaro, E.; Gandelman, M.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; Graziani, G.; Lai, A.; Lanfranchi, G.; Lopes, J. H.; Maev, O.; Manca, G.; Martellotti, G.; Massafferri, A.; Milanes, D.; Oldeman, R.; Palutan, M.; Passaleva, G.; Pinci, D.; Polycarpo, E.; Santacesaria, R.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satta, A.; Schmidt, B.; Sciascia, B.; Soomro, F.; Sciubba, A.; Vecchi, S.

    2013-10-01

    The performance of the muon identification in LHCb is extracted from data using muons and hadrons produced in J/ψ → μ+μ-, Λ0 → pπ- and Dstar+→π+D0(K-π+) decays. The muon identification procedure is based on the pattern of hits in the muon chambers. A momentum dependent binary requirement is used to reduce the probability of hadrons to be misidentified as muons to the level of 1%, keeping the muon efficiency in the range of 95-98%. As further refinement, a likelihood is built for the muon and non-muon hypotheses. Adding a requirement on this likelihood that provides a total muon efficiency at the level of 93%, the hadron misidentification probabilities are below 0.6%.

  17. Comments on the measurements of multiple muon phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, T.; Takahashi, T.; Higashi, S.

    1985-01-01

    The extensive air showers in the energy around 10 to the 15th power eV include those initiated by astrophysical primary gamma-rays. The observations need a precise measurement on the directions of primary particles. It is one of the methods to measure the directions of high-energy muons in air showers. The accuracy in measuring the direction, by calculating the cosmic-ray phenomena in the atmosphere at very high energy was investgated. The results calculated by Monte Carlo method suggest that one may determine the direction of primary cosmic-rays within errors of 10/3 rad in observing muons of above 100 GeV at sea level.

  18. Improvement of density models of geological structures by fusion of gravity data and cosmic muon radiographies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jourde, K.; Gibert, D.; Marteau, J.

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines how the resolution of small-scale geological density models is improved through the fusion of information provided by gravity measurements and density muon radiographies. Muon radiography aims at determining the density of geological bodies by measuring their screening effect on the natural flux of cosmic muons. Muon radiography essentially works like a medical X-ray scan and integrates density information along elongated narrow conical volumes. Gravity measurements are linked to density by a 3-D integration encompassing the whole studied domain. We establish the mathematical expressions of these integration formulas - called acquisition kernels - and derive the resolving kernels that are spatial filters relating the true unknown density structure to the density distribution actually recovered from the available data. The resolving kernel approach allows one to quantitatively describe the improvement of the resolution of the density models achieved by merging gravity data and muon radiographies. The method developed in this paper may be used to optimally design the geometry of the field measurements to be performed in order to obtain a given spatial resolution pattern of the density model to be constructed. The resolving kernels derived in the joined muon-gravimetry case indicate that gravity data are almost useless for constraining the density structure in regions sampled by more than two muon tomography acquisitions. Interestingly, the resolution in deeper regions not sampled by muon tomography is significantly improved by joining the two techniques. The method is illustrated with examples for the La Soufrière volcano of Guadeloupe.

  19. Improvement of density models of geological structures by fusion of gravity data and cosmic muon radiographies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jourde, K.; Gibert, D.; Marteau, J.

    2015-04-01

    This paper examines how the resolution of small-scale geological density models is improved through the fusion of information provided by gravity measurements and density muon radiographies. Muon radiography aims at determining the density of geological bodies by measuring their screening effect on the natural flux of cosmic muons. Muon radiography essentially works like medical X-ray scan and integrates density information along elongated narrow conical volumes. Gravity measurements are linked to density by a 3-D integration encompassing the whole studied domain. We establish the mathematical expressions of these integration formulas - called acquisition kernels - and derive the resolving kernels that are spatial filters relating the true unknown density structure to the density distribution actually recovered from the available data. The resolving kernels approach allows to quantitatively describe the improvement of the resolution of the density models achieved by merging gravity data and muon radiographies. The method developed in this paper may be used to optimally design the geometry of the field measurements to perform in order to obtain a given spatial resolution pattern of the density model to construct. The resolving kernels derived in the joined muon/gravimetry case indicate that gravity data are almost useless to constrain the density structure in regions sampled by more than two muon tomography acquisitions. Interestingly the resolution in deeper regions not sampled by muon tomography is significantly improved by joining the two techniques. The method is illustrated with examples for La Soufrière of Guadeloupe volcano.

  20. A measurement of the muon-induced neutron yield in lead at a depth of 2850 m water equivalent

    SciTech Connect

    Reichhart, L.; Ghag, C.; Lindote, A.; Chepel, V.; DeViveiros, L.; Lopes, M. I.; Neves, F.; Pinto da Cunha, J.; Silva, C.; Solovov, V. N.; Akimov, D. Yu.; Belov, V. A.; Burenkov, A. A.; Kobyakin, A. S.; Kovalenko, A. G.; Stekhanov, V. N.; Araújo, H. M.; Bewick, A.; Currie, A.; Horn, M.; and others

    2013-08-08

    We present results from the measurement of the neutron production rate in lead by high energy cosmic-ray muons at a depth of 2850 m water equivalent (mean muon energy of 260 GeV). A tonne-scale highly segmented plastic scintillator detector was utilised to detect both the energy depositions from the traversing muons as well as the delayed radiative capture signals of the induced neutrons. Complementary Monte Carlo simulations reproduce well the distributions of muons and detected muon-induced neutrons. Absolute agreement between simulation and data is of the order of 25%. By comparing the measured and simulated neutron capture rates a neutron yield in pure lead of (5.78{sub −0.28}{sup +0.21})×10{sup −3} neutrons/muon/(g/cm{sup 2}) has been obtained.

  1. Development of high-resolution muon tracking systems based on micro-pattern detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bortfeldt, J.; Biebel, O.; Heereman, D.; Hertenberger, R.

    2011-07-01

    A muon tracking system consisting of four 9 cm x 10 cm sized bulk Micromegas detectors with 128 {mu}m amplification-gap and two 10 cm x 10 cm triple GEM detectors is foreseen for high-precision tracking of 140 GeV muons at the H8 beamline at CERN with a rate of up to 10 kHz and an overall resolution below 40 {mu}m. Larger detectors with an active area of 0.5 m{sup 2} and more are under development for detector studies in high neutron or gamma ray background environments at the Gamma Irradiation Facility at CERN and the Munich tandem accelerator. Signal studies of both detector types have been performed by recording cosmic muon and 5.9 keV X-ray signals with a single charge-sensitive preamplifier using several gas-mixtures of Ar:CO{sub 2}. The signals were digitized using 1 GHz VME based flashADCs with 2520 sampling points. The analysis of the complete signal-cycles allows for the determination of rise times, pulse heights, timing fluctuations and discrimination of background, resulting in a FWHM energy resolution of about 20% and detection efficiencies of 99% and more. Models for signal formation in both detector types will be presented. The single detector spatial resolution of 80 {mu}m was measured using a fast Gassiplex based strip readout with readout strips of 150 {mu}m width and a pitch of 250 {mu}m. The Gassiplex readout, formerly used at the HERMES experiment, had to be substantially adapted. No more crosstalk or non-linearities were observed after reconfiguration of the multiplexing amplifier on the front-end boards. The observed spatial resolution is limited by multiple scattering of the cosmic muons used in the laboratory. We also report on the sensitivity to gamma- and neutron background and on the behaviour of spatial resolution as a function of background rates. (authors)

  2. Quasi-isochronous muon collection channels

    SciTech Connect

    Ankenbrandt, Charles M.; Neuffer, David; Johnson, Rolland P.

    2015-04-26

    Intense muon beams have many potential commercial and scientific applications, ranging from low-energy investigations of the basic properties of matter using spin resonance to large energy-frontier muon colliders. However, muons originate from a tertiary process that produces a diffuse swarm. To make useful beams, the swarm must be rapidly captured and cooled before the muons decay. In this STTR project a promising new concept for the collection and cooling of muon beams to increase their intensity and reduce their emittances was investigated, namely, the use of a nearly isochronous helical cooling channel (HCC) to facilitate capture of the muons into RF bunches. The muon beam can then be cooled quickly and coalesced efficiently to optimize the luminosity of a muon collider, or could provide compressed muon beams for other applications. Optimal ways to integrate such a subsystem into the rest of a muon collection and cooling system, for collider and other applications, were developed by analysis and simulation. The application of quasi-isochronous helical cooling channels (QIHCC) for RF capture of muon beams was developed. Innovative design concepts for a channel incorporating straight solenoids, a matching section, and an HCC, including RF and absorber, were developed, and its subsystems were simulated. Additionally, a procedure that uses an HCC to combine bunches for a muon collider was invented and simulated. Difficult design aspects such as matching sections between subsystems and intensity-dependent effects were addressed. The bunch recombination procedure was developed into a complete design with 3-D simulations. Bright muon beams are needed for many commercial and scientific reasons. Potential commercial applications include low-dose radiography, muon catalyzed fusion, and the use of muon beams to screen cargo containers for homeland security. Scientific uses include low energy beams for rare process searches, muon spin resonance applications, muon beams for

  3. Development of a muon radiographic imaging electronic board system for a stable solar power operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, T.; Tanaka, H. K. M.; Tanaka, M.

    2010-02-01

    Cosmic-ray muon radiography is a method that is used to study the internal structure of volcanoes. We have developed a muon radiographic imaging board with a power consumption low enough to be powered by a small solar power system. The imaging board generates an angular distribution of the muons. Used for real-time reading, the method may facilitate the prediction of eruptions. For real-time observations, the Ethernet is employed, and the board works as a web server for a remote operation. The angular distribution can be obtained from a remote PC via a network using a standard web browser. We have collected and analyzed data obtained from a 3-day field study of cosmic-ray muons at a Satsuma-Iwojima volcano. The data provided a clear image of the mountain ridge as a cosmic-ray muon shadow. The measured performance of the system is sufficient for a stand-alone cosmic-ray muon radiography experiment.

  4. A system for multichannel recording and automatic reading of information. [for onboard cosmic ray counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogomolov, E. A.; Yevstafev, Y. Y.; Karakadko, V. K.; Lubyanaya, N. D.; Romanov, V. A.; Totubalina, M. G.; Yamshchikov, M. A.

    1975-01-01

    A system for the recording and processing of telescope data is considered for measurements of EW asymmetry. The information is recorded by 45 channels on a continuously moving 35-mm film. The dead time of the recorder is about 0.1 sec. A sorting electronic circuit is used to reduce the errors when the statistical time distribution of the pulses is recorded. The recorded information is read out by means of photoresistors. The phototransmitter signals are fed either to the mechanical recorder unit for preliminary processing, or to a logical circuit which controls the operation of the punching device. The punched tape is processed by an electronic computer.

  5. Atmospheric effects in the intensity of muon bundles and geometrical mechanism of their formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokoulin, R. P.; Bogdanov, A. G.; Dmitrieva, A. N.; Romanenkova, E. V.; Shutenko, V. V.; Yurina, E. A.

    2016-02-01

    Temporal changes in the intensity of muon bundles produced as a result of interactions of primary cosmic ray particles with energies of the order of 1015 eV and detected at the ground level are analyzed. Seasonal variations, barometric and temperature effects, and correlations with the altitudes of various levels of residual pressure are considered. It is shown that muon bundle intensity variations are well explained in frame of a simple mechanism related with changes of the muon lateral distribution function at the observation level caused by geometrical changes of the effective altitude of the formation of the bundles.

  6. A large area cosmic muon detector located at Ohya stone mine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nii, N.; Mizutani, K.; Aoki, T.; Kitamura, T.; Mitsui, K.; Matsuno, S.; Muraki, Y.; Ohashi, Y.; Okada, A.; Kamiya, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The chemical composition of the primary cosmic rays between 10 to the 15th power eV and 10 to the 18th power eV were determined by a Large Area Cosmic Muon Detector located at Ohya stone mine. The experimental aims of Ohya project are; (1) search for the ultra high-energy gamma-rays; (2) search for the GUT monopole created by Big Bang; and (3) search for the muon bundle. A large number of muon chambers were installed at the shallow underground near Nikko (approx. 100 Km north of Tokyo, situated at Ohya-town, Utsunomiya-city). At the surface of the mine, very fast 100 channel scintillation counters were equipped in order to measure the direction of air showers. These air shower arrays were operated at the same time, together with the underground muon chamber.

  7. From Muons to the Moon; the Role of Particle Physics and Lunar Tides in Monitoring Geostorage of Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gluyas, J.; Telfer, S.; Spooner, N.; Paling, S.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Thompson, L.; Mitchell, C.; Coleman, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    The theoretical feasibility of using muon tomography for continuous monitoring of injection of supercritical carbon dioxide into deep geological storage for carbon storage as a climate change mitigation technology has been proven already (Kudryavtsev etal., 2012). Although theoretically feasible it is essential to take the next step and prove its practical feasibility. Our new approach is attractive since today most monitoring techniques are expensive, require active acquisition and are applied episodically. This is particularly the case for offshore storage sites where repeat seismic surveys are currently the only common monitoring option and for which costs will run to many tens or possibly hundreds of millions of dollars over the full life cycle of a site. The basis of our approach is that high energy, cosmic ray induced muons are highly penetrative and have been recorded in deep mines. They are attenuated by density thickness and hence can be used to image density changes such as those associated with replacing more dense brine in a deep formation with less dense phase CO2. As a first practical test of feasibility we are using the Palmer Laboratory located in the deep Boulby Potash Mine in northern England provides us with a unique environment in which to measure muon fluxes, develop and deploy instrumentation and test the sensitivity of our method. The shaft for the mine is located onshore but many of the galleries extend up to 7km offshore at depths below surface of between 0.7 and 1.6km. The geology of the overburden is like that chosen for CO2 injection in the southern North Sea and we have already detected muons in the mine. This makes it an ideal test-site to validate the sensitivity of the model before deploying a muon detector for active service in a CO2 injection well. The offshore part of Boulby Mine provides the ideal location for the ultimate sensitivity test as well as being able to test detectors for long periods in harsh environments. The neap

  8. Muon-muon and other high energy colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.B.; Gallardo, J.C.

    1997-02-01

    The first section looks at the high energy physics advantages, disadvantages and luminosity requirements of hadron, of lepton and photon-photon colliders for comparison. The second section discusses the physics considerations for the muon collider. The third section covers muon collider components. The fourth section is about the intersection region and detectors. In the fifth section, the authors discuss modifications to enhance the muon polarization`s operating parameters with very small momentum spreads, operations at energies other than the maximum for which the machine is designed, and designs of machines for different maximum energies. The final section discusses a Research and Development plan aimed at the operation of a 0.5 TeV demonstration machine by the year 2010, and of the 4 TeV machine by the year 2020.

  9. Calculation of intensity of high energy muon groups observed deep underground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vavilov, Y. N.; Dedenko, L. G.

    1985-01-01

    The intensity of narrow muon groups observed in Kolar Gold Field (KGF) at the depth of 3375 m.w.e. was calculated in terms of quark-gluon strings model for high energy hadron - air nuclei interactions by the method of direct modeling of nuclear cascade in the air and muon propagation in the ground for normal primary cosmic ray composition. The calculated intensity has been found to be approx. 10 to the 4 times less than one observed experimentally.

  10. A determination of the sea level muon spectrum using accelerator data and some implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Golden, R. L.; Stephens, S. A.

    1975-01-01

    The differential sea-level muon spectrum is calculated from first principle for a pure beam of cosmic-ray protons cascading in the atmosphere by using a representation of the invariant cross section that describes the observed data from 6 GeV to 1500 GeV. This spectrum is compared with the observed muon spectrum to deduce information on the interaction characteristics of nuclei-nuclei collisions.

  11. Muon motion in titanium hydride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempton, J. R.; Petzinger, K. G.; Kossler, W. J.; Schone, H. E.; Hitti, B. S.; Stronach, C. E.; Adu, N.; Lankford, W. F.; Reilly, J. J.; Seymour, E. F. W.

    1988-01-01

    Motional narrowing of the transverse-field muon spin rotation signal was observed in gamma-TiH(x) for x = 1.83, 1.97, and 1.99. An analysis of the data for TiH1.99 near room temperature indicates that the mechanism responsible for the motion of the muon out of the octahedral site is thermally activated diffusion with an attempt frequency comparable to the optical vibrations of the lattice. Monte Carlo calculations to simulate the effect of muon and proton motion upon the muon field-correlation time were used to interpret the motional narrowing in TiH1.97 near 500 K. The interpretation is dependent upon whether the Bloembergen, Purcell, and Pound (BPP) theory or an independent spin-pair relaxation model is used to obtain the vacancy jump rate from proton NMR T1 measurements. Use of BPP theory shows that the field-correction time can be obtained if the rate of motion of the muon with respect to the rate of the motion for the protons is decreased. An independent spin-pair relaxation model indicates that the field-correlation time can be obtained if the rate of motion for the nearest-neighbor protons is decreased.

  12. Muon-fluorine entanglement in fluoropolymers.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, T; Pratt, F L; Blundell, S J; McKenzie, I; Assender, H E

    2009-08-26

    We present the results of muon spin relaxation measurements on the fluoropolymers polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and poly(vinyl fluoride) (PVF). Entanglement between the muon spin and the spins of the fluorine nuclei in the polymers allows us to identify the different muon stopping states that occur in each of these materials and provides a method of probing the local environment of the muon and the dynamics of the polymer chains.

  13. Measurement of the TeV atmospheric muon charge ratio with the complete OPERA data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agafonova, N.; Aleksandrov, A.; Anokhina, A.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Bender, D.; Bertolin, A.; Bozza, C.; Brugnera, R.; Buonaura, A.; Buontempo, S.; Büttner, B.; Chernyavsky, M.; Chukanov, A.; Consiglio, L.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; De Serio, M.; Del Amo Sanchez, P.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Di Marco, N.; Dmitrievski, S.; Dracos, M.; Duchesneau, D.; Dusini, S.; Dzhatdoev, T.; Ebert, J.; Ereditato, A.; Fini, R. A.; Fukuda, T.; Galati, G.; Garfagnini, A.; Giacomelli, G.; Göllnitz, C.; Goldberg, J.; Gornushkin, Y.; Grella, G.; Guler, M.; Gustavino, C.; Hagner, C.; Hara, T.; Hollnagel, A.; Hosseini, B.; Ishida, H.; Ishiguro, K.; Jakovcic, K.; Jollet, C.; Kamiscioglu, C.; Kamiscioglu, M.; Kawada, J.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, S. H.; Kitagawa, N.; Klicek, B.; Kodama, K.; Komatsu, M.; Kose, U.; Kreslo, I.; Lauria, A.; Lenkeit, J.; Ljubicic, A.; Longhin, A.; Loverre, P.; Malgin, A.; Malenica, M.; Mandrioli, G.; Matsuo, T.; Matveev, V.; Mauri, N.; Medinaceli, E.; Meregaglia, A.; Mikado, S.; Monacelli, P.; Montesi, M. C.; Morishima, K.; Muciaccia, M. T.; Naganawa, N.; Naka, T.; Nakamura, M.; Nakano, T.; Nakatsuka, Y.; Niwa, K.; Ogawa, S.; Okateva, N.; Olshevsky, A.; Omura, T.; Ozaki, K.; Paoloni, A.; Park, B. D.; Park, I. G.; Pasqualini, L.; Pastore, A.; Patrizii, L.; Pessard, H.; Pistillo, C.; Podgrudkov, D.; Polukhina, N.; Pozzato, M.; Pupilli, F.; Roda, M.; Rokujo, H.; Roganova, T.; Rosa, G.; Ryazhskaya, O.; Sato, O.; Schembri, A.; Shakiryanova, I.; Shchedrina, T.; Sheshukov, A.; Shibuya, H.; Shiraishi, T.; Shoziyoev, G.; Simone, S.; Sioli, M.; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Spinetti, M.; Stanco, L.; Starkov, N.; Stellacci, S. M.; Stipcevic, M.; Strolin, P.; Takahashi, S.; Tenti, M.; Terranova, F.; Tioukov, V.; Tufanli, S.; Vilain, P.; Vladimirov, M.; Votano, L.; Vuilleumier, J. L.; Wilquet, G.; Wonsak, B.; Yoon, C. S.; Zemskova, S.; Zghiche, A.

    2014-07-01

    The OPERA detector, designed to search for oscillations in the CNGS beam, is located in the underground Gran Sasso laboratory, a privileged location to study TeV-scale cosmic rays. For the analysis here presented, the detector was used to measure the atmospheric muon charge ratio in the TeV region. OPERA collected charge-separated cosmic ray data between 2008 and 2012. More than 3 million atmospheric muon events were detected and reconstructed, among which about 110000 multiple muon bundles. The charge ratio was measured separately for single and for multiple muon events. The analysis exploited the inversion of the magnet polarity which was performed on purpose during the 2012 Run. The combination of the two data sets with opposite magnet polarities allowed minimizing systematic uncertainties and reaching an accurate determination of the muon charge ratio. Data were fitted to obtain relevant parameters on the composition of primary cosmic rays and the associated kaon production in the forward fragmentation region. In the surface energy range 1-20 TeV investigated by OPERA, is well described by a parametric model including only pion and kaon contributions to the muon flux, showing no significant contribution of the prompt component. The energy independence supports the validity of Feynman scaling in the fragmentation region up to TeV/nucleon primary energy.

  14. The MICE Muon Beam Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apollonio, Marco

    2011-10-01

    In the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) at RAL, muons are produced and transported in a dedicated beam line connecting the production point (target) to the cooling channel. We discuss the main features of the beamline, meant to provide muons with momenta between 140 MeV/c and 240 MeV/c and emittances up to 10 mm rad, which is accomplished by means of a diffuser. Matching procedures to the MICE cooling channel are also described. In summer 2010 we performed an intense data taking campaign to finalize the calibration of the MICE Particle Identification (PID) detectors and the understanding of the beam line, which completes the STEPI phase of MICE. We highlight the main results from these data.

  15. Law of Conservation of Muons

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Feinberg, G.; Weinberg, S.

    1961-02-01

    A multiplicative selection rule for mu meson-electron transitions is proposed. A "muon parity" = -1 is considered for the muon and its neutrino, while the "muon parity" for all other particles is +1. The selection rule then states that (-1) exp(no. of initial (-1) parity particles) = (-1) exp(no. of final (-1) parity particles). Several reactions that are forbidden by an additive law but allowed by the multiplicative law are suggested; these reactions include mu{sup +} .> e{sup +} + nu{sub mu} + {ovr nu}{sub e}, e{sup -} + e{sup -} .> mu{sup -} + mu{sup -}, and muonium .> antimuonium (mu{sup +} + e{sup -} .> mu{sup -} + e{sup +}). An intermediate-boson hypothesis is suggested. (T.F.H.)

  16. Ionization cooling and muon dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Parsa, Z.

    1998-01-01

    Muon colliders potential to provide a probe for fundamental particle physics is very interesting. To obtain the needed collider luminosity, the phase space volume must be greatly reduced within the muon life time. The Ionization cooling is the preferred method used to compress the phase space and reduce the emittance to obtain high luminosity muon beams. The authors note that, the ionization losses results not only in damping, but also heating. They discuss methods used including moments methods, Focker Plank Equation, and Multi Particle Codes. In addition they show how a simple analysis permits us to estimate the most part of the optimal system parameters, such as optimal damping rates, length of the system and energy.

  17. A Highly intense DC muon source, MuSIC and muon CLFV search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hino, Y.; Kuno, Y.; Sato, A.; Sakamoto, H.; Matsumoto, Y.; Tran, N. H.; Hashim, I. H.; Fukuda, M.; Hayashida, Y.; Ogitsu, T.; Yamamoto, A.; Yoshida, M.

    2014-08-01

    MuSIC is a new muon facility, which provides the world's highest intense muon beam with continuous time structure at Research Center of Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. It's intensity is designed to be 108 muons per second with only 0.4 kW proton beam. Such a high intense muon beam is very important for searches of rare decay processes, for example search for the muon to electron conversion.

  18. Preliminary results on underground muon bundles observed in the Frejus proton-decay detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degrange, B.

    1985-01-01

    The proton-decay detector installed in the Modane Underground laboratory (4400 mwe) in the Frejus tunnel (French Alps) has recorded 80 880 single muon and 2 322 multi-muon events between March '84 and March '85 (6425 hours of active time). During this period, a part of this modular detector was running, while new modules were being mounted, so that the detector size has continuously increased. The final detector has been completed in May '85.

  19. Signatures of cosmic-ray increase attributed to exceptional solar storms inferred from multiple cosmogenic radionuclide records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekhaldi, Florian; Muscheler, Raimund; Adolphi, Florian; Svensson, Anders; Aldahan, Ala; Possnert, Göran; McConnell, Joseph R.; Sigl, Michael; Welten, Kees C.; Woodruff, Thomas E.

    2014-05-01

    Miyake et al. (2012, 2013) discovered rapid increases of 14C content in tree rings dated to AD 774-5 and AD 993-4 which they have attributed to cosmic-ray events. These extreme particle events have no counterparts in the instrumental record and have been tentatively associated with solar proton events, supernovae and short gamma-ray bursts, which have very different energy spectra. Cosmogenic radionuclides such as 14C, 10Be and 36Cl arise from the interaction of cosmic rays with atmospheric nitrogen, oxygen and argon. These radio-isotopes are produced through different reaction pathways and vary with different energy dependencies of the production rate cross section. Owing to this, yield functions can be used to determine the energy level of incident particles. However, only 14C has been measured at high resolution to quantify the energy and thus the origin of the outbursts. We present an annually resolved record of 10Be from the NGRIP ice core for the two events. In addition, we also utilized the GRIP ice core 36Cl record in our analysis. Our results show that the differential production of cosmogenic 14C, 10Be and 36Cl is consistent with a solar energy spectrum. Considering the notable increase in radionuclides, the solar storms would have had to be substantially greater than the largest recorded geomagnetic storm, the so-called Carrington event. This challenges our understanding of the sun's dynamics. Furthermore, the events could possibly be of interest for the investigation of potential cosmic ray-cloud linkages (Svensmark & Friis-Christensen, 1997). Alternatively, such outbursts of energetic particles have the potential to deplete atmospheric ozone and alter atmospheric circulation. Ultimately, the magnitude of such particle events draws attention to the perhaps underestimated potential of the sun to cause great damage to modern technologies. References Miyake, F., Masuda, K. & Nakamura, T. Another rapid event in the carbon-14 content of tree rings. Nature

  20. Proportional drift tubes for large area muon detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, C.; Higashi, S.; Hiraoka, N.; Maruyama, A.; Okusawa, T.; Sato, T.; Suwada, T.; Takahashi, T.; Umeda, H.

    1985-01-01

    A proportional drift chamber which consists of eight rectangular drift tubes with cross section of 10 cm x 5 cm, a sense wire of 100 micron phi gold-plated tungsten wire and the length of 6 m, was tested using cosmic ray muons. Spatial resolution (rms) is between 0.5 and 1 mm over drift space of 50 mm, depending on incident angle and distance from sense wire.

  1. Muon and neutrino energy reconstruction for KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drakopoulou, Evangelia

    2016-07-01

    KM3NeT/ARCA is a European deep-sea research infrastructure that will host a neutrino telescope with a volume of several cubic kilometers at the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea. The telescope will search for galactic and extragalactic neutrinos from astrophysical sources like gamma ray bursts, super-novae or colliding stars. The analyses performed in large water Cherenkov detectors rely upon the reconstruction of the muon direction and energy, and consequently, those of the neutrino. The estimation of the muon energy is also critical for the differentiation of muons from neutrinos originating from astrophysical sources from muons and neutrinos that have been generated in the atmosphere and constitute the detector background. The energy is derived from the detection of the Cherenkov light produced by the muons that are created during the charged current interactions of neutrinos in or in the vicinity of the detector. We describe a method to determine the muon and neutrino energy employing a Neural Network. An energy resolution of about 0.29 has been achieved for muons at the TeV range.

  2. Performance study of the CMS barrel resistive plate chambers with cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CMS Collaboration

    2010-03-01

    In October and November 2008, the CMS collaboration conducted a programme of cosmic ray data taking, which has recorded about 270 million events. The Resistive Plate Chamber system, which is part of the CMS muon detection system, was successfully operated in the full barrel. More than 98% of the channels were operational during the exercise with typical detection efficiency of 90%. In this paper, the performance of the detector during these dedicated runs is reported.

  3. Superconducting magnet system for muon beam cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, N.; Johnson, R.P.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Novitski, I.; Yonehara, K.; Zlobin, A.; /Fermilab

    2006-08-01

    A helical cooling channel has been proposed to quickly reduce the six-dimensional phase space of muon beams for muon colliders, neutrino factories, and intense muon sources. A novel superconducting magnet system for a muon beam cooling experiment is being designed at Fermilab. The inner volume of the cooling channel is filled with liquid helium where passing muon beam can be decelerated and cooled in a process of ionization energy loss. The magnet parameters are optimized to match the momentum of the beam as it slows down. The results of 3D magnetic analysis for two designs of magnet system, mechanical and quench protection considerations are discussed.

  4. Design Concepts for Muon-Based Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Ryne, R. D.; Berg, J. S.; Kirk, H. G.; Palmer, R. B.; Stratkis, D.; Alexahin, Y.; Bross, A.; Gollwitzer, K.; Mokhov, N. V.; Neuffer, D.; Palmer, M. A.; Yonehara, K.; Snopok, P.; Bogacz, A.; Roberts, T. J.; Delahaye, J. -P.

    2015-05-01

    Muon-based accelerators have the potential to enable facilities at both the Intensity and the Energy Frontiers. Muon storage rings can serve as high precision neutrino sources, and a muon collider is an ideal technology for a TeV or multi-TeV collider. Progress in muon accelerator designs has advanced steadily in recent years. In regard to 6D muon cooling, detailed and realistic designs now exist that provide more than 5 order-of-magnitude emittance reduction. Furthermore, detector performance studies indicate that with suitable pixelation and timing resolution, backgrounds in the collider detectors can be significantly reduced, thus enabling high-quality physics results. Thanks to these and other advances in design & simulation of muon systems, technology development, and systems demonstrations, muon storage-ring-based neutrino sources and a muon collider appear more feasible than ever before. A muon collider is now arguably among the most compelling approaches to a multi-TeV lepton collider. This paper summarizes the current status of design concepts for muon-based accelerators for neutrino factories and a muon collider.

  5. Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Fellow

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Gail G.; Snopak, Pavel; Bao, Yu

    2015-03-20

    Muons are fundamental particles like electrons but much more massive. Muon accelerators can provide physics opportunities similar to those of electron accelerators, but because of the larger mass muons lose less energy to radiation, allowing more compact facilities with lower operating costs. The way muon beams are produced makes them too large to fit into the vacuum chamber of a cost-effective accelerator, and the short muon lifetime means that the beams must be reduced in size rather quickly, without losing too many of the muons. This reduction in size is called "cooling." Ionization cooling is a new technique that can accomplish such cooling. Intense muon beams can then be accelerated and injected into a storage ring, where they can be used to produce neutrino beams through their decays or collided with muons of the opposite charge to produce a muon collider, similar to an electron-positron collider. We report on the research carried out at the University of California, Riverside, towards producing such muon accelerators, as part of the Muon Accelerator Program based at Fermilab. Since this research was carried out in a university environment, we were able to involve both undergraduate and graduate students.

  6. Muon g-2 Experiment Shimming

    ScienceCinema

    Kiburg, Brendan

    2016-07-12

    The Muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab will use as its primary instrument a 52-foot-wide electromagnet that creates a precise magnetic field. In this video, Fermilab's Brendan Kiburg explains the lengthy process of finely "shimming" that magnetic field into shape.

  7. Pion contamination in the MICE muon beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, D.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Barber, G.; Barclay, P.; de Bari, A.; Bayes, R.; Bayliss, V.; Bertoni, R.; Blackmore, V. J.; Blondel, A.; Blot, S.; Bogomilov, M.; Bonesini, M.; Booth, C. N.; Bowring, D.; Boyd, S.; Brashaw, T. W.; Bravar, U.; Bross, A. D.; Capponi, M.; Carlisle, T.; Cecchet, G.; Charnley, C.; Chignoli, F.; Cline, D.; Cobb, J. H.; Colling, G.; Collomb, N.; Coney, L.; Cooke, P.; Courthold, M.; Cremaldi, L. M.; DeMello, A.; Dick, A.; Dobbs, A.; Dornan, P.; Drews, M.; Drielsma, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Franchini, P.; Francis, V.; Fry, L.; Gallagher, A.; Gamet, R.; Gardener, R.; Gourlay, S.; Grant, A.; Greis, J. R.; Griffiths, S.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, O. M.; Hanson, G. G.; Hart, T. L.; Hartnett, T.; Hayler, T.; Heidt, C.; Hills, M.; Hodgson, P.; Hunt, C.; Iaciofano, A.; Ishimoto, S.; Kafka, G.; Kaplan, D. M.; Karadzhov, Y.; Kim, Y. K.; Kuno, Y.; Kyberd, P.; Lagrange, J.-B.; Langlands, J.; Lau, W.; Leonova, M.; Li, D.; Lintern, A.; Littlefield, M.; Long, K.; Luo, T.; Macwaters, C.; Martlew, B.; Martyniak, J.; Mazza, R.; Middleton, S.; Moretti, A.; Moss, A.; Muir, A.; Mullacrane, I.; Nebrensky, J. J.; Neuffer, D.; Nichols, A.; Nicholson, R.; Nugent, J. C.; Oates, A.; Onel, Y.; Orestano, D.; Overton, E.; Owens, P.; Palladino, V.; Pasternak, J.; Pastore, F.; Pidcott, C.; Popovic, M.; Preece, R.; Prestemon, S.; Rajaram, D.; Ramberger, S.; Rayner, M. A.; Ricciardi, S.; Roberts, T. J.; Robinson, M.; Rogers, C.; Ronald, K.; Rubinov, P.; Rucinski, P.; Sakamato, H.; Sanders, D. A.; Santos, E.; Savidge, T.; Smith, P. J.; Snopok, P.; Soler, F. J. P.; Speirs, D.; Stanley, T.; Stokes, G.; Summers, D. J.; Tarrant, J.; Taylor, I.; Tortora, L.; Torun, Y.; Tsenov, R.; Tunnell, C. D.; Uchida, M. A.; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Virostek, S.; Vretenar, M.; Warburton, P.; Watson, S.; White, C.; Whyte, C. G.; Wilson, A.; Winter, M.; Yang, X.; Young, A.; Zisman, M.

    2016-03-01

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a systematic investigation of ionization cooling with muon beams of momentum between 140 and 240 MeV/c at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory ISIS facility. The measurement of ionization cooling in MICE relies on the selection of a pure sample of muons that traverse the experiment. To make this selection, the MICE Muon Beam is designed to deliver a beam of muons with less than ~1% contamination. To make the final muon selection, MICE employs a particle-identification (PID) system upstream and downstream of the cooling cell. The PID system includes time-of-flight hodoscopes, threshold-Cherenkov counters and calorimetry. The upper limit for the pion contamination measured in this paper is fπ < 1.4% at 90% C.L., including systematic uncertainties. Therefore, the MICE Muon Beam is able to meet the stringent pion-contamination requirements of the study of ionization cooling.

  8. NEUTRINO FACTORY BASED ON MUON-STORAGE-RINGS TO MUON COLLIDERS: PHYSICS AND FACILITIES.

    SciTech Connect

    PARSA,Z.

    2001-06-18

    Intense muon sources for the purpose of providing intense high energy neutrino beams ({nu} factory) represents very interesting possibilities. If successful, such efforts would significantly advance the state of muon technology and provides intermediate steps in technologies required for a future high energy muon collider complex. High intensity muon: production, capture, cooling, acceleration and multi-turn muon storage rings are some of the key technology issues that needs more studies and developments, and will briefly be discussed here. A muon collider requires basically the same number of muons as for the muon storage ring neutrino factory, but would require more cooling, and simultaneous capture of both {+-} {mu}. We present some physics possibilities, muon storage ring based neutrino facility concept, site specific examples including collaboration feasibility studies, and upgrades to a full collider.

  9. A projective reconstruction method of underground or hidden structures using atmospheric muon absorption data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonechi, L.; D'Alessandro, R.; Mori, N.; Viliani, L.

    2015-02-01

    Muon absorption radiography is an imaging technique based on the analysis of the attenuation of the cosmic-ray muon flux after traversing an object under examination. While this technique is now reaching maturity in the field of volcanology for the imaging of the innermost parts of the volcanic cones, its applicability to other fields of research has not yet been proved. In this paper we present a study concerning the application of the muon absorption radiography technique to the field of archaeology, and we propose a method for the search of underground cavities and structures hidden a few metres deep in the soil (patent [1]). An original geometric treatment of the reconstructed muon tracks, based on the comparison of the measured flux with a reference simulated flux, and the preliminary results of specific simulations are discussed in details.

  10. Characterization of the Interior Density Structure of Near Earth Objects with Muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prettyman, T. H.; Sykes, M. V.; Miller, R. S.; Pinsky, L. S.; Empl, A.; Nolan, M. C.; Koontz, S. L.; Lawrence, D. J.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Reddell, B. D.

    2015-12-01

    Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are a diverse population of short-lived asteroids originating from the main belt and Jupiter family comets. Some have orbits that are easy to access from Earth, making them attractive as targets for science and exploration as well as a potential resource. Some pose a potential impact threat. NEOs have undergone extensive collisional processing, fragmenting and re-accreting to form rubble piles, which may be compositionally heterogeneous (e.g., like 2008 TC3, the precursor to Almahata Sitta). At present, little is known about their interior structure or how these objects are held together. The wide range of inferred NEO macroporosities hint at complex interiors. Information about their density structure would aid in understanding their formation and collisional histories, the risks they pose to human interactions with their surfaces, the constraints on industrial processing of NEO resources, and the selection of hazard mitigation strategies (e.g., kinetic impactor vs nuclear burst). Several methods have been proposed to characterize asteroid interiors, including radar imaging, seismic tomography, and muon imaging (muon radiography and tomography). Of these, only muon imaging has the potential to determine interior density structure, including the relative density of constituent fragments. Muons are produced by galactic cosmic ray showers within the top meter of asteroid surfaces. High-energy muons can traverse large distances through rock with little deflection. Muons transmitted through an Itokawa-sized asteroid can be imaged using a compact hodoscope placed on or near the surface. Challenges include background rejection and correction for variations in muon production with surface density. The former is being addressed by hodoscope design. Surface density variations can be determined via radar or muon limb imaging. The performance of muon imaging is evaluated for prospective NEO interior-mapping missions.

  11. Momentum Spectrum of Cosmic Muons at a Depth of 320 Mwe

    SciTech Connect

    Hashim, N.-O.; Grupen, C.; Luitz, S.; Mailov, A.; Maciuc, F.; Muller, A.-S.; Putzer, A.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmeling, S.; Schmeling, M.; Tcaciuc, R. Wachsmuth, H.; Ziegler, Th.; Ziegler, Th.; Zuber, K.; /Sussex U.

    2011-09-13

    Since their discovery, great progress has been achieved in the field of cosmic ray physics particularly towards the understanding of the origin, transport and acceleration mechanisms of the high energy particles that constitute primary cosmic rays, their interaction processes in the galactic and extra galactic media, and also in the Earth's atmosphere. The interaction of primary cosmic ray particles in the Earth's atmosphere leads to the production of a cascade of secondary particles or Extensive Air Showers (EAS) with various components - electromagnetic, hadronic, muon and neutrino components. There is a large number of models to describe these interactions. Many cosmic ray experiments have used a variety of observables in EAS that provide an understanding of the hadronic interactions and also shed some light on the chemical composition of the primary particles. The muon flux at the surface provides a useful tool for the calculations of neutrino fluxes, the reconstruction of EAS and it can serve as a test of various interaction models. The CosmoALEPH detector, whichwas one of the experiments in CosmoLEP used the ALEPH detector at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics, CERN, to measure the muonic component of EAS. Preliminary results have recently shown that the momentum spectrum and charge ratio for cosmic muons measured by CosmoALEPH are well within the world average. This work reports on further improvements in the reconstruction of the cosmic muon events and data analysis. Cosmic muons are produced through interactions of primary cosmic radiation in the atmosphere. They are a component of extensive air showers which can also be measured underground. The CosmoALEPH experiment used the ALEPH detector at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics, CERN, to measure cosmic muon events at a depth of 320 mwe underground. The momentum spectrum and charge ratio of the cosmic muons are measured. The results are compared with the expectations from MC simulations

  12. Basic Research on the Composition of Heavy Cosmic Rays: The Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder Experiment (TIGER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binns, W. Robert

    2004-01-01

    Among the most fundamental astrophysical problems is understanding the mechanism by which particles are accelerated to the enormous energies observed in the cosmic rays. That problem can be conveniently divided into two questions: (1) What is the source of the energy and the mechanism for converting the energy of that source into the energy of individual cosmic-ray nuclei, and (2) what is the source of the material that is accelerated and the mechanism for injecting that material into the cosmic-ray accelerator? There is a general consensus that the answer to the first of these questions, for nuclei with energy eV, is that the source of their energy is almost certainly from supernova explosions (e.g., Ginzburg & Syrovatskii, 1964). The answer to the second question is still uncertain, although evidence in favor of a superbubble origin of cosmic rays is becoming quite significant (Higdon et al, 2203 and Binns, 2005 (Submitted to ApJ). There are several ways of interpreting available data that lead to quite different models for the source of the material and its injection mechanism. With the The Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder Experiment (TIGER) instrument we have obtained data that will help to distinguish among these possible models. In the report, the TIGER flights, the instrument itself, results, and a publication list as a result of the work are presented.

  13. Using Muon Radiography to map the Bedrock Geometry underneath an active Glacier: A Case Study in the Central Swiss Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechmann, Alessandro; Mair, David; Nishiyama, Ryuichi; Ariga, Akitaka; Ariga, Tomoko; Ereditato, Antonio; Scampoli, Paola; Vladymyrov, Mykhailo; Schlunegger, Fritz

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, muon radiography has been successfully applied to tackle geological issues and has enjoyed an increasing interest, mainly because this methodology enriches the geophysical arsenal by another shallow subsurface imaging tool that may give independent constraints on material density. Muons that originate from the collision of cosmic particles with Earth's atmosphere are able to penetrate the material in question and can finally be recorded by a detector. The irradiation intensity can then be inverted to the density of the traversed material. Various successful two-dimensional attempts have already been made to image e.g. magma chambers inside volcanoes (Lesparre et al., 2012; Nishiyama et al., 2014; Tanaka et al., 2005), but this method has yet to be applied for mapping the base of glaciers, where the density contrasts between ice and underlying bedrock are even greater than those between magma and host rock. While a high Alpine setup limits the possibilities to deploy traditional geophysical methods for surveying the base of glaciers (because of inaccessible terrain, poor infrastructure or the presence of water in the ice), muon radiography might prove to be a promising alternative. The muon intensity data from stereo observation can be related to the three-dimensional geometry of the interface between the glacier and its bedrock. Given a suitable input model, this relation can be solved within the framework of geophysical inverse problems. The final model then gives geologists invaluable information on erosional mechanisms underneath active glaciers, as this has not yet been observed. We test this methodology for a site within the Jungfrau region, situated in the central Swiss Alps. Our first goal is to demonstrate the feasibility of the method through a case study at the Eiger glacier, starting from a toy model in a first phase and continuing with real data in a second phase. For this purpose, we installed cosmic-ray detectors at two sites inside

  14. Pyroelectric and ferroelectric semiconductors: dynamic holographic grating recording, generation of self-focused electron beam, X-rays, and neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukhtarev, N. V.; Kukhtareva, T. V.; Land, P.; Wang, J. C.

    2007-09-01

    Optical and electrical effects in semiconductors and ferroelectric crystals will be modeled. Standard photorefractive equations are supplemented by the equation of state for the polarization density following Devonshire-Ginsburg-Landau (DGL) approach. We have derived equations for pyroelectric and photogalvanic contribution to the holographic grating recording in ferroelectric materials. We will consider double-functional holographic interferometer, based on holographic pyroelectric current and optical beam coupling. Crystal electrostatic accelerators, based on charging of ferroelectric crystals by pyroelectric and photogalvanic effects are discussed in relation to generation of self-focused electron beam, X-rays and neutrons.

  15. Progress on muon{sup +}muon{sup {minus}} colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.B.

    1997-05-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of muon colliders are discussed. Recent results of calculations of the radiation hazard from muon decay neutrinos are presented. This is a significant problem for machines with center of mass energy of 4 TeV, but of no consequence for lower energies. Plans are outlined for future theoretical and experimental studies. Besides continued work on the parameters of a 4 TeV collider, studies are now starting on a machine near 100 GeV that could be a factory for the s-channel production of Higgs particles. Proposals are also presented for a demonstration of ionization cooling and of the required targeting, pion capture, and phase rotation rf.

  16. Measurement of the Muon Production Depths at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    DOE PAGES

    Collica, Laura

    2016-09-08

    The muon content of extensive air showers is an observable sensitive to the primary composition and to the hadronic interaction properties. The Pierre Auger Observatory uses water-Cherenkov detectors to measure particle densities at the ground and therefore is sensitive to the muon content of air showers. We present here a method which allows us to estimate the muon production depths by exploiting the measurement of the muon arrival times at the ground recorded with the Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The analysis is performed in a large range of zenith angles, thanks to the capability of estimating and subtracting the electromagnetic component, and for energies betweenmore » $$10^{19.2}$$ and $$10^{20}$$ eV.« less

  17. Measurement of the muon production depths at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collica, Laura

    2016-09-01

    The muon content of extensive air showers is an observable sensitive to the primary composition and to the hadronic interaction properties. The Pierre Auger Observatory uses water-Cherenkov detectors to measure particle densities at the ground and therefore is sensitive to the muon content of air showers. We present here a method which allows us to estimate the muon production depths by exploiting the measurement of the muon arrival times at the ground recorded with the Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The analysis is performed in a large range of zenith angles, thanks to the capability of estimating and subtracting the electromagnetic component, and for energies between 1019.2 and 1020eV.

  18. Simulation of large acceptance LINAC for muons

    SciTech Connect

    Miyadera, H; Kurennoy, S; Jason, A J

    2010-01-01

    There has been a recent need for muon accelerators not only for future Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders but also for other applications in industry and medical use. We carried out simulations on a large-acceptance muon linac with a new concept 'mixed buncher/acceleration'. The linac can accept pions/muons from a production target with large acceptance and accelerate muon without any beam cooling which makes the initial section of muon-linac system very compact. The linac has a high impact on Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider (NF/MC) scenario since the 300-m injector section can be replaced by the muon linac of only 10-m length. The current design of the linac consists of the following components: independent 805-MHz cavity structure with 6- or 8-cm-radius aperture window; injection of a broad range of pion/muon energies, 10-100 MeV, and acceleration to 150 - 200 MeV. Further acceleration of the muon beam are relatively easy since the beam is already bunched.

  19. 20 years of cosmic muons research performed in IFIN-HH

    SciTech Connect

    Mitrica, Bogdan

    2012-11-20

    During the last two decades a modern direction in particle physics research has been developed in IFIN-HH Bucharest, Romania. The history started with the WILLI detector built in IFIN-HH Bucharest in collaboration with KIT Karlsruhe (formerly Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe). The detector was designed for measurements of the low energy muon charge ratio (< 1GeV) based on a delayed coincidence method, measuring the decay time of the muons stopped in the detector: the positive muons decay freely, but the negative muons are captured in the atom thus creating muonic atoms and decay depending on the nature of the host atom. In a first configuration, the WILLI detector was placed in a fixed position for measuring vertical muons. Further WILLI has been transformed in a rotatable device which allows directional measurements of muon charge ratio and muon flux. The results exhibit a pronounced azimuthal asymmetry (East-West effect) due to the different in fluence of the geomagnetic field on the trajectories of positive and negative muons in air. In parallel, flux measurement, taking into account muon events with nergies > 0.4GeV, show a diurnal modulation of the muon flux. The analysis of the muon events for energies < 0.6GeV reveals an aperiodic variation of the muon flux. A new detection system performing coincidence measurements between the WILLI calorimeter and a small array of 12 scintillators plates has been installed in IFIN-HH starting from the autumn of 2010. The aim of the system is to investigate muon charge ratio from individual EAS by using the mini-array as trigger for the WILLI calorimeter. Such experimental studies could provide detailed information on hadronic interaction models and primary cosmic ray composition at energies around 10{sup 15}eV. Simulation studies and preliminary experimental tests, regarding the performances of the mini-array, have been performed using H and Fe primaries, with energies in a range 10{sup 13}eV - 10{sup 15}eV. The results show

  20. Analysis of muon radiography of the Toshiba nuclear critical assembly reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, C. L.; Bacon, Jeffery; Borozdin, Konstantin; Fabritius, J. M.; Perry, John; Ramsey, John; Ban, Yuichiro; Izumi, Mikio; Sano, Yuji; Yoshida, Noriyuki; Miyadera, Haruo; Mizokami, Shinya; Otsuka, Yasuyuki; Yamada, Daichi; Sugita, Tsukasa; Yoshioka, Kenichi

    2014-01-13

    A 1.2 × 1.2 m{sup 2} muon tracker was moved from Los Alamos to the Toshiba facility at Kawasaki, Japan, where it was used to take ∼4 weeks of data radiographing the Toshiba Critical Assembly Reactor with cosmic ray muons. In this paper, we describe the analysis procedure, show results of this experiment, and compare the results to Monte Carlo predictions. The results validate the concept of using cosmic rays to image the damaged cores of the Fukushima Daiichi reactors.

  1. Photon scattering in muon collisions.

    SciTech Connect

    Klasen, M.

    1997-12-18

    The authors estimate the benefit of muon colliders for photon physics. They calculate the rate at which photons are emitted from muon beams in different production mechanisms. Bremsstrahlung is reduced, beamstrahlung disappears, and laser backscattering suffers from a bad conversion of the incoming to the outgoing photon beam in addition to requiring very short wavelengths. As a consequence, the cross sections for jet photoproduction in {mu}p and {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup {minus}} collisions are reduced by factors of 2.2 and 5 compared to ep and e{sup +} e{sup {minus}} machines. However, the cross sections remain sizable and measurable giving access to the photon and proton parton densities down to x values of 10{sup {minus}3} to 10{sup {minus}4}.

  2. Introduction to Mini Muon Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Borozdin, Konstantin N.

    2012-08-13

    Using a mini muon tracker developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory we performed experiments of simple landscapes of various materials, including TNT, 9501, lead, tungsten, aluminium, and water. Most common scenes are four two inches thick step wedges of different dimensions: 12-inch x 12-inch, 12-inch x 9-inch, 12-inch x 6-inch, and 12-inch x 3-inch; and a one three inches thick hemisphere of lead with spherical hollow, and a similar full lead sphere.

  3. Muon ID at the ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Milstene, C.; Fisk, G.; Para, A.; /Fermilab

    2006-09-01

    This paper describes a new way to reconstruct and identify muons with high efficiency and high pion rejection. Since muons at the ILC are often produced with or in jets, for many of the physics channels of interest [1], an efficient algorithm to deal with the identification and separation of particles within jets is important. The algorithm at the core of the method accounts for the effects of the magnetic field and for the loss of energy by charged particles due to ionization in the detector. We have chosen to develop the analysis within the setup of one of the Linear Collider Concept Detectors adopted by the US. Within b-pair production jets, particles cover a wide range in momenta; however {approx}80% of the particles have a momentum below 30 GeV[2]. Our study, focused on bbar-b jets, is preceded by a careful analysis of single energy particles between 2 and 50 GeV. As medium energy particles are a substantial component of the jets, many of the particles lose part of their energy in the calorimeters and the solenoid coil before reaching the muon detector where they may have energy below 2 GeV. To deal with this problem we have implemented a Runge-Kutta correction of the calculated trajectory to better handle these lower energy particles. The multiple scattering and other stochastic processes, more important at lower energy, is addressed by a Kalman-filter integrated into the reconstruction algorithm. The algorithm provides a unique and powerful separation of muons from pions. The 5 Tesla magnetic field from a solenoid surrounds the hadron calorimeter and allows the reconstruction and precision.

  4. A muon beam for cooling experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Jansson, Andreas; Balbekov, V.I.; Broemmelsiek, Daniel Robert; Hu, M.; Mokhov, Nikolai V.; Yonehara, K.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Within the framework of the Fermilab Muon Collider Task Force, the possibility of developing a dedicated muon test beam for cooling experiments has been investigated. Cooling experiments can be performed in a very low intensity muon beam by tracking single particles through the cooling device. With sufficient muon intensity and large enough cooling decrement, a cooling demonstration experiment may also be performed without resolving single particle trajectories, but rather by measuring the average size and position of the beam. This allows simpler, and thus cheaper, detectors and readout electronics to be used. This paper discusses muon production using 400MeV protons from the Linac, decay channel and beamline design, as well as the instrumentation required for such an experiment, in particular as applied to testing the Helical Cooling Channel (HCC) proposed by Muons Inc.

  5. Establishment of a comprehensive set of regional DRLs for CT by means of electronic X-ray examination records.

    PubMed

    Charnock, P; Dunn, A F; Moores, B M; Murphy, J; Wilde, R

    2015-03-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has indicated that the diagnostic reference level (DRL) has the optimisation of protection as its objective for diagnostic and interventional procedures [International Commission on Radiological Protection. Protection against ionising radiation from external sources: ICRP Report 105 (2007)]. An important aim of this paper was to demonstrate a straightforward and cost-effective mechanism for undertaking patient dose audits that can be employed in the production of local and regional DRLs for use by medical physics experts in the provision of scientific support services to diagnostic radiology. The process developed employs electronic X-ray examination records obtained from multiple hospital sites transferred to a central processing and reporting facility. Results of a large-scale audit of patient doses resulting from CT examinations are presented. Doses are expressed in terms of dose length product (DLP) and were collected by remotely accessing electronic examination records held in hospital radiology information systems. Data were collected from 18 hospital sites involving up to 123 different types of examinations covering an ∼18-month period from July 2011 to December 2012. In total, 177 000 CT examination records were collected. Values have been validated against equivalent records obtained from digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) header data and found to be in excellent statistical agreement. Extremely large variations in DLP values were noted for many examinations when data for all scanners were pooled. Results are discussed in relation to other surveys and differences highlighted in terms of the variations in methodologies employed and the numbers of examination records investigated. A mechanism for establishing DRLs is proposed, which could help to unify mechanisms for establishing DRLs for CT examinations.

  6. An Analytical Approach for Estimating Fossil Record and Diversification Events in Sharks, Skates and Rays

    PubMed Central

    Guinot, Guillaume; Adnet, Sylvain; Cappetta, Henri

    2012-01-01

    Background Modern selachians and their supposed sister group (hybodont sharks) have a long and successful evolutionary history. Yet, although selachian remains are considered relatively common in the fossil record in comparison with other marine vertebrates, little is known about the quality of their fossil record. Similarly, only a few works based on specific time intervals have attempted to identify major events that marked the evolutionary history of this group. Methodology/Principal Findings Phylogenetic hypotheses concerning modern selachians’ interrelationships are numerous but differ significantly and no consensus has been found. The aim of the present study is to take advantage of the range of recent phylogenetic hypotheses in order to assess the fit of the selachian fossil record to phylogenies, according to two different branching methods. Compilation of these data allowed the inference of an estimated range of diversity through time and evolutionary events that marked this group over the past 300 Ma are identified. Results indicate that with the exception of high taxonomic ranks (orders), the selachian fossil record is by far imperfect, particularly for generic and post-Triassic data. Timing and amplitude of the various identified events that marked the selachian evolutionary history are discussed. Conclusion/Significance Some identified diversity events were mentioned in previous works using alternative methods (Early Jurassic, mid-Cretaceous, K/T boundary and late Paleogene diversity drops), thus reinforcing the efficiency of the methodology presented here in inferring evolutionary events. Other events (Permian/Triassic, Early and Late Cretaceous diversifications; Triassic/Jurassic extinction) are newly identified. Relationships between these events and paleoenvironmental characteristics and other groups’ evolutionary history are proposed. PMID:22957091

  7. Status of the MANX muon cooling experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Yonehara, K.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Hu, M.; Jansson, A.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.; Lopes, M.; Shiltsev, V.; Yarba, V.; Yu, M.; /Fermilab /Muons Inc., Batavia

    2008-06-01

    A demonstration experiment of six-dimensional (6D) phase space muon beam cooling is a key milestone on the roadmap toward to a real muon collider. In order to achieve this goal, they have designed the Muon Collider and Neutrino Factory Experiment (MANX) channel, which consists of the Helical Cooling Channel (HCC). They discuss the status of the simulation study of the MANX in this document.

  8. Muon cooling in a quadrupole magnet channel

    SciTech Connect

    Neuffer, David; Poklonskiy, A.; /Michigan State U.

    2007-10-01

    As discussed before,[1] a cooling channel using quadrupole magnets in a FODO transport channel can be used for initial cooling of muons. In the present note we discuss this possibility of a FODO focusing channel for cooling, and we present ICOOL simulations of muon cooling within a FODO channel. We explore a 1.5m cell-length cooling channel that could be used for the initial transverse cooling stage of a muon collider or neutrino factory.

  9. Materials science with muon spin rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    During this reporting period, the focus of activity in the Materials Science with Muon Spin Rotation (MSMSR) program was muon spin rotation studies of superconducting materials, in particular the high critical temperature and heavy-fermion materials. Apart from these studies, work was continued on the analysis of muon motion in metal hydrides. Results of these experiments are described in six papers included as appendices.

  10. The US Muon Accelerator Program (MAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Bross, Alan D.; /Fermilab

    2010-12-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of High Energy Physics has recently approved a Muon Accelerator Program (MAP). The primary goal of this effort is to deliver a Design Feasibility Study for a Muon Collider after a 7 year R&D program. This paper presents a brief physics motivation for, and the description of, a Muon Collider facility and then gives an overview of the program. I will then describe in some detail the primary components of the effort.

  11. Status of MICE, the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bross, Alan D.; MICE Collaboration

    2012-08-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will demonstrate transverse muon ionization cooling and is thus a strategic R&D project for future muon facilities. It is under development at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the United Kingdom.

  12. Registration of the high energy muon bundles by the muon detector of the Ani gamma installation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, V. A.; Eganov, V. S.; Nikolskaya, N. M.; Romakhin, V. A.

    The paper presents analyses of muon component of EAS measured with "GAMMA" installation at Mt. Aragats. It shows a strong dependence of muon lateral distribution shape and of total muon number from the age parameter of EAS electron-photon component. Obtained Nµ/Ne dependence demonstrates abrupt change in the knee region.

  13. Gamma-ray thermoluminescence measurements: a record of fallout deposition in Hiroshima?

    PubMed

    Egbert, Stephen D; Kerr, George D

    2012-05-01

    In certain Hiroshima neighborhoods, radiation measurements using thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) exceed what can be explained by the initial gamma-ray doses and uncertainties from the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02). This problem was not previously recognized as being isolated to certain parts of that city. The ratio between TLD measurements and DS02 dose calculations for gamma rays appear to grow larger than unity up to more than three with increasing ground range, but closer examination shows the excess TLD dose (0.1, 0.2, or possibly up to 0.8 Gray) is correlated with certain neighborhoods and could be due to radioactive fallout. At Nagasaki, the TLD measurements do not show this same excess, probably because there were no TLD measurements taken more than 800 m downwind (eastward) from the Nagasaki hypocenter, so that any small excess TLD dose was masked by larger initial gamma-ray doses of 25-80 Gray in the few downwind samples. The DS02 Report had noted many measurements lower than the DS02 calculation for several Nagasaki TLD samples, independent of ground range. This was explained as being the result of previously unaccounted urban shielding which was observed from Nagasaki pre-bomb aerial photos. However, the Hiroshima excess TLD dose issue was not resolved. If the excess TLD doses at Hiroshima are an indication of fallout, it may be possible to use additional TLD studies to make better estimates of the locations and radiation doses to survivors from the fallout after the bombings at both cities.

  14. First photographic records of the giant manta ray Manta birostris off eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Jaine, Fabrice R.A.; Kashiwagi, Tom

    2015-01-01

    We present the first photographic evidence of the presence of the giant manta ray Manta birostris in east Australian waters. Two individuals were photographed off Montague Island in New South Wales and off the north east coast of Tasmania, during summer 2012 and 2014, respectively. These sightings confirm previous unverified reports on the species occurrence and extend the known distribution range of M. birostris to 40°S. We discuss these findings in the context of the species’ migratory behaviour, the regional oceanography along the south east Australian coastline and local productivity events. PMID:25649395

  15. The MANX Muon Cooling Experiment Detection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahn, S. A.; Abrams, R. J.; Ankenbrandt, C.; Cummings, M. A. C.; Johnson, R. P.; Robertsa, T. J.; Yoneharab, K.

    2010-03-01

    The MANX experiment is being proposed to demonstrate the reduction of 6D muon phase space emittance, using a continuous liquid absorber to provide ionization cooling in a helical solenoid magnetic channel. The experiment involves the construction of a two-period-long helical cooling channel (HCC) to reduce the muon invariant emittance by a factor of two. The HCC would replace the current cooling section of the MICE experiment now being set up at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. The MANX experiment would use the existing MICE spectrometers and muon beam line. We discuss the placement of detection planes to optimize the muon track resolution.

  16. Magnets for Muon 6D Cooling Channels

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Rolland; Flanagan, Gene

    2014-09-10

    The Helical Cooling Channel (HCC), an innovative technique for six-dimensional (6D) cooling of muon beams using a continuous absorber inside superconducting magnets, has shown considerable promise based on analytic and simulation studies. The implementation of this revolutionary method of muon cooling requires high field superconducting magnets that provide superimposed solenoid, helical dipole, and helical quadrupole fields. Novel magnet design concepts are required to provide HCC magnet systems with the desired fields for 6D muon beam cooling. New designs feature simple coil configurations that produce these complex fields with the required characteristics, where new high field conductor materials are particularly advantageous. The object of the program was to develop designs and construction methods for HCC magnets and design a magnet system for a 6D muon beam cooling channel. If successful the program would develop the magnet technologies needed to create bright muon beams for many applications ranging from scientific accelerators and storage rings to beams to study material properties and new sources of energy. Examples of these applications include energy frontier muon colliders, Higgs and neutrino factories, stopping muon beams for studies of rare fundamental interactions and muon catalyzed fusion, and muon sources for cargo screening for homeland security.

  17. Muon detection studied by pulse-height energy analysis: Novel converter arrangements.

    PubMed

    Holmlid, Leif; Olafsson, Sveinn

    2015-08-01

    Muons are conventionally measured by a plastic scintillator-photomultiplier detector. Muons from processes in ultra-dense hydrogen H(0) are detected here by a novel type of converter in front of a photomultiplier. The muon detection yield can be increased relative to that observed with a plastic scintillator by at least a factor of 100, using a converter of metal, semiconductor (Ge), or glass for interaction with the muons penetrating through the metal housing of the detector. This detection process is due to transient formation of excited nuclei by the well-known process of muon capture, giving beta decay. The main experimental results shown here are in the form of beta electron energy spectra detected directly by the photomultiplier. Events which give a high-energy tail in the energy spectra are probably due to gamma photons from the muons. Sharp and intense x-ray peaks from a muonic aluminium converter or housing material are observed. The detection conversion in glass and Ge converters has a time constant of the order of many minutes to reach the final conversion level, while the process in metal converters is stabilized faster. The time constants are not due to lifetimes of the excited nuclei or neutrons but are due to internal charging in the insulating converter material. Interaction of this charging with the high voltage in the photomultiplier is observed. PMID:26329180

  18. Muon detection studied by pulse-height energy analysis: Novel converter arrangements.

    PubMed

    Holmlid, Leif; Olafsson, Sveinn

    2015-08-01

    Muons are conventionally measured by a plastic scintillator-photomultiplier detector. Muons from processes in ultra-dense hydrogen H(0) are detected here by a novel type of converter in front of a photomultiplier. The muon detection yield can be increased relative to that observed with a plastic scintillator by at least a factor of 100, using a converter of metal, semiconductor (Ge), or glass for interaction with the muons penetrating through the metal housing of the detector. This detection process is due to transient formation of excited nuclei by the well-known process of muon capture, giving beta decay. The main experimental results shown here are in the form of beta electron energy spectra detected directly by the photomultiplier. Events which give a high-energy tail in the energy spectra are probably due to gamma photons from the muons. Sharp and intense x-ray peaks from a muonic aluminium converter or housing material are observed. The detection conversion in glass and Ge converters has a time constant of the order of many minutes to reach the final conversion level, while the process in metal converters is stabilized faster. The time constants are not due to lifetimes of the excited nuclei or neutrons but are due to internal charging in the insulating converter material. Interaction of this charging with the high voltage in the photomultiplier is observed.

  19. Muon detection studied by pulse-height energy analysis: Novel converter arrangements

    SciTech Connect

    Holmlid, Leif; Olafsson, Sveinn

    2015-08-15

    Muons are conventionally measured by a plastic scintillator–photomultiplier detector. Muons from processes in ultra-dense hydrogen H(0) are detected here by a novel type of converter in front of a photomultiplier. The muon detection yield can be increased relative to that observed with a plastic scintillator by at least a factor of 100, using a converter of metal, semiconductor (Ge), or glass for interaction with the muons penetrating through the metal housing of the detector. This detection process is due to transient formation of excited nuclei by the well-known process of muon capture, giving beta decay. The main experimental results shown here are in the form of beta electron energy spectra detected directly by the photomultiplier. Events which give a high-energy tail in the energy spectra are probably due to gamma photons from the muons. Sharp and intense x-ray peaks from a muonic aluminium converter or housing material are observed. The detection conversion in glass and Ge converters has a time constant of the order of many minutes to reach the final conversion level, while the process in metal converters is stabilized faster. The time constants are not due to lifetimes of the excited nuclei or neutrons but are due to internal charging in the insulating converter material. Interaction of this charging with the high voltage in the photomultiplier is observed.

  20. Measurement of the charge ratio of atmospheric muons with the CMS detector

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, Vardan; et al.

    2010-08-01

    We present a measurement of the ratio of positive to negative muon fluxes from cosmic ray interactions in the atmosphere, using data collected by the CMS detector both at ground level and in the underground experimental cavern at the CERN LHC. Muons were detected in the momentum range from 5 GeV/c to 1 TeV/c. The surface flux ratio is measured to be 1.2766 \\pm 0.0032(stat.) \\pm 0.0032 (syst.), independent of the muon momentum, below 100 GeV/c. This is the most precise measurement to date. At higher momenta the data are consistent with an increase of the charge ratio, in agreement with cosmic ray shower models and compatible with previous measurements by deep-underground experiments.

  1. X-Ray Fiber Diffraction Recordings from Oriented Demembranated Chlamydomonas Flagellar Axonemes.

    PubMed

    Toba, Shiori; Iwamoto, Hiroyuki; Kamimura, Shinji; Oiwa, Kazuhiro

    2015-06-16

    The high homology of its axonemal components with humans and a large repertoire of axonemal mutants make Chlamydomonas a useful model system for experiments on the structure and function of eukaryotic cilia and flagella. Using this organism, we explored the spatial arrangement of axonemal components under physiological conditions by small-angle x-ray fiber diffraction. Axonemes were oriented in physiological solution by continuous shear flow and exposed to intense and stable x rays generated in the synchrotron radiation facility SPring-8, BL45XU. We compared diffraction patterns from axonemes isolated from wild-type and mutant strains lacking the whole outer arm (oda1), radial spoke (pf14), central apparatus (pf18), or the α-chain of the outer arm dynein (oda11). Diffraction of the axonemes showed a series of well-defined meridional/layer-line and equatorial reflections. Diffraction patterns from mutant axonemes exhibited a systematic loss/attenuation of meridional/layer-line reflections, making it possible to determine the origin of various reflections. The 1/24 and 1/12 nm(-1) meridional reflections of oda1 and oda11 were much weaker than those of the wild-type, suggesting that the outer dynein arms are the main contributor to these reflections. The weaker 1/32 and 1/13.7 nm(-1) meridional reflections from pf14 compared with the wild-type suggest that these reflections come mainly from the radial spokes. The limited contribution of the central pair apparatus to the diffraction patterns was confirmed by the similarity between the patterns of the wild-type and pf18. The equatorial reflections were complex, but a comparison with electron micrograph-based models allowed the density of each axonemal component to be estimated. Addition of ATP to rigor-state axonemes also resulted in subtle changes in equatorial intensity profiles, which could report nucleotide-dependent structural changes of the dynein arms. The first detailed description of axonemal reflections

  2. X-Ray Fiber Diffraction Recordings from Oriented Demembranated Chlamydomonas Flagellar Axonemes.

    PubMed

    Toba, Shiori; Iwamoto, Hiroyuki; Kamimura, Shinji; Oiwa, Kazuhiro

    2015-06-16

    The high homology of its axonemal components with humans and a large repertoire of axonemal mutants make Chlamydomonas a useful model system for experiments on the structure and function of eukaryotic cilia and flagella. Using this organism, we explored the spatial arrangement of axonemal components under physiological conditions by small-angle x-ray fiber diffraction. Axonemes were oriented in physiological solution by continuous shear flow and exposed to intense and stable x rays generated in the synchrotron radiation facility SPring-8, BL45XU. We compared diffraction patterns from axonemes isolated from wild-type and mutant strains lacking the whole outer arm (oda1), radial spoke (pf14), central apparatus (pf18), or the α-chain of the outer arm dynein (oda11). Diffraction of the axonemes showed a series of well-defined meridional/layer-line and equatorial reflections. Diffraction patterns from mutant axonemes exhibited a systematic loss/attenuation of meridional/layer-line reflections, making it possible to determine the origin of various reflections. The 1/24 and 1/12 nm(-1) meridional reflections of oda1 and oda11 were much weaker than those of the wild-type, suggesting that the outer dynein arms are the main contributor to these reflections. The weaker 1/32 and 1/13.7 nm(-1) meridional reflections from pf14 compared with the wild-type suggest that these reflections come mainly from the radial spokes. The limited contribution of the central pair apparatus to the diffraction patterns was confirmed by the similarity between the patterns of the wild-type and pf18. The equatorial reflections were complex, but a comparison with electron micrograph-based models allowed the density of each axonemal component to be estimated. Addition of ATP to rigor-state axonemes also resulted in subtle changes in equatorial intensity profiles, which could report nucleotide-dependent structural changes of the dynein arms. The first detailed description of axonemal reflections

  3. X-Ray Fiber Diffraction Recordings from Oriented Demembranated Chlamydomonas Flagellar Axonemes

    PubMed Central

    Toba, Shiori; Iwamoto, Hiroyuki; Kamimura, Shinji; Oiwa, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The high homology of its axonemal components with humans and a large repertoire of axonemal mutants make Chlamydomonas a useful model system for experiments on the structure and function of eukaryotic cilia and flagella. Using this organism, we explored the spatial arrangement of axonemal components under physiological conditions by small-angle x-ray fiber diffraction. Axonemes were oriented in physiological solution by continuous shear flow and exposed to intense and stable x rays generated in the synchrotron radiation facility SPring-8, BL45XU. We compared diffraction patterns from axonemes isolated from wild-type and mutant strains lacking the whole outer arm (oda1), radial spoke (pf14), central apparatus (pf18), or the α-chain of the outer arm dynein (oda11). Diffraction of the axonemes showed a series of well-defined meridional/layer-line and equatorial reflections. Diffraction patterns from mutant axonemes exhibited a systematic loss/attenuation of meridional/layer-line reflections, making it possible to determine the origin of various reflections. The 1/24 and 1/12 nm−1 meridional reflections of oda1 and oda11 were much weaker than those of the wild-type, suggesting that the outer dynein arms are the main contributor to these reflections. The weaker 1/32 and 1/13.7 nm−1 meridional reflections from pf14 compared with the wild-type suggest that these reflections come mainly from the radial spokes. The limited contribution of the central pair apparatus to the diffraction patterns was confirmed by the similarity between the patterns of the wild-type and pf18. The equatorial reflections were complex, but a comparison with electron micrograph-based models allowed the density of each axonemal component to be estimated. Addition of ATP to rigor-state axonemes also resulted in subtle changes in equatorial intensity profiles, which could report nucleotide-dependent structural changes of the dynein arms. The first detailed description of axonemal reflections

  4. Status of the MACRO experiment at Gran Sasso. [Monopole Astrophysics and Cosmic Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahlen, Steve

    1990-01-01

    The design of the MACRO (Monopole Astrophysics and Cosmic Ray Observatory) experiment is described, and the results achieved by the running of its first supermodule are summarized. Searches for magnetic monopoles and point sources of downward muons resulted in no detections. One upward moving muon was seen along with abundant data on muon bundles.

  5. The performance of the Muon Veto of the G erda experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, K.; Falkenstein, R.; Grabmayr, P.; Hegai, A.; Jochum, J.; Knapp, M.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Ritter, F.; Schmitt, C.; Schütz, A.-K.; Jitnikov, I.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Zinatulina, D.

    2016-05-01

    Low background experiments need a suppression of cosmogenically induced events. The Gerda experiment located at Lngs is searching for the 0ν β β decay of ^{76}Ge. It is equipped with an active muon veto the main part of which is a water Cherenkov veto with 66 PMTs in the water tank surrounding the Gerda cryostat. With this system 806 live days have been recorded, 491 days were combined muon-germanium data. A muon detection efficiency of \\varepsilon _\\upmu d=(99.935± 0.015) % was found in a Monte Carlo simulation for the muons depositing energy in the germanium detectors. By examining coincident muon-germanium events a rejection efficiency of \\varepsilon _{\\upmu r}=(99.2_{-0.4}^{+0.3}) % was found. Without veto condition the muons by themselves would cause a background index of {BI}_{μ }=(3.16 ± 0.85)× 10^{-3} cts/(keV\\cdot kg\\cdot year) at Q_{β β }.

  6. Fast Fourier transform to measure pressure coefficient of muons in the GRAPES-3 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, P. K.; Ahmad, S.; Antia, H. M.; Arunbabu, K. P.; Chandra, A.; Dugad, S. R.; Gupta, S. K.; Hariharan, B.; Hayashi, Y.; Jagadeesan, P.; Jain, A.; Kawakami, S.; Kojima, H.; Morris, S. D.; Nayak, P. K.; Oshima, A.; Rao, B. S.; Reddy, L. V.; Shibata, S.

    2016-06-01

    The GRAPES-3 large area (560 m2) tracking muon telescope is operating at Ooty in India since 2001. It records 4 × 109 muons of energy ≥ 1 GeV every day. These high statistics data have enabled extremely sensitive measurements of solar phenomena, including the solar anisotropies, Forbush decreases, coronal mass ejections etc. to be made. However, prior to such studies, the variation in observed muon rate caused by changes in atmospheric pressure needs to be corrected. Traditionally, the pressure coefficient (β) for the muon rate was derived from the observed data. But the influence of various solar effects makes the measurement of β somewhat difficult. In the present work, a different approach to circumvent this difficulty was used to measure β, almost independent of the solar activity. This approach exploits a small amplitude (∼1 hPa) periodic (12 h) variation of atmospheric pressure at Ooty that introduces a synchronous variation in the muon rate. By using the fast Fourier transform technique the spectral power distributions at 12 h from the atmospheric pressure, and muon rate were used to measure β. The value of pressure coefficient was found to be β =(- 0.128 ± 0.005) % hPa-1.

  7. Crystallization mechanisms and recording characteristics of Si/CuSi bilayer for write-once blu-ray disc

    SciTech Connect

    Ou, Sin-Liang; Kuo, Po-Cheng; Tsai, Tsung-Lin; Chen, Sheng-Chi; Yeh, Chin-Yen; Chang, Han-Feng; Lee, Chao-Te; Chiang, Donyau

    2011-09-19

    The crystallization mechanisms of Si/CuSi bilayer and its recording characteristics for write-once blu-ray disc (BD-R) were investigated. It was found that Cu{sub 3}Si phase appeared during the room temperature sputtered deposition. Then, the Si atoms in CuSi layer segregated and crystallized to cubic Si in Cu{sub 3}Si nucleation sites as the film was annealed at 270 deg. C. After heating to 500 deg. C, the grains size of cubic Si phase grew and the hexagonal Si phase was observed. The dynamic tests show that the Si/CuSi bilayer has great feasibility for 1-4x BD-R with the bottom jitter values below 6.5%.

  8. A compact muon tracking system for didactic and outreach activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antolini, R.; Candela, A.; Conicella, V.; De Deo, M.; D` Incecco, M.; Sablone, D.; Arneodo, F.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Di Giovanni, A.; Pazos Clemens, L.; Franchi, G.; d`Inzeo, M.

    2016-07-01

    We present a cosmic ray telescope based on the use of plastic scintillator bars coupled to ASD-RGB1S-M Advansid Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) through wavelength shifter fibers. The system is comprised of 200 electronic channels organized into 10 couples of orthogonal planes allowing the 3D reconstruction of crossing muons. Two monolithic PCB boards have been designed to bias, readout all the SiPMs enclosed in the system, to monitor the working parameters and to remotely connect the detector. To make easier the display of muon tracks to non-expert users, two LED matrices, triggered by particle interactions, have been implemented. To improve the usability of the muon telescope, a controller board unit permits to select different levels of trigger and allows data acquisition for refined analyses for the more proficient user. A first prototype, funded by INFN and deployed in collaboration with NYUAD, is operating at the Toledo Metro station of Naples, while two further detectors will be developed and installed in Abu Dhabi in the next few months.

  9. Our Next Two Steps for Fukushima Daiichi Muon Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Miyadera, Haruo

    2012-04-11

    After the vast disasters caused by the great earthquake and tsunami in eastern Japan, we proposed applying our Muon Tomography (MT) technique to help and improve the emergency situation at Fukushima Daiichi using cosmic-ray muons. A reactor-tomography team was formed at LANL which was supported by the Laboratory as a response to a request by the former Japanese Prime Minister, Naoto Kan. Our goal is to help the Japanese people and support remediation of the reactors. At LANL, we have carried out a proof-of-principle technical demonstration and simulation studies that established the feasibility of MT to image a reactor core. This proposal covers the next two critical steps for Fukushima Daiichi Muon Imaging: (1) undertake case study mock-up experiments of Fukushima Daiichi, and (2) system optimization. We requested funding to the US and Japanese government to assess damage of reactors at Fukushima Daiichi. The two steps will bring our project to the 'ready-to-go' level.

  10. A Low-cost, Portable, Ruggedized Cosmic Muon Detector Prototype for Geological Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguayo Navarrete, E.; Bonneville, A.

    2012-12-01

    Muons, neutrons and protons observed at the Earth's surface are generated by cosmic ray primaries causing cascades in the atmosphere. Cosmic muon tomography is a cost effective real time monitoring technique that can be applied to determine large scale displacement of reservoir fluids induced by injection of liquid or gas. Such technique would need a detector array with an overall sensitivity tailored to the monitored volume and the expected density change in the target geological formation over the projected injection time. A scalable detector system, able to withstand the harsh conditions of underground deployment is a must for the evaluation of this promising technique. This paper presents the design and construction of a portable muon flux monitor, known as the μ-Witness. The detector is based on coincidence counts between two scintillator panels to be used as an indicator of density-dependent attenuation of cosmic muon flux. The Muon Witness detector (μ-Witness) has been designed to be able to measure cosmic muon flux for periods of time of up to 40 days, using battery power. The prototype has been mounted in a ruggedized case to enable measurements in underground environments. The purpose of this prototype is to evaluate the feasibility of using 3D density tomography in geological applications. The efficiency of the detector has been experimentally determined to be 57±3%. This measurement was performed by comparing the detector response to the response of a larger and more efficient muon counter in the same location. Using Monte Carlo simulations of the cosmic muon flux, and the measured efficiency, the projected sensitivities for density changes in large underground monitored volumes are presented as well as the results of a test run in a shallow underground facility. Along with a detector prototype, a model of the muon attenuation inversion must be developed in order to take into account the different energy and angular distribution of the cosmic muons

  11. Michel parameters in radiative muon decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbuzov, A. B.; Kopylova, T. V.

    2016-09-01

    Radiative muon and tau lepton decays are described within the model-independent approach with the help of generalized Michel parameters. The exact dependence on charged lepton masses is taken into account. The results are relevant for modern and future experiments on muon and tau lepton decays.

  12. Polarization Effects at a Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Parsa, Z.

    1998-11-01

    For Muon Colliders, Polarization will be a useful tool if high polarization is achievable with little luminosity loss. Formulation and effects of beam polarization and luminosity including polarization effects in Higgs resonance studies are discussed for improving precision measurements and Higgs resonance ''discovery'' capability e.g. at the First Muon Collider (FMC).

  13. Neutron Production by Muon Spallation I: Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Luu, T; Hagmann, C

    2006-11-13

    We describe the physics and codes developed in the Muon Physics Package. This package is a self-contained Fortran90 module that is intended to be used with the Monte Carlo package MCNPX. We calculate simulated energy spectra, multiplicities, and angular distributions of direct neutrons and pions from muon spallation.

  14. HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS POTENTIAL AT MUON COLLIDERS

    SciTech Connect

    PARSA,Z.

    2000-04-07

    In this paper, high energy physics possibilities and future colliders are discussed. The {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup {minus}} collider and experiments with high intensity muon beams as the stepping phase towards building Higher Energy Muon Colliders (HEMC) are briefly reviewed and encouraged.

  15. PRECURSORS OF THE FORBUSH DECREASE ON 2006 DECEMBER 14 OBSERVED WITH THE GLOBAL MUON DETECTOR NETWORK (GMDN)

    SciTech Connect

    Fushishita, A.; Kato, C.; Yasue, S.; Munakata, K.; Kuwabara, T.; Bieber, J. W.; Evenson, P.; Da Silva, M. R.; Lago, A. Dal; Schuch, N. J.; Tokumaru, M.; Duldig, M. L.; Humble, J. E.; Sabbah, I.; Al Jassar, H. K.; Sharma, M. M.

    2010-06-01

    We analyze the precursor of a Forbush decrease (FD) observed with the Global Muon Detector Network on 2006 December 14. An intense geomagnetic storm is also recorded during this FD with the peak Kp index of 8+. By using the 'two-dimensional map' of the cosmic ray intensity produced after removing the contribution from the diurnal anisotropy, we succeed in extracting clear signatures of the precursor. A striking feature of this event is that a weak loss-cone (LC) signature is first recorded more than a day prior to the storm sudden commencement (SSC) onset. This suggests that the LC precursor appeared only 7 hr after the coronal mass ejection eruption from the Sun, when the interplanetary (IP) shock driven by the interplanetary coronal mass ejection was located at 0.4 AU from the Sun. We find the precursor being successively observed with multiple detectors in the network according to the Earth's spin and confirmed that the precursor continuously exists in space. The long lead time (15.6 hr) of this precursor which is almost twice the typical value indicates that the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) was more quiet in this event than a typical power spectrum assumed for the IMF turbulence. The amplitude (-6.45%) of the LC anisotropy at the SSC onset is more than twice the FD size, indicating that the maximum intensity depression behind the IP shock is much larger than the FD size recorded at the Earth in this event. We also find the excess intensity from the sunward IMF direction clearly observed during {approx}10 hr preceding the SSC onset. It is shown that this excess intensity is consistent with the measurement of the particles accelerated by the head-on collisions with the approaching shock. This is the first detailed observation of the precursor due to the shock reflected particles with muon detectors.

  16. Reverse Emittance Exchange for Muon Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    V. Ivanov, A. Afanasev, C.M. Ankenbrandt, R.P. Johnson, G.M. Wang, S.A. Bogacz, Y.S. Derbenev

    2009-05-01

    Muon collider luminosity depends on the number of muons in the storage ring and on the transverse size of the beams in collision. Ionization cooling as it is currently envisioned will not cool the beam sizes sufficiently well to provide adequate luminosity without large muon intensities. Six-dimensional cooling schemes will reduce the longitudinal emittance of a muon beam so that smaller high frequency RF cavities can be used for later stages of cooling and for acceleration. However, the bunch length at collision energy is then shorter than needed to match the interaction region beta function. New ideas to shrink transverse beam dimensions by lengthening each bunch will help achieve high luminosity in muon colliders. Analytic expressions for the reverse emittance exchange mechanism were derived, including a new resonant method of beam focusing.

  17. Cold fusion catalyzed by muons and electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Kulsrud, R.M.

    1990-10-01

    Two alternative methods have been suggested to produce fusion power at low temperature. The first, muon catalyzed fusion or MCF, uses muons to spontaneously catalyze fusion through the muon mesomolecule formation. Unfortunately, this method fails to generate enough fusion energy to supply the muons, by a factor of about ten. The physics of MCF is discussed, and a possible approach to increasing the number of MCF fusions generated by each muon is mentioned. The second method, which has become known as Cold Fusion,'' involves catalysis by electrons in electrolytic cells. The physics of this process, if it exists, is more mysterious than MCF. However, it now appears to be an artifact, the claims for its reality resting largely on experimental errors occurring in rather delicate experiments. However, a very low level of such fusion claimed by Jones may be real. Experiments in cold fusion will also be discussed.

  18. Observation of muon intensity variations by season with the MINOS far detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamson, P.; Andreopoulos, C.; Arms, K. E.; Armstrong, R.; Auty, D. J.; Ayres, D. S.; Backhouse, C.; Barnett, J.; Barr, G.; Barrett, W. L.; Becker, B. R.; Bishai, M.; Blake, A.; Bock, B.; Bock, G. J.; Boehnlein, D. J.; Bogert, D.; Bower, C.; Cavanaugh, S.; Chapman, J. D.; Cherdack, D.; Childress, S.; Choudhary, B. C.; Cobb, J. H.; Coleman, S. J.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Culling, A. J.; Danko, I. Z.; de Jong, J. K.; Devenish, N. E.; Diwan, M. V.; Dorman, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Evans, J. J.; Falk, E.; Feldman, G. J.; Fields, T. H.; Frohne, M. V.; Gallagher, H. R.; Godley, A.; Goodman, M. C.; Gouffon, P.; Gran, R.; Grashorn, E. W.; Grzelak, K.; Habig, A.; Harris, D.; Harris, P. G.; Hartnell, J.; Hatcher, R.; Heller, K.; Himmel, A.; Holin, A.; Hylen, J.; Irwin, G. M.; Isvan, Z.; Jaffe, D. E.; James, C.; Jensen, D.; Kafka, T.; Kasahara, S. M. S.; Koizumi, G.; Kopp, S.; Kordosky, M.; Korman, K.; Koskinen, D. J.; Krahn, Z.; Kreymer, A.; Lang, K.; Ling, J.; Litchfield, P. J.; Loiacono, L.; Lucas, P.; Ma, J.; Mann, W. A.; Marshak, M. L.; Marshall, J. S.; Mayer, N.; McGowan, A. M.; Mehdiyev, R.; Meier, J. R.; Messier, M. D.; Metelko, C. J.; Michael, D. G.; Miller, W. H.; Mishra, S. R.; Mitchell, J.; Moore, C. D.; Morfín, J.; Mualem, L.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Newman, H. B.; Nichol, R. J.; Nicholls, T. C.; Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P.; Oliver, W. P.; Osiecki, T.; Ospanov, R.; Osprey, S.; Paley, J.; Patterson, R. B.; Patzak, T.; Pawloski, G.; Pearce, G. F.; Peterson, E. A.; Pittam, R.; Plunkett, R. K.; Rahaman, A.; Rameika, R. A.; Raufer, T. M.; Rebel, B.; Reichenbacher, J.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rubin, H. A.; Ryabov, V. A.; Sanchez, M. C.; Saoulidou, N.; Schneps, J.; Schreiner, P.; Shanahan, P.; Smart, W.; Smith, C.; Sousa, A.; Speakman, B.; Stamoulis, P.; Strait, M.; Tagg, N.; Talaga, R. L.; Thomas, J.; Thomson, M. A.; Thron, J. L.; Tinti, G.; Toner, R.; Tsarev, V. A.; Tzanakos, G.; Urheim, J.; Vahle, P.; Viren, B.; Watabe, M.; Weber, A.; Webb, R. C.; West, N.; White, C.; Whitehead, L.; Wojcicki, S. G.; Wright, D. M.; Yang, T.; Zois, M.; Zhang, K.; Zwaska, R.; MINOS Collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The temperature of the upper atmosphere affects the height of primary cosmic ray interactions and the production of high-energy cosmic ray muons which can be detected deep underground. The MINOS far detector at Soudan, MN, has collected over 67×106 cosmic ray induced muons. The underground muon rate measured over a period of five years exhibits a 4% peak-to-peak seasonal variation which is highly correlated with the temperature in the upper atmosphere. The coefficient, αT, relating changes in the muon rate to changes in atmospheric temperature was found to be αT=0.873±0.009(stat)±0.010(syst). Pions and kaons in the primary hadronic interactions of cosmic rays in the atmosphere contribute differently to αT due to the different masses and lifetimes. This allows the measured value of αT to be interpreted as a measurement of the K/π ratio for Ep≳7TeV of 0.12-0.05+0.07, consistent with the expectation from collider experiments.

  19. Observation of muon intensity variations by season with the MINOS far detector

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, P.; Andreopoulos, C.; Arms, K.E.; Armstrong, R.; Auty, D.J.; Ayres, D.S.; Backhouse, C.; Barnett, J.; Barr, G.; Barrett, W.L.; Becker, B.R.; /Minnesota U. /Brookhaven

    2009-09-01

    The temperature of the upper atmosphere affects the height of primary cosmic ray interactions and the production of high-energy cosmic ray muons which can be detected deep underground. The MINOS far detector at Soudan MN, USA, has collected over 67 million cosmic ray induced muons. The underground muon rate measured over a period of five years exhibits a 4% peak-to-peak seasonal variation which is highly correlated with the temperature in the upper atmosphere. The coefficient, {alpha}{sub T}, relating changes in the muon rate to changes in atmospheric temperature was found to be: {alpha}{sub T} = 0.874 {+-} 0.009 (stat.) {+-} 0.010$ (syst.). Pions and kaons in the primary hadronic interactions of cosmic rays in the atmosphere contribute differently to {alpha}{sub T} due to the different masses and lifetimes. This allows the measured value of {alpha}{sub T} to be interpreted as a measurement of the K{pi} ratio for E{sub p}/unit[7](TeV) of $0.13 {+-} 0.08, consistent with the expectation from collider experiments.

  20. Sudden stratospheric warmings seen in MINOS deep underground muon data

    SciTech Connect

    Osprey, S.; Barnett, J.; Smith, J.; Adamson, P.; Andreopoulos, C.; Arms, K.E.; Armstrong, R.; Auty, D.J.; Ayres, D.S.; Baller, B.; Barnes, P.D., Jr.; /LLNL, Livermore /Oxford U.

    2009-01-01

    The rate of high energy cosmic ray muons as measured underground is shown to be strongly correlated with upper-air temperatures during short-term atmospheric (10-day) events. The effects are seen by correlating data from the MINOS underground detector and temperatures from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts during the winter periods from 2003-2007. This effect provides an independent technique for the measurement of meteorological conditions and presents a unique opportunity to measure both short and long-term changes in this important part of the atmosphere.

  1. Muon spin rotation research program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stronach, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    Data from cyclotron experiments and room temperature studies of dilute iron alloys and iron crystals under strain were analyzed. The Fe(Mo) data indicate that the effect upon the contact hyperfine field in Fe due to the introduction of Mo is considerably less than that expected from pure dilution, and the muon (+) are attracted to the Mo impurity sites. There is a significant change in the interstitial magnetic field with Nb concentration. The Fe(Ti) data, for which precession could clearly be observed early only at 468K and above, show that the Ti impurities are attractive to muon (+), and the magnitude of B(hf) is reduced far beyond the amount expected from pure dilution. Changes in the intersitital magnetic field with the introduction of Cr, W, Ge, and Si are also discussed. When strained to the elastic limit, the interstitial magnetic field in Fe crystals is reduced by 33 gauss, and the relaxation rate of the precession signal increases by 47%.

  2. Muon implantation of metallocenes: ferrocene.

    PubMed

    Jayasooriya, Upali A; Grinter, Roger; Hubbard, Penny L; Aston, Georgina M; Stride, John A; Hopkins, Gareth A; Camus, Laure; Reid, Ivan D; Cottrell, Stephen P; Cox, Stephen F J

    2007-01-01

    Muon Spin Relaxation and Avoided Level Crossing (ALC) measurements of ferrocene are reported. The main features observed are five high field resonances in the ALC spectrum at about 3.26, 2.44, 2.04, 1.19 and 1.17 T, for the low-temperature phase at 18 K. The high-temperature phase at 295 K shows that only the last feature shifted down to about 0.49 T and a muon spin relaxation peak at about 0.106 T which approaches zero field when reaching the phase transition temperature of 164 K. A model involving three muoniated radicals, two with muonium addition to the cyclopentadienyl ring and the other to the metal atom, is postulated to rationalise these observations. A theoretical treatment involving spin-orbit coupling is found to be required to understand the Fe-Mu adduct, where an interesting interplay between the ferrocene ring dynamics and the spin-orbit coupling of the unpaired electron is shown to be important. The limiting temperature above which the full effect of spin-orbit interaction is observable in the muSR spectra of ferrocene was estimated to be 584 K. Correlation time for the ring rotation dynamics of the Fe-Mu radical at this temperature is 3.2 ps. Estimated electron g values and the changes in zero-field splittings for this temperature range are also reported.

  3. Higher-Order Systematic Effects in the Muon Beam-Spin Dynamics for Muon g-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crnkovic, Jason; Brown, Hugh; Krouppa, Brandon; Metodiev, Eric; Morse, William; Semertzidis, Yannis; Tishchenko, Vladimir

    2016-03-01

    The BNL Muon g-2 Experiment (E821) produced a precision measurement of the muon anomalous magnetic moment, where as the Fermilab Muon g-2 Experiment (E989) is an upgraded version of E821 that has a goal of producing a measurement with approximately 4 times more precision. Improving the precision requires a more detailed understanding of the experimental systematic effects, and so three higher-order systematic effects in the muon beam-spin dynamics have recently been found and estimated for E821. The beamline systematic effect originates from muon production in beamline spectrometers, as well as from muons traversing beamline bending magnets. The kicker systematic effect comes from a combination of the variation in time spent inside the muon storage ring across a muon bunch and the temporal structure of the storage ring kicker waveform. Finally, the detector systematic effect arises from a combination of the energy dependent muon equilibrium orbit in the storage ring, muon decay electron drift time, and decay electron detector acceptance effects. Brookhaven Natl Lab.

  4. Perspectives of a mid-rapidity dimuon program at the RHIC: a novel and compact muon telescope detector

    SciTech Connect

    STAR Collaboration; Ruan, L.; Lin, G.; Xu, Z.; Asselta, K.; Chen, H.F.; Christie, W.; Crawford, H.k.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Hallman, T.J.; Li, C.; Liu, J.; Llope, W.J.; Majka, R.; Nussbaum, T.; Scheblein, J.; Shao, M.; Soja, R.; Sun, Y.; Tang, Z.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.

    2009-07-17

    We propose a large-area, cost-effective Muon Telescope Detector (MTD) at mid-rapidity for the Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC (STAR) and for the next generation of detectors at a possible electron-ion collider. We utilize large Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chambers with long readout strips (long-MRPC) in the detector design. The results from cosmic ray and beam tests show the intrinsic timing and spatial resolution for a long-MRPC are 60-70 ps and {approx} 1 cm, respectively. The performance of the prototype muon telescope detector at STAR indicates that muon identification at a transverse momentum of a few GeV/c can be achieved by combining information from track matching with the MTD, ionization energy loss in the Time Projection Chamber, and time-of-flight measurements. A primary muon over secondary muon ratio of better than 1/3 can be achieved. This provides a promising device for future quarkonium programs and primordial dilepton measurements at RHIC. Simulations of the muon efficiency, the signal-to-background ratio of J/{psi}, the separation of {Upsilon} 1S from 2S+3S states, and the electron-muon correlation from charm pair production in the RHIC environment are presented.

  5. The program in muon and neutrino physics: Superbeams, cold muon beams, neutrino factory and the muon collider

    SciTech Connect

    R. Raja et al.

    2001-08-08

    The concept of a Muon Collider was first proposed by Budker [10] and by Skrinsky [11] in the 60s and early 70s. However, there was little substance to the concept until the idea of ionization cooling was developed by Skrinsky and Parkhomchuk [12]. The ionization cooling approach was expanded by Neufer [13] and then by Palmer [14], whose work led to the formation of the Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Collaboration (MC) [3] in 1995. The concept of a neutrino source based on a pion storage ring was originally considered by Koshkarev [18]. However, the intensity of the muons created within the ring from pion decay was too low to provide a useful neutrino source. The Muon Collider concept provided a way to produce a very intense muon source. The physics potential of neutrino beams produced by muon storage rings was investigated by Geer in 1997 at a Fermilab workshop [19, 20] where it became evident that the neutrino beams produced by muon storage rings needed for the muon collider were exciting on their own merit. The neutrino factory concept quickly captured the imagination of the particle physics community, driven in large part by the exciting atmospheric neutrino deficit results from the SuperKamiokande experiment. As a result, the MC realized that a Neutrino Factory could be an important first step toward a Muon Collider and the physics that could be addressed by a Neutrino Factory was interesting in its own right. With this in mind, the MC has shifted its primary emphasis toward the issues relevant to a Neutrino Factory. There is also considerable international activity on Neutrino Factories, with international conferences held at Lyon in 1999, Monterey in 2000 [21], Tsukuba in 2001 [22], and another planned for London in 2002.

  6. Muon Energy Calibration of the MINOS Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Miyagawa, Paul S.

    2004-09-01

    MINOS is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment designed to search for conclusive evidence of neutrino oscillations and to measure the oscillation parameters precisely. MINOS comprises two iron tracking calorimeters located at Fermilab and Soudan. The Calibration Detector at CERN is a third MINOS detector used as part of the detector response calibration programme. A correct energy calibration between these detectors is crucial for the accurate measurement of oscillation parameters. This thesis presents a calibration developed to produce a uniform response within a detector using cosmic muons. Reconstruction of tracks in cosmic ray data is discussed. This data is utilized to calculate calibration constants for each readout channel of the Calibration Detector. These constants have an average statistical error of 1.8%. The consistency of the constants is demonstrated both within a single run and between runs separated by a few days. Results are presented from applying the calibration to test beam particles measured by the Calibration Detector. The responses are calibrated to within 1.8% systematic error. The potential impact of the calibration on the measurement of oscillation parameters by MINOS is also investigated. Applying the calibration reduces the errors in the measured parameters by {approx} 10%, which is equivalent to increasing the amount of data by 20%.

  7. Astronomical Point Sources of Underground Muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, Mark Joseph

    The Soudan 2 detector has been in routine operation since June 1988, and at least 25% of the full 16m x 8m x 5m detector has been in place since January 1989. In this thesis, the underground muon data from the Soudan 2 detector for the period January 21, 1989 through July 31, 1990 are studied for indications of excess emission from four potential astronomical sources. Signals are claimed at about the 85% confidence level for PSR1957 + 20 near the L4 stable Lagrange point and X2127 + 11 near the phase of the 150s 1988 X-ray burst. In addition, a signal is indicated at the 87% confidence level for Cygnus X-3 during a 111 day period during the 1989 radio burst. Despite the low significance of these reports, they are notable because the signals are in phase regions of a priori interest. Using this fact boosts the confidence levels to greater than 95%. In addition, a 90% flux limit is calculated to be 2.1 times rm 10^{-11}s^{-1}cm ^{-2} for events from Cygnus X -3 during the period of the data set. This is compared to the flux reported from other underground experiments.

  8. Measurement of the Muon Atmospheric Production Depth with the Water Cherenkov Detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Molina Bueno, Laura

    2015-09-01

    Ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECR) are particles of uncertain origin and composition, with energies above 1 EeV (1018 eV or 0.16 J). The measured flux of UHECR is a steeply decreasing function of energy. The largest and most sensitive apparatus built to date to record and study cosmic ray Extensive Air Showers (EAS) is the Pierre Auger Observatory. The Pierre Auger Observatory has produced the largest and finest amount of data ever collected for UHECR. A broad physics program is being carried out covering all relevant topics of the field. Among them, one of the most interesting is the problem related to the estimation of the mass composition of cosmic rays in this energy range. Currently the best measurements of mass are those obtained by studying the longitudinal development of the electromagnetic part of the EAS with the Fluorescence Detector. However, the collected statistics is small, specially at energies above several tens of EeV. Although less precise, the volume of data gathered with the Surface Detector is nearly a factor ten larger than the fluorescence data. So new ways to study composition with data collected at the ground are under investigation. The subject of this thesis follows one of those new lines of research. Using preferentially the time information associated with the muons that reach the ground, we try to build observables related to the composition of the primaries that initiated the EAS. A simple phenomenological model relates the arrival times with the depths in the atmosphere where muons are produced. The experimental confirmation that the distributions of muon production depths (MPD) correlate with the mass of the primary particle has opened the way to a variety of studies, of which this thesis is a continuation, with the aim of enlarging and improving its range of applicability. We revisit the phenomenological model which is at the root of the analysis and discuss a new way to improve some aspects of the model. We carry

  9. Neutron emission following muon capture in Ce-142, Ce-140, Ba-138, and Sn-120.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, G. R., Jr.; Martin, P.; Welsh, R. E.; Jenkins, D. A.; Powers, R. J.; Kunselman, A. R.; Miller, G. H.

    1973-01-01

    Branching ratios to excited nuclear states formed after muon capture have been measured with Ge(Li) detectors. The delayed gamma rays were observed in studies of muonic Ce-142, Ce-140, Ba-138, and Sn-120, using separated isotopes. The resulting isotopes formed indicate at least a 60% probability of neutron emission upon muon capture, with the most likely product resulting from single-neutron emission. No evidence for delayed proton emission with a probability higher than 2% was found. Using our more precise energies for the observed nuclear transitions, we present revised energy levels schemes for La-141, La-139, Cs-137, and In-119.

  10. Muon simulation codes MUSIC and MUSUN for underground physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtsev, V. A.

    2009-03-01

    The paper describes two Monte Carlo codes dedicated to muon simulations: MUSIC (MUon SImulation Code) and MUSUN (MUon Simulations UNderground). MUSIC is a package for muon transport through matter. It is particularly useful for propagating muons through large thickness of rock or water, for instance from the surface down to underground/underwater laboratory. MUSUN is designed to use the results of muon transport through rock/water to generate muons in or around underground laboratory taking into account their energy spectrum and angular distribution.

  11. Pion contamination in the MICE muon beam

    DOE PAGES

    Adams, D.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Barber, G.; Barclay, P.; de Bari, A.; Bayes, R.; Bayliss, V.; Bertoni, R.; et al

    2016-03-01

    Here, the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a systematic investigation of ionization cooling with muon beams of momentum between 140 and 240\\,MeV/c at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory ISIS facility. The measurement of ionization cooling in MICE relies on the selection of a pure sample of muons that traverse the experiment. To make this selection, the MICE Muon Beam is designed to deliver a beam of muons with less thanmore » $$\\sim$$1% contamination. To make the final muon selection, MICE employs a particle-identification (PID) system upstream and downstream of the cooling cell. The PID system includes time-of-flight hodoscopes, threshold-Cherenkov counters and calorimetry. The upper limit for the pion contamination measured in this paper is $$f_\\pi < 1.4\\%$$ at 90% C.L., including systematic uncertainties. Therefore, the MICE Muon Beam is able to meet the stringent pion-contamination requirements of the study of ionization cooling.« less

  12. Astroparticle Physics: Detectors for Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, Humberto; Villaseñor, Luis

    2006-09-01

    We describe the work that we have done over the last decade to design and construct instruments to measure properties of cosmic rays in Mexico. We describe the measurement of the muon lifetime and the ratio of positive to negative muons in the natural background of cosmic ray muons at 2000 m.a.s.l. Next we describe the detection of decaying and crossing muons in a water Cherenkov detector as well as a technique to separate isolated particles. We also describe the detection of isolated muons and electrons in a liquid scintillator detector and their separation. Next we describe the detection of extensive air showers (EAS) with a hybrid detector array consisting of water Cherenkov and liquid scintillator detectors, located at the campus of the University of Puebla. Finally we describe work in progress to detect EAS at 4600 m.a.s.l. with a water Cherenkov detector array and a fluorescence telescope at the Sierra Negra mountain.

  13. A measurement of the muon number in showers using inclined events detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, G.

    2013-06-01

    The average muon content of measured showers with zenith angles between 62∘ and 80∘ detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory is obtained as a function of shower energy using a reconstruction method specifically designed for inclined showers and the hybrid character of the detector. The reconstruction of inclined showers relies on a comparison between the measured signals at ground and reference patterns at ground level from which an overall normalization factor is obtained. Since inclined showers are dominated by muons this factor gives the relative muon size. It can be calibrated using a subsample of showers simultaneously recorded with the fluorescence detector (FD) and the surface detector (SD) which provides an independent calorimetric measurement of the energy. The muon size obtained for each shower becomes a measurement of the relative number of muons with respect to the reference distributions. The precision of the measurement is assessed using simulated events which are reconstructed using exactly the same procedure. We compare the relative number of muons versus energy as obtained to simulations. Proton simulations with QGSJETII show a factor of 2.13 ± 0.04(stat) ± 0.11(sys) at 1019eV without significant variations in the energy range explored between 4 × 1018eV to 7 × 1019eV. We find that none of the current shower models, neither for proton nor for iron primaries, are able to predict as many muons as are observed.

  14. Testing model energy spectra of charged particles produced in hadron interactions on the basis of atmospheric muons

    SciTech Connect

    Dedenko, L. G.; Roganova, T. M.; Fedorova, G. F.

    2015-10-15

    An original method for calculating the spectrum of atmospheric muons with the aid of the CORSIKA 7.4 code package and numerical integration is proposed. The first step consists in calculating the energy distribution of muons for various fixed energies of primary-cosmic-ray particles and within several chosen hadron-interaction models included in the CORSIKA 7.4 code package. After that, the spectrum of atmospheric muons is calculated via integrating the resulting distribution densities with the chosen spectrum of primary-cosmic-ray particles. The atmospheric-muon fluxes that were calculated on the basis of the SIBYLL 2.1, QGSJET01, and QGSJET II-04 models exceed the predictions of the wellknown Gaisser approximation of this spectrum by a factor of 1.5 to 1.8 in the range of muon energies between about 10{sup 3} and 10{sup 4} GeV.Under the assumption that, in the region of extremely highmuon energies, a dominant contribution to the muon flux comes from one to two generations of charged π{sup ±} and K{sup ±} mesons, the production rate calculated for these mesons is overestimated by a factor of 1.3 to 1.5. This conclusion is confirmed by the results of the LHCf and TOTEM experiments.

  15. Systematic muon capture rates in PQRPA

    SciTech Connect

    Samana, A. R.; Sande, D.; Krmpotić, F.

    2015-05-15

    In this work we performed a systematic study of the inclusive muon capture rates for several nuclei with A < 60 using the Projected Random Quasi-particle Phase Approximation (PQRPA) as nuclear model, because it is the only RPA model that treats the Pauli Principle correctly. We reckon that the comparison between theory and data for the inclusive muon capture is not a fully satisfactory test on the nuclear model that is used. The exclusive muon transitions are more robust for such a purpose.

  16. On method of muon spectrum measurements by the scintillation detectors of a large thickness T4t sub o

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryazhskaya, O. G.

    1985-01-01

    Various methods for the study of muon spectrum are presented. The direct ones include the muon energy measurements by magnetic spectrometers. The indirect ones deal with the reconstruction of the muon spectrum from the spectrum of secondary particles obtained by burst or calorimeter technique. The burst technique is based on the measurement of the number of cascade particles, mainly in the cascade maximum, by the detectors of small thickness T sub 0. The calorimeter method consist in determination of the cascade energy with help of the cascade curve shape. The multilayer detectors are used for this purpose. They are usually comprised of proportional counters, X-ray emulsion chambers or scintillation counters with the target material placed between them. The scintillation detectors of a large thickness measures the total cascade energy directly and the detector works as a true calorimeter. When the total energy is detected, the cascade spectrum differs from the muon one.

  17. Study of muon bundles from extensive air showers with the ALICE detector at CERN LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shtejer, K.

    2016-05-01

    ALICE is one of four large experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider, specially designed to study particle production in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Located 52 meters underground with 28 meters of overburden rock, it has also been used to detect muons produced by cosmic-ray interactions in the upper atmosphere. The large size and excellent tracking capability of the ALICE Time Projection Chamber are exploited to study the muonic component of extensive air showers. We present the multiplicity distribution of these atmospheric muons and its comparison with Monte Carlo simulations. The latest version of the QGSJET hadronic interaction model was used to simulate the development of the resulting air showers. High multiplicity events containing more than 100 reconstructed muons were also studied. Similar events have been studied in previous underground experiments such as ALEPH and DELPHI at LEP without satisfactory explanations for the frequency of the highest multiplicity events. We demonstrate that the high muon-multiplicity events observed in ALICE stem from primary cosmic rays with energies above 1016 eV and that the frequency of these events can be successfully described by assuming a heavy mass composition of primary cosmic rays in this energy range.

  18. Underground Prototype Water Cherenkov Muon Detector with the Tibet Air Shower Array

    SciTech Connect

    Amenomori, M.; Nanjo, H.; Bi, X. J.; Ding, L. K.; Feng, Zhaoyang; He, H. H.; Hu, H. B.; Lu, H.; Lu, S. L.; Ren, J. R.; Tan, Y. H.; Wang, B.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Wu, H. R.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, Y.; Chen, D.; Kawata, K.

    2008-12-24

    We are planning to build a 10,000 m{sup 2} water-Cherenkov-type muon detector (MD) array under the Tibet air shower (AS) array. The Tibet AS+MD array will have the sensitivity to detect gamma rays in the 100 TeV region by an order of the magnitude better than any other previous existing detectors in the world. In the late fall of 2007, a prototype water Cherenkov muon detector of approximately 100 m{sup 2} was constructed under the existing Tibet AS array. The preliminary data analysis is in good agreement with our MC simulation. We are now ready for further expanding the underground water Cherenkov muon detector.

  19. Muon-induced signals and isotope production in the GERDA experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Pandola, L.

    2007-03-28

    Background induced by the interaction of cosmic ray muons can be important for the new generation of experiments searching for neutrinoless double beta decay. The GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA), located at the Gran Sasso Laboratory, in Italy, uses germanium enriched in 76Ge as source and detector material. It aims at a background level of 10-3 counts/(kg{center_dot}keV{center_dot}y) at the Q{beta}{beta}-value. The prompt background from muon interactions in the setup as well as the delayed background due to the production of radioactive isotopes within the setup have been evaluated by a detailed GEANT4-based Monte Carlo simulation. The results indicate that the background can be reduced to the desired level and that the muon-induced background does not limit the expected GERDA sensitivity.

  20. Correlation of high energy muons with primary composition in extensive air shower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, C.; Higashi, S.; Hiraoka, N.; Ozaki, S.; Sato, T.; Suwada, T.; Takahasi, T.; Umeda, H.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental investigation of high energy muons above 200 GeV in extensive air showers has been made for studying high energy interaction and primary composition of cosmic rays of energies in the range 10 to the 14th power approx. 10 to the 15th power eV. The muon energies are estimated from the burst sizes initiated by the muons in the rock, which are measured by four layers of proportional counters, each of area 5 x 2.6 sq m, placed at 30 m.w.e. deep, Funasaka tunnel vertically below the air shower array. These results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations based on the scaling model and the fireball model for two primary compositions, all proton and mixed.

  1. Air shower simulation for background estimation in muon tomography of volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béné, S.; Boivin, P.; Busato, E.; Cârloganu, C.; Combaret, C.; Dupieux, P.; Fehr, F.; Gay, P.; Labazuy, P.; Laktineh, I.; Lénat, J.-F.; Miallier, D.; Mirabito, L.; Niess, V.; Portal, A.; Vulpescu, B.

    2013-01-01

    One of the main sources of background for the radiography of volcanoes using atmospheric muons comes from the accidental coincidences produced in the muon telescopes by charged particles belonging to the air shower generated by the primary cosmic ray. In order to quantify this background effect, Monte Carlo simulations of the showers and of the detector are developed by the TOMUVOL collaboration. As a first step, the atmospheric showers were simulated and investigated using two Monte Carlo packages, CORSIKA and GEANT4. We compared the results provided by the two programs for the muonic component of vertical proton-induced showers at three energies: 1, 10 and 100 TeV. We found that the spatial distribution and energy spectrum of the muons were in good agreement for the two codes.

  2. In-Flight Observations of Long-Term Single-Event Effect (SEE) Performance on X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) Solid-state Recorders (SSRs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poivey, Christian; Gee, George; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Barth, Janet L.

    2004-01-01

    We present multi-year Single Event Upset (SEU) flight data on Solid State Recorder (SSR) memories for the X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) NASA mission. Actual SEU rates are compared to the predicted rates based on ground test data and environment models.

  3. Tau neutrinos favored over sterile neutrinos in atmospheric muon neutrino oscillations.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, S; Fukuda, Y; Ishitsuka, M; Kajita, T; Kameda, J; Kaneyuki, K; Kobayashi, K; Koshio, Y; Miura, M; Moriyama, S; Nakahata, M; Nakayama, S; Obayashi, Y; Okada, A; Okumura, K; Sakurai, N; Shiozawa, M; Suzuki, Y; Takeuchi, H; Takeuchi, Y; Toshito, T; Totsuka, Y; Yamada, S; Earl, M; Habig, A; Kearns, E; Messier, M D; Scholberg, K; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Walter, C W; Goldhaber, M; Barszczak, T; Casper, D; Gajewski, W; Kropp, W R; Mine, S; Price, L R; Smy, M; Sobel, H W; Vagins, M R; Ganezer, K S; Keig, W E; Ellsworth, R W; Tasaka, S; Kibayashi, A; Learned, J G; Matsuno, S; Takemori, D

    2000-11-01

    The previously published atmospheric neutrino data did not distinguish whether muon neutrinos were oscillating into tau neutrinos or sterile neutrinos, as both hypotheses fit the data. Using data recorded in 1100 live days of the Super-Kamiokande detector, we use three complementary data samples to study the difference in zenith angle distribution due to neutral currents and matter effects. We find no evidence favoring sterile neutrinos, and reject the hypothesis at the 99% confidence level. On the other hand, we find that oscillation between muon and tau neutrinos suffices to explain all the results in hand.

  4. Muon-induced visual sensations.

    PubMed

    McNulty, P J; Pease, V P; Bond, V P

    1976-01-01

    The visual phenomena induced by the passage of a pulse of extremely relativistic muons through the vitreous humor have been studied at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The visual phenomena include flashes that range from small crescents of light in the peripheral field of view to large clouds of light that fill the entire field of view as well as bright flashes with dark centers. Three subjects have been exposed to date. Arguments are given to show that the physical mechanism behind these flashes is Cerenkov radiation. Standard psychophysical techniques are used to determine the threshold for muoninduced visual sensations for one subject. Comparison is made with his pion treshold measured under the same condition.

  5. Inclusive b-hadron production cross section with muons in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, Vardan; et al.

    2011-03-01

    A measurement of the b-hadron production cross section in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s)=7 TeV is presented. The dataset, corresponding to 85 inverse nanobarns, was recorded with the CMS experiment at the LHC using a low-threshold single-muon trigger. Events are selected by the presence of a muon with transverse momentum greater than 6 GeV with respect to the beam direction and pseudorapidity less than 2.1. The transverse momentum of the muon with respect to the closest jet discriminates events containing b hadrons from background. The inclusive b-hadron production cross section is presented as a function of muon transverse momentum and pseudorapidity. The measured total cross section in the kinematic acceptance is sigma(pp to b+X to mu + X') =1.32 +/- 0.01 (stat) +/- 0.30 (syst) +/- 0.15 (lumi) microbarns.

  6. Comparison of Muon Capture in Light and in Heavy Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Measday, David F.; Stocki, Trevor J.

    2007-10-26

    We have recently completed an experimental study at TRIUMF of muon capture in the following elements, N, Al, Si, Ca, Fe, Ni, I, Au, and Bi. We detected the nuclear gamma rays emitted by the product nuclei after muon capture. The energy of the gamma ray identifies the source nuclide, and thus the reaction which has occurred. Our data are of better quality, and more comprehensive than any other data set in the literature. The ({mu}{sup -},{nu}n) reaction is always dominant. In light nuclei, reactions such as ({mu}{sup -},{nu}p) and ({mu}{sup -},{nu}pn) can occur, but not for heavy nuclei. However the reverse is true for reactions such as ({mu}{sup -},{nu}3n) and ({mu}{sup -},{nu}4n), which are very rare in light nuclei, but easily detected in heavy elements. We shall discuss how such information can be useful in calculations of neutrino-nucleus interactions, and of electron-capture in supernovae.

  7. MUON ACCELERATION WITH THE RACETRACK FFAG

    SciTech Connect

    TRBOJEVIC,D.; EBERHARD, K.; SESSLER, A.

    2007-06-25

    Muon acceleration for muon collider or neutrino factory is still in a stage where further improvements are likely as a result of further study. This report presents a design of the racetrack non-scaling Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (NS-FFAG) accelerator to allow fast muon acceleration in small number of turns. The racetrack design is made of four arcs: two arcs at opposite sides have a smaller radius and are made of closely packed combined function magnets, while two additional arcs, with a very large radii, are used for muon extraction, injection, and RF accelerating cavities. The ends of the large radii arcs are geometrically matched at the connections to the arcs with smaller radii. The dispersion and both horizontal and vertical amplitude fictions are matched at the central energy.

  8. Muon transfer from muonic hydrogen to carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Dupays, Arnaud

    2005-11-15

    Exact three-dimensional quantum calculations of muon exchange between muonic hydrogen and carbon for collision energies in the range 10{sup -3}-100 eV, are presented. Muon transfer rates at thermal and epithermal energies are calculated including partial waves up to J=7. The relative populations of the final states are also given. The results show that above 1 eV, the relative population of ({mu}C){sub n=5}{sup 5+} can reach up to 30%.

  9. Preparations for Muon Experiments at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Syphers, M.J.; Popovic, M.; Prebys, E.; Ankenbrandt, C.; /Muons Inc., Batavia

    2009-05-01

    The use of existing Fermilab facilities to provide beams for two muon experiments--the Muon to Electron Conversion Experiment (Mu2e) and the New g-2 Experiment--is under consideration. Plans are being pursued to perform these experiments following the completion of the Tevatron Collider Run II, utilizing the beam lines and storage rings used today for antiproton accumulation without considerable reconfiguration.

  10. Muon Emittance Exchange with a Potato Slicer

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, D. J.; Hart, T. L.; Acosta, J. G.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Oliveros, S. J.; Perera, L. P.; Neuffer, D. V.

    2015-04-15

    We propose a novel scheme for final muon ionization cooling with quadrupole doublets followed by emittance exchange in vacuum to achieve the small beam sizes needed by a muon collider. A flat muon beam with a series of quadrupole doublet half cells appears to provide the strong focusing required for final cooling. Each quadrupole doublet has a low beta region occupied by a dense, low Z absorber. After final cooling, normalized transverse, longitudinal, and angular momentum emittances of 0.100, 2.5, and 0.200 mm-rad are exchanged into 0.025, 70, and 0.0 mm-rad. A skew quadrupole triplet transforms a round muon bunch with modest angular momentum into a flat bunch with no angular momentum. Thin electrostatic septa efficiently slice the flat bunch into 17 parts. The 17 bunches are interleaved into a 3.7 meter long train with RF deflector cavities. Snap bunch coalescence combines the muon bunch train longitudinally in a 21 GeV ring in 55 µs, one quarter of a synchrotron oscillation period. A linear long wavelength RF bucket gives each bunch a different energy causing the bunches to drift in the ring until they merge into one bunch and can be captured in a short wavelength RF bucket with a 13% muon decay loss and a packing fraction as high as 87 %.

  11. Monte Carlo simulation of gamma-ray spectra from natural radionuclides recorded by a NaI detector in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Vlastou, R; Ntziou, I Th; Kokkoris, M; Papadopoulos, C T; Tsabaris, C

    2006-01-01

    The GEANT4 Monte Carlo code has been used to simulate gamma-ray spectra of natural radionuclides collected by a NaI scintillation detector immersed in seawater. The gamma-rays emitted from the decay of (40)K, and the series of (232)Th and (238)U, were used to describe the radioactive water source around the NaI crystal. The simulated gamma-ray spectra were compared with real data recorded in situ by a newly constructed NaI spectrometer and were found to be in good agreement. The NaI spectrometer was calibrated in the laboratory in a water tank, before its deployment in seawater. Activity concentrations were deduced from the gamma-ray spectra and discussed in comparison with results from the literature. PMID:16150599

  12. An additional study of multi-muon events produced in $p\\bar{p}$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=1.96$ TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Apresyan, A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; /Dubna, JINR /Fermilab

    2011-11-01

    We present one additional study of multi-muon events produced at the Fermilab Tevatron collider and recorded by the CDF II detector. We use a data set acquired with a dedicated dimuon trigger and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.9 fb{sup -1}. We investigate the distribution of the azimuthal angle between the two trigger muons in events containing at least four additional muon candidates to test the compatibility of these events with originating from known QCD processes. We find that this distribution is markedly different from what is expected from such QCD processes and this observation strongly disfavours the possibility that multi-muon events result from an underestimate of the rate of misidentified muons in ordinary QCD events.

  13. High intensity muon beam source for neutrino beam experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal Sayed, Hisham

    2015-09-01

    High intensity muon beams are essential for Muon accelerators like Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders. In this study we report on a global optimization of the muon beam production and capture based on end-to-end simulations of the Muon Front End. The study includes the pion beam production target geometry, capture field profile, and forming muon beam into microbunches for further acceleration. The interplay between the transverse and longitudinal beam dynamics during the capture and transport of muon beam is evaluated and discussed. The goal of the optimization is to provide a set of design parameters that delivers high intensity muon beam that could be fit within the acceptance of a muon beam accelerator.

  14. The Muon Science Facility at the JKJ Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Y.; Nishiyama, K.; Sakamoto, S.; Shimomura, K.; Kadono, R.; Higemoto, W.; Fukuchi, K.; Makimura, S.; Beveridge, J. L.; Ishida, K.; Matsuzaki, T.; Watanabe, I.; Matsuda, Y.; Kawamura, N.; Nagamine, K.

    2001-12-01

    The muon science facility is one of the experimental arenas of the JKJ project, which was recently approved for construction in a period from 2001 to 2006, as well as neutron science, particle and nuclear physics, neutrino physics and nuclear transmutation science. The muon science experimental area is planned to be located in the integrated building of the facility for the materials and life science study. One muon target will be installed upstream of the neutron target in a period of phase 1. The beam line and facility are designed to allow the later installation of a 2nd muon target in a more upstream location. The detailed design for electricity, cooling water, primary proton beam line, one muon target and secondary beam lines (a superconducting solenoid decay muon channel, a dedicated surface muon channel, and an ultra slow muon channel) is underway. In the symposium, a latest status of the muon science facility at JKJ project will be reported.

  15. Evidence for Astrophysical Muon Neutrinos from the Northern Sky with IceCube.

    PubMed

    Aartsen, M G; Abraham, K; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Ahrens, M; Altmann, D; Anderson, T; Archinger, M; Arguelles, C; Arlen, T C; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Beatty, J J; Tjus, J Becker; Becker, K-H; Beiser, E; BenZvi, S; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bernhard, A; Besson, D Z; Binder, G; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohm, C; Börner, M; Bos, F; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Braun, J; Brayeur, L; Bretz, H-P; Brown, A M; Buzinsky, N; Casey, J; Casier, M; Cheung, E; Chirkin, D; Christov, A; Christy, B; Clark, K; Classen, L; Coenders, S; Cowen, D F; Silva, A H Cruz; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; Day, M; de André, J P A M; De Clercq, C; Dembinski, H; De Ridder, S; Desiati, P; de Vries, K D; de Wasseige, G; de With, M; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dumm, J P; Dunkman, M; Eagan, R; Eberhardt, B; Ehrhardt, T; Eichmann, B; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fahey, S; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feintzeig, J; Felde, J; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Flis, S; Fuchs, T; Glagla, M; Gaisser, T K; Gaior, R; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Ghorbani, K; Gier, D; Gladstone, L; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Golup, G; Gonzalez, J G; Goodman, J A; Góra, D; Grant, D; Gretskov, P; Groh, J C; Groß, A; Ha, C; Haack, C; Ismail, A Haj; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hansmann, B; Hanson, K; Hebecker, D; Heereman, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hellwig, D; Hickford, S; Hignight, J; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, R; Holzapfe, K; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Huang, F; Huber, M; Huelsnitz, W; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; In, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Japaridze, G S; Jero, K; Jurkovic, M; Kaminsky, B; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kauer, M; Keivani, A; Kelley, J L; Kemp, J; Kheirandish, A; Kiryluk, J; Kläs, J; Klein, S R; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Konietz, R; Koob, A; Köpke, L; Kopper, C; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Krings, K; Kroll, G; Kroll, M; Kunnen, J; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Lanfranchi, J L; Larson, M J; Lesiak-Bzdak, M; Leuermann, M; Leuner, J; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Maggi, G; Mahn, K B M; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; Maunu, R; McNally, F; Meagher, K; Medici, M; Meli, A; Menne, T; Merino, G; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Middlemas, E; Miller, J; Mohrmann, L; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Nahnhauer, R; Naumann, U; Niederhausen, H; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Obertacke, A; Olivas, A; Omairat, A; O'Murchadha, A; Palczewski, T; Paul, L; Pepper, J A; de Los Heros, C Pérez; Pfendner, C; Pieloth, D; Pinat, E; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Pütz, J; Quinnan, M; Rädel, L; Rameez, M; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Reimann, R; Relich, M; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Richman, M; Richter, S; Riedel, B; Robertson, S; Rongen, M; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Saba, S M; Sabbatini, L; Sander, H-G; Sandrock, A; Sandroos, J; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Scheriau, F; Schimp, M; Schmidt, T; Schmitz, M; Schoenen, S; Schöneberg, S; Schönwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schulte, L; Seckel, D; Seunarine, S; Shanidze, R; Smith, M W E; Soldin, D; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stahlberg, M; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stanisha, N A; Stasik, A; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stößl, A; Strahler, E A; Ström, R; Strotjohann, N L; Sullivan, G W; Sutherland, M; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Ter-Antonyan, S; Terliuk, A; Tešić, G; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Tobin, M N; Tosi, D; Tselengidou, M; Unger, E; Usner, M; Vallecorsa, S; van Eijndhoven, N; Vandenbroucke, J; van Santen, J; Vanheule, S; Veenkamp, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Vraeghe, M; Walck, C; Wallraff, M; Wandkowsky, N; Weaver, C; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Whitehorn, N; Wichary, C; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Wille, L; Williams, D R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woschnagg, K; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Xu, Y; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P; Zoll, M

    2015-08-21

    Results from the IceCube Neutrino Observatory have recently provided compelling evidence for the existence of a high energy astrophysical neutrino flux utilizing a dominantly Southern Hemisphere data set consisting primarily of ν(e) and ν(τ) charged-current and neutral-current (cascade) neutrino interactions. In the analysis presented here, a data sample of approximately 35,000 muon neutrinos from the Northern sky is extracted from data taken during 659.5 days of live time recorded between May 2010 and May 2012. While this sample is composed primarily of neutrinos produced by cosmic ray interactions in Earth's atmosphere, the highest energy events are inconsistent with a hypothesis of solely terrestrial origin at 3.7σ significance. These neutrinos can, however, be explained by an astrophysical flux per neutrino flavor at a level of Φ(E(ν))=9.9(-3.4)(+3.9)×10(-19)  GeV(-1) cm(-2) sr(-1) s(-1)(E(ν)/100  TeV(-2), consistent with IceCube's Southern-Hemisphere-dominated result. Additionally, a fit for an astrophysical flux with an arbitrary spectral index is performed. We find a spectral index of 2.2(-0.2)(+0.2), which is also in good agreement with the Southern Hemisphere result. PMID:26340177

  16. Evidence for Astrophysical Muon Neutrinos from the Northern Sky with IceCube.

    PubMed

    Aartsen, M G; Abraham, K; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Ahrens, M; Altmann, D; Anderson, T; Archinger, M; Arguelles, C; Arlen, T C; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Beatty, J J; Tjus, J Becker; Becker, K-H; Beiser, E; BenZvi, S; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bernhard, A; Besson, D Z; Binder, G; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohm, C; Börner, M; Bos, F; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Braun, J; Brayeur, L; Bretz, H-P; Brown, A M; Buzinsky, N; Casey, J; Casier, M; Cheung, E; Chirkin, D; Christov, A; Christy, B; Clark, K; Classen, L; Coenders, S; Cowen, D F; Silva, A H Cruz; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; Day, M; de André, J P A M; De Clercq, C; Dembinski, H; De Ridder, S; Desiati, P; de Vries, K D; de Wasseige, G; de With, M; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dumm, J P; Dunkman, M; Eagan, R; Eberhardt, B; Ehrhardt, T; Eichmann, B; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fahey, S; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feintzeig, J; Felde, J; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Flis, S; Fuchs, T; Glagla, M; Gaisser, T K; Gaior, R; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Ghorbani, K; Gier, D; Gladstone, L; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Golup, G; Gonzalez, J G; Goodman, J A; Góra, D; Grant, D; Gretskov, P; Groh, J C; Groß, A; Ha, C; Haack, C; Ismail, A Haj; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hansmann, B; Hanson, K; Hebecker, D; Heereman, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hellwig, D; Hickford, S; Hignight, J; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, R; Holzapfe, K; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Huang, F; Huber, M; Huelsnitz, W; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; In, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Japaridze, G S; Jero, K; Jurkovic, M; Kaminsky, B; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kauer, M; Keivani, A; Kelley, J L; Kemp, J; Kheirandish, A; Kiryluk, J; Kläs, J; Klein, S R; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Konietz, R; Koob, A; Köpke, L; Kopper, C; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Krings, K; Kroll, G; Kroll, M; Kunnen, J; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Lanfranchi, J L; Larson, M J; Lesiak-Bzdak, M; Leuermann, M; Leuner, J; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Maggi, G; Mahn, K B M; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; Maunu, R; McNally, F; Meagher, K; Medici, M; Meli, A; Menne, T; Merino, G; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Middlemas, E; Miller, J; Mohrmann, L; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Nahnhauer, R; Naumann, U; Niederhausen, H; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Obertacke, A; Olivas, A; Omairat, A; O'Murchadha, A; Palczewski, T; Paul, L; Pepper, J A; de Los Heros, C Pérez; Pfendner, C; Pieloth, D; Pinat, E; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Pütz, J; Quinnan, M; Rädel, L; Rameez, M; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Reimann, R; Relich, M; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Richman, M; Richter, S; Riedel, B; Robertson, S; Rongen, M; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Saba, S M; Sabbatini, L; Sander, H-G; Sandrock, A; Sandroos, J; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Scheriau, F; Schimp, M; Schmidt, T; Schmitz, M; Schoenen, S; Schöneberg, S; Schönwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schulte, L; Seckel, D; Seunarine, S; Shanidze, R; Smith, M W E; Soldin, D; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stahlberg, M; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stanisha, N A; Stasik, A; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stößl, A; Strahler, E A; Ström, R; Strotjohann, N L; Sullivan, G W; Sutherland, M; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Ter-Antonyan, S; Terliuk, A; Tešić, G; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Tobin, M N; Tosi, D; Tselengidou, M; Unger, E; Usner, M; Vallecorsa, S; van Eijndhoven, N; Vandenbroucke, J; van Santen, J; Vanheule, S; Veenkamp, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Vraeghe, M; Walck, C; Wallraff, M; Wandkowsky, N; Weaver, C; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Whitehorn, N; Wichary, C; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Wille, L; Williams, D R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woschnagg, K; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Xu, Y; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P; Zoll, M

    2015-08-21

    Results from the IceCube Neutrino Observatory have recently provided compelling evidence for the existence of a high energy astrophysical neutrino flux utilizing a dominantly Southern Hemisphere data set consisting primarily of ν(e) and ν(τ) charged-current and neutral-current (cascade) neutrino interactions. In the analysis presented here, a data sample of approximately 35,000 muon neutrinos from the Northern sky is extracted from data taken during 659.5 days of live time recorded between May 2010 and May 2012. While this sample is composed primarily of neutrinos produced by cosmic ray interactions in Earth's atmosphere, the highest energy events are inconsistent with a hypothesis of solely terrestrial origin at 3.7σ significance. These neutrinos can, however, be explained by an astrophysical flux per neutrino flavor at a level of Φ(E(ν))=9.9(-3.4)(+3.9)×10(-19)  GeV(-1) cm(-2) sr(-1) s(-1)(E(ν)/100  TeV(-2), consistent with IceCube's Southern-Hemisphere-dominated result. Additionally, a fit for an astrophysical flux with an arbitrary spectral index is performed. We find a spectral index of 2.2(-0.2)(+0.2), which is also in good agreement with the Southern Hemisphere result.

  17. Evidence for Astrophysical Muon Neutrinos from the Northern Sky with IceCube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Archinger, M.; Arguelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Tjus, J. Becker; Becker, K.-H.; Beiser, E.; BenZvi, S.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Brown, A. M.; Buzinsky, N.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Christy, B.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Silva, A. H. Cruz; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Fuchs, T.; Glagla, M.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gaior, R.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Gier, D.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Goodman, J. A.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Gretskov, P.; Groh, J. C.; Groß, A.; Ha, C.; Haack, C.; Ismail, A. Haj; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hansmann, B.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hellwig, D.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Holzapfe, K.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jero, K.; Jurkovic, M.; Kaminsky, B.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, J.; Kheirandish, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Konietz, R.; Koob, A.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, G.; Kroll, M.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leuner, J.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meli, A.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Middlemas, E.; Miller, J.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke, A.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Paul, L.; Pepper, J. A.; de los Heros, C. Pérez; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Pütz, J.; Quinnan, M.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Reimann, R.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Richter, S.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Saba, S. M.; Sabbatini, L.; Sander, H.-G.; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheriau, F.; Schimp, M.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schulte, L.; Seckel, D.; Seunarine, S.; Shanidze, R.; Smith, M. W. E.; Soldin, D.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stahlberg, M.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stanisha, N. A.; Stasik, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Strahler, E. A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Santen, J.; Vanheule, S.; Veenkamp, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallraff, M.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weaver, C.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Whitehorn, N.; Wichary, C.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zoll, M.; IceCube Collaboration

    2015-08-01

    Results from the IceCube Neutrino Observatory have recently provided compelling evidence for the existence of a high energy astrophysical neutrino flux utilizing a dominantly Southern Hemisphere data set consisting primarily of νe and ντ charged-current and neutral-current (cascade) neutrino interactions. In the analysis presented here, a data sample of approximately 35 000 muon neutrinos from the Northern sky is extracted from data taken during 659.5 days of live time recorded between May 2010 and May 2012. While this sample is composed primarily of neutrinos produced by cosmic ray interactions in Earth's atmosphere, the highest energy events are inconsistent with a hypothesis of solely terrestrial origin at 3.7 σ significance. These neutrinos can, however, be explained by an astrophysical flux per neutrino flavor at a level of Φ (Eν)=9.9-3.4+3.9×10-19 GeV-1 cm-2 sr-1 s-1(Eν/1 00 TeV ) -2 , consistent with IceCube's Southern-Hemisphere-dominated result. Additionally, a fit for an astrophysical flux with an arbitrary spectral index is performed. We find a spectral index of 2.2-0.2+0.2 , which is also in good agreement with the Southern Hemisphere result.

  18. Phase Rotation of Muon Beams for Producing Intense Low-Energy Muon Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Neuffer, D.; Bao, Y.; Hansen, G.

    2016-01-01

    Low-energy muon beams are useful for rare decay searches, which provide access to new physics that cannot be addressed at high-energy colliders. However, muons are produced within a broad energy spread unmatched to the low-energy required. In this paper we outline a phase rotation method to significantly increase the intensity of low-energy muons. The muons are produced from a short pulsed proton driver, and develop a time-momentum correlation in a drift space following production. A series of rf cavities is used to bunch the muons and phase-energy rotate the bunches to a momentum of around 100 MeV/c. Then another group of rf cavities is used to decelerate the muon bunches to low-energy. This obtains ~0.1 muon per 8 GeV proton, which is significantly higher than currently planned Mu2e experiments, and would enable a next generation of rare decay searches, and other intense muon beam applications.

  19. Modular detector for deep underwater registration of muons and muon groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demianov, A. I.; Sarycheva, L. I.; Sinyov, N. B.; Varadanyan, I. N.; Yershov, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Registration and identification of muons and muon groups penetrating into the ocean depth, can be performed using a modular multilayer detector with high resolution bidimensional readout - deep underwater calorimeter (project NADIR). Laboratory testing of a prototype sensor cell with liquid scintillator in light-tight casing, testifies to the practicability of the full-scale experiment within reasonable expences.

  20. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Low Energy Muon Science: LEMS`93

    SciTech Connect

    Leon, M.

    1994-01-01

    This report contains papers on research with low energy muons. Topics cover fundamental electroweak physics; muonic atoms and molecules, and muon catalyzed fusion; muon spin research; and muon facilities. These papers have been indexed and cataloged separately.

  1. Muon-fluorine entangled states in molecular magnets.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, T; Blundell, S J; Baker, P J; Brooks, M L; Hayes, W; Pratt, F L; Manson, J L; Conner, M M; Schlueter, J A

    2007-12-31

    The information accessible from a muon-spin relaxation experiment can be limited due to a lack of knowledge of the precise muon stopping site. We demonstrate here the possibility of localizing a spin polarized muon in a known stopping state in a molecular material containing fluorine. The muon-spin precession that results from the entangled nature of the muon spin and surrounding nuclear spins is sensitive to the nature of the stopping site. We use this property to identify three classes of sites that occur in molecular magnets and describe the extent to which the muon distorts its surroundings.

  2. R&D Toward a Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S

    2011-03-20

    Significant progress has been made in recent years in R&D towards a neutrino factory and muon collider. The U.S. Muon Accelerator Program (MAP) has been formed recently to expedite the R&D efforts. This paper will review the U.S. MAP R&D programs for a neutrino factory and muon collider. Muon ionization cooling research is the key element of the program. The first muon ionization cooling demonstration experiment, MICE (Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment), is under construction now at RAL (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory) in the UK. The current status of MICE will be described.

  3. An X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Oscillator for Record High Spectral Purity and Average Brightness (Progress and Prospects for X-ray Free Electron Lasers)

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kwang-Je

    2009-06-24

    With the success of the LCLS at SLAC, synchrotron radiation community is entering the era of x-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) with an enormous jump in brightness and coherence over that possible with third-generation x-ray sources. The LCLS is a single-pass, high-gain device producing quasi-coherent x-rays known as self-amplified spontaneous emission. Hard x-ray FELs are also feasible in an oscillator (XFELO) configuration, in which an x-ray pulse is trapped a low-loss optical cavity consisting of diamond crystals, permitting build-up in the intensity and coherence over several hundred passes. An XFELO produces ultrahigh spectral purity and brightness-average brightness several orders of magnitude higher than, and peak brightness comparable to, self-amplified spontaneous emission devices; opening up new scientific opportunities as well as drastically improving and complementing experimental techniques developed at third-generation x-ray facilities. We discuss unique R&D issues in accelerator and x-ray optics and encouraging progress to date.

  4. Study of muon-induced neutron production using accelerator muon beam at CERN

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Y.; Lin, C. J.; Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P.; Draeger, E.; White, C. G.; Luk, K. B.; Steiner, H.

    2015-08-17

    Cosmogenic muon-induced neutrons are one of the most problematic backgrounds for various underground experiments for rare event searches. In order to accurately understand such backgrounds, experimental data with high-statistics and well-controlled systematics is essential. We performed a test experiment to measure muon-induced neutron production yield and energy spectrum using a high-energy accelerator muon beam at CERN. We successfully observed neutrons from 160 GeV/c muon interaction on lead, and measured kinetic energy distributions for various production angles. Works towards evaluation of absolute neutron production yield is underway. This work also demonstrates that the setup is feasible for a future large-scale experiment for more comprehensive study of muon-induced neutron production.

  5. Negative muon chemistry: the quantum muon effect and the finite nuclear mass effect.

    PubMed

    Posada, Edwin; Moncada, Félix; Reyes, Andrés

    2014-10-01

    The any-particle molecular orbital method at the full configuration interaction level has been employed to study atoms in which one electron has been replaced by a negative muon. In this approach electrons and muons are described as quantum waves. A scheme has been proposed to discriminate nuclear mass and quantum muon effects on chemical properties of muonic and regular atoms. This study reveals that the differences in the ionization potentials of isoelectronic muonic atoms and regular atoms are of the order of millielectronvolts. For the valence ionizations of muonic helium and muonic lithium the nuclear mass effects are more important. On the other hand, for 1s ionizations of muonic atoms heavier than beryllium, the quantum muon effects are more important. In addition, this study presents an assessment of the nuclear mass and quantum muon effects on the barrier of Heμ + H2 reaction.

  6. Muon Acceleration - RLA and FFAG

    SciTech Connect

    Bogacz, Alex

    2011-10-01

    Various acceleration schemes for muons are presented. The overall goal of the acceleration systems: large acceptance acceleration to 25 GeV and 'beam shaping' can be accomplished by various fixed field accelerators at different stages. They involve three superconducting linacs: a single pass linear Pre-accelerator followed by a pair of multi-pass Recirculating Linear Accelerators (RLA) and finally a non-scaling FFAG ring. The present baseline acceleration scenario has been optimized to take maximum advantage of appropriate acceleration scheme at a given stage. The solenoid based Pre-accelerator offers very large acceptance and facilitates correction of energy gain across the bunch and significant longitudinal compression trough induced synchrotron motion. However, far off-crest acceleration reduces the effective acceleration gradient and adds complexity through the requirement of individual RF phase control for each cavity. The RLAs offer very efficient usage of high gradient superconducting RF and ability to adjust path-length after each linac pass through individual return arcs with uniformly periodic FODO optics suitable for chromatic compensation of emittance dilution with sextupoles. However, they require spreaders/recombiners switchyards at both linac ends and significant total length of the arcs. The non-scaling Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG) ring combines compactness with very large chromatic acceptance (twice the injection energy) and it allows for large number of passes through the RF (at least eight, possibly as high as 15).

  7. Steps towards the hyperfine splitting measurement of the muonic hydrogen ground state: pulsed muon beam and detection system characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczak, A.; Baccolo, G.; Bakalov, D.; Baldazzi, G.; Bertoni, R.; Bonesini, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Campana, R.; Carbone, R.; Cervi, T.; Chignoli, F.; Clemenza, M.; Colace, L.; Curioni, A.; Danailov, M.; Danev, P.; D'Antone, I.; De Bari, A.; De Vecchi, C.; De Vincenzi, M.; Furini, M.; Fuschino, F.; Gadedjisso-Tossou, K. S.; Guffanti, D.; Iaciofano, A.; Ishida, K.; Iugovaz, D.; Labanti, C.; Maggi, V.; Margotti, A.; Marisaldi, M.; Mazza, R.; Meneghini, S.; Menegolli, A.; Mocchiutti, E.; Moretti, M.; Morgante, G.; Nardò, R.; Nastasi, M.; Niemela, J.; Previtali, E.; Ramponi, R.; Rachevski, A.; Rignanese, L. P.; Rossella, M.; Rossi, P. L.; Somma, F.; Stoilov, M.; Stoychev, L.; Tomaselli, A.; Tortora, L.; Vacchi, A.; Vallazza, E.; Zampa, G.; Zuffa, M.

    2016-05-01

    The high precision measurement of the hyperfine splitting of the muonic-hydrogen atom ground state with pulsed and intense muon beam requires careful technological choices both in the construction of a gas target and of the detectors. In June 2014, the pressurized gas target of the FAMU experiment was exposed to the low energy pulsed muon beam at the RIKEN RAL muon facility. The objectives of the test were the characterization of the target, the hodoscope and the X-ray detectors. The apparatus consisted of a beam hodoscope and X-rays detectors made with high purity Germanium and Lanthanum Bromide crystals. In this paper the experimental setup is described and the results of the detector characterization are presented.

  8. Spallation backgrounds in Super-Kamiokande are made in muon-induced showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shirley Weishi; Beacom, John F.

    2015-05-01

    Crucial questions about solar and supernova neutrinos remain unanswered. Super-Kamiokande has the exposure needed for progress, but detector backgrounds are a limiting factor. A leading component is the beta decays of isotopes produced by cosmic-ray muons and their secondaries, which initiate nuclear spallation reactions. Cuts of events after and surrounding muon tracks reduce this spallation decay background by ≃ 90 % (at a cost of ≃ 20 % deadtime), but its rate at 6-18 MeV is still dominant. A better way to cut this background was suggested in a Super-Kamiokande paper by Bays et al. [Phys. Rev. D 85, 052007 (2012)] on a search for the diffuse supernova neutrino background. They found that spallation decays above 16 MeV were preceded near the same location by a peak in the apparent Cherenkov light profile from the muon; a more aggressive cut was applied to a limited section of the muon track, leading to decreased background without increased deadtime. We put their empirical discovery on a firm theoretical foundation. We show that almost all spallation decay isotopes are produced by muon-induced showers and that these showers are rare enough and energetic enough to be identifiable. This is the first such demonstration for any detector. We detail how the physics of showers explains the peak in the muon Cherenkov light profile and other Super-K observations. Our results provide a physical basis for practical improvements in background rejection that will benefit multiple studies. For solar neutrinos, in particular, it should be possible to dramatically reduce backgrounds at energies as low as 6 MeV.

  9. Cosmic Ray Scattering Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    Cosmic ray muons are ubiquitous, are highly penetrating, and can be used to measure material densities by either measuring the stopping rate or by measuring the scattering of transmitted muons. The Los Alamos team has studied scattering radiography for a number of applications. Some results will be shown of scattering imaging for a range of practical applications, and estimates will be made of the utility of scattering radiography for nondestructive assessments of large structures and for geological surveying. Results of imaging the core of the Toshiba Nuclear Critical Assembly (NCA) Reactor in Kawasaki, Japan and simulations of imaging the damaged cores of the Fukushima nuclear reactors will be presented. Below is an image made using muons of a core configuration for the NCA reactor.

  10. New concept for muon catalyzed fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Tajima, T.; Eliezer, S.; Kulsrud, R.M.

    1988-12-27

    A new concept for a muon catalyzed pure fusion reactor is considered. To our best knowledge this constitutes a first plausible configuration to make energy gain without resorting to fissile matter breeding by fusion neutrons, although a number of crucial physical and engineering questions as well as details have yet to be resolved. A bundle of DT ice ribbons (with a filling factor f) is immersed in the magnetic field. The overall magnetic field in the mirror configuration confines pions created by the injected high energy deuterium (or tritium) beam. The DT materials is long enough to be inertially confined along the axis of mirror. The muon catalyzed mesomolecule formation and nuclear fusion take place in the DT target, leaving ..cap alpha../sup + +/ and occasionally (..cap alpha mu..)/sup +/ (muon sticking). The stuck muons are stripped fast enough in the target, while they are accelerated by ion cyclotron resonance heating when they circulate in the vaccum (or dilute plasma). The ribbon is (eventually) surrounded and pressure-confined by this coronal plasma, whereas the corona is magnetically confined. The overall bundle of ribbons (a pellet) is inertially confined. This configuration may also be of use for stripping stuck muons via the plasma mechanism of Menshikov and Ponomarev.

  11. Pion production for neutrino factories and muon colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, N.V.; Guidman, K.K.; Strait, J.B.; Striganov, S.I.; /Fermilab

    2009-12-01

    Optimization of pion and muon production/collection for neutrino factories and muon colliders is described along with recent developments of the MARS15 code event generators and effects influencing the choice of the optimal beam energy.

  12. Showering cosmogenic muons in a large liquid scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassi, Marco; Evslin, Jarah; Ciuffoli, Emilio; Zhang, Xinmin

    2014-09-01

    We present the results of FLUKA simulations of the propagation of cosmogenic muons in a 20 kton spherical liquid scintillator detector underneath 700 to 900 meters of rock. A showering muon is one which deposits at least 3 GeV in the detector in addition to ionization energy. We find that 20 percent of muons are showering and a further 11 percent of muon events are muon bundles, of which more than one muon enters the detector. In this range the showering and bundle fractions are robust against changes in the depth and topography, thus the total shower and bundle rate for a given experiment can be obtained by combining our results with an estimate for the total muon flux. One consequence is that a straightforward adaptation of the full detector showering muon cuts used by KamLAND to JUNO or RENO 50 would yield a nearly vanishing detector efficiency.

  13. Neutrino - Induced Muons in the MINOS Far Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Rebel, Brian J.

    2004-08-25

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is an experiment designed to probe the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations. When MINOS is completed it will consist of a neutrino beam and two detectors, which are separated by a distance of 735 km. The near detector measures the energy distribution and ux of a beam of muon neutrinos produced at Fermilab, while the far detector, located in Soudan, MN, measures these same neutrino properties 735 km away. The signal for a detection of neutrino oscillations is a de cit of neutrinos at the far detector compared to expectations based on the near detector measurements. In addition to measuring beam neutrinos, the far detector can be used to measure neutrinos produced in cosmic ray interactions in the atmosphere. While waiting for the beam to begin running, the far detector was used in this mode. Several previous experiments, such as Super-K and MACRO, have suggested that the atmospheric neutrinos oscillate between di erent avor states. This dissertation looks for an oscillation signal in the atmospheric neutrinos by using muons resulting from the interaction of the atmospheric neutrinos in the rock surrounding the MINOS far detector.

  14. Studies of muon-induced radioactivity at NuMI

    SciTech Connect

    Boehnlein, David j.; Leveling, A.F.; Mokhov, N.V.; Vaziri, K.; Iwamoto, Y.; Kasugai, Y.; Matsuda, N.; Nakashima, H.; Sakamoto, Y.; Hagiwara, M.; Iwase, Hiroshi; /KEK, Tsukuba /Kyoto U., KURRI /Pohang Accelerator Lab. /Shimizu, Tokyo /Tohoku U.

    2009-12-01

    The JASMIN Collaboration has studied the production of radionuclides by muons in the muon alcoves of the NuMI beamline at Fermilab. Samples of aluminum and copper are exposed to the muon field and counted on HpGe detectors when removed to determine their content of radioactive isotopes. We compare the results to MARS simulations and discuss the radiological implications for neutrino factories and muon colliders.

  15. THE POTENTIAL FOR NEUTRINO PHYSICS AT MUON COLLIDERS AND DEDICATED HIGH CURRENT MUON STORAGE RINGS

    SciTech Connect

    BIGI,I.; BOLTON,T.; FORMAGGIO,J.; HARRIS,D.; MORFIN,J.; SPENTZOURIS,P.; YU,J.; KAYSER,B.; KING,B.J.; MCFARLAND,K.; PETROV,A.; SCHELLMAN,H.; VELASCO,M.; SHROCK,R.

    2000-05-11

    Conceptual design studies are underway for both muon colliders and high-current non-colliding muon storage rings that have the potential to become the first true neutrino factories. Muon decays in long straight sections of the storage rings would produce uniquely intense and precisely characterized two-component neutrino beams--muon neutrinos plus electron antineutrinos from negative muon decays and electron neutrinos plus muon antineutrinos from positive muons. This article presents a long-term overview of the prospects for these facilities to greatly extend the capabilities for accelerator-based neutrino physics studies for both high rate and long baseline neutrino experiments. As the first major physics topic, recent experimental results involving neutrino oscillations have motivated a vigorous design effort towards dedicated neutrino factories that would store muon beams of energies 50 GeV or below. These facilities hold the promise of neutrino oscillation experiments with baselines up to intercontinental distances and utilizing well understood beams that contain, for the first time, a substantial component of multi-GeV electron-flavored neutrinos. In deference to the active and fast-moving nature of neutrino oscillation studies, the discussion of long baseline physics at neutrino factories has been limited to a concise general overview of the relevant theory, detector technologies, beam properties, experimental goals and potential physics capabilities. The remainder of the article is devoted to the complementary high rate neutrino experiments that would study neutrino-nucleon and neutrino-electron scattering and would be performed at high performance detectors placed as close as is practical to the neutrino production straight section of muon storage rings in order to exploit beams with transverse dimensions as small as a few tens of centimeters.

  16. MICE, the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidt, Chris

    2013-04-01

    Ionization Cooling is the only practical solution to preparing high brilliance muon beams for a neutrino factory or muon collider. MICE is under development at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK). It is characterized by exquisite emittance determination by 6D measurement of individual particles, a cooling section comprising 23 MV of acceleration at 200 MHz and 3 liquid hydrogen absorbers totaling 1m of liquid hydrogen on the path of 140-240 MeV/c muons. Thebeam has already been commissioned successfully and first measurements of beam emittance performed. We are setting up for the final high precision emittance determination and the measurements of cooling in Li Hydrogen. The design offers opportunities to observe cooling with various absorbers and several optics configurations. Results will be compared with detailed simulations of cooling channel performance to ensure full understanding of the cooling process. Progress towards the full cooling experiment with RF re-acceleration will also be reported.

  17. Muon Fluence Measurements for Homeland Security Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ankney, Austin S.; Berguson, Timothy J.; Borgardt, James D.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2010-08-10

    This report focuses on work conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to better characterize aspects of backgrounds in RPMs deployed for homeland security purposes. Two polyvinyl toluene scintillators were utilized with supporting NIM electronics to measure the muon coincidence rate. Muon spallation is one mechanism by which background neutrons are produced. The measurements performed concentrated on a broad investigation of the dependence of the muon flux on a) variations in solid angle subtended by the detector; b) the detector inclination with the horizontal; c) depth underground; and d) diurnal effects. These tests were conducted inside at Building 318/133, outdoors at Building 331G, and underground at Building 3425 at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  18. Muon (g-2) Technical Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Grange, J.

    2015-01-27

    The Muon (g-2) Experiment, E989 at Fermilab, will measure the muon anomalous magnetic moment a factor-of-four more precisely than was done in E821 at the Brookhaven National Laboratory AGS. The E821 result appears to be greater than the Standard-Model prediction by more than three standard deviations. When combined with expected improvement in the Standard-Model hadronic contributions, E989 should be able to determine definitively whether or not the E821 result is evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model. After a review of the physics motivation and the basic technique, which will use the muon storage ring built at BNL and now relocated to Fermilab, the design of the new experiment is presented. This document was created in partial fulfillment of the requirements necessary to obtain DOE CD-2/3 approval.

  19. Dual-layer write-once media for 1x-4x-speed recording based on Blu-ray Disc format

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Mayumi; Akiyama, Tetsuya; Kitaura, Hideki; Kojima, Rie; Nishiuchi, Kenichi; Yamada, Noboru

    2003-09-01

    We have developed dual-layer write-once media with Te-O-Pd based recording films on Blu-ray (BD) format. Recording capacity was 50GB with dual layers on a disk of 120mm in diameter. Rear and Front layers showed jitters of 5.8% and 7.7% at 1x speed, and 6.0% and 8.0% at 2x speed, respectively, which were good enough to satisfy the BD format. Evaluations were carried out with blue-violet laser of 405nm wavelength, objective lens NA of 0.85. Recording linear velocities were 4.92m/s at BD 1x (36Mbps), and 9.84m/s at BD 2x (72Mbps). Characteristics at 4x speed recording were also examined, and it was revealed that carrier to niose ratio at high recording linear velocity of 19.7m/s, which corresponds to BD 4x (144Mbps), was alomst as same as those of 1x and 2x. Recording mechanism was discussed and proposed a model that Te-O-Pd films were not crystallized directly through solid process, but crystallized through melting.

  20. A range muon tomography performance study for the detection of explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Cuellar, Leticia; Borozdin, Konstantin N; Chung, Andrew; Nicolas, Hengartner W; Morris, Christopher; Schultz, Larry J; Reimus, Nathaniel P; Bacon, Jeffrey D; Vogan - Mc Neil, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    Soft cosmic ray tomography has been shown to successfully discriminate materials with various density levels due to their ability to deeply penetrate matter, allowing sensitivity to atomic number, radiation length and density. Because the multiple muon scattering signal from high Z-materials is very strong, the technology is well suited to the detection of the illicit transportation of special and radiological nuclear materials. In addition, a recent detection technique based on measuring the lower energy particles that do not traverse the material (range radiography), allows to discriminate low and medium Z-materials. This is shown in [4] using Monte Carlo simulations. More recently, using a mini muon tracker developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory, we performed various experiments to try out the radiation length technology. This paper presents the results from real experiments and evaluates the likelihood that soft cosmic ray tomography may be applied to detect high-explosives.

  1. PROTON BEAM REQUIREMENTS FOR A NEUTRINO FACTORY AND MUON COLLIDER

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2009-12-11

    Both a Neutrino Factory and a Muon Collider place stringent demands on the proton beam used to generate the desired beam of muons. Here we discuss the advantages and challenges of muon accelerators and the rationale behind the requirements on proton beam energy, intensity, bunch length, and repetition rate. Example proton driver configurations that have been considered in recent years are also briefly indicated.

  2. Muon fluence measurements at the site boundary for 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Elwyn, A.J.

    1986-03-01

    Muon fluence (muons cm/sup -2/) was measured downstream of the experimental area beamlines, just beyond the Fermilab site boundary at Route 38. The purpose of these measurements was to obtain an estimate of the yearly off-site radiation exposure to the general population due to accelerator-produced muons during the 1985 800 GeV run.

  3. Jet production in muon-proton and muon-nuclei scattering at Fermilab-E665

    SciTech Connect

    Salgado, C.W.; E665 Collaboration

    1993-08-01

    Measurements of multi-jet production rates from Muon-Proton Muon- Nuclei scattering at Fermilab-E665 are presented. Jet rates are defined by the JADE clustering algorithm. Rates in Muon-Proton deep-inelastic scattering are compared to perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics (PQCD) and Monte Carlo model predictions. We observe hadronic (2+1)-jet rates which are a factor of two higher than PQCD predictions at the partonic level. Preliminary results from jet production on heavy targets, in the shadowing region, show a suppression of the jet rates as compared to deuterium. The two- forward jet sample present higher suppression as compared to the one-forward jet sample.

  4. Characterisation of the muon beams for the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, D.; Adey, D.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Back, J.; Barber, G.; Barclay, P.; de Bari, A.; Bayes, R.; Bayliss, V.; Bertoni, R.; Blackmore, V. J.; Blondel, A.; Blot, S.; Bogomilov, M.; Bonesini, M.; Booth, C. N.; Bowring, D.; Boyd, S.; Bradshaw, T. W.; Bravar, U.; Bross, A. D.; Capponi, M.; Carlisle, T.; Cecchet, G.; Charnley, G.; Cobb, J. H.; Colling, D.; Collomb, N.; Coney, L.; Cooke, P.; Courthold, M.; Cremaldi, L. M.; DeMello, A.; Dick, A. J.; Dobbs, A.; Dornan, P.; Fayer, S.; Filthaut, F.; Fish, A.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Fletcher, R.; Forrest, D.; Francis, V.; Freemire, B.; Fry, L.; Gallagher, A.; Gamet, R.; Gourlay, S.; Grant, A.; Graulich, J. S.; Griffiths, S.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, O. M.; Hanson, G. G.; Harrison, P.; Hart, T. L.; Hartnett, T.; Hayler, T.; Heidt, C.; Hills, M.; Hodgson, P.; Hunt, C.; Iaciofano, A.; Ishimoto, S.; Kafka, G.; Kaplan, D. M.; Karadzhov, Y.; Kim, Y. K.; Kolev, D.; Kuno, Y.; Kyberd, P.; Lau, W.; Leaver, J.; Leonova, M.; Li, D.; Lintern, A.; Littlefield, M.; Long, K.; Lucchini, G.; Luo, T.; Macwaters, C.; Martlew, B.; Martyniak, J.; Middleton, S.; Moretti, A.; Moss, A.; Muir, A.; Mullacrane, I.; Nebrensky, J. J.; Neuffer, D.; Nichols, A.; Nicholson, R.; Nugent, J. C.; Onel, Y.; Orestano, D.; Overton, E.; Owens, P.; Palladino, V.; Palmer, R. B.; Pasternak, J.; Pastore, F.; Pidcott, C.; Popovic, M.; Preece, R.; Prestemon, S.; Rajaram, D.; Ramberger, S.; Rayner, M. A.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, A.; Roberts, T. J.; Robinson, M.; Rogers, C.; Ronald, K.; Rubinov, P.; Rucinski, R.; Rusinov, I.; Sakamoto, H.; Sanders, D. A.; Santos, E.; Savidge, T.; Smith, P. J.; Snopok, P.; Soler, F. J. P.; Stanley, T.; Summers, D. J.; Takahashi, M.; Tarrant, J.; Taylor, I.; Tortora, L.; Torun, Y.; Tsenov, R.; Tunnell, C. D.; Vankova, G.; Verguilov, V.; Virostek, S. P.; Vretenar, M.; Walaron, K.; Watson, S.; White, C.; Whyte, C. G.; Wilson, A.; Wisting, H.; Zisman, M. S.

    2013-10-01

    A novel single-particle technique to measure emittance has been developed and used to characterise seventeen different muon beams for the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE). The muon beams, whose mean momenta vary from 171 to 281 MeV/ c, have emittances of approximately 1.2-2.3 π mm-rad horizontally and 0.6-1.0 π mm-rad vertically, a horizontal dispersion of 90-190 mm and momentum spreads of about 25 MeV/ c. There is reasonable agreement between the measured parameters of the beams and the results of simulations. The beams are found to meet the requirements of MICE.

  5. Characterisation of the muon beams for the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.; et al.,

    2013-10-01

    A novel single-particle technique to measure emittance has been developed and used to characterise seventeen different muon beams for the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE). The muon beams, whose mean momenta vary from 171 to 281 MeV/c, have emittances of approximately 1.5--2.3 \\pi mm-rad horizontally and 0.6--1.0 \\pi mm-rad vertically, a horizontal dispersion of 90--190 mm and momentum spreads of about 25 MeV/c. There is reasonable agreement between the measured parameters of the beams and the results of simulations. The beams are found to meet the requirements of MICE.

  6. Upper limit to antiproton flux in cosmic radiation above 100 GeV using muon charge ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, S. A.

    1983-01-01

    Upper limits to the fraction of antiprotons in cosmic radiation have been estimated from the observed charge ratio of muons at sea-level. Using these values, it is shown that constraints can be set on the extragalactic hypothesis of the observed antiprotons in the framework of energy-dependent confinement of cosmic rays in the galaxy.

  7. Large muon electric dipole moment from flavor?

    SciTech Connect

    Hiller, Gudrun; Huitu, Katri; Rueppell, Timo; Laamanen, Jari

    2010-11-01

    We study the prospects and opportunities of a large muon electric dipole moment (EDM) of the order (10{sup -24}-10{sup -22}) ecm. We investigate how natural such a value is within the general minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model with CP violation from lepton flavor violation in view of the experimental constraints. In models with hybrid gauge-gravity-mediated supersymmetry breaking, a large muon EDM is indicative for the structure of flavor breaking at the Planck scale, and points towards a high messenger scale.

  8. Measurement of Muon Capture on the Proton

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, Steven M.

    2006-11-17

    The goal of the {mu}Cap experiment is a 1% precision measurement of the muon capture rate on the free proton, which will determine the weak pseudoscalar form factor gP to 7%. At the end of 2004, the {mu}Cap detector was completed and commissioned and first physics data were taken. The analysis of these data is in an advanced stage. The muon capture rate will be determined to 3%, translating to a measurement of gP to 20%. Improvements to the detector, implemented to reach the design goal, were made for the 2005 and 2006 data runs.

  9. FFAG Designs for Muon Collider Acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, J. Scott

    2014-01-13

    I estimate FFAG parameters for a muon collider with a 70mm longitudinal emittance. I do not discuss the lower emittance beam for a Higgs factory. I produce some example designs, giving only parameters relevant to estimating cost and performance. The designs would not track well, but the parameters of a good design will be close to those described. I compare these cost estimates to those for a fast-ramping synchrotron and a recirculating linear accelerator. I conclude that FFAGs do not appear to be cost-effective for the large longitudinal emittance in a high-energy muon collider.

  10. Rare kaon, muon, and pion decay

    SciTech Connect

    Littenberg, L.

    1998-12-01

    The author discusses the status of and prospects for the study of rare decays of kaons, muons, and pions. Studies of rare kaon decays are entering an interesting new phase wherein they can deliver important short-distance information. It should be possible to construct an alternative unitarity triangle to that determined in the B sector, and thus perform a critical check of the Standard Model by comparing the two. Rare muon decays are beginning to constrain supersymmetric models in a significant way, and future experiments should reach sensitivities which this kind of model must show effects, or become far less appealing.

  11. Muon capture rates on O-16 leading to bound states of N-16.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kane, F. R.; Eckhause, M.; Miller, G. H.; Roberts, B. L.; Vislay, M. E.; Welsh, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    A low-energy spectrum of gamma-rays following muon capture in O-16 was obtained with a high-resolution 1 cu cm Ge(Li) detector. The graph of the spectrum shows the separation of contaminant peaks from the 120 keV N-16 line. It is pointed out that there is a large discrepancy between the capture rate obtained in the investigation and results reported by Deutsch et al. (1969).

  12. Test of the wire ageing induced by radiation for the CMS barrel muon chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, E.; Gasparini, F.

    2001-06-01

    We have carried out laboratory tests to measure the ageing of a wire tube due to pollutants outgassed by various materials. The tested materials are those used in the barrel muon drift tubes of the CMS experiment at LHC. An X-ray gun irradiated the test tube to accelerate the ageing process. No ageing effect has been measured for a period equivalent to 10 years of operation at LHC.

  13. Measurement of the atmospheric muon charge ratio at TeV energies with MINOS

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, P.; Andreopoulos, C.; Arms, K.E.; Armstrong, R.; Auty, D.J.; Avvakumov, S.; Ayres, D.S.; Baller, B.; Barish, B.; Barnes, P.D., Jr.; Barr, G.; /Fermilab /University Coll. London /Rutherford /Minnesota U. /Indiana U. /Sussex U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Argonne /Caltech /LLNL, Livermore /Oxford U.

    2007-05-01

    The 5.4 kton MINOS far detector has been taking charge-separated cosmic ray muon data since the beginning of August, 2003 at a depth of 2070 m.w.e. in the Soudan Underground Laboratory, Minnesota, USA. The data with both forward and reversed magnetic field running configurations were combined to minimize systematic errors in the determination of the underground muon charge ratio. When averaged, two independent analyses find the charge ratio underground to be N{sub {mu}}+/N{sub {mu}}-=1.374{+-}0.004(stat)-0.010{sup +0.012}(sys). Using the map of the Soudan rock overburden, the muon momenta as measured underground were projected to the corresponding values at the surface in the energy range 1-7 TeV. Within this range of energies at the surface, the MINOS data are consistent with the charge ratio being energy independent at the 2 standard deviation level. When the MINOS results are compared with measurements at lower energies, a clear rise in the charge ratio in the energy range 0.3-1.0 TeV is apparent. A qualitative model shows that the rise is consistent with an increasing contribution of kaon decays to the muon charge ratio.

  14. Tests of the MICE Electron Muon Ranger frontend electronics with a small scale prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolognini, D.; Bene, P.; Blondel, A.; Cadoux, F.; Debieux, S.; Giannini, G.; Graulich, J. S.; Lietti, D.; Masciocchi, F.; Prest, M.; Rothenfusser, K.; Vallazza, E.; Wisting, H.

    2011-08-01

    The MICE experiment is being commissioned at RAL to demonstrate the feasibility of the muon ionization cooling technique for future applications such as the Neutrino Factory and the Muon Collider. The cooling will be evaluated by measuring the emittance before and after the cooling channel with two 4 T spectrometers; to distinguish muons from the background, a multi-detector particle identification system is foreseen: three Time of Flight stations, two Cherenkov counters and a calorimetric system consisting of a pre-shower layer and a fully active scintillator detector (EMR) are used to discriminate muons from pions and electrons. EMR consists of 48 planes of triangular scintillating bars coupled to WLS fibers readout by single PMTs on one side and MAPMTs on the other; each plane sensible area is 1 m 2. This article deals with a small scale prototype of the EMR detector which has been used to test the MAPMT frontend electronics based on the MAROC ASIC; the tests with cosmic rays using both an analog mode and a digital readout mode are presented. A very preliminary study on the cross talk problem is also shown.

  15. PREFACE: Muon spin rotation, relaxation or resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heffner, Robert H.; Nagamine, Kanetada

    2004-10-01

    To a particle physicist a muon is a member of the lepton family, a heavy electron possessing a mass of about 1/9 that of a proton and a spin of 1/2, which interacts with surrounding atoms and molecules electromagnetically. Since its discovery in 1937, the muon has been put to many uses, from tests of special relativity to deep inelastic scattering, from studies of nuclei to tests of weak interactions and quantum electrodynamics, and most recently, as a radiographic tool to see inside heavy objects and volcanoes. In 1957 Richard Garwin and collaborators, while conducting experiments at the Columbia University cyclotron to search for parity violation, discovered that spin-polarized muons injected into materials might be useful to probe internal magnetic fields. This eventually gave birth to the modern field of muSR, which stands for muon spin rotation, relaxation or resonance, and is the subject of this special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. Muons are produced in accelerators when high energy protons (generally >500 MeV) strike a target like graphite, producing pions which subsequently decay into muons. Most experiments carried out today use relatively low-energy (~4 MeV), positively-charged muons coming from pions decaying at rest in the skin of the production target. These muons have 100% spin polarization, a range in typical materials of about 180 mg cm-2, and are ideal for experiments in condensed matter physics and chemistry. Negatively-charged muons are also occasionally used to study such things as muonic atoms and muon-catalysed fusion. The muSR technique provides a local probe of internal magnetic fields and is highly complementary to inelastic neutron scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance, for example. There are four primary muSR facilities in the world today: ISIS (Didcot, UK), KEK (Tsukuba, Japan), PSI (Villigen, Switzerland) and TRIUMF (Vancouver, Canada), serving about 500 researchers world-wide. A new facility, JPARC (Tokai, Japan

  16. Reconstruction of air shower muon densities using segmented counters with time resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravignani, D.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Melo, D.

    2016-09-01

    Despite the significant experimental effort made in the last decades, the origin of the ultra-high energy cosmic rays is still largely unknown. Key astrophysical information to identify where these energetic particles come from is provided by their chemical composition. It is well known that a very sensitive tracer of the primary particle type is the muon content of the showers generated by the interaction of the cosmic rays with air molecules. We introduce a likelihood function to reconstruct particle densities using segmented detectors with time resolution. As an example of this general method, we fit the muon distribution at ground level using an array of counters like AMIGA, one of the Pierre Auger Observatory detectors. For this particular case we compare the reconstruction performance against a previous method. With the new technique, more events can be reconstructed than before. In addition the statistical uncertainty of the measured number of muons is reduced, allowing for a better discrimination of the cosmic ray primary mass.

  17. First Observation of Accelerator Muon Antineutrinos in MINOS

    SciTech Connect

    Danko, Istvan

    2009-10-01

    We report the first direct observation of muon antineutrinos in the MINOS Far Detector in the current muon-neutrino dominated beam. The magnetic field of the detector is utilized to separate muon neutrinos and antineutrinos event-by-event by identifying the charge sign of the muon created in charged-current interactions. We present preliminary results on the {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} oscillation parameters as well as limit on the fraction of neutrinos that disappear and reappear as antineutrinos. We also discuss the prospect of the measurement when the polarity of the magnetic focusing horns will be reversed to create a dedicated muon antineutrino beam.

  18. The International Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment: MICE and Neutrino Factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freemire, Ben

    2010-03-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is an accelerator and particle physics experiment aimed at demonstrating the technique of ionization cooling on a beam of muons. Ionization cooling is the process by which muons are sent through an absorbing material, thereby losing energy and decreasing their normalized emittance. The muons are then reaccelerated in the appropriate direction with radio frequency (RF) cavities. This produces an overall reduction in transverse emittance of the muon beam. Ionization cooling could be a key technique in the design of a high intensity Neutrino Factory.

  19. A Compact Monitoring System for Recording X-Rays, Gamma Rays and Neutrons Generated By Atmospheric Lightning Discharges and Other Natural Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, I. M.; Alves, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    The generation of X-rays, gamma-rays and neutrons by atmospheric lightning discharges has been predicted by different researchers several decades ago. But only within the last 25 years the first experimental evidences of events relating the generation of these radiations with lightning have been made; since then there is a continuing effort to collect more information about this type of phenomenon. In this study we describe a compact monitoring system to detect simultaneously X-rays, gamma-rays and neutrons using rather inexpensive off-the-shelf commercial detectors (Micro Roengten Radiation Monitor, 8-inch gamma tube coupled to a 3x3 inch sodium iodide [Nai(Tl)] crystal, Ludlum He-3 neutron detector) and accompanying computer interfaces. The system is extremely portable and can be powered with small automotive batteries, if necessary. Measurements are performed at ground-level. Preliminary measurements have already yielded positive results, e.g., changes in the neutron flux related to a lightning discharge and varying weather conditions have been observed in the city of Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil (23° 11‧ 11″S, 45° 52‧ 43″ W, 600 m above sea level). This a pilot study, in the near future a larger number of these compact monitoring system will be installed in different location in order to increase the area coverage. Although the main objective of the study is to detect high-energy events produced by lightning discharges, the monitoring system will also be able to detect changes in the radiation background produced by other natural phenomena.

  20. Flux modulations seen by the muon veto of the GERDA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collaboration, Gerda; Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Barros, N.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; di Vacri, A.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Fedorova, O.; Freund, K.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Ioannucci, L.; Janicsk'o Cs'athy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Klimenko, A.; Knapp, M.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Medinaceli, E.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Palioselitis, D.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Ritter, F.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schulz, O.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Selivanenko, O.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Stepaniuk, M.; Strecker, H.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Walter, M.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wiesinger, C.; Wilsenach, H.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-11-01

    The GERDA experiment at LNGS of INFN is equipped with an active muon veto. The main part of the system is a water Cherenkov veto with 66 PMTs in the water tank surrounding the GERDA cryostat. The muon flux recorded by this veto shows a seasonal modulation. Two causes have been identified: (i) secondary muons from the CNGS neutrino beam (2.2%) and (ii) a temperature modulation of the atmosphere (1.4%). A mean cosmic muon rate of Iμ0 =(3.477 ± 0 .002stat ± 0 .067sys) ×10-4 /(s · m2) was found in good agreement with other experiments at LNGS. Combining the present result with those from previous experiments at LNGS the effective temperature coefficient αT , Lngs is determined to 0.93 ± 0.03. A fit of the temperature coefficients measured at various underground sites yields a kaon to pion ratio rK/π of 0.10 ± 0.03.

  1. ICOOL: A TOOL FOR MUON COLLIDER SIMULATIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    FERNOW,R.C.

    2001-09-28

    Current ideas for designing neutrino factories [ 1,2] and muon colliders [3] require unique configurations of fields and materials to prepare the muon beam for acceleration. This so-called front end system must accomplish the goals of phase rotation, bunching and cooling. We have continued the development of a 3-D tracking code, ICOOL [4], for examining possible muon collider front end configurations. A system is described in terms of a series of longitudinal regions with associated material and field properties. The tracking takes place in a coordinate system that follows a reference orbit through the system. The code takes into account decays and interactions of {approx}50-500 MeV/c muons in matter. Material geometry regions include cylinders and wedges. A number of analytic models are provided for describing the field configurations. Simple diagnostics are built into the code, including calculation of emittances and correlations, longitudinal traces, histograms and scatter plots. A number of auxiliary codes can be used for pre-processing, post-processing and optimization.

  2. Muon Collider Machine-Detector Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, Nikolai V.; /Fermilab

    2011-08-01

    In order to realize the high physics potential of a Muon Collider (MC) a high luminosity of {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}-collisions at the Interaction Point (IP) in the TeV range must be achieved ({approx}10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}). To reach this goal, a number of demanding requirements on the collider optics and the IR hardware - arising from the short muon lifetime and from relatively large values of the transverse emittance and momentum spread in muon beams that can realistically be obtained with ionization cooling should be satisfied. These requirements are aggravated by limitations on the quadrupole gradients as well as by the necessity to protect superconducting magnets and collider detectors from muon decay products. The overall detector performance in this domain is strongly dependent on the background particle rates in various sub-detectors. The deleterious effects of the background and radiation environment produced by the beam in the ring are very important issues in the Interaction Region (IR), detector and Machine-Detector Interface (MDI) designs. This report is based on studies presented very recently.

  3. Target studies for surface muon production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, F.; Desorgher, L.; Fuchs, A.; Hajdas, W.; Hodge, Z.; Kettle, P.-R.; Knecht, A.; Lüscher, R.; Papa, A.; Rutar, G.; Wohlmuther, M.

    2016-02-01

    Meson factories are powerful drivers of diverse physics programs. With beam powers already in the MW-regime attention has to be turned to target and beam line design to further significantly increase surface muon rates available for experiments. For this reason we have explored the possibility of using a neutron spallation target as a source of surface muons by performing detailed Geant4 simulations with pion production cross sections based on a parametrization of existing data. While the spallation target outperforms standard targets in the backward direction by more than a factor 7 it is not more efficient than standard targets viewed under 90°. Not surprisingly, the geometry of the target plays a large role in the generation of surface muons. Through careful optimization, a gain in surface muon rate of between 30% and 60% over the standard "box-like" target used at the Paul Scherrer Institute could be achieved by employing a rotated slab target. An additional 10% gain could also be possible by utilizing novel target materials such as, e.g., boron carbide.

  4. Neutrino masses, Majorons, and muon decay

    SciTech Connect

    Santamaria, A.; Bernabeu, J.; Pich, A.

    1987-09-01

    The contributions to the parameters xi, delta, rho, and eta in muon decay coming from double Majoron emission, Majorana neutrino masses, and effects of charged scalars are evaluated in the scalar-triplet model. The relevance of these effects for planned experiments is discussed.

  5. Corrections for temperature effect for ground-based muon hodoscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitrieva, A. N.; Kokoulin, R. P.; Petrukhin, A. A.; Timashkov, D. A.

    2011-01-01

    Influence of atmospheric temperature on muon flux at sea level is considered. Results of calculations of muon spectrum for normal atmospheric conditions, differential temperature coefficients (DTC) for muons at different zenith angles and threshold energies are presented. In calculations, a six-layer stationary spherical model of atmosphere is used, contributions of both pions and kaons as well as dependence of muon energy loss on muon energy are taken into account. Comparison of muon spectrum calculations and experimental data in a wide range of zenith angles and momentums shows a good agreement. Comparison of results of DTC calculations with results of earlier works exhibits only qualitative agreement; possible sources of differences are analyzed. Some practical questions of the use of DTC for muon hodoscope data analysis are discussed.

  6. Design and commissioning of a high magnetic field muon spin relaxation spectrometer at the ISIS pulsed neutron and muon source.

    PubMed

    Lord, J S; McKenzie, I; Baker, P J; Blundell, S J; Cottrell, S P; Giblin, S R; Good, J; Hillier, A D; Holsman, B H; King, P J C; Lancaster, T; Mitchell, R; Nightingale, J B; Owczarkowski, M; Poli, S; Pratt, F L; Rhodes, N J; Scheuermann, R; Salman, Z

    2011-07-01

    The high magnetic field (HiFi) muon instrument at the ISIS pulsed neutron and muon source is a state-of-the-art spectrometer designed to provide applied magnetic fields up to 5 T for muon studies of condensed matter and molecular systems. The spectrometer is optimised for time-differential muon spin relaxation studies at a pulsed muon source. We describe the challenges involved in its design and construction, detailing, in particular, the magnet and detector performance. Commissioning experiments have been conducted and the results are presented to demonstrate the scientific capabilities of the new instrument.

  7. Design and commissioning of a high magnetic field muon spin relaxation spectrometer at the ISIS pulsed neutron and muon source

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, J. S.; McKenzie, I.; Baker, P. J.; Cottrell, S. P.; Giblin, S. R.; Hillier, A. D.; Holsman, B. H.; King, P. J. C.; Nightingale, J. B.; Pratt, F. L.; Rhodes, N. J.; Blundell, S. J.; Lancaster, T.; Good, J.; Mitchell, R.; Owczarkowski, M.; Poli, S.; Scheuermann, R.; Salman, Z.

    2011-07-15

    The high magnetic field (HiFi) muon instrument at the ISIS pulsed neutron and muon source is a state-of-the-art spectrometer designed to provide applied magnetic fields up to 5 T for muon studies of condensed matter and molecular systems. The spectrometer is optimised for time-differential muon spin relaxation studies at a pulsed muon source. We describe the challenges involved in its design and construction, detailing, in particular, the magnet and detector performance. Commissioning experiments have been conducted and the results are presented to demonstrate the scientific capabilities of the new instrument.

  8. Multiplicity spectrum of muon bundles and primary CR composition in the range 1 - 10000 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkov, V. B.; Szabelski, J.; Gaponenko, A. N.; Alikhanov, I.

    2013-06-01

    Multiplicity spectrum of muon bundles underground, with Eμ ≥ few × 100 GeV, is an effective tool for study of primary Cosmic Ray spectrum and composition in wide range of the primary energies. In this paper we study integral muon number distribution measured at the Baksan Underground Scintillation Telescope (BUST). The analyzed range of the number of muon tracks crossing BUST (1 - 170) approximately corresponds to the primary energy range 1 - 104 TeV. The analysis shows that non-power law primary spectra are preferable below the knee. Such a spectrum can be obtained as superposition of the basic power law primary spectrum and an additional component from nearby supernova remnant in the Galaxy.

  9. Cosmic Ray Neutron Flux Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayananda, Mathes

    2009-11-01

    Cosmic rays are high-energetic particles originating from outer space that bombard the upper atmosphere of the Earth. Almost 90% of cosmic ray particles consist of protons, electrons and heavy ions. When these particles hit the Earth's atmosphere, cascade of secondary particles are formed. The most abundant particles reach to the surface of the Earth are muons, electrons and neutrons. In recent years many research groups are looking into potential applications of the effects of cosmic ray radiation at the surface of the Earth [1, 2]. At Georgia State University we are working on a long-term measurement of cosmic ray flux distribution. This study includes the simultaneous measurement of cosmic ray muons, neutrons and gamma particles at the Earth surface in downtown Atlanta. The initial effort is focusing on the correlation studies of the cosmic ray particle flux distribution and the atmospheric weather conditions. In this presentation, I will talk about the development of a cosmic ray detector using liquid scintillator and the preliminary results. [4pt] [1] K.Borozdin, G.Hogan, C.Morris, W.Priedhorsky, A.Saunders, L.Shultz, M.Teasdale, ``Radiographic imaging with cosmic-ray muons'', Nature, Vol.422, p.277, Mar.2003[0pt] [2] Svensmark Henrik, Physical Review 81, 3, (1998)

  10. Analysis of cosmic-ray events with ALICE at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.

    2015-08-01

    ALICE is one of the four main experiments of the LHC at CERN. Located 40 meters underground, with 30 m of overburden rock, it can also operate to detect muons produced by cosmic-ray interactions in the atmosphere. An analysis of the data collected with cosmic-ray triggers from 2010 to 2013, corresponding to about 31 days of live time, is presented. Making use of the ability of the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) to track large numbers of charged particles, a special emphasis is given to the study of muon bundles, and in particular to events with high-muon density.

  11. PREFACE: Muon spin rotation, relaxation or resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heffner, Robert H.; Nagamine, Kanetada

    2004-10-01

    To a particle physicist a muon is a member of the lepton family, a heavy electron possessing a mass of about 1/9 that of a proton and a spin of 1/2, which interacts with surrounding atoms and molecules electromagnetically. Since its discovery in 1937, the muon has been put to many uses, from tests of special relativity to deep inelastic scattering, from studies of nuclei to tests of weak interactions and quantum electrodynamics, and most recently, as a radiographic tool to see inside heavy objects and volcanoes. In 1957 Richard Garwin and collaborators, while conducting experiments at the Columbia University cyclotron to search for parity violation, discovered that spin-polarized muons injected into materials might be useful to probe internal magnetic fields. This eventually gave birth to the modern field of muSR, which stands for muon spin rotation, relaxation or resonance, and is the subject of this special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. Muons are produced in accelerators when high energy protons (generally >500 MeV) strike a target like graphite, producing pions which subsequently decay into muons. Most experiments carried out today use relatively low-energy (~4 MeV), positively-charged muons coming from pions decaying at rest in the skin of the production target. These muons have 100% spin polarization, a range in typical materials of about 180 mg cm-2, and are ideal for experiments in condensed matter physics and chemistry. Negatively-charged muons are also occasionally used to study such things as muonic atoms and muon-catalysed fusion. The muSR technique provides a local probe of internal magnetic fields and is highly complementary to inelastic neutron scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance, for example. There are four primary muSR facilities in the world today: ISIS (Didcot, UK), KEK (Tsukuba, Japan), PSI (Villigen, Switzerland) and TRIUMF (Vancouver, Canada), serving about 500 researchers world-wide. A new facility, JPARC (Tokai, Japan

  12. Observation of an Anisotropy in the Galactic Cosmic Ray Arrival Direction at 400 TeV with IceCube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Allen, M. M.; Altmann, D.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Bazo Alba, J. L.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J. K.; Becker, K. H.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; BenZvi, S.; Berdermann, J.; Stamatikos, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we report the first observation in the Southern hemisphere of an energy dependence in the Galactic cosmic ray anisotropy up to a few hundred TeV. This measurement was performed using cosmic ray induced muons recorded by the partially deployed IceCube observatory between May 2009 and May 2010. The data include a total of 33 x 10(exp 9) muon events with a median angular resolution of approx. 3 degrees. A sky map of the relative intensity in arrival direction over the Southern celestial sky is presented for cosmic ray median energies of 20 and 400 TeV. The same large-scale anisotropy observed at median energies around 20 TeV is not present at 400 TeV. Instead, the high energy skymap shows a different anisotropy structure including a deficit with a post-trial significance of -6.3 sigma. This anisotropy reveals a new feature of the Galactic cosmic ray distribution, which must be incorporated into theories of the origin and propagation of cosmic rays.

  13. Observation of Anisotropy in the Galactic Cosmic Ray Arrival Directions at 400 TEV With IceCube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Allen, M. M.; Altmann, D.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Bazo, Alba, J. L.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J. K.; Becker, K. H.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Benzvi, S.; Berdermann, J.; Stamatikos, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we report the first observation in the Southern hemisphere of an energy dependence in the Galactic cosmic ray anisotropy up to a few hundred TeV. This measurement was performed using cosmic ray induced muons recorded by the partially deployed IceCube observatory between May 2009 and May 2010. The data include a total of 33x l0(epx 9) muon events with a median angular resolution of approx 3 degrees. A sky map of the relative intensity in arrival direction over the Southern celestial sky is presented for cosmic ray median energies of 20 and 400 Te V. The same large-scale anisotropy observed at median energies around 20 TeV is not present at 400 TeV. Instead, the high energy skymap shows a different anisotropy structure including a deficit with a post-trial significance of -6.30 sigma. This anisotropy reveals a new feature of the Galactic cosmic ray distribution, which must be incorporated into theories of the origin and propagation of cosmic rays.

  14. A search for anisotropy in the arrival directions of ultra high energy cosmic rays recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Abreu, P.

    2012-01-01

    Observations of cosmic ray arrival directions made with the Pierre Auger Observatory have previously provided evidence of anisotropy at the 99% CL using the correlation of ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) with objects drawn from the Veron-Cetty Veron catalog. In this paper we report on the use of three catalog independent methods to search for anisotropy. The 2pt-L, 2pt+ and 3pt methods, each giving a different measure of self-clustering in arrival directions, were tested on mock cosmic ray data sets to study the impacts of sample size and magnetic smearing on their results, accounting for both angular and energy resolutions. If the sources of UHECRs follow the same large scale structure as ordinary galaxies in the local Universe and if UHECRs are deflected no more than a few degrees, a study of mock maps suggests that these three methods can efficiently respond to the resulting anisotropy with a P-value = 1.0% or smaller with data sets as few as 100 events. Using data taken from January 1, 2004 to July 31, 2010 we examined the 20, 30, ..., 110 highest energy events with a corresponding minimum energy threshold of about 51 EeV. The minimum P-values found were 13.5% using the 2pt-L method, 1.0% using the 2pt+ method and 1.1% using the 3pt method for the highest 100 energy events. In view of the multiple (correlated) scans performed on the data set, these catalog-independent methods do not yield strong evidence of anisotropy in the highest energy cosmic rays.

  15. A search for anisotropy in the arrival directions of ultra high energy cosmic rays recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre Auger Collaboration; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Antici'c, T.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Bäcker, T.; Badescu, A. M.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bäuml, J.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellétoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Bohácová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chirinos Diaz, J.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; del Peral, L.; del Río, M.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Fajardo Tapia, I.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gaior, R.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gascon, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Guzman, A.; Hague, J. D.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jarne, C.; Jiraskova, S.; Josebachuili, M.; Kadija, K.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Kasper, P.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lauer, R.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, J.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Mertsch, P.; Meurer, C.; Mi'canovi'c, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nhung, P. T.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Porcelli, A.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Silva Lopez, H. H.; Sima, O.; 'Smiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanic, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Šuša, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Taşcău, O.; Tavera Ruiz, C. G.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tegolo, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wommer, M.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2012-04-01

    Observations of cosmic ray arrival directions made with the Pierre Auger Observatory have previously provided evidence of anisotropy at the 99% CL using the correlation of ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) with objects drawn from the Véron-Cetty Véron catalog. In this paper we report on the use of three catalog independent methods to search for anisotropy. The 2pt-L, 2pt+ and 3pt methods, each giving a different measure of self-clustering in arrival directions, were tested on mock cosmic ray data sets to study the impacts of sample size and magnetic smearing on their results, accounting for both angular and energy resolutions. If the sources of UHECRs follow the same large scale structure as ordinary galaxies in the local Universe and if UHECRs are deflected no more than a few degrees, a study of mock maps suggests that these three methods can efficiently respond to the resulting anisotropy with a P-value = 1.0% or smaller with data sets as few as 100 events. Using data taken from January 1, 2004 to July 31, 2010 we examined the 20,30,...,110 highest energy events with a corresponding minimum energy threshold of about 49.3 EeV. The minimum P-values found were 13.5% using the 2pt-L method, 1.0% using the 2pt+ method and 1.1% using the 3pt method for the highest 100 energy events. In view of the multiple (correlated) scans performed on the data set, these catalog-independent methods do not yield strong evidence of anisotropy in the highest energy cosmic rays.

  16. Differential Muon Tomography to Continuously Monitor Changes in the Composition of Subsurface Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, Max; Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.; Spooner, Neil J.; Fung, Cora; Gluyas, John

    2013-01-01

    Muon tomography has been used to seek hidden chambers in Egyptian pyramids and image subsurface features in volcanoes. It seemed likely that it could be used to image injected, supercritical carbon dioxide as it is emplaced in porous geological structures being used for carbon sequestration, and also to check on subsequent leakage. It should work equally well in any other application where there are two fluids of different densities, such as water and oil, or carbon dioxide and heavy oil in oil reservoirs. Continuous monitoring of movement of oil and/or flood fluid during enhanced oil recovery activities for managing injection is important for economic reasons. Checking on leakage for geological carbon storage is essential both for safety and for economic purposes. Current technology (for example, repeat 3D seismic surveys) is expensive and episodic. Muons are generated by high- energy cosmic rays resulting from supernova explosions, and interact with gas molecules in the atmosphere. This innovation has produced a theoretical model of muon attenuation in the thickness of rock above and within a typical sandstone reservoir at a depth of between 1.00 and 1.25 km. Because this first simulation was focused on carbon sequestration, the innovators chose depths sufficient for the pressure there to ensure that the carbon dioxide would be supercritical. This innovation demonstrates for the first time the feasibility of using the natural cosmic-ray muon flux to generate continuous tomographic images of carbon dioxide in a storage site. The muon flux is attenuated to an extent dependent on, amongst other things, the density of the materials through which it passes. The density of supercritical carbon dioxide is only three quarters that of the brine in the reservoir that it displaces. The first realistic simulations indicate that changes as small as 0.4% in the storage site bulk density could be detected (equivalent to 7% of the porosity, in this specific case). The initial

  17. Phase transformation and crystallization kinetics of a-Ge/Cu bilayer for blue-ray recording under thermal annealing and pulsed laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Her, Yung-Chiun; Tu, Wei-Ting; Tsai, Ming-Hsin

    2012-02-15

    Similar phase formation and crystallization behaviors have been observed in the a-Ge/Cu bilayer under thermal annealing and pulsed laser irradiation. The Cu{sub 3}Ge phase would form prior to the crystallization of a-Ge. The crystallization temperature and activation energy for crystallization of a-Ge were reduced to 310 deg. C and 2.75 eV, respectively, due to the fast Ge diffusion in the already formed germanide phases. The reaction exponent m of {approx}2.0 for the a-Ge/Cu bilayer corresponds to a crystallization process in which grain growth occurs with nucleation, and the nucleation rate decreases with the progress of the grain growth process. Under pulsed laser irradiation, the maximum data-transfer-rates of 44, 56, 74, and 112 Mbit/s can be achieved in the write-once blue-ray disk at the recording powers of 3, 4, 5, and 6 mW, respectively. The a-Ge/Cu bilayer also demonstrated sufficient optical contrast and adequate absorptance for low power and high speed write-once blue-ray recording.

  18. Muons in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory: Measurement of atmospheric production depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fuji, T.; Gaior, R.; García, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Islo, K.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, A. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; PÈ©kala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Thao, N. T.; Theodoro, V. M.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory provides information about the longitudinal development of the muonic component of extensive air showers. Using the timing information from the flash analog-to-digital converter traces of surface detectors far from the shower core, it is possible to reconstruct a muon production depth distribution. We characterize the goodness of this reconstruction for zenith angles around 60° and different energies of the primary particle. From these distributions, we define Xmaxμ as the depth along the shower axis where the production of muons reaches maximum. We explore the potentiality of Xmaxμ as a useful observable to infer the mass composition of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays. Likewise, we assess its ability to constrain hadronic interaction models.

  19. MESTRN: A Deterministic Meson-Muon Transport Code for Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blattnig, Steve R.; Norbury, John W.; Norman, Ryan B.; Wilson, John W.; Singleterry, Robert C., Jr.; Tripathi, Ram K.

    2004-01-01

    A safe and efficient exploration of space requires an understanding of space radiations, so that human life and sensitive equipment can be protected. On the way to these sensitive sites, the radiation fields are modified in both quality and quantity. Many of these modifications are thought to be due to the production of pions and muons in the interactions between the radiation and intervening matter. A method used to predict the effects of the presence of these particles on the transport of radiation through materials is developed. This method was then used to develop software, which was used to calculate the fluxes of pions and muons after the transport of a cosmic ray spectrum through aluminum and water. Software descriptions are given in the appendices.

  20. SuperB Muon Detector Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-11-01

    The test objective is to optimize the muon identification in an experiment at a Super B Factory. To accomplish this, experimenters will study the muon identification capability of a detector with different iron configurations at different beam energies. The detector is a full scale prototype, composed of a stack of iron tiles. The segmentation of the iron allows the study of different configurations. Between the tiles, one or two extruded scintillator slabs can be inserted to test two different readout options; a Binary Readout and a Time Readout. In the Binary Readout option the two coordinates are given by the two orthogonal scintillator bars, and the spatial resolution is driven by the bar width. In the Time Readout option one coordinate is determined by the scintillator position and the other by the arrival time of the signal read with a TDC.

  1. Muon RLA - design status and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beard, K. B.; Bogacz, S. A.; Morozov, V. S.; Roblin, Y. R.

    2013-02-01

    The Neutrino Factory baseline design involves a complex chain of accelerators beginning with a linac. This first pre-linac follows the capture and bunching section and accelerates the muons from about 244 to 900 MeV and must accept a high emittance beam about 30 cm wide with a 10% energy spread. It uses counterwound, shielded superconducting solenoids and 201 MHz superconducting cavities, and currently consists of 24 3 m and 24 5 m long cryomodules. The next stage is a 1st dogbone-shaped RLA that takes the total energy from 900 MeV to 3.6 GeV in 4.5 passes, followed by a 2nd RLA that takes the energy from 3.6 to 12.6 GeV in 4.5 passes. Simulations are in progress to optimize the optics and determine the radiation loads from beam loss and muon decay.

  2. The Brookhaven muon storage ring magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danby, G. T.; Addessi, L.; Armoza, Z.; Benante, J.; Brown, H. N.; Bunce, G.; Cottingham, J. C.; Cullen, J.; Geller, J.; Hseuh, H.; Jackson, J. W.; Jia, L.; Kochis, S.; Koniczny, D.; Larsen, R.; Lee, Y. Y.; Mapes, M.; Meier, R. E.; Meng, W.; Morse, W. M.; O'Toole, M.; Pai, C.; Polk, I.; Prigl, R.; Semertzidis, Y. K.; Shutt, R.; Snydstrup, L.; Soukas, A.; Tallerico, T.; Toldo, F.; Von Lintig, D.; Woodle, K.; Carey, R. M.; Earle, W.; Hazen, E. S.; Krienen, F.; Miller, J. P.; Ouyang, J.; Roberts, B. L.; Sulak, L. R.; Worstell, W. A.; Orlov, Y.; Winn, D.; Grossmann, A.; Jungmann, K.; zu Putlitz, G.; von Walter, P.; Debevec, P. T.; Deninger, W. J.; Hertzog, D. W.; Sedykh, S.; Urner, D.; Green, M. A.; Haeberlen, U.; Cushman, P.; Giron, S.; Kindem, J.; Miller, D.; Timmermans, C.; Zimmerman, D.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Fedotovich, G. V.; Grigorev, D. N.; Khazin, B. I.; Ryskulov, N. M.; Serednyakov, S.; Shatunov, Yu. M.; Solodov, E.; Endo, K.; Hirabayashi, H.; Mizumachi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Dhawan, S. K.; Disco, A.; Farley, F. J. M.; Fei, X.; Grosse-Perdekamp, M.; Hughes, V. W.; Kawall, D.; Redin, S. I.

    2001-01-01

    The muon g-2 experiment at Brookhaven National Laboratory has the goal of determining the muon anomalous g-value a μ (=(g-2)/2) to the very high precision of 0.35 parts per million and thus requires a storage ring magnet with great stability and homogeniety. A superferric storage ring with a radius of 7.11 m and a magnetic field of 1.45 T has been constructed in which the field quality is largely determined by the iron, and the excitation is provided by superconducting coils operating at a current of 5200 A. The storage ring has been constructed with maximum attention to azimuthal symmetry and to tight mechanical tolerances and with many features to allow obtaining a homogenous magnetic field. The fabrication of the storage ring, its cryogenics and quench protection systems, and its initial testing and operation are described.

  3. Helical Muon Beam Cooling Channel Engineering Design

    SciTech Connect

    Kashikhin, V.S.; Lopes, M.L.; Romanov, G.V.; Tartaglia, M.A.; Yonehara, K.; Yu, M.; Zlobin, A.V.; Flanagan, G.; Johnson, R.P.; Kazakevich, G.M.; Marhauser, F.; /MUONS Inc., Batavia

    2012-05-01

    The Helical Cooling Channel (HCC), a novel technique for six-dimensional (6D) ionization cooling of muon beams, has shown considerable promise based on analytic and simulation studies. However, the implementation of this revolutionary method of muon cooling requires new techniques for the integration of hydrogen-pressurized, high-power RF cavities into the low-temperature superconducting magnets of the HCC. We present the progress toward a conceptual design for the integration of 805 MHz RF cavities into a 10 T Nb{sub 3}Sn based HCC test section. We include discussions on the pressure and thermal barriers needed within the cryostat to maintain operation of the magnet at 4.2 K while operating the RF and energy absorber at a higher temperature. Additionally, we include progress on the Nb{sub 3}Sn helical solenoid design.

  4. Muon-catalyzed fusion experiments at LAMPF

    SciTech Connect

    Caffrey, A.J.; Anderson, A.N.; Van Siclen, C.D.W.; Watts, K.D.; Bradbury, J.N.; Gram, P.A.M.; Leon, M.; Maltrud, H.R.; Paciotti, M.A.; Jones, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    Our collaboration has conducted a series of muon-catalysis experiments over broad temperature and density ranges at the LAMPF accelerator in Los Alamos. We have discovered surprising effects on the normalized muon-catalysis cycling rate, lambda/sub c/, and the apparent alpha-particle sticking coefficient, ..omega../sub s/, that depend on the d-t mixture density. This paper reviews our experimental approach, analysis methods, and results for tests with targets varying in density from 0.12 to 1.30, normalized to liquid hydrogen density, and in temperature from 15K to 800K. In particular, results will be presented on the cycling rate, sticking coefficient, and /sup 3/He scavenging rate, as functions of temperature, mixture density, or tritium concentration.

  5. Recent results from COMPASS muon scattering measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Capozza, Luigi [Irfu Collaboration: COMPASS Collaboration

    2012-10-23

    A sample of recent results in muon scattering measurements from the COMPASS experiment at CERN will be reviewed. These include high energy processes with longitudinally polarised proton and deuteron targets. High energy polarised measurements provide important constraints for studying the nucleon spin structure and thus permit to test the applicability of the theoretical framework of factorisation theorems and perturbative QCD. Specifically, latest results on longitudinal quark polarisation, quark helicity densities and gluon polarisation will be reviewed.

  6. Quantitative extraction of spectral line intensities and widths from x-ray spectra recorded with gated microchannel plate detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Dunham, Greg; Bailey, J. E.; Rochau, G. A.; Lake, P. W.; Nielsen-Weber, L. B.

    2007-06-15

    Plasma spectroscopy requires determination of spectral line intensities and widths. At Sandia National Laboratories Z facility we use elliptical crystal spectrometers equipped with gated microchannel plate detectors to record time and space resolved spectra. We collect a large volume of data typically consisting of five to six snapshots in time and five to ten spectral lines with 30 spatial elements per frame, totaling to more than 900 measurements per experiment. This large volume of data requires efficiency in processing. We have addressed this challenge by using a line fitting routine to automatically fit each spectrum using assumed line profiles and taking into account photoelectron statistics to efficiently extract line intensities and widths with uncertainties. We verified that the random data noise obeys Poisson statistics. Rescale factors for converting film exposure to effective counts required for understanding the photoelectron statistics are presented. An example of the application of these results to the analysis of spectra recorded in Z experiments is presented.

  7. Analytical calculation of muon intensities under deep sea-water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inazawa, H.; Kobayakawa, K.

    1985-01-01

    The study of the energy loss of high energy muons through different materials, such as rock and sea-water can cast light on characteristics of lepton interactions. There are less ambiguities for the values of atomic number (Z) and mass number (A) in sea-water than in rock. Muon intensities should be measured as fundamental data and as background data for searching the fluxes of neutrino. The average range energy relation in sea-water is derived. The correction factors due to the range fluctuation is also computed. By applying these results, the intensities deep under sea are converted from a given muon energy spectra at sea-level. The spectra of conventional muons from eta, K decays have sec theta enhancement. The spectrum of prompt muons from charmed particles is almost isotropic. The effect of prompt muons is examined.

  8. Next Generation Muon g - 2 Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertzog, David W.

    2016-04-01

    I report on the progress of two new muon anomalous magnetic moment experiments, which are in advanced design and construction phases. The goal of Fermilab E989 is to reduce the experimental uncertainty of aμ from Brookhaven E821 by a factor of 4; that is, δaμ ˜ 16 × 10-11, a relative uncertainty of 140 ppb. The method follows the same magic-momentum storage ring concept used at BNL, and pioneered previously at CERN, but muon beam preparation, storage ring internal hardware, field measuring equipment, and detector and electronics systems are all new or upgraded significantly. In contrast, J-PARC E34 will employ a novel approach based on injection of an ultra-cold, low-energy, muon beam injected into a small, but highly uniform magnet. Only a small magnetic focusing field is needed to maintain storage, which distinguishes it from CERN, BNL and Fermilab. E34 aims to roughly match the previous BNL precision in their Phase 1 installation.

  9. Next Generation Muon g-2 Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzog, David W.

    2015-12-02

    I report on the progress of two new muon anomalous magnetic moment experiments, which are in advanced design and construction phases. The goal of Fermilab E989 is to reduce the experimental uncertainty of $a_\\mu$ from Brookhaven E821 by a factor of 4; that is, $\\delta a_\\mu \\sim 16 \\times 10^{-11}$, a relative uncertainty of 140~ppb. The method follows the same magic-momentum storage ring concept used at BNL, and pioneered previously at CERN, but muon beam preparation, storage ring internal hardware, field measuring equipment, and detector and electronics systems are all new or upgraded significantly. In contrast, J-PARC E34 will employ a novel approach based on injection of an ultra-cold, low-energy, muon beam injected into a small, but highly uniform magnet. Only a small magnetic focusing field is needed to maintain storage, which distinguishes it from CERN, BNL and Fermilab. E34 aims to roughly match the previous BNL precision in their Phase~1 installation.

  10. Muon Beam Helical Cooling Channel Design

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Rolland; Ankenbrandt, Charles; Flanagan, G; Kazakevich, G M; Marhauser, Frank; Neubauer, Michael; Roberts, T; Yoshikawa, C; Derbenev, Yaroslav; Morozov, Vasiliy; Kashikhin, V S; Lopes, Mattlock; Tollestrup, A; Yonehara, Katsuya; Zloblin, A

    2013-06-01

    The Helical Cooling Channel (HCC) achieves effective ionization cooling of the six-dimensional (6d) phase space of a muon beam by means of a series of 21st century inventions. In the HCC, hydrogen-pressurized RF cavities enable high RF gradients in strong external magnetic fields. The theory of the HCC, which requires a magnetic field with solenoid, helical dipole, and helical quadrupole components, demonstrates that dispersion in the gaseous hydrogen energy absorber provides effective emittance exchange to enable longitudinal ionization cooling. The 10-year development of a practical implementation of a muon-beam cooling device has involved a series of technical innovations and experiments that imply that an HCC of less than 300 m length can cool the 6d emittance of a muon beam by six orders of magnitude. We describe the design and construction plans for a prototype HCC module based on oxygen-doped hydrogen-pressurized RF cavities that are loaded with dielectric, fed by magnetrons, and operate in a superconducting helical solenoid magnet.

  11. Cosmic ray studies at CERN

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez T, Arturo

    2006-09-25

    The use of the sophisticated and large underground detectors at CERN for cosmic ray studies has been considered by several groups, e.g. UA1, LEP and LHC detectors. They offer the opportunity to provide large sensitivity area with magnetic analysis which allow a precise determination of the direction of cosmic ray muons as well as their momentum up to the order of some TeV. The aim of this article is to review the observation of high energy cosmic ray muons using precise spectrometers at CERN, mainly LEP detectors as well as the possibility of improve those measurements with LHC apparatus, giving special emphasis to the ACORDE-ALICE cosmic ray physics program.

  12. Jet production in muon scattering at Fermilab E665

    SciTech Connect

    Salgado, C.W.; E665 Collaboration

    1993-11-01

    Measurements of multi-jet production rates from Muon-Nucleon and Muon-Nuclei scattering at Fermilab-E665 are presented. Jet rates are defined by the JADE clustering algorithm. Rates in Muon-Nucleon deep-inelastic scattering are compared to Monte Carlo model predictions. Preliminary results from jet production on heavy targets, in the shadowing region, show a higher suppression of two-forward jets as compared to one-forward jet production.

  13. High intensity muon storage rings for neutrino production: Lattice design

    SciTech Connect

    Johnstone, C>

    1998-05-01

    Five energies, 250, 100, 50, 20, and 10 GeV, have been explored in the design of a muon storage ring for neutrino-beam production. The ring design incorporates exceptionally long straight sections with large beta functions in order to produce an intense, parallel neutrino beam via muon decay. To emphasize compactness and reduce the number of muon decays in the arcs, high-field superconducting dipoles are used in the arc design.

  14. Muons in Air Showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, M.

    We present measurements of muons in air showers at ultra-high energies with the Pierre Auger Observatory. The number of muons at the ground in air showers detected at large zenith angles is determined as a function of energy and the results are compared to air shower simulations. Furthermore, using data collected at zenith angles smaller than 60°, rescaling factors are derived that quantify the deficit of muon production in air shower simulations.

  15. Muon Bunching and Phase-Energy Rotation for a Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuffer, David; Yoshikawa, Cary

    2008-04-01

    We have developed scenarios for capture, bunching and phase-energy rotation of muons from a proton source, using high-frequency rf systems. The method captures a maximal number of muons into a string of rf bunches with initial application in the neutrino factory design studies. For a muon collider, these bunches must be recombined for maximal luminosity, and our initial design produced a relatively long bunch train. In this paper we present more compact scenarios that obtain a smaller number of bunches, and, after some optimization, obtain cases that are better for both neutrino-factory and collider scenarios. We also consider further modification by incorporating hydrogen gas-filled rf cavities for bunching and cooling. We describe these examples and consider variations toward an optimal factory + collider scenario.

  16. The atmospheric muon flux in correlation with temperature variations in the low stratosphere (50-200 mb).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertaina, M.; Briatore, L.; Longhetto, A.; Navarra, G.; EAS-TOP collaboraiton

    The dependence of the muon flux from the atmospheric parameters (pressure and temperature) is a well known effect since long time ago, that is usually corrected for in cosmic ray measurements. We have correlated at EAS-TOP (LNGS) the muon flux detected by the EMD detector (29 stations, 10m2 each, E_thr>3MeV) with the atmospheric temperature (10-1000mb levels) monitored by the radio-soundings of the Aeronautica Militare at Pratica di Mare (Rome). A significant effect has been observed when the muon flux is correlated with the atmospheric temperature in the region 50-200mb (50-200gr/cm2), as expected, since this is the region where the mesons of first generation are produced. The effect becomes even larger (K_T=-9.5+/-1.1)x10-4 K-1) when the variations of the cosmic ray primary flux is taken into account (Neutron Monitor, Rome). Then, the technique has been used to monitor strong temperature variations in the low stratosphere through the muon flux in two periods, showing that the average temperature variations in the low stratosphere are reproduced with a ~2K uncertainty. The main results of this analysis will be presented.

  17. Multilayer Optical Read-Only-Memory Disk Applicable to Blu-ray Disc Standard Using a Photopolymer Sheet with a Recording Capacity of 100 GB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shida, Noriyoshi; Higuchi, Takanobu; Hosoda, Yasuo; Miyoshi, Hiroko; Nakano, Akio; Tsuchiya, Katsunori

    2004-07-01

    We have been investigating a multilayer optical disk applicable to Blu-ray Disc (BD) standard using a photopolymer (2P) sheet in order to realize a recording capacity of 100 GB on a 12-cm-diameter disk. We had already developed a 2P sheet utilizing the multilayer disk. In this study, we developed a BD-type quad-layer disk using the 2P sheet, and investigated readout signals from each layer. The jitter values of layer 0 (L0), layer 1 (L1), layer 2 (L2) and layer 3 (L3) in the quad-layer disk were 6.5%, 7.1%, 7.3% and 6.6%, respectively. According to the analysis of the components of jitter values, the main factor behind the deterioration of jitter values is the crosstalk from adjacent layers. However, the jitter value of each layer was sufficient to reproduce the recorded data. From these results, we proved the feasibility of realizing the BD-type multilayer read-only-memory (ROM) disk with the recording capacity of 100 GB.

  18. The performance of the MICE muon beam line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayner, Mark Alastair

    2011-10-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment is one lattice cell of a cooling channel suitable for conditioning the muon beam at the front end of a Neutrino Factory or Muon Collider. The beam line designed to transport muons into MICE has been installed, and data was collected in 2010. In this paper the method of reconstructing longitudinal momentum and transverse trace space using two timing detectors is discussed, and a preliminary simulation of the performance of a measured beam in the cooling channel is presented.

  19. Muon SR Newsletter, No. 29, April 5, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Crowe, K.M.; Portis, A.M.; Yamazaki, T.

    1984-04-05

    Muon SR stands for Muon Spin Relaxation, Rotation, Resonance, Research, or what have you. The intention of the mnemonic acronym is to draw attention to the analogy with NMR and ESR, the range of whose applications is well known. Any study of the interactions of the muon spin by virtue of the asymmetric decay is considered ..mu..SR, but this definition is not intended to exclude any peripherally related phenomena, especially if relevant to the use of the muon's mganetic moment as a delicate probe of matter. Abstracts of individual items from this issue were prepared separately for the data base.

  20. Cosmic muon flux measurements at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalousis, L. N.; Guarnaccia, E.; Link, J. M.; Mariani, C.; Pelkey, R.

    2014-08-01

    In this article, the results from a series of muon flux measurements conducted at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF), Virginia, United States, are presented. The detector employed for these investigations, is made of plastic scintillator bars readout by wavelength shifting fibers and multianode photomultiplier tubes. Data was taken at several locations inside KURF, spanning rock overburden values from ~ 200 to 1450 m.w.e. From the extracted muon rates an empirical formula was devised, that estimates the muon flux inside the mine as a function of the overburden. The results are in good agreement with muon flux calculations based on analytical models and MUSIC.

  1. The muon system of the Run II DØ detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abazov, V. M.; Acharya, B. S.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Anosov, V. A.; Baldin, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bardon, O.; Bartlett, J. F.; Baturitsky, M. A.; Beutel, D.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bodyagin, V.; Butler, J. M.; Cease, H.; Chi, E.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Diehl, H. T.; Doulas, S.; Dugad, S. R.; Dvornikov, O. V.; Dyshkant, A.; Eads, M.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Fortner, M.; Gavrilov, V.; Gershtein, Y.; Golovtsov, V.; Gómez, B.; Goodwin, R.; Gornushkin, Yu. A.; Green, D. R.; Gupta, A.; Gurzhiev, S. N.; Gutierrez, G.; Haggerty, H.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, S.; Hazen, E.; Hedin, D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Ito, A. S.; Jayanti, R.; Johns, K.; Jouravlev, N.; Kalinin, A. M.; Kalmani, S. D.; Kharzheev, Y. N.; Kirsch, N.; Komissarov, E. V.; Korablev, V. M.; Kostritsky, A.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kozlovsky, M.; Kravchuk, N. P.; Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Kuchinsky, N. A.; Kuleshov, S.; Kupco, A.; Larwill, M.; Leitner, R.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Lubatti, H. J.; Machado, E.; Maity, M.; Malyshev, V. L.; Mao, H. S.; Marcus, M.; Marshall, T.; Mayorov, A. A.; McCroskey, R.; Merekov, Y. P.; Mikhailov, V. A.; Mokhov, N.; Mondal, N. K.; Nagaraj, P.; Narasimham, V. S.; Narayanan, A.; Negret, J. P.; Neustroev, P.; Nozdrin, A. A.; Oshinowo, B.; Parashar, N.; Parua, N.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Polozov, P.; Porokhovoi, S. Y.; Prokhorov, I. K.; Rao, M. V. S.; Raskowski, J.; Reddy, L. V.; Regan, T.; Rotolo, C.; Russakovich, N. A.; Sabirov, B. M.; Satyanarayana, B.; Scheglov, Y.; Schukin, A. A.; Shankar, H. C.; Shishkin, A. A.; Shpakov, D.; Shupe, M.; Simak, V.; Sirotenko, V.; Smith, G.; Smolek, K.; Soustruznik, K.; Stefanik, A.; Steinberg, J.; Stolin, V.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Stutte, L.; Temple, J.; Terentyev, N.; Teterin, V. V.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Tompkins, D.; Uvarov, L.; Uvarov, S.; Vasilyev, I. A.; Vertogradov, L. S.; Vishwanath, P. R.; Vorobyov, A.; Vysotsky, V. B.; Willutzki, H.; Wobisch, M.; Wood, D. R.; Yamada, R.; Yatsunenko, Y. A.; Yoffe, F.; Zanabria, M.; Zhao, T.; Zieminska, D.; Zieminski, A.; Zvyagintsev, S. A.

    2005-11-01

    We describe the design, construction, and performance of the upgraded DØ muon system for Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron collider. Significant improvements have been made to the major subsystems of the DØ muon detector: trigger scintillation counters, tracking detectors, and electronics. The Run II central muon detector has a new scintillation counter system inside the iron toroid and an improved scintillation counter system outside the iron toroid. In the forward region, new scintillation counter and tracking systems have been installed. Extensive shielding has been added in the forward region. A large fraction of the muon system electronics is also new.

  2. Toroidal magnetic detector for high resolution measurement of muon momenta

    DOEpatents

    Bonanos, P.

    1992-01-07

    A muon detector system including central and end air-core superconducting toroids and muon detectors enclosing a central calorimeter/detector. Muon detectors are positioned outside of toroids and all muon trajectory measurements are made in a nonmagnetic environment. Internal support for each magnet structure is provided by sheets, located at frequent and regularly spaced azimuthal planes, which interconnect the structural walls of the toroidal magnets. In a preferred embodiment, the shape of the toroidal magnet volume is adjusted to provide constant resolution over a wide range of rapidity. 4 figs.

  3. Muons probe strong hydrogen interactions with defective graphene.

    PubMed

    Riccò, Mauro; Pontiroli, Daniele; Mazzani, Marcello; Choucair, Mohammad; Stride, John A; Yazyev, Oleg V

    2011-11-01

    Here, we present the first muon spectroscopy investigation of graphene, focused on chemically produced, gram-scale samples, appropriate to the large muon penetration depth. We have observed an evident muon spin precession, usually the fingerprint of magnetic order, but here demonstrated to originate from muon-hydrogen nuclear dipolar interactions. This is attributed to the formation of CHMu (analogous to CH(2)) groups, stable up to 1250 K where the signal still persists. The relatively large signal amplitude demonstrates an extraordinary hydrogen capture cross section of CH units. These results also rule out the formation of ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic order in chemically synthesized graphene samples.

  4. Toroidal magnetic detector for high resolution measurement of muon momenta

    DOEpatents

    Bonanos, Peter

    1992-01-01

    A muon detector system including central and end air-core superconducting toroids and muon detectors enclosing a central calorimeter/detector. Muon detectors are positioned outside of toroids and all muon trajectory measurements are made in a nonmagnetic environment. Internal support for each magnet structure is provided by sheets, located at frequent and regularly spaced azimuthal planes, which interconnect the structural walls of the toroidal magnets. In a preferred embodiment, the shape of the toroidal magnet volume is adjusted to provide constant resolution over a wide range of rapidity.

  5. The Muon system of the run II D0 detector

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, V.M.; Acharya, B.S.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Anosov, V.A.; Baldin, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bardon, O.; Bartlett, J.F.; Baturitsky, M.A.; Beutel, D.; Bezzubov, V.A.; Bodyagin, V.; Butler, J.M.; Cease, H.; Chi, E.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S.P.; Diehl, H.T.; Doulas, S.; Dugad, S.R.; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Charles U. /Prague, Tech. U. /Prague, Inst. Phys. /San Francisco de Quito U. /Tata Inst. /Dubna, JINR /Moscow, ITEP /Moscow State U. /Serpukhov, IHEP /St. Petersburg, INP /Arizona U. /Florida State U. /Fermilab /Northern Illinois U. /Indiana U. /Boston U. /Northeastern U. /Brookhaven /Washington U., Seattle /Minsk, Inst. Nucl. Problems

    2005-03-01

    The authors describe the design, construction and performance of the upgraded D0 muon system for Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron collider. Significant improvements have been made to the major subsystems of the D0 muon detector: trigger scintillation counters, tracking detectors, and electronics. The Run II central muon detector has a new scintillation counter system inside the iron toroid and an improved scintillation counter system outside the iron toroid. In the forward region, new scintillation counter and tracking systems have been installed. Extensive shielding has been added in the forward region. A large fraction of the muon system electronics is also new.

  6. Muon beam polarization at the LAMPF Biochemical Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Paciotti, M.A.; Bradbury, J.N.; Heffner, R.H.; Leon, M.; Rink, D.; Rivera, O.M.

    1985-01-01

    Recent modifications to the LAMPF Biomedical Channel have improved versatility for stopping pion and muon physics experiments. High muon polarization was achieved by favorable kinematic selection of the decay muons. This polarization has been measured and found to be close to the design expectation of about 85%. The Hanle method was employed to measure the polarization by observing left-right decay asymmetry at right angles to the beam with small precession fields (0-50 gauss). This technique is particularly suitable for high-intensity muon beams. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Studies on Muon Induction Acceleration and an Objective Lens Design for Transmission Muon Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artikova, Sayyora; Yoshida, Mitsuhiro; Naito, Fujio

    Muon acceleration will be accomplished by a set of induction cells, where each increases the energy of the muon beam by an increment of up to 30 kV. The cells are arranged in a linear way resulting in total accelerating voltage of 300 kV. Acceleration time in the linac is about hundred nanoseconds. Induction field calculation is based on an electrostatic approximation. Beam dynamics in the induction accelerator is investigated and final beam focusing on specimen is realized by designing a pole piece lens.

  8. Helical muon beam cooling channel engineering design

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Rolland

    2015-08-07

    The Helical Cooling Channel (HCC) achieves effective ionization cooling of the six-dimensional (6d) phase space of a muon beam by means of a series of 21st century inventions. In the HCC, hydrogen-pressurized RF cavities enable high RF gradients in strong external magnetic fields. The theory of the HCC, which requires a magnetic field with solenoid, helical dipole, and helical quadrupole components, demonstrates that dispersion in the gaseous hydrogen energy absorber provides effective emittance exchange to enable longitudinal ionization cooling. The 10-year development of a practical implementation of a muon-beam cooling device has involved a series of technical innovations and experiments that imply that an HCC of less than 300 m length can cool the 6d emittance of a muon beam by six orders of magnitude. We describe the design and construction plans for a prototype HCC module based on oxygen-doped hydrogen-pressurized RF cavities that are loaded with dielectric, fed by magnetrons, and operate in a superconducting helical solenoid magnet. The first phase of this project saw the development of a conceptual design for the integration of 805 MHz RF cavities into a 10 T Nb3Sn-based HS test section. Two very novel ideas are required to realize the design. The first idea is the use of dielectric inserts in the RF cavities to make them smaller for a given frequency so that the cavities and associated plumbing easily fit inside the magnet cryostat. Calculations indicate that heat loads will be tolerable, while RF breakdown of the dielectric inserts will be suppressed by the pressurized hydrogen gas. The second new idea is the use of a multi-layer Nb3Sn helical solenoid. The technology demonstrations for the two aforementioned key components of a 10T, 805 MHz HCC were begun in this project. The work load in the Fermilab Technical Division made it difficult to test a multi-layer Nb3Sn solenoid as originally planned. Instead, a complementary

  9. Accomplishment of Blu-ray disc ROM by electron beam recording: dual layer with 50-GB capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukuda, Masahiko; Ito, Eiichi; Tomiyama, Morio; Abe, Shinya; Ohno, Eiji; David, Stephane; Dubs, Martin; Bayliss, Chris; Dix, Colin; Ogilvie, Nick; Proffitt, Simon; Scott-Maxwell, David; Fantin, Bernard; Eisenhammer, Thomas

    2004-09-01

    A BD-ROM production-capable Electron Beam Recorder (EBR) has been developed, resulting from an optimization program conducted on a prior prototype. The key technical improvements are a comprehensive upgrade of the mechanical master driving system to reduce the track pitch deviations and the implementation of a dynamic focus system, including an axial run-out checker to obtain a uniform jitter. And the multi-pulse write strategy was adopted to control the pit shapes. The resulting masters show a typical radial track pitch variation comprised in the range +/-6.6nm across the entire recorded area. The corresponding push-pull signal deviation is found to be less than 18% on the whole disc and less than 14% in one revolution. The signal jitter of dual layered BD-ROM disc less than 6.1% on layer 0, and less than 6.7% on layer 1 with large enough push-pull amplitude through the whole radius. These results are fully compliant with the requirements for the dual layered BD-ROM disc of 50GB capacity.

  10. Cosmic ray radiography of the damaged cores of the Fukushima reactors

    DOE PAGES

    Borozdin, Konstantin; Greene, Steven; Lukić, Zarija; Milner, Edward; Miyadera, Haruo; Morris, Christopher; Perry, John

    2012-10-11

    The passage of muons through matter is dominated by the Coulomb interaction with electrons and nuclei. The interaction with the electrons leads to continuous energy loss and stopping of the muons. The interaction with nuclei leads to angle “diffusion.” Two muon-imaging methods that use flux attenuation and multiple Coulomb scattering of cosmic-ray muons are being studied as tools for diagnosing the damaged cores of the Fukushima reactors. Here, we compare these two methods. We conclude that the scattering method can provide detailed information about the core. Lastly, attenuation has low contrast and little sensitivity to the core.

  11. Automatic readout for nuclear emulsions in muon radiography of volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrov, A.; Bozza, C.; Consiglio, L.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Di Marco, N.; Kose, U.; Lauria, A.; Medinaceli, E.; Miyamoto, S.; Montesi, C.; Pupilli, F.; Rescigno, R.; Russo, A.; Sirignano, C.; Stellacci, S. M.; Strolin, P.; Tioukov, V.

    2012-04-01

    Nuclear emulsions are an effective choice in many scenarios of volcano radiography by cosmic-ray muons. They are cheap and emulsion-based detectors require no on-site power supply. Nuclear emulsion films provide sub-micrometric tracking precision and intrinsic angular accuracy better than 1 mrad. Imaging the inner structure of a volcano requires that the cosmic-ray absorption map be measured on wide angular range. High-absorption directions can be probed by allowing for large statistics, which implies a large overall flux, i.e. wide surface for the detector. A total area of the order of a few m2 is nowadays typical, thanks to the automatic readout tools originally developed for high-energy physics experiments such as CHORUS, PEANUT, OPERA. The European Scanning System is now being used to read out nuclear emulsion films exposed to cosmic rays on the side of volcanoes. The structure of the system is described in detail with respect to both hardware and software. Its present scanning speed of 20 cm2/h/side/microscope is suitable to fulfil the needs of the current exposures of nuclear emulsion films for muon radiograph, but it is worth to notice that applications in volcano imaging are among the driving forces pushing to increase the performances of the system. Preliminary results for the Unzen volcano of a joint effort by research groups in Italy and Japan show that the current system is already able to provide signal/background ratio in the range 100÷10000:1, depending on the quality cuts set in the off-line data analysis. The size of the smallest detectable structures in that experimental setup is constrained by the available statistics in the region of highest absorption to about 50 mrad, or 22 m under the top of the mountain. Another exposure is currently taking data at the Stromboli volcano. Readout of the exposed films is expected to begin in March 2012, and preliminary results will be available soon after. An effort by several universities and INFN has

  12. The Auger Engineering Radio Array and multi-hybrid cosmic ray detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, E. M.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) aims at the detection of air showers induced by high-energy cosmic rays. As an extension of the Pierre Auger Observatory, it measures complementary information to the particle detectors, fluorescence telescopes and to the muon scintillators of the Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array (AMIGA). AERA is sensitive to all fundamental parameters of an extensive air shower such as the arrival direction, energy and depth of shower maximum. Since the radio emission is induced purely by the electromagnetic component of the shower, in combination with the AMIGA muon counters, AERA is perfect for separate measurements of the electrons and muons in the shower, if combined with a muon counting detector like AMIGA. In addition to the depth of the shower maximum, the ratio of the electron and muon number serves as a measure of the primary particle mass.

  13. Modeled Differential Muon Flux Measurements for Monitoring Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, M. L.; Naudet, C. J.; Gluyas, J.

    2012-12-01

    Recently, we published the first, theoretical feasibility study of the use of muon tomography to monitor injection of supercritical carbon dioxide into a geological storage reservoir for carbon storage (Kudryavtsev et al., 2012). Our initial concept showed that attenuation of the total muon downward flux, which is controlled effectively by its path-length and the density of the material through which it passes, could quantify the replacement in a porous sandstone reservoir of relatively dense aqueous brine by less dense supercritical carbon dioxide (specific gravity, 0.75). Our model examined the change in the muon flux over periods of about one year. However, certainly, in the initial stages of carbon dioxide injection it would be valuable to examine its emplacement over much shorter periods of time. Over a year there are small fluctuations of about 2% in the flux of high energy cosmic ray muons, because of changes in pressure and temperature, and therefore density, of the upper atmosphere (Ambrosio, 1997). To improve precision, we developed the concept of differential muon monitoring. The muon flux at the bottom of the reservoir is compared with the incident flux at its top. In this paper we present the results of three simulations. In all of them, as in our previous modeling exercise, we assume a 1000 sq. m total area of muon detectors, but in this case both above and below a 300 m thick sandstone bed, with 35% porosity, capped by shale and filled initially with a dense brine (specific gravity, 1.112). We assume high sweep efficiency, since supercritical CO2 and water are miscible, and therefore that 80% of the water will be replaced over a period of injection spanning 10 years. In the first two cases the top of the reservoir is at 1200 m and the overburden is either continuous shale or a 100m shale horizon beneath a sandstone aquifer, respectively. In the third case, which is somewhat analogous to the FutureGen 2.0 site in Illinois (FutureGen Industrial

  14. Final Report for NA-22/DTRA Cosmic Ray Project

    SciTech Connect

    Wurtz, Ron E.; Chapline, George F.; Glenn, Andrew M.; Nakae, Les F.; Pawelczak, Iwona A.; Sheets, Steven A.

    2015-07-21

    The primary objective of this project was to better understand the time-correlations between the muons and neutrons produced as a result of high energy primary cosmic ray particles hitting the atmosphere, and investigate whether these time correlations might be useful in connection with the detection of special nuclear materials. During the course of this project we did observe weak correlations between secondary cosmic ray muons and cosmic ray induced fast neutrons. We also observed strong correlations between tertiary neutrons produced in a Pb pile by secondary cosmic rays and minimum ionizing particles produced in association with the tertiary neutrons.

  15. Muon to electron conversion: how to find an electron in a muon haystack.

    PubMed

    Kurup, A

    2010-08-13

    The standard model (SM) of particle physics describes how the Universe works at a fundamental level. Even though this theory has proven to be very successful over the past 50 years, we know it is incomplete. Many theories that go beyond the SM predict the occurrence of certain processes that are forbidden by the SM, such as muon to electron conversion. This paper will briefly review the history of muon to electron conversion and focus on the high-precision experiments currently being proposed, COMET (Coherent Muon to Electron Transition) and Mu2e, and a next-generation experiment, PRISM. The PRISM experiment intends to use a novel type of accelerator called a fixed-field alternating-gradient (FFAG) accelerator. There has recently been renewed interest in FFAGs for the Neutrino Factory and the Muon Collider, and because they have applications in many areas outside of particle physics, such as energy production and cancer therapy. The synergies between these particle physics experiments and other applications will also be discussed.

  16. The g - 2 muon anomaly in di-muon production with the torsion in LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syromyatnikov, A. G.

    2016-06-01

    It was considered within the framework of the conformal gauge gravitational theory CGTG coupling of the standard model fermions to the axial torsion and preliminary discusses the impact of extra dimensions, in particular, in a five-dimensional space-time with Randall-Sundrum metric, where the fifth dimension is compactified on an S1/Z 2 orbifold, which as it turns out is conformally to the fifth dimension flat Euclidean space with permanent trace of torsion, with a compactification radius R in terms of the radius of a CGTG gravitational screening, through torsion in a process Z → μ+μ- and LHC data. In general, have come to the correct set of the conformal calibration curvature the Faddeev-Popov diagram technique type, that follows directly from dynamics. This leads to the effect of restrictions on neutral spin currents of gauge fields by helicity and the Regge’s form theory. The diagrams reveals the fact of opening of the fine spacetime structure in a process pp → γ/Z/T → μ+μ- with a center-of-mass energy of 14TeV, indicated by dotted lines and texture columns, as a result of p-p collision on 1.3 ṡ 10-18cm scales from geometric shell gauge bosons of the SM continued by the heavy axial torsion resonance, and even by emerging from the inside into the outside of the ultra-light (freely-frozen in muon’s spin) axial torsion. We then evaluate the contribution of the torsion to the muon anomaly to derive new constraints on the torsion parameters. It was obtained that on the πN scattering through the exchange of axial torsion accounting, the nucleon anomalous magnetic moment in the eikonal phase leads to additive additives which is responsible for the spin-flip in the scattering process, the scattering amplitude is classical and characterized by a strong the torsion coupling ηT≅1. So the scattering of particles, occurs as on the Coulomb center with the charge fT This is the base model which is the g-2 muon anomaly. The muon anomaly contribution due to

  17. Chromaticity correction for a muon collider optics

    SciTech Connect

    Alexahin, Y.; Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Kapin, V.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Muon Collider (MC) is a promising candidate for the next energy frontier machine. However, in order to obtain peak luminosity in the 10{sup 34} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} range the collider lattice designmust satisfy a number of stringent requirements. In particular the expected large momentum spread of the muon beam and the very small {beta}* call for a careful correction of the chromatic effects. Here we present a particular solution for the interaction region (IR) optics whose distinctive feature is a three-sextupole local chromatic correction scheme. The scheme may be applied to other future machines where chromatic effects are expected to be large. The expected large muon energy spread requires the optics to be stable over a wide range of momenta whereas the required luminosity calls for {beta}* in the mm range. To avoid luminosity degradation due to hour-glass effect, the bunch length must be comparatively small. To keep the needed RF voltage within feasible limits the momentum compaction factor must be small over the wide range of momenta. A low {beta}* means high sensitivity to alignment and field errors of the Interaction Region (IR) quadrupoles and large chromatic effects which limit the momentum range of optics stability and require strong correction sextupoles, which eventually limit the Dynamic Aperture (DA). Finally, the ring circumference should be as small as possible, luminosity being inversely proportional to the collider length. A promising solution for a 1.5 TeV center of mass energy MC with {beta}* = 1 m in both planes has been proposed. This {beta}* value has been chosen as a compromise between luminosity and feasibility based on the magnet design and energy deposition considerations. The proposed solution for the IR optics together with a new flexible momentum compaction arc cell design allows to satisfy all requirements and is relatively insensitive to the beam-beam effect.

  18. Densitometric tomography using the measurement of muon flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hivert, F.; Busto, J.; Brunner, J.; Salin, P.; Gaffet, S.

    2013-12-01

    The knowledge of the subsurface properties is essentially obtained by geophysical methods, e.g. seismic imaging, electric prospection or gravimetry. The present work develops a recent method to investigate the in situ density of rocks using atmospheric the muon flux measurement , its attenuation depending on the rock density and thickness. This new geophysical technique have been mainly applied in volcanology (Lesparre N., 2011) using scintillator detectors. The present project (T2DM2) aims to realize underground muons flux measurements in order to characterizing the rock massif density variations above the LSBB underground research facility in Rustrel (France). The muon flux will be measure with a new Muon telescope instrumentation using Micromegas detectors in Time Projection Chambers (TPC) configuration. The first step of the work presented considers the muon flux simulation using the Gaisser model, for the interactions between muons and atmospheric particles, and the MUSIC code (Kudryavtsev V. A., 2008) for the muons/rock interactions. The results show that the muon flux attenuation caused by density variations are enough significant to be observed until around 500 m depth and for period of time in the order of one month. Such a duration scale and depth of investigation is compatible with the duration of the water transfer processes involved within the Karst unsaturated zone where LSBB is located. Our work now concentrates on the optimization of the spatial distribution of detectors that will be deployed in future.

  19. Muon tomography of rock density using Micromegas-TPC telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hivert, Fanny; Busto, José; Gaffet, Stéphane; Ernenwein, Jean-Pierre; Brunner, Jurgen; Salin, Pierre; Decitre, Jean-Baptiste; Lázaro Roche, Ignacio; Martin, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    The knowledge of the subsurface properties is essentially obtained by geophysical methods, e.g., seismic imaging, electric prospection or gravimetry. The current work is based on a recently developed method to investigate in situ the density of rocks using a measurement of the muon flux, whose attenuation depends on the quantity of matter the particles travel through and hence on the rock density and thickness. The present project (T2DM2) aims at performing underground muon flux measurements in order to characterize spatial and temporal rock massif density variations above the LSBB underground research facility in Rustrel (France). The muon flux will be measured with a new muon telescope device using Micromegas-Time Projection Chamber (TPC) detectors. The first step of the work presented covers the muon flux simulation based on the Gaisser model (Gaisser T., 1990), for the muon flux at the ground level, and on the MUSIC code (Kudryavtsev V. A., 2008) for the propagation of muons through the rock. The results show that the muon flux distortion caused by density variations is enough significant to be observed at 500 m depth for measurement times of about one month. This time-scale is compatible with the duration of the water transfer processes within the unsaturated Karst zone where LSBB is located. The work now focuses on the optimization of the detector layout along the LSBB galleries in order to achieve the best sensitivity.

  20. Preliminary Design of the Gas Cherenkov Muon Monitors for LBNE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitcher, Craig

    2011-10-01

    I am performing preliminary research for a future neutrino experiment at Fermilab called the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE). More specifically, I am determining the best geometry for the gas Cherenkov muon monitors. The purpose of the monitors is to measure, at least indirectly, the energy spectrum of the muons in the beam. I use computer software to simulate a realistic muon beam going through the monitors. Muons in the particle beam that go through the monitors emit Cherenkov radiation, and this light is detected by PMTs. I then plot the number of photons detected as a function of the muon's energy that emitted the detected photons. My goal is to have a very narrow peak on this plot. This peak shifts depending on the simulated index of refraction. The best design for the monitors is an L-shaped pipe filled with Freon gas of adjustable density. It is the simplest and cheapest to build of all the designs I tried, and it can accurately recover the muon energy spectrum based solely on the total number of photons detected in each pulse: using simulation data from 5 indices of refraction, I can recover the muon energy spectrum (within the uncertainties) of a beam that has 5 discrete muon energies.