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Sample records for rb cs phase

  1. The superconducting phase and electronic excitations of (Rb,Cs) Fe 2 As 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanter, J.; Shermadini, Z.; Khasanov, R.; Amato, A.; Bukowski, Z.; Batlogg, B.

    2011-03-01

    We present specific heat, transport and Muon-Spin Rotation (μ SR) results on (Rb,Cs) Fe 2 As 2 . RbFe 2 As 2 was only recently found to be superconducting below 2.6 K by Bukowski et al. Compared to the related BaFe 2 As 2 the electron density is lower and no magnetic order is observed. For the superconducting phase the superfluid density was calculated from μ SR data. The temperature dependence of the superfluid density and the magnetic penetration depth is well described by a multi-gap scenario. In addition the electronic contribution the specific heat was studied for different compositions and magnetic fields and reveals a high value for the Sommerfeld coefficient γ .

  2. Stabilization of the Perovskite Phase of Formamidinium Lead Triiodide by Methylammonium, Cs, and/or Rb Doping.

    PubMed

    Syzgantseva, Olga A; Saliba, Michael; Grätzel, Michael; Rothlisberger, Ursula

    2017-03-16

    In this work we perform a computational study comparing the influence of monovalent cation substitution by methylammonium (MA(+)), cesium (Cs(+)), and rubidium (Rb(+)) on the properties of formamidinium lead triiodide (FAPbI3)-based perovskites. The relative stability of the desired, photoactive perovskite α phase ("black phase") and the nonphotoactive, nonperovskite δ phase ("yellow phase") is studied as a function of dopant nature, concentration and temperature. Cs(+) and Rb(+) are shown to be more efficient in the stabilization of the perovskite α phase than MA(+). Furthermore, varying the dopant concentration allows changing the relative stability at different temperatures, in particular stabilizing the α phase already at 200 K. Upon Cs(+) or Rb(+) doping, the corresponding onset of the optical spectrum is blue-shifted by 0.1-0.2 eV with respect to pure FAPbI3.

  3. Vibrational investigation and phase transitions in the KMnF3 doped perovskite crystals (Li+, Na+, Rb+ and Cs+)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapusta, J.; Daniel, Ph; Ratuszna, A.

    2002-06-01

    The influence of substitution of Li+, Na+, Rb+ and Cs+ ions in the archetype KMnF3 perovskite crystal was studied by the Raman method. The Raman spectra of (K1-xAx)MnF3 mixed crystals (x≤0.15) were recorded in the range between 30 and 300 K and interpreted in terms of a `one-mode' behaviour. Attention was paid to evidence of the static and dynamical disorder. From this point of view the behaviour of hard Raman modes versus temperature has been studied together with two unexpected broad Raman bands in the normally inactive ideal cubic phase. The existence of these two broad peaks in the theoretically inactive cubic phase and also the persistence of the hard Raman modes of the tetragonal phase in cubic symmetry suggest the existence of a large structural disorder far above the cubic-to-tetragonal phase transition. The results of Raman investigations are discussed in the more general framework of structural disorder in perovskite systems.

  4. Comparative Raman spectroscopic study of phase stability and anharmonic effects in AZr2(PO4)3 (A=K, Rb and Cs).

    PubMed

    Kamali, K; Ravindran, T R; Ravi, C

    2016-02-15

    AZr2(PO4)3 (A=Na, K, Rb, Cs) are a set of framework structured compounds that exhibit tunable ultralow thermal expansion over the wide temperature range of 293-1273K. We report a systematic Raman spectroscopic investigation on AZr2(PO4)3 (A=K, Rb and Cs) compounds as a function of temperature in the range 80-860K and pressures of up to 32GPa. To get insight into the thermal expansion property, phonon anharmonicity has been investigated by studying the temperature and pressure dependence of Raman peak shifts and line widths and computed bulk modulus. We have compared the phase transition and amorphization pressures of the various members of AZr2(PO4)3 to account for the stability of the ambient rhombohedral phase. We find that unlike most of the anomalous thermal expansion materials, in AZr2(PO4)3 (A=K, Rb and Cs), the phonons that are anharmonic with temperature do not necessarily exhibit anharmonicity with pressure.

  5. Comparative Raman spectroscopic study of phase stability and anharmonic effects in AZr2(PO4)3 (A = K, Rb and Cs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamali, K.; Ravindran, T. R.; Ravi, C.

    2016-02-01

    AZr2(PO4)3 (A = Na, K, Rb, Cs) are a set of framework structured compounds that exhibit tunable ultralow thermal expansion over the wide temperature range of 293-1273 K. We report a systematic Raman spectroscopic investigation on AZr2(PO4)3 (A = K, Rb and Cs) compounds as a function of temperature in the range 80-860 K and pressures of up to 32 GPa. To get insight into the thermal expansion property, phonon anharmonicity has been investigated by studying the temperature and pressure dependence of Raman peak shifts and line widths and computed bulk modulus. We have compared the phase transition and amorphization pressures of the various members of AZr2(PO4)3 to account for the stability of the ambient rhombohedral phase. We find that unlike most of the anomalous thermal expansion materials, in AZr2(PO4)3 (A = K, Rb and Cs), the phonons that are anharmonic with temperature do not necessarily exhibit anharmonicity with pressure.

  6. High-resolution {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance evidence of phase transition of Rb,Cs-intercalated single-walled nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Bouhrara, M.; Saih, Y.; Waagberg, T.; Goze-Bac, C.; Abou-Hamad, E.

    2011-09-01

    We present 13 C high-resolution magic-angle-turning (MAT) and magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance data of Cs and Rb intercalated single walled carbon nanotubes. We find two distinct phases at different intercalation levels. A simple charge transfer is applicable at low intercalation level. The new phase at high intercalation level is accompanied by a hybridization of alkali (s) orbitals with the carbon (sp2) orbitals of the single walled nanotubes, which indicate bundle surface sites is the most probable alkali site.

  7. Simple-design ultra-low phase noise microwave frequency synthesizers for high-performing Cs and Rb vapor-cell atomic clocks

    SciTech Connect

    François, B.; Calosso, C. E.; Micalizio, S.; Abdel Hafiz, M.; Boudot, R.

    2015-09-15

    We report on the development and characterization of novel 4.596 GHz and 6.834 GHz microwave frequency synthesizers devoted to be used as local oscillators in high-performance Cs and Rb vapor-cell atomic clocks. The key element of the synthesizers is a custom module that integrates a high spectral purity 100 MHz oven controlled quartz crystal oscillator frequency-multiplied to 1.6 GHz with minor excess noise. Frequency multiplication, division, and mixing stages are then implemented to generate the exact output atomic resonance frequencies. Absolute phase noise performances of the output 4.596 GHz signal are measured to be −109 and −141 dB rad{sup 2}/Hz at 100 Hz and 10 kHz Fourier frequencies, respectively. The phase noise of the 6.834 GHz signal is −105 and −138 dB rad{sup 2}/Hz at 100 Hz and 10 kHz offset frequencies, respectively. The performances of the synthesis chains contribute to the atomic clock short term fractional frequency stability at a level of 3.1 × 10{sup −14} for the Cs cell clock and 2 × 10{sup −14} for the Rb clock at 1 s averaging time. This value is comparable with the clock shot noise limit. We describe the residual phase noise measurements of key components and stages to identify the main limitations of the synthesis chains. The residual frequency stability of synthesis chains is measured to be at the 10{sup −15} level for 1 s integration time. Relevant advantages of the synthesis design, using only commercially available components, are to combine excellent phase noise performances, simple-architecture, low-cost, and to be easily customized for signal output generation at 4.596 GHz or 6.834 GHz for applications to Cs or Rb vapor-cell frequency standards.

  8. Simple-design ultra-low phase noise microwave frequency synthesizers for high-performing Cs and Rb vapor-cell atomic clocks.

    PubMed

    François, B; Calosso, C E; Abdel Hafiz, M; Micalizio, S; Boudot, R

    2015-09-01

    We report on the development and characterization of novel 4.596 GHz and 6.834 GHz microwave frequency synthesizers devoted to be used as local oscillators in high-performance Cs and Rb vapor-cell atomic clocks. The key element of the synthesizers is a custom module that integrates a high spectral purity 100 MHz oven controlled quartz crystal oscillator frequency-multiplied to 1.6 GHz with minor excess noise. Frequency multiplication, division, and mixing stages are then implemented to generate the exact output atomic resonance frequencies. Absolute phase noise performances of the output 4.596 GHz signal are measured to be -109 and -141 dB rad(2)/Hz at 100 Hz and 10 kHz Fourier frequencies, respectively. The phase noise of the 6.834 GHz signal is -105 and -138 dB rad(2)/Hz at 100 Hz and 10 kHz offset frequencies, respectively. The performances of the synthesis chains contribute to the atomic clock short term fractional frequency stability at a level of 3.1 × 10(-14) for the Cs cell clock and 2 × 10(-14) for the Rb clock at 1 s averaging time. This value is comparable with the clock shot noise limit. We describe the residual phase noise measurements of key components and stages to identify the main limitations of the synthesis chains. The residual frequency stability of synthesis chains is measured to be at the 10(-15) level for 1 s integration time. Relevant advantages of the synthesis design, using only commercially available components, are to combine excellent phase noise performances, simple-architecture, low-cost, and to be easily customized for signal output generation at 4.596 GHz or 6.834 GHz for applications to Cs or Rb vapor-cell frequency standards.

  9. Simple-design ultra-low phase noise microwave frequency synthesizers for high-performing Cs and Rb vapor-cell atomic clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    François, B.; Calosso, C. E.; Abdel Hafiz, M.; Micalizio, S.; Boudot, R.

    2015-09-01

    We report on the development and characterization of novel 4.596 GHz and 6.834 GHz microwave frequency synthesizers devoted to be used as local oscillators in high-performance Cs and Rb vapor-cell atomic clocks. The key element of the synthesizers is a custom module that integrates a high spectral purity 100 MHz oven controlled quartz crystal oscillator frequency-multiplied to 1.6 GHz with minor excess noise. Frequency multiplication, division, and mixing stages are then implemented to generate the exact output atomic resonance frequencies. Absolute phase noise performances of the output 4.596 GHz signal are measured to be -109 and -141 dB rad2/Hz at 100 Hz and 10 kHz Fourier frequencies, respectively. The phase noise of the 6.834 GHz signal is -105 and -138 dB rad2/Hz at 100 Hz and 10 kHz offset frequencies, respectively. The performances of the synthesis chains contribute to the atomic clock short term fractional frequency stability at a level of 3.1 × 10-14 for the Cs cell clock and 2 × 10-14 for the Rb clock at 1 s averaging time. This value is comparable with the clock shot noise limit. We describe the residual phase noise measurements of key components and stages to identify the main limitations of the synthesis chains. The residual frequency stability of synthesis chains is measured to be at the 10-15 level for 1 s integration time. Relevant advantages of the synthesis design, using only commercially available components, are to combine excellent phase noise performances, simple-architecture, low-cost, and to be easily customized for signal output generation at 4.596 GHz or 6.834 GHz for applications to Cs or Rb vapor-cell frequency standards.

  10. Crystal structures and topological aspects of the high-temperature phases and decomposition products of the alkali-metal oxalates M2[C2O4] (M=K, Rb, Cs).

    PubMed

    Dinnebier, Robert E; Vensky, Sascha; Jansen, Martin; Hanson, Jonathan C

    2005-02-04

    The high-temperature phases of the alkali-metal oxalates M2[C2O4] (M = K, Rb, Cs), and their decomposition products M2[CO3] (M = K, Rb, Cs), were investigated by fast, angle-dispersive X-ray powder diffraction with an image-plate detector, and also by simultaneous differential thermal analysis (DTA)/thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)/mass spectrometry (MS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. The following phases, in order of decreasing temperature, were observed and crystallographically characterized (an asterisk denotes a previously unknown modification): *alpha-K2[C2O4], *alpha-Rb2[C2O4], *alpha-Cs2[C2O4], alpha-K2[CO3], *alpha-Rb2[CO3], and *alpha-Cs2[CO3] in space group P6(3)/mmc; *beta-Rb2[C2O4], *beta-Cs2[C2O4], *beta-Rb2[CO3], and *beta-Cs2[CO3] in Pnma; gamma-Rb2[C2O4], gamma-Cs[C2O4], gamma-Rb2[CO3], and gamma-Cs2[CO3] in P2(1)/c; and delta-K2[C2O4] and delta-Rb2[C2O4] in Pbam. With respect to the centers of gravity of the oxalate and carbonate anions, respectively, the crystal structures of all known alkali-metal oxalates and carbonates belong to the AlB2 family, and adopt either the AlB2 or the Ni2In arrangement depending on the size of the cation and the temperature. Despite the different sizes and constitutions of the carbonate and oxalate anions, the high-temperature phases of the alkali-metal carbonates M2[CO3] (M = K, Rb, Cs), exhibit the same sequence of basic structures as the corresponding alkali-metal oxalates. The topological aspects and order-disorder phenomena at elevated temperature are discussed.

  11. Phase Transition, Conformational Exchange, and Nonlinear Optical Third Harmonic Generation of A CsP 2 Se 8 ( A = K, Rb, Cs)

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, Alyssa S.; Banerjee, Abhishek; Saouma, Felix O.; Otieno, Calford O.; Jang, Joon I.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2016-04-12

    The soluble molecular selenophosphate salts ACsP(2)Se(8) (A = K, Rb, Cs) crystallize in the orthorhombic space group Ccce with a = 14.982(3) A, b = 24.579(5) A, and c = 13.065(3) A for the Cs salt and a = 14.782(3) A, b = 23.954(5) A, and c = 13.044(3) A for the K analogue. ACsP2Se8 is composed of the molecular 6-membered ring, [P2Se8](2-), in the twist conformation charge balanced by alkali metals. The band gaps of these compounds are 2.44 +/- 0.2 eV for Cs2P2Se8, 2.41 +/- 0.2 eV for RbCsP2Se8, and 2.36 +/- 0.2 eV for KCsP2Se8. The amorphous versions of these materials can be made by water quenching the melt and have band gaps for all ACsP(2)Se(8) of 2.12 +/- 0.2 eV. Raman spectroscopic studies exhibit active modes of PSe4 and Se Se in the compound. Solution P-31 NMR studies shed light into the interesting conformational fluxionality of the [P2Se8](2-) anion, including a conformation that has not been previously observed. Thermal analysis reveals ACsP(2)Se(8) exhibits a phase transition, which we investigate by in situ synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction. Third harmonic generation (THG) nonlinear optical measurements determined the THG coefficient, chi(3), for amorphous and crystalline Cs2P2Se8 of 1.8 +/- 0.2 X 105 pm(2)/V-2 and 2.4 +/- 0.1 X 105 pm2/V2, respectively.

  12. Half metallic ferromagnetism in alkali metal nitrides MN (M = Rb, Cs): A first principles study

    SciTech Connect

    Murugan, A. Rajeswarapalanichamy, R. Santhosh, M. Sudhapriyanga, G.; Kanagaprabha, S.

    2014-04-24

    The structural, electronic and elastic properties of two alkali metal nitrides (MN: M= Rb, Cs) are investigated by the first principles calculations based on density functional theory using the Vienna ab-initio simulation package. At ambient pressure the two nitrides are stable in ferromagnetic state with CsCl structure. The calculated lattice parameters are in good agreement with the available results. The electronic structure reveals that these materials are half metallic in nature. A pressure-induced structural phase transition from CsCl to ZB phase is observed in RbN and CsN.

  13. Measurements of the ground-state polarizabilities of Cs, Rb, and K using atom interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregoire, Maxwell D.; Hromada, Ivan; Holmgren, William F.; Trubko, Raisa; Cronin, Alexander D.

    2015-11-01

    We measured the ground-state static electric-dipole polarizabilities of Cs, Rb, and K atoms using a three-nanograting Mach-Zehnder atom beam interferometer. Our measurements provide benchmark tests for atomic structure calculations and thus test the underlying theory used to interpret atomic parity-nonconservation experiments. We measured αCs=4 π ɛ0×59.39 (9 ) Å3,αRb=4 π ɛ0×47.39 (8 ) Å3 , and αK=4 π ɛ0×42.93 (7 ) Å3 . In atomic units, these measurements are αCs=401.2 (7 ) ,αRb=320.1 (6 ) , and αK=290.0 (5 ) . We report ratios of polarizabilities αCs/αRb=1.2532 (10 ) ,αCs/αK=1.3834 (9 ) , and αRb/αK=1.1040 (9 ) with smaller fractional uncertainty because the systematic errors for individual measurements are largely correlated. Since Cs atom beams have short de Broglie wavelengths, we developed measurement methods that do not require resolved atom diffraction. Specifically, we used phase choppers to measure atomic beam velocity distributions, and we used electric field gradients to give the atom interference pattern a phase shift that depends on atomic polarizability.

  14. Satellite bands of the RbCs molecule in the range of highly excited states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakić, Mario; Beuc, Robert; Bouloufa-Maafa, Nadia; Dulieu, Olivier; Vexiau, Romain; Pichler, Goran; Skenderović, Hrvoje

    2016-05-01

    We report on the observation of three RbCs satellite bands in the blue and green ranges of the visible spectrum. Absorption measurements are performed using all-sapphire cell filled with a mixture of Rb and Cs. We compare high resolution absorption spectrum of Rb-Cs vapor mixture with pure Rb and Cs vapor spectra from the literature. After detailed analysis, the new satellite bands of RbCs molecule at 418.3 nm, 468.3, and 527.5 nm are identified. The origin of these bands is discussed by direct comparison with difference potentials derived from quantum chemistry calculations of RbCs potential energy curves. These bands originate from the lower Rydberg states of the RbCs molecule. This study thus provides further insight into photoassociation of lower Rydberg molecular states, approximately between Cs(7s) + Rb(5s) and Cs(6s) + Rb(6p) asymptotes, in ultracold gases.

  15. Three-dimensional topological critical Dirac semimetal in A MgBi (A = K, Rb, Cs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Congcong; Qin, Shengshan; Wu, Xianxin; Dai, Xia; Fu, Peiyuan; Fang, Chen; Hu, Jiangping

    2017-09-01

    We predicted, using first principles calculation, that A MgBi (A = K, Rb, Cs) are symmetry-protected topological semimetals near the boundary of type-I and type-II Dirac semimetal phases, dubbed topological critical Dirac semimetals. In-plane compressive strain or doping Rb or Cs into KMgBi can drive the transition between the two phases. An effective theory is developed to describe the bands near the Fermi energy, by which we calculate the surface Fermi arcs and the Landau levels throughout the transition. We predict the key features of critical Dirac semimetals that can be observed in photoemission, quantum oscillation, and transport measurements.

  16. Compressed tetragonal phase in X Fe2As2 (X =Na , K, Rb, Cs) and in the alloy Na0.5K0.5Fe2As2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tresca, Cesare; Profeta, Gianni

    2017-04-01

    Motivated by the recent discovery of a high-temperature superconducting phase in KFe2As2 at 16 GPa accompanied by an isostructural phase transition from the tetragonal to the compressed tetragonal phase, we extend the study of pressure effects to the whole X Fe2As2 family (X =Na , K, Rb, Cs). We demonstrate that the ionic radius of the X atom determines the transition to the compressed phase which induces relevant changes in electronic properties and the Fermi surface which can enhance the superconducting pairing. Based on these results and in analogy with KFe2As2 , we theoretically propose Na0.5K0.5Fe2As2 as a possible new superconductor material in its compressed tetragonal phase which we predict to happen above 6 GPa.

  17. Pressure induced structural transitions in KH, RbH, and CsH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, James; Baettig, Pio; Zurek, Eva

    2012-06-01

    The heavier alkali metal hydrides MH (M = K, Rb, Cs) undergo a series of pressure induced structural phase transitions: B1 (NaCl) → B2 (CsCl) → CrB. Experiments reveal that the latter occurs at 85 and 17.5 GPa for RbH and CsH, but it has not yet been observed for KH. Herein, evolutionary algorithms coupled with density functional theory calculations are employed to explore the potential energy surface of the aforementioned hydrides up to pressures of 300 GPa. The computations support previous theoretical work which predicts that KH will adopt the CrB structure when compressed. In addition, for KH and RbH we find configurations with Pnma and I41/amd symmetry that are thermodynamically competitive with the CrB structure at 300 GPa. Between 100-150 GPa, a Pnma structure which is analogous to a high-pressure form of CsI is found to be the most stable phase for the heaviest alkali hydride considered. At higher pressures a hitherto unknown CsH-P63/mmc arrangement becomes thermodynamically preferred up to at least 400 GPa. A detailed analysis of the geometric and electronic structures of the various phases is provided.

  18. Ternary Chlorides in the Systems ACl/TmCl 3( A=Cs, Rb, K)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Chagoui; Seifert, Hans J.

    1998-01-01

    The phase diagrams of the systemsACl/TmCl3(A=Cs, Rb, K) were investigated by DTA and XRD. CompoundsA3TmCl6,A2TmCl5,ATm2Cl7, and Cs3Tm2Cl9exist. Rb2TmCl5is the first 2:1 compound in the series La to Lu crystallizing in the Cs2DyCl5structure with connected [TmCl6] octahedra. By emf vsTmeasurements in galvanic chlorine cells for solid electrolytes for all compounds,ATm2Cl7excepted, the thermodynamic functions for the formation from the compounds adjacent in the phase diagrams could be determined.

  19. Elastic scattering of electrons from Rb, Cs and Fr atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangwar, R. K.; Tripathi, A. N.; Sharma, L.; Srivastava, R.

    2010-04-01

    Differential, integrated elastic, momentum-transfer and total cross sections as well as differential S, T and U spin parameters for scattering of electrons from rubidium, caesium and francium atoms in the incident energy range up to 300 eV are calculated using a relativistic Dirac equation. The projectile electron-target atom interaction is represented by both real and complex parameter-free optical potentials for obtaining the solution of a Dirac equation for scattered electrons. The Dirac-Fock wavefunctions have been used to represent the Rb, Cs and Fr target atoms. The results of differential cross sections and spin asymmetry parameter S for e-Rb and e-Cs have been compared with the available experimental and theoretical results. Detailed results are reported for the elastic scattering of electrons from the ground states of a francium atom for the first time in the wide range of incident electron energies. The results of electron-Fr elastic scattering show the similar features to those obtained in the case of e-Rb and e-Cs elastic scattering.

  20. Is the ground state of A1C60 (A=Rb, Cs) antiferromagnetic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmer, J.; Knorr, S.; Grupp, A.; Mehring, M.; Hone, J.; Zettl, A.

    1999-09-01

    EPR measurements in the metallic and the low-temperature orthorhombic phases of Rb1C60 and Cs1C60 powder samples have been performed at 9, 34, and 94 GHz. Detailed analysis reveals that all line features emerging in the low-temperature phase can be assigned to paramagnetic defects. We conclude that, in contrast to previous interpretations of the data, no signs of antiferromagnetic resonance (AFMR) have been observed. Furthermore we report on 94 GHz measurements of Rb1C60 single crystals which show a clear angular dependence in the metallic regime.

  1. Insights into the structures of the gas-phase hydrated cations M⁺(H₂O)(n)Ar (M = Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs; n = 3-5) using infrared photodissociation spectroscopy and thermodynamic analysis.

    PubMed

    Ke, Haochen; van der Linde, Christian; Lisy, James M

    2015-03-12

    The hydration of alkali cations yields a variety of structural conformers with varying numbers of water molecules in the first solvation shell. How these ions move from the aqueous phase into biological systems, such as at the entrance of an ion channel, depends on the interplay between competing intermolecular forces, which first must involve ion-water and water-water interactions. New infrared action spectra, using argon as a messenger or "spy", for Li(+), Na(+), and K(+), with up to five water molecules are reported, and new structural conformers determined from ab initio calculations, combined with previous results on Rb(+) and Cs(+), have identified structural transitions at each hydration level. These transitions are a result of the delicate balance between competing noncovalent interactions and represent a quantitative microscopic view of the macroscopic enthalpy-entropy competition between energy and structural variety. Smaller cations (Li(+) and Na(+)), with higher charge density, yield structural configurations with extended linear networks of hydrogen bonds. Larger cations (Rb(+) and Cs(+)), with lower charge density, generate configurations with cyclic hydrogen-bonded water subunits. It appears that K(+) is somewhat unique, with very simple (and predominantly) single structural conformers. This has led to the suggestion that K(+) can "move" easily in or through biological systems, concealing its identity as an ion, under the "appearance" or disguise of a water molecule.

  2. Electron Impact Ionization Cross Sections in Rb and Cs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddish, T. J.; Lukomski, M.; Sutton, S.; Kedzierski, W.; McConkey, J. W.; Bartschat, K.; Bartlett, P. L.; Stelbovics, A. T.; Bray, I.

    2006-05-01

    We present a new atom trapping technique for determining absolute, total ionisation cross sections (TICS) out of an excited atom. The novel feature of this method is in utilizing Doppler cooling of neutral atoms to determine ionisation cross sections. This fluorescence-monitoring experiment, which is a variant of the `trap loss' technique, has enabled us to obtain the experimental electron impact ionisation cross sections out of the Cs 6^2P3/2 excited state between 7 - 400 eV. New CCC, R-Matrix with Pseudo-States (RMPS), and Born approximation single ionisation cross sections (SICS) are also presented for both the ground and excited states of Cs and Rb, and compared with the available experimental data. The comparison of the results reveals the importance of the autoionisation and multiple ionisation contributions to the TICS. The autoionisation contribution appears to be substantial for ionisation out of the Cs 6^2P and Rb 5^2P excited states; ˜ 3-4 larger than the direct ionisation contribution predicted by CCC at ˜ 30-50 eV. This surprising result shows the importance of multi-electron processes in determining the ionisation cross sections of heavy alkali atoms.

  3. Investigation of substitution effects and the phase transition in type-I clathrates Rb{sub x}Cs{sub 8-x}Sn{sub 44}square{sub 2} (1.3<=x<=2.1) using single-crystal X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, heat capacity and electrical resistivity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Kaltzoglou, Andreas; Faessler, Thomas F.; Gold, Christian; Scheidt, Ernst-Wilhelm; Scherer, Wolfgang; Kume, Tetsuji; Shimizu, Hiroyasu

    2009-10-15

    The substitution of cations in Rb{sub x}Cs{sub 8-x}Sn{sub 44}square{sub 2}(1.3<=x<=2.1) is reported. The compounds crystallize at room temperature in the space group la3-bard adopting the type-I clathrate 2x2x2 superstructure with partly ordered framework vacancies (square), whereas at higher temperatures they transform to the primitive, more disordered modification (space group Pm3-barn). The guest atom distributions in the Sn cages on the Rb: Cs ratios is studied by means of single-crystal X-ray diffraction for Rb{sub 2.1(1)}Cs{sub 5.8(1)}Sn{sub 44} at T=293 K (1), Rb{sub 1.42(8)}Cs{sub 6.58(8)}Sn{sub 44} at T=293 K (2a), Rb{sub 1.46(5)}Cs{sub 6.54(5)}Sn{sub 44} at T=373 K (2b) and Rb{sub 1.32(8)}Cs{sub 6.68(8)}Sn{sub 44} at T=293 K (3). The structural order-disorder phase transition influences the electrical resistivity. The hysteresis observed for the electrical resistivity in combination with the symmetric shape of the specific heat anomaly suggests that the transformation is of first-order type and is characterized by an entropy change of about 2.5 J mol{sup -1} K{sup -1}. The Raman spectrum for the low-temperature modification of 2 is also reported. - Graphical Abstract: The effects of substitution of cations in the type-I clathrates Rb{sub x}Cs{sub 8-x}Sn{sub 44} (1.3<=x<=2.1) are reported. The distribution of the guests in the Sn cages under different reaction stoichiometries and annealing times is studied by X-ray diffraction. A structural phase transition in Rb{sub 1.4}Cs{sub 6.6}Sn{sub 44} at 333-363 K affects significantly the electrical resistivity and heat capacity.

  4. Rb-Cs ratio as an indicator of fish diet in lakes of the Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Guevara, S Ribeiro; Bubach, D; Macchi, P J; Vigliano, P; Arribére, M; Colombo, J C

    2006-01-01

    The ratios of Rb to Cs contents were studied in five fish species from seven lakes located in the Patagonia Andean Range, Argentina in order to trace fish diet. The species studied were native velvet catfish (Diplomistes viedmensis) and creole perch (Percichthys trucha), and exotic brown trout (Salmo trutta), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and brook trout (Salvenilus fontinalis). Rainbow trout specimens from two farms were also studied, as well as fish food items and native mussels (Diplodon chilensis). Rb and Cs concentrations were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. A positive correlation of Cs concentration in the muscle of velvet catfish with fish length was observed, probably associated with the long biological half-life of this element in this species, whereas the Rb concentration remained constant, hence inhibiting the use of Rb-Cs ratios as a tracer in this case. Seasonal variations observed for rainbow trout and Cs concentration background bias in one of the lakes studied are also a limiting factor to the use of Rb-Cs ratios as a diet tracer. Rb-Cs ratios allowed clear differentiation of rainbow trout raised in farms from the natural specimens that lived in the same environment, in agreement with Rb-Cs ratios determined in both diets. Rb-Cs ratios in rainbow trout showed significant differences between Rivadavia and Futalaufquen lakes compared to Moreno and Nahuel Huapi lakes, which could be associated with a higher participation of plankton in the diet in the first case. No relevant variations in Rb-Cs ratios of brown trout were observed, probably because of the similarity in the diet.

  5. Insights into gas-phase structural conformers of hydrated rubidium and cesium cations, M(+)(H2O)(n)Ar (M = Rb, Cs; n = 3-5), using infrared photodissociation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ke, Haochen; van der Linde, Christian; Lisy, James M

    2014-02-27

    Infrared photodissociation (IRPD) spectra of M(+)(H2O)nAr (M = Rb, Cs; n = 3-5) with simultaneous monitoring of [Ar] and [Ar+H2O] fragmentation channels are reported. The comparison between the spectral features in the two channels and corresponding energy analysis provide spectral assignments of the stable structural conformers and insight into the competition between ion-water electrostatic and water-water hydrogen bonding interactions. Results show that as the level of hydration increases, the water-water interaction exhibits the tendency to dominate over the ion-water interaction. Cyclic water tetramer and water pentamer substructures appear in Cs(+)(H2O)4Ar and Cs(+)(H2O)5Ar systems, respectively. However, cyclic water tetramer and pentamer structures were not observed for Rb(+)(H2O)4Ar and Rb(+)(H2O)5Ar systems, respectively, due to the stronger influence of the rubidium ion-water electrostatic interaction. The energy analysis, including the available internal energy and the IR photon energy, helped provide an experimental estimate of water binding energies.

  6. Cation ordering and effect of biaxial strain in double perovskite CsRbCaZnCl6

    SciTech Connect

    Pilania, G.; Uberuaga, B. P.

    2015-03-19

    Here, we investigate the electronic structure, energetics of cation ordering, and effect of biaxial strain on double perovskite CsRbCaZnCl6 using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. The two constituents (i.e., CsCaCl3 and RbZnCl3) forming the double perovskite exhibit a stark contrast. While CsCaCl3 is known to exist in a cubic perovskite structure and does not show any epitaxial strain induced phase transitions within an experimentally accessible range of compressive strains, RbZnCl3 is thermodynamically unstable in the perovskite phase and exhibits ultra-sensitive response at small epitaxial strains if constrained in the perovskite phase. We show that combining the two compositions in a double perovskite structure not only improves overall stability but also the strain-polarization coupling of the material. Our calculations predict a ground state with P4/nmm space group for the double perovskite, where A-site cations (i.e., Cs and Rb) are layer-ordered and B-site cations (i.e., Ca and Zn) prefer a rocksalt type ordering. The electronic structure and bandgap in this system are shown to be quite sensitive to the B-site cation ordering and is minimally affected by the ordering of A-site cations. We find that at experimentally accessible compressive strains CsRbCaZnCl6 can be phase transformed from its paraelectric ground state to an antiferroelectric state, where Zn atoms contribute predominantly to the polarization. Furthermore, both energy difference and activation barrier for a transformation between this antiferroelectric state and the corresponding ferroelectric configuration are predicted to be small. As a result, the computational approach presented here opens a new pathway towards a rational design of novel double perovskites with improved strain response and functionalities.

  7. Cation ordering and effect of biaxial strain in double perovskite CsRbCaZnCl{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Pilania, G. Uberuaga, B. P.

    2015-03-21

    Here, we investigate the electronic structure, energetics of cation ordering, and effect of biaxial strain on double perovskite CsRbCaZnCl{sub 6} using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. The two constituents (i.e., CsCaCl{sub 3} and RbZnCl{sub 3}) forming the double perovskite exhibit a stark contrast. While CsCaCl{sub 3} is known to exist in a cubic perovskite structure and does not show any epitaxial strain induced phase transitions within an experimentally accessible range of compressive strains, RbZnCl{sub 3} is thermodynamically unstable in the perovskite phase and exhibits ultra-sensitive response at small epitaxial strains if constrained in the perovskite phase. We show that combining the two compositions in a double perovskite structure not only improves overall stability but also the strain-polarization coupling of the material. Our calculations predict a ground state with P4/nmm space group for the double perovskite, where A-site cations (i.e., Cs and Rb) are layer-ordered and B-site cations (i.e., Ca and Zn) prefer a rocksalt type ordering. The electronic structure and bandgap in this system are shown to be quite sensitive to the B-site cation ordering and is minimally affected by the ordering of A-site cations. We find that at experimentally accessible compressive strains CsRbCaZnCl{sub 6} can be phase transformed from its paraelectric ground state to an antiferroelectric state, where Zn atoms contribute predominantly to the polarization. Furthermore, both energy difference and activation barrier for a transformation between this antiferroelectric state and the corresponding ferroelectric configuration are predicted to be small. The computational approach presented here opens a new pathway towards a rational design of novel double perovskites with improved strain response and functionalities.

  8. Cation ordering and effect of biaxial strain in double perovskite CsRbCaZnCl6

    DOE PAGES

    Pilania, G.; Uberuaga, B. P.

    2015-03-19

    Here, we investigate the electronic structure, energetics of cation ordering, and effect of biaxial strain on double perovskite CsRbCaZnCl6 using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. The two constituents (i.e., CsCaCl3 and RbZnCl3) forming the double perovskite exhibit a stark contrast. While CsCaCl3 is known to exist in a cubic perovskite structure and does not show any epitaxial strain induced phase transitions within an experimentally accessible range of compressive strains, RbZnCl3 is thermodynamically unstable in the perovskite phase and exhibits ultra-sensitive response at small epitaxial strains if constrained in the perovskite phase. We show that combining the two compositionsmore » in a double perovskite structure not only improves overall stability but also the strain-polarization coupling of the material. Our calculations predict a ground state with P4/nmm space group for the double perovskite, where A-site cations (i.e., Cs and Rb) are layer-ordered and B-site cations (i.e., Ca and Zn) prefer a rocksalt type ordering. The electronic structure and bandgap in this system are shown to be quite sensitive to the B-site cation ordering and is minimally affected by the ordering of A-site cations. We find that at experimentally accessible compressive strains CsRbCaZnCl6 can be phase transformed from its paraelectric ground state to an antiferroelectric state, where Zn atoms contribute predominantly to the polarization. Furthermore, both energy difference and activation barrier for a transformation between this antiferroelectric state and the corresponding ferroelectric configuration are predicted to be small. As a result, the computational approach presented here opens a new pathway towards a rational design of novel double perovskites with improved strain response and functionalities.« less

  9. Long-term selective retention of natural Cs and Rb by highly weathered coastal plain soils.

    PubMed

    Wampler, J M; Krogstad, Eirik J; Elliott, W Crawford; Kahn, Bernd; Kaplan, Daniel I

    2012-04-03

    Naturally occurring Cs and Rb are distinctly more abundant relative to K in the highly weathered upland soils of the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, than in average rock of Earth's upper continental crust (UCC), by factors of 10 and 4, respectively. Naturally occurring Cs has been selectively retained during soil evolution, and Rb to a lesser extent, while K has been leached away. In acid extracts of the soils, the Cs/K ratio is about 50 times and the Rb/K ratio about 15 times the corresponding ratios for the UCC, indicating that relatively large amounts of natural Cs and Rb have been sequestered in soil microenvironments that are highly selective for these elements relative to K. Cation exchange favoring Cs and Rb ions, and subsequent fixation of the ions, at sites in interlayer wedge zones within hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite particles may account for the observations. The amounts of stable Cs retained and the inferred duration of the soil evolution, many thousands of years, provide new insights regarding long-term stewardship of radiocesium in waste repositories and contaminated environments. Study of natural Cs in soil adds a long-term perspective on Cs transport in soils not available from studies of radiocesium.

  10. Narrow 87Rb and 133Cs hyperfine transitions in evacuated wall-coated cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, H. G.; Johnson, C. E.

    1983-01-01

    An extension of work on wall-coated cells was made to include observation by a triple resonance technique of the 0-0 hyperfine transitions in 87Rb and 133Cs. Conventional RF excited lamps were used. Interest in such cells is for possible application in atomic clocks. The Rb cell would appear to remain especially promising in this respect.

  11. Electron-paramagnetic-resonance scattering rates in metallic RbC60 and CsC60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmer, J.; Grupp, A.; Mehring, M.

    2001-12-01

    We derive conduction-electron scattering rates in the metallic polymer phase of RbC60 and CsC60 from the investigation of the temperature-dependent conduction electron-spin-resonance linewidth at X- (9 GHz) and W-band (94 GHz) frequencies by applying the Elliott theory. We obtain scattering rates that favor an essentially isotropic electronic structure of the polymer phase.

  12. Hyperfine frequencies of {sup 87}Rb and {sup 133}Cs atoms in Xe gas

    SciTech Connect

    McGuyer, B. H.; Xia, T.; Jau, Y.-Y.; Happer, W.

    2011-09-15

    The microwave resonant frequencies of ground-state {sup 87}Rb and {sup 133}Cs atoms in Xe buffer gas are shown to have a relatively large nonlinear dependence on the Xe pressure, presumably because of RbXe or CsXe van der Waals molecules. The nonlinear shifts for Xe are opposite in sign to the previously measured shifts for Ar and Kr, even though all three gases have negative linear shifts. The Xe data show striking discrepancies with the previous theory for nonlinear shifts. Most of this discrepancy is eliminated by accounting for the spin-rotation interaction, {gamma}N{center_dot}S, in addition to the hyperfine-shift interaction, {delta} A I{center_dot}S, in the molecules. To the limit of our experimental accuracy, the shifts of {sup 87}Rb and {sup 133}Cs in He, Ne, and N{sub 2} were linear with pressure.

  13. An adiabatic spectroscopic investigation of the CsRb system in ground and numerous excited states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souissi, Hanen; Jellali, Soulef; Maha, Chaieb; Habli, Héla; Oujia, Brahim; Gadéa, Florent Xavier

    2017-10-01

    Via ab-initio approximations, we investigate the electronic and structural features of the CsRb molecule. Adiabatic potential energy curves of 261,3Σ+, 181,3Π and 61,3Δ electronic states with their derived spectroscopic constants as well as vibrational levels spacing have been carried out and well explained. Our approach is founded on an Effective Core Potential (ECP) describing the valence electrons of the system. Using a large Gaussian basis set, the full valence Configuration Interaction can be applied easily on the two-effective valence electrons of the CsRb system. Furthermore, a detailed analysis of the electric dipolar properties has been made through the investigation of both permanent and transition dipole moments (PDM and TDM). It is significant that the ionic character connected with electron transfer that is linked to Cs+ Rb- state has been clearly illustrated in the adiabatic permanent dipole moment.

  14. Creation of Ultracold 87Rb 133Cs Molecules in the Rovibrational Ground State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molony, Peter K.; Gregory, Philip D.; Ji, Zhonghua; Lu, Bo; Köppinger, Michael P.; Le Sueur, C. Ruth; Blackley, Caroline L.; Hutson, Jeremy M.; Cornish, Simon L.

    2014-12-01

    We report the creation of a sample of over 1000 ultracold 87Rb 133Cs molecules in the lowest rovibrational ground state, from an atomic mixture of 87Rb and 133Cs, by magnetoassociation on an interspecies Feshbach resonance followed by stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP). We measure the binding energy of the RbCs molecule to be h c ×3811.576 (1 ) cm-1 and the |v''=0 ,J''=0 ⟩ to |v''=0 ,J''=2 ⟩ splitting to be h ×2940.09 (6 ) MHz . Stark spectroscopy of the rovibrational ground state yields an electric dipole moment of 1.225(3)(8) D, where the values in parentheses are the statistical and systematic uncertainties, respectively. We can access a space-fixed dipole moment of 0.355(2)(4) D, which is substantially higher than in previous work.

  15. Creation of ultracold ^{87}Rb^{133}Cs molecules in the rovibrational ground state.

    PubMed

    Molony, Peter K; Gregory, Philip D; Ji, Zhonghua; Lu, Bo; Köppinger, Michael P; Le Sueur, C Ruth; Blackley, Caroline L; Hutson, Jeremy M; Cornish, Simon L

    2014-12-19

    We report the creation of a sample of over 1000 ultracold ^{87}Rb^{133}Cs molecules in the lowest rovibrational ground state, from an atomic mixture of ^{87}Rb and ^{133}Cs, by magnetoassociation on an interspecies Feshbach resonance followed by stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP). We measure the binding energy of the RbCs molecule to be hc×3811.576(1)  cm^{-1} and the |v^{''}=0,J^{''}=0⟩ to |v^{''}=0,J^{''}=2⟩ splitting to be h×2940.09(6)  MHz. Stark spectroscopy of the rovibrational ground state yields an electric dipole moment of 1.225(3)(8) D, where the values in parentheses are the statistical and systematic uncertainties, respectively. We can access a space-fixed dipole moment of 0.355(2)(4) D, which is substantially higher than in previous work.

  16. The distribution of (137)Cs, K, Rb and Cs in plants in a Sphagnum-dominated peatland in eastern central Sweden.

    PubMed

    Vinichuk, M; Johanson, K J; Rydin, H; Rosén, K

    2010-02-01

    We record the distribution of (137)Cs, K, Rb and Cs within individual Sphagnum plants (down to 20cm depth) as well as (137)Cs in vascular plants growing on a peatland in eastern central Sweden. In Calluna vulgaris(137)Cs was mainly located within the green parts, whereas Andromeda polifolia, Eriophorum vaginatum and Vaccinium oxycoccos showed higher (137)Cs activity in roots. Carex rostrata and Menyanthes trifoliata showed variable distribution of (137)Cs within the plants. The patterns of (137)Cs activity concentration distribution as well as K, Rb and Cs concentrations within individual Sphagnum plants were rather similar and were usually highest in the capitula and/or in the subapical segments and lowest in the lower dead segments, which suggests continuous relocation of those elements to the actively growing apical part. The (137)Cs and K showed relatively weak correlations, especially in capitula and living green segments (0-10cm) of the plant (r=0.50). The strongest correlations were revealed between (137)Cs and Rb (r=0.89), and between (137)Cs and stable Cs (r=0.84). This suggests similarities between (137)Cs and Rb in uptake and relocation within the Sphagnum, but that (137)Cs differs from K.

  17. On-line production of Rb and Cs isotopes from uranium carbide targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrighetto, A.; Bajeat, O.; Barzakh, A. E.; Essabaa, S.; Fedorov, D. V.; Ionan, A. M.; Ivanov, V. S.; Leroy, R.; Lhersonneau, G.; Mezilev, K. A.; Moroz, F. V.; Orlov, S. Yu.; Panteleev, V. N.; Stroe, L.; Tecchio, L. B.; Villari, A.; Volkov, Yu. M.; Wang, X. F.

    2005-02-01

    A series of on-line mass separation experiments have been performed at the IRIS facility to measure the yield and release of Rb and Cs neutron-rich isotopes produced by fission reaction of 238U. A 1 GeV proton beam was used to bombard uranium carbide targets with the densities of 11 g/cm3 and 1.5 g/cm3 held at temperatures in the range (2000-2230) °C. The release curves of Rb and Cs long-lived isotopes were measured from both kinds of targets. The overall production efficiency was determined making use of experimentally measured cross-sections of that isotope production. Comparison of the experimental yields of Rb and Cs isotopes with the calculated ones after corrections for losses due to finite release times suggests that the diffusion is the dominating process reducing the efficiency for short-lived isotopes. When normalized to the same thickness, an enhancement for the high-density rod target of the measured isotope yields is observed when going far from stability. This is possibly explained by the reactions induced by secondary neutrons. A significant odd-even effect with higher yields of Cs even neutron isotopes has been observed, confirming a similar effect obtained in earlier experiments.

  18. Towards the experimental accuracy deperturbation analysis of the fully mixed A1Σ+ and b3 Π states of Rb2, Cs2 and RbCs molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolyarov, Andrey; Bergeman, Thomas

    2011-05-01

    The laser production and manipulation of the ultracold molecular assembles would be greatly facilitated by accurate knowledge of the structure and dynamic properties of the electronic states involved. In spite of the recent progress in the systematic spectroscopic investigation of the promising diatomic species such as Rb2, Cs2 and RbCs, the reduction of the raw experimental data available for fully mixed A 1Σ+ and b3 Π states to the precise structure parameters (potential and interaction matrix elements) is very challenging and still unambiguous procedure. We present here a review of physical models and numerical recipes currently developed for the comprehensive deperturbation treatment of the strongly coupled diatomic states in a wide range of excitation energy and internuclear distance. The crucial role of ab initio calculations on the spin-orbit coupling matrix elements in the deperturbation analysis is demonstrated. The interpolation and extrapolation properties of the resulting non-adiabatic models are discussed with respect to accuracy required for the adequate reproduction of experimental data sets.

  19. UV laser induced desorption of CsI and RbI ion clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Lima, F. A.; Ponciano, C. R.; Filho, H. D. Fonseca; Pedrero, E.; Chaer Nascimento, M. A.; da Silveira, E. F.

    2006-09-01

    Experimental results of laser sputtering of cesium and rubidium iodide secondary ions are presented. A TOF mass spectrometer, operating in linear mode, continuous extraction for positive or negative ions, was used for the analysis of (CsI) nCs +, (CsI) nI -, (RbI) nRb + and (RbI) nI - ion emission as a function of the laser irradiance. Experimental data show that the cluster ion emission yields decrease exponentially with n, for all the laser irradiances applied. Theoretical analysis of the clusters structure was performed using density functional theory at the B3LYP/LACV3P level, for the positive and negative cluster series. A quasi-equilibrium evolution of the clusters is proposed to extract a parameter characteristic of the cluster recombination process: the effective temperature. The hypothesis of the atomic species' recombination (during the expansion of a high density highly ionized cloud) leading to cluster formation is confirmed to some extent in a second set of experiments: the UV laser ablation of a mixed and non-mixed cesium iodide and potassium bromide targets. These experiments show that the emission yields contain contributions from both the recombination process and from the sample stoichiometry, even for high laser irradiances.

  20. Collisions of alkali-metal atoms Cs and Rb in the ground state. Spin exchange cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartoshkin, V. A.

    2016-09-01

    Collisions of alkali-metal atoms 133Cs and 85Rb in the ground state are considered in the energy interval of 10-4-10-2 au. Complex cross sections of the spin exchange, which allow one to calculate the processes of polarization transfer and the relaxation times, as well as the magnetic resonance frequency shifts caused by spin exchange Cs-Rb collisions, are obtained.

  1. Completion of the alkali metal titanium (III) pyrophosphate series: Synthesis and structure of AITiP 2O 7 ( AI = K, Rb, Cs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shumin; Hwu, Shiou-Jyh

    1991-05-01

    The structure of a new titanium (III) pyrophosphate RbTiP 2O 7 has been determined. It crystallizes in a monoclinic unit cell ( {P2 1}/{c}, Z = 4 ) with dimensions a = 7.542 (7) Å, b = 10.256 (2) Å, c = 8.270 (3) Å, β = 105.59 (5)°, V = 616.2 (6) Å 3. The single crystal structure refinement gives a final structure solution with R index on F20 of 0.046 for 101 variables and GOF = 1.76. RbTiP 2O 7 is isostructural with KAlP 2O 7, whose structure is also adopted by trivalent transition metal containing pyrophosphates; namely MIMoP 2O 7 ( MI = K, Rb, and Cs) and KFeP 2O 7. The potassium and cesium analogues are also synthesized. The structure differences between LiTiP 2O 7, NaTiP 2O 7 (β-phase), and (K,Rb,Cs)TiP 2O 7 are contrasted by the connectivity of the TiO 6 octahedra and P 2O 7 pyrophosphate groups. The structural relationship between RbTiP 2O 7 and previously reported BaTi 2(P 2O 7) 2 versus the role of electropositive cations in the formation of Ti(P 2O 7) nO 6-2 n units ( n is 1 for Rb + and 2 for Ba 2+) are discussed.

  2. Alkaline-alkaline earth fluoride carbonate crystals ABCO3F (A = K, Rb, Cs; B = Ca, Sr, Ba) as nonlinear optical materials.

    PubMed

    Zou, Guohong; Ye, Ning; Huang, Ling; Lin, Xinsong

    2011-12-14

    A new series of alkaline-alkaline earth fluoride carbonates (KSrCO(3)F, RbSrCO(3)F, KCaCO(3)F, RbCaCO(3)F, CsCaCO(3)F, and Cs(3)Ba(4)(CO(3))(3)F(5)) were synthesized by spontaneous crystallization with molten fluxes. Their crystal structures, except for Cs(3)Ba(4)(CO(3))(3)F(5), exhibit the stacking of [AF](∞) (A = K, Rb, Cs) and [B(CO(3))](∞) (B = Ca, Sr) layers, and the coplanar alignment of [CO(3)] triangles. The results from the UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy study of the powder samples indicated that the short-wavelength absorption edges were all below 200 nm, except for Cs(3)Ba(4)(CO(3))(3)F(5), which is about 210 nm. Second-harmonic generation (SHG) on polycrystalline samples was measured using the Kurtz and Perry technique, which indicated that these carbonates are all phase-matchable materials in both visible and the UV region, and their measured SHG coefficients were about 3.33, 3.33, 3.61, 1.11, 1.11, and 1.20 times as large as that of d(36) (KDP), respectively. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  3. A controllable double-well magneto-optical trap for Rb and Cs atoms.

    PubMed

    Lin, C T; Chen, C R; Yang, I H; Yin, Jianping; Han, D J

    2008-04-28

    We experimentally demonstrate a novel scheme to simultaneously confine two atomic species of (87)Rb and (133)Cs with adjustable spatial separation by a controllable double-well magneto-optic trap. Using a single-loop wire and a magnetic bias field, the two clouds, each containing more than 1 x 10(6) atoms, are spatially separated above and below the wire center of the double-well MOT. The cloud interdistance can be controlled by independently varying the wire current and external bias field. This allows to load the double-well magnetic trap, and to study the dynamics of cold collisions between two-species atoms.

  4. Ground electronic states of RbO2+, CsO2+ and FrO2: the ionization energies of RbO2 and CsO2.

    PubMed

    Lee, Edmond P F; Wright, Timothy G

    2005-04-14

    Calculations are performed to establish the ground electronic states of RbO2+, CsO2+, and FrO2. In the case of the cations, both linear and C2v orientations were considered; for FrO2, the two lowest electronic states, 2A2 and 2B2, were considered in C2v symmetry. In addition, calculations were also performed on the x2 A2 ground states of RbO2 and CsO2 to derive ionization energies. Binding energies and heats of formation are also derived. The bonding in FrO2 is found to be less ionic than that of RbO2 and CsO2.

  5. Solid-Liquid Interface Structure of Muscovite Mica in CsCl and RbBr Solutions.

    PubMed

    Pintea, Stelian; de Poel, Wester; de Jong, Aryan E F; Vonk, Vedran; van der Asdonk, Pim; Drnec, Jakub; Balmes, Olivier; Isern, Helena; Dufrane, Thomas; Felici, Roberto; Vlieg, Elias

    2016-12-13

    The solid-liquid interface formed by single terminated muscovite mica in contact with two different ionic solutions is analyzed using surface X-ray diffraction. Specular and nonspecular crystal truncation rods of freshly cleaved mica immersed in CsCl or RbBr aqueous solution were measured. The half monolayer of the surface potassium ions present after the cleavage is completely replaced by the positive ions (Cs(+) or Rb(+)) from the solution. These ions are located in the ditrigonal surface cavities with small outward relaxations with respect to the bulk potassium position. We find evidence for the presence of a partly ordered hydration shell around the surface Cs(+) or Rb(+) ions and partly ordered negative ions in the solution. The lateral liquid ordering induced by the crystalline surface vanishes at distances larger than 5 Å from the surface.

  6. Intergrowth of hexagonal tungsten bronze and perovskite-like structures: The oxides ACu 3M7O 21 ( A = K, Rb, Cs, TI; M = Nb, Ta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benmoussa, A.; Groult, D.; Studer, F.; Raveau, B.

    1982-02-01

    Seven oxides ACu 3M7O 21 have been isolated with A = K, Rb, Tl, Cs for M = Ta and A = K, Rb, Cs for M = Nb. These phases are orthorhombic: a ⋍ 28 Å, b ⋍ 7.50 Å, and c ⋍ 7.55 Å, probable space group Cmmm. Their structure has been established from an X-ray diffraction study and from high-resolution microscopy observations. The structure consists of an intergrowth of single hexagonal tungsten bronze AM3O 9 slices and double distorted perovskite Cu 3M4O 12 slabs ( M = Nb, Ta) in which copper has a square coordination. The host lattice of these compounds can be considered as the member " n = 1; n' = 2" of a series of intergrowths corresponding to the formulation | M3O 9| Hn| M2O 6| Pn' .

  7. Magnetic-sublevel-independent magic wavelengths: Application to Rb and Cs atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sukhjit; Sahoo, B. K.; Arora, Bindiya

    2016-06-01

    A generic scheme to trap atoms at the magic wavelengths λmagic that are independent of vector and tensor components of the interactions of the atoms with the external electric field is presented. The λmagic for the laser cooling D2 lines in the Rb and Cs atoms are demonstrated and their corresponding polarizability values without vector and tensor contributions are given. Consequently, these λmagic are independent of magnetic sublevels and hyperfine levels of the atomic states involved in the transition, thus, they can offer unique approaches to carrying out many high-precision measurements with minimal systematics. Inevitably, the proposed technique can also be used for electronic or hyperfine transitions in other atomic systems.

  8. ac Stark effect in ultracold polar 87Rb133Cs molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Philip D.; Blackmore, Jacob A.; Aldegunde, Jesus; Hutson, Jeremy M.; Cornish, Simon L.

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the effect of far-off-resonant trapping light on ultracold bosonic 87Rb133Cs molecules. We use kHz-precision microwave spectroscopy to measure the differential ac Stark shifts between the ground and first excited rotational levels of the molecule with hyperfine-state resolution. We demonstrate through both experiment and theory that coupling between neighboring hyperfine states manifests in rich structure with many avoided crossings. This coupling may be tuned by rotating the polarization of the linearly polarized trapping light. A combination of spectroscopic and parametric heating measurements allows complete characterization of the molecular polarizability at a wavelength of 1550 nm in both the ground and first excited rotational states.

  9. Metallic properties of the ternary fullerides ABa2C60 (A=K,Rb,Cs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thier, K.-F.; Goze, C.; Mehring, M.; Rachdi, F.; Yildirim, T.; Fischer, J. E.

    1999-04-01

    Electronic properties and molecular dynamics of mixed alkali-alkaline earth fullerides ABa2C60 (A=K,Rb,Cs) are investigated by NMR and compared to the isostructural alkali fullerides A3C60. Consistent with previous Raman investigations, our results indicate a fivefold charge transfer to the C60, a charge state that is not found in pure alkali fullerides. 13C NMR experiments reveal a metallic ground state for all compounds with an inhomogeneous charge distribution on the fullerene molecule. The importance of electron-electron correlations is discussed in terms of the Korringa enhancement factor. Correlation effects appear to be somewhat similar to the isostructural superconducting A3C60. Transverse relaxation experiments were performed to probe the reorientational dynamics of the C60 molecules. No dependence of the activation energy of the reorientational motion on the type of alkali ion is found.

  10. Room temperature light emission from the low-dimensional semiconductors AZrPS6 (A = K, Rb, Cs).

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Santanu; Szarko, Jodi M; Yuhas, Benjamin D; Malliakas, Christos D; Chen, Lin X; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2010-04-21

    The new semiconducting thiophosphate compounds KZrPS(6), RbZrPS(6), and CsZrPS(6) exhibit red light emission at room temperature. The materials have longer photoluminescence lifetimes than most of the inorganic chalcogenide semiconductors. They can be solution processed into thin films for potential device fabrication.

  11. Third-harmonic generation in phase-matched Rb vapor.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, J. F.; Bjorklund, G. C.; Kung, A. H.; Miles, R. B.; Harris, S. E.

    1971-01-01

    The generation of 0.3547-micron radiation was performed by tripling 1.064-micron radiation in a phase-matched mixture of rubidium vapor and xenon. A third-harmonic nonlinear susceptibility in Rb vapor is confirmed. It is about 100,000 times greater than that of He. This large susceptibility is due to the large oscillator strengths and resonant enhancements resulting from Rb transitions in the near infrared, visible, and UV.

  12. Antiferromagnetic CsCrF5 and canted antiferromagnetism in RbCrF5 and KCrF5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagličić, Zvonko; Mazej, Zoran

    2017-07-01

    In ACrF5 (A = Cs, Rb, K), Cr(IV) ions are coordinated by six fluoride ligands where the resulting CrF6 octahedra share cis vertexes to form infinite chains of ([CrIVF5]-)n. The geometry of the latter in Cs compound differs from that in K and Rb compounds. The results of investigations of the magnetic behaviour of these compounds have shown that an antiferromagnetic superexchange interaction is present within the chains with JCs = -10.2 cm-1, JRb = -13.3 cm-1, and JK = -13.1 cm-1. Additional ferromagnetic-like long-range ordering has been observed in KCrF5 and RbCrF5 below 6 K which can be explained, in a correlation with their crystal structures, as canted antiferromagnetism.

  13. First-principles study on the bulk and (1 1 1) surface half-metallicity of KS and RbS in CsCl structure

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Lei; Lei, Gang; Gao, Qiang; Deng, Jian-Bo; Hu, Xian-Ru

    2015-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Spin-polarized total and atomic DOS at S-(1 1 1) terminated slab and bulk in CsCl-type RbS. - Highlights: • The half metallic properties of CsCl-type RbS and KS have been studied. • The RbS's and KS's (1 1 1) slabs have been investigated. • Surface energy of RbS's and KS's (1 1 1) slabs are calculated. - Abstract: The electronic and magnetic properties of RbS and KS in CsCl structure have been investigated by using the full-potential local-orbital minimum-basis method. Calculating the relation between the total energies and lattice parameters for RbS and KS, we find out that the equilibrium lattice parameters are 4.02 Å and 3.84 Å for RbS and KS, respectively. According to our calculations in generalized gradient approximation approximation, both RbS and KS are half-metallic ferromagnets with the magnetic moments of 1 μ{sub B} per formula unit, and band gap of 4.287 eV for RbS and 4.395 eV for KS. We also have studied the electronic and magnetic properties of (1 1 1) surfaces of RbS and KS, and have found out that the half-metallicity of their bulk is preserved in all of those surfaces. Finally, through the calculations of formation energy of RbS and KS, it is found that their thin films are stable in the equilibrium conditions, and the Rb-terminated (1 1 1) slab of RbS and the K-terminated (1 1 1) slab of KS are more stable than their S-terminated (1 1 1) slabs. All of the above properties lead the compounds of RbS and KS in CsCl structure to be promising candidates for spintronic applications.

  14. Femtosecond pulses and dynamics of molecular photoexcitation: RbCs example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Londoño, B. E.; Derevianko, A.; Mahecha, J. E.; Crubellier, A.; Luc-Koenig, E.

    2012-03-01

    We investigate the dynamics of molecular photoexcitation by unchirped femtosecond laser pulses using RbCs as a model system. This study is motivated by a goal of optimizing a two-color scheme of transferring vibrationally excited ultracold molecules to their absolute ground state. In this scheme the molecules are initially produced by photoassociation or magnetoassociation in bound vibrational levels close to the first dissociation threshold. We analyze here the first step of the two-color path as a function of pulse intensity from the low-field to the high-field regime. We use two different approaches, a global one, the “wave-packet” method, and a restricted one, the “level-by-level” method, where the number of vibrational levels is limited to a small subset. The comparison between the results of the two approaches allows one to gain qualitative insights into the complex dynamics of the high-field regime. In particular, we emphasize the nontrivial and important role of far-from-resonance levels which are adiabatically excited through “vertical” transitions with a large Franck-Condon factor. We also point out the spectacular excitation blockade due to the presence of a quasidegenerate level in the lower electronic state. We conclude that selective transfer with femtosecond pulses is possible in the low-field regime only. Finally, we extend our single-pulse analysis and examine population transfer induced by coherent trains of low-intensity femtosecond pulses.

  15. Intercalation of heavy alkali metals (K, Rb and Cs) in the bundles of single wall nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duclaux, L.; Méténier, K.; Lauginie, P.; Salvetat, J. P.; Bonnamy, S.; Beguin, F.

    2000-11-01

    The electric-arc discharge carbon deposits (collaret) containing Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes (SWNTs) were heat treated at 1600 °C during 2 days under N2 flow in order to eliminate the Ni catalyst by sublimation, without modifications of the SWNTs ropes. Sorting this deposit by gravity enabled to obtain in the coarsest particles higher amount of SWNTs ropes than in other particle sizes. The coarser particles of the carbon deposits were reacted with the alkali metals vapor giving intercalated samples with a MC8 composition. The intercalation led to an expansion of the 2D lattice of the SWNTs so that the alkali metals were intercalated in between the tubes within the bundles. Disordered lattices were observed after intercalation of Rb and Cs. The simulations of the X-ray diffractograms of SWNTs reacted with K, gave the best fit for three K ions occupying the inter-tubes triangular cavities. The investigations by EPR, and 13C NMR, showed that doped carbon deposits are metallic.

  16. Investigation on ultracold RbCs molecules in (2)0{sup +} long-range state below the Rb(5S{sub 1/2}) + Cs(6P{sub 1/2}) asymptote by high resolution photoassociation spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Jinpeng; Ji, Zhonghua; Li, Zhonghao; Zhao, Yanting Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang

    2015-07-28

    We present high resolution photoassociation spectroscopy of RbCs molecules in (2)0{sup +} long-range state below the Rb(5S{sub 1/2}) + Cs(6P{sub 1/2}) asymptote and derive the corresponding C{sub 6} coefficient, which is used to revise the potential energy curves. The excited state molecules are produced in a dual-species dark spontaneous force optical trap and detected by ionizing ground state molecules after spontaneous decay, using a high sensitive time-of-flight mass spectrum. With the help of resonance-enhanced two-photon ionization technique, we obtain considerable high resolution photoassociation spectrum with rovibrational states, some of which have never been observed before. By applying the LeRoy-Bernstein method, we assign the vibrational quantum numbers and deduce C{sub 6} coefficient, which agrees with the theoretical value of A{sup 1}Σ{sup +} state correlated to Rb(5S{sub 1/2}) + Cs(6P{sub 1/2}) asymptote. The obtained C{sub 6} coefficient is used to revise the long-range potential energy curve for (2)0{sup +} state, which possesses unique A − b mixing characteristic and can be a good candidate for the production of absolutely ground state molecule.

  17. Rydberg States of rb and cs Atoms on Helium Nanodroplets: a Rydberg-Ritz Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackner, Florian; Krois, Gunter; Ernst, Wolfgang E.

    2013-06-01

    Rydberg series of Rb and Cs atoms on the surface of helium nanodroplets (He_{N}) have been studied by resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization spectroscopy and laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy. The recorded excitation spectra are analyzed by using a Rydberg-Ritz approach. The dependence of the quantum defects on the principal quantum number within a Rydberg series gives insight into the interaction between the alkali atom's valence electron and the superfluid helium droplet. For higher excited states a screening of the valence electron from the alkali atom core by the helium droplet is observed. For lower states the strength of the screening effect decreases and the quantum defects are found to lie closer to free atom values. In addition, the large spin-orbit (SO) constant of the Cs-He_{N} nP(^{2}Π) states allows a detailed study of the influence of the helium droplet on the SO splitting as function of the principal quantum number. Within the pseudo-diatomic picture the alkali-He_{N} system represents a diatomic molecule. The coupling of the Cs valence electrons spin and the orbital angular momentum with the intermolecular axis, which is defined by the connection between the droplet center and the alkali nucleus, depends on the strength of the atomic SO interaction. While the splitting of the 6^{2}P_{1/2}(^{2}Π_{1/2}) and 6^{2}P_{3/2}(^{2}Π_{3/2}) components has an atom-like character (Hund's case (c) coupling), the SO splitting of higher n states is lower than the atomic value (Hund's case (a) coupling). C. Callegari and W. E. Ernst, Helium Droplets as Nanocryostats for Molecular Spectroscopy - from the Vacuum Ultraviolet to the Microwave Regime, in: Handbook of High-Resolution Spectroscopy, eds. M. Quack and F. Merkt, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, (2011) F. Lackner, G. Krois, M. Theisen, M. Koch, and W.E. Ernst, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 13, 18781-18788 (2011) F. Lackner, G. Krois, and W.E. Ernst, J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 3, 1404-1408 (2012)

  18. Analysis of strongly coupled electronic states in diatomic molecules: Low-lying excited states of RbCs

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeman, T.; Fellows, C.E.; Gutterres, R.F.; Amiot, C.

    2003-05-01

    Analysis and assignment of spectra involving the lowest excited states of the heavier alkali-metal atom dimers are complicated by the strong spin-orbit coupling elements. Here we report an analysis of the Fourier-transform spectroscopy data from laser-induced fluorescence of the coupled A {sup 1}{sigma}{sup +} and b {sup 3}{pi} states of RbCs, using the discrete variable representation. Fitted parameters are given and special effects due to strong coupling are discussed.

  19. Phase formation features in the systems M{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}-Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} (M=Rb, Cs) and crystal structures of new double polymolybdates M{sub 3}FeMo{sub 4}O{sub 15}

    SciTech Connect

    Khal'baeva, Klara M.; Solodovnikov, Sergey F.; Khaikina, Elena G.; Kadyrova, Yuliya M.; Solodovnikova, Zoya A.; Basovich, Olga M.

    2010-03-15

    The systems M{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}-Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} (M=Rb, Cs) were shown to be non-quasibinary joins of the systems M{sub 2}O-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-MoO{sub 3}. New compounds M{sub 3}FeMo{sub 4}O{sub 15} were revealed along with the known MFe(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} and M{sub 5}Fe(MoO{sub 4}){sub 4}. The unit cell parameters of the new compounds are a=11.6192(2), b=13.6801(3), c=9.7773(2) A, beta=92.964(1){sup o}, space group P2{sub 1}/c, Z=4 (M=Rb) and a=11.5500(9), b=9.9929(7), c=14.513(1) A, beta=90.676(2){sup o}, space group P2{sub 1}/n, Z=4 (M=Cs). In the structures of M{sub 3}FeMo{sub 4}O{sub 15} (M=Rb, Cs), a half of the FeO{sub 6} octahedra share two opposite edges with two MoO{sub 6} octahedra linked to other FeO{sub 6} octahedra through the bridged MoO{sub 4} tetrahedra by means of the common oxygen vertices to form the chains along the a axis. The difference between the structures is caused by diverse mutual arrangements of the adjacent polyhedral chains. - Graphical abstract: Systems M{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}-Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} (M=Rb, Cs) are non-quasibinary joins of the systems M{sub 2}O-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-MoO{sub 3} where new compounds M{sub 3}FeMo{sub 4}O{sub 15} were revealed. Their structures have diverse mutual arrangements of the adjacent chains of Fe{sup 3+}O{sub 6}, MoO{sub 6} and MoO{sub 4} polyhedra.

  20. Syntheses, crystal structure, and electronic properties of the five ABaMQ{sub 4} compounds RbBaPS{sub 4}, CsBaPS{sub 4}, CsBaVS{sub 4}, RbBaVSe{sub 4}, and CsBaVSe{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Mesbah, Adel; Rocca, Dario; Lebègue, Sébastien; Beard, Jessica C.; Lewis, Benjamin A.; Ibers, James A.

    2016-01-15

    Five new compounds belonging to the ABaMQ{sub 4} family were synthesized by solid-state chemistry at 1123 K. The compounds RbBaPS{sub 4}, CsBaPS{sub 4}, CsBaVS{sub 4}, RbBaVSe{sub 4}, and CsBaVSe{sub 4} are isostructural and have the TlEuPS{sub 4} structure type. They crystallize in space group D{sup 16}{sub 2h} – Pnma of the orthorhombic system. Their structure consists isolated MQ{sub 4} tetrahedra separated by A and Ba atoms to form a salt-like structure. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations of the electronic structures with the use of the HSE functional suggest that the compounds are semiconductors with calculated band gaps of 3.3 eV (RbBaPS{sub 4}), 3.4 eV (CsBaPS{sub 4}), 2.3 eV (CsBaVS{sub 4}), and 1.6 eV (RbBaVSe{sub 4}). - Graphical abstract: General view of the ABaMQ{sub 4} structure down the a axis. - Highlights: • Five new ABaMQ{sub 4} compounds were synthesized by solid-state chemistry at 1123 K. • RbBaPS{sub 4}, CsBaPS{sub 4}, CsBaVS{sub 4}, RbBaVSe{sub 4}, and CsBaVSe{sub 4} have the TlEuPS{sub 4} structure type. • The compounds are semiconductors with calculated band gaps ranging from 1.6 to 3.4 eV.

  1. Theoretical study of the low-lying electronic states of the RbCs+ molecular ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korek, M.; Allouche, A. R.

    2001-09-01

    The potential energy has been calculated over a wide range of internuclear distance for the 64 lowest molecular states of symmetry 2Σ+, 2Π, 2Δ, and Ω = ½, 3/2, 3/2 of the molecular ion RbCs+. This calculation has been done by using an ab initio method based on non-empirical pseudopotentials and parametrized l-dependent polarization potentials. We used Gaussian basis sets for both atoms and the spin-orbit effect has been taken into account through a non-empirical spin-orbit pseudopotential. For the four bound states (1) 2Σ+, (1) 2Π, (1) Ω = ½ and (1) Ω = 3/2 the main spectroscopic constants ωe, Be, and De have been derived. By replacing the rovibrational differential Schrödinger equation by a Volterra integral equation the wavefunction is given by Ψ = ∑i = 01{aifi}, where the coefficients ai are obtained from the boundary conditions of the wavefunction and fi are two well defined canonical functions. Using these functions the eigenvalues Ev, the rotational constants Bv and the centrifugal distortion constants Dv have been calculated for the four considered bound states up to v = 121 as well as the dipole moment functions and oscillator strengths for transitions between (1) 2Σ+ and (1) 2Π. No comparison of these values with other results is yet possible because they are given here for the first time. Extensive tables of energy values versus internuclear distance and the values of Ev, Bv and Dv are displayed at the following address: http://lasim.univ-lyon1.fr/allouche/rbcsplus

  2. Two-Step Excitation of rb and cs Atoms on he Nanodroplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theisen, Moritz; Lackner, Florian; Ernst, Wolfgang E.; Ancilotto, Francesco; Callegari, Carlo

    2010-06-01

    We present the first sequential excitation of atom-doped helium nanodroplets. Rubidium atoms on the surface of a helium nanodroplet are selectively excited to the 5^2P1/2 state so as not to desorb from the droplet. From there they are excited by a laser pulse to the 5^2D state; a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectrum is recorded by monitoring the 62P→52S1/2 emission. We find some difference in the LIF spectrum as compared to that of the two-photon one-color direct excitation spectrum 5^2D←5^2S1/2. This indicates that the system does relax vibrationally during the lifetime of the 5^2P1/2 state. To model the LIF spectra we calculate the energy levels of the Rb atom as a function of its distance R from the center of the droplet. The Franck-Condon factors of the resulting potential energy curves agree with the experimental findings. A similar behavior has been found for cesium. New measurements predict that it also stays bound on the surface of the droplet in its 6^2P1/2 state. From there we further excited Cs monomers into their 6^2D state, where also the LIF spectrum is recorded by watching the 72P→62S1/2 emission. In the future these states can be used as a springboard to reach high-lying 2S and 2D states, and possibly create an artificial super-atom. G. Auböck, J. Nagl, C. Callegari, and W. E. Ernst, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 035301 (2008) F. Ancilotto, M. Pi, R. Mayol, M. Barranco, and K. Lehmann, J. Phys. Chem. A 111, 12695-12701 (2007)

  3. Calculation of spectroscopic constants and radiative parameters for the A 1Σ+- X 1Σ+ electronic transitions of the CsLi and CsRb molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, A. D.

    2016-12-01

    Vibrational, rotational, and centrifugal spectroscopic constants; radiative parameters (the Einstein coefficients for spontaneous emission, the oscillator strengths for absorption, and the Franck-Condon factors), the r v' v″-centroids; the wavenumbers of rotational lines of rovibronic transitions in the systems of bands A 1Σ+- X 1Σ+ of CsLi (0 ≤ v' ≤ 25, 0 ≤ v″ ≤ 51, j = 0, 30, 50, 70, 100) and CsRb (0 ≤ v' ≤ 30, 0 ≤ v″ ≤ 64, j = 0, 50, 100) molecules; and the radiative lifetimes for excited electronic states are calculated. The calculations are carried out on the basis of semiempirical potential curves constructed in this work. The calculated spectroscopic constants are compared with the experimental data. The lifetimes have been obtained for the first time.

  4. Interrelationship between Number of Mobile Protons, Diffusion Coefficient, and AC Conductivity in Superprotonic Conductors, CsHSO4 and Rb3H(SeO4)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamazawa, Kazuya; Harada, Masashi; Araki, Toru; Matsuo, Yasumitsu; Tyagi, Madhusudan; Sugiyama, Jun

    2014-07-01

    Using quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS), we investigated the proton dynamics for two superprotonic conductors, CsHSO4 and Rb3H(SeO4)2. To evaluate the self-diffusion coefficients and the number of mobile protons on both superprotonic and normal phases, we focused on proton dynamics not only in the phase above Tc, but also in the phase below Tc. In Rb3H(SeO4)2, the self-diffusion of protons was observed even below the Tc phase. In contrast to popular belief, no large changes in the self-diffusion coefficients were observed across Tc. Nevertheless, the increase in the number of mobile protons across Tc was about 14.5 times, which was estimated from the integrated intensity of QENS spectra, and this change could not account for the increased magnitude of proton conductivity, which is about 500 times. As a large translational self-diffusion coefficient has not been reported in previous works by QENS experiments, there are still unknown factors that contribute to the Nernst-Einstein relation that need to be discovered.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of ASnF{sub 3} (A=Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Rb{sup +}, Cs{sup +})

    SciTech Connect

    Thao Tran, T.; Shiv Halasyamani, P.

    2014-02-15

    A family of alkali metal tin(II) fluorides, ASnF{sub 3} (A=Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Rb{sup +}, or Cs{sup +}), has been synthesized through a low temperature solvothermal technique. A fluorine free solvent, methanol, was used in the synthesis. NaSnF{sub 3}, KSnF{sub 3}, and RbSnF{sub 3} have been reported previously; however for RbSnF{sub 3} the reported space group is incorrect. CsSnF{sub 3} is a new alkali tin(II) fluoride, and exhibits a ‘zero-dimensional’ crystal structure with isolated SnF{sub 3}{sup −} anions separated by Cs{sup +} cations. In addition to the synthesis, infrared, UV–vis, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis measurements were performed. - Graphical abstract: Ball-and-stick diagrams of CsSnF{sub 3}. Display Omitted - Highlights: • A family of ASnF{sub 3} (A=Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Rb{sup +} or Cs{sup +}) has been synthesized solvothermally at low temperatures. • Fluorine-free solvent, methanol, was used instead of conventional fluorinating agents. • RbSnF{sub 3} described in the correct space group exhibits infinite chains of corner-sharing SnF{sub 4} polyhedra. • New CsSnF{sub 3} exhibits a ‘zero-dimensional’ crystal structure consisting of isolated SnF{sub 3}{sup −} anionic polyhedra.

  6. Interactions in cation permeation through the gramicidin channel. Cs, Rb, K, Na, Li, Tl, H, and effects of anion binding.

    PubMed Central

    Eisenman, G; Sandblom, J; Neher, E

    1978-01-01

    As a prototype for binding and interaction in biological Na and K channels, the single channel conductances for Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, H, and Tl and the membrane potentials for Tl-K mixtures are characterized for gramicidin A over wider concentration rangers than previously and analyzed using an "equilibrium domain" model that assumes a central rate-determining barrier. Peculiarities in the conductance-concentration relationship for TlF, TlNO3, and TlAc suggest that anions bind to Tl-loaded channels, and the theory is extended to allow for this. For concreteness, the selectivity of cation permeation is characterized in terms of individual binding and rate constants of this model, with the conclusions that the strongest site binds Cs greater than Rb greater than K greater than Na greater than Li, while the next strongest binds Na greater than K greater than Li greater than Rb greater than Cs. However, because Schagina, Grinfeldt, and Lev's recent finding of single filing (personal communication) indicates that the channel sites in gramicidin cannot be at equilibrium with the solution, and work in progress with Hägglund and Enos (Biophys. J. 21:26a. [Abstr.]) indicates that the simplest model adequate to account for the observed concentration-dependences of flux-ratio, conductance, I--V characteristic, and permeability has three barriers and four sites, some implications of additional rate-determining barriers at the mouth of the channel are discussed. The results are summarized using phenomenological "experimental" parameters that provide a model-independent way to represent that data concisely and which can be interpreted physically in terms of any desired model. PMID:77689

  7. Strain-Driven Approach to Quantum Criticality in A Fe2 As2 with A =K , Rb, and Cs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eilers, Felix; Grube, Kai; Zocco, Diego A.; Wolf, Thomas; Merz, Michael; Schweiss, Peter; Heid, Rolf; Eder, Robert; Yu, Rong; Zhu, Jian-Xin; Si, Qimiao; Shibauchi, Takasada; Löhneysen, Hilbert v.

    2016-06-01

    The iron-based superconductors A Fe2 As2 with A =K , Rb, Cs exhibit large Sommerfeld coefficients approaching those of heavy-fermion systems. We have investigated the magnetostriction and thermal expansion of this series to shed light on this unusual behavior. Quantum oscillations of the magnetostriction allow identifying the band-specific quasiparticle masses which by far exceed the band-structure derived masses. The divergence of the Grüneisen ratio derived from thermal expansion indicates that with increasing volume along the series a quantum critical point is approached. The critical fluctuations responsible for the enhancement of the quasiparticle masses appear to weaken the superconducting state.

  8. First-principle studies of the optoelectronic properties of ASnF3 (A = Na, K, Rb and Cs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Imad; Shehzad, Nasir; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Ali, Zahid; Jalali-Asadabadi, S.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we communicate a new type of Auger-free luminescence (AFL) compounds, alkali tin fluorides ASnF3 (A = Na, K, Rb and Cs). The luminescence in these compounds originates due to the electron transition from the top valence band (VB) of tin-s orbital to the outermost core levels of halogen, i.e., halogen-p orbital (s-p transitions). The AFL of these compounds is expected to be of L-type. Furthermore, the electronic band structures and optical properties such as dielectric functions, refractive index and energy loss function are also investigated using ab initio calculations.

  9. Strain-Driven Approach to Quantum Criticality in AFe_{2}As_{2} with A=K, Rb, and Cs.

    PubMed

    Eilers, Felix; Grube, Kai; Zocco, Diego A; Wolf, Thomas; Merz, Michael; Schweiss, Peter; Heid, Rolf; Eder, Robert; Yu, Rong; Zhu, Jian-Xin; Si, Qimiao; Shibauchi, Takasada; Löhneysen, Hilbert V

    2016-06-10

    The iron-based superconductors AFe_{2}As_{2} with A=K, Rb, Cs exhibit large Sommerfeld coefficients approaching those of heavy-fermion systems. We have investigated the magnetostriction and thermal expansion of this series to shed light on this unusual behavior. Quantum oscillations of the magnetostriction allow identifying the band-specific quasiparticle masses which by far exceed the band-structure derived masses. The divergence of the Grüneisen ratio derived from thermal expansion indicates that with increasing volume along the series a quantum critical point is approached. The critical fluctuations responsible for the enhancement of the quasiparticle masses appear to weaken the superconducting state.

  10. Two spatially separated phases in semiconducting Rb0.8Fe1.5S2

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Meng; Tian, Wei; Valdivia, P.; ...

    2014-09-26

    We report neutron scattering and transport measurements on semiconducting Rb0.8Fe1.5S2, a compound isostructural and isoelectronic to the well-studied A0.8FeySe2(A = K, Rb, Cs, Tl/K) superconducting systems. Both resistivity and DC susceptibility measurements reveal a magnetic phase transition at T = 275 K. Neutron diffraction studies show that the 275 K transition originates from a phase with rhombic iron vacancy order which exhibits an in-plane stripe antiferromagnetic ordering below 275 K. In addition, the stripe antiferromagnetic phase interdigitates mesoscopically with an ubiquitous phase with √5 x√5 iron vacancy order. This phase has a magnetic transition at TN = 425 K andmore » an iron vacancy order-disorder transition at TS = 600 K. These two different structural phases are closely similar to those observed in the isomorphous Se materials. Based on the close similarities of the in-plane antiferromagnetic structures, moments sizes, and ordering temperatures in semiconducting Rb0.8Fe1.5S2 and K0.81Fe1.58Se2, we argue that the in-plane antiferromagnetic order arises from strong coupling between local moments. Superconductivity, previously observed in the A0.8FeySe2₋ zSz system, is absent in A0.8Fe1.5S2, which has a semiconducting ground state. We discuss the implied relationship between stripe and block antiferromagnetism and superconductivity in these materials as well as a strategy for further investigation.« less

  11. Heavier alkali-metal monosulfides (KS, RbS, CsS, and FrS) and their cations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Edmond P F; Wright, Timothy G

    2005-10-08

    The heavier alkali-metal monosulfides (KS, RbS, CsS, and FrS) have been studied by high-level ab initio calculations. The RCCSD(T) method has been employed, combined with large flexible valence basis sets. All-electron basis sets are used for potassium and sulfur, with effective core potentials being used for the other metals, describing the core electrons. Potential-energy curves are calculated for the lowest two neutral and cationic states: all neutral monosulfide species have a (2)Pi ground state, in contrast with the alkali-metal monoxide species, which undergo a change in the electronic ground state from (2)Pi to (2)Sigma(+) as the group is descended. In the cases of KS, RbS, and CsS, spin-orbit curves are also calculated. We also calculate potential-energy curves for the lowest (3)Sigma(-) and (3)Pi states of the cations. From the potential-energy curves, spectroscopic constants are derived, and for KS the spectroscopic results are compared to experimental spectroscopic values. Ionization energies, dissociation energies, and heats of formation are also calculated; for KS, we explore the effects of relativity and basis set extrapolation on these values.

  12. Absorption, light emission, and upconversion properties of Tm2+-doped CsCaI3 and RbCaI3.

    PubMed

    Beurer, Eva; Grimm, Judith; Gerner, Pascal; Güdel, Hans U

    2006-11-27

    Absorption, light emission, and upconversion properties of Tm2+-doped CsCaI3 and RbCaI3 single crystals are presented and compared. Both compounds show multiple emissions after excitation at 21834 cm(-1) between 10 and 300 K. Besides sharp 4f-4f transitions around 8800 cm(-1), five and three broad 4f-5d emission bands are observed at higher energies in CsCaI3:Tm2+ and RbCaI3:Tm2+, respectively. The 4f-5d transitions are very sensitive to the crystalline environment: the onset of the 4f-5d excitations is red-shifted by about 1000 cm(-1) in RbCaI3:Tm2+ compared to CsCaI3:Tm2+. In addition, a broadening of bands is observed in the former compound. These differences are attributed to the structural changes that occur when the alkali metal is changed from Cs to Rb in these crystal lattices. An increased energy splitting of the multiplets and a red shift of the barycenter of the (4f)12(5d)1 electron configuration in RbCaI3:Tm2+ is the result. This affects not only the color of the visible emission, which turns from green in CsCaI3:Tm2+ to yellow in RbCaI3:Tm2+, but also the excited state dynamics. As a consequence, the dominant upconversion processes are different in the two compounds. Thus, the two title compounds nicely illustrate the influence of the structural environment on the optical spectroscopic properties of Tm2+.

  13. Approximate relativistic coupled-cluster calculations on heavy alkali-metal diatomics: Application to the spin-orbit-coupled A1Σ+ and b3Π states of RbCs and Cs2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitsevskii, A.; Mosyagin, N. S.; Stolyarov, A. V.; Eliav, E.

    2017-08-01

    A simple approximate version of the Fock-space relativistic coupled-cluster method is developed and applied for modeling the spin-orbit-coupling effect in the A1Σ(u) + and b3Π(u ) states of the heavy alkali diatomics RbCs and Cs2. Numerical stability in a wide range of molecular geometries is achieved at the cost of a very moderate loss of accuracy for low-lying states and negligibly small deviations of the computational scheme from strict size consistency. The adiabatic potential energy curves computed for the (2 ,3 ) 0+ (RbCs) and (1 ,2 ) 0u+ (Cs2) states are converted into "quasidiabatic" potentials and effective spin-orbit-coupling functions via projection of the scalar relativistic states onto the subsets of fully relativistic states. A detailed comparison of the present ab initio results with their experimental and preceding theoretical counterparts is performed.

  14. M + Ng potential energy curves including spin-orbit coupling for M = K, Rb, Cs and Ng = He, Ne, Ar.

    PubMed

    Blank, L; Weeks, David E; Kedziora, Gary S

    2012-03-28

    The X(2)Σ(1/2)(+), A(2)Π(1∕2), A(2)Π(3∕2), and B(2)Σ(1/2)(+) potential energy curves and associated dipole matrix elements are computed for M + Ng at the spin-orbit multi-reference configuration interaction level, where M = K, Rb, Cs and Ng = He, Ne, Ar. Dissociation energies and equilibrium positions for all minima are identified and corresponding vibrational energy levels are computed. Difference potentials are used together with the quasistatic approximation to estimate the position of satellite peaks of collisionally broadened D2 lines. The comparison of potential energy curves for different alkali atom and noble gas atom combinations is facilitated by using the same level of theory for all nine M + Ng pairs.

  15. Driving the formation of the RbCs dimer by a laser pulse: A nonlinear-dynamics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandre, C.; Mahecha, Jorge; Salas, J. Pablo

    2017-03-01

    We study the formation of the RbCs molecule by an intense laser pulse using nonlinear dynamics. Under the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, the system is modeled by a two-degree-of-freedom rovibrational Hamiltonian, which includes the ground electronic potential energy curve of the diatomic molecule and the interaction of the molecular polarizability with the electric field of the laser. As the laser intensity increases, we observe that the formation probability first increases and then decreases after reaching a maximum. We show that the analysis can be simplified to the investigation of the long-range interaction between the two atoms. We conclude that the formation is due to a very small change in the radial momentum of the dimer induced by the laser pulse. From this observation, we build a reduced one-dimensional model which allows us to derive an approximate expression of the formation probability as a function of the laser intensity.

  16. Activity of vanadium catalysts for sulfuric acid production, promoted with Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Mg compounds, at various pressures of sulfur oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanenko, S.V.; Dzhoraev, R.R.

    1995-12-10

    The activities of vanadium catalysts promoted with Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Mg sulfates (ratio Me:V = 4) were studied in conditions of low (up to 1 kPa) and high (up to 70 kPa) partial pressures of sulfur oxides at 693 and 758 K. The authors report results of reaction kinetic studies.

  17. Ab initio thermodynamic and elastic properties of AGaH4 hydrides ( A=Li , Na, K, Rb, and Cs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, J. F.; Hector, L. G., Jr.; Wolf, W.

    2010-07-01

    Systematic properties of the AGaH4 alkali gallium hydrides ( A=Li , Na, K, Rb, and Cs) are investigated within density functional theory. Seven ground-state crystal structures are identified, with two energetically indistinguishable structures found for both LiGaH4 , whose structure is as yet undetermined experimentally, and CsGaH4 . Born effective charge tensors, static and high-frequency dielectric tensors, and phonon dispersion relations incorporating longitudinal-optical/transverse-optical mode splittings are computed. Our results indicate that LiGaH4 and NaGaH4 have technologically interesting standard enthalpies of formation near -30kJ/mole H2 . We find, however, that LiGaH4 is thermodynamically unstable with respect to both LiGa and LiH, providing a possible explanation for its challenging synthesis. The Born stability criteria are evaluated with the computed elasticity tensor components, Cij . All seven structures are found to be both elastically and vibrationally stable.

  18. Role of acentric displacements on the crystal structure and second-harmonic generating properties of RbPbCO3F and CsPbCO3F.

    PubMed

    Tran, T Thao; Halasyamani, P Shiv; Rondinelli, James M

    2014-06-16

    Two lead fluorocarbonates, RbPbCO3F and CsPbCO3F, were synthesized and characterized. The materials were synthesized through solvothermal and conventional solid-state techniques. RbPbCO3F and CsPbCO3F were structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and exhibit three-dimensional (3D) crystal structures consisting of corner-shared PbO6F2 polyhedra. For RbPbCO3F, infrared and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis measurements were performed. RbPbCO3F is a new noncentrosymmetric material and crystallizes in the achiral and nonpolar space group P6m2 (crystal class 6m2). Powder second-harmonic generation (SHG) measurements on RbPbCO3F and CsPbCO3F using 1064 nm radiation revealed an SHG efficiency of approximately 250 and 300 × α-SiO2, respectively. Charge constants d33 of approximately 72 and 94 pm/V were obtained for RbPbCO3F and CsPbCO3F, respectively, through converse piezoelectric measurements. Electronic structure calculations indicate that the nonlinear optical response originates from the distorted PbO6F2 polyhedra, because of the even-odd parity mixing of the O 2p states with the nearly spherically symmetric 6s electrons of Pb(2+). The degree of inversion symmetry breaking is quantified using a mode-polarization vector analysis and is correlated with cation size mismatch, from which it is possible to deduce the acentric properties of 3D alkali-metal fluorocarbonates.

  19. Role of Acentric Displacements on the Crystal Structure and Second-Harmonic Generating Properties of RbPbCO3F and CsPbCO3F

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Two lead fluorocarbonates, RbPbCO3F and CsPbCO3F, were synthesized and characterized. The materials were synthesized through solvothermal and conventional solid-state techniques. RbPbCO3F and CsPbCO3F were structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and exhibit three-dimensional (3D) crystal structures consisting of corner-shared PbO6F2 polyhedra. For RbPbCO3F, infrared and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy and thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis measurements were performed. RbPbCO3F is a new noncentrosymmetric material and crystallizes in the achiral and nonpolar space group P6̅m2 (crystal class 6̅m2). Powder second-harmonic generation (SHG) measurements on RbPbCO3F and CsPbCO3F using 1064 nm radiation revealed an SHG efficiency of approximately 250 and 300 × α-SiO2, respectively. Charge constants d33 of approximately 72 and 94 pm/V were obtained for RbPbCO3F and CsPbCO3F, respectively, through converse piezoelectric measurements. Electronic structure calculations indicate that the nonlinear optical response originates from the distorted PbO6F2 polyhedra, because of the even–odd parity mixing of the O 2p states with the nearly spherically symmetric 6s electrons of Pb2+. The degree of inversion symmetry breaking is quantified using a mode-polarization vector analysis and is correlated with cation size mismatch, from which it is possible to deduce the acentric properties of 3D alkali-metal fluorocarbonates. PMID:24867361

  20. SUMOylation of Rb enhances its binding with CDK2 and phosphorylation at early G1 phase.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fengxi; Qian, Jiang; Yue, Han; Li, Xiaofeng; Xue, Kang

    2016-07-02

    Retinoblastoma protein (Rb) is a prototypical tumor suppressor that is vital to the negative regulation of the cell cycle and tumor progression. Hypo-phosphorylated Rb is associated with G0/G1 arrest by suppressing E2F transcription factor activity, whereas Rb hyper-phosphorylation allows E2F release and cell cycle progression from G0/G1 to S phase. However, the factors that regulate cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK)-dependent hyper-phosphorylation of Rb during the cell cycle remain obscure. In this study, we show that throughout the cell cycle, Rb is specifically small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)ylated at early G1 phase. SUMOylation of Rb stimulates its phosphorylation level by recruiting a SUMO-interaction motif (SIM)-containing kinase CDK2, leading to Rb hyper-phosphorylation and E2F-1 release. In contrast, a SUMO-deficient Rb mutant results in reduced SUMOylation and phosphorylation, weakened CDK2 binding, and attenuated E2F-1 sequestration. Furthermore, we reveal that Rb SUMOylation is required for cell proliferation. Therefore, our study describes a novel mechanism that regulates Rb phosphorylation during cell cycle progression.

  1. Low-lying {sup 3}P{sup o} and {sup 3}S{sup e} states of Rb{sup -}, Cs{sup -}, and Fr{sup -}

    SciTech Connect

    Bahrim, C.; Thumm, U.

    2000-02-01

    Our Dirac R-matrix calculations suggest that none of the heavy alkali-metal negative ions, Rb, Cs, and Fr, has an excited bound state. Their lowest excited state appears to be a multiplet of {sup 3}P{sub J}{sup o}-shape resonances, the J=1 component of which was recently observed in photodetachment experiments on Cs{sup -}. We analyze these {sup 3}P{sub J}{sup o} and the {sup 3}S{sup e} excited negative ion states in partial and converged total scattering cross sections for slow electrons with incident kinetic energies below 120 meV. Our results are in excellent agreement with available experimental data. We also propose a new value for the electron affinity of Fr, provide the scattering length for electronic collisions with Rb, Cs, and Fr, and discuss the nuclear charge dependence of relativistic effects in the resonance profiles. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  2. Structural studies and electrical properties of Cs/Al/Te/O phases with the pyrochlore structure.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Siritanon, Theeranun; Stalick, Judith K; Sleight, Arthur W; Subramanian, M A

    2011-06-20

    A series of polycrystalline and single crystal cesium aluminum tellurates with the pyrochlore structure have been prepared and characterized. The variations in cell edge for the Cs/Al/Te/O phases range from 10.06 Å for the Al rich limit to 10.14 Å for the Te rich limit. Rietveld structural analyses based on both X-ray and neutron diffraction data were performed on 5 different compositions. Single crystals of 3 compositions were prepared and studied by X-ray diffraction. The anharmonic component of the thermal motion for Cs was small but became significant on replacing Cs with Rb. A maximum in the electrical conductivity of about 0.1 S/cm is found in the middle of this range close to the ideal composition of CsAl(1/3)Te(5/3)O(6). The conductivity is attributed to filled Te 5s states associated with Te(4+) lying just below the conduction band based on empty Te 5s states associated with Te(6+). The relatively large Te(4+) ion is compressed by the lattice, and as this compression increases the filled 5s states approach the conduction band and thereby increases conductivity.

  3. Scattering parameters for cold Li-Rb and Na-Rb collisions derived from variable phase theory

    SciTech Connect

    Ouerdane, H.; Jamieson, M.J.

    2004-08-01

    We show how the scattering phase shift, the s-wave scattering length, and the p-wave scattering volume can be obtained from Riccati equations derived in variable phase theory. We find general expressions that provide upper and lower bounds for the scattering length and the scattering volume. We show how, in the framework of the variable phase method, Levinson's theorem yields the number of bound states supported by a potential. We report results from a study of the heteronuclear alkali-metal dimers NaRb and LiRb. We consider ab initio molecular potentials for the X {sup 1}{sigma}{sup +} and a {sup 3}{sigma}{sup +} states of both dimers and compare and discuss results obtained from experimentally based X {sup 1}{sigma}{sup +} and a {sup 3}{sigma}{sup +} potentials of NaRb. We explore the mass dependence of the scattering data by considering all isotopomers and we calculate the numbers of bound states supported by the molecular potentials for each isotopomer.

  4. New alkali metal diphosphates how materials to preserve the security of the environment: CsNaCu(P2O7), Rb2Cu(P2O7) and CsNaCo(P2O7) synthesis and crystal structure determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyatieva, Anastasiya; Filatova, Alyona; Spiridonova, Dariya; Krivovichev, Sergey

    2013-04-01

    In this work we describe preliminary results of the synthesis and of a crystal-chemical study of synthetic phosphates with transition metals. Due to the increasing requirements for environmental safety specialists from various industries, we are searching for sustainable forms of immobilization of hazardous waste during storage. We are also developing a component-based waste for new materials. In our continued exploratory synthesis of compounds containing transition-metals, we were able to produce the new diphosphate phases CsNaCu(P2O7), Rb2Cu(P2O7) and CsNaCo(P2O7). A crystal chemical study has allowed us to identify new phosphates. Crystals of CsNaCu(P2O7) (Phase 1) is orthorhombic, crystallizes in space group Pmn21, with a = 5.147(8), b = 15.126(2), c = 9.717(2) Å, V = 756.20 Å3, R1 = 0.066 and Rb2Cu(P2O7) (Phase 2) is orthorhombic as well, crystallizes in space group Pmcn, with a = 5.183(8), b = 10.096(1), c = 15.146(3) Å, V = 793.55 Å3, R1 = 0.063, they have been obtained by high-temperature reaction of RbNO3, CsNO3, Cu(NO3)2, NaOH and (NH4)4P2O7. Synthetic crystals of the phosphate of copper and rubidium were studied in detail by us on the structures of Rb2Cu(P2O7) and Rb2Cu3(P2O7)2 - new alkali metal copper diphosphates (CHERNYATIEVA et al., 2008). Here we report the synthesis, the structure and the properties of the title compounds and we compare these phases with the previously discovered K2CuP2O7 (ELMAADI et al., 1995) and CsNaMnP2O7 (HUANG et al., 1998). These structures crystallize in other space groups, although their structures are also based on 2-D layers, formed by P2O7 groups combined with polyhedra of the transition metals (CHERNYATIEVA et al., 2012). A crystal chemical study has allowed us to identify even new diphosphates CsNaCu(P2O7) (Phase 3). Crystals of CsNaCoP2O7 is monoclinic, space group P 21/n, with a = 7,424(2), b = 7,648(1), c = 12,931(3)Å, β = 90,71(2)° , V = 734.2(3) Å3 and R1 = 0.060. The structure is based framework of Co

  5. Shape resonances in ground-state diatomic molecules: General trends and the example of RbCs

    SciTech Connect

    Londono, B. E.; Mahecha, J. E.; Luc-Koenig, E.; Crubellier, A.

    2010-07-15

    The presence of shape resonances due to tunneling through the centrifugal barrier modifies strongly the dynamics of cold atom scattering. As shown on the example of the ground and lowest triplet electronic states of the {sup 85}Rb{sup 133}Cs molecule, the crucial parameter is, as usual for cold collisions, the scattering length. A general description of shape resonances of diatomic molecules is given from three simple single channel asymptotic models, whose respective performances are discussed. The first model, which consists of a R{sup -6} potential limited at short range by a repulsive wall, positioned to reproduce the s-wave scattering length, accounts satisfactorily for the main system-independent properties of shape resonances. Introduction in the model of energy- and angular-momentum-dependent nodal lines specific to the inner part of the potential greatly improves its efficiency. When the energy and angular momentum dependence of the nodal lines cannot be deduced from full potential calculations or from experiment, a rough, but universal, estimate of these properties is obtained by extending the R{sup -6} behavior of the potential up to the origin.

  6. Synthesis, characterization, and quantum-chemical studies of Ni(CN)2MX (M = Rb, Cs; X = Cl, Br).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaohui; Speldrich, Manfred; Kögerler, Paul; Dronskowski, Richard; Tchougréeff, Andrei L

    2010-08-16

    A new series of coordination-network compounds containing Ni(CN)(2) and MX (M = Rb, Cs; X = Cl, Br) quasi two-dimensional sheets has been synthesized and structurally characterized. The tetragonal crystal structure (I4/mmm, no. 139) can be derived from the distorted perovskite type. Chemically, the Lewis-acidic Ni(CN)(2) moieties accept halide ligands, resulting both in slightly elongated [Ni(NC)(4)X(2)](4-) octahedra and strongly elongated [Ni(CN)(4)X(2)](4-) octahedra that are charge-balanced by M(+) cations. Quantum-chemical calculations of the effective Hamiltonian crystal field (EHCF) type indicate the simultaneous presence of high- and low-spin Ni(2+) in a 1:1 ratio, in agreement with GGA+U and UV studies reported here. Our magnetic susceptibility data also corroborate the theoretical findings. An analysis of the magnetic superexchange paths in the new series of compounds is performed as well as that of the tentative magnetic state of the series.

  7. Shape resonances in ground-state diatomic molecules: General trends and the example of RbCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Londoño, B. E.; Mahecha, J. E.; Luc-Koenig, E.; Crubellier, A.

    2010-07-01

    The presence of shape resonances due to tunneling through the centrifugal barrier modifies strongly the dynamics of cold atom scattering. As shown on the example of the ground and lowest triplet electronic states of the Rb85Cs133 molecule, the crucial parameter is, as usual for cold collisions, the scattering length. A general description of shape resonances of diatomic molecules is given from three simple single channel asymptotic models, whose respective performances are discussed. The first model, which consists of a R-6 potential limited at short range by a repulsive wall, positioned to reproduce the s-wave scattering length, accounts satisfactorily for the main system-independent properties of shape resonances. Introduction in the model of energy- and angular-momentum-dependent nodal lines specific to the inner part of the potential greatly improves its efficiency. When the energy and angular momentum dependence of the nodal lines cannot be deduced from full potential calculations or from experiment, a rough, but universal, estimate of these properties is obtained by extending the R-6 behavior of the potential up to the origin.

  8. Measurement of the binding energy of ultracold 87Rb133Cs molecules using an offset-free optical frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molony, Peter K.; Kumar, Avinash; Gregory, Philip D.; Kliese, Russell; Puppe, Thomas; Le Sueur, C. Ruth; Aldegunde, Jesus; Hutson, Jeremy M.; Cornish, Simon L.

    2016-08-01

    We report the binding energy of 87Rb133Cs molecules in their rovibrational ground state measured using an offset-free optical frequency comb based on difference frequency generation technology. We create molecules in the absolute ground state using stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) with a transfer efficiency of 88%. By measuring the absolute frequencies of our STIRAP lasers, we find the energy-level difference from an initial weakly bound Feshbach state to the rovibrational ground state with a resolution of ˜5 kHz over an energy-level difference of more than 114 T Hz ; this lets us discern the hyperfine splitting of the ground state. Combined with theoretical models of the Feshbach-state binding energies and ground-state hyperfine structure, we determine a zero-field binding energy of h ×114 268 135.24 (4 )(3 )M Hz . To our knowledge, this is the most accurate determination to date of the dissociation energy of a molecule.

  9. Phase Transitions in CsSnCl3 and CsPbBr3 An NMR and NQR Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Surendra; Weiden, Norbert; Weiss, Alarich

    1991-04-01

    The phase transitions in CsSnCl3 and CsPbBr3 have been studied by X-ray powder diffraction, by 81Br-NQR and by 'H-, 119Sn-, and 113Cs-NMR. At room temperature in air CsSnCl3 forms a hydrate which can be dehydrated to the monoclinic phase II of CsSnCl3. The high temperature phase I has the Perovskite structure, as the X-ray and NMR experiments show. The three phases of CsPbBr3, known from literature, have been corroborated. The results are discussed in the framework of the group ABX3, A = alkalimetal ion, B = IV main group ion, and X = Halogen ion

  10. Phase transitions in CsCl-type intemetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Bai-Hao.

    1990-06-13

    Phase transitions in binary intermetallic compounds with the CsCl-type structure have been studied by a novel combination of high-temperature powder X-ray diffraction and Rietveld Landau theory of symmetry and phase transitions and the Gibbs-Knonvalow equation have been applied to understand the phase behavior of some systems with the CsCl-type structure. The nonstoichiometric compounds RhTi, NbRu, and RuTa with the CsCl-type structure at high temperature undergo thermal symmetry breaking transitions upon cooling. The transitions are first to the AuCu-type tetragonal, and taken to the orthorhombic NbRu-type with Cmmm symmetry. Alloys Ir-Ti which are titanium rich have the CsCl-type structure. This cubic structure transforms to the AuCu-type tetragonal structure and then to the NbRu-type structure with increasing atomic percent iridium. New partial phase diagrams for the composition ranges in near equiatomic MnAu, NbRu, and RuTa are also presented.

  11. Optically isotropy in scintillator host compounds M{sub 2}LaCl{sub 5} (M=Rb, and Cs): Ab-initio study

    SciTech Connect

    Shwetha, G.; Kanchana, V.; Vaitheeswaran, G.

    2015-06-24

    Full potential linearized augmented plane wave method (FP-LAPW) has been used to calculate the electronic structure and optical properties of high light output scintillator host compounds M{sub 2}LaCl{sub 5} (M=Rb, and Cs) with in the Tran Blaha modified Becke Johnson (TB-mBJ) potential. These are wide band gap materials with the band gap of 4.75, and 4.72 eV for Rb{sub 2}LaCl{sub 5}, and Cs{sub 2}LaCl{sub 5} respectively. From the calculated optical properties of these compounds, we find these compounds to be optically isotropic, though they are structurally anisotropic, which is an important criteria for the ceramic scintillators.

  12. Synthesis and structural characterization of the new clathrates K8Cd4Ge42, Rb8Cd4Ge42, and Cs8Cd4Ge42

    DOE PAGES

    Schafer, Marion; Bobev, Svilen

    2016-03-25

    This paper presents results from our exploratory work in the systems K-Cd-Ge, Rb-Cd-Ge, and Cs-Cd-Ge, which yielded the novel type-I clathrates with refined compositions K8Cd3.77(7)Ge42.23, Rb8Cd3.65(7)Ge42.35, and Cs7.80(1)Cd3.65(6)Ge42.35. The three compounds represent rare examples of clathrates of germanium with the alkali metals, where a d10 element substitutes a group 14 element. The three structures, established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, indicate that the framework-building Ge atoms are randomly substituted by Cd atoms on only one of the three possible crystallographic sites. Furthermore, this and several other details of the crystal chemistry are elaborated.

  13. Low-temperature-flux syntheses of ultraviolet-transparent borophosphates Na4MB2P3O13 (M = Rb, Cs) exhibiting a second-harmonic generation response.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chao; Li, Longhua; Yang, Gang; Song, Junling; Yan, Bing; Humphrey, Mark G; Zhang, Long; Shao, Jianda; Zhang, Chi

    2017-09-14

    The first non-centrosymmetric mixed-alkali-metal borophosphates, Na4MB2P3O13 (M = Rb 1, Cs 2), were obtained using a low-temperature flux method. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies of 1 and 2 reveal that the two compounds are isostructural, both crystallizing in the orthorhombic space group Pna21; their structures consist of novel 1D borophosphate chains constructed from B2P3O14 fundamental building units, assembled into a 3D framework by alkali metal cations. Second-harmonic generation (SHG) measurements show that 1 and 2 are type-I phase-matchable, with SHG responses ca. 0.35 and 0.42 times that of KH2PO4, respectively. The cut-off edges of 1 and 2 are ca. 276 and 267 nm, respectively, which suggests that they are potential ultraviolet nonlinear optical materials. Density functional theory calculations were employed to shed light on the band structure and density of states as well as the electron density distribution.

  14. Growth, Properties, and Theoretical Analysis of M2LiVO4 (M = Rb, Cs) Crystals: Two Potential Mid-Infrared Nonlinear Optical Materials.

    PubMed

    Han, Guopeng; Wang, Ying; Su, Xin; Yang, Zhihua; Pan, Shilie

    2017-05-15

    Mid-Infrared nonlinear optical (Mid-IR NLO) crystals with excellent performances play a particularly important role for applications in areas such as telecommunications, laser guidance, and explosives detection. However, the design and growth of high performance Mid-IR NLO crystals with large NLO efficiency and high laser-damage threshold (LDT) still face numerous fundamental challenge. In this study, two potential Mid-IR NLO materials, Rb2LiVO4 (RLVO) and Cs2LiVO4 (CLVO) with noncentrosymmetric structures (Orthorhombic, Cmc21) were synthesized by high-temperature solution method. Thermal analysis and powder X-ray diffraction demonstrate that RLVO and CLVO melt congruently. Centimeter sized crystals of CLVO have been grown by the top-seeded solution growth method. RLVO and CLVO exhibit strong second harmonic generation (SHG) effects (about 4 and 5 times that of KH2PO4, respectively) with a phase-matching behavior at 1.064 μm, and a wide transparency range (0.33-6.0 μm for CLVO). More importantly, RLVO and CLVO possess a high LDT value (~28 × AgGaS2). In addition, the density functional theory (DFT) and dipole moments studies indicate that the VO4 anionic groups have a dominant contribution to the SHG effects in RLVO and CLVO. These results suggest that the title compounds are promising NLO candidate crystals applied in the Mid-IR region.

  15. Cation-water interactions. The M[sup +](H[sub 2]O)[sub n] clusters for alkali metals, M = Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs

    SciTech Connect

    Glendening, E.D.; Feller, D. )

    1995-03-09

    Gas-phase binding energies and enthalpies are reported for small M[sup +](H[sub 2]O)[sub n] clusters consisting of an alkali metal cation (Li[sup +], Na[sup +], K[sup +], Rb[sup +], or Cs[sup +]) with one to six water molecules. Ab initio molecular orbital calculations were performed at the RHF and MP2 levels of theory with split valence basis sets (3-21G, 6-31+G* with effective core potentials for the heavier alkali metals). Comparison with higher level calculations and with experimentally measured bond dissociation energies suggests that the RHF/6-31+G* method provides a reasonable description of cation-water interactions in the smallest (n = 1-3) clusters. Larger clusters, particularly those that involve water-water hydrogen-bonding interactions, require a correlated treatment at the MP2 level. This study serves to calibrate the RHF/6-31+G* and MP2/6-31+G* methods for applications to cation-ligand interactions in more extended systems (e.g., the ion-selective binding of crown ethers and cryptands) for which calculations at higher levels of theory are not currently feasible. 33 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Antiferromagnetic phase transition of K-Rb alloy nanoclusters incorporated in sodalite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Takehito; Ishida, Yuko; Hanazawa, Atsufumi; Nozue, Yasuo

    2013-06-01

    We prepared Rb-rich K-Rb alloy nanoclusters arrayed in the regular nanospace of aluminosilicate sodalite which has a bcc arrangement of cages. The average chemical formula of the cluster is (K1.5Rb2.5)3+, where one unpaired s-electron is shared by four alkali cations and is confined in a cage. The magnetic susceptibility and the electron spin resonance clearly show an antiferromagnetic phase transition at a Néel temperature T N of approximately 90-100 K. The observed T N is higher than that in K{4/3+} ( T N = 72 K) and (K3Rb)3+ clusters ( T N = 80 K) in sodalites. This result indicates a systematic enhancement of the antiferromagnetic exchange coupling between the adjacent nanoclusters by substituting Rb atoms for K ones. The size and the spatial distribution of the s-electron wave function in the nanocluster play a key role in the exchange coupling.

  17. Quaternary neptunium compounds: syntheses and characterization of KCuNpS(3), RbCuNpS(3), CsCuNpS(3), KAgNpS(3), and CsAgNpS(3).

    PubMed

    Wells, Daniel M; Jin, Geng Bang; Skanthakumar, S; Haire, Richard G; Soderholm, L; Ibers, James A

    2009-12-21

    The five quaternary neptunium compounds KCuNpS3, RbCuNpS3, CsCuNpS3, KAgNpS3, and CsAgNpS3 (AMNpS3) have been synthesized by the reaction of Np, Cu or Ag, S, and K2S or Rb2S3 or Cs2S3 at 793 K (Rb) or 873 K. These isostructural compounds crystallize as black rectangular plates in the KCuZrS3 structure type in space group Cmcm of the orthorhombic system. The structure comprises MS4 (M = Cu or Ag) tetrahedra and NpS6 octahedra that edge share to form infinity 2[MNpS3-] layers. These layers are separated by the alkali-metal cations. The Np-S bond lengths vary from 2.681(2) to 2.754(1) A. When compared to the corresponding isostructural Th and U compounds these bond distances obey the expected actinide contraction. As the structure contains no S-S bonds, formal oxidation states of +1/+1/+4/-2 may be assigned to A/M/Np/S, respectively. From these results a value of 2.57 for the bond-valence parameter r0 for Np(4+)-S(2-) has been derived and applied to the estimation of the formal oxidation states of Np in the binary NpxSy compounds whose structures are known.

  18. Spin Polarization of Rb and Cs np ^{2}P_{3/2} (n=5, 6) Atoms by Circularly Polarized Photoexcitation of a Transient Diatomic Molecule.

    PubMed

    Mironov, A E; Hewitt, J D; Eden, J G

    2017-03-17

    We report the selective population of Rb or Cs np ^{2}P_{3/2} (n=5, 6; F=4, 5) hyperfine states by the photodissociation of a transient, alkali-rare gas diatomic molecule. Circularly polarized (σ^{-}), amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) on the D_{2} line of Rb or Cs (780.0 and 852.1 nm, respectively) is generated when Rb-Xe or Cs-Xe ground state collision pairs are photoexcited by a σ^{+}-polarized optical field having a wavelength within the D_{2} blue satellite continuum, associated with the B^{2}Σ_{1/2}^{+}←X^{2}Σ_{1/2}^{+} (free←free) transition of the diatomic molecule. The degree of spin polarization of Cs (6p ^{2}P_{3/2}), specifically, is found to be dependent on the interatomic distance (R) at which the excited complex is born, a result attributed to the structure of the B^{2}Σ_{1/2}^{+} state. For Cs-Xe atomic pairs, tuning the wavelength of the optical field from 843 to 848 nm varies the degree of circular polarization of the ASE from 63% to almost unity because of the perturbation, in the 5≤R≤6  Å interval, of the ^{2}Σ_{1/2}^{+} potential by a dσ molecular orbital associated with a higher ^{2}Λ electronic state. Monitoring only the Cs 6p ^{2}P_{3/2} spin polarization reveals a previously unobserved interaction of CsXe (B^{2}Σ_{1/2}^{+}) with the lowest vibrational levels of a ^{2}Λ state derived from Cs (5d)+Xe. By inserting a molecular intermediate into the alkali atom excitation mechanism, these experiments realize electronic spin polarization through populating no more than two np ^{2}P_{3/2} hyperfine states, and demonstrate a sensitive spectroscopic probe of R-dependent state-state interactions and their impact on interatomic potentials.

  19. Residues beyond the selectivity filter of the K+ channel kir2.1 regulate permeation and block by external Rb+ and Cs+.

    PubMed

    Thompson, G A; Leyland, M L; Ashmole, I; Sutcliffe, M J; Stanfield, P R

    2000-07-15

    1. Kir2.1 channels are blocked by Rb+ and Cs+ in a voltage-dependent manner, characteristic of many inward rectifier K+ channels. Mutation of Ser165 in the transmembrane domain M2 to Leu (S165L) abolished Rb+ blockage and lowered Cs+ blocking affinity. At negative voltages Rb+ carried large inward currents. 2. A model of the Kir2.1 channel, built by homology with the structure of the Streptomyces lividans K+ channel KcsA, suggested the existence of an intersubunit hydrogen bond between Ser165 and Thr141 in the channel pore-forming P-region that helps stabilise the structure of this region. However, mutations of Thr141 and Ser165 did not produce effects consistent with a hydrogen bond between these residues being essential for blockage. 3. An alternative alignment between the M2 regions of Kir2.1 and KcsA suggested that Ser165 is itself a pore-lining residue, more directly affecting blockage. We were able to replace Ser165 with a variety of polar and non-polar residues, consistent with this residue being pore lining. Some of these changes affected channel blockage. 4. We tested the hypothesis that Asp172 - a residue implicated in channel gating by polyamines - formed an additional selectivity filter by using the triple mutant T141A/S165L/D172N. Large Rb+ and Cs+ currents were measured in this mutant. 5. We propose that both Thr141 and Ser165 are likely to provide binding sites for monovalent blocking cations in wild-type channels. These residues lie beyond the carbonyl oxygen tunnel thought to form the channel selectivity filter, which the blocking cations must therefore traverse.

  20. A combined metal-halide/metal flux synthetic route towards type-I clathrates: crystal structures and thermoelectric properties of A8Al8Si38 (A = K, Rb, and Cs).

    PubMed

    Baran, Volodymyr; Senyshyn, Anatoliy; Karttunen, Antti J; Fischer, Andreas; Scherer, Wolfgang; Raudaschl-Sieber, Gabriele; Fässler, Thomas F

    2014-11-10

    Single-phase samples of the compounds K8Al8Si38 (1), Rb8Al8Si38 (2), and Cs7.9Al7.9Si38.1 (3) were obtained with high crystallinity and in good quantities by using a novel flux method with two different flux materials, such as Al and the respective alkali-metal halide salt (KBr, RbCl, and CsCl). This approach facilitates the removal of the product mixture from the container and also allows convenient extraction of the flux media due to the good solubility of the halide salts in water. The products were analyzed by means of single-crystal X-ray structure determination, powder X-ray and neutron diffraction experiments, (27)Al-MAS NMR spectroscopy measurements, quantum chemical calculations, as well as magnetic and transport measurements (thermal conductivity, electrical resistivity, and Seebeck coefficient). Due to the excellent quality of the neutron diffraction data, the difference between the nuclear scattering factors of silicon and aluminum atoms was sufficient to refine their mixed occupancy at specific sites. The role of variable-range hopping for the interpretation of the resistivity and the Seebeck coefficient is discussed.

  1. The phase transition of rubidium hydrogen carbonate, RbHCO3.

    PubMed

    Larvor, Carla; Stöger, Berthold

    2017-07-01

    Rubidium hydrogen carbonate, RbHCO3, features an order/disorder phase transition at TC = 245 K from the high-temperature (HT) disordered C2/m modification to the low-temperature (LT) C-1 modification. The crystal structures are characterized by [HCO3]2(2-) pairs of hydrogen carbonate groups connected by strong hydrogen bonding. The [HCO3]2(2-) pairs are connected by Rb(+) cations into a three-dimensional network. In HT-RbHCO3, the hydrogen atom is disordered. In LT-RbHCO3, ordering of the hydrogen atom leads to a translation-engleiche symmetry reduction of index 2. The lost reflections and rotations are retained as twin operations.

  2. Evaluation of in vivo detection properties of 22Na, 65Zn, 86Rb, 109Cd and 137Cs in plant tissues using real-time radioisotope imaging system.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Ryohei; Kobayashi, Natsuko I; Hirose, Atsushi; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M

    2014-02-21

    In plant research, radioisotope imaging provides useful information about physiological activities in various tissues and elemental transport between plant organs. To expand the usage of imaging techniques, a new system was developed to visualize beta particles, x-rays and gamma-rays emitted from plant bodies. This real-time radioisotope imaging system (RRIS) visualizes radioactivity after conversion into light with a CsI(Tl) scintillator plate. Herein, the RRIS detection properties of the gamma-ray emitters (22)Na, (65)Zn, (86)Rb, (109)Cd and (137)Cs were evaluated in comparison with those of radioluminography (RLG) using an imaging plate. The lower quantitative detection limit (Bq mm(-2)) during a 15 min period ranged from 0.1 to 4, depending on the nuclide, similar to that of RLG. When the quantitative ability to detect radiation from various Arabidopsis tissues was analyzed, the quantitative capability in silique and the thick internode tended to be low. In an EGS5 simulation, beta particles were the greatest contributors to RRIS imaging of (22)Na, (86)Rb and (137)Cs, and low-energy x-rays contributed significantly to (65)Zn and (109)Cd detection. Thus, both self-absorption and air space between the sample and scintillator surface could impair quantitative RRIS imaging. Despite these issues, RRIS is suggested for quantitative time-course measurements of radionuclide motion within plants.

  3. Evaluation of in vivo detection properties of 22Na, 65Zn, 86Rb, 109Cd and 137Cs in plant tissues using real-time radioisotope imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugita, Ryohei; Kobayashi, Natsuko I.; Hirose, Atsushi; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.

    2014-02-01

    In plant research, radioisotope imaging provides useful information about physiological activities in various tissues and elemental transport between plant organs. To expand the usage of imaging techniques, a new system was developed to visualize beta particles, x-rays and gamma-rays emitted from plant bodies. This real-time radioisotope imaging system (RRIS) visualizes radioactivity after conversion into light with a CsI(Tl) scintillator plate. Herein, the RRIS detection properties of the gamma-ray emitters 22Na, 65Zn, 86Rb, 109Cd and 137Cs were evaluated in comparison with those of radioluminography (RLG) using an imaging plate. The lower quantitative detection limit (Bq mm-2) during a 15 min period ranged from 0.1 to 4, depending on the nuclide, similar to that of RLG. When the quantitative ability to detect radiation from various Arabidopsis tissues was analyzed, the quantitative capability in silique and the thick internode tended to be low. In an EGS5 simulation, beta particles were the greatest contributors to RRIS imaging of 22Na, 86Rb and 137Cs, and low-energy x-rays contributed significantly to 65Zn and 109Cd detection. Thus, both self-absorption and air space between the sample and scintillator surface could impair quantitative RRIS imaging. Despite these issues, RRIS is suggested for quantitative time-course measurements of radionuclide motion within plants.

  4. Structure and superconductivity of (Li1-x Fe x )OHFeSe single crystals grown using A x Fe2-y Se2 (A  =  K, Rb, and Cs) as precursors.

    PubMed

    Yu, G; Zhang, G Y; Ryu, G H; Lin, C T

    2016-01-13

    We present results on the hydrothermal growth of ([Formula: see text])OHFeSe single crystals using floating-zone-grown [Formula: see text] (A  =  K, Rb, and Cs) as precursors. The growth proceeds by the hydrothermal ion exchange of Li/Fe-O-H for K, Rb, and Cs, resulting in a stacking layer of ([Formula: see text])OH sandwiched between the FeSe layers. Optimal growth parameters are achieved using high quality A 0.80Fe1.81Se2 single crystals added to the mixtures of LiOH, H2O, Fe and C(NH2)2Se in an autoclave and subsequently heated to 120 °C for 2 d, to obtain highest quality single crystals. The obtained crystals have lateral dimensions up to centimeters, with the final size related to that of the precursor crystal used. All ([Formula: see text])OHFeSe single crystals show a superconducting transition temperature T c  >  42 K, regardless of the phase of the precursor such as superconducting K0.80Fe1.81Se2 (T c  =  29.31 K) or non-superconducting Rb0.80Fe1.81Se2 or poor-superconducting Cs0.80Fe1.81Se2 (T c  =  28.67 K). The T c and transition width ΔT vary in the obtained single crystals, due to the inhomogeneity of the ionic exchange. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates that the 245 insulating phase is absent in the ion-exchanged single crystals, while it is observed in the [Formula: see text] precursors. Comparative studies of the structure, magnetization, and superconductivity on the parent A 0.80Fe1.81Se2 and the ion-exchanged ([Formula: see text])OHFeSe crystals are discussed. A phase diagram including antiferromagnetic spin density wave and superconducting phases is also proposed.

  5. Crystal structures and hydrogen bonding in the isotypic series of hydrated alkali metal (K, Rb and Cs) complexes with 4-amino­phenyl­arsonic acid

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Graham; Wermuth, Urs D.

    2017-01-01

    The structures of the alkali metal (K, Rb and Cs) complex salts with 4-amino­phenyl­arsonic acid (p-arsanilic acid) manifest an isotypic series with the general formula [M 2(C6H7AsNO3)2(H2O)3], with M = K {poly[di-μ3-4-amino­phenyl­arsonato-tri-μ2-aqua-dipotassium], [K2(C6H7AsNO3)2(H2O)3], (I)}, Rb {poly[di-μ3-4-amino­phenyl­arsonato-tri-μ2-aqua-dirubidium], [Rb2(C6H7AsNO3)2(H2O)3], (II)}, and Cs {poly[di-μ3-4-amino­phenyl­arsonato-tri-μ2-aqua-dirubidium], [Cs2(C6H7AsNO3)2(H2O)3], (III)}, in which the repeating structural units lie across crystallographic mirror planes containing two independent and different metal cations and a bridging water mol­ecule, with the two hydrogen p-arsanilate ligands and the second water mol­ecule lying outside the mirror plane. The bonding about the two metal cations in all complexes is similar, one five-coordinate, the other progressing from five-coordinate in (I) to eight-coordinate in both (II) and (III), with overall M—O bond-length ranges of 2.694 (5)–3.009 (7) (K), 2.818 (4)–3.246 (4) (Rb) and 2.961 (9)–3.400 (10) Å (Cs). The additional three bonds in (II) and (III) are the result of inter-metal bridging through the water ligands. Two-dimensional coordination polymeric structures with the layers lying parallel to (100) are generated through a number of bridging bonds involving the water mol­ecules (including hydrogen-bonding inter­actions), as well as through the arsanilate O atoms. These layers are linked across [100] through amine N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds to arsonate and water O-atom acceptors, giving overall three-dimensional network structures. PMID:28217343

  6. High resolution 13C NMR investigation of A6C 60 ( A=K, Rb, Cs) and Ba 3C 60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajji, L.; Rachdi, F.; Goze, C.; Mehring, M.; Fischer, J. E.

    1996-11-01

    We report the result of 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements on A6C 60 ( A=K, Rb, Cs) and Ba 3C 60. By using high-resolution magic angle spinning, we were able to identify an isotropic line around 156 ppm for all investigated compounds. NMR spectra of the saturated alkali compounds are quite similar. The corresponding isotropic lines show three narrow components consistent with orientationally ordered C 60 molecules leading to three non-equivalent carbon sites in these compounds as reported by x-ray studies. No line splitting was observed for the Ba 3C 60 isotropic line.

  7. Crystal structures and hydrogen bonding in the isotypic series of hydrated alkali metal (K, Rb and Cs) complexes with 4-amino-phenyl-arsonic acid.

    PubMed

    Smith, Graham; Wermuth, Urs D

    2017-02-01

    The structures of the alkali metal (K, Rb and Cs) complex salts with 4-amino-phenyl-arsonic acid (p-arsanilic acid) manifest an isotypic series with the general formula [M2(C6H7AsNO3)2(H2O)3], with M = K {poly[di-μ3-4-amino-phenyl-arsonato-tri-μ2-aqua-dipotassium], [K2(C6H7AsNO3)2(H2O)3], (I)}, Rb {poly[di-μ3-4-amino-phenyl-arsonato-tri-μ2-aqua-dirubidium], [Rb2(C6H7AsNO3)2(H2O)3], (II)}, and Cs {poly[di-μ3-4-amino-phenyl-arsonato-tri-μ2-aqua-dirubidium], [Cs2(C6H7AsNO3)2(H2O)3], (III)}, in which the repeating structural units lie across crystallographic mirror planes containing two independent and different metal cations and a bridging water mol-ecule, with the two hydrogen p-arsanilate ligands and the second water mol-ecule lying outside the mirror plane. The bonding about the two metal cations in all complexes is similar, one five-coordinate, the other progressing from five-coordinate in (I) to eight-coordinate in both (II) and (III), with overall M-O bond-length ranges of 2.694 (5)-3.009 (7) (K), 2.818 (4)-3.246 (4) (Rb) and 2.961 (9)-3.400 (10) Å (Cs). The additional three bonds in (II) and (III) are the result of inter-metal bridging through the water ligands. Two-dimensional coordination polymeric structures with the layers lying parallel to (100) are generated through a number of bridging bonds involving the water mol-ecules (including hydrogen-bonding inter-actions), as well as through the arsanilate O atoms. These layers are linked across [100] through amine N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds to arsonate and water O-atom acceptors, giving overall three-dimensional network structures.

  8. Synthesis, structure and X-ray excited luminescence of Ce{sup 3+}-doped AREP{sub 2}O{sub 7}-type alkali rare earth diphosphates (A=Na, K, Rb, Cs; RE=Y, Lu)

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan Junlin; Zhang Hui; Chen Haohong; Yang Xinxin; Zhao Jingtai Gu, Mu

    2007-12-15

    The crystal structures of five new alkali rare earth diphosphates were obtained by Rietveld refinement of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) profiles, including four alkali lutetium diphosphates ALuP{sub 2}O{sub 7} (A=Na, K, Rb, Cs) and the low temperature phase of KYP{sub 2}O{sub 7}. The scintillation properties of Ce{sup 3+}-doped AREP{sub 2}O{sub 7} (A=Na, K, Rb, Cs; RE=Y, Lu) powder samples were studied under static and pulsed X-ray excitations, and featured outstanding scintillation properties with light yields 1-2 times of that of Bi{sub 4}(GeO{sub 4}){sub 3} and relatively short decay time of 20-28 ns. Considering the suitable emission wavelength range, large light yield, short decay time, and non-hygroscopic nature, Ce{sup 3+}-doped AREP{sub 2}O{sub 7}-type alkali rare earth diphosphates are potential candidates for high-counting-rate scintillation applications. - Graphical abstract: The perspective view of KLuP{sub 2}O{sub 7} unit cell. The crystal structures of five AREP{sub 2}O{sub 7} diphosphates were obtained from Rietveld refinement. Under the excitation of hard X-ray, the Ce{sup 3+}-activated AREP{sub 2}O{sub 7} (A=Na-Cs; RE=Y, Lu) feature strong Ce{sup 3+} 5d-4f emission with high light yield (1-2 times of that of Bi{sub 4}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12}) and fast decay time within 20-28 ns.

  9. Local and Cooperative Jahn-Teller Effect and Resultant Magnetic Properties of M2AgF4 (M = Na-Cs) Phases.

    PubMed

    Kurzydłowski, Dominik; Jaroń, Tomasz; Ozarowski, Andrew; Hill, Stephen; Jagličić, Zvonko; Filinchuk, Yaroslav; Mazej, Zoran; Grochala, Wojciech

    2016-11-07

    The crystal structure, magnetic properties, heat capacity, and Raman spectra of double-perovskite M2AgF4 (M = K, K3/4Rb1/4, K1/2Rb1/2, K1/4Rb3/4, and Rb) phases have been examined, adding to the body of previous results for the M = Na, Cs derivatives. The results suggest that double-perovskite K2AgF4 adopts a disordered orthorhombic Bmab structure with an antiferrodistortive arrangement of the elongated and tilted [AgF6] octahedra rather than the structure with the ferrodistortive arrangement of compressed octahedra, as suggested previously (Mazej, Z.; Goreshnik, E.; Jagličić, Z.; Gaweł, B.; Łasocha, W.; Grzybowska, D.; Jaroń, T.; Kurzydłowski, D.; Malinowski, P. J.; Koźmiński, W.; Szydłowska, J.; Leszczyński, P. J.; Grochala, W. KAgF3, K2AgF4 and K3Ag2F7: important steps towards a layered antiferromagnetic fluoroargentate(II). CrystEngComm 2009, 11, 1702-1710). A re-examination of the previously collected single-crystal X-ray diffraction data confirms the current structure assignment, and it is also in agreement with recent theoretical calculations. High-field electron paramagnetic resonance spectra reaffirm the presence of elongated [AgF6] octahedra in the crystal structure of all M2AgF4 phases studied. The local structure of the M = K derivative is most complex, with regions of the sample that are quite orthorhombically distorted, whereas other regions more closely resemble the tetragonal phase. The mixed-cation K/Rb phases are also inhomogeneous, containing regions of the pure K compound and regions of another high-symmetry phase (likely tetragonal) of a mixed (Rb-richer) compound with unknown composition. The temperature-resolved phase diagram of all K/Rb phases has been established and positioned within the entire M = Na, K, Rb, Cs series.

  10. Effect of Rb2O and Cs2O on Inclusion Removal in 321 Stainless Steels Using Novel Basic Tundish Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kyunsuk; Kang, Youngjo; Sohn, Il

    2016-06-01

    Inclusion removal and modification of the 321 stainless steel using Rb2O- and Cs2O-containing novel basic tundish flux has been investigated. The average inclusion diameter was significantly lowered after reaction of the liquid metal with the flux after 45 minutes in an induction furnace set at 1823 K (1550 °C) under an Ar atmosphere. The number of inclusions was also decreased with increased reaction time and the majority of the inherent TiN inclusions were removed after reaction with the proposed novel basic tundish flux. Spinel inclusions were also observed after the reaction, which was due to the reaction of the MgO crucible and the CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO-` x'wt pct R2O flux system at fixed CaO/(Al2O3 + SiO2) of 1.45. The Rb2O and Cs2O seemed to have allowed significant removal of the TiN inclusions due to its ion compensation effect and the supplement of free oxygen ions, while increasing the viscosity of the slag to retain the absorbed inclusions.

  11. Simultaneous use of Cs and Rb Rydberg atoms for dipole moment assessment and RF electric field measurements via electromagnetically induced transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, Matt T.; Gordon, Joshua A.; Holloway, Christopher L.

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate simultaneous electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT) with cesium (Cs) and rubidium (Rb) Rydberg atoms in the same vapor cell with coincident (overlapping) optical fields. Each atomic system can detect radio frequency (RF) electric (E) field strengths through the modification of the EIT signal (Autler-Townes (AT) splitting), which leads to a direct International System of Unit traceable RF E-field measurement. We show that these two systems can detect the same RF E-field strength simultaneously, which provides a direct in situ comparison of Rb and Cs RF measurements in Rydberg atoms. In effect, this allows us to perform two measurements of the same E-field strength, providing a relative comparison of the dipole moments of the two atomic species. This gives two measurements that help rule out systematic effects and uncertainties in this E-field metrology approach, which are important when establishing an international measurement standard for an E-field strength, and is a necessary step for this method to be accepted as a standard calibration technique. We use this approach to measure E-fields at 9.2 GHz, 11.6 GHz, and 13.4 GHz, which correspond to three different atomic states (different principal atomic numbers and angular momentums) for the two atom species.

  12. Electronic structure in a one-Fe Brillouin zone of the iron pnictide superconductors CsFe2As2 and RbFe2As2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, S.; Liu, D. Y.; Cui, S. T.; Ju, S. L.; Wang, A. F.; Luo, X. G.; Zou, L. J.; Chen, X. H.; Zhang, G. B.; Sun, Z.

    2015-11-01

    Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we studied the electronic structures of CsFe2As2 and RbFe2As2 . Contrary to other iron-based superconductors where the band structures are usually depicted in the two-Fe Brillouin zone (BZ), we found that the distribution of electronic spectral weight in CsFe2As2 and RbFe2As2 follows the one-Fe BZ, and that the emerging band structure is qualitatively consistent with theoretical band calculations of the one-Fe BZ except for some shadow band effect. Our data suggest that the interlayer separation is an important tuning factor for the physics of FeAs layers, the increase of which can reduce the coupling between Fe and As and lead to the emergence of the electronic structure in accord with the one-Fe symmetry of the Fe square lattice. Our finding puts strong constraints on the theoretical models constructed on the basis of the one-Fe BZ.

  13. 87Rb spin-lattice relaxation times in ferroelectric-paraelectric-incommensurate phases of Rb2CoBr4 using static NMR and MAS NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Ae Ran

    2017-04-01

    To better elucidate the structural properties of Rb2CoBr4 in paraelectric, incommensurate, and ferroelectric phases, we studied the 87Rb nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra and spin-lattice relaxation times in laboratory frame T1 and in rotating frame T1ρ. The resonance frequency and the chemical shift do not change abruptly near the phase transition temperature of Ti = 333 K and TC = 192 K, whereas T1 and T1ρ display discontinuous changes near Ti and TC. The abrupt changes in the relaxation times near these temperatures seem to be a result of the structural phase transitions. The results are distinctly different from those reported for Rb2CoCl4.

  14. Evidence of a phase transition of RbHCO3 from high-resolution solid-state 13C and 87Rb NMR by comparison with KHCO3.

    PubMed

    Odin, Christophe

    2004-04-01

    A variable-temperature high-resolution 13C and 87Rb solid-state NMR study of powder rubidium hydrogencarbonate, RbHCO3, is presented for the first time. At ambient temperature, RbHCO3 is formed by centrosymmetric dimers linked by hydrogen bonds, but almost no information is available on this compound concerning proton disorder and the low-temperature phase. However, potassium hydrogencarbonate, KHCO3, which has an isomorphic structure for the high temperature phase, was well studied: it undergoes a non-ferroic, non-ferroelectric phase transition at Tc = 318 K between two monoclinic structures. The protons are disordered in an asymmetric double-well potential in the low-temperature phase, and the double-well potential becomes symmetric in the high-temperature phase. By comparison with recent solid-state NMR experimental results on KHCO3, we show that RbHCO3 undergoes a phase transition at Tc approximately 245 K, and give evidence that the proton dynamic disorder in both compounds is very similar. 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Evidence for sp3 carbon atoms in the RbC60 dimer phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thier, K.-F.; Mehring, M.; Rachdi, F.

    1997-01-01

    High resolution 13C NMR experiments prove the existence of sp3 carbon atoms which are assigned to the dimer bonds in the quenched phase of RbC60. The relative intensities of the sp3 lines support a model where the C60 monomers are connected via a single bond. Spin-lattice relaxation measurements and 13C spectral changes reveal the transition to the polymer phase above 200 K.

  16. Microscopic nature of correlations in multiorbital A Fe2As2 (A =K,Rb,Cs) : Hund's coupling versus Coulomb repulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backes, Steffen; Jeschke, Harald O.; Valentí, Roser

    2015-11-01

    We investigate via LDA+DMFT (local density approximation combined with dynamical mean field theory) the manifestation of correlation effects in a wide range of binding energies in the hole-doped family of Fe pnictides A Fe2As2 (A =K ,Rb, Cs) as well as the fictitious FrFe2As2 and a -axis stretched CsFe2As2 . This choice of systems allows for a systematic analysis of the interplay of Hund's coupling JH and on-site Coulomb repulsion U in multiorbital Fe pnictides under negative pressure. With increasing ionic size of the alkali metal, we observe a nontrivial change in the iron 3 d hoppings, an increase of orbitally-selective correlations, and the presence of incoherent weight at high binding energies that do not show the typical lower Hubbard-band behavior but rather characteristic features of a Hund's metal. This is especially prominent in a b -stretched CsFe2As2 . We also find that the coherent/incoherent electronic behavior of the systems is, apart from temperature, strongly dependent on JH, and we provide estimates of the coherence scale T*. We discuss these results in the framework of reported experimental observations.

  17. Low-Temperature Antiferromagnetic Behavior of α-Rb 2FeF 5 · H 2O and α-Cs 2FeF 5 · H 2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calage, Y.; Reiff, W. M.

    1994-08-01

    D.C. susceptibility and zero field Mössbauer spectroscopy measurements are used to characterize the low-temperature magnetism of α-Rb2FeF5 · H2O and α-Cs2FeF5 · H2O. The compounds are rigorously isotypic quasi-1D Heisenberg magnets based on hydrogen bonded chains of-{FeF5H2O}2- - pseudo-octahedra with intervening Rb+ and Cs+ cations that enhance the low dimensionality. The 1D antiferromagnetic effects appear comparable, Txmax(1D) ∼5 K, while their 3D ordering temperatures are quite different, TN(Rb+) = 4.0 K, TN (Cs+) = 2.7 K. The internal hyperfine fields extrapolated to T = 0 K are ∼ 51 T suggesting zero point spin reduction (∼15%) consistent with 1D behavior. High field d.c. susceptibility measurements for polycrystalline Cs2FeF5 · H2O suggest spin-flop behavior with HSF < 1 T. A qualitative comparison of the low-temperature magnetic properties of the F- and Cl- analogues for the series M2 FeX5 · H2O (M = NH+4, K+, Rb+, Cs+) is given.

  18. Energy and radiative properties of the (3 )1Π and (5 )+1Σ states of RbCs: Experiment and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alps, K.; Kruzins, A.; Nikolayeva, O.; Tamanis, M.; Ferber, R.; Pazyuk, E. A.; Stolyarov, A. V.

    2017-08-01

    We combined high-resolution Fourier-transform spectroscopy and large-scale electronic structure calculation to study energy and radiative properties of the high-lying (3 )1Π and (5 )+1Σ states of the RbCs molecule. The laser-induced (5 )+1Σ,(4 )+1Σ,(3 )1Π→A (2 )+1Σ˜ b (1 )3Π fluorescence (LIF) spectra were recorded by the Bruker IFS-125(HR) spectrometer in the frequency range ν ∈[5500 ,10 000 ] cm-1 with the instrumental resolution of 0.03 cm-1. The rotational assignment of the observed LIF progressions, which exhibit irregular vibrational-rotational spacing due to strong spin-orbit interaction between A +1Σ and b 3Π states was based on the coincidences between observed and calculated energy differences. The required rovibronic term values of the strongly perturbed A ˜b complex have been calculated by a coupled-channels approach for both 85Rb133Cs and 87Rb133Cs isotopologs with accuracy of about 0.01 cm-1, as demonstrated in A. Kruzins et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 141, 184309 (2014), 10.1063/1.4901327]. The experimental energies of the upper (3 )1Π and (5 )+1Σ states were involved in a direct-potential-fit analysis performed in the framework of inverted perturbation approach. Quasirelativistic ab initio calculations of the spin-allowed (3 )1Π,(5 )+1Σ→ (1-4)+1Σ,(1-3)1Π transition dipole moments were performed. Radiative lifetimes and vibronic branching ratios of radiative transitions from the (3 )1Π and (5 )+1Σ states were evaluated. To elucidate the origin of the Λ -doubling effect in the (3 )1Π state, the angular coupling (3 )1Π -(1-5)+1Σ electronic matrix elements were calculated and applied for the relevant q -factors estimate. The intensity distributions simulated for the particular (5 )+1Σ ;(3 )1Π→A ˜b LIF progressions have been found to be remarkably close to their experimental counterparts.

  19. Double Salts Obtained from Me+X-Cu X2-H 2O Systems ( Me+ = K +, NH +4, rb +, cs +; X- = cl -, br -)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tepavitcharova, St.; Balarew, Chr.; Trendafilova, St.

    1995-02-01

    The solubility diagrams of the Me+ Br-CuBr2-H2O (Me+ = K+, NH+4, Rb+, Cs+) systems are studied. The results obtained are compared with literature data on the corresponding chloride systems in order to estimate the effect of the halide ion (Br- or Cl-) on the solubility diagrams and on the compositions of the double salts formed in these systems. The differences in composition and structure of the double salts are explained by the metal-ligand interactions on the basis of Pearson's concept of hard and soft Lewis acids and bases, as well as by crystal chemistry considerations for the most probable spacial situation of the building elements in the crystal structure.

  20. Giant magnetoresistance of novel ferromagnets AMg4Mn6O15 (A=K, Rb, and Cs) with highly symmetric structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Yudai; Sato, Hirohiko

    2017-04-01

    A novel family of cubic manganese oxides, AMg4Mn6O15 (A=K, Rb, and Cs), were discovered. In this type of structure, the MnO6 octahedra share edges, constructing a highly symmetric framework where Mn atoms form a three-dimensional network of truncated octahedra. The crystallographic site of Mn is unique and the average oxidation state of Mn is 3.5, indicating a mixed-valence electronic state where Mn3+ and Mn4+ sites are completely indistinguishable. These compounds become ferromagnetic with fully polarized magnetic moments of Mn ions. The ferromagnetic transition temperature TC is 170 K, that is considerably high for manganese oxides. The electric resistivity of KMg4Mn6O15 is about 105 Ωcm at 300 K and exhibits a non-metallic temperature dependence. It reveals a large negative magnetoresistance; about 40% of the resistivity is suppressed by 5 T of magnetic field at TC.

  1. First-principles study of the magnetic and electronic properties of AMnAs (A=Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wenqi; Wu, Shuxiang; Li, Shuwei

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that antiferromagnetic (AFM) semiconductors are promising alternative materials for spintronic applications. In this work, we report a detailed investigation of the magnetic and electronic properties of AMnAs (A=Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs) using density functional theory. It is found that all studied compounds are ordered antiferromagnetically in the MnAs ab plane, however, along the c axis, NaMnAs is ordered ferromagnetically which is different from the AFM coupling of other materials. These results on magnetic structures are in good agreement with observed facts. Furthermore, our calculations predict that all materials have a semiconducting band structure, which indicates the potential of device applications.

  2. Preparation of Porous Three-Dimensional Quaternary Thioantimonates(III) ACuSb2 S4 (A = Rb, Cs) through a Surfactant-Thermal Method.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yaying; Liu, Chang; Hou, Peipei; Zhi, Mingjia; Zhou, Chunmei; Chai, Wenxiang; Cheng, Jian-Wen; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Qichun

    2015-12-01

    Two novel porous three-dimensional (3D) quaternary thioantimonates(III) ACuSb2S4 (A = Rb, Cs) were successfully synthesized by employing the neutral surfactant PEG-400 (PEG = polyethyleneglycol) as reaction media, these are significantly different from the known quaternary A-Cu-Sb-S thioantimonates(III) with two-dimensional (2D) crystal structures. This is the first time that crystalline quaternary chalcogenides have been prepared in surfactant media. Both experimental and theoretical studies confirm they are semiconductors with narrow band gaps. Our results demonstrated that the surfactant-thermal strategy could offer a new opportunity to explore novel chalcogenides with diverse crystal structures and interesting physicochemical properties.

  3. Structure and magnetism in hexagonal tungsten bronze metal oxides AM1/3W8/3O9 (A-K, Rb, Cs; M-Cr, Fe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, S. A.; Sahu, J. R.; Voronkova, V. I.; Mathieu, R.; Nordblad, P.

    2015-02-01

    The structure and magnetic properties of hexagonal tungsten bronzes AM1/3W8/3O9 (A-K+, Rb+, Cs+; M- Cr3+, Fe3+) have been investigated. Pure ceramic samples were synthesized by solid-state reaction. The samples have been studied by X-ray powder diffraction in combination with magnetic measurements. The compounds crystallize in hexagonal space group P63/mcm. The substitution of magnetic ions into the WO6 octahedra yields dilute antiferromagnetic Cr3+-O2--Cr3+ (or Fe3+-O2--Fe3+) superexchange interaction causing the appearance of short-range magnetic order at low temperatures. The antiferromagnetic character of the interaction is supported by negative values of the derived Curie-Weiss temperatures, θCW. The magnitude of θCW is found to decrease with increasing ionic radius of the A cation.

  4. Synthesis and structure of R{sub 2}[UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2}] (R = Rb or Cs)

    SciTech Connect

    Serezhkin, V. N.; Peresypkina, E. V.; Grigor’eva, V. A.; Virovets, A. V.; Serezhkina, L. B.

    2015-01-15

    Crystals Rb{sub 2}[UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2}] (I) and Cs{sub 2}[UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2}] (II) have been synthesized and studied by IR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Crystals I are monoclinic, with the following parameters: a = 12.2118(5) Å, b = 10.2545(3) Å, c = 11.8754(4) Å, β = 110.287(1)°, sp. gr. C2/c, Z = 4, and R = 0.0523. Crystals II are orthorhombic, with a = 13.7309(3) Å, b = 10.5749(2) Å, c = 10.1891(2) Å, sp. gr. Pnma, Z = 4, and R = 0.0411. The basic structural units of crystals I and II are one-core complexes [UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2}]{sup 2−}, which belong to the crystallochemical group cis-AB{sub 2}{sup 01}M{sub 2}{sup 1} (A = UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, B{sup 01} = NO{sub 3}{sup −}, M{sup 1} = NCS{sup −}), which are combined into a framework via electrostatic interactions with ions of alkaline metals R (R = Rb or Cs). The structural features of crystals I and II, which condition the formation of [UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2}]{sup 2−} complexes with a cis rather than a trans position of isothiocyanate ions in the coordination sphere of uranyl ions, are discussed.

  5. Numerical Investigation of Photon-Pair Generation in Periodically Poled M TiO X O4 (M =K , Rb, Cs; X =P , As)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laudenbach, Fabian; Jin, Rui-Bo; Greganti, Chiara; Hentschel, Michael; Walther, Philip; Hübel, Hannes

    2017-08-01

    We present a detailed numerical investigation of five nonlinear materials and their properties regarding photon-pair creation using parametric down-conversion. Periodic poling of ferroelectric nonlinear materials is a convenient way to generate collinearly propagating photon pairs. Most applications and experiments use the well-known potassium titanyl phosphate (KTiOPO4, PPKTP) and lithium niobate (LiNbO3, PPLN) crystals for this purpose. We provide a profound discussion on the family of KTP-isomorphic nonlinear materials, including KTP itself but also the much less common CsTiOAsO4, KTiOAsO4, RbTiOAsO4, and RbTiOPO4. We discuss the way in which these crystals can be used for the creation of spectrally pure down-conversion states and the generation of crystal-intrinsic polarization and frequency entanglement. The investigation of the new materials discloses an entirely different range of promising experimental setups, in some cases even outperforming the established materials PPLN and PPKTP.

  6. Incoherence-coherence crossover and low-temperature Fermi-liquid-like behavior in AFe2As2 (A  =  K, Rb, Cs): evidence from electrical transport properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Z. J.; Wang, N. Z.; Wang, A. F.; Zhao, D.; Sun, Z. L.; Luo, X. G.; Wu, T.; Chen, X. H.

    2016-10-01

    We study the normal-state transport properties of AFe2As2 (A  =  K, Rb and Cs) single crystals using Hall coefficient, resistivity and magnetoresistance (MR) measurements. In all three materials, the Hall coefficient R H shows a strong temperature dependence, which is typical for multi-band systems. In particular, R H develops an upturn below a characteristic temperature {{T}\\ast} , which is in agreement with the incoherence-coherence crossover reported in recent nuclear magnetic resonance studies. A Fermi-liquid-like state, characterized by T 2 behavior of the resistivity and a positive orbital MR obeying Kohler’s rule, emerges below T FL  ˜0.4 ~{{T}\\ast} . The superconducting transition temperature T c experiences a simultaneous suppression with {{T}\\ast} and T FL as the alkali ion’s radius increases from A  =  K to A  =  Cs, suggesting that the unconventional superconductivity in the AFe2As2 series is related to the strength of the electronic coherence. A phase diagram, similar to that in the heavy fermion Kondo lattice system, is obtained. Based on all the experimental evidence, we argue that the physical properties of this family of heavily hole-doped Fe-based superconductors are controlled by the hybridization between itinerant carriers and localized orbitals, and the Kondo scenario could be effective in such a case.

  7. Resonance Emission Enhancement (REE) for Narrow Band Red-Emitting A2GeF6:Mn(4+) (A = Na, K, Rb, Cs) Phosphors Synthesized via a Precipitation-Cation Exchange Route.

    PubMed

    Lian, Hongzhou; Huang, Qingming; Chen, Yeqing; Li, Kai; Liang, Sisi; Shang, Mengmeng; Liu, Manman; Lin, Jun

    2017-10-02

    Narrow band red-emitting A2GeF6:Mn(4+) (A = Na, K, Rb, Cs) phosphors were prepared through a two-step precipitation-cation exchange route using a K2MnF6 precursor as the Mn(4+) source. The phase purity, morphology, and constituent were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy (XPS), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) examination. Optical properties were investigated by photoluminescence spectra (PL and PLE) and high-resolution PL. A temperature-dependent PL examination was performed to investigate the electron-phonon coupling emission mechanism of Mn(4+) in these alkali fluorogermanates. The PL data show that both ordered distribution and appropriate distance between Mn(4+) ions are propitious for enhancement of the emission intensity. A resonance emission enhancement (REE) mechanism has been proposed to explain the intensity increment among these products. These phosphors present bright red emission under blue light (467 nm) illumination, among which Cs2GeF6:0.03Mn(4+) exhibits the most excellent optical properties with a quantum yield (QY) of 93%. A WLED (white light-emitting diode) fabricated with blend of commercial YAG:Ce(3+) and this phosphor emits intense warm white light with low color temperature (CCT = 3385 K) and high color rendering index (Ra = 90.5), implying its potential application as red phosphor in WLEDs.

  8. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis for 36 elements in geological material: Au, Ag, Bi, Br, Cd, Cs, Ge, In, Ir, Ni, Os, Pd, Rb, Re, Sb, Se, Sn, Te, Tl, U, and Zn as well as Sc, Y, and REE

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, E; Wolf, R; Morgan, J W; Ebihara, M; Woodrow, A B; Janssens, M J; Hertogen, J

    1988-01-01

    In lunar and terrestrial rocks and in meteorites, the radiochemical neutron activation method decribed here enables determination of the 21 trace and ultratrace elements Ag, Au, Bi, Br, Cd, Cs, Ga, Ge, In, Ir, Ni, Os, Pd, Rb, Re, Sb, Se, Te, Tl, U, Zn, as well as 13 rare earth elements (REE), Sc and Y. Materials, techniques and procedures are discussed. 81 refs.

  9. Increase in the Magnetic Ordering Temperature (Tc) as a Function of the Applied Pressure for A2Mn[Mn(CN)6] (A = K, Rb, Cs) Prussian Blue Analogues.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, M; Yamashita, S; Akutsu, H; Nakazawa, Y; DaSilva, J G; Kareis, C M; Miller, Joel S

    2017-09-05

    Magnetization measurements under pressure reveal that the external hydrostatic pressure significantly increases in the ferrimagnetic transition temperature, Tc, for A2Mn[Mn(CN)6] (A = K, Rb, Cs). In the case of monoclinic A = K and Rb, dTc/dp values are 21.2 and 14.6 K GPa(-1), respectively, and Tc increases by 53 and 39%, respectively, from ambient pressure to 1.0 GPa. The cubic A = Cs compound also shows a monotonous increase with an initial rate of 4.22 K GPa(-1) and about 11.4 K GPa(-1) above 0.6 GPa, and an overall Tc increase by 26% at 1.0 GPa. The increase in Tc is attributed to deformation of the structure such that the Mn(II)-N≡C angle decreases with increasing pressure. The smaller the alkali cation, the greater the decrease in the Mn(II)-N≡C angle induced by pressure and the larger the increase of dTc/dp. This is in accordance with the ambient-pressure structures for A2Mn[Mn(CN)6] (A = K, Rb, Cs), which have decreasing Mn(II)-N≡C angles that correlate to the observed increasing Tcs as K > Rb > Cs. The large increase in Tc for the A = K compound is the highest class among several cyano-bridged metal complexes. The tuning of the transition temperature by such a weak pressure may lead to additional applications such as switching devices.

  10. Off-resonance nutation nuclear magnetic resonance study of framework aluminosilicate glasses with Li, Na, K, Rb or Cs as charge-balancing cation.

    PubMed

    Dirken, P J; Nachtegaal, G H; Kentgens, A P

    1995-11-01

    Framework aluminosilicate glasses with varying charge-balancing cation (Li, Na, K, Rb and Cs) have been studied with 27Al and 29Si magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) and 27Al on-resonance and off-resonance nutation NMR spectroscopy. This first application of off-resonance nutation NMR to disordered samples proves that it is a promising technique for the determination of mean quadrupole interactions in amorphous systems. Linewidths for Al decrease systematically with increasing size of the cation, due to a decrease in the quadrupole interaction from 5.0 MHz for the Li glass to 2.8 MHz for the Cs glass. A simple point-charge model effectively predicts the decrease in the quadrupole interaction. This indicates that the alkali ion is located close to aluminum. Looking at the residual linewidth after subtraction of the quadrupole broadening, the Al chemical shift distribution does not change significantly with the type of alkali ion. The same is true for the observed Si linewidth.

  11. Pressure-induced phase transitions in multiferroic RbFe(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2}-Raman scattering study

    SciTech Connect

    Maczka, M.; Ptak, M.; Luz-Lima, C.; Freire, P.T.C.; Paraguassu, W.; Guerini, S.; Hanuza, J.

    2011-10-15

    High pressure Raman scattering experiments were performed on RbFe(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2}. These experiments revealed that two phase transitions take place in RbFe(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} at very low pressures, i.e. between ambient pressure and 0.2 GPa and between 0.4 and 0.7 GPa. Raman results showed that at the first phase transition the room temperature P3-bar m1 phase transforms into the P3-bar phase, which is also observed at ambient pressure below 190 K. The second pressure-induced phase transition occurs into a low symmetry phase of unknown symmetry. The performed lattice dynamics calculations for the P3-bar m1 phase and ab initio calculation of the structural changes under hydrostatic pressure helped us to get better insights into the mechanism of the observed phase transitions. - Graphical abstract: Raman spectra of RbFe(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} crystal in the high wavenumber region recorded at different pressures during compression experiment. Highlights: > RbFe(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} exhibits two pressure-induced phase transitions below 0.7 GPa. > First phase transition is from the P3-bar m1 into P3-bar structure. > Phase transitions in RbFe(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} are similar as in KFe(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2}. > Transitions' pressures are much lower for the rubidium compound.

  12. Pressure-induced phase transition in synthetic trioctahedral Rb-mica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comodi, P.; Drábek, M.; Montagnoli, M.; Rieder, M.; Weiss, Z.; Zanazzi, P. F.

    The crystal structure of a synthetic Rb analog of tetra-ferri-annite (Rb-TFA) 1M with the composition Rb0.99Fe2+3.03(Fe3+ 1.04 Si2.96)O10.0(OH)2.0 was determined by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction method. The structure is homooctahedral (space group C2/m) with M1 and M2 occupied by divalent iron. Its unit cell is larger than that of the common potassium trioctahedral mica, and similar lateral dimensions of the tetrahedral and octahedral sheets allow a small tetrahedral rotation angle α=2.23(6)°. Structure refinements at 0.0001, 1.76, 2.81, 4.75, and 7.2 GPa indicate that in some respects the Rb-TFA behaves like all other micas when pressure increases: the octahedra are more compressible than the tetrahedra and the interlayer is four times more compressible than the 2:1 layer. However, there is a peculiar behavior of the tetrahedral rotation angle α: at lower pressures (0.0001, 1.76, 2.81 GPa), it has positive values that increase with pressure [from 2.23(6)° to 6.3(4)°] as in other micas, but negative values -7.5(5)° and -8.5(9)° appear at higher pressures, 4.75 and 7.2 GPa, respectively. This structural evidence, together with electrostatic energy calculations, shows that Rb-TFA has a Franzini A-type 2:1 layer up to at least 2.81 GPa that at higher pressure yields to a Franzini B-type layer, as shown by the refinements at 4.75 and 7.2 GPa. The inversion of the α angle is interpreted as a consequence of an isosymmetric displacive phase transition from A-type to B-type structure between 2.81 and 4.75 GPa. The compressibility of the Rb-TFA was also investigated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction up to a maximum pressure of 10 GPa. The lattice parameters reveal a sharp discontinuity between 3.36 and 3.84 GPa, which was associated with the phase transition from Franzini-A to Franzini-B structure.

  13. Tet1 is required for Rb phosphorylation during G1/S phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Shengsong; Zhu, Ziqi; Wang, Yiqin; Wang, Yanru; Xu, Longxia; Chen, Xuemei; Xu, Qing; Zhang, Qimin; Zhao, Xin; Yu, Yi; Wu, Denglong

    2013-05-03

    Highlights: •Tet1 was required for NIT3T3 proliferation. •Tet1 depletion inhibited G1-S entry. •Cyclin D1 accumulation and Rb phosphorylation was blocked by Tet1 knockdown. -- Abstract: DNA methylation plays an important role in many biological processes, including regulation of gene expression, maintenance of chromatin conformation and genomic stability. TET-family proteins convert 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), which indicates that these enzymes may participate in DNA demethylation. The function of TET1 has not yet been well characterized in somatic cells. Here, we show that depletion of Tet1 in NIH3T3 cells inhibits cell growth. Furthermore, Tet1 knockdown blocks cyclin D1 accumulation in G1 phase, inhibits Rb phosphorylation and consequently delays entrance to G1/S phase. Taken together, this study demonstrates that Tet1 is required for cell proliferation and that this process is mediated through the Rb pathway.

  14. Experimental observation of structural phase transition in CsBr clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hautala, L.; Jänkälä, K.; Löytynoja, T.; Mikkelä, M.-H.; Prisle, N.; Tchaplyguine, M.; Huttula, M.

    2017-01-01

    Formation and growth of CsBr clusters embedded in unsupported Ar clusters was studied using synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy. The development of the core-level electronic structure for cluster sizes between a few and a few hundred atoms contained information about the local coordination of the constituent particles. The experimental results indicate that a gradual structural phase transition from NaCl structure to CsCl structure for CsBr clusters takes place at around 160 atoms per cluster.

  15. Thermally Induced Phase Transitions of CsHSO 4: A Reexamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangavittal, N.; Row, T. N. Guru; Rao, C. N. R.

    1995-07-01

    A reexamination of the thermally induced phase transitions of CsHSO4 shows that the room-temperature phase IV transforms to II around 373 K. Phase III is, however, not obtained by heating IV to 340 K. Phases IV and III can coexist at room temperature under certain conditions; and phase III appears to transform to II at 340 K.

  16. A low phase noise microwave source for atomic spin squeezing experiments in {sup 87}Rb

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Zilong; Bohnet, Justin G.; Weiner, Joshua M.; Thompson, James K.

    2012-04-15

    We describe and characterize a simple, low cost, low phase noise microwave source that operates near 6.800 GHz for agile, coherent manipulation of ensembles of {sup 87}Rb. Low phase noise is achieved by directly multiplying a low phase noise 100 MHz crystal to 6.8 GHz using a nonlinear transmission line and filtering the output with custom band-pass filters. The fixed frequency signal is single sideband modulated with a direct digital synthesis frequency source to provide the desired phase, amplitude, and frequency control. Before modulation, the source has a single sideband phase noise near -140 dBc/Hz in the range of 10 kHz-1 MHz offset from the carrier frequency and -130 dBc/Hz after modulation. The resulting source is estimated to contribute added spin-noise variance 16 dB below the quantum projection noise level during quantum nondemolition measurements of the clock transition in an ensemble 7 x 10{sup 5} {sup 87}Rb atoms.

  17. A low phase noise microwave source for atomic spin squeezing experiments in 87Rb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zilong; Bohnet, Justin G.; Weiner, Joshua M.; Thompson, James K.

    2012-04-01

    We describe and characterize a simple, low cost, low phase noise microwave source that operates near 6.800 GHz for agile, coherent manipulation of ensembles of 87Rb. Low phase noise is achieved by directly multiplying a low phase noise 100 MHz crystal to 6.8 GHz using a nonlinear transmission line and filtering the output with custom band-pass filters. The fixed frequency signal is single sideband modulated with a direct digital synthesis frequency source to provide the desired phase, amplitude, and frequency control. Before modulation, the source has a single sideband phase noise near -140 dBc/Hz in the range of 10 kHz-1 MHz offset from the carrier frequency and -130 dBc/Hz after modulation. The resulting source is estimated to contribute added spin-noise variance 16 dB below the quantum projection noise level during quantum nondemolition measurements of the clock transition in an ensemble 7 × 105 87Rb atoms.

  18. A low phase noise microwave source for atomic spin squeezing experiments in 87Rb.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zilong; Bohnet, Justin G; Weiner, Joshua M; Thompson, James K

    2012-04-01

    We describe and characterize a simple, low cost, low phase noise microwave source that operates near 6.800 GHz for agile, coherent manipulation of ensembles of (87)Rb. Low phase noise is achieved by directly multiplying a low phase noise 100 MHz crystal to 6.8 GHz using a nonlinear transmission line and filtering the output with custom band-pass filters. The fixed frequency signal is single sideband modulated with a direct digital synthesis frequency source to provide the desired phase, amplitude, and frequency control. Before modulation, the source has a single sideband phase noise near -140 dBc/Hz in the range of 10 kHz-1 MHz offset from the carrier frequency and -130 dBc/Hz after modulation. The resulting source is estimated to contribute added spin-noise variance 16 dB below the quantum projection noise level during quantum nondemolition measurements of the clock transition in an ensemble 7 × 10(5) (87)Rb atoms.

  19. Structural, electronic and thermodynamic properties of R{sub 3}ZnH{sub 5} (R=K, Rb, Cs): A first-principle calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jia; Zhang, Shengli; Huang, Shiping; Wang, Peng; Tian, Huiping

    2013-02-15

    R{sub 3}ZnH{sub 5} (R=K, Rb, Cs) series have been investigated with respect to the crystal structure, electronic and thermodynamic properties using first-principle methods based on density functional theory with generalized gradient approximation. The optimized structures and atomic coordinates are in good agreement with the experimental data. The strong covalent interactions are obtained between Zn and H atoms in the 18-electron [ZnH{sub 4}]{sup 2-} complex, while an ionic interaction is found between [ZnH{sub 4}]{sup 2-} and R atom. The formation enthalpies show that the formations of R{sub 3}ZnH{sub 5} hydrides are all exothermic at 298 K. The vibration free energies of R{sub 3}ZnH{sub 5} show that the thermodynamic stabilities of R{sub 3}ZnH{sub 5} hydrides decrease with the increasing diameter of R atom. Two possible decomposition reactions of R{sub 3}ZnH{sub 5} series have been suggested in our work. One (reaction one) is that R{sub 3}ZnH{sub 5} hydrides decomposes to elements directly, and the other (reaction two) is that R{sub 3}ZnH{sub 5} hydrides decomposes to RH hydride. The results show that the first decomposition reaction is more favorable one. The spontaneous decomposition reaction of K{sub 3}ZnH{sub 5} hydrides occur upon 465 K via reaction one, and 564 K via reaction two, respectively. - Graphical abstract: Total charge density of K{sub 3}ZnH{sub 5}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electronic and thermodynamic properties of R{sub 3}ZnH{sub 5} (R=K, Rb, Cs) were calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The formations of R{sub 3}ZnH{sub 5} hydrides are all exothermic at 298 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermodynamic stabilities decrease with the increasing diameter of R atom. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two possible decomposition pathways of R{sub 3}ZnH{sub 5} were investigated.

  20. Nanoscale layering of antiferromagnetic and superconducting phases in Rb(2)Fe(4)Se(5) single crystals.

    PubMed

    Charnukha, A; Cvitkovic, A; Prokscha, T; Pröpper, D; Ocelic, N; Suter, A; Salman, Z; Morenzoni, E; Deisenhofer, J; Tsurkan, V; Loidl, A; Keimer, B; Boris, A V

    2012-07-06

    We studied phase separation in the single-crystalline antiferromagnetic superconductor Rb(2)Fe(4)Se(5) (RFS) using a combination of scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy and low-energy muon spin rotation (LE-μSR). We demonstrate that the antiferromagnetic and superconducting phases segregate into nanometer-thick layers perpendicular to the iron-selenide planes, while the characteristic in-plane size of the metallic domains reaches 10  μm. By means of LE-μSR we further show that in a 40-nm thick surface layer the ordered antiferromagnetic moment is drastically reduced, while the volume fraction of the paramagnetic phase is significantly enhanced over its bulk value. Self-organization into a quasiregular heterostructure indicates an intimate connection between the modulated superconducting and antiferromagnetic phases.

  1. Molecular dynamics evidence for alkali-metal rattling in the β-pyrochlores, AOs2O6 (A = K, Rb, Cs).

    PubMed

    Shoko, E; Peterson, V K; Kearley, G J

    2013-11-27

    We have used ab initio molecular dynamics simulations validated against inelastic neutron scattering data to study alkali-metal dynamics in the β-pyrochlore osmates AOs2O6 (A=K, Rb, Cs) at 300 K to gain insight into the microscopic nature of rattling dynamics in these materials. Our results provide new evidence at the microscopic level for rattling dynamics: (1) the elemental magnitude spectra calculated from the MD show a striking dominance by the alkali metals at low energies indicating weak coupling to the cage, (2) the atomic root-mean-square displacements for the alkali metals are significantly larger than for the other atoms, e.g., 25% and 150% larger than O and Os, respectively, in KOs2O6, and (3) motions of the alkali metals are weakly correlated to the dynamics in their immediate environment, e.g. K in KOs2O6 is 6 times less sensitive to its local environment than Os, indicating weak bonding of the K. There is broadening of the elemental spectra of the alkali metals from Cs to K corresponding to a similar broadening of the local potential around these atoms as determined from potential of mean-force calculations. This feature of the spectra is partly explained by the well-known increase in the relative cage volume with decreasing atomic size of the alkali metal. We find that for the smallest rattler in this series (K) the larger relative cage volume allows this atom freedom to explore a large space inside the cage leading to vibration at a broader range of frequencies, hence a broader spectrum. Thus, since K is considered the best rattler in this series, these findings suggest that a significant feature of a good rattler is the ability to vibrate at several different but closely spaced frequencies.

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Quaternary Sulfides with ThCr 2Si 2-Type Structure: KCo 2-xCu xS 2(0.5 ≤ x≤ 1.5) and ACoCuS 2( A= K, Rb, Cs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oledzka, M.; Lee, J.-G.; Ramanujachary, K. V.; Greenblatt, M.

    1996-12-01

    Synthesis, electrical, and magnetic properties of new quaternary alkali metal mixed-transition metal sulfides [ ACoCuS 2( A= K, Rb, Cs) and KCo 2-xCu xS 2(0.5 ≤ x≤ 1.5)] are reported. The synthesis was accomplished by sulfurization of a mixture of corresponding alkali metal carbonate and copper and cobalt oxides. All of the phases form in the tetragonal ThCr 2Si 2-type structure in space group I4/ mmm. The electrical resistivity measurements show that the new phases are semiconducting, with room temperature resistivities ρ RT˜ 10 -2Ω · cm; KCo 0.5Cu 1.5S 2is metallic with a metal-to-nonmetal transition at ˜120 K. Seebeck measurements indicate that the majority of charge carriers are holes. The temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility shows an anomalous transition to the ferromagnetic state in the ACoCuS 2phases. The electrical and magnetic properties of the new quaternary phases are compared with those of ternary ACo 2S 2( A= K, Rb, Cs).

  3. The decays of three top contributors to the reactor ve high-energy spectrum, 92Rb, 96gsY, and 142Cs, studied with total absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasco, Bertis; MTAS Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    We report total absorption spectroscopy measurements of 92Rb, 96gsY, and 142Cs β decays, which are the most important contributors to the high energy ve spectral shape in nuclear reactors. The measurements were performed with the NaI(Tl) based Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer (MTAS). MTAS was constructed specifically to measure improved β-decay feeding patterns from neutron-rich nuclei, because it is difficult to measure β-decay feeding intensities with high energy precision γ-ray measurements due to the low efficiency of high precision detectors. Besides the impact to the high energy ve spectral shape in nuclear reactors, there are several other important applications of improved measurements of β-decay feeding patterns by total absorption spectroscopy; improve understanding of elemental abundances in the universe, help with stockpile stewardship, contribute to understanding of underlying nuclear structure, and improve measurements of decay heat. We will demonstrate some of the techniques for analyzing MTAS γ-decay data. This research was also sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Physics, U. S. Department of Energy under Contracts DE-AC05-00OR22725, DE-FG02-96ER40983, DE-FG02-96ER40978, and by the Polish National Science Center under Contract UMO-2013/08/T/ST2/00624.

  4. Universal two-dimensional characteristics in perovskite-type oxyhydrides ATiO2H (A = Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Nobuya; Akashi, Ryosuke; Tsuneyuki, Shinji

    2017-07-01

    A series of unsynthesized perovskite-type oxyhydrides ATiO2H (A = Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs) are investigated by the density functional calculations. These oxyhydrides are stable in the sense of the formation energies for some possible synthesis reactions. They are crystallized into quite similar crystal structures with the long c-axis, and the corner-sharing TiO4H2 octahedra of the ideal perovskite-type structure are deformed into the 5-fold coordinated titanium atoms with the OH plane and the apical oxygen atoms. All of these oxyhydrides exhibit two-dimensional electronic states at the valence band maximum characterized by the in-plane oxygen 2p and the hydrogen 1s orbitals. While the c-axis becomes short as the ionic radius of the A atom becomes small and the two-dimensional characteristics are weakened, the electronic state at the valence band maximum is still characterized as the O-H in-plane state. Additionally, the Born effective charge tensors, spontaneous electric polarizations, dielectric tensors, and piezoelectric tensors are evaluated. It is found that the spontaneous electric polarizations of these oxyhydrides are much larger than that of tetragonal BaTiO3.

  5. Structural, electronic and thermodynamic properties of R3ZnH5 (R=K, Rb, Cs): A first-principle calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jia; Zhang, Shengli; Huang, Shiping; Wang, Peng; Tian, Huiping

    2013-02-01

    R3ZnH5 (R=K, Rb, Cs) series have been investigated with respect to the crystal structure, electronic and thermodynamic properties using first-principle methods based on density functional theory with generalized gradient approximation. The optimized structures and atomic coordinates are in good agreement with the experimental data. The strong covalent interactions are obtained between Zn and H atoms in the 18-electron [ZnH4]2- complex, while an ionic interaction is found between [ZnH4]2- and R atom. The formation enthalpies show that the formations of R3ZnH5 hydrides are all exothermic at 298 K. The vibration free energies of R3ZnH5 show that the thermodynamic stabilities of R3ZnH5 hydrides decrease with the increasing diameter of R atom. Two possible decomposition reactions of R3ZnH5 series have been suggested in our work. One (reaction one) is that R3ZnH5 hydrides decomposes to elements directly, and the other (reaction two) is that R3ZnH5 hydrides decomposes to RH hydride. The results show that the first decomposition reaction is more favorable one. The spontaneous decomposition reaction of K3ZnH5 hydrides occur upon 465 K via reaction one, and 564 K via reaction two, respectively.

  6. An accurate potential model for the a3Σu+ state of the alkali dimers Na2, K2, Rb2, and Cs2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Jascha A.; Toennies, J. Peter; Tang, K. T.

    2016-11-01

    A modified semi-empirical Tang-Toennies potential model is used to describe the a3Σu+ potentials of the alkali dimers. These potentials are currently of interest in connection with the laser manipulation of the ultracold alkali gases. The fully analytical model is based on three experimental parameters, the well depth De, well location Re, and the harmonic vibrational frequency ωe of which the latter is only slightly optimized within the range of the literature values. Comparison with the latest spectroscopic data shows good agreement for Na2, K2, Rb2, and Cs2, comparable to that found with published potential models with up to 55 parameters. The differences between the reduced potential of Li2 and the conformal reduced potentials of the heavier dimers are analyzed together with why the model describes Li2 less accurately. The new model potential provides a test of the principle of corresponding states and an excellent first order approximation for further optimization to improve the fits to the spectroscopic data and describe the scattering lengths and Feshbach resonances at ultra-low temperatures.

  7. Vibrational properties of polymer and quenched CsC{60} phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauvajol, J.-L.; Anglaret, E.; Chesnel, K.; Palpacuer, M.; Girard, A.; Moreac, A.; Ameline, J.-C.; Delugeard, Y.; Hennion, B.

    1998-06-01

    We report new results on the vibrational dynamics of polymer and quenched CSC{60} phases. Both the splitting and the structure of new activated lines of polymer CsC{60} are in agreement with the lowering of C{60} molecular symmetry from Ih to D{2h}. An inelastic neutron investigation on polymer and quenched CsC{60} is reported. It allows one to identify the vibrational signature of the low-temperature (T < 150 K) ordered monomer phase on quenched CsC{60}. Nous présentons un certain nombre de résultats originaux concernant la dynamique vibrationnelle de la phase polymère et des phases obtenues par trempe du CsC{60}. Les spectres infrarouge de la phase polymère sont interprétés dans le cadre d'un abaissement de la symétrie du monomère C{60} de Ih à D{2h}. Une étude par diffusion neutronique de la phase polymère et des phases obtenues par trempe a été réalisée. Elle a permis en particulier de déterminer la 'signature' vibrationnelle d'une phase ordonnée monomère à très basse température (T < 150 K) dans le CsC{60} trempé.

  8. The studies of density, apparent molar volume, and viscosity of bovine serum albumin, egg albumin, and lysozyme in aqueous and RbI, CsI, and DTAB aqueous solutions at 303.15 K.

    PubMed

    Singh, Man; Chand, Hema; Gupta, K C

    2005-06-01

    Density (rho), apparent molar volume (V(phi)), and viscosity (eta) of 0.0010 to 0.0018% (w/v) of bovine serum albumin (BSA), egg albumin, and lysozyme in 0.0002, 0.0004, and 0.0008 M aqueous RbI and CsI, and (dodecyl)(trimethyl)ammonium bromide (DTAB) solutions were obtained. The experimental data were regressed against composition, and constants are used to elucidate the conformational changes in protein molecules. With salt concentration, the density of proteins is found to decrease, and the order of the effect of additives on density is observed as CsI > RbI > DTAB. The trend of apparent molar volume of proteins is found as BSA > egg-albumin > lysozyme for three additives. In general, eta values of BSA remain higher for all compositions of RbI than that of egg-albumin for CsI and DTAB. These orders of the data indicate the strength of intermolecular forces between proteins and salts, and are helpful for understanding the denaturation of proteins.

  9. Barocaloric effect near the structural phase transition in the Rb2KTiOF5 oxyfluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorev, M. V.; Flerov, I. N.; Bogdanov, E. V.; Voronov, V. N.; Laptash, N. M.

    2010-02-01

    The barocaloric effect (BCE) in the oxyfluoride Rb2KTiOF5 has been studied in the vicinity of the structural phase transition at a temperature of 215 K in the pressure range 0—0.6 GPa. It has been established that the extensive and intensive barocaloric effects are ΔSBCE ˜ -46 J/kg K and Δ T AD ˜ 18 K, respectively, over a wide temperature range 215—280 K. The studies performed have shown that the external hydrostatic pressure is a very effective tool for changing the entropy and temperature of the crystals which undergo structural phase transitions accompanied by a large change in the entropy.

  10. An unusual structural phase transition in Rb2HfF6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, C. C.

    2015-03-01

    An unusual structural phase transition in the crystalline compound Rb2HfF6 near room temperature has been observed from perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy. Our measurements in this compound produce two different crystalline configurations characterized by ωQ=74.1(1) Mrad/s, η~0, δ~0 and ωQ=24.7(2) Mrad/s, η=0.53(1), and δ=4(2)%. From PAC measurements in different samples, it is found that crystal structure corresponding to ωQ=74 Mrad/s, η~0 transforms to the other quite arbitrarily with temperature and no definite temperature corresponding to this transition has been observed. This can possibly be attributed to displacive phase transition.

  11. Rich structural chemistry in new alkali metal yttrium tellurites: three-dimensional frameworks of NaYTe4O10, KY(TeO3)2, RbY(TeO3)2, and a novel variant of hexagonal tungsten bronze, CsYTe3O8.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngkwon; Lee, Dong Woo; Ok, Kang Min

    2015-01-05

    Pure polycrystalline phases and single crystals of four new quaternary alkali metal yttrium tellurites, NaYTe4O10, KY(TeO3)2, RbY(TeO3)2, and CsYTe3O8, have been prepared by solid-state and hydrothermal reactions using A2CO3 (A = Na, K, Rb, and Cs), Y(NO3)3·6H2O, Y2O3, and TeO2 as starting reagents. X-ray diffraction analyses suggest that NaYTe4O10 exhibits a highly symmetric three-dimensional (3D) framework consisting of YO8 square antiprisms and chains of TeO4 polyhedra. Within the framework, six- (6-) and eight-membered ring (8-MR) channels are observed. KY(TeO3)2 and RbY(TeO3)2 are isostructural to each other and reveal another 3D framework with structures containing YO6 octahedra and TeO3 trigonal pyramids with 4-MR and 12-MR channels. CsYTe3O8 shows a hexagonal tungsten bronze (HTB)-like topology composed of hexagonal tungsten oxide-like layers of TeO4 polyhedra and YO6 octahedral linkers with 3-MR and 6-MR channels. Thermal analyses, elemental analyses, and spectroscopic characterizations, such as UV-vis diffuse reflectance and infrared spectra, are presented, as are local dipole moment calculations for the constituent asymmetric polyhedra TeO3 and TeO4.

  12. Various disordered ground states and 1/3 magnetization-plateau-like behavior in the S =1/2 Ti3 + kagome lattice antiferromagnets Rb2NaTi3F12 , Cs2NaTi3F12 , and Cs2KTi3F12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Masato; Ueda, Hiroaki; Michioka, Chishiro; Matsuo, Akira; Kindo, Koichi; Yoshimura, Kazuyoshi

    2016-09-01

    We have investigated the crystal structure and magnetic properties of three kagome lattice antiferromagnets, Rb2Na Ti3F12 , Cs2Na Ti3F12 , and Cs2K Ti3F12 , using single crystals. These compounds represent a S =1 /2 kagome system consisting of magnetic Ti3 + ions, which is expected to have negligibly small Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction. The structural analyses revealed that each of the three compounds has a slightly distorted kagome lattice. The distortion of the kagome lattice becomes small as the ionic radii of constituent alkali metals increase. All three compounds have nearly the same Weiss temperature of -45 K, and the ground states are disordered and strongly depend on the distortion. The ground states of Rb2Na Ti3F12 , Cs2Na Ti3F12 , and Cs2K Ti3F12 are found to be a two-component state including approximately 1/3 nearly free spins, a gapless disordered state, and a gapped disordered state, respectively. Our experimental results suggest that the ground state of the ideal S =1 /2 Heisenberg kagome lattice antiferromagnet is gapped. In addition, the magnetization curves of Cs2Na Ti3F12 and Cs2K Ti3F12 show anomalies at approximately 1/3 of the full magnetic moment of Ti3 +, which are a notable observation of signs of the theoretically proposed 1/3 magnetization plateau in S =1 /2 kagome antiferromagnets.

  13. A raman study of hydrostatic pressure induced phase transitions in Rb2KInF6 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vtyurin, A. N.; Krylov, A. S.; Goryainov, S. V.; Krylova, S. N.; Oreshonkov, A. S.; Voronov, V. N.

    2012-05-01

    The Raman spectra of the elpasolite (Rb2KInF6) crystal have been studied in the pressure range from 0 to 5.3 GPa at a temperature of 295 K. A phase transition at a pressure of approximately 0.9 GPa has been found. An analysis of the variations in the spectral parameters has led to the conclusion that the phase transition to a distorted phase is accompanied by the doubling of the volume of the primitive cell of the initial cubic phase. Numerical calculations of the lattice dynamics in the Rb2KInF6 crystal have been performed. The numerical simulation has established that the phase transition at a pressure of 0.9 GPa is associated with condensation of the F lg mode. A probable high-pressure phase is the phase with space group C2/ m.

  14. Pin1 inhibits PP2A-mediated Rb dephosphorylation in regulation of cell cycle and S-phase DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Y; Ying, H; Liu, R; Li, L; Bergholz, J; Xiao, Z-X

    2015-01-01

    Inactivation of the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) has a key role in tumorigenesis. It is well established that Rb function is largely regulated by a dynamic balance of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Although much research has been done to understand the mechanisms and function of RB phosphorylation, the regulation of Rb dephosphorylation is still not well understood. In this study, we demonstrate that Pin1 has an important role in the regulation of Rb function in cell cycle progression and S-phase checkpoint upon DNA damage. We show that the Rb C-pocket directly binds to the Pin1 WW domain in vitro and in vivo, and that the phosphorylation of Rb C-pocket by G1/S Cyclin/Cyclin-dependent kinase complexes is critical for mediating this interaction. We further show that Rb-mediated cell cycle arrest and Rb-induced premature cellular senescence are effectively inhibited by Pin1 expression. In addition, DNA damage induces Rb dephosphorylation in a PP2A-dependent manner, and this process is inhibited by Pin1. Furthermore, the overexpression of Pin1 promotes Rb hyperphosphorylation upon S-phase DNA damage. Importantly, both the Pin1 WW domain and isomerase activity are required for its effect on S-phase checkpoint. Moreover, the overexpression of Pin1 is correlated with Rb hyperphosphorylation in breast cancer biopsies. These results indicate that Pin1 has a critical role in the modulation of Rb function by the regulation of Rb dephosphorylation, which may have an important pathological role in cancer development. PMID:25675300

  15. Pin1 inhibits PP2A-mediated Rb dephosphorylation in regulation of cell cycle and S-phase DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Tong, Y; Ying, H; Liu, R; Li, L; Bergholz, J; Xiao, Z-X

    2015-02-12

    Inactivation of the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) has a key role in tumorigenesis. It is well established that Rb function is largely regulated by a dynamic balance of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Although much research has been done to understand the mechanisms and function of RB phosphorylation, the regulation of Rb dephosphorylation is still not well understood. In this study, we demonstrate that Pin1 has an important role in the regulation of Rb function in cell cycle progression and S-phase checkpoint upon DNA damage. We show that the Rb C-pocket directly binds to the Pin1 WW domain in vitro and in vivo, and that the phosphorylation of Rb C-pocket by G1/S Cyclin/Cyclin-dependent kinase complexes is critical for mediating this interaction. We further show that Rb-mediated cell cycle arrest and Rb-induced premature cellular senescence are effectively inhibited by Pin1 expression. In addition, DNA damage induces Rb dephosphorylation in a PP2A-dependent manner, and this process is inhibited by Pin1. Furthermore, the overexpression of Pin1 promotes Rb hyperphosphorylation upon S-phase DNA damage. Importantly, both the Pin1 WW domain and isomerase activity are required for its effect on S-phase checkpoint. Moreover, the overexpression of Pin1 is correlated with Rb hyperphosphorylation in breast cancer biopsies. These results indicate that Pin1 has a critical role in the modulation of Rb function by the regulation of Rb dephosphorylation, which may have an important pathological role in cancer development.

  16. Two closely related structure types with unprecedented bioctahedral rare-earth-metal clusters centered by transition metals: A{sub 2}R{sub 10}I{sub 17}Z{sub 2} (A = Rb, Cs; R = La, Ce, Pr; Z = Co, Ni, Ru, Os) and La{sub 10}I{sub 15}Os{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Lulei, M.; Martin, J.D.; Hoistad, L.M.; Corbett, J.D.

    1997-01-22

    A family of compounds has been discovered in which pairs of octahedral rare-earth-metal clusters, each centered by a late transition metal Z, share a common edge. This R{sub 10}Z{sub 2} units, sheathed and interbridged by iodine atoms, occur in the quaternary phases Rb{sub 2}La{sub 10}I{sub 17}Co{sub 2}, Cs{sub 2}La{sub 10}I{sub 17}Z{sub 2} (Z = Co, Ni, Ru, Os), Cs{sub 2}Ce{sub 10}I{sub 17}Os{sub 2}, and Cs{sub 2}Pr{sub 10}I{sub 17}Z{sub 2}(Z = Co, Ru, Os) and in the ternary La{sub 10} I{sub 15}Os{sub 2}. All are obtained as black, air-sensitive crystals from reactions of RI{sub 3}, R, Z, and RbI or CsI as appropriate in welded Nb containers at 800-850{degree}C. The structure of Cs{sub 2} Ce{sub 10}I{sub 17}Os{sub 2} has been refined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods for comparison with the isotypic Cs{sub 2}La{sub 10}I{sub 17}Co{sub 2}, and the structure of a unique ternary La{sub 10}I{sub 15}Os{sub 2} has been defined. These new bioctahedral clusters may be regarded as the missing links between discrete clusters and infinite chains of condensed octahedral clusters among rare-earth-metal cluster halides that are stabilized by interstitial transition metals. The biclusters in both structures are extensively interconnected into three-dimensional arrays through bridging iodine atoms. The structural interconversion between Cs{sub 2}La{sub 10}I{sub 17}Os{sub 2} and La{sub 10}I{sub 15}Os{sub 2} + 2CsI may be easily visualized in terms of changes in iodide bridging modes and accommodation of cesium cations. 29 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Rb(16)Cd(25.39(3))sb(36): an electron-deficient zintl phase containing infinite dodecahedron chains.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wu-Zui; Wang, Peng; Wu, Li-Ming; Liu, Yi; Chen, Ling

    2010-07-05

    A novel ternary antimonide Rb(16)Cd(25.39(3))Sb(36) has been synthesized by a solid-state reaction of the appropriate amount of elements in a welded niobium tube at 530 degrees C. The compound crystallizes in orthorhombic space group Cmcm (No. 63) with a = 16.499(5) A, b = 12.391(4) A, c = 12.400(4) A, and Z = 1. The structure features a new 3D network constructed of chains of Rb(+)-centered dodecahedra running along [001]. The atomic distribution of the Cd(8)Sb(12) dodecahedron presents an energetically favored pattern without any Cd-Cd bonding. The formation of the phase and the occurrence of a very narrow phase width of Rb(16)Cd(24+x)Sb(36) [0.94(2) < or = x < or = 1.47(3)] have been studied in detail. The Fermi level of the title compound is expected to be located between those of the hypothetical models of "[Rb(16)Cd(24)Sb(36)](0)" (I, poor metallic) and "[Rb(16)Cd(24)Sb(36)] + 4e" (II, narrow-band-gap semiconductor), which agrees well with the experimental measurements. In the temperature range of 300-473 K, the as-synthesized Rb(16)Cd(25.39(3))Sb(36) exhibits p-type semiconductor behavior and shows temperature-independent thermal conductivities (around 0.49 W/m.K). The electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and figure of merit (ZT) of Rb(16)Cd(25.39(3))Sb(36) are temperature-dependent; these values are 57.4 S/cm, +81.4 microV/K, and 0.04, respectively, at 466 K.

  18. Spin Polarization of Rb and Cs n p P2 3/2 (n =5 , 6) Atoms by Circularly Polarized Photoexcitation of a Transient Diatomic Molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, A. E.; Hewitt, J. D.; Eden, J. G.

    2017-03-01

    We report the selective population of Rb or Cs n p P2 3/2 (n =5 , 6; F =4 , 5) hyperfine states by the photodissociation of a transient, alkali-rare gas diatomic molecule. Circularly polarized (σ-), amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) on the D2 line of Rb or Cs (780.0 and 852.1 nm, respectively) is generated when Rb-Xe or Cs-Xe ground state collision pairs are photoexcited by a σ+-polarized optical field having a wavelength within the D2 blue satellite continuum, associated with the B Σ2 1/2 +←X Σ2 1/2 + (free←free ) transition of the diatomic molecule. The degree of spin polarization of Cs (6 p P3/2 2 ), specifically, is found to be dependent on the interatomic distance (R ) at which the excited complex is born, a result attributed to the structure of the B Σ2 1/2 + state. For Cs-Xe atomic pairs, tuning the wavelength of the optical field from 843 to 848 nm varies the degree of circular polarization of the ASE from 63% to almost unity because of the perturbation, in the 5 ≤R ≤6 Å interval, of the Σ2 1/2 + potential by a d σ molecular orbital associated with a higher Λ 2 electronic state. Monitoring only the Cs 6 p P3/2 2 spin polarization reveals a previously unobserved interaction of CsXe (B Σ2 1/2 + ) with the lowest vibrational levels of a Λ 2 state derived from Cs (5 d )+Xe . By inserting a molecular intermediate into the alkali atom excitation mechanism, these experiments realize electronic spin polarization through populating no more than two n p P2 3/2 hyperfine states, and demonstrate a sensitive spectroscopic

  19. Structural basis for the phase transitions of Cs2HgCl4.

    PubMed

    Bagautdinov, B; Jobst, A; Ludecke, J; van Smaalen, S

    2001-06-01

    The a(0) x b(0) x 2c(0) twofold superstructure of dicaesium mercury tetrachloride, Cs(2)HgCl(4), at T = 120 K has been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation. Lattice parameters were found as a = 9.7105 (2), b = 7.4691 (1), c = 26.8992 (4) A, and beta = 90.368 (1) degrees with the supercell space group P2(1)/c. Refinements on 1828 observed unique reflections converged to R = 0.053 (wR = 0.057) using anisotropic temperature factors for all atoms. This phase is the stable phase of Cs(2)HgCl(4) below 163 K. A quantitative comparison is made of the distortions of the 2c(0) superstructure with the undistorted phase that is stable at room temperature, and with the 3c(0) and 5a(0) superstructures that are stable at temperatures between 163 K and room temperature. The principal difference between the 2c(0) superstructure and all other phases of Cs(2)HgCl(4) is that the Cs cations are displaced away from the centers of their coordination polyhedra in the 2c(0) superstructure. The structural basis for the driving force of the series of phase transitions in this compound is found in the variations of the environments of Cs atoms and in the variations of the distortions of the HgCl(4) tetrahedra.

  20. Phase stability, electronic structure and phonons in CsGeI3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ling-Yi; Lambrecht, Walter

    Because Ge is smaller than Sn and Pb, CsGeI3 is promising to overcome the stability problems of the perovskite forms of CsSnI3 and CsPbI3 halides toward the denser yellow phase in which octahedra are edge as well as cornersharing in one dimensional chains. This phase has higher gaps and is unsuitable for photovoltaics. CsGeI3 and other trihalide germanates are found to exist in the cubic perovskite phase at high temperature but in a rhombohedral phase in which the Ge is displaced toward three of the halogen neighbors in its surrounding octahedron, accompanied by a rhombohedral distortion of the lattice vectors. We will present density functional total energy calculations and band structures obtained within the quasi-particle self-consistent GW method for both the cubic and rhombohedral phase of CsGeI3. For the latter, we find a gap of 1.6 eV in excellent agreement with recent experiments on its absorption edge. We will also present optical dielectric function and effective mass results for this material and discuss the trends for different types of distortions in halides depending on the chemical composition. The phonons at the Brillouin zone center are calculated and compared to experimental Raman spectra. NSF and DOE.

  1. Proton conductivity and phase composition of mixed salts in the systems MH2PO4-CsHSO4 ( M = Cs, K)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagryantseva, I. N.; Ponomareva, V. G.

    2016-08-01

    Phase transformations, electrical transport and thermal properties of the systems K1‒ x Cs x (H2PO4)1- x (HSO4) x ( x = 0.01-0.95) and Cs(H2PO4)1- x (HSO4) x ( x = 0.01-0.30) have been studied in detail. It has been shown that the mixed compounds Cs(H2PO4)1- x (HSO4) x are characterized by an increase in the low-temperature electrical conductivity by one to five orders of magnitude depending on the composition, as well as by the disappearance of the superionic phase transition at x ≥ 0.15. The partial substitution of HSO 4 - ions for the anions in CsH2PO4 at x = 0.01-0.10 leads to the formation of Cs(H2PO4)1‒ x (HSO4) x solid solutions isostructural with the CsH2PO4 ( P21/ m) phase. For Cs(H2PO4)1- x (HSO4) x with x = 0.15-0.30 at room temperature, there is a stabilization of the high-temperature cubic phase isostructural with the CsH2PO4 (Pmoverline 3 m) phase existing in CsH2PO4 at temperatures above 230°C. The stability of the Pmoverline 3 m cubic phase at room temperature has been investigated using X-ray powder diffraction, 1H NMR spectroscopy, and impedance spectroscopy. In the K1- x Cs x (H2PO4)1- x (HSO4) system, there are two regions of compositions with x = 0.05-0.50 and 0.60-0.95, where the proton conductivity and thermal properties are determined respectively by the formation of the CsH5(PO4)2 phase, which is stoichiometrically different from the initial salts, and the potassium-containing phase, which is isostructural with the superionic salt Cs3(HSO4)2(H2PO4).

  2. Variable dimensionality and framework found in a series of quaternary zinc selenites, A2Zn3(SeO3)4·xH2O (A = Na, Rb, and Cs; 0≤x≤1) and Cs2Zn2(SeO3)3·2H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Minfeng; Jo, Hongil; Oh, Seung-Jin; Ok, Kang Min

    2017-01-01

    Five new alkali metal zinc selenites, A2Zn3(SeO3)4·xH2O (A = Na, Rb, and Cs; 0≤x≤1) and Cs2Zn2(SeO3)3·2H2O have been synthesized by heating a mixture of ZnO, SeO2 and A2CO3 (A = Na, Rb, and Cs), and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and spectroscopic analyses techniques. All of the reported materials revealed a rich structural chemistry with different frameworks and connection modes of Zn2+. While Rb2Zn3(SeO3)4 and Cs2Zn3(SeO3)4·H2O revealed three-dimensional frameworks consisting of isolated ZnO4 tetrahedra and SeO3 polyhedra, Na2Zn3(SeO3)4, Cs2Zn3(SeO3)4, and Cs2Zn2(SeO3)3·2H2O contained two-dimensional [Zn3(SeO3)4]2- layers. Specifically, whereas isolated ZnO4 tetrahedra and SeO3 polyhedra are arranged into two-dimensional [Zn3(SeO3)4]2- layers in two cesium compounds, circular [Zn3O10]14- chains and SeO3 linkers are formed in two-dimensional [Zn3(SeO3)4]2- layers in Na2Zn3(SeO3)4. Close structural examinations suggest that the size of alkali metal is significant in determining the framework geometry as well as connection modes of transition metal cations.

  3. Phase dependence of secondary electron emission at the Cs-Sb-Si (111) interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govind, Govind; Kumar, Praveen; Shivaprasad, S. M.

    2009-06-01

    The multi-alkali antimonides adsorption on Si (111) surface has drawn much attention of several surface science studies due to its importance in both, fundamental and technological aspects of night vision devices & photocathodes. We report the formation of alkali metal antimonide ternary interface on Si(111)- 7×7 surface and in-situ characterization by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The results show that Cs adsorption on clean Si(111) surface follows the layer-by-layer (Frank van der Merwe) growth mode at low flux rate, while Sb grows as islands (Volmer-Weber) on Cs/Si surface. The changes in the Si (2p) and Cs (3d) core level spectra show the formation of a ternary interface (Sb/Cs/Si) at room temperature, which is further confirmed by changes in the density of states in the valence band spectra. The temperature controlled desorption of ternary interface, by monitoring the chemical species remnant on the surface after annealing at different temperatures, reveal that the Sb islands desorb at <550° C while Cs monolayer desorbs at temperatures >750° C, which implies a stronger Cs-Si bond to Cs-Sb bond. The work function changes from 3.9 eV to 0.8 eV for Cs adsorption on Si, which further reduces to 0.65 eV after Sb adsorption on the Cs/Si interface. The changes in work function corresponds to the compositional and chemical nature of the interface and thus indicate that the secondary electron emission is an extremely phase dependent phenomena.

  4. High temperature redox reactions with uranium: Synthesis and characterization of Cs(UO2)Cl(SeO3), Rb2(UO2)3O2(SeO3)2, and RbNa5U2(SO4)7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babo, Jean-Marie; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2013-10-01

    Cs(UO2)Cl(SeO3) (1), Rb2(UO2)3O2(SeO3)3 (2), and RbNa5U2(SO4)7 (3) single crystals were synthesized using CsCl, RbCl, and a CuCl/NaCl eutectic mixture as fluxes, respectively. Their lattice parameters and space groups are as follows: P21/n (a=6.548(1) Å, b=11.052(2) Å, c=10.666(2) Å and β=93.897(3)°), P1bar (a=7.051(2) Å, b=7.198(2) Å, c=8.314(2) Å, α=107.897(3)°, β=102.687(3)° and γ=100.564(3)°) and C2/c (a=17.862(4) Å, b=6.931(1) Å, c=20.133(4) Å and β=109.737(6)°. The small anionic building units found in these compounds are SeO32- and SO42- tetrahedra, oxide, and chloride. The crystal structure of the first compound is composed of [(UO2)2Cl2(SeO3)2]2- chains separated by Cs+ cations. The structure of (2) is constructed from [(UO2)3O11]16- chains further connected through selenite units into layers stacked perpendicularly to the [0 1 0] direction, with Rb+ cations intercalating between them. The structure of compound (3) is made of uranyl sulfate layers formed by edge and vertex connections between dimeric [U2O16] and [SO4] polyhedra. These layers contain unusual sulfate-metal connectivity as well as large voids.

  5. Syntheses and crystal structures of two novel alkaline uranyl chromates A{sub 2}(UO{sub 2})(CrO{sub 4}){sub 2} (A=Rb, Cs) with bidentate coordination mode of uranyl ions by chromate anions

    SciTech Connect

    Siidra, Oleg I.

    2012-03-15

    Single crystals of Cs{sub 2}(UO{sub 2})(CrO{sub 4}){sub 2} and Rb{sub 2}(UO{sub 2})(CrO{sub 4}){sub 2} were prepared by solid state reactions. The structures are based upon the [(UO{sub 2})(CrO{sub 4}){sub 2}]{sup 2-} chains. Within the chains, UrO{sub 5} pentagonal bipyramids (Ur=uranyl) form Ur{sub 2}O{sub 8} dimers, which are linked via CrO{sub 4} tetrahedra into one-dimensional chains. The CrO{sub 4} tetrahedra coordinate uranyl ions in both mono- and bidentate fashion, which is unusual for uranyl chromates. The bidentate coordination has a strong influence upon geometrical parameters of both U and Cr coordination polyhedra. The conformation of the chains in 1 and 2 is different due to the different size of the Cs{sup +} and Rb{sup +} cations. - Graphical abstract: Uranyl chromate chain with monodentate and bidentate coordination mode of uranyl cations by CrO{sub 4} tetrahedra in Cs{sub 2}(UO{sub 2})(CrO{sub 4}){sub 2}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single crystals of novel uranyl chromates were prepared by solid state reactions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The CrO{sub 4} tetrahedra coordinate uranyl ions in both mono- and bidentate fashion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The bidentate coordination has a strong influence upon geometrical parameters.

  6. Syntheses and characterization of one-dimensional alkali metal antimony(III) thiostannates(IV), A{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Sn{sub 3}S{sub 10} (A=K, Rb, Cs)

    SciTech Connect

    Yohannan, Jinu P.; Vidyasagar, Kanamaluru

    2015-01-15

    Three new isostructural quaternary antimony(III) thiostannates(IV), A{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Sn{sub 3}S{sub 10} (A=K, Rb, Cs) have been synthesized by using alkali metal thiosulfate flux and structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction. Their structures contain A{sup +} ions around the [Sb{sub 2}Sn{sub 3}S{sub 10}]{sup 2−} chains, which are built from SbS{sub 3} pyramids, SnS{sub 6} octahedra and SnS{sub 4} tetrahedra. Raman and Mössbauer spectroscopic measurements corroborate the oxidation states and coordination environments of Sb(III) and Sn(IV). All three compounds are wide band gap semiconductors. Potassium compound undergoes partial exchange with strontium, cadmium and lead ions. - Graphical abstract: Syntheses, crystal structure, spectroscopic and partial ion-exchange studies of new one-dimensional alkali metal antimony(III) thiostannates(IV), A{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Sn{sub 3}S{sub 10} (A=K, Rb, Cs) are described. - Highlights: • Syntheses of new alkali metal antimony(III) thiostannates(IV), A{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Sn{sub 3}S{sub 10} (A=K, Rb, Cs). • Wide band gap semiconductors with one-dimensional structure. • Topotactic partial exchange of K{sup +} ions of K{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Sn{sub 3}S{sub 10} with Sr{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} ions.

  7. Spectroscopic data, spin-orbit functions, and revised analysis of strong perturbative interactions for the A {sup 1{Sigma}+} and b {sup 3{Pi}} states of RbCs

    SciTech Connect

    Docenko, O.; Tamanis, M.; Ferber, R.; Bergeman, T.; Kotochigova, S.; Stolyarov, A. V.

    2010-04-15

    The current interest in producing ultracold RbCs molecules by optical excitation from weakly bound Feshbach resonances and stimulated decay to the absolute ground state requires detailed analyses of the intermediate excited states. In this study, we present two sets of experimental Fourier-transform spectroscopic data of the A {sup 1{Sigma}+}-b {sup 3{Pi}} complex. The A-b mixed vibrational levels are the most likely candidates to be intermediates in the molecular formation. The more recent and more accurate data set is from mixed A-b{yields}X transitions, while the second is derived in large part from (4) {sup 1{Sigma}+{yields}}A-b emission and extends to higher A-b energy levels. From a detailed analysis of the spectroscopic data we obtain term values which allow one to construct potentials and spin-orbit functions. Vibrational numbering of the A state has been raised by one quantum over a previous report [T. Bergeman et al., Phys. Rev. A 67, 050501 (2003)] while the numbering of the b state is established with a considerable degree of certainty with help of data on the {sup 85}Rb{sup 133}Cs and {sup 87}Rb{sup 133}Cs isotopomers. In addition, we have performed calculations of spin-orbit functions by two distinct methods. The fitted spin-orbit coupling matrix element between the two {Omega}{sup p}=0{sup +} states, A {sup 1{Sigma}+} and b {sup 3{Pi}}{sub 0+}, happens to agree rather well with the results from both of these methods, while for the diagonal b {sup 3{Pi}} state spin-orbit function, the fitted function agrees fairly well with that obtained by the other method.

  8. Experimental and theoretical studies of the reaction of Rh+ with CS2 in the gas phase: thermochemistry of RhS+ and RhCS+.

    PubMed

    Armentrout, P B; Kretzschmar, Ilona

    2009-10-15

    The gas-phase reactivity of the atomic transition-metal cation rhodium, Rh(+), with CS(2) is investigated using guided-ion-beam mass spectrometry (GIBMS). Endothermic reactions forming RhS(+) and RhCS(+) are observed. Analysis of the kinetic energy dependence of the cross sections for formation of these two products yields the 0 K bond energies of D(0)(Rh(+)-S) = 2.61 +/- 0.12 eV and D(0)(Rh(+)-CS) = 2.66 +/- 0.19 eV. These compare favorably with quantum chemical calculations at the CCSD(T)/Def2TZVPP//B3LYP/Def2TZVPP and CCSD(T)/Def2TZVPP levels of theory, where the former is also used to explore the complete potential energy surface of the reaction. It is found that the reaction initially involves insertion of the rhodium cation into one of the CS bonds of CS(2), followed by metal ligand cleavages to form the two product channels. The formation of ground state RhS(+) products is spin-forbidden, whereas RhCS(+) formation is spin-allowed. Crossing points between the triplet and quintet surfaces are located in the region of the SRh(+)(CS) intermediate, which suggests that coupling between the surfaces is reasonably efficient, consistent with experiment.

  9. Pressure-induced phase transitions of β-type pyrochlore CsTaWO6

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, F. X.; Tracy, C. L.; Shamblin, J.; ...

    2016-09-30

    The β-type pyrochlore CsTaWO6 was studied by synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman scattering methods up to pressures of 43 GPa using a diamond anvil cell (DAC). With increasing pressure, the cubic pyrochlore in space group of Fd-3¯m with combining macron]m transforms to an orthorhombic structure (space group: Pnma) at 5.9 GPa and then to a monoclinic structure (space group: P21/c) at ~18 GPa. The structural evolution in CsTaWO6 is a continuous process and experimental results suggest that the initial cubic phase has a tetragonal distortion at ambient conditions. Both XRD and Raman measurements indicate that the pressure-induced phase transitionsmore » in CsTaWO6 are reversible. Lastly, these results may provide a structural explanation of previous experimental resistivity measurement results for the isostructural superconductor K(Cs)Os2O6 at high pressure conditions.« less

  10. Decays of the Three Top Contributors to the Reactor ν¯e High-Energy Spectrum, 92Rb, Ygs96 , and 142Cs, Studied with Total Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasco, B. C.; Wolińska-Cichocka, M.; Fijałkowska, A.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Karny, M.; Grzywacz, R. K.; Goetz, K. C.; Gross, C. J.; Stracener, D. W.; Zganjar, E. F.; Batchelder, J. C.; Blackmon, J. C.; Brewer, N. T.; Go, S.; Heffron, B.; King, T.; Matta, J. T.; Miernik, K.; Nesaraja, C. D.; Paulauskas, S. V.; Rajabali, M. M.; Wang, E. H.; Winger, J. A.; Xiao, Y.; Zachary, C. J.

    2016-08-01

    We report total absorption spectroscopy measurements of 92Rb, Ygs96 , and 142Cs β decays, which are the most important contributors to the high energy ν¯e spectral shape in nuclear reactors. These three β decays contribute 43% of the ν¯e flux near 5.5 MeV emitted by nuclear reactors. This ν¯e energy is particularly interesting due to spectral features recently observed in several experiments including the Daya Bay, Double Chooz, and RENO Collaborations. Measurements were conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory by means of proton-induced fission of 238U with on-line mass separation of fission fragments and the Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer. We observe a β -decay pattern that is similar to recent measurements of 92Rb, with a ground-state to ground-state β feeding of 91(3)%. We verify the Ygs96 ground-state to ground-state β feeding of 95.5(20)%. Our measurements substantially modify the β -decay feedings of 142Cs, reducing the β feeding to 142Ba states below 2 MeV by 32% when compared with the latest evaluations. Our results increase the discrepancy between the observed and the expected reactor ν¯e flux between 5 and 7 MeV, the maximum excess increases from ˜10 % to ˜12 %.

  11. The determination of potential energy curve and dipole moment of the (5)0{sup +} electronic state of {sup 85}Rb{sup 133}Cs molecule by high resolution photoassociation spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Jinpeng; Zhao, Yanting Ji, Zhonghua; Li, Zhonghao; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang; Kim, Jin-Tae

    2015-12-14

    We present the formation of ultracold {sup 85}Rb{sup 133}Cs molecules in the (5)0{sup +} electronic state by photoassociation and their detection via resonance-enhanced two-photon ionization. Up to v = 47 vibrational levels including the lowest v = 0 vibrational and lowest J = 0 levels are identified with rotationally resolved high resolution photoassociation spectra. Precise Dunham coefficients are determined for the (5)0{sup +} state with high accuracy, then the Rydberg-Klein-Rees potential energy curve is derived. The electric dipole moments with respect to the vibrational numbers of the (5)0{sup +} electronic state of {sup 85}Rb{sup 133}Cs molecule are also measured in the range between 1.9 and 4.8 D. These comprehensive studies on previously unobserved rovibrational levels of the (5)0{sup +} state are helpful to understand the molecular structure and discover suitable transition pathways for transferring ultracold atoms to deeply bound rovibrational levels of the electronic ground state.

  12. Decays of the Three Top Contributors to the Reactor ν[over ¯]_{e} High-Energy Spectrum, ^{92}Rb, ^{96gs}Y, and ^{142}Cs, Studied with Total Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rasco, B C; Wolińska-Cichocka, M; Fijałkowska, A; Rykaczewski, K P; Karny, M; Grzywacz, R K; Goetz, K C; Gross, C J; Stracener, D W; Zganjar, E F; Batchelder, J C; Blackmon, J C; Brewer, N T; Go, S; Heffron, B; King, T; Matta, J T; Miernik, K; Nesaraja, C D; Paulauskas, S V; Rajabali, M M; Wang, E H; Winger, J A; Xiao, Y; Zachary, C J

    2016-08-26

    We report total absorption spectroscopy measurements of ^{92}Rb, ^{96gs}Y, and ^{142}Cs β decays, which are the most important contributors to the high energy ν[over ¯]_{e} spectral shape in nuclear reactors. These three β decays contribute 43% of the ν[over ¯]_{e} flux near 5.5 MeV emitted by nuclear reactors. This ν[over ¯]_{e} energy is particularly interesting due to spectral features recently observed in several experiments including the Daya Bay, Double Chooz, and RENO Collaborations. Measurements were conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory by means of proton-induced fission of ^{238}U with on-line mass separation of fission fragments and the Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer. We observe a β-decay pattern that is similar to recent measurements of ^{92}Rb, with a ground-state to ground-state β feeding of 91(3)%. We verify the ^{96gs}Y ground-state to ground-state β feeding of 95.5(20)%. Our measurements substantially modify the β-decay feedings of ^{142}Cs, reducing the β feeding to ^{142}Ba states below 2 MeV by 32% when compared with the latest evaluations. Our results increase the discrepancy between the observed and the expected reactor ν[over ¯]_{e} flux between 5 and 7 MeV, the maximum excess increases from ∼10% to ∼12%.

  13. Low temperature phase transition and crystal structure of CsMgPO{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Orlova, Maria; Khainakov, Sergey; Michailov, Dmitriy; Perfler, Lukas; Langes, Christoph; Kahlenberg, Volker; Orlova, Albina

    2015-01-15

    CsMgPO{sub 4} doped with radioisotopes is a promising compound for usage as a radioactive medical source. However, a low temperature phase transition at temperatures close to ambient conditions (∼−40 °C) was observed. Information about such kind of structural changes is important in order to understand whether it can cause any problem for medical use of this compound. The phase transition has been investigated in detail using synchrotron powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and DFT calculations. The structure undergoes a transformation from an orthorhombic modification, space group Pnma (RT phase) to a monoclinic polymorph, space group P2{sub 1}/n (LT phase). New LT modification adopts similar to RT but slightly distorted unit cell: a=9.58199(2) Å, b=8.95501(1) Å, c=5.50344(2) Å, β=90.68583(1)°, V=472.198(3) Å{sup 3}. CsMgPO{sub 4} belongs to the group of framework compounds and is made up of strictly alternating MgO{sub 4}- and PO{sub 4}-tetrahedra sharing vertices. The cesium counter cations are located in the resulting channel-like cavities. Upon the transformation a combined tilting of the tetrahedra is observed. A comparison with other phase transitions in ABW-type framework compounds is given. - Graphical abstract: Structural behavior of β-tridymite-type phosphate CsMgPO{sub 4}, considered as potential chemical form for radioactive Cs-source has been studied at near ambient temperatures. A phase transition at (∼−40 °C) has been found and investigated. It has been established that the known orthorhombic RT modification, space group Pnma, adopts a monoclinic cell with space group P2{sub 1}/n at low temperatures. In this paper, we present results of structural analysis of changes accompanying this phase transition and discuss its possible impact on the application properties. - Highlights: • β-Tridymite type phosphate CsMgPO{sub 4} undergoes so called translationengleiche phase transition of index 2 at −40 °C. • The structure

  14. High-Pressure Phase Transition in Cs 2KMnF 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.; Söderberg, K.; Norrestam, R.

    2000-09-01

    The stability of the cubic high-temperature (HT) form of Cs2KMnF6, with an elpasolite structure, is studied at elevated pressures. The present study shows that the HT form of Cs2KMnF6 undergoes a pressure-induced phase transition at 40 kbar to a more ordered high-pressure (HP) phase of lower symmetry. The space group symmetry of the HP phase, I4/mmm, is the same as that observed for the low-temperature (LT) phase. High-pressure studies performed on the LT phase indicated no transitions up to 50 kbar and gave compressibility features similar to those obtained for the HP phase. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction data for the HP phase were collected at 44 kbar. Refining nine structural parameters against 69 independent significant reflections gave a linear R value of 0.072 (wR=0.086). The values of the positional parameters are in agreement with those observed for the LT phase under ambient conditions. The transition characteristics for the HT form depend on the crystal quality and/or the pressure transmitting media used. With liquid argon, loaded into the pressure cell at low temperature and ambient pressure, the transition pressure became 30 kbar. With methanol:ethanol:water, loaded under ambient conditions, the transition was observed at 40 kbar.

  15. A Phase Ia Study to Assess the Safety and Immunogenicity of New Malaria Vaccine Candidates ChAd63 CS Administered Alone and with MVA CS

    PubMed Central

    de Barra, Eoghan; Hodgson, Susanne H.; Ewer, Katie J.; Bliss, Carly M.; Hennigan, Kerrie; Collins, Ann; Berrie, Eleanor; Lawrie, Alison M.; Gilbert, Sarah C.; Nicosia, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Background Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) malaria remains a significant cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world. Development of an effective vaccine would be a key intervention to reduce the considerable social and economic impact of malaria. Methodology We conducted a Phase Ia, non-randomized, clinical trial in 24 healthy, malaria-naïve adults of the chimpanzee adenovirus 63 (ChAd63) and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) replication-deficient viral vectored vaccines encoding the circumsporozoite protein (CS) of P. falciparum. Results ChAd63-MVA CS administered in a heterologous prime-boost regime was shown to be safe and immunogenic, inducing high-level T cell responses to CS. With a priming ChAd63 CS dose of 5×109 vp responses peaked at a mean of 1947 SFC/million PBMC (median 1524) measured by ELIspot 7 days after the MVA boost and showed a mixed CD4+/CD8+ phenotype. With a higher priming dose of ChAd63 CS dose 5×1010 vp T cell responses did not increase (mean 1659 SFC/million PBMC, median 1049). Serum IgG responses to CS were modest and peaked at day 14 post ChAd63 CS (median antibody concentration for all groups at day 14 of 1.3 µg/ml (range 0–11.9), but persisted throughout late follow-up (day 140 median antibody concentration groups 1B & 2B 0.9 µg/ml (range 0–4.7). Conclusions ChAd63-MVA is a safe and highly immunogenic delivery platform for the CS antigen in humans which warrants efficacy testing. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01450280 PMID:25522180

  16. Quantum Dot-Induced Phase Stabilization of ..alpha..-CsPbI3 Perovskite for High-Efficiency Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Swarnkar, Abhishek; Marshall, Ashley R.; Sanehira, Erin M.; Chernomordik, Boris D.; Moore, David T.; Christians, Jeffrey A.; Chakrabarti, Tamoghna; Luther, Joseph M.

    2016-10-07

    Here, we show nanoscale phase stabilization of CsPbI3 quantum dots (QDs) to low temperatures that can be used as the active component of efficient optoelectronic devices. CsPbI3 is an all-inorganic analog to the hybrid organic cation halide perovskites, but the cubic phase of bulk CsPbI3 (..alpha..-CsPbI3) -- the variant with desirable band gap -- is only stable at high temperatures. We also describe the formation of ..alpha..-CsPbI3 QD films that are phase-stable for months in ambient air. The films exhibit long-range electronic transport and were used to fabricate colloidal perovskite QD photovoltaic cells with an open-circuit voltage of 1.23 volts and efficiency of 10.77%. Furthermore, these devices function as light-emitting diodes with low turn-on voltage and tunable emission.

  17. Quantum Dot-Induced Phase Stabilization of ..alpha..-CsPbI3 Perovskite for High-Efficiency Photovoltaics

    DOE PAGES

    Swarnkar, Abhishek; Marshall, Ashley R.; Sanehira, Erin M.; ...

    2016-10-07

    Here, we show nanoscale phase stabilization of CsPbI3 quantum dots (QDs) to low temperatures that can be used as the active component of efficient optoelectronic devices. CsPbI3 is an all-inorganic analog to the hybrid organic cation halide perovskites, but the cubic phase of bulk CsPbI3 (..alpha..-CsPbI3) -- the variant with desirable band gap -- is only stable at high temperatures. We also describe the formation of ..alpha..-CsPbI3 QD films that are phase-stable for months in ambient air. The films exhibit long-range electronic transport and were used to fabricate colloidal perovskite QD photovoltaic cells with an open-circuit voltage of 1.23 voltsmore » and efficiency of 10.77%. Furthermore, these devices function as light-emitting diodes with low turn-on voltage and tunable emission.« less

  18. Quantum dot-induced phase stabilization of α-CsPbI3 perovskite for high-efficiency photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Swarnkar, Abhishek; Marshall, Ashley R; Sanehira, Erin M; Chernomordik, Boris D; Moore, David T; Christians, Jeffrey A; Chakrabarti, Tamoghna; Luther, Joseph M

    2016-10-07

    We show nanoscale phase stabilization of CsPbI3 quantum dots (QDs) to low temperatures that can be used as the active component of efficient optoelectronic devices. CsPbI3 is an all-inorganic analog to the hybrid organic cation halide perovskites, but the cubic phase of bulk CsPbI3 (α-CsPbI3)-the variant with desirable band gap-is only stable at high temperatures. We describe the formation of α-CsPbI3 QD films that are phase-stable for months in ambient air. The films exhibit long-range electronic transport and were used to fabricate colloidal perovskite QD photovoltaic cells with an open-circuit voltage of 1.23 volts and efficiency of 10.77%. These devices also function as light-emitting diodes with low turn-on voltage and tunable emission.

  19. Superconductivity Emerging from an Electronic Phase Separation in the Charge Ordered Phase of RbFe_{2}As_{2}.

    PubMed

    Civardi, E; Moroni, M; Babij, M; Bukowski, Z; Carretta, P

    2016-11-18

    ^{75}As, ^{87}Rb, and ^{85}Rb nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) and ^{87}Rb nuclear magnetic resonance measurements in a RbFe_{2}As_{2} iron-based superconductor are presented. We observe a marked broadening of the ^{75}As NQR spectrum below T_{0}≃140  K which is associated with the onset of a charge order in the FeAs planes. Below T_{0} we observe a power-law decrease in the ^{75}As nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate down to T^{*}≃20  K. Below T^{*} the nuclei start to probe different dynamics owing to the different local electronic configurations induced by the charge order. A fraction of the nuclei probes spin dynamics associated with electrons approaching a localization while another fraction probes activated dynamics possibly associated with a pseudogap. These different trends are discussed in light of an orbital selective behavior expected for the electronic correlations.

  20. Superconductivity Emerging from an Electronic Phase Separation in the Charge Ordered Phase of RbFe2As2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civardi, E.; Moroni, M.; Babij, M.; Bukowski, Z.; Carretta, P.

    2016-11-01

    75As, 87Rb, and 85Rb nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) and 87Rb nuclear magnetic resonance measurements in a RbFe2As2 iron-based superconductor are presented. We observe a marked broadening of the 75As NQR spectrum below T0≃140 K which is associated with the onset of a charge order in the FeAs planes. Below T0 we observe a power-law decrease in the 75As nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate down to T*≃20 K . Below T* the nuclei start to probe different dynamics owing to the different local electronic configurations induced by the charge order. A fraction of the nuclei probes spin dynamics associated with electrons approaching a localization while another fraction probes activated dynamics possibly associated with a pseudogap. These different trends are discussed in light of an orbital selective behavior expected for the electronic correlations.

  1. High temperature redox reactions with uranium: Synthesis and characterization of Cs(UO{sub 2})Cl(SeO{sub 3}), Rb{sub 2}(UO{sub 2}){sub 3}O{sub 2}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 2}, and RbNa{sub 5}U{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 7}

    SciTech Connect

    Babo, Jean-Marie; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2013-10-15

    Cs(UO{sub 2})Cl(SeO{sub 3}) (1), Rb{sub 2}(UO{sub 2}){sub 3}O{sub 2}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 3} (2), and RbNa{sub 5}U{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 7} (3) single crystals were synthesized using CsCl, RbCl, and a CuCl/NaCl eutectic mixture as fluxes, respectively. Their lattice parameters and space groups are as follows: P2{sub 1}/n (a=6.548(1) Å, b=11.052(2) Å, c=10.666(2) Å and β=93.897(3)°), P1{sup ¯} (a=7.051(2) Å, b=7.198(2) Å, c=8.314(2) Å, α=107.897(3)°, β=102.687(3)° and γ=100.564(3)°) and C2/c (a=17.862(4) Å, b=6.931(1) Å, c=20.133(4) Å and β=109.737(6)°. The small anionic building units found in these compounds are SeO{sub 3}{sup 2−} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} tetrahedra, oxide, and chloride. The crystal structure of the first compound is composed of [(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}Cl{sub 2}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sup 2−} chains separated by Cs{sup +} cations. The structure of (2) is constructed from [(UO{sub 2}){sub 3}O{sub 11}]{sup 16−} chains further connected through selenite units into layers stacked perpendicularly to the [0 1 0] direction, with Rb{sup +} cations intercalating between them. The structure of compound (3) is made of uranyl sulfate layers formed by edge and vertex connections between dimeric [U{sub 2}O{sub 16}] and [SO{sub 4}] polyhedra. These layers contain unusual sulfate–metal connectivity as well as large voids. - Graphical abstract: A new family of uranyl selenites and sulfates has been prepared by high-temperature redox reactions. This compounds display new bonding motifs. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Low-dimensional Uranyl Oxoanion compounds. • Conversion of U(IV) to U(VI) at high temperatures. • Dimensional reduction by both halides and stereochemically active lone-pairs.

  2. High-pressure phase transition and equation of state of CsI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, H. K.; Hemley, R. J.; Chen, L. C.; Shu, J. F.; Wu, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Stuructural properties of CsI at high pressure have been investigated by the use of synchrotron X-ray-diffraction techniques with the diamond-anvil cell at 300 K. The results indicate that the material undergoes a continuous distortion from B2 to an hcp-like phase, which is stable to at least 302 GPa. The intermediate orthorhombic phase is geometrically different from previous assignments and about 10 percent denser. With the new structure, the p-V results of static pressure experiments, shock-wave studies, and theoretical calculations are now in good agreement.

  3. Structures of the metallic and superconducting high pressure phases of solid CS2

    PubMed Central

    Zarifi, Niloofar; Liu, Hanyu; Tse, John S.

    2015-01-01

    First principles structural prediction and molecular dynamics (MD) calculations have been performed to examine the structures responsible for the recently reported metallic and superconducting phases of highly compressed CS2. The low pressure experimental molecular crystal structure was found to be metastable and transformed into a disordered structure above 10 GPa. At 60 GPa, the predicted low energy structures show molecular CS2 is separated into C and S dominant regions. A crystalline structure with the P21/m symmetry was found to be most stable from 60 to 120 GPa. The structure is formed from alternate layers of hexagonal C rings and S 2D-square-nets linked by C-S bonds. A non-crystalline structure with similar features structure is also predicted by MD calculations. Electron-phonon coupling calculations show this crystalline phase is superconductive. Contrary to the suggestions made from the experiments, no magnetism was found in all predicted low enthalpy high pressure structures. Moreover, the theoretical results do not support the proposal on the existence of hypervalent 6-coordinated carbon at 120 GPa. PMID:25982346

  4. Structures of the metallic and superconducting high pressure phases of solid CS2.

    PubMed

    Zarifi, Niloofar; Liu, Hanyu; Tse, John S

    2015-05-18

    First principles structural prediction and molecular dynamics (MD) calculations have been performed to examine the structures responsible for the recently reported metallic and superconducting phases of highly compressed CS2. The low pressure experimental molecular crystal structure was found to be metastable and transformed into a disordered structure above 10 GPa. At 60 GPa, the predicted low energy structures show molecular CS2 is separated into C and S dominant regions. A crystalline structure with the P21/m symmetry was found to be most stable from 60 to 120 GPa. The structure is formed from alternate layers of hexagonal C rings and S 2D-square-nets linked by C-S bonds. A non-crystalline structure with similar features structure is also predicted by MD calculations. Electron-phonon coupling calculations show this crystalline phase is superconductive. Contrary to the suggestions made from the experiments, no magnetism was found in all predicted low enthalpy high pressure structures. Moreover, the theoretical results do not support the proposal on the existence of hypervalent 6-coordinated carbon at 120 GPa.

  5. Extended Fourier-transform spectroscopy studies and deperturbation analysis of the spin-orbit coupled A{sup 1}Σ{sup +} and b{sup 3}Π states in RbCs

    SciTech Connect

    Kruzins, A.; Alps, K.; Docenko, O.; Klincare, I.; Tamanis, M.; Ferber, R.; Pazyuk, E. A.; Stolyarov, A. V.

    2014-11-14

    The article presents a study of the strongly spin-orbit coupled singlet A{sup 1}Σ{sup +} and triplet b{sup 3}Π states of the RbCs molecule, which provide an efficient optical path to transfer ultracold molecules to their rovibrational ground state. Fourier-transform A{sup 1}Σ{sup +} − b{sup 3}Π → X{sup 1}Σ{sup +} and (4){sup 1}Σ{sup +} → A{sup 1}Σ{sup +} − b{sup 3}Π laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectra were recorded for the natural mixture of the {sup 85}Rb{sup 133}Cs and {sup 87}Rb{sup 133}Cs isotopologues produced in a heat pipe oven. Overall 8730 rovibronic term values of A{sup 1}Σ{sup +} and b{sup 3}Π states were determined with an uncertainty of 0.01 cm{sup −1} in the energy range [9012, 14087] cm{sup −1}, covering rotational quantum numbers J ∈ [6, 324]. An energy-based deperturbation analysis performed in the framework of the four A{sup 1}Σ{sup +} − b{sup 3}Π{sub Ω=0,1,2} coupled-channels approach reproduces 97% of the experimental term values of both isotopologues with a standard deviation of 0.0036 cm{sup −1}. The reliability of the deperturbed mass-invariant potentials and spin-orbit coupling functions of the interacting A{sup 1}Σ{sup +} and b{sup 3}Π states is additionally proved by a good reproduction of the A − b → X and (4){sup 1}Σ{sup +} → A − b relative intensity distributions. The achieved accuracy of the A − b complex description allowed us to use the latter to assign the observed (5){sup 1}Σ{sup +} → A − b and (3){sup 1}Π → A − b transitions. As is demonstrated, LIF to the A − b complex becomes as informative as to the ground X{sup 1}Σ{sup +} state, which is confirmed by comparing the results of (4){sup 1}Σ{sup +} state analysis based on (4){sup 1}Σ{sup +} → A − b LIF with the data from V. Zuters et al. [Phys. Rev. A 87, 022504 (2013)] based on (4){sup 1}Σ{sup +} → X LIF.

  6. Low temperature phase transition and crystal structure of CsMgPO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlova, Maria; Khainakov, Sergey; Michailov, Dmitriy; Perfler, Lukas; Langes, Christoph; Kahlenberg, Volker; Orlova, Albina

    2015-01-01

    CsMgPO4 doped with radioisotopes is a promising compound for usage as a radioactive medical source. However, a low temperature phase transition at temperatures close to ambient conditions (~-40 °C) was observed. Information about such kind of structural changes is important in order to understand whether it can cause any problem for medical use of this compound. The phase transition has been investigated in detail using synchrotron powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and DFT calculations. The structure undergoes a transformation from an orthorhombic modification, space group Pnma (RT phase) to a monoclinic polymorph, space group P21/n (LT phase). New LT modification adopts similar to RT but slightly distorted unit cell: a=9.58199(2) Å, b=8.95501(1) Å, c=5.50344(2) Å, β=90.68583(1)°, V=472.198(3) Å3. CsMgPO4 belongs to the group of framework compounds and is made up of strictly alternating MgO4- and PO4-tetrahedra sharing vertices. The cesium counter cations are located in the resulting channel-like cavities. Upon the transformation a combined tilting of the tetrahedra is observed. A comparison with other phase transitions in ABW-type framework compounds is given.

  7. Calculation of spectroscopic constants and radiative parameters for the B 1Π- X 1Σ+ electronic transitions of NaK, NaRb, and NaCs molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, A. D.

    2014-09-01

    The vibrational, rotational, and centrifugal spectroscopic constants and the radiative parameters (the Einstein coefficients, oscillator strengths, Frank-Condon factors, r v'v″ centroids, and wavenumbers of rotational lines) of electronic-vibrational-rotational transitions in the systems of bands B 1Π - X 1Σ+ of NaK (0 ≤ v' ⩽ 14, 0 ≤ v″ ≤ 52, j = 0, 30, 50, 70, 80, and 100), NaRb (0 ≤ v' ≤ 12, 0 ≤ v″ ≤ 51, j = 0, 20, 30, 50, 70, 90, 100, and 120), and NaCs (0 ≤ v' ≤ 10, 0 ≤ v″ ≤ 44, j = 0, 30, 50, 70, 90, 100, and 120) molecules, as well as the radiative lifetimes of excited electronic states, are calculated. Calculations are performed based on semiempirical potential curves constructed in this work. The calculated spectroscopic constants and the radiative lifetimes are compared with experimental values.

  8. Binding energies of the ground triplet state a{sup 3}Σ{sub u}{sup +} of Rb{sub 2} and Cs{sub 2} in terms of the generalized Le Roy–Bernstein near-dissociation expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Sovkov, V. B.; Ivanov, V. S.

    2014-04-07

    Formulae of Le Roy–Bernstein near-dissociation theory are derived in a general isotope–invariant form, applicable to any term in the rotational expansion of a diatomic ro-vibrational term value. It is proposed to use the generalized Le Roy–Bernstein expansion to describe the binding energies (ro-vibrational term values) of the ground triplet state a{sup 3}Σ{sub u}{sup +} of alkali metal dimers. The parameters of this description are determined for Rb{sub 2} and Cs{sub 2} molecules. This approach gives a recipe to calculate the whole variety of the binding energies with characteristic accuracies from ∼1 × 10{sup −3} to 1 × 10{sup −2} cm{sup −1} using a relatively simple algebraic equation.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of new fluoride-containing manganese vanadates A2Mn2V2O7F2 (A=Rb, Cs) and Mn2VO4F

    DOE PAGES

    Sanjeewa, Liurukara D.; McGuire, Michael A.; Smith Pellizzeri, Tiffany M.; ...

    2016-05-10

    In large single crystals of A2Mn2V2O7F2 (A=Rb, Cs) and Mn2VO4F were grown using a high-temperature (~600 °C) hydrothermal technique. We utilized single crystal X-ray diffraction and powder X-ray diffraction in order to characterize the structures, which both possess MnO4F2 building blocks. The A2Mn2V2O7F2 series crystallizes as a new structure type in space group Pbcn (No. 60), Z=4 (Rb2Mn2V2O7F2: a=7.4389(17) Å, b=11.574(3) Å, c=10.914(2) Å; Cs2Mn2V2O7F2: a=7.5615(15) Å, b=11.745(2) Å, c=11.127(2) Å). The structure is composed of zigzag chains of edge-sharing MnO4F2 units running along the a-axis, and interconnected through V2O7 pyrovanadate groups. Temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility measurements on this interestingmore » one-dimensional structural feature based on Mn2+ indicated that Cs2Mn2V2O7F2 is antiferromagnetic with a Neél temperature, TN=~3 K and a Weiss constant, θ, of -11.7(1) K. Raman and infrared spectra were also analyzed to identify the fundamental V–O vibrational modes in Cs2Mn2V2O7F2. Mn2(VO4)F crystalizes in the monoclinic space group of C2/c (no. 15), Z=8 with unit cell parameters of a=13.559(2) Å, b=6.8036(7) Å, c=10.1408(13) Å and β=116.16(3)°. The structure is associated with those of triplite and wagnerite. Dynamic fluorine disorder gives rise to complex alternating chains of five-and six-coordinate Mn2+. Our interpenetrating chains are additionally connected through isolated VO4 tetrahedra to form the condensed structure.« less

  10. Synthesis and characterization of new fluoride-containing manganese vanadates A2Mn2V2O7F2 (A=Rb, Cs) and Mn2VO4F

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanjeewa, Liurukara D.; McGuire, Michael A.; Smith Pellizzeri, Tiffany M.; McMillen, Colin D.; Ovidiu Garlea, V.; Willett, Daniel; Chumanov, George; Kolis, Joseph W.

    2016-09-01

    Large single crystals of A2Mn2V2O7F2 (A=Rb, Cs) and Mn2VO4F were grown using a high-temperature (~600 °C) hydrothermal technique. Single crystal X-ray diffraction and powder X-ray diffraction were utilized to characterize the structures, which both possess MnO4F2 building blocks. The A2Mn2V2O7F2 series crystallizes as a new structure type in space group Pbcn (No. 60), Z=4 (Rb2Mn2V2O7F2: a=7.4389(17) Å, b=11.574(3) Å, c=10.914(2) Å; Cs2Mn2V2O7F2: a=7.5615(15) Å, b=11.745(2) Å, c=11.127(2) Å). The structure is composed of zigzag chains of edge-sharing MnO4F2 units running along the a-axis, and interconnected through V2O7 pyrovanadate groups. Temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility measurements on this interesting one-dimensional structural feature based on Mn2+ indicated that Cs2Mn2V2O7F2 is antiferromagnetic with a Neél temperature, TN=~3 K and a Weiss constant, θ, of -11.7(1) K. Raman and infrared spectra were also analyzed to identify the fundamental V-O vibrational modes in Cs2Mn2V2O7F2. Mn2(VO4)F crystalizes in the monoclinic space group of C2/c (no. 15), Z=8 with unit cell parameters of a=13.559(2) Å, b=6.8036(7) Å, c=10.1408(13) Å and β=116.16(3)°. The structure is associated with those of triplite and wagnerite. Dynamic fluorine disorder gives rise to complex alternating chains of five-and six-coordinate Mn2+. These interpenetrating chains are additionally connected through isolated VO4 tetrahedra to form the condensed structure.

  11. RbCu 1.2Ag 3.8Se 3 and Cs 2Cu 2Sb 2Se 5: Novel Quaternary Intermetallics Synthesized from Superheated Organic Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhen; Wang, Ru-Ji; Dilks, Kieran J.; Li, Jing

    1999-10-01

    Reactions in superheated ethylenediamine (en) solutions at 160°C resulted in two novel quaternary intermetallic copper selenides, RbCu1.2Ag3.8Se3(I) and Cs2Cu2Sb2Se5(II). Both I and II are metal rich and represent new layered structure types. Compound I crystallizes in the tetragonal crystal system, space group P4/nbm (No. 125) with a=5.991(1) Å, c=10.918(2) Å, Z=2, V=391.9(1) Å3, R1/wR2=0.0373/0.0458 for all reflections. Compound II belongs to the triclinic crystal system, space group Poverline1 (No. 2), a=7.645(1) Å, b=8.768(2) Å, c=10.264(1) Å, α=91.97(2)°, β=92.07(2)°, γ=103.05(1)°, Z=2, V=669.2(3) Å3, R1/wR2=0.0685/0.0740 for all reflections. I consists of 2∞[(Cu1.2Ag3.8Se3)-] layers and Rb+ counterions located between these layers. There are two types of metal-to-selenium coordination, a square planar (Ag) and a trigonal pyramidal (Cu/Ag). The Se(1) atom displays an unusual eight coordination with Ag and Cu. II contains alternating 2∞[(Cu2Sb2Se5)2-] anionic and Cs+ cationic layers. Each copper atom has a distorted tetrahedral coordination to four Se atoms, and each antimony atom bonds to three Se atoms to result in a trigonal pyramidal geometry. Both I and II are semiconductors with estimated band gaps of 0.7-0.8 and 1.2-1.3 eV, respectively.

  12. Distributions of Li+, Na+ K+, Rb+, and Cs+ tracer ions in erythrocytes at 38 degrees C in relation to entry rates of these ions into cells at 0 degree C.

    PubMed

    Salminen, S; Ekman, A; Rastas, J

    2000-01-01

    Forces that are able to transport Na+ and K+ into two compartments were investigated. A modified Nernst-Planck equation for coupled flows of electric current, water, and ions was integrated. The result shows that if alkali ions in the ion channel of the cell membrane are separated by their electric-current-induced inward flows against an electro-osmotic outward flow of water, the logarithms of the stationary cell/medium distributions of these ions should be proportional to the inverse of their diffusion mobilities. The relationship was tested in human erythrocytes. From inward and outward movements of tracer alkali ions, calculations were made to obtain their stationary distributions at infinite time. The cell/medium distributions determined in this way at 38 degrees C are Li+ = 0.59, 22Na+ = 0.044, 42K+ = 10.0, 86Rb+ = 11.9, and 137Cs+ = 3.07. The entry rates of ions into the cell at 0 degrees C are understood to represent their diffusion mobilities in the pump channel. The entry rates are Li+ = 1.44, 2Na+ = 1, 42K+ = 2.22, 86Rb+ = 2.39, and 137Cs+ = 1.72 relative to that of 22Na+. There is an expected negative correlation between the logarithms of the stationary cell/ medium distributions at 38 degrees C and the inverse of the entry rates into the cell at 0 degrees C for the five ions. It is suggested that the proposed physical forces cause the separation of alkali ions in the channel of Na,K-ATPase.

  13. Diffusion of Ag, Au and Cs implants in MAX phase Ti3SiC2

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Weilin; Henager, Charles H.; Varga, Tamas; Jung, Hee Joon; Overman, Nicole R.; Zhang, Chonghong; Gou, Jie

    2015-05-16

    MAX phases (M: early transition metal; A: elements in group 13 or 14; X: C or N), such as titanium silicon carbide (Ti3SiC2), have a unique combination of both metallic and ceramic properties, which make them attractive for potential nuclear applications. Ti3SiC2 has been considered as a possible fuel cladding material. This study reports on the diffusivities of fission product surrogates (Ag and Cs) and a noble metal Au (with diffusion behavior similar to Ag) in this ternary compound at elevated temperatures, as well as in dual-phase nanocomposite of Ti3SiC2/3C-SiC and polycrystalline CVD 3C-SiC for behavior comparisons. Samples were implanted with Ag, Au or Cs ions and characterized with various methods, including x-ray diffraction, electron backscatter diffraction, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, helium ion microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that in contrast to immobile Ag in 3C-SiC, there is a significant outward diffusion of Ag in Ti3SiC2 within the dual-phase nanocomposite during Ag ion implantation at 873 K. Similar behavior of Au in polycrystalline Ti3SiC2 was also observed. Cs out-diffusion and release from Ti3SiC2 occurred during post-implantation thermal annealing at 973 K. This study suggests caution and further studies in consideration of Ti3SiC2 as a fuel cladding material for advanced nuclear reactors operating at very high temperatures.

  14. Mixed-metal uranium(VI) iodates: hydrothermal syntheses, structures, and reactivity of Rb[UO(2)(CrO(4))(IO(3))(H(2)O)], A(2)[UO(2)(CrO(4))(IO(3))(2)] (A = K, Rb, Cs), and K(2)[UO(2)(MoO(4))(IO(3))(2)].

    PubMed

    Sykora, Richard E; McDaniel, Steven M; Wells, Daniel M; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E

    2002-10-07

    The reactions of the molecular transition metal iodates A[CrO(3)(IO(3))] (A = K, Rb, Cs) with UO(3) under mild hydrothermal conditions provide access to four new, one-dimensional, uranyl chromatoiodates, Rb[UO(2)(CrO(4))(IO(3))(H(2)O)] (1) and A(2)[UO(2)(CrO(4))(IO(3))(2)] (A = K (2), Rb (3), Cs (4)). Under basic conditions, MoO(3), UO(3), and KIO(4) can be reacted to form K(2)[UO(2)(MoO(4))(IO(3))(2)] (5), which is isostructural with 2 and 3. The structure of 1 consists of one-dimensional[UO(2)(CrO(4))(IO(3))(H(2)O)](-) ribbons that contain uranyl moieties bound by bridging chromate and iodate anions as well as a terminal water molecule to create [UO(7)] pentagonal bipyramidal environments around the U(VI) centers. These ribbons are separated from one another by Rb(+) cations. When the iodate content is increased in the hydrothermal reactions, the terminal water molecule is replaced by a monodentate iodate anion to yield 2-4. These ribbons can be further modified by replacing tetrahedral chromate anions with MoO(4)(2)(-) anions to yield isostructural, one-dimensional [UO(2)(MoO(4))(IO(3))(2)](2)(-) ribbons. Crystallographic data: 1, triclinic, space group P(-)1, a = 7.3133(5) A, b = 8.0561(6) A, c = 8.4870(6) A, alpha = 88.740(1) degrees, beta = 87.075(1) degrees, gamma = 71.672(1) degrees, Z = 2; 2, monoclinic, space group P2(1)/c, a = 11.1337(5) A, b = 7.2884(4) A, c = 15.5661(7) A, beta = 107.977(1) degrees, Z = 4; 3, monoclinic, space group P2(1)/c, a = 11.3463(6) A, b = 7.3263(4) A, c = 15.9332(8) A, beta = 108.173(1) degrees, Z = 4; 4, monoclinic, space group P2(1)/n, a = 7.3929(5) A, b = 8.1346(6) A, c = 22.126(2) A, beta = 90.647(1) degrees, Z = 4; 5, monoclinic, space group P2(1)/c, a = 11.3717(6) A, b = 7.2903(4) A, c = 15.7122(8) A, beta = 108.167(1) degrees, Z = 4.

  15. Crystal structure and phase transition mechanisms in CsFe{sub 2}F{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Molokeev, M.S.; Bogdanov, E.V.; Misyul, S.V.; Tressaud, A.; Flerov, I.N.

    2013-04-15

    For the first time, structural phase transitions induced by the temperature were found in A{sub x}M{sub x}{sup II}M{sub (1−x)}{sup III}F{sub 3} fluorides with the defect pyrochlore structure (Fd3{sup ¯}m, Z=8). The room temperature structure of CsFe{sub 2}F{sub 6} was determined using X-ray powder diffraction technique. This phase was found to be ordered with the Pnma space group. The study of the temperature stability of orthorhombic structure by differential scanning calorimeter between 100 K and 700 K has shown a succession of phase transitions. The Pnma (Z=4)→Imma (Z=4)→I4{sub 1}/amd (Z=4)→Fd3{sup ¯}m (Z=8) structural sequence was proposed to occur within a rather narrow temperature range 500–560 K. The mechanism of structural transition has been mainly associated with the rotation of (MF{sub 6}) octahedra and small displacements of some Fe atoms. This assumption is in good agreement with the low experimental entropy value, which is characteristic for displacive transformations. - Graphical abstract: Mechanism of phase transition between the HT cubic form of CsFe{sub 2}F{sub 6} at 573 K (left) and the room temperature orthorhombic form at 298 K (right). The grey rectangles are clusters of five FeF{sub 6} octahedra. Highlights: ► Structural transition found for the first time in CsFe{sub 2}F{sub 6} with defect pyrochlore type. ► Fe{sup II} and Fe{sup III} atoms are ordered in room temperature Pnma form of CsFe{sub 2}F{sub 6}. ► Pnma(Z=4)→Imma(Z=4)→I4{sub 1}/amd(Z=4)→Fd-3m(Z=8) transition sequence is proposed. ► Structural transition due to rotation of MF{sub 6} groups+small displacements of Fe atoms. ► The low value of the entropy is in agreement with a displacive-type transition.

  16. Hard Mode Raman Study of the Structural Phase Transitions in Mixed Rb(_1-x)K(_x)CaF(_3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, P.; Toulouse, J.; Rousseau, M.

    1996-03-01

    The vibrational properties of mixed Rb(_1-x)K(_x)CaF(_3) (RKCF) perovskite crystals have been investigated by Raman spectroscopy between 10K and 325K. Over this temperature range, RKCF undergoes three structural phase transitions each marked by the appearance of new lines or splitting of the previously broad lines. We have indexed the spectrum focusing our attention on those lines corresponding to the broad modes. Their early appearances in the higher temperature cubic phase in which they should normally be Raman inactive is associated with the growth of precursor clusters and an intermediate disordered phase. Concurrently a central peak is observed at low frequency, the strength of which increases rapidly as the first transition is approached. The integrated intensities of the hard mode lines exhibit reproducible maxima at the two lower transitions. These effects and the extent of the precursor order are examined as a function of concentration (0.1

  17. Phase Transition and Thermal Expansion of Ba3RB3O9 (R = Sm-Yb, and Y)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simura, Rayko; Kawai, Shohei; Sugiyama, Kazumasa

    2017-09-01

    High temperature powder X-ray diffraction measurements of Ba3RB3O9 (R=Sm-Yb, and Y) were carried out at temperatures ranging from room temperature to just below the corresponding melting temperatures (1,200-1,300 °C). No phase transition was found for the H-type phase (R \\overline 3) with R=Sm-Tb and the L-type phase (P63 cm) with R=Tm-Yb. On the other hand, phase transition from the L phase to the H phase was observed for R=Dy-Er, and Y at around 1,100-1,200 °C. The obtained axial thermal expansion coefficient (ATEC) of the a-axis was larger than that of the c-axis for the H phase, and the ATEC of the c-axis was larger than that of the a-axis for the L phase. The observed anisotropic nature of ATEC is attributed to the distribution of the BO3 anionic group with rigid boron-oxygen bonding in the structures of the H and L phases.

  18. Structure Studies on the Polymeric Phase of Na_2CsC_60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morosin, B.; Schirber, J. E.; Kwei, G. H.; Jorgensen, J. D.

    2001-03-01

    Margadonna et al.^1 reported in some detail the evolution of the structure of Na_2CsC_60 with pressure and temperature. These results are in general in good agreement with our earlier study ^2, including the onset of the single C-C bonded polymeric phase near 0.6 Gpa. However, the two studies differ primarily in the phase purity of the sample above the pressure induced transition, with our data not showing any evidence of the primitive cubic phase. Our Rietveld structure refinements on various points in the p-T phase used a crystal structure model consisted of single C-C bonded polymeric chains of -C_60 ^3-- ions which parallel the c-axis and which are separated by Cs^+ and Na^+ ions at (1/2, 0, 0) and (x= 0, y 1/4, z=1/2) sites, respectively, as derived from the octahedral and tetrahedral positions of the primitive cubic structure. Our monoclinic (P2_1/a) lattice parameters (17 K, 500psi Ne) are a = 13.776(3)Åb = 14.343(3)Åc = 9.375(2)Åβ = 133.084(7)^o, and cell volume = 1353.9(5)ÅTogether with our complimentary superconducting measurements ^2,3, these results provide a clear and unambiguous demonstration that the single C-C bonded polymeric phase in Na_2CsC_60 is a superconductor with the transition temperature about 3 K lower than that of its primitive cubic phase. Work performed under the auspices DOE under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000 at SNL, contract W-7405-ENG-48 at LLNL, and contract W-31-109-ENG-38 at ANL. 1. S. Margadonna, et al., J. Sol. State Chem. 145 (1999)471. 2. B. Morosin, et al., Recent Adv. in Chem. and Phys. of Fullerenes and Related Matl 3 (1998)446. 3. J. E.Schirber et al., Physica C260 (1998) 173.

  19. Cs7Sm11[TeO3]12Cl16 and Rb7Nd11[TeO3]12Br16, the new tellurite halides of the tetragonal Rb6LiNd11[SeO3]12Cl16 structure type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charkin, Dmitri O.; Black, Cameron; Downie, Lewis J.; Sklovsky, Dmitry E.; Berdonosov, Peter S.; Olenev, Andrei V.; Zhou, Wuzong; Lightfoot, Philip; Dolgikh, Valery A.

    2015-12-01

    Two new rare-earth - alkali - tellurium oxide halides were synthesized by a salt flux technique and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The structures of the new compounds Cs7Sm11[TeO3]12Cl16 (I) and Rb7Nd11[TeO3]12Br16 (II) (both tetragonal, space group I4/mcm) correspond to the sequence of [MLn11(TeO3)12] and [M6X16] layers and bear very strong similarities to those of known selenite analogs. We discuss the trends in similarities and differences in compositions and structural details between the Se and Te compounds; more members of the family are predicted.

  20. Electron Spin Density Distribution in the Polymer Phase of CsC60: Assignment of the NMR Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Swiet, T. M.; Yarger, J. L.; Wagberg, T.; Hone, J.; Gross, B. J.; Tomaselli, M.; Titman, J. J.; Zettl, A.; Mehring, M.

    2000-01-01

    We present high resolution 133Cs-13C double resonance NMR data and 13C-13C NMR correlation spectra of 13C enriched samples of the polymeric phase of CsC60. These data lead to a partial assignment of the lines in the 13C NMR spectrum of CsC60 to the carbon positions on the C60 molecule. A plausible completion of the assignment can be made on the basis of an ab initio calculation. The data support the view that the conduction electron density is concentrated at the C60 ``equator,'' away from the interfullerene bonds.

  1. Vortex dynamics in phase separated Tl0.58Rb0.42Fe1.72Se2 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberkorn, N.; Troiani, H.; Condó, A. M.; Wang, Hangdong; Mao, Qianhui; Fang, Minghu

    2016-12-01

    We report the critical current density Jc and the vortex dynamics in phase-separated Tl0.58Rb0.42Fe1.72Se2 crystals by performing magnetization measurements. Structural investigation reveals micro- and nanoscopic phase separation between 122 (superconducting) and 245 (not superconducting) phases. Micrometric phase separation refers to 245 islands with typical diameters of 2 μm embedded in a multiply-connected 122 superconducting network. Nanoscopic phase separation refers to 245 nanoprecipitates embedded in the 122 superconducting paths. The 245 nanoprecipitates with size comparable to the coherence length produce strong vortex pinning. It was observed that the temperature dependence of the flux creep rate presents a peak at intermediate temperatures and magnetic fields lower than 0.5 T. The peak is systematically suppressed as the magnetic field is increased, and it could be related with relaxation generated by double-kink excitations. Double-kinks are low-energy depinning excitations usually associated with strong pinning produced by correlated disorder.

  2. Optical properties of Pb2 -based aggregated phases in CsBr Thin film and single crystal matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikl, M.; Nitsch, K.; Mihokova, E.; Polak, K.; Fabeni, P.; Pazzi, G. P.; Gurioli, M.; Phani, R.; Santucci, S.; Scacco, A.; Somma, F.

    Emission characteristics of CsPbBr3 and Cs4PbBr6 aggregates in CsBr bulk and thin film matrices are reported. The emission of the former aggregated phase is peaking about 520-560 nm. It shows small Stokes shift (50 meV) related to narrow free exciton emission line of sub-nanosecond decay times. Quantum size effect was evidenced for the aggregates of 6-7 nm in diameter. The Cs4PbBr6 aggregates show emission peak at 375 nm and overall emission characteristics are similar to those of KBr: Pb, which is explained by very close local arrangement of emission centres-(PbBr6)4- octahedra-in both structures.

  3. Synthesis, structural and optical properties of Eu3+-doped ALnP2O7 (A = Cs, Rb, Tl; Ln = Y, Lu, Tm) pyrophosphates phosphors for solid-state lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbarek, Aïcha

    2017-06-01

    A series of 2%Eu3+-activated ALnP2O7 (A = Rb, Cs, Tl; Ln = Y, Lu, Tm) pyrophosphates were synthesized via solid-state reaction method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), NMR and IR/Raman spectroscopy. Their photoluminescence properties were investigated at room temperature. The phosphors present red emitting luminescence under blue light excitation, based on f-f transitions of Eu3+ ions. Emission spectra showed that the samples had intense and prevailing red emissions at 610 nm belonging to the 5D0→7F2 electric dipole transition. One Eu3+ center was assigned according to the crystal structure and the luminescence characteristics. The decay times were measured monitoring the maximum of emission at λem = 610 nm and exciting in the 5D2 band (λexc = 464 nm). All decay curves were single exponential and lifetimes remain constant with value in integral range 3-4 ms, according to the alkali metal ion. The optical properties show that these host materials are suitable for phosphor materials for solid-state lighting applications.

  4. ABi2 (IO3 )2 F5 (A=K, Rb, and Cs): A Combination of Halide and Oxide Anionic Units To Create a Large Second-Harmonic Generation Response with a Wide Bandgap.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongming; Wu, Qi; Jiang, Xingxing; Lin, Zheshuai; Meng, Xianggao; Chen, Xingguo; Qin, Jingui

    2017-08-01

    A family of nonlinear optical materials that contain the halide, oxide, and oxyhalide polar units simultaneously in a single structure, namely ABi2 (IO3 )2 F5 (A=K (1), Rb (2), and Cs (3)), have been designed and synthesized. They crystallize in the same polar space group (P21 ) with a two-dimensional double-layered framework constructed by [BiF5 ](2-) and [BiO2 F4 ](5-) units connected to each other by four F atoms, in which two [IO3 ](-) groups are linked to [BiO2 F4 ](5-) unit on the same side. A hanging Bi-F bond of [BiF5 ](2-) unit is located on the other side via ionic interaction with the layer-inserted alkali metal ions to form three-dimensional structure. The well-ordered alignments of these polar units lead to a very strong second-harmonic generation response of 12 (1), 9.5 (2), and 7.5 (3) times larger than that of potassium dihydrogen phosphate under 1064 nm laser radiation. All of them exhibited a wide energy bandgap over 3.75 eV, suggesting that they will have a high laser damage threshold. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Direct ICP-MS determination of trace and ultratrace elements in geological materials after decomposition in a microwave oven. Part II. Quantitation of Ba, Cs, Ga, Hf, In, Mo, Nb, Pb, Rb, Sn, Sr, Ta and Tl.

    PubMed

    Gupta, J G; Bertrand, N B

    1995-12-01

    A new method has been developed for the rapid determination of traces of Ba, Cs, Ga, Hf, In, Mo, Nb, Pb, Rb, Sn, Sr, Ta and Tl in silicate rocks and lake, stream and river sediments. The method involved dissolution of samples in a microwave oven by heating in a pressure decomposition Teflon vessel with a mixture of HF + HNO(3) + HCl + H(3)BO(3) + EDTA followed by direct multielement determination using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP MS ). The method is faster than conventional dissolution of samples by open vessel acid digestion and fusion and determination by instrumental methods. The accuracy and precision of the developed method were tested by replicate analyses of a number of international geochemical reference samples of established trace element contents. Satisfactory correlation with the "recommended" or "consensus" values was found and recoveries were in most cases 95-100%. New values for Ga, In, Nb and Tl in several international geochemical reference materials are first reported in this paper.

  6. Magnetic-field- and pressure-induced quantum phase transition in CsFeCl3 proved via magnetization measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurita, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Hidekazu

    2016-09-01

    We have performed magnetization measurements of the gapped quantum magnet CsFeCl3 at temperatures (T ) down to 0.5 K at ambient pressure and down to 1.8 K at hydrostatic pressures (P ) of up to 1.5 GPa. The lower-field (H ) phase boundary of the field-induced ordered phase at ambient pressure is found to follow the power-law behavior expressed by the formula HN(T ) -Hc∝TNϕ . The application of pressure extends the phase boundary to both a lower field and higher temperature. Above the critical pressure Pc˜0.9 GPa, the transition field HN associated with the excitation gap becomes zero, and a signature of the magnetic phase transition is found in the T dependence of magnetization in a very low applied field. This suggests that CsFeCl3 exhibits a pressure-induced magnetic phase transition at Pc.

  7. Pressure-induced quantum phase transitions in the S =1/2 triangular lattice antiferromagnet CsCuCl3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sera, A.; Kousaka, Y.; Akimitsu, J.; Sera, M.; Inoue, K.

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the pressure effect on the magnetization of the soft material CsCuCl3. We also measured the lattice distortion under the longitudinal magnetic fields at the ambient pressure. While the a b plane shrinks in all the quantum phases below TN at the ambient pressure, its magnitude is much larger in the intermediate 2-1-coplanar or the IC3 phase with a large quantum spin fluctuation than in the low field phase. We found the pressure induced quantum phases; the uud phase for H ∥c and the IC5 phase for H ∥b* . We also found the large reduction of the magnetization both below and above TN and the enhancement of TN by pressure. d TN/d P is much larger in the intermediate field phase than in the low field phase. From these results, we could draw the rough magnetic phase diagram under pressure in a high field region. While all the quantum phases below TN are stabilized by pressure, the degree of the stability by pressure is much larger in the quantum phase with a large quantum spin fluctuation than in the low field phase. In the soft material such as CsCuCl3, we propose that the a b plane shrinks spontaneously so as to enhance TN and the quantum spin fluctuation in high field quantum phases under pressure.

  8. (ns{sub 1/2}+np{sub 1/2})0{sub g}{sup -}Rb{sub 2} and Cs{sub 2} photo-associative spectroscopy of weakly bound levels: Lu-Fano analysis coupled to an improved LeRoy-Bernstein formula

    SciTech Connect

    Jelassi, H.; De Lesegno, B. Viaris; Pruvost, L.

    2007-09-19

    We report on the study of the (ns{sub 1/2}+np{sub 1/2})0{sub g}{sup -}Rb{sub 2} and Cs{sub 2} weakly-bound-level photoassociative spectroscopy in a magneto-optical trap. For the analysis, a Lu-Fano graph is plotted for each set of data. We show that an improved LeRoy-Bernstein formula must to be used. The data is then analysed by a classical procedure using the improved LeRoy-Bernstein formula. The (ns{sub 1/2}+np{sub 1/2})0{sub g}{sup -}Rb{sub 2} and Cs{sub 2} multipolar coefficients c{sub 6} are fitted. They are found to be in good agreement with previous results.

  9. Effects of thermal and quantum fluctuations on the phase diagram of a spin-1 {sup 87}Rb Bose-Einstein condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Phuc, Nguyen Thanh; Kawaguchi, Yuki; Ueda, Masahito

    2011-10-15

    We investigate the effects of thermal and quantum fluctuations on the phase diagram of a spin-1 {sup 87}Rb Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) under the quadratic Zeeman effect. Due to the large ratio of spin-independent to spin-dependent interactions of {sup 87}Rb atoms, the effect of noncondensed atoms on the condensate is much more significant than that in scalar BECs. We find that the condensate and spontaneous magnetization emerge at different temperatures when the ground state is in the broken-axisymmetry phase. In this phase, a magnetized condensate induces spin coherence of noncondensed atoms in different magnetic sublevels, resulting in temperature-dependent magnetization of the noncondensate. We also examine the effect of quantum fluctuations on the order parameter at absolute zero and find that the ground-state phase diagram is significantly altered by quantum depletion.

  10. Non-centrosymmetric Rb2Mn2(MoO4)3

    PubMed Central

    Bouzidi, Chahira; Zid, Mohamed Faouzi; Driss, Ahmed; Souilem, Amira

    2014-01-01

    The title compound, dirubidium dimanganese(II) tris­(tetra­oxo­molyb­date), Rb2Mn2(MoO4)3, was prepared by solid-state reactions. The structure can be described as being composed of MnO6 octa­hedra sharing corners with MoO4 tetra­hedra. The three-dimensional framework contains cavities in which the rubidium ions are located. The Rb+ cations are within distorted nine- and 12-vertex polyhedra. The pairs of different Mn2+ and Rb+ cations are each located on threefold rotation axes.. Rb2Mn2(MoO4)3 is isotypic with compounds of the Cs2 M 2Mo3O12 (M = Ni, Fe) family. A comparative structural description is provided between the structure of the title compound and those of related phases. Differences with structures such as alluaudite are discussed. PMID:25161508

  11. Crystal Structure and Ionic Conductivity of Three Polymorphic Phases of Rubidium Trefluoromethyl Sulfonate, RbSO3CF3

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrandt,L.; Dinnebier, R.; Jansen, M.

    2006-01-01

    The crystal structures of three polymorphic phases of rubidium trifluoromethyl sulfonate (RbSO{sub 3}CF{sub 3}, rubidium 'triflate') were solved from X-ray powder diffraction data. At room temperature, rubidium triflate crystallizes in the monoclinic space group Cm with lattice parameters of a = 19.9611(5) Angstroms, b = 23.4913(7) Angstroms, c = 5.1514(2) Angstroms, = 102.758(2); Z = 16. At T = 321 K, a first-order phase transition occurs toward a monoclinic phase in space group P2{sub 1} with lattice parameters at T = 344 K of a = 10.3434(5) Angstroms, b = 5.8283(3) Angstroms, c = 5.1982(3) Angstroms, = 104.278(6); Z = (2). At T = 461 K, another phase transition, this time of second order, occurs toward an orthorhombic phase in space group Cmcm with lattice parameters at T = 510 K of a = 5.3069(2) Angstroms, b = 20.2423(10) Angstroms, c = 5.9479(2) Angstroms; Z = 4. As a common feature within all three crystal structures of rubidium triflate, the triflate anions are arranged in double layers with the lipophilic CF{sub 3} groups facing each other. The rubidium ions are located between the SO{sub 3} groups. The general packing is similar to the packing in cesium triflate. Rubidium triflate can be classified as a solid electrolyte with a specific ionic conductivity of = 9.89 x 10{sup -9} S/cm at T = 384 K and = 3.84 x 10{sup -6} S/cm at T = 481 K.

  12. Theoretical investigation on reactivity of Ag and Au atoms toward CS2 in gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Yang, Ling; Tian, An-Min; Wong, Ning-Bew

    2008-02-01

    The reaction mechanisms of Ag and Au atoms with CS2 on both doublet and quartet potential energy surfaces (PESs) have been investigated using UBPW91 and UCCSD(T) methods. The two studied reactions proceed via a similar insertion-elimination mechanism instead of a direct abstract mechanism. The reaction Ag + CS2 --> SAgCS is endothermic by about 21E0 kcal/mol. But another reaction Au + CS2 --> SAuCS is slightly exothermic by about 8.8 kcal/mol, which is different from the previous theoretical prediction. In the overall reactions, the rate-determining step is found to be the C-S bond cleavage step with a high-activation barrier of about 40 kcal/mol. The calculated vibration frequencies are in good agreement with the experiment values and show that the BPW91 method is very good for the calculation of small molecules containing Ag and Au. The reactivity of the two atoms toward CS2 is compared with those of the first-row transition-metal atoms. The present study provides a detailed picture of the C-S bond activation and cleavage in carbon disulfide mediated by second and the third row transition-metal atoms Ag and Au.

  13. Triplet pz-wave pairing in quasi-one-dimensional A2Cr3As3 superconductors (A = K,Rb,Cs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan; Wu, Xianxin; Hu, Jiangping; Le, Congcong; Fan, Heng

    We construct minimum effective models to investigate the pairing symmetry in the newly discovered quasione-dimensional superconductor K2Cr3As3. We show that a minimum three-band model based on the dz2, dxy ,and dx2-y2 orbitals of one Cr sublattice can capture the band structures near Fermi surfaces. In both weak and strong coupling limits, the standard random phase approximation and mean-field solutions consistently yield the triplet pz-wave pairing as the leading pairing symmetry for physically realistic parameters. The triplet pairing is driven by the ferromagnetic fluctuations within the sublattice. The gap function of the pairing state possesses line gap nodes on the kz = 0 plane on the Fermi surfaces.Experimental consequences of the triplet pz-wave pairing are also discussed, including the NMR, superfluid density and phase-sensitive dc SQUID experiments. This work is supported in part by MOST of China (Grants No. 2012CB821400, No. 2011CBA00100, and No. 2015CB921300), NSFC (Grants No. 11190020, No.91221303, No.11334012, and No. 11274041) and the NCET program under Grant No. NCET-12-0038.

  14. RABL6A promotes G1-S phase progression and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor cell proliferation in an Rb1-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Jussara; Muniz, Viviane P.; Falls, Kelly; Reed, Sara M.; Taghiyev, Agshin F.; Quelle, Frederick W.; Gourronc, Francoise; Klingelhutz, Aloysius J.; Major, Heather J.; Askeland, Ryan; Sherman, Scott K.; O'Dorisio, Thomas M.; Bellizzi, Andrew M.; Howe, James R.; Darbro, Benjamin W.; Quelle, Dawn E.

    2014-01-01

    Mechanisms of neuroendocrine tumor (NET) proliferation are poorly understood and therapies that effectively control NET progression and metastatic disease are limited. We found amplification of a putative oncogene, RABL6A, in primary human pancreatic NETs(PNETs) that correlated with high level RABL6A protein expression. Consistent with those results, stable silencing of RABL6A in cultured BON-1 PNET cells revealed that it is essential for their proliferation and survival. Cells lacking RABL6A predominantly arrested in G1 phase with a moderate mitotic block. Pathway analysis of microarray data suggested activation of the p53 and retinoblastoma (Rb1) tumor suppressor pathways in the arrested cells. Loss of p53 had no effect on the RABL6A knockdown phenotype, indicating RABL6A functions independent of p53 in this setting. By comparison, Rb1 inactivation partially restored G1 to S phase progression in RABL6A knockdown cells although it was insufficient to override the mitotic arrest and cell death caused by RABL6A loss. Thus, RABL6A promotes G1 progression in PNET cells by inactivating Rb1, an established suppressor of PNET proliferation and development. This work identifies RABL6A as a novel negative regulator of Rb1 that is essential for PNET proliferation and survival. We suggest RABL6A is a new potential biomarker and target for anticancer therapy in PNET patients. PMID:25273089

  15. RABL6A promotes G1-S phase progression and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor cell proliferation in an Rb1-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Jussara; Muniz, Viviane P; Falls, Kelly C; Reed, Sara M; Taghiyev, Agshin F; Quelle, Frederick W; Gourronc, Francoise A; Klingelhutz, Aloysius J; Major, Heather J; Askeland, Ryan W; Sherman, Scott K; O'Dorisio, Thomas M; Bellizzi, Andrew M; Howe, James R; Darbro, Benjamin W; Quelle, Dawn E

    2014-11-15

    Mechanisms of neuroendocrine tumor (NET) proliferation are poorly understood, and therapies that effectively control NET progression and metastatic disease are limited. We found amplification of a putative oncogene, RABL6A, in primary human pancreatic NETs (PNET) that correlated with high-level RABL6A protein expression. Consistent with those results, stable silencing of RABL6A in cultured BON-1 PNET cells revealed that it is essential for their proliferation and survival. Cells lacking RABL6A predominantly arrested in G1 phase with a moderate mitotic block. Pathway analysis of microarray data suggested activation of the p53 and retinoblastoma (Rb1) tumor-suppressor pathways in the arrested cells. Loss of p53 had no effect on the RABL6A knockdown phenotype, indicating that RABL6A functions independent of p53 in this setting. By comparison, Rb1 inactivation partially restored G1 to S phase progression in RABL6A-knockdown cells, although it was insufficient to override the mitotic arrest and cell death caused by RABL6A loss. Thus, RABL6A promotes G1 progression in PNET cells by inactivating Rb1, an established suppressor of PNET proliferation and development. This work identifies RABL6A as a novel negative regulator of Rb1 that is essential for PNET proliferation and survival. We suggest RABL6A is a new potential biomarker and target for anticancer therapy in PNET patients.

  16. Topological nature in cubic phase of perovskite CsPbI3: By DFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afsari, Mahsa; Boochani, Arash; Hantezadeh, Mohammadreza; Elahi, Seyed Mohammad

    2017-06-01

    In order to find out a better identification of halide perovskites as the materials with simple synthesis conditions and applicable in the electronics and solar cells industry, the present study have investigated the electronic properties, particularly band gap and band ordering of CsPbI3 perovskite in cubic phase and have evaluated their changes by means of exerting spin-orbit coupling and hydrostatic pressure. Calculations show that the values of band gap are 1.48 eV, 1.879 eV and 2.67 eV within GGA-PBE, GGA-mbj and GGA-newmbj approximations respectively. Whereas a drastic change occurs in electronic band gap due to applying the spin-orbit coupling effect and it leads to decreasing band gap to 0.29, 0.62 and 1.53 eV respectively which indicate the newmbj+soc results are in good agreement with experiment. Moreover, due to applying the hydrostatic pressure on electronic properties, the present study has investigated the changes in band gap and band ordering of band structure. In this regard, by increasing pressure, band inversion occurs between s-like and p1/2 levels in valance and conduction bands in R-symmetry point in all three approximations with different pressure. Based on newmbj approximation, band inversion occurs in pressure about 6 GPa that is in agreement with other theoretical works. Furthermore, the occurrence of the band inversion in R symmetry point contributes to the change in orbitals. Thus, it can be stated that the value Z2 of topology coefficient is equal to one which proves the transition into the topological phase in this perovskite.

  17. Links between the Crystal and Electronic Structure in the New Family of Unconventional Superconductors A2Cr3As3 (A = K, Rb, Cs).

    PubMed

    Alemany, Pere; Canadell, Enric

    2015-08-17

    The electronic structure of a new family of superconductors is examined through density functional theory calculations. In contrast with other quasi-1D superconductors, these phases exhibit a relatively complex electronic structure and the Fermi surface contains both 1D and 3D components. It is shown that cations have an almost nil influence on the electronic structure. The absence of a structural Peierls modulation is discussed, and the differences with the structurally related M2Mo6Se6 (M = Tl, In, ...) superconductors are stressed. The large electron mass renormalization and the lack of clear correlation between N(EF) and Tc suggest the existence of strong electron correlations and an unconventional origin of the superconductivity.

  18. Synthesis and crystal structures of the layered uranyl tellurites A{sub 2}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 3}(TeO{sub 3}){sub 2}O{sub 2}] (A=K, Rb, Cs)

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, Jonathan D.; Almond, Philip M.; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E. . E-mail: albreth@auburn.edu

    2004-11-01

    The reactions of UO{sub 3} and TeO{sub 3} with KCl, RbCl, or CsCl at 800{sup o}C for 5d yield single crystals of A{sub 2}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 3}(TeO{sub 3}){sub 2}O{sub 2}] (A=K (1), Rb (2), and Cs (3)). These compounds are isostructural with one another, and their structures consist of two-dimensional {sub {infinity}}{sup 2}[(UO2)3(TeO3)2O2]2- sheets arranged in a stair-like topology separated by alkali metal cations. These sheets are comprised of zigzagging uranium(VI) oxide chains bridged by corner-sharing trigonal pyramidal TeO{sub 3}{sup 2-} anions. The chains are composed of dimeric, edge-sharing, pentagonal bipyramidal UO{sub 7} moieties joined by edge-sharing tetragonal bipyramidal UO{sub 6} units. The lone-pair of electrons from the TeO{sub 3} groups are oriented in opposite directions with respect to one another on each side of the sheets rendering each individual sheet non-polar. The alkali metal cations form contacts with nearby tellurite oxygen atoms as well as with oxygen atoms from the uranyl moieties. Crystallographic data (193K, MoK{alpha}, {lambda}=0.7107A): 1, triclinic, space group P1-bar , a=6.7985(5)A, b=7.0123(5)A, c=7.8965(6)A, {alpha}=101.852(1){sup o}, {beta}=102.974(1){sup o}, {gamma}=100.081(1){sup o}, V=349.25(4)A3, Z=2, R(F)=2.70% for 98 parameters and 1697 reflections with I>2{sigma}(I); 2, triclinic, space group P1-bar , a=7.0101(6)A, b=7.0742(6)A, c=8.0848(7)A, {alpha}=105.590(2){sup o}, {beta}=101.760(2){sup o}, {gamma}=99.456(2){sup o}, V=367.91(5)A3, Z=2, R(F)=2.36% for 98 parameters and 1817 reflections with I>2{sigma}(I); 3, triclinic, space group P1-bar , a=7.0007(5)A, b=7.5195(6)A, c=8.4327(6)A, {alpha}=109.301(1){sup o}, {beta}=100.573(1){sup o}, {gamma}=99.504(1){sup o}, V=399.49(5)A3, Z=2, R(F)=2.61% for 98 parameters and 1965 reflections with I>2{sigma}(I)

  19. Theoretical Cross Sections of the Inelastic Fine Structure Transition M((2)P1/2) + Ng ↔ M((2)P3/2) + Ng for M = K, Rb, and Cs and Ng = He, Ne, and Ar.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Charlton D; Weeks, David E

    2017-05-11

    Scattering matrix elements of the inelastic fine structure transition M((2)P1/2) + Ng ↔ M((2)P3/2) + Ng are computed using the channel packet method (CPM) for alkali-metal atoms M = K, Rb, and Cs, as they collide with noble-gas atoms Ng = He, Ne, and Ar. The calculations are performed within the block Born-Oppenheimer approximation where excited state VA(2)Π1/2(R), VA(2)Π3/2(R), and VB(2)Σ1/2(R) adiabatic potential energy surfaces are used together with a Hund's case (c) basis to construct a 6 × 6 diabatic representation of the electronic Hamiltonian. Matrix elements of the angular kinetic energy of the nuclei incorporate Coriolis coupling and, together with the diabatic representation of the electronic Hamiltonian, yield a 6 × 6 effective potential energy matrix. This matrix is diagonal in the asymptotic limit of large internuclear separation with eigenvalues that correlate to the (2)Pj alkali atomic energy levels. Scattering matrix elements are computed using the CPM by preparing reactant and product wave packets on the effective potential energy surfaces that correspond to the excited (2)Pj alkali states of interest. The reactant wave packet is then propagated forward in time using the split operator method together with a unitary transformation between the adiabatic and diabatic representations. The Fourier transformation of the correlation function between the evolving reactant wave packet and stationary product wave packet yields state-to-state scattering matrix elements as a function of energy for a particular choice of total angular momentum J. Calculations are performed for energies that range from 0.0 to 0.01 hartree and values of J that start with a minimum of J = 0.5 for all M + Ng pairs up to a maximum that ranges from J = 450.5 for KAr to J = 100.5 for CsAr. A sum over J together with an average over energy is used to compute thermally averaged cross sections for a temperature range of T = 0-400 K.

  20. Series of M(I)[Co(bpy)3][Mo(CN)8] x nH2O (M(I) = Li (1), K (2), Rb (3), Cs (4); n = 7-8) exhibiting reversible diamagnetic to paramagnetic transition coupled with dehydration-rehydration process.

    PubMed

    Kozieł, Marcin; Podgajny, Robert; Kania, Rafał; Lebris, Rémy; Mathonière, Corine; Lewiński, Krzysztof; Kruczała, Krzysztof; Rams, Michał; Labrugère, Christine; Bousseksou, Azzedine; Sieklucka, Barbara

    2010-03-15

    In this paper we report the synthesis and the structural and magnetic properties of the series of ionic compounds with general formula: M(I)[Co(bpy)(3)][Mo(CN)(8)] x nH(2)O (M(I) = Li, n = 8 (1), M(I) = K, n = 8 (2), M(I) = Rb, n = 8 (3), M(I) = Cs, n = 7.5 (4)). Solids 1-4 are characterized by the optical outer-sphere metal-to-metal charge transfer (MMCT) transition from Mo(IV) center to Co(III) center in the visible region and the Co(III)Mo(IV) <==> Co(II)Mo(V) spin equilibrium strongly dominated by the Co(III)Mo(IV) form. We show a gentle thermal treatment of diamagnetic compounds 1-4 leading to the dehydrated forms 1a-4a, which reveal a significant increase of paramagnetic contribution (from 0.5 to 2% to 30-40%). The rehydration allows to recover the diamagnetic phases 1b-4b of compositions and properties similar to those of 1-4. The irradiation of the dehydrated form 2a within the MMCT band in the Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) cavity at T = 10 K causes further increase of the Co(II)Mo(V) contribution giving the metastable phase annealed back to the 2a phase after heating above T = 290 K. The IR, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectroscopic data along with the magnetic data are interpreted in terms of strong modification of the Co(III)Mo(IV) <==> Co(II)Mo(V) equilibrium occurring in these systems.

  1. X-ray powder diffraction, vibration and thermal studies of [A{sub 0.92}(NH{sub 4}){sub 0.08}]{sub 2}TeCl{sub 4}Br{sub 2} with A = Cs, Rb: Influence of mixed cationic and anionic substitutions

    SciTech Connect

    Aribia, W. Ben; Abdelmouleh, M.; Kabadou, A.; Van Der Lee, A.

    2012-05-15

    Graphical abstract: The structures of [A{sub 0.92}(NH{sub 4}){sub 0.08}]{sub 2}TeCl{sub 4}Br{sub 2} with A = Cs, Rb belong to the tetragonal {beta}-K{sub 2}SnCl{sub 6} structure type. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The two new compound crystallises in P4/mnc tetragonal space group. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structure is considered as isolated octahedred TeCl{sub 4}Br{sup 2-}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The octahedra connected by ionic and hydrogen bonding through the Cs/Rb or N atoms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A DTA/TGA experiment reveals one endothermic peak at 780 K for these compounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer One endothermic peak is detected at around 213 K by DSC experiment. -- Abstract: The crystal structures of [A{sub 0.92}(NH{sub 4}){sub 0.08}]{sub 2}TeCl{sub 4}Br{sub 2} with A = Cs, Rb have been determined using X-ray powder diffraction techniques. The two compounds crystallize in the tetragonal space group P4/mnc, with the unit cell parameters: a = 7.452(1) Angstrom-Sign , c = 10.544(3) Angstrom-Sign , Z = 2 and a = 7.315(2) Angstrom-Sign , c = 10.354(4) Angstrom-Sign , Z = 2 in the presence of Cs and Rb, respectively. These two compounds have an antifluorite-type arrangement of NH{sub 4}{sup +}/Rb{sup +}/Cs{sup +} and octahedral TeCl{sub 4}Br{sub 2}{sup 2-} anions. The stability of these structure is by ionic and hydrogen bonding contacts: A Midline-Horizontal-Ellipsis Cl, A Midline-Horizontal-Ellipsis Br and N-H Midline-Horizontal-Ellipsis Cl, N-H Midline-Horizontal-Ellipsis Br. The different vibrational modes of these powders were analysed by FTIR and Raman spectroscopic studies. A DTA/TGA experiment reveals one endothermic peak at 780 K implicating the decomposition of the sample. At low temperature, one endothermic peak in thermal behavior is detected at around 213 K by DSC experiment. This transition was confirmed by dielectric measurements.

  2. Structures of Hydrated Alkali Metal Cations, M+(H2O)nAr (m = Li, Na, K, rb and Cs, n = 3-5), Using Infrared Photodissociation Spectroscopy and Thermodynamic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Haochen; van der Linde, Christian; Lisy, James M.

    2014-06-01

    Alkali metal cations play vital roles in chemical and biochemical systems. Lithium is widely used in psychiatric treatment of manic states and bipolar disorder; Sodium and potassium are essential elements, having major biological roles as electrolytes, balancing osmotic pressure on body cells and assisting the electroneurographic signal transmission; Rubidium has seen increasing usage as a supplementation for manic depression and depression treatment; Cesium doped compounds are used as essential catalysts in chemical production and organic synthesis. Since hydrated alkali metal cations are ubiquitous and the basic form of the alkali metal cations in chemical and biochemical systems, their structural and thermodynamic properties serve as the foundation for modeling more complex chemical and biochemical processes, such as ion transport and ion size-selectivity of ionophores and protein channels. By combining mass spectrometry and infrared photodissociation spectroscopy, we have characterized the structures and thermodynamic properties of the hydrated alkali metal cations, i.e. M+(H2O)nAr, (M = Li, Na, K, Rb and Cs, n = 3-5). Ab initio calculations and RRKM-EE (evaporative ensemble) calculations were used to assist in the spectral assignments and thermodynamic analysis. Results showed that the structures of hydrated alkali metal cations were determined predominantly by the competition between non-covalent interactions, i.e. the water---water hydrogen bonding interactions and the water---cation electrostatic interactions. This balance, however, is very delicate and small changes, i.e. different cations, different levels of hydration and different effective temperatures clearly impact the balance.

  3. Pressure-induced phase transitions of β-type pyrochlore CsTaWO6

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, F. X.; Tracy, C. L.; Shamblin, J.; Palomares, R. I.; Lang, M.; Park, S.; Park, C.; Tkachev, S.; Ewing, R. C.

    2016-09-30

    The β-type pyrochlore CsTaWO6 was studied by synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman scattering methods up to pressures of 43 GPa using a diamond anvil cell (DAC). With increasing pressure, the cubic pyrochlore in space group of Fd-3¯m with combining macron]m transforms to an orthorhombic structure (space group: Pnma) at 5.9 GPa and then to a monoclinic structure (space group: P21/c) at ~18 GPa. The structural evolution in CsTaWO6 is a continuous process and experimental results suggest that the initial cubic phase has a tetragonal distortion at ambient conditions. Both XRD and Raman measurements indicate that the pressure-induced phase transitions in CsTaWO6 are reversible. Lastly, these results may provide a structural explanation of previous experimental resistivity measurement results for the isostructural superconductor K(Cs)Os2O6 at high pressure conditions.

  4. Pressure-induced phase transitions of β-type pyrochlore CsTaWO6

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, F. X.; Tracy, C. L.; Shamblin, J.; Palomares, R. I.; Lang, M.; Park, S.; Park, C.; Tkachev, S.; Ewing, R. C.

    2016-09-30

    The β-type pyrochlore CsTaWO6 was studied by synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman scattering methods up to pressures of 43 GPa using a diamond anvil cell (DAC). With increasing pressure, the cubic pyrochlore in space group of Fd-3¯m with combining macron]m transforms to an orthorhombic structure (space group: Pnma) at 5.9 GPa and then to a monoclinic structure (space group: P21/c) at ~18 GPa. The structural evolution in CsTaWO6 is a continuous process and experimental results suggest that the initial cubic phase has a tetragonal distortion at ambient conditions. Both XRD and Raman measurements indicate that the pressure-induced phase transitions in CsTaWO6 are reversible. Lastly, these results may provide a structural explanation of previous experimental resistivity measurement results for the isostructural superconductor K(Cs)Os2O6 at high pressure conditions.

  5. Mott Transition in the A 15 Phase of Cs3 C60 : Absence of a Pseudogap and Charge Order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alloul, H.; Wzietek, P.; Mito, T.; Pontiroli, D.; Aramini, M.; Riccò, M.; Itie, J. P.; Elkaim, E.

    2017-06-01

    We present a detailed NMR study of the insulator-to-metal transition induced by an applied pressure p in the A 15 phase of Cs3 C60 . We evidence that the insulating antiferromagnetic (AFM) and superconducting (SC) phases coexist only in a narrow p range. At fixed p , in the metallic state above the SC transition Tc, the 133Cs and 13C NMR spin-lattice relaxation data are seemingly governed by a pseudogaplike feature. We prove that this feature, also seen in the 133Cs NMR shift data, is rather a signature of the Mott transition which broadens and smears out progressively for increasing (p ,T ). The analysis of the variation of the quadrupole splitting νQ of the 133Cs NMR spectrum precludes any cell symmetry change at the Mott transition and only monitors a weak variation of the lattice parameter. These results open an opportunity to consider theoretically the Mott transition in a multiorbital three-dimensional system well beyond its critical point.

  6. Phase relations in the Na2MoO4-Cs2MoO4 and Na2MoO4-Cs2MoO4-ZnMoO4 systems, crystal structures of Cs3Na(MoO4)2 and Cs3NaZn2(MoO4)4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotova, Evgeniya S.; Solodovnikova, Zoya A.; Yudin, Vasiliy N.; Solodovnikov, Sergey F.; Khaikina, Elena G.; Basovich, Olga M.; Korolkov, Iliya V.; Filatova, Irina Yu.

    2016-01-01

    The phase diagram of the Na2MoO4-Cs2MoO4 system was reinvestigated and a new intermediate compound, Cs3Na(MoO4)2, melting incongruently at 510 °С was found. Its crystal structure (a=6.3461(2), c=8.2209(3) Å, sp. gr. P3barm1, Z=1, R=0.0131) belongs to the glaserite type. Taking into account these data, the subsolidus phase relations of the system Na2MoO4-Cs2MoO4-ZnMoO4 was studied at 420 °С. The filling vacancies in the tetrahedral Zn position of the Cs6Zn5(MoO4)8 structure (sp. gr. I 4 bar 3d, Z=2) following the scheme Zn2++◻→2Na+ was established to result in the continuous solid solution Сs6Zn5-x◻1-xNa2x(MoO4)8 (0≤x≤1). With increasing the x value, the cubic lattice parameter of the solid solution increases linearly while its melting point decreases that testifies to destabilization of the Cs6Zn5(MoO4)8 structure by a progressive Na+ insertion. In the structure of Сs3NaZn2(MoO4)4 (а=12.3134(1) Å, R=0.0121), MoO4 and (Zn2/3Na1/3)O4 tetrahedra share corners to form an open 3D framework. The cesium ions are disordered around the centers of the cuboctahedral cavities of the framework to form ;clusters; of the central Cs(1) and four disordered Cs(2) positions.

  7. Critical Phenomena at the Normal-Incommensurate Phase Transition in Rb2ZnCl4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashiyama, Hiroyuki

    1981-08-01

    The X-ray reflection intensity and the dielectric constant are measured around the normal-incommensurate phase transition. From the temperature dependence of a satellite reflection at \\includegraphics{dummy.eps}, the critical exponent 2β is determined to be 0.69± 0.01. This value is very close to the exponent of the three-dimensional n{=}2-vector model. The dielectric constant along the ferroelectric axis shows a weak anomaly at the transition point, which is discussed with the aid of the remormalization-group method.

  8. Phase I Imaging and Pharmacodynamic Trial of CS-1008 in Patients With Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ciprotti, Marika; Tebbutt, Niall C.; Lee, Fook-Thean; Lee, Sze-Ting; Gan, Hui K.; McKee, David C.; O'Keefe, Graeme J.; Gong, Sylvia J.; Chong, Geoffrey; Hopkins, Wendie; Chappell, Bridget; Scott, Fiona E.; Brechbiel, Martin W.; Tse, Archie N.; Jansen, Mendel; Matsumura, Manabu; Kotsuma, Masakatsu; Watanabe, Rira; Venhaus, Ralph; Beckman, Robert A.; Greenberg, Jonathan; Scott, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose CS-1008 (tigatuzumab) is a humanized, monoclonal immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) agonistic antibody to human death receptor 5. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of CS-1008 dose on the biodistribution, quantitative tumor uptake, and antitumor response in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Patients and Methods Patients with mCRC who had received at least one course of chemotherapy were assigned to one of five dosage cohorts and infused with a weekly dose of CS-1008. Day 1 and day 36 doses were trace-labeled with indium-111 (111In), followed by whole-body planar and regional single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging at several time points over the course of 10 days. Results Nineteen patients were enrolled. 111In-CS-1008 uptake in tumor was observed in only 12 patients (63%). 111In-CS-1008 uptake and pharmacokinetics were not affected by dose or repeated drug administration. 111In-CS-1008 biodistribution showed gradual blood-pool clearance and no abnormal uptake in normal tissue. No anti–CS-1008 antibody development was detected. One patient achieved partial response (3.7 months duration), eight patients had stable disease, and 10 patients had progressive disease. Clinical benefit rate (stable disease + partial response) in patients with 111In-CS-1008 uptake in tumor was 58% versus 28% in patients with no uptake. An analysis of individual lesions showed that lesions with antibody uptake were one third as likely to progress as those without antibody uptake (P = .07). Death-receptor–5 expression in archived tumor samples did not correlate with 111In-CS-1008 uptake (P = .5) or tumor response (P = .6). Conclusion Death-receptor–5 imaging with 111In-CS-1008 reveals interpatient and intrapatient heterogeneity of uptake in tumor, is not dose dependent, and is predictive of clinical benefit in the treatment of patients who have mCRC. PMID:26124477

  9. Shape and phase evolution from CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocubes to tetragonal CsPb2Br5 nanosheets with an indirect bandgap.

    PubMed

    Li, Guopeng; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Zhifeng; Chang, Yajing; Zhang, Ting; Song, Zihang; Jiang, Yang

    2016-09-13

    Tetragonal CsPb2Br5 nanosheets were obtained by an oriented attachment of orthorhombic CsPbBr3 nanocubes, involving a lateral shape evolution from octagonal to square. Meanwhile, the experimental results, together with DFT simulation results, indicated that the tetragonal CsPb2Br5 is an indirect bandgap semiconductor that is PL-inactive with a bandgap of 2.979 eV.

  10. Phase separation in iron chalcogenide superconductor Rb0.8+xFe1.6+ySe2 as seen by Raman light scattering and band structure calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashkevich, Yu.; Gnezdilov, V.; Lemmens, P.; Shevtsova, T.; Gusev, A.; Lamonova, K.; Wulferding, D.; Gnatchenko, S.; Pomjakushina, E.; Conder, K.

    2016-06-01

    We report Raman light scattering in the phase separated superconducting single crystal Rb0.77Fe1.61Se2 with Tc = 32 K over a wide temperature region 3-500 K. The observed phonon lines from the majority vacancy ordered Rb2Fe4Se5 (245) antiferromagnetic phase with TN = 525 K demonstrate modest anomalies in the frequency, intensity and halfwidth at the superconductive phase transition. We identify phonon lines from the minority compressed RbδFe2Se2 (122) conductive phase. The superconducting gap with d x 2 - y 2 symmetry has been detected in our spectra. In the range 0-600 cm-1 we observe a weak but highly polarized B1g-type background which becomes well-structured upon cooling. A possible magnetic or multiorbital origin of this background is discussed. We argue that the phase separation in M0.8+xFe1.6+ySe2 is of pure magnetic origin. It occurs below the Néel temperature when the magnetic moment of iron reaches a critical value. We state that there is a spacer between the majority 245 and minority 122 phases. Using ab initio spin-polarized band structure calculations we demonstrate that the compressed vacancy ordered Rb2Fe4Se5 phase can be conductive and therefore may serve as a protective interface spacer between the purely metallic RbδFe2Se2 phase and the insulating Rb2Fe4Se5 phase providing percolative Josephson-junction like superconductivity all throughout of Rb0.8+xFe1.6+ySe2. Our lattice dynamics calculations show significant differences in the phonon spectra of the conductive and insulating Rb2Fe4Se5 phases.

  11. Reinvestigation of the Phase Transition in ABW-Type CsLiSO 4: Symmetry Analysis and Atomic Distortions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahlenberg, V.

    1998-07-01

    ABW-type CsLiSO4shows a reversible structural phase transition at approximately 202 K. The transformation is translationengleich and the space group symmetries of the two different polymorphic forms arePnma(phase I) andP{21}/{n}11 (phase II), respectively. The transition was reinvestigated using a group theoretical approach based on the published structural data of the two modifications. A combined rotation of the SO4and LiO4- tetrahedra was taken as the primary order parameterηinducing the transformation. Projection operator calculations revealed that the transition can be associated with the irreducible representation Γ+3ofPnma. Displacements of the Li, S, and Cs ions as well as the occurrence of certain strain components are symmetry allowed, too, and can couple toη. The global tilting pattern is compared with the rotational distortions observed in the transitions of ABW-type CsZnPO4. A rigid-unit mode approach is proposed for the explanation of the transitions.

  12. The phase diagram and physicochemical properties of the quaternary system Li+, Rb+, Mg2+//borate-H2O at 348 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huabin; Liu, Lu; Yu, Xudong; Zhang, Yujuan; Li, Zhongquan; Zeng, Ying

    2015-09-01

    Pingluo underground brine, located in the west of China, is a high-grade deposit of lithium, potassium, rubidium, and borates. To study the ways of multipurpose utilization of this resource, the phase equilibrium of the system Li+, Rb+, Mg2+//borate-H2O was investigated at 348 K by an isothermal dissolution method. The solubilities of the components and physicochemical properties of equilibrated solutions, such as density and refractive index were determined. The stable phase diagram, the water content diagram and the physicochemical properties vs. composition diagrams were constructed according to the experimental data. The stable phase diagram consists of one invariant point, three isothermal dissolution curves and three crystallization fields corresponding to single salts MgB4O5(OH)4 · 7H2O, RbB5O6(OH)4 · 2H2O, and Li2B4O7 · 3H2O. The Li2B4O7 · 3H2O salt has the smallest crystallization region, whereas RbB5O6(OH)4 · 2H2O occupies the largest part, so rubidium pentaborate can be more easily separated from solution than other coexisting salts of this system at 348 K.

  13. M3(P2O7)22--type open frameworks featuring [M2O8] and [M3O12] multinuclear transition-metal oxide units. Serendipitous synthesis of six polymorphic salt-inclusion magnetic solids: Na2M3(P2O7)2·ACl (M = Mn, Fe; A = Rb, Cs) and K2M3(P2O7)2·CsCl (M = Fe, Mn).

    PubMed

    Gao, Jianhua; Li, Jian; Sulejmanovic, Dino; Hwu, Shiou-Jyh

    2015-02-02

    Single crystals of six polymorphic salt-inclusion phosphates of the A(2)M(3)(P(2)O(7))(2)·A'Cl type, Na(2)Mn(3)(P(2)O(7))(2)·CsCl (1), Na(2)Mn(3)(P(2)O(7))(2)·RbCl (2), Na(2)Fe(3)(P(2)O(7))(2)·CsCl (3), Na(2)Fe(3)(P(2)O(7))(2)·RbCl (4), K(2)Mn(3)(P(2)O(7))(2)·CsCl (5), and K(2)Fe(3)(P(2)O(7))(2)·CsCl (6), were grown in reactive molten chloride flux media. Compounds 1-4 are isostructural and crystallize in the space group C2/c (No. 15), while 5 and 6 crystallize in P2/c (No. 13) and P1̅ (No. 2), respectively. The title compounds have demonstrated an unprecedented versatility, where the M(3)(P(2)O(7))(2)(2-) covalent open frameworks contain [M(3)O(12)] (M = Mn(2+), Fe(2+)) trimeric units in 1-4 and [M(2)O(8)] dimers in 5 and 6. These multinuclear, transition-metal oxide units are linked by Cl(-) ions through the M-Cl bonds to form one-dimensional (1D) chains. The 1D chains and [P(2)O(7)] groups share common O atoms to form the extended network. The M(3)(P(2)O(7))(2)(2-) open-framework structures exhibit channels where the respective Na(+)/K(+) ions and A'Cl salt (A' = Rb, Cs) reside. Magnetic susceptibility of 2 and 4 suggests bulk antiferromagnetic properties as expected. The local structure and thermal decomposition are examined by IR and differential scanning calorimetry of representative compounds. The factors that determine the reticular chemistry of the M(3)(P(2)O(7))(2)(2-) type are illustrated in terms of the inclusion of ionic lattices of different sizes and contents.

  14. Phase Transition in Cs 2KMnF 6: Crystal Structures of Low- and High-Temperature Modifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.; Carlson, S.; Sjödin, A.; Norrestam, R.

    2000-03-01

    Crystalline Cs2KMnF6, when prepared below 500°C, adopts a tetragonal elpasolite structure type. Differential scanning calorimetric investigations indicated that Cs2KMnF6 undergoes a phase transition from the low-temperature tetragonal phase (LT) to a high-temperature phase (HT) at about 530°C. Single crystals of the new HT phase could be obtained by annealing a crystalline LT specimen at 600°C followed by rapid quenching to room temperature. In the present study the structures of both phases have been studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The LT phase has the tetragonal space group symmetry I4/mmm, with unit-cell parameters a=6.319(1) (a·2=8.936) and c=9.257(2) Å, and Z=2. The HT phase has the cubic symmetry Fm3m, with the cell parameter a=9.067 Å and Z=4. Structural models of the LT and HT phases have been refined vs collected single-crystal X-ray reflection data to R values of 0.034 and 0.022, respectively. The uneven Mn-F bond distance distribution in the LT form, four bonds of 1.860(6) two of 2.034(9) Å, are typical for an octahedrally coordinated high-spin Mn3+ ion affected by Jahn-Teller effects. Due to symmetry constraints, all six octahedral Mn-F bonds in the HT form are equal to 1.931(5) Å. However, the mean square atomic displacement parameters of the fluorine atoms increases significantly from about 0.022 Å2 for the LT phase to 0.042 Å2 for the HT phase. The increased displacement parameters indicate that the phase transition from the LT to the HT form is associated with a directional disorder of the Jahn-Teller distortions around the Mn3+ ions.

  15. Synthesis and structural characterization of AMV2O8 (A = K, Rb, Tl, Cs; M = Nb, Ta) vanadates: a structural comparison of A(+)M(5+)V2O8 vanadates and A(+)M(5+)P2O8 phosphates.

    PubMed

    Paidi, Anil Kumar; Devi, R Nandini; Vidyasagar, Kanamaluru

    2015-10-21

    Eight new quaternary vanadates of niobium and tantalum, AMV2O8 (A = K, Rb, Tl, Cs; M = Nb, Ta), have been prepared by solid state reactions and structurally characterized by single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The two cesium compounds, unlike the known CsSbV2O8 with a layered yavapaiite structure, have a new three-dimensional structure and the other six compounds possess the known KSbV2O8 structure type. The three types of [(MV2O8)(-)]∞ anionic frameworks of twelve A(+)M(5+)V2O8 (A = K, Rb, Tl, Cs; M = Nb, Ta, Sb) vanadates could be conceived to be built by different connectivity patterns of M2V4O18 ribbons, which contain MO6 octahedra and VO4 tetrahedra. A structural comparison of these twelve vanadates and the nineteen A(+)M(5+)P2O8 phosphates has been made. The spectroscopic studies of these eight new quaternary vanadates are presented.

  16. Epitaxial growth of hexagonal tungsten bronze Cs x WO3 films in superconducting phase region exceeding bulk limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soma, Takuto; Yoshimatsu, Kohei; Ohtomo, Akira

    2016-07-01

    We report epitaxial synthesis of superconducting Cs x WO3 (x = 0.11, 0.20, and 0.31) films on Y-stabilized ZrO2 (111) substrates. The hexagonal crystal structure was verified not only for the composition within the stable region of the bulk (x = 0.20 and 0.31), but also for the out-of-range composition (x = 0.11). The onset of the superconducting transition was recorded at 5.8 K for x = 0.11. We found a strong correlation between the superconducting transition temperature (T C) and the c-axis length, irrespective of the Cs content. These results indicated that the hidden superconducting phase region of hexagonal tungsten bronze is accessible using epitaxial synthesis of lightly doped films.

  17. Two spatially separated phases in semiconducting Rb0.8Fe1.5S2

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Meng; Tian, Wei; Valdivia, P.; Chi, Songxue; Bourret-Courchesne, E.; Dai, Pengcheng; Birgeneau, R. J.

    2014-09-26

    We report neutron scattering and transport measurements on semiconducting Rb0.8Fe1.5S2, a compound isostructural and isoelectronic to the well-studied A0.8FeySe2(A = K, Rb, Cs, Tl/K) superconducting systems. Both resistivity and DC susceptibility measurements reveal a magnetic phase transition at T = 275 K. Neutron diffraction studies show that the 275 K transition originates from a phase with rhombic iron vacancy order which exhibits an in-plane stripe antiferromagnetic ordering below 275 K. In addition, the stripe antiferromagnetic phase interdigitates mesoscopically with an ubiquitous phase with √5 x√5 iron vacancy order. This phase has a magnetic transition at TN = 425 K and an iron vacancy order-disorder transition at TS = 600 K. These two different structural phases are closely similar to those observed in the isomorphous Se materials. Based on the close similarities of the in-plane antiferromagnetic structures, moments sizes, and ordering temperatures in semiconducting Rb0.8Fe1.5S2 and K0.81Fe1.58Se2, we argue that the in-plane antiferromagnetic order arises from strong coupling between local moments. Superconductivity, previously observed in the A0.8FeySe2₋ zSz system, is absent in A0.8Fe1.5S2, which has a semiconducting ground state. We discuss the implied relationship between stripe and block antiferromagnetism and superconductivity in these materials as well as a strategy for further investigation.

  18. Cs{sub 7}Sm{sub 11}[TeO{sub 3}]{sub 12}Cl{sub 16} and Rb{sub 7}Nd{sub 11}[TeO{sub 3}]{sub 12}Br{sub 16}, the new tellurite halides of the tetragonal Rb{sub 6}LiNd{sub 11}[SeO{sub 3}]{sub 12}Cl{sub 16} structure type

    SciTech Connect

    Charkin, Dmitri O.; Black, Cameron; Downie, Lewis J.; Sklovsky, Dmitry E.; Berdonosov, Peter S.; Olenev, Andrei V.; Zhou, Wuzong; Lightfoot, Philip; Dolgikh, Valery A.

    2015-12-15

    Two new rare-earth – alkali – tellurium oxide halides were synthesized by a salt flux technique and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The structures of the new compounds Cs{sub 7}Sm{sub 11}[TeO{sub 3}]{sub 12}Cl{sub 16} (I) and Rb{sub 7}Nd{sub 11}[TeO{sub 3}]{sub 12}Br{sub 16} (II) (both tetragonal, space group I4/mcm) correspond to the sequence of [MLn{sub 11}(TeO{sub 3}){sub 12}] and [M{sub 6}X{sub 16}] layers and bear very strong similarities to those of known selenite analogs. We discuss the trends in similarities and differences in compositions and structural details between the Se and Te compounds; more members of the family are predicted. - Graphical abstract: Two new rare-earth – alkali – tellurium oxide halides were predicted and synthesized. - Highlights: • Two new rare-earth – alkali – tellurium oxide halides were synthesized. • They adopt slab structure of rare earth-tellurium-oxygen and CsCl-like slabs. • The Br-based CsCl-like slabs have been observed first in this layered family.

  19. Spectroelectrochemistry of EuCl 3 in Four Molten Salt Eutectics; 3 LiCl−NaCl, 3 LiCl−2 KCl, LiCl−RbCl, and 3 LiCl−2 CsCl; at 873 K

    SciTech Connect

    Schroll, Cynthia A.; Chatterjee, Sayandev; Levitskaia, Tatiana; Heineman, William R.; Bryan, Samuel A.

    2016-05-17

    Key electrochemical properties affecting pyroprocessing of nuclear fuel were examined in four eutectic melts using using Eu3+/2+ as a representative probe. We report the electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical behavior of EuCl3 in four molten salt eutectics (3 LiCl – NaCl, 3 LiCl – 2 KCl, LiCl – RbCl and 3 LiCl – 2 CsCl) at 873 K. Cyclic voltammetry was used to determine the redox potential for Eu3+/2+ and the applied potentials for spectroelectrochemistry. Single step chronoabsorptometry and thin-layer spectroelectrochemistry were used to obtain the number of electrons transferred, redox potentials and diffusion coefficients for Eu3+ in each eutectic melt. The redox potentials determined by thin-layer spectroelectrochemistry were extremely close to those obtained using cyclic voltammetry. The redox potential for Eu3+/2+ was most positive in the 3 LiCl - NaCl melt, showed a negative shift in the 3 LiCl - 2 KCl melt, and was the most negative in the LiCl - RbCl and 3 LiCl - 2 CsCl eutectics. The diffusion coefficient for Eu3+ followed this same trend; it was the largest in the 3 LiCl - NaCl melt and the smallest in the LiCl - RbCl and 3 LiCl - 2 CsCl melts. The basic one-electron reversible electron transfer for Eu3+/2+ was not changed by melt composition.

  20. Guided ion beam and theoretical studies of the reaction of Ag{sup +} with CS{sub 2}: Gas-phase thermochemistry of AgS{sup +} and AgCS{sup +} and insight into spin-forbidden reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Armentrout, P. B.; Kretzschmar, Ilona

    2010-01-14

    The gas-phase reactivity of the atomic transition metal cation, Ag{sup +}, with CS{sub 2} is investigated using guided-ion beam mass spectrometry. Endothermic reactions forming AgS{sup +} and AgCS{sup +} are observed but are quite inefficient. This observation is largely attributed to the stability of the closed shell Ag{sup +}({sup 1}S,4d{sup 10}) ground state, but is also influenced by the fact that the reactions producing ground state AgS{sup +} and AgCS{sup +} products are both spin forbidden. Analysis of the kinetic energy dependence of the cross sections for formation of these two products yields the 0 K bond energies of D{sub 0}(Ag{sup +}-S)=1.40{+-}0.12 eV and D{sub 0}(Ag{sup +}-CS)=1.98{+-}0.14 eV. Quantum chemical calculations are used to investigate the electronic structure of the two product ions as well as the potential energy surfaces for reaction. The primary mechanism involves oxidative addition of a CS bond to the metal cation followed by simple Ag-S or Ag-CS bond cleavage. Crossing points between the singlet and triplet surfaces are located near the transition states for bond activation. Comparison with analogous work on other late second-row transition metal cations indicates that the location of the crossing points bears directly on the efficiency of these spin-forbidden processes.

  1. Guided ion beam and theoretical studies of the reaction of Ag(+) with CS(2): Gas-phase thermochemistry of AgS(+) and AgCS(+) and insight into spin-forbidden reactions.

    PubMed

    Armentrout, P B; Kretzschmar, Ilona

    2010-01-14

    The gas-phase reactivity of the atomic transition metal cation, Ag(+), with CS(2) is investigated using guided-ion beam mass spectrometry. Endothermic reactions forming AgS(+) and AgCS(+) are observed but are quite inefficient. This observation is largely attributed to the stability of the closed shell Ag(+)((1)S,4d(10)) ground state, but is also influenced by the fact that the reactions producing ground state AgS(+) and AgCS(+) products are both spin forbidden. Analysis of the kinetic energy dependence of the cross sections for formation of these two products yields the 0 K bond energies of D(0)(Ag(+)-S)=1.40+/-0.12 eV and D(0)(Ag(+)-CS)=1.98+/-0.14 eV. Quantum chemical calculations are used to investigate the electronic structure of the two product ions as well as the potential energy surfaces for reaction. The primary mechanism involves oxidative addition of a CS bond to the metal cation followed by simple Ag[Single Bond]S or Ag[Single Bond]CS bond cleavage. Crossing points between the singlet and triplet surfaces are located near the transition states for bond activation. Comparison with analogous work on other late second-row transition metal cations indicates that the location of the crossing points bears directly on the efficiency of these spin-forbidden processes.

  2. Alkyl-Thiol Ligand-Induced Shape- and Crystalline Phase-Controlled Synthesis of Stable Perovskite-Related CsPb2Br5 Nanocrystals at Room Temperature.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Longfei; Shen, Wei; Wang, Aifei; Xiang, Aishuang; Deng, Zhengtao

    2017-08-17

    Controlled synthesis of colloidal all-inorganic lead halide perovskite semiconductor nanocrystals, such as CsPbBr3, with tunable size, shape, composition, and crystalline phase have recently attracted wide interest for photonic and optoelectronic applications. Herein, we report a new strategy for using alkyl-thiols to induce the transformation of CsPbBr3 to perovskite-related cesium lead halide (CsPb2Br5) with controlled morphology and a crystalline phase at room temperature. By rational tuning the ratios of the alkyl-thiol ligands to alkyl-amines or to alkyl-acids, the as-synthesized colloidal nanocrystals can be rationally controlled from orthorhombic crystalline-phase CsPbBr3 to tetragonal-phase CsPb2Br5 nanosheets and nanowires with high yield. Significantly, the tetragonal CsPb2Br5 nanowires and nanosheets have high stability in high-temperature and high-humidity environments. These findings may open new directions for large-scale synthesis of shape- and crystalline phase-controlled perovskite nanocrystals for high-performance, low-cost optical electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  3. Temperature and composition phase diagram in the iron-based ladder compounds Ba 1 - x Cs x Fe 2 Se 3

    DOE PAGES

    Hawai, Takafumi; Nambu, Yusuke; Ohgushi, Kenya; ...

    2015-05-28

    We investigated the iron-based ladder compounds (Ba,Cs)Fe₂Se₃. Their parent compounds BaFe₂Se₃ and CsFe₂Se₃ have different space groups, formal valences of Fe, and magnetic structures. Electrical resistivity, specific heat, magnetic susceptibility, x-ray diffraction, and powder neutron diffraction measurements were conducted to obtain a temperature and composition phase diagram of this system. Block magnetism observed in BaFe₂Se₃ is drastically suppressed with Cs doping. In contrast, stripe magnetism observed in CsFe₂Se₃ is not so fragile against Ba doping. A new type of magnetic structure appears in intermediate compositions, which is similar to stripe magnetism of CsFe₂Se₃, but interladder spin configuration is different. Intermediatemore » compounds show insulating behavior, nevertheless a finite T-linear contribution in specific heat was obtained at low temperatures.« less

  4. Synthesis and characterization of new fluoride-containing manganese vanadates A{sub 2}Mn{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7}F{sub 2} (A=Rb, Cs) and Mn{sub 2}VO{sub 4}F

    SciTech Connect

    Sanjeewa, Liurukara D.; McGuire, Michael A.; Smith Pellizzeri, Tiffany M.; McMillen, Colin D.; Ovidiu Garlea, V.; Willett, Daniel; Chumanov, George; Kolis, Joseph W.

    2016-09-15

    Large single crystals of A{sub 2}Mn{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7}F{sub 2} (A=Rb, Cs) and Mn{sub 2}VO{sub 4}F were grown using a high-temperature (~600 °C) hydrothermal technique. Single crystal X-ray diffraction and powder X-ray diffraction were utilized to characterize the structures, which both possess MnO{sub 4}F{sub 2} building blocks. The A{sub 2}Mn{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7}F{sub 2} series crystallizes as a new structure type in space group Pbcn (No. 60), Z=4 (Rb{sub 2}Mn{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7}F{sub 2}: a=7.4389(17) Å, b=11.574(3) Å, c=10.914(2) Å; Cs{sub 2}Mn{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7}F{sub 2}: a=7.5615(15) Å, b=11.745(2) Å, c=11.127(2) Å). The structure is composed of zigzag chains of edge-sharing MnO{sub 4}F{sub 2} units running along the a-axis, and interconnected through V{sub 2}O{sub 7} pyrovanadate groups. Temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility measurements on this interesting one-dimensional structural feature based on Mn{sup 2+} indicated that Cs{sub 2}Mn{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7}F{sub 2} is antiferromagnetic with a Neél temperature, T{sub N}=~3 K and a Weiss constant, θ, of −11.7(1) K. Raman and infrared spectra were also analyzed to identify the fundamental V–O vibrational modes in Cs{sub 2}Mn{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7}F{sub 2}. Mn{sub 2}(VO{sub 4})F crystalizes in the monoclinic space group of C2/c (no. 15), Z=8 with unit cell parameters of a=13.559(2) Å, b=6.8036(7) Å, c=10.1408(13) Å and β=116.16(3)°. The structure is associated with those of triplite and wagnerite. Dynamic fluorine disorder gives rise to complex alternating chains of five-and six-coordinate Mn{sup 2+}. These interpenetrating chains are additionally connected through isolated VO{sub 4} tetrahedra to form the condensed structure. - Graphical abstract: New vanadate fluorides A{sub 2}Mn{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7}F{sub 2} (A=Rb, Cs) and Mn{sub 2}(VO{sub 4})F have been synthesized hydrothermally. Upon cooling, the one-dimensional Mn(II) substructure results in antiferromagnetic

  5. Phase-change behavior and nonlinear optical second and third harmonic generation of the one-dimensional K{sub (1-x)}Cs{sub x}PSe{sub 6} and metastable {beta}-CsPSe{sub 6}.

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, Alyssa S.; Saouma, Felix O.; Otieno, Calford O.; Clark, Daniel J.; Shoemaker, Daniel P.; Jang, Joon I.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2015-03-10

    The APSe(6) (A = K, K(1-x)Csx, Cs) family of one-dimensional (1D) materials was studied to examine the effects of the cation size on the nonlinear optical (NLO) response. The family has high-performing NLO properties with the noncentrosymmetric parent material, KPSe6, having infinite 1D chains of 1/(infinity)[PSe6-]. This structure has been successfully substituted with cesium up to K0.6Cs0.4PSe6 while retaining the polar character. All compounds crystallize in the space group Pca2(1) and have band gaps of 2.1 eV. In situ powder X-ray diffraction experiments using synchrotron radiation were used to determine the specifics of the amorphous to crystalline behavior and the crystallization and melting kinetics of the APSe(6) system. These measurements revealed a new phase, beta-CsPSe6, which is metastable and crystallizes in the noncentrosymmetric tetragonal space group P (4) over bar2(1)c with a = 12.526(2) angstrom, c = 12.781(3) angstrom, V = 2005.3(6) angstrom(3), and Z = 8. The structure is composed of 2 sets of mutually perpendicular 1/8[PSe6-] chains charge-balanced by Cs cations, and the band gap of beta-CsPSe6 is 1.9 eV. Second harmonic generation (SHG) measurements demonstrate that substitution of Cs into KPSe6 maintains the strong NLO signal with a very high SHG coefficient (chi((2))) of similar to 150 pm/V for K(1-x)CsxPSe6 and 30 pm/V for beta-CsPSe6. Laser-induced damage threshold analysis reveals APSe(6) exhibits two-photon absorption (2PA) at 1064 nm with input laser intensity greater than 1 GW/cm(2) and optical damage from 2PA at similar to 2 GW/cm(2). The materials also exhibit strong third harmonic generation (THG) with THG coefficients (chi((3)) x 10(5)) for KPSe6, K0.6Cs0.4PSe6, alpha-CsPSe6, and beta-CsPSe6 to be 2.6, 3.1, 1.8, and 1.1 pm(2)/V-2, respectively.

  6. Synthesis and structural characterization of the new clathrates K8Cd4Ge42, Rb8Cd4Ge42, and Cs8Cd4Ge42

    SciTech Connect

    Schafer, Marion; Bobev, Svilen

    2016-03-25

    This paper presents results from our exploratory work in the systems K-Cd-Ge, Rb-Cd-Ge, and Cs-Cd-Ge, which yielded the novel type-I clathrates with refined compositions K8Cd3.77(7)Ge42.23, Rb8Cd3.65(7)Ge42.35, and Cs7.80(1)Cd3.65(6)Ge42.35. The three compounds represent rare examples of clathrates of germanium with the alkali metals, where a d10 element substitutes a group 14 element. The three structures, established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, indicate that the framework-building Ge atoms are randomly substituted by Cd atoms on only one of the three possible crystallographic sites. Furthermore, this and several other details of the crystal chemistry are elaborated.

  7. Low-temperature ordered phases of the spin-1/2 XXZ chain system Cs2CoCl4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breunig, O.; Garst, M.; Rosch, A.; Sela, E.; Buldmann, B.; Becker, P.; Bohatý, L.; Müller, R.; Lorenz, T.

    2015-01-01

    In this study the magnetic order of the spin-1/2 XXZ chain system Cs2CoCl4 in a temperature range from 50 mK to 0.5 K and in applied magnetic fields up to 3.5 T is investigated by high-resolution measurements of the thermal expansion and the specific heat. Applying magnetic fields along a or c suppresses TN completely at about 2.1 T. In addition, we find an adjacent intermediate phase before the magnetization saturates close to 2.5 T. For magnetic fields applied along b , a surprisingly rich phase diagram arises. Two additional transitions are observed at critical fields μ0HS F 1≃0.25 T and μ0HS F 2≃0.7 T , which we propose to arise from a two-stage spin-flop transition.

  8. Results of initial phase conjugation experiments in CS/sub 2/ and CCl/sub 4/

    SciTech Connect

    Milam, D.; Marshall, C.; Vercimak, C.; Moore, T.

    1988-05-17

    A liquid with lower nonlinear refractive index, CCl/sub 4/, provided conjugated beams with clean near field distribution, unless astigmatism was added to the input beam. Astigmatism caused fringing on the conjugated beam. The tendency toward fringing was diminished in our more recent experiments in glass and methane. Measured thresholds and reflectances for both CS/sub 2/ and CC1/sub 4/ agreed with published results. Waveforms of pulses produced by SBS are different from those of the input pulse. Except for tansients observed on the leading edge, all aspects of the SBS wave form can be explained. Correction by conjugation in CC1/sub 4/for up to 4.5 waves of astigmatism provided beams with divergence not greater than twice the diffraction limit. Experimental error may account for some of the apparent divergence. 12 refs., 12 figs.

  9. Evidence for the encagement of alkali metal ions through the formation of gas-phase clathrates: Cs sup + in water clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Selinger, A.; Castleman, A.W. Jr. )

    1991-10-31

    Reported herein is the first evidence for the encagement of an atomic ion in a cluster leading to the formation of a gas-phase clathrate, namely Cs{sup +} contained within a complex comprised of 20 water molecules. Evidence is also presented for the encagement of Cs{sup +} by other (distorted) clathrates involving 18, 22, 24, 27 and 29 water molecules. All of these species were reduced under thermal reaction conditions in a fast-flow reactor.

  10. Magnetoelastic coupling within a Landau model of phase transitions: Application to the frustrated triangular antiferromagnet CsNiCl3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirion, G.; Han, X.; Plumer, M. L.

    2011-07-01

    A model Landau free energy is proposed in order to describe elastic coupling to spin degrees of freedom in systems exhibiting phase transitions which involve long-range magnetic order. Using rigourous symmetry arguments, various interaction terms are derived for magnetic materials with a hexagonal crystal structure. The model is applied to the frustrated triangular antiferromagnet CsNiCl3 and used to analyze and correlate a wide variety of experimental results such as the magnetic phase diagram, magnetization, strains, and elastic constant measurements at low temperatures. Good agreement between the model and the data is obtained for the temperature and magnetic field dependence of C33 and C66 in the vicinity of phase transitions. In particular, the analysis shows that the anomaly observed in the field dependence of C33, close to the spin-flop phase boundary (HSF≃2 T), is dominated by the field dependence of the magnetic susceptibility. It is also found that higher order magnetoelastic coupling terms are required to reproduce the qualitative behavior of the elastic constants in the vicinity of the phase transitions. Our results demonstrate that a straightforward mean-field model which incorporates the correct system symmetries provides a powerful tool for relating complex spin configurations to the elastic and other response functions. The present work also serves to complement and expand our earlier results [G. Quirion , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.97.077202 97, 077202 (2006)].

  11. Anomalous magnetic phase diagrams in the site-diluted Heisenberg antiferromagnets, A2Fe1- xInxCl5.H2O (A = Rb, K)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campo, Javier; Palacio, Fernando; Morón, M. Carmen; Becerra, Carlos C.; Paduan-Filho, Armando

    1999-06-01

    The effect of the substitution of diamagnetic ions for paramagnetic ones in the magnetic phase diagrams of the low-anisotropy antiferromagnets A2Fe1-xInxCl5.H2O (A = Rb,K) is investigated. In the region where the spin-flop (SF) transition occurs, the consequences of dilution are manifested as the appearance of a structure of secondary transition lines and a substantial enhancement of the transition width. In the SF region a multiple-peak structure is observed in the ac susceptibility measurements which is associated with the secondary transition lines. This behaviour is discussed in terms of several mechanisms proposed previously. When the sample is cooled in applied fields below HSF(T) we observe the presence of a remanent magnetization (Mr) in the antiferromagnetic (AF) phase. Such magnetization was previously found in these solid solutions at very low fields (a few Oe). Here we also find that Mr follows a temperature dependence that is independent of the concentration x and is the same for the K and Rb derivatives.

  12. Two excellent phase-matchable infrared nonlinear optical materials based on 3D diamond-like frameworks: RbGaSn2Se6 and RbInSn2Se6.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hua; Chen, Hong; Zheng, Yu-Jun; Yu, Ju-Song; Wu, Xin-Tao; Wu, Li-Ming

    2017-06-28

    Mid- and far-infrared (MFIR) nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals with excellent performances are critical to laser frequency-conversion technology. However, the current commercial MFIR NLO crystals, including AgGaS2 (AGS), AgGaSe2 and ZnGeP2, suffer from certain intrinsic drawbacks and cannot achieve a good balance between large second-harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency and high laser-induced damage thresholds (LIDTs). Herein, we report two new phase-matchable MFIR NLO chalcogenides, specifically RbXSn2Se6 (X = Ga, In), which were successfully synthesized by high-temperature solid-state reactions. The remarkable structural feature of these materials was their 3D diamond-like framework (DLF) stacked by M3Se9 (M = X/Sn) asymmetric building units of vertex-sharing MSe4 tetrahedra along the c axis. Significantly, both of the materials showed the excellent NLO performances with the desired balance between their large SHG efficiencies (4.2 and 4.8 × benchmark AGS) and large LIDTs (8.9 and 8.1 × benchmark AGS), demonstrating that the title compounds meet the crucial conditions as promising MFIR NLO candidates. Furthermore, the crystal structures, synthesis, and theoretical analysis, as well as optical properties are presented herein.

  13. Status of U.S./Japan collaborative program phase II HFIR target and RB{sup *} capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel, J.E.; Lenox, K.E.; Longest, A.W.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of the HFIR irradiations is to determine the response of various U.S. and Japanese austenitic and ferritic steels with different pretreatments and alloy compositions to the combined effects of displacement damage and helium generation. Specimen temperatures during irradiation range from 60 to 600{degrees}C and fluences range up to 60 dpa. The RB{sup *} experiments are a continuation of the ORR spectrally tailored experiments in which the spectrum is modified with a hafnium shield to simulate the expected fusion helium to damage (He/dpa) ratio. In the HFIR target capsules, many specimens have been isotopically tailored in order to achieve fusion helium generation rates.

  14. Modulated structure of Rb{sub 2}ZnCl{sub 4} in the soliton regime close to the lock-in phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Aramburu, I.; Morgenroth, W.; Breczewski, T.

    2006-01-01

    The structure of the incommensurate phase of Rb{sub 2}ZnCl{sub 4} has been determined at 194 K (2 K above the lock-in transition) within the soliton regime using satellites up to fifth order. The rather anharmonic modulation functions agree with the expected steplike functions supported by theoretical arguments. In addition, the constancy of the ratio between the amplitudes of the fifth-order and first-order harmonics, a relation predicted by theory, indicate the correctness of the model and imply a value of 0.4 for the soliton density n{sub s}. A symmetry mode analysis shows that the incommensurate structure is consistent with the one of the lock-in phase in the sense that the displacement pattern of every symmetry mode remains unaltered in the transition except for a global change in the amplitudes.

  15. Correlations between potassium, rubidium and cesium ((133)Cs and (137)Cs) in sporocarps of Suillus variegatus in a Swedish boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Vinichuk, M; Rosén, K; Johanson, K J; Dahlberg, A

    2011-04-01

    An analysis of sporocarps of ectomycorrhizal fungi Suillus variegatus assessed whether cesium ((133)Cs and (137)Cs) uptake was correlated with potassium (K) or rubidium (Rb) uptake. The question was whether intraspecific correlations of Rb, K and (133)Cs mass concentrations with (137)Cs activity concentrations in sporocarps were higher within, rather than among, different fungal species, and if genotypic origin of sporocarps within a population affected uptake and correlation. Sporocarps (n = 51) from a Swedish forest population affected by the fallout after the Chernobyl accident were studied. The concentrations were 31.9 ± 6.79 g kg(-1) for K (mean ± SD, dwt), 0.40 ± 0.09 g kg(-1) for Rb, 8.7 ± 4.36 mg kg(-1) for (133)Cs and 63.7 ± 24.2 kBq kg(-1) for (137)Cs. The mass concentrations of (133)Cs correlated with (137)Cs activity concentrations (r = 0.61). There was correlation between both (133)Cs concentrations (r = 0.75) and (137)Cs activity concentrations (r = 0.44) and Rb, but the (137)Cs/(133)Cs isotopic ratio negatively correlated with Rb concentration. Concentrations of K and Rb were weakly correlated (r = 0.51). The (133)Cs mass concentrations, (137)Cs activity concentrations and (137)Cs/(133)Cs isotopic ratios did not correlate with K concentrations. No differences between, within or, among genotypes in S. variegatus were found. This suggested the relationships between K, Rb, (133)Cs and (137)Cs in sporocarps of S. variegatus is similar to other fungal species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Phase formation in the Li{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}–Rb{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}–Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} system and crystal structure of a novel triple molybdate LiRb{sub 2}Fe(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Khal'baeva, Klara M.; Solodovnikov, Sergey F.; Khaikina, Elena G.; Kadyrova, Yuliya M.; Solodovnikova, Zoya A.; Basovich, Olga M.

    2013-07-15

    X-ray investigation of solid state interaction of the components in the Li{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}–Rb{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}–Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} system was carried out, and a subsolidus phase diagram of the said system was constructed. The subsystem Rb{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}–LiRbMoO{sub 4}–RbFe(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} was shown to be non-quasiternary. Formation of a novel triple molybdate LiRb{sub 2}Fe(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} was established, conditions of solid state synthesis and crystallization of the compound were found. Its crystal structure (orthorhombic, space group Pnma, Z=4, a=24.3956(6), b=5.8306(1), c=8.4368(2) Å) represents a new structure type and includes infinite two-row ribbons ([Fe(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3}]{sup 3−}){sub ∞} parallel to the b axis and composed of FeO{sub 6} octahedra, terminal Mo(3)O{sub 4} tetrahedra, and bridge Mo(1)O{sub 4} and Mo(2)O{sub 4} tetrahedra connecting two or three FeO{sub 6} octahedra. The ribbons are connected to form 3D framework via corner-sharing LiO{sub 4} tetrahedra. Rubidium cations are 11- and 13-coordinated and located in cavities of this heterogeneous polyhedral framework. - Graphical abstract: Exploring the Li{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}–Rb{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}–Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} system showed its partial non-quasiternarity and revealed a new compound LiRb{sub 2}Fe(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} which was structurally studied. - Highlights: • The Li{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}–Rb{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}–Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} system study revealed a new compound LiRb{sub 2}Fe(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3}. • Its structure of a new type includes ribbons of FeO{sub 6} octahedra and MoO{sub 4} tetrahedra. • The ribbons are connected into a 3D framework via corner-sharing LiO{sub 4} tetrahedra.

  17. Near-Atomic Resolution Structure Determination in Over-Focus with Volta Phase Plate by Cs-Corrected Cryo-EM.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiao; Zhao, Lingyun; Liu, Chuan; Zhang, Jin-Can; Fan, Kelong; Yan, Xiyun; Peng, Hai-Lin; Lei, Jianlin; Wang, Hong-Wei

    2017-10-03

    Volta phase plate (VPP) is a recently developed transmission electron microscope (TEM) apparatus that can significantly enhance the image contrast of biological samples in cryoelectron microscopy, and therefore provide the possibility to solve structures of relatively small macromolecules at high-resolution. In this work, we performed theoretical analysis and found that using phase plate on objective lens spherical aberration (Cs)-corrected TEM may gain some interesting optical properties, including the over-focus imaging of macromolecules. We subsequently evaluated the imaging strategy of frozen-hydrated apo-ferritin with VPP on a Cs-corrected TEM and obtained the structure of apo-ferritin at near-atomic resolution from both under- and over-focused dataset, illustrating the feasibility and new potential of combining VPP with Cs-corrected TEM for high-resolution cryo-EM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Vapor-Phase Epitaxial Growth of Aligned Nanowire Networks of Cesium Lead Halide Perovskites (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, I).

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Fu, Yongping; Samad, Leith; Dang, Lianna; Zhao, Yuzhou; Shen, Shaohua; Guo, Liejin; Jin, Song

    2017-01-11

    With the intense interest in inorganic cesium lead halide perovskites and their nanostructures for optoelectronic applications, high-quality crystalline nanomaterials with controllable morphologies and growth directions are desirable. Here, we report a vapor-phase epitaxial growth of horizontal single-crystal CsPbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I) nanowires (NWs) and microwires (MWs) with controlled crystallographic orientations on the (001) plane of phlogopite and muscovite mica. Moreover, single NWs, Y-shaped branches, interconnected NW or MW networks with 6-fold symmetry, and, eventually, highly dense epitaxial network of CsPbBr3 with nearly continuous coverage were controllably obtained by varying the growth time. Detailed structural study revealed that the CsPbBr3 wires grow along the [001] directions and have the (100) facets exposed. The incommensurate heteroepitaxial lattice match between the CsPbBr3 and mica crystal structures and the growth mechanism of these horizontal wires due to asymmetric lattice mismatch were proposed. Furthermore, the photoluminescence waveguiding and good performance from the photodetector device fabricated with these CsPbBr3 networks demonstrated that these well-connected CsPbBr3 NWs could serve as straightforward platforms for fundamental studies and optoelectronic applications.

  19. Electrochemistry of Europium(III) Chloride in 3 LiCl – NaCl, 3 LiCl – 2 KCl, LiCl – RbCl, and 3 LiCl – 2 CsCl Eutectics at Various Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Schroll, Cynthia A.; Chatterjee, Sayandev; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Heineman, William R.; Bryan, Samuel A.

    2017-01-01

    Here we report the effect of changing the eutectic melt composition on the electrochemical properties of europium(III) chloride under pyroprocessing conditions. The number of electrons transferred, redox potentials and diffusion coefficients were determined using various electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical techniques in four different eutectic mixtures (3 LiCl - NaCl, 3 LiCl - 2 KCl, 3 LiCl - RbCl, and 3 LiCl - 2 CsCl) while varying the temperature of the melt. It was determined that Eu3+ undergoes a one electron reduction to Eu2+ in each melt at all temperatures evaluated. Within all the melts a positive shift in the redox potential as well as an increase in the diffusion coefficient for Eu3+ was observed as the temperature increased. Also observed was a positive shift in the redox potential and increase in the diffusion coefficient for Eu3+ as the weighted average of the cationic radii for the melt decreased.

  20. Phase-separation induced homogeneous nucleation and growth of Cs{sub 3}LaCl{sub 6} nanoparticles in chalcohalide glass

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Anping; Lin, Hang; Chen, Daqin; Yu, Yunlong; Wang, Yuansheng

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The phase-separation induced nucleation and growth of Cs{sub 3}LaCl{sub 6} nanocrystals has been studied for the first time. It is experimentally evidenced that the doped active rare earth ions are incorporated into the Cs{sub 3}LaCl{sub 6} nanocrystals, resulting in the intensified down- and up-conversion emissions. - Highlights: • A novel transparent glass ceramic containing Cs{sub 3}LaCl{sub 6} nanocrystals was fabricated. • Crystallization behaviors of Cs{sub 3}LaCl{sub 6} nanophase are systematically investigated. • The up-/down-conversion emissions are greatly intensified after crystallization. - Abstract: The phase-separation induced nucleation and growth of Cs{sub 3}LaCl{sub 6} nanocrystals has been studied in the GeS{sub 2}-Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3}-La{sub 2}S{sub 3}-LaCl{sub 3}-CsCl system for the first time. Remarkably, the precipitated chloride nanocrystals are spherical and distributed homogeneously in the glass matrix. Benefiting from the uniform structure, high transparency of the glass ceramic is maintained after heat treatment by reducing adverse optical scattering. As revealed by the absorption spectra and Judd–Ofelt calculations, the doped active rare earth ions are partially partitioned into the low-phonon-energy Cs{sub 3}LaCl{sub 6} nanocrystals, resulting in the decrease of the non-radiative transition probabilities and therefore intensified photoluminescence emission of Nd{sup 3+} and up-conversion one of Er{sup 3+}.

  1. Pressure-induced phase transitions in rubidium azide: Studied by in-situ x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dongmei; Wu, Xiaoxin; Jiang, Junru; Zhang, Jian; Cui, Qiliang; Zhu, Hongyang; Wang, Xiaoli

    2014-08-18

    We present the in-situ X-ray diffraction studies of RbN{sub 3} up to 42.0 GPa at room temperature to supplement the high pressure exploration of alkali azides. Two pressure-induced phase transitions of α-RbN{sub 3} → γ-RbN{sub 3} → δ-RbN{sub 3} were revealed at 6.5 and 16.0 GPa, respectively. During the phase transition of α-RbN{sub 3} → γ-RbN{sub 3}, lattice symmetry decreases from a fourfold to a twofold axis accompanied by a rearrangement of azide anions. The γ-RbN{sub 3} was identified to be a monoclinic structure with C2/m space group. Upon further compression, an orthogonal arrangement of azide anions becomes energetically favorable for δ-RbN{sub 3}. The compressibility of α-RbN{sub 3} is anisotropic due to the orientation of azide anions. The bulk modulus of α-RbN{sub 3} is 18.4 GPa, quite close to those of KN{sub 3} and CsN{sub 3}. By comparing the phase transition pressures of alkali azides, their ionic character is found to play a key role in pressure-induced phase transitions.

  2. Investigation of structural phase transition behavior by thermal analysis, high temperature X-ray single crystal and vibrational study of Rb2HAsO4ṡTe(OH)6 compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechibani, I.; Litaiem, H.; Ktari, L.; Garcia-Granda, S.; Dammak, M.

    2014-10-01

    The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis of Rb2HAsO4ṡTe(OH)6 (RbAsTe) material shows three phase transitions at 332 K, 464 K and 476 K. In order to identify the first phase transition, we have conducted the X-ray single crystal analysis at high temperature (363 K). X-ray powder diffraction and Raman studies at different temperatures confirmed the presence of the phase transitions in this material as well as the presence of reconstructive phase transition, with such considerable changes of structural parameters. In fact, at T = 363 K, the crystal structure of (RbAsTe) is found to crystallize in the monoclinic system I2/a with the following cell parameters: a = 16.7279(11) Å, b = 7.1339(6) Å, c = 12.4841(10) Å, β = 90.295(6)°, Z = 8, V = 1489.5(2) Å3. At this temperature, the structure is made up of planes of TeO6 groups alternating with those of AsO4 polyhedra. The Rb+ cations are intercalated between these pure planes. The increase in temperature affected the structural arrangement in which the coordinated polyhedra are distorted and the “a” lattice cell dimension increases with a slight variation of the other parameters. The planes of octahedra and tetrahedra were parallel to the c direction like those in the structure at room temperature but the planes formed by the cations atoms changed their direction.

  3. Etude par diffraction neutronique de la phase ``Cs4-xYb12F40-x'' (0 <= x <= 1): Hypothèse structurale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aléonard, S.; Lambert, B.; Pannetier, J.; Gorius, M. F.; Roux, M. Th.

    1985-07-01

    The structure of the phase Cs 4- xYb 12F 40- x(0 ≤ x ≤ 1) has been determined by a single-crystal neutron diffraction study. It has been solved in the space group P6 3mc and refined to the best R factor of 0.0535 for the formula Cs 3.4Yb 12F 39.4 (324 independent reflections). Three edge-sharing pentagonal bipyramids surrounding three ytterbium atoms form Yb 3F 16 groups and the structure is described as the superposition, according to the sequence A1A2B1B2A1A2…, of sheets of corner-sharing Yb 3F 16 groups with a possible transformation of bipyramids into octahedra in the A2 and B2 layers. These sheets are joined together by the axial fluorine atoms of the bipyramids or octahedra. Cesium atoms are located in the tunnels formed by their stacking. It is shown that the Cs 4- xYb 12F 40- x phase (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) is an intermediate step of the Cs 4- xYb 12F 40- x solid solution observed with 0 ≤ x ≤ 2 and corresponds to a superstructure of the high-temperature YbF 3 phase.

  4. High temperature synthesis of two open-framework uranyl silicates with ten-ring channels: Cs{sub 2}(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}Si{sub 8}O{sub 19} and Rb{sub 2}(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}Si{sub 5}O{sub 13}

    SciTech Connect

    Babo, Jean-Marie; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2013-01-15

    The uranyl silicates Cs{sub 2}(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}Si{sub 8}O{sub 19} and Rb{sub 2}(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}Si{sub 5}O{sub 13} were obtained by mixing stoichiometric amounts of uranium metal, tellurium dioxide, silicon dioxide, and an excess of correspondent alkali metal halide flux. These compounds crystallize in the orthorhombic space groups Pnma and C222 with eight and two units per unit cell, respectively. Their crystal structures are dominated by zippered pentagonal bipyramidal chains of UO{sub 7} and silicates layer that are further connected into 3D frameworks. The cesium compound has silicate double layers while rubidium has a single layer. Six-ring voids and ten-ring channels are found in both compounds. - Graphical abstract: A view of the three-dimensional network structure of Cs{sub 2}(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}Si{sub 8}O{sub 19}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three-dimensional uranium silicates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analogs of natural uranyl silicate minerals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Complexity and symmetry ambiguity of uranyl silicates.

  5. The Rb problem in massive AGB stars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Mesa, V.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Zamora, O.; Plez, B.; Manchado, A.; Karakas, A. I.; Lugaro, M.

    2017-03-01

    The asymptotic giant branch (AGB) is formed by low- and intermediate-mass stars (0.8 M_{⊙} < M < 8 M_{⊙}) in their last nuclear-burning phase, when they develop thermal pulses (TP) and suffer extreme mass loss. AGB stars are the main contributor to the enrichment of the interstellar medium (ISM) and thus to the chemical evolution of galaxies. In particular, the more massive AGB stars (M > 4 M_{⊙}) are expected to produce light (e.g., Li, N) and heavy neutron-rich s-process elements (such as Rb, Zr, Ba, Y, etc.), which are not formed in lower mass AGB stars and Supernova explosions. Classical chemical analyses using hydrostatic atmospheres revealed strong Rb overabundances and high [Rb/Zr] ratios in massive AGB stars of our Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds (MC), confirming for the first time that the ^{22}Ne neutron source dominates the production of s-process elements in these stars. The extremely high Rb abundances and [Rb/Zr] ratios observed in the most massive stars (specially in the low-metallicity MC stars) uncovered a Rb problem; such extreme Rb and [Rb/Zr] values are not predicted by the s-process AGB models, suggesting fundamental problems in our present understanding of their atmospheres. We present more realistic dynamical model atmospheres that consider a gaseous circumstellar envelope with a radial wind and we re-derive the Rb (and Zr) abundances in massive Galactic AGB stars. The new Rb abundances and [Rb/Zr] ratios derived with these dynamical models significantly resolve the problem of the mismatch between the observations and the theoretical predictions of the more massive AGB stars.

  6. Li1.5Rb0.5MoO4: Ferroelectric properties and characterization of phase transitions by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasr, W. Ben; Karoui, K.; Bulou, A.; Rhaiem, A. Ben

    2017-09-01

    The new Li1.5Rb0.5MoO4 compound has been synthesized by solid state reaction route, which crystallized at room temperature in the monoclinic system (space group P21) with the lattice parameters are a = 15.3157 Å, b = 14.3226 Å, c = 9.0217 Å, β = 97.741°, and V = 1960.97 Å3. Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) disclosed two endothermic peaks at T1 = 393 K and T2 = 410 K. The temperature dependence of the dielectric constant at different frequency proved that this compound is ferroelectric below approximately 412 K. Temperature dependent variation of the dielectric constant showed a diffused phase transition which can be well described by fitting the modified Curie-Weiss relation, 1/ε‧ - 1/ε ‧r,max = (T - Tmax)γ/C. Raman scattering studies (200-1100 cm-1) were performed in the temperature range 353-503 K. The analysis of the wavenumber, intensity and the half-width based on the order-disorder model allowed to obtain information relative to the thermal coefficient and the activation energy near the transitions phase.

  7. CsSnI3: Semiconductor or metal? High electrical conductivity and strong near-infrared photoluminescence from a single material. High hole mobility and phase-transitions.

    PubMed

    Chung, In; Song, Jung-Hwan; Im, Jino; Androulakis, John; Malliakas, Christos D; Li, Hao; Freeman, Arthur J; Kenney, John T; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2012-05-23

    CsSnI(3) is an unusual perovskite that undergoes complex displacive and reconstructive phase transitions and exhibits near-infrared emission at room temperature. Experimental and theoretical studies of CsSnI(3) have been limited by the lack of detailed crystal structure characterization and chemical instability. Here we describe the synthesis of pure polymorphic crystals, the preparation of large crack-/bubble-free ingots, the refined single-crystal structures, and temperature-dependent charge transport and optical properties of CsSnI(3), coupled with ab initio first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations. In situ temperature-dependent single-crystal and synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction studies reveal the origin of polymorphous phase transitions of CsSnI(3). The black orthorhombic form of CsSnI(3) demonstrates one of the largest volumetric thermal expansion coefficients for inorganic solids. Electrical conductivity, Hall effect, and thermopower measurements on it show p-type metallic behavior with low carrier density, despite the optical band gap of 1.3 eV. Hall effect measurements of the black orthorhombic perovskite phase of CsSnI(3) indicate that it is a p-type direct band gap semiconductor with carrier concentration at room temperature of ∼ 10(17) cm(-3) and a hole mobility of ∼585 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). The hole mobility is one of the highest observed among p-type semiconductors with comparable band gaps. Its powders exhibit a strong room-temperature near-IR emission spectrum at 950 nm. Remarkably, the values of the electrical conductivity and photoluminescence intensity increase with heat treatment. The DFT calculations show that the screened-exchange local density approximation-derived band gap agrees well with the experimentally measured band gap. Calculations of the formation energy of defects strongly suggest that the electrical and light emission properties possibly result from Sn defects in the crystal structure, which arise

  8. ``Cs-tetra-ferri-annite:`` High-pressure and high-temperature behavior of a potential nuclear waste disposal phase

    SciTech Connect

    Comodi, P.; Zanazzi, P.F.; Weiss, Z.; Rieder, M.; Drabek, M.

    1999-03-01

    Structure deformations induced by pressure and temperature in synthetic Cs-tetra-ferri-annite 1M [Cs{sub 1.78}(Fe{sup 2+}{sub 5.93}Fe{sup 3+}{sub 0.07})(Si{sub 6.15}Fe{sup 3+}{sub 1.80}Al{sub 0.05})O{sub 20}(OH){sub 4}], space group C2/m, were analyzed to investigate the capability of the mica structure to store the radiogenic isotopes {sup 135}Cs and {sup 137}Cs. Cs-tetra-ferri-annite is not a mineral name, but for the sake of brevity is used here to designate a synthetic analog of the mineral tetra-ferri-annite. The bulk modulus and its pressure derivative determined by fitting the unit-cell volumes between 0 a/nd 47 kbar to a third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state are K{sub 0} = 257(8) kbar and K{prime}{sub 0} = 21(1), respectively. Between 23 C and 582 C, the a and b lattice parameters remain essentially unchanged, but the thermal expansion coefficient of the c axis is {alpha}{sub c} = 3.12(9) {times} 10{sup {minus}5} {degree}C{sup {minus}1}. High pressure (P) and high temperature (T) produce limited internal strain in the structure. The tetrahedral rotation angle, {alpha}, is very small and does not change significantly throughout the P and T range investigated. Above 450 C in air, Cs-tetra-ferri-annite underwent an oxidation of octahedral iron in the M2cis site, balanced by the loss of H and shown by a decrease of the unit-cell volume. Independent isobaric data on thermal expansion and isothermal compressibility data define the geometric equation of state for Cs-tetra-ferri-annite. On the whole, the data confirm that the structure of Cs-tetra-ferri-annite may be a suitable candidate for the storage of large ions, such as Cs in the interlayer and should be considered as a potential Synroc component.

  9. Characterization of the Natural Organic Matter (NOM) in groundwater contaminated with (60)Co and (137)Cs using ultrafiltration, Solid Phase Extraction and fluorescence analysis.

    PubMed

    Caron, François; Siemann, Stefan; Riopel, Rémi

    2014-12-01

    Spot samples of shallow groundwaters have been taken between the years 2004 and 2010 near a site formerly used for the dispersal of radioactive liquid wastes. Three sampling points, one clean (upstream), and two downstream of the contamination source, were processed by ultrafiltration (5000 Da cut-off) and Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) to determine the association of selected artificial radionuclides ((60)Co, (137)Cs) with Natural Organic Matter (NOM). The last two sampling episodes (2008 and 2010) also benefited from fluorescence analysis to determine the major character of the NOM. The fluorescence signals are reported as humic-like, fulvic-like and protein-like, which are used to characterize the different NOM types. The NOM from the clean site comprised mostly fine material, whereas the colloidal content (retained by ultrafiltration) was higher (e.g., 15-40% of the Total Organic Carbon - TOC). Most of the 137Cs was present in the colloidal fraction, whereas (60)Co was found in the filtered fraction. Fluorescence analysis, on the other hand, indicated a contrasting behavior between the clean and contaminated sites, with a dominance of protein-like material, a feature usually associated with human impacts. Finally, SPE removed almost quantitatively the protein-like material (>90%), whereas it removed a much smaller fraction of the (137)Cs (<28%). This finding indicates that the (137)Cs preferential binding occurs with a fraction other than the protein-like NOM, likely the fulvic-like or humic-like portion.

  10. The Natural Enrichment of Stable Cesium in Weathered Micaceous Materials and Its Implications for 137Cs Sorption.

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, W. Crawford; Kahn, Bernd; Rosson, Robert; Wampler, J. Marion; Rose, Seth E.; Krogstad, Eirik J.; Kaplan, Daniel

    2011-11-14

    In this exploratory project, we are testing two interrelated hypotheses about the sorption of Cs within weathered micaceous materials in subsurface regolith materials from the Savannah River Site (SRS) located on the Atlantic Coastal Plain: 1) that stable cesium has become significantly enriched relative to potassium in subsurface micaceous particles as a result of chemical weathering processes; and 2) that the Cs so present is sufficient to be a major factor determining the ability of the subsurface materials to take up and hold 137Cs. To test these hypotheses, we collected by hand augur soil samples corresponding to soils representative at the SRS: upland regolith (Fuquay series); soils formed on Tobacco Road Sandstone; and, soils formed on Quaternary Alluvium. From our data, the quantification of the amounts of stable cesium concentrated in various sites within 2:1 phyllosilicates by natural processes is highly relevant toward understanding the future sorption of 137Cs by the mica, illite, vermiculite, and hydroxyl interstratified vermiculite (HIV) phases present in the subsurface at and in proximity to SRS. Studying sorption and fixation of Cs in these micaceous phases interlayers potentially leads to increased knowledge to the extent that stable Cs resists exchange with ion exchange cations (Mg, NH4, or even alkyl ammonium compounds) and to the extent that Cs can become fixed over the long term. Such knowledge will help in the development of 137Cs remediation strategies for the long-term, which is a critical aspect of the SBR goals. We characterized the mineralogy, K-Ar ages of the soil and soil clay fractions (before and after acid treatment), and alkali element chemistry (K, Rb, Cs) of the clay fractions of soils collected from these three different types of soils. The clay fractions of the Fuquay soils are composed of kaolinite, and hydroxy interstratified vermiculite (HIV). Kaolinite, HIV, quartz, gibbsite and illite are

  11. Synthesis and characterization of new fluoride-containing manganese vanadates A2Mn2V2O7F2 (A=Rb, Cs) and Mn2VO4F

    SciTech Connect

    Sanjeewa, Liurukara D.; McGuire, Michael A.; Smith Pellizzeri, Tiffany M.; McMillen, Colin D.; Ovidiu Garlea, V.; Willett, Daniel; Chumanov, George; Kolis, Joseph W.

    2016-05-10

    In large single crystals of A2Mn2V2O7F2 (A=Rb, Cs) and Mn2VO4F were grown using a high-temperature (~600 °C) hydrothermal technique. We utilized single crystal X-ray diffraction and powder X-ray diffraction in order to characterize the structures, which both possess MnO4F2 building blocks. The A2Mn2V2O7F2 series crystallizes as a new structure type in space group Pbcn (No. 60), Z=4 (Rb2Mn2V2O7F2: a=7.4389(17) Å, b=11.574(3) Å, c=10.914(2) Å; Cs2Mn2V2O7F2: a=7.5615(15) Å, b=11.745(2) Å, c=11.127(2) Å). The structure is composed of zigzag chains of edge-sharing MnO4F2 units running along the a-axis, and interconnected through V2O7 pyrovanadate groups. Temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility measurements on this interesting one-dimensional structural feature based on Mn2+ indicated that Cs2Mn2V2O7F2 is antiferromagnetic with a Neél temperature, TN=~3 K and a Weiss constant, θ, of -11.7(1) K. Raman and infrared spectra were also analyzed to identify the fundamental V–O vibrational modes in Cs2Mn2V2O7F2. Mn2(VO4)F crystalizes in the monoclinic space group of C2/c (no. 15), Z=8 with unit cell parameters of a=13.559(2) Å, b=6.8036(7) Å, c=10.1408(13) Å and β=116.16(3)°. The structure is associated with those of triplite and wagnerite. Dynamic fluorine disorder gives rise to complex alternating chains of five-and six-coordinate Mn2+. Our interpenetrating chains are additionally connected through isolated VO4 tetrahedra to form the condensed structure.

  12. Alkali metal and ammonium fluoro(trifluoroacetato)metallates M Prime [M Prime Prime {sub 3}({mu}{sub 3}-F)(CF{sub 3}COO){sub 6}(CF{sub 3}COOH){sub 3}], where M Prime = Li, Na, K, NH{sub 4}, Rb, or Cs and M Prime Prime = Ni or Co. Synthesis and crystal structures

    SciTech Connect

    Tereshchenko, D. S.; Morozov, I. V. Boltalin, A. I.; Karpova, E. V.; Glazunova, T. Yu.; Troyanov, S. I.

    2013-01-15

    A series of fluoro(trifluoroacetato)metallates were synthesized by crystallization from solutions in trifluoroacetic acid containing nickel(II) or cobalt(II) nitrate hydrates and alkali metal or ammonium fluorides: Li[Ni{sub 3}({mu}{sub 3}-F)(CF{sub 3}COO){sub 6}(CF{sub 3}COOH){sub 3}](CF{sub 3}COOH){sub 3} (I), M Prime [Ni{sub 3}({mu}{sub 3}-F)(CF{sub 3}COO){sub 6}(CF{sub 3}COOH){sub 3}] (M Prime = Na (II), NH{sub 4} (IV), Rb (V), and Cs (VI)), NH{sub 4}[Co{sub 3}({mu}{sub 3}-F) (CF{sub 3}COO){sub 6}(CF{sub 3}COOH){sub 3}] (III), and Cs[Ni{sub 3}({mu}{sub 3}-F)(CF{sub 3}COO){sub 6}(CF{sub 3}COOH){sub 3}](CF{sub 3}COOH){sub 0.5} (VII). The crystal structures of these compounds were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. All structures contain triangular trinuclear complex anions [M{sub 3} Double-Prime ({mu}{sub 3}-F)(CF{sub 3}COO){sub 6}(CF{sub 3}COOH){sub 3}]{sup -} (M Double-Prime = Ni, Co) structurally similar to trinuclear 3d metal oxo carboxylate complexes. The three-coordinated F atom is located at the center of the triangle formed by Ni(II) or Co(II) atoms. The metal atoms are linked in pairs by six bridging trifluoroacetate groups located above and below the plane of the [M Double-Prime {sub 3} F] triangle. The oxygen atoms of the axial CF{sub 3}COOH molecules complete the coordination environment of M Double-Prime atoms to an octahedron.

  13. Gas-phase reactivity of the Ti8C12+ met-car with triatomic sulfur-containing molecules: CS2, SCO, and SO2.

    PubMed

    Lightstone, James M; Patterson, Melissa J; Liu, Ping; White, Michael G

    2006-03-16

    Gas-phase Ti(x)C(y)+ clusters (x/y = 3/5, 4/7, 5/9, 6/9, 7/12, 8/12, 9/12) including the magic Ti8C12+ (met-car) have been produced by reactive sputtering with a magnetron cluster source. The gas-phase reactivity of the met-car with SCO, CS2, and SO2 was investigated in a hexapole collision cell by way of tandem mass spectrometry. Results indicate an increase in activity as the oxygen-to-sulfur ratio increases (SO2 > SCO > CS2) with products ranging from association to break down of the met-car cluster. Trends in the mass spectra also indicate SCO and CS2 may bond to the met-car in a unique way not observed in previous reactivity studies on Ti8C12+. To investigate this, several possible single molecule-cluster bonding configurations were calculated with density functional theory. The results indicate that bridge bonding of the intact molecules is energetically preferred. In addition, the energy barriers and transition states leading to dissociation products were calculated and the trends are found to be in qualitative agreement with experiment. The effects of the different types of bonding and number of adsorbed species on the reactivity of the met-car along with proposed reaction mechanisms for product formation are also discussed.

  14. Adsorption of polycations on clays: A comparative in situ study using {sup 133}Cs and {sup 23}Na solution phase NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Billingham, J.; Breen, C.; Rawson, J.O.; Yarwood, J.; Mann, B.E.

    1997-09-15

    {sup 23}Na solution phase NMR has been evaluated as an in situ probe to study the adsorption of tetramethylammonium (TMA{sup +}) and two polycations, FL17 and Magnafloc 1697, onto clays in aqueous suspensions containing 2.5 mass% low iron Texas bentonite. The NMR data shows the effectiveness of the organocations at displacing Na{sup +} from the bentonite surface. This information has been correlated with that obtained from particle-size and electrophoretic measurements in aqueous solution, together with information from adsorption isotherms. These results have been compared to those obtained in parallel studies using {sup 133}Cs solution phase NMR. FL17 and 1697 both exhibited high affinity adsorption isotherms on Na{sup +}- and Cs{sup +}-clay, whereas the adsorption of TMA{sup +}, which represents the cationic portion of the polymers was of lower affinity. Na{sup +}-bentonite adsorbed almost twice the amount of polycation required to fulfill the cation-exchange capacity (CEC) of the bentonite. The electrophoretic and particle size data indicated significant differences in the size of the polycation/clay flocs and the amount of polymer adsorbed on the external faces of the flocs in the presence of Na{sup +}- and Cs{sup +}-exchange ions. Correlation of this data with the NMR results suggests that the Na{sup +}-bentonite/polycation flocs are large, of low density, and that the polycation is concentrated in the interior while the Na{sup +}-ions occupy exchange sites on the external faces.

  15. Pressure Effects on Phase Transitions in Several Hexagonal Antiferromagnets of ABX_3 Type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Y.; Goto, K.; Ono, T.; Tanaka, H.; Goto, T.

    Magnetic measurements under high pressures have been performed on the hexagonal ABX_3 type antiferromagnets, CsFeCl_3, CsNiCl_3 and RbNiCl_3 to investigate the pressure effect on the magnetic phase transitions. CsFeCl_3 has the singlet ground state due to the large single-ion anisotropy of the easy-plane type at ambient pressure. Above the critical pressure Pc≃ 0.9 GPa, CsFeCl_3 exhibits the long range magnetic ordering at zero field as the result of the collapse of the energy gap between the singlet state and the lowest excited doublet. CsNiCl_3 and RbNiCl_3 having the easy-axis type magnetic anisotropy undergo the successive phase transitions in the temperature variations and exhibit the spin-flop phase transition in the field parallel to the c-axis. With increasing pressure, the temperature range of the collinear intermediate phase and the spin-flop field HSF are enhanced. This fact indicates that the easy-axis anisotropies of CsNiCl_3 and RbNiCl_3 are enhanced by the pressure as compared with the increase of the intra- and inter-chain interactions.

  16. Further examples of the P-O-P connection in borophosphates: synthesis and characterization of Li2Cs2B2P4O15, LiK2BP2O8, and Li3M2BP4O14 (M = K, Rb).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Pan, Shilie; Shi, Yunjing

    2012-09-17

    A new series of anhydrous mixed alkali-metal borophosphates--Li(2)Cs(2)B(2)P(4)O(15) (1), LiK(2)BP(2)O(8) (2), Li(3)K(2)BP(4)O(14) (3), and Li(3)Rb(2)BP(4)O(14) (4)--have been successfully synthesized by using the conventional solid-state reaction method. Compound 1 contains a novel fundamental building unit (FBU), [B(4)P(8)O(30)], with B/P = 1:2. Compound 2 contains an FBU of [B(2)P(4)O(16)] with B/P = 1:2. Compounds 3 and 4 are isotypic, and they have a [B(P(2)O(7))(2)] unit as their FBU. In all four compounds, their FBUs are connected through corner sharing to generate layered anionic partial structures, and then further linked with metallic polyhedra to form three-dimensional (3D) frameworks. Most interestingly, three of the four compounds contain direct P-O-P connections in their structures, which is extremely rare among borophosphates. Thermal analyses, IR spectroscopy, and UV/Vis/near-IR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy have also been performed on the four title compounds. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. From {sub {infinity}}{sup 1}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}O(MoO{sub 4}){sub 4}]{sup 6-} to {sub {infinity}}{sup 1}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3}(MoO{sub 5})]{sup 6-} infinite chains in A{sub 6}U{sub 2}Mo{sub 4}O{sub 21} (A=Na, K, Rb, Cs) compounds: Synthesis and crystal structure of Cs{sub 6}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3}(MoO{sub 5})

    SciTech Connect

    Yagoubi, S.; Obbade, S.; Saad, S.; Abraham, F.

    2011-05-15

    A new caesium uranyl molybdate belonging to the M{sub 6}U{sub 2}Mo{sub 4}O{sub 21} family has been synthesized by solid-state reaction and its structure determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. Contrary to the other alkali uranyl molybdates of this family (A=Na, K, Rb) where molybdenum atoms adopt only tetrahedral coordination and which can be formulated A{sub 6}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}O(MoO{sub 4}){sub 4}], the caesium compound Cs{sub 6}U{sub 2}Mo{sub 4}O{sub 21} should be written Cs{sub 6}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3}(MoO{sub 5})] with molybdenum atoms in tetrahedral and square pyramidal environments. Cs{sub 6}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3}(MoO{sub 5})] crystallizes in the triclinic symmetry with space group P1-bar and a=10.4275(14) A, b=15.075(2) A, c=17.806(2) A, {alpha}=70.72(1){sup o}, {beta}=80.38(1){sup o} and {gamma}=86.39(1){sup o}, V=2604.7(6) A{sup 3}, Z=4, {rho}{sub mes}=5.02(2) g/cm{sup 3} and {rho}{sub cal}=5.08(3) g/cm{sup 3}. A full-matrix least-squares refinement on the basis of F{sup 2} yielded R{sub 1}=0.0464 and wR{sub 2}=0.0950 for 596 parameters with 6964 independent reflections with I{>=}2{sigma}(I) collected on a BRUKER AXS diffractometer with Mo(K{alpha}) radiation and a CCD detector. The crystal structure of Cs compound is characterized by {sub {infinity}}{sup 1}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3}(MoO{sub 5})]{sup 6-} parallels chains built from U{sub 2}O{sub 13} dimeric units, MoO{sub 4} tetrahedra and MoO{sub 5} square pyramids, whereas, Na, K and Rb compounds are characterized by {sub {infinity}}{sup 1}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}O(MoO{sub 4}){sub 4}]{sup 6-} parallel chains formulated simply of U{sub 2}O{sub 13} units and MoO{sub 4} tetrahedra. Infrared spectroscopy measurements using powdered samples synthesized by solid-state reaction, confirm the structural results. The thermal stability and the electrical conductivity are also studied. The four compounds decompose at low temperature (between 540 and 610 {sup o

  18. RB's original CIN?

    PubMed Central

    Sage, Julien; Straight, Aaron F.

    2010-01-01

    The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor RB is the downstream mediator of a cellular pathway that is thought to prevent cancer by controlling the ability of cells to enter or exit the cell cycle in G0/G1. Recently, however, accumulating evidence has suggested that RB, its family members p107 and p130, and their partners, the E2F family of transcription factors, may have important cellular functions beyond the G1/S transition of the cell cycle, including during DNA replication and at the transition into mitosis. In this issue of Genes & Development, three studies demonstrate a critical role for RB in proper chromosome condensation, centromeric function, and chromosome stability in mammalian cells, and link these cellular functions of RB to tumor suppression in mice. Here we discuss how transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms under the control of the RB pathway ensure accurate progression through mitosis, thereby preventing cancer development. PMID:20551167

  19. Electron spin density distribution in the polymer phase of CsC60: Assignment of the NMR spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Swiet, Thomas M.

    2000-11-01

    I have recently been involved in a project which used high resolution 133Cs-13C double resonance NMR data and 13C-13C NMR correlation spectra to make a partial assignment of the lines in the 13C NMR spectrum of CsC60 to the carbon positions on the C60 molecule. (T. M. de Swiet, J. L. Yarger, T. Wagberg, J. Hone, B. J. Gross, M. Tomaselli, J. J. Titman, A. Zettl and M. Mehring Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 717 (2000)) A completion of the assignment was made on the basis of an ab initio calculation. Here I discuss this work with the emphasis on some of the previously unpublished aspects of the data analysis.

  20. The happy marriage between electron-phonon superconductivity and Mott physics in Cs3C60: A first-principle phase diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capone, Massimo; Nomura, Yusuke; Sakai, Shiro; Giovannetti, Gianluca; Arita, Ryotaro

    The phase diagram of doped fullerides like Cs3C60 as a function of the spacing between fullerene molecules is characterized by a first-order transition between a Mott insulator and an s-wave superconductor with a dome-shaped behavior of the critical temperature. By means of an ab-initio modeling of the bandstructure, the electron-phonon interaction and the interaction parameter and a Dynamical Mean-Field Theory solution, we reproduce the phase diagram and demonstrate that phonon superconductivity benefits from strong correlations confirming earlier model predictions. The role of correlations is manifest also in infrared measurements carried out by L. Baldassarre. The superconducting phase shares many similarities with ''exotic'' superconductors with electronic pairing, suggesting that the anomalies in the ''normal'' state, rather than the pairing glue, can be the real common element unifying a wide family of strongly correlated superconductors including cuprates and iron superconductors

  1. Magnegtic Phase Diagram and Specific Heat of the Quasi-Two-Dimensional S=1/2 Antiferromagnet Cs2CuBr4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherline, Todd E.; Rotundu, Costel R.; Andraka, Bohdan; Takano, Yasu; Tsujii, Hiroyuki; Ono, Toshio; Tanaka, Hidekazu

    2006-03-01

    The S=1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet on a triangular lattice is very well represented by Cs2CuBr4 due to its small anisotropy. An unique feature of this system, as predicted by theory and borne out by experiment, is the magnetization plateau at 1/3 of the saturation magnetization. Previous specific heat and magnetocaloric effect measurements in DC fields of up to 20T have been used to determine the magnetic phase diagram in this regime. However, the nature of the phase diagram is unclear in higher fields. Further specific heat and magnetocaloric effect measurements have been made in DC fields up to 33T, the results of which will be presented in order to elucidate the nature of the phase diagram above the magnetization plateau.

  2. Low temperature structural modification in Rb2ZrF6: Investigations by perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, S. K.; Dey, C. C.; Saha, S.

    2016-06-01

    Temperature dependent perturbed angular correlation (PAC) measurements in crystalline compounds Rb2ZrF6 and Cs2HfF6 have been performed in the temperature range 298-753 K. In Rb2ZrF6, four discrete quadrupole interaction frequencies have been observed at room temperature which correspond to four minor structural modifications. From previous measurements, on the other hand, two structural modifications of this compound were known. A displacive phase transition, probably, occurs at low temperature due to rotation of the ZrF62- octahedron and produces different structural modifications. From present measurements in Rb2ZrF6, two quadrupole interaction frequencies [ωQ=26.1(3) Mrad/s, η=0.55(2), δ=5(1)% and ωQ=148.7(3) Mrad/s, η=0.538(5), δ=1.2%] have been found at room temperature which were not found from previous studies. In Cs2HfF6, these new structural modifications have not been observed.

  3. Deuteron NMR study of dynamics and of coexistence of paraelectric and ferroelectric phases in Rb0.90(ND4)0.10D2AsO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Nicholas J.; Howell, Francis L.; Schmidt, V. Hugo

    1993-09-01

    The deuteron glass Rb1-x(ND4)xD2AsO4 (DRADA) is a mixed crystal of RbD2AsO4 (DRDA) and ND4D2AsO4 (DADA). Deuteron nuclear magnetic resonance has been performed on the acid and ammonium deuterons. The crystal studied has an ammonium concentration (x=0.10) that puts it in the coexistence region of the phase diagram. Line-shape measurements of the ammonium deuterons show the coexistence of the ferroelectric (FE) and paraelectric (PE) phases as the temperature is lowered below the ferroelectric-phase-transition temperature Tc. The acid deuteron line shape on the other hand is found to broaden as the temperature is reduced but is unaffected by the ferroelectric transition. Spin-lattice-relaxation measurements have been performed and the activation energies for the relaxation processes have been computed. The relaxation-rate anomaly for acid deuterons in the ferroelectric-transition range indicates a short correlation length for the FE phase in the coexistence region of the phase diagram.

  4. Highly Luminescent Phase-Stable CsPbI3 Perovskite Quantum Dots Achieving Near 100% Absolute Photoluminescence Quantum Yield.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Zhang, Yaohong; Ding, Chao; Kobayashi, Syuusuke; Izuishi, Takuya; Nakazawa, Naoki; Toyoda, Taro; Ohta, Tsuyoshi; Hayase, Shuzi; Minemoto, Takashi; Yoshino, Kenji; Dai, Songyuan; Shen, Qing

    2017-09-19

    Perovskite quantum dots (QDs) as a new type of colloidal nanocrystals have gained significant attention for both fundamental research and commercial applications owing to their appealing optoelectronic properties and excellent chemical processability. For their wide range of potential applications, synthesizing colloidal QDs with high crystal quality is of crucial importance. However, like most common QD systems such as CdSe and PbS, those reported perovskite QDs still suffer from a certain density of trapping defects, giving rise to detrimental nonradiative recombination centers and thus quenching luminescence. In this paper, we show that a high room-temperature photoluminescence quantum yield of up to 100% can be obtained in CsPbI3 perovskite QDs, signifying the achievement of almost complete elimination of the trapping defects. This is realized with our improved synthetic protocol that involves introducing organolead compound trioctylphosphine-PbI2 (TOP-PbI2) as the reactive precursor, which also leads to a significantly improved stability for the resulting CsPbI3 QD solutions. Ultrafast kinetic analysis with time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy evidence the negligible electron or hole-trapping pathways in our QDs, which explains such a high quantum efficiency. We expect the successful synthesis of the "ideal" perovskite QDs will exert profound influence on their applications to both QD-based light-harvesting and -emitting devices.

  5. New hypodiphosphates of the alkali metals: Synthesis, crystal structure and vibrational spectra of the hypodiphosphates(IV) M{sub 2}[(H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})(H{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})] (M=Rb and Cs)

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Peng; Wiegand, Thomas; Eckert, Hellmut

    2012-10-15

    The new hypodiphosphates(IV) Rb{sub 2}[(H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})(H{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})] (1) and Cs{sub 2}[(H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})(H{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})] (2) were synthesized by soft chemistry reactions from aqueous solutions of hypophosphoric acid and the corresponding heavy alkali-metal carbonates. Their crystal structures were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Both compounds crystallize isotypic in the triclinic space group P-1 with one formula unit in the unit cell. The structures are built up by discrete (H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6}){sup 2-} and (H{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 6}) units in staggered conformation for the P{sub 2}O{sub 6} skeleton and the corresponding alkali-metal cations. In the (H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6}){sup 2-} ion the hydrogen atoms are in a 'trans-trans' conformation. O{center_dot}H-O hydrogen bonds between the (H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6}){sup 2-} and (H{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 6}) groups consolidate the structures into a three-dimensional network. The FT-Raman and {sup 31}P and {sup 1}H and MAS NMR spectra of the title compounds have been recorded and interpreted, especially with respect to their assignment to the (H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6}){sup 2-} and (H{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 6}) groups. Thermogravimetric data of 2 have been interpreted in terms of a thermal decomposition model. - Graphical Abstract: The layered compounds Rb{sub 2}[(H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})(H{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})] and Cs{sub 2}[(H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})(H{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})] have been synthesized and investigated. Both crystallize isotypic. The structures are built up by discrete (H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6}){sup 2-} and (H{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 6}) units and the corresponding alkali-metal cations. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis and single-crystal structure of new alkali hypodiphosphates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structures are characterized by [(H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})(H{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})]{sup 2-} units and M{sup +} cations

  6. High-Temperature Phase Transitions in CsH2PO4 Under Ambient and High-Pressure Conditions: A Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction Study

    SciTech Connect

    Botez,C.; Hermosillo, J.; Zhang, J.; Qian, J.; Zhao, Y.; Majzlan, J.; Chianelli, R.; Pantea, C.

    2007-01-01

    To clarify the microscopic origin of the temperature-induced three-order-of-magnitude jump in the proton conductivity of CsH2PO4 (superprotonic behavior), we have investigated its crystal structure modifications within the 25-300 C temperature range under both ambient- and high-pressure conditions using synchrotron x-ray diffraction. Our high-pressure data show no indication of the thermal decomposition/polymerization at the crystal surface recently proposed as the origin of the enhanced proton conductivity. Instead, we found direct evidence that the superprotonic behavior of the title material is associated with a polymorphic structural transition to a high-temperature cubic phase. Our results are in excellent agreement with previous high-pressure ac impedance measurements.

  7. Phase transitions and equation of state of CsI under high pressure and the development of a focusing system for x-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yan.

    1990-11-01

    The phase transitions and equation of state of ionic solid cesium iodide were studied under high pressure and room temperature in a diamond anvil cell. The studies were carried out using both energy dispersive and angular dispersive diffraction methods on synchrotron radiation sources over the pressure range from atmospheric pressure to over 300 gigapascals (3 million atmospheres). CsI undergoes a distinct phase transition at about 40 GPa, a pressure that is much lower than the reported insulator-metal transition at 110 GPa, from the atmospheric pressure B2(CsCl) structure to an orthorhombic structure. At higher pressures, a continuous distortion in the structure was observed with a final structure similar to a hcp lattice under ultra high pressure. No volume discontinuity was observed at the insulator-metal transition. The newly found transition sequence is different from the result of previous static compression studies. The current structure has a smaller unit cell volume than the previous assignment. This has resolved a long existing controversy among the previous static compression studies, the dynamic compression studies, and the theoretical studies. The current results also explain the apparent discrepancy between the present study and the previous static studies. We also present the development of a focusing system for high energy x-rays (> 12 keV) that is particularly suited for high pressure diffraction studies. This system uses a pair of multilayer coated spherical mirrors in a Kirkpatrick-Baez geometry. A focused beam size less than 10 micron in diameter can be readily achieved with sufficient intensity to perform diffraction studies. 93 refs., 46 figs., 15 tabs.

  8. Electronic properties and structural phase transition in A4 [M4O4] (A=Li, Na, K and Rb; M=Ag and Cu): A first principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umamaheswari, R.; Yogeswari, M.; Kalpana, G.

    2013-02-01

    Self-consistent scalar relativistic band structure calculations for AMO (A=Li, Na, K and Rb; M=Ag and Cu) compounds have been performed using the tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbital (TB-LMTO) method within the local density approximation (LDA). At ambient conditions, these compounds are found to crystallize in tetragonal KAgO-type structure with two different space group I-4m2 and I4/mmm. Nowadays, hypothetical structures are being considered to look for new functional materials. AMO compounds have stoichiometry similar to eight-electron half-Heusler materials of type I-I-VI which crystallizes in cubic (C1b) MgAgAs-type structure with space group F-43m. For all these compounds, by interchanging the positions of atoms in the hypothetical cubic structure, three phases (α, β and γ) are formed. The energy-volume relation for these compounds in tetragonal KAgO-type structure and cubic α, β and γ phases of related structure have been obtained. Under ambient conditions these compounds are more stable in tetragonal KAgO-type (I4/mmm) structure. The total energies calculated within the atomic sphere approximation (ASA) were used to determine the ground state properties such as equilibrium lattice parameters, c/a ratio, bulk modulus, cohesive energy and are compared with the available experimental results. The results of the electronic band structure calculations at ambient condition show that LiCuO and NaMO are indirect band gap semiconductors whereas KMO and RbMO are direct band gap semiconductors. At high pressure the band gap decreases and the phenomenon of band overlap metallization occur. Also these compounds undergo structural phase transition from tetragonal I-4m2 phase to cubic α-phase and transition pressures were calculated.

  9. What's so special about RB?

    PubMed

    Burd, Christin E; Sharpless, Norman E

    2010-04-13

    RB, p107, and p130 are highly related proteins, each capable of regulating cellular proliferation. However, only RB is frequently mutated in cancer. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Chicas et al. shed new light on this conundrum, defining a "special," nonredundant role for RB in promoting cellular senescence.

  10. Deciphering the Rb phosphorylation code

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Seth M.

    2012-01-01

    Multisite phosphorylation modulates the function of regulatory proteins with complex signaling properties and outputs. The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (Rb) is inactivated by Cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) phosphorylation in normal and cancer cell cycles, so understanding the molecular mechanisms and effects of Rb phosphorylation is imperative. Rb functions in diverse processes regulating proliferation, and it has been speculated that multisite phosphorylation might act as a code in which discrete phosphorylations control specific activities. The idea of an Rb phosphorylation code is evaluated here in light of recent studies of Rb structure and function. Rb inactivation is discussed with an emphasis on how multisite phosphorylation changes Rb structure and associations with protein partners. PMID:23218751

  11. Guided-Ion-Beam and ab Initio Study of the Li+, K+, and Rb+ Association Reactions with Gas-Phase Butanone and Cyclohexanone in Their Ground Electronic States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, J. M.; de Andrés, J.; López, E.; Albertí, M.; Bofill, J. M.; Bassi, D.; Ascenzi, D.; Tosi, P.; Aguilar, A.

    2009-08-01

    The association reactions between Li+, K+, and Rb+ (M) and butanone and cyclohexanone molecules under single collision conditions have been studied using a radiofrequency-guided ion-beam apparatus, characterizing the adducts by mass spectrometry. The excitation function for the [M-(molecule)]+ adducts (in arbitrary units) has been obtained at low collision energies in the 0.10 eV up to a few eV range in the center of mass frame. The measured relative cross sections decrease when collision energy increases, showing the expected energy dependence for adduct formation. The energetics and structure of the different adducts have been calculated ab initio at the MP2(full) level, showing that the M+-molecule interaction takes place through the carbonyl oxygen atom, as an example of a nontypical covalent chemical bond. The cross-section energy dependence and the role of radiative cooling rates allowing the stabilization of the collision complexes are also discussed.

  12. Growth of PbX2 and CsPbX3 (X = Cl, Br) mesoscopic phases in alkali halide host lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polak, K.; Nitsch, K.; Nikl, M.

    Formation of PbCl2 and CsPbBr3 microphases in NaCl and CsBr respectively is studied using mainly an absorption spectroscopy. The absorption of NaCl: Pb crystal was investigated as a function of annealing temperature and duration of thermal treatment. Changes in the position and shape of the exciton band were studied in CsBr: Pb absorption spectrum. The results showed that the shape of CsPbBr3 microcrystals is far from a spherical one. The microcrystals probably grow as highly elongated discs.

  13. High-pressure behaviour of Cs2V3O8 fresnoite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzechnik, Andrzej; Yeon, Jeongho; Zur Loye, Hans-Conrad; Friese, Karen

    2016-06-01

    Crystal structure of Cs2V3O8 fresnoite (P4bm, Z=2) has been studied using single-crystal X-ray diffraction in a diamond anvil cell to 8.6 GPa at room temperature. Cs2V3O8 undergoes a reversible first-order phase transition at about 4 GPa associated with anomalies in the pressure dependencies of the lattice parameters and unit-cell volume but without any symmetry change. Both structures consist of layers of corner-sharing V5+O4 tetrahedra and V4+O5 tetragonal pyramids separated by the Cs+ cations located between the layers. At low pressures, the compression has little effect on the polarity of the structure. Above 4 GPa, the pseudosymmetry with respect to the corresponding centrosymmetric space group P4/mbm abruptly increases. The effects of external pressure and of the A+ cation substitution in the vanadate fresnoites A2V3O8 (A+: K+, Rb+, NH4+, Cs+) are discussed.

  14. Defining a new vision for the retinoblastoma gene: report from the 3rd International Rb Meeting.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Seth M; Sage, Julien

    2013-11-21

    The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (Rb) pathway is mutated in most, if not all human tumors. In the G0/G1 phase, Rb and its family members p107 and p130 inhibit the E2F family of transcription factors. In response to mitogenic signals, Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) phosphorylate Rb family members, which results in the disruption of complexes between Rb and E2F family members and in the transcription of genes essential for S phase progression. Beyond this role in early cell cycle decisions, Rb family members regulate DNA replication and mitosis, chromatin structure, metabolism, cellular differentiation, and cell death. While the RB pathway has been extensively studied in the past three decades, new investigations continue to provide novel insights into basic mechanisms of cancer development and, beyond cancer, help better understand fundamental cellular processes, from plants to mammals. This meeting report summarizes research presented at the recently held 3rd International Rb Meeting.

  15. Overproduction of Rb protein after the G1/S boundary causes G2 arrest.

    PubMed Central

    Karantza, V; Maroo, A; Fay, D; Sedivy, J M

    1993-01-01

    The Rb protein is known to exert its activity at decision points in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. To investigate whether it may also play some role(s) at later points in the cell cycle, we used a system of rapid inducible gene amplification to conditionally overexpress Rb protein during G2 phase. A cell line expressing a temperature-sensitive simian virus 40 large T antigen (T-Ag) was stably transfected with plasmids containing the Rb cDNA linked to the simian virus 40 origin of replication: pRB-wt, pRB-fs, and pRB-Dra, carrying wild-type murine Rb cDNA, a frameshift mutation close to the beginning of the Rb coding region, and a single-amino-acid deletion in the E1A/T-Ag binding pocket, respectively. Numerous independent cell lines were isolated at the nonpermissive temperature; cell lines displaying a high level of episomal amplification of an intact Rb expression cassette following shiftdown to the permissive temperature were chosen for further analysis. Plasmid pRB-fs did not express detectable Rb antigen, while pRB-Dra expressed full-length Rb protein. The Dra mutation has previously been shown to abrogate phosphorylation as well as T-Ag binding. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis revealed that cultures induced to overexpress either wild-type or Dra mutant Rb proteins were significantly enriched for cells with a G2 DNA content. Cultures that amplified pRB-fs or rearranged pRB-wt and did not express Rb protein had normal cell cycle profiles. Double-label FACS analysis showed that cells overexpressing Rb or Rb-Dra proteins were uniformly accumulating in G2, whereas cells expressing endogenous levels of Rb were found throughout the cell cycle. These results indicate that Rb protein is interacting with some component(s) of the cell cycle-regulatory machinery during G2 phase. Images PMID:8413260

  16. CS Informativeness Governs CS-US Associability

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Ryan D.; Gallistel, C. R.; Jensen, Greg; Richards, Vanessa L.; Fairhurst, Stephen; Balsam, Peter D

    2012-01-01

    In a conditioning protocol, the onset of the conditioned stimulus (CS) provides information about when to expect reinforcement (the US). There are two sources of information from the CS in a delay conditioning paradigm in which the CS-US interval is fixed. The first depends on the informativeness, the degree to which CS onset reduces the average expected time to onset of the next US. The second depends only on how precisely a subject can represent a fixed-duration interval (the temporal Weber fraction). In three experiments with mice, we tested the differential impact of these two sources of information on rate of acquisition of conditioned responding (CS-US associability). In Experiment 1, we show that associability (the inverse of trials to acquisition) increases in proportion to informativeness. In Experiment 2, we show that fixing the duration of the US-US interval or the CS-US interval or both has no effect on associability. In Experiment 3, we equated the increase in information produced by varying the C̅/T̅ ratio with the increase produced by fixing the duration of the CS-US interval. Associability increased with increased informativeness, but, as in Experiment 2, fixing the CS-US duration had no effect on associability. These results are consistent with the view that CS-US associability depends on the increased rate of reward signaled by CS onset. The results also provide further evidence that conditioned responding is temporally controlled when it emerges. PMID:22468633

  17. Communication: Evidence for dipole-bound excited states in gas-phase I- ṡ MI (M = Na, K, Cs) anionic salt microclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Andrew J. A.; Yoshikawa, Naruo; Wang, Jin-Guo; Dessent, Caroline E. H.

    2015-09-01

    We report the first UV laser photodissociation spectra of gas-phase I- ṡ MI (M = Na, K, Cs) alkali halide anionic microclusters. The photodepletion spectra of these clusters display strong absorption bands just below the calculated vertical detachment energies, indicative of the presence of dipole-bound excited states. Photoexcitation at the peak of the transition to the dipole-bound excited state results in production of a primary [MI]- photofragment along with a less intense I- ion. The photofragmentation mechanism of the excited state cluster is discussed in the context of an initial dipole-bound excited state that subsequently relaxes via a vibrational Feschbach resonance. The experiments described have been performed in an electrospray source laser-interfaced quadrupole ion-trap instrument and demonstrated for the first time that dipole-bound excited states can be identified in the relatively high-collision environment of a quadrupole ion-trap, in particular for systems with large dipole moments associated with the presence of charge separation. This indicates considerable potential for future experiments that identify dipole-bound excited states as a "low-resolution" structural probe of biomolecules and molecular charge separation using the instrumentation employed in this work.

  18. Etude des transitions de phases dans les systèmes K 3MO 3F 3- A3MO 3F 3( A= Na, Rb; M= Mo, W)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouad, M.; Chaminade, J. P.; Ravez, J.; Sadel, A.

    1996-06-01

    RésuméX-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, polarized light microscopy, and dielectric measurements have been used to study phase transitions and solid solutions in the K3MO3F3-A3MO3F3(A= Rb, Na;M= Mo, W) systems. K3MO3F3-Na3MO3F3(M= Mo, W) systems show two solid solutions; the first (SSI) nearx= 0 (K3-xNaxMO3F3) involves only one transition atTCwhich is practically independent of composition. The sharp transition atT1(Rb3MO3F3-K3MO3F3systems show three solid solutions. The SS1 and SS3 exist close to the rubidium and potassium extremes of the binary lines. The pure phases display transitions atT1andTC. For compositions far fromy= 0 ory= 3 (Rb3-yKyMO3F3),TCdecreases andT1decreases abruptly and for SS1 becomes indetectable. The solid solution SS2 (neary= 1) has cubic symmetry down to 80 K forM= W, and a cubic-noncubic transition at low temperature forM= Mo. In any case, the phase transitions are of first order, reversible, and improper character. The transition atTCis ferroelectric, ferroelastic-paraelectric, prototype. The extent of each solid solution depends on the ratio of alcaline cations present in the 6- and 12-fold coordination sites of the perovskite structure. Des techniques expérimentales variées ont permis d'étudier les transitions de phases au sein des différentes solutions solides obtenues dans les systèmes K3MO3F3-A3MO3F3(A= Na, Rb;M= Mo, W): diffraction des rayons X, analyse thermique différentielle, microscopie optique en lumière polarisée. Les systèmes K3MO3F3-Na3MO3F3(M= Mo, W) présentent deux solutions solides. La première (SS1) au voisinage dex= 0 (K3-xNaxMO3F3) ne présente qu'une seule transition àTCqui reste pratiquement constante lorsque la composition varie; la transition qui était franche pourx= 0 àT1

  19. Developments towards detection of 135Cs at VERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachner, Johannes; Kasberger, Magdalena; Martschini, Martin; Priller, Alfred; Steier, Peter; Golser, Robin

    2015-10-01

    Radioisotopes produced in natural or anthropogenic fission are widely used for tracer studies of environmental processes, in nuclear forensics, and are important for nuclear waste disposal. Besides the well-known 137Cs, the longer-lived sister isotope 135Cs (T1/2 = 2.3 Myr) is also produced, and the combined measurement of the two isotopes would allow for assessment of contaminating sources. The insufficient suppression of the stable isobar 135Ba presently prevents AMS measurements down to expected natural levels of 135Cs/133Cs ≈ 10-11. Via the difference in electron affinities between Cs and Ba further isobar suppression should be achievable after the installation of the Ion-Laser-Interaction System (ILIAS) at VERA. We present a preparatory study on the performance of the 3 MV VERA AMS facility for 135Cs concerning ion formation, transmission and detection. Since the usual Cs sputtering would obscure the 135Cs/133Cs ratio of a sample, Rb sputtering was successfully applied and tested also for various other typical AMS elements. Partial suppression of 135Ba is possible with the extraction of Cs- and negative Cs-fluorides. Cs- currents of several 10 nA were extracted over hours from mg amounts of Cs2SO4 material. The transmission to various charge states was tested with gas (Ar, He) and foil stripping. Experiments showed that no suppression in the detection system is possible at high beam energies with the VERA facility. For this reason, gas stripping to low charge states (2+, 3+) with transmissions up to 30% is favorable to guarantee optimal beam transport to the detector. In the present setup, utilizing a simple Bragg-type detector, the blank 135Cs/133Cs ratios from chemically pure samples are determined by the 135Ba background to a value of (4.0 ± 1.3)·10-9.

  20. [Prognosis of dynamics and risk of exceeding permissible levels of 137Cs and 90Sr contents in fish in the Kiev Reservoir at the late phase of the Chernobyl accident].

    PubMed

    Homutinin, Iu V; Kashparov, V A; Kuz'menko, A V; Pavliuchenko, V V

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of the radionuclide specific activity measurements made on 832 samples of fish in 2009-2011 and taking into account literature data, the parameters of the stochastic model have been derived to describe the 137Cs and 90Sr contents in typical commercial fish species in the Kiev Reservoir at the late phase of the Chernobyl accident, including: statistical variability, seasonal changes and monotonous long-term trends. At any fixed moment of the year the standard deviations of logarithms of the 137Cs and 90Sr specific activities in carnivorous and benthophage fish species do not reliably differ, making up at average 0.4. The maximum vari- ation of the 137Cs specific activity (a four-fold decrease from April to November) was observed in pike. The obtained values of the ecological half-life periods for 137Cs and 90Sr (1.3-14 years) in fish of the Kiev reservoir in 2002-2012 were significantly lower than both the radioactive decay periods and the estimates of the IAEA Chernobyl Forum. Based on the obtained model parameters, the dynamics of the 137Cs and 90Sr specific ac- tivities in main commercial fish of the Kiev reservoir has been described and the risk of exceeding the permis- sible levels of these radionuclides in fish at the late phase of the Chernobyl accident has been estimated. Now the risk of catching fish with the specific activities of 137Cs and 90Sr above the permissible levels (150 Bq/kg and 35 Bq/kg, respectively) does not exceed 10% (except perch in the spring spawning period that is banned for fishing in Ukraine). Corresponding risks for roach, white bream and rudd are less than 0.1%.

  1. Integrated experimental and computational methods for structure determination and characterization of a new, highly stable cesium silicotitanate phase, Cs{sub 2}TiSi{sub 6}O{sub 15} (SNL-A)

    SciTech Connect

    NYMAN,MAY D.; BONHOMME,FRANCOIS R.; TETER,DAVID M.; MAXWELL,R.S.; GU,B.X.; WANG,L.M.; EWING,R.C.; NENOFF,TINA M.

    2000-04-24

    Exploratory hydrothermal synthesis in the system Cs{sub 2}O-SiO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O has produced a new polymorph of Cs{sub 2}TiSi{sub 6}O{sub 15} (SNL-A) whose structure was determined using a combination of experimental and theoretical techniques ({sup 29}Si and {sup 133}Cs NMR, X-ray Rietveld refinement, and Density Functional Theory). SNL-A crystallizes in the monoclinic space-group Cc with unit cell parameters: a = 12.998(2) {angstrom}, b = 7.5014(3) {angstrom}, c = 15.156(3) {angstrom}, {eta} = 105.80(3) {degree}. The SNL-A framework consists of silicon tetrahedra and titanium octahedra which are linked in 3-, 5-, 6-, 7- and 8-membered rings in three dimensions. SNL-A is distinctive from a previously reported C2/c polymorph of Cs{sub 2}TiSi{sub 6}O{sub 15} by different ring geometries. Similarities and differences between the two structures are discussed. Other characterizations of SNL-A include TGA-DTA, Cs/Si/Ti elemental analyses, and SEM/EDS. Furthermore, the chemical and radiation durability of SNL-A was studied in interest of ceramic waste form applications. These studies show that SNL-A is durable in both radioactive and rigorous chemical environments. Finally, calculated cohesive energies of the two Cs{sub 2}TiSi{sub 6}O{sub 15} polymorphs suggest that the SNL-A phase (synthesized at 200 C) is energetically more favorable than the C2/c polymorph (synthesized at 1,050 C).

  2. CsSnI[subscript 3]: Semiconductor or Metal? High Electrical Conductivity and Strong Near-Infrared Photoluminescence from a Single Material. High Hole Mobility and Phase-Transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, In; Song, Jung-Hwan; Im, Jino; Androulakis, John; Malliakas, Christos D.; Li, Hao; Freeman, Arthur J.; Kenney, John T.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2012-10-29

    CsSnI{sub 3} is an unusual perovskite that undergoes complex displacive and reconstructive phase transitions and exhibits near-infrared emission at room temperature. Experimental and theoretical studies of CsSnI{sub 3} have been limited by the lack of detailed crystal structure characterization and chemical instability. Here we describe the synthesis of pure polymorphic crystals, the preparation of large crack-/bubble-free ingots, the refined single-crystal structures, and temperature-dependent charge transport and optical properties of CsSnI{sub 3}, coupled with ab initio first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations. In situ temperature-dependent single-crystal and synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction studies reveal the origin of polymorphous phase transitions of CsSnI{sub 3}. The black orthorhombic form of CsSnI{sub 3} demonstrates one of the largest volumetric thermal expansion coefficients for inorganic solids. Electrical conductivity, Hall effect, and thermopower measurements on it show p-type metallic behavior with low carrier density, despite the optical band gap of 1.3 eV. Hall effect measurements of the black orthorhombic perovskite phase of CsSnI{sub 3} indicate that it is a p-type direct band gap semiconductor with carrier concentration at room temperature of {approx} 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} and a hole mobility of {approx} 585 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}. The hole mobility is one of the highest observed among p-type semiconductors with comparable band gaps. Its powders exhibit a strong room-temperature near-IR emission spectrum at 950 nm. Remarkably, the values of the electrical conductivity and photoluminescence intensity increase with heat treatment. The DFT calculations show that the screened-exchange local density approximation-derived band gap agrees well with the experimentally measured band gap. Calculations of the formation energy of defects strongly suggest that the electrical and light emission properties possibly result from

  3. Excess lithium intercalation in the fulleride superconductor Li{sub 3}CsC{sub 60}

    SciTech Connect

    Margadonna, S.; Prassides, K.; Fitch, A.N.; Kosaka, M.; Tanigaki, K.

    1999-07-07

    Alkali fullerides A{sub 2}A{prime}C{sub 60} (A, A{prime} = alkali metals) are superconducting with T{sub c} at ambient pressure ranging from 3.5 K for Na{sub 2}RbC{sub 60} to 33 K for RbCs{sub 2}C{sub 60}. The only exception is provided by Li{sub 2}CsC{sub 60} and Li{sub 2}RbC{sub 60} which do not show superconductivity down to 50 mK. Otherwise, T{sub c} increases monotonically with increasing interfullerene separation, d, as the density of states at the Fermi level, N({epsilon}{sub F}) increases. The absence of superconductivity in the Li fulleride family has been associated with the presence of strong bonding Li{sup +}-C interactions. These lead to a reduced formal charge of the C{sub 60}{sup n{minus}} ions in Li{sub 2}A{prime}C{sub 60}, found experimentally as {approximately}2.5 by Raman measurements. In an attempt to overcome the Li{sup +}-C interactions and achieve half filling (n = 3) of the t{sub lu} band, the authors synthesized the Li{sub x}CsC{sub 60} (x = 1.5--6) fullerides. By adjusting x, the authors can control the electron transfer from Li to C{sub 60} and tune the filling level of the conduction band continuously. Half filling is achieved for Li{sub 3}CsC{sub 60} which is a bulk superconductor with T{sub c} = 10.5 K. This paper reports the structural properties of the Li{sub 3}CaC{sub 60} superconductor. At low temperatures, it is primitive cubic (space group Pa{bar 3}), isostructural with the metastable Na{sub 2}A{prime}C{sub 60} phases with orientationally ordered C{sub 60}{sup 3{minus}} ions in the unit cell.

  4. Cdk5-mediated inhibition of APC/C-Cdh1 switches on the cyclin D1-Cdk4-pRb pathway causing aberrant S-phase entry of postmitotic neurons.

    PubMed

    Veas-Pérez de Tudela, Miguel; Maestre, Carolina; Delgado-Esteban, María; Bolaños, Juan P; Almeida, Angeles

    2015-12-10

    The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates cell cycle progression in proliferating cells. To enter the S-phase, APC/C must be inactivated by phosphorylation of its cofactor, Cdh1. In post-mitotic cells such as neurons APC/C-Cdh1 complex is highly active and responsible for the continuous degradation of mitotic cyclins. However, the specific molecular pathway that determines neuronal cell cycle blockade in post-mitotic neurons is unknown. Here, we show that activation of glutamatergic receptors in rat cortical primary neurons endogenously triggers cyclin-dependent kinase-5 (Cdk5)-mediated phosphorylation of Cdh1 leading to its cytoplasmic accumulation and disassembly from the APC3 core protein, causing APC/C inactivation. Conversely, pharmacological or genetic inhibition of Cdk5 promotes Cdh1 ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Furthermore, we show that Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation and inactivation of Cdh1 leads to p27 depletion, which switches on the cyclin D1-cyclin-dependent kinase-4 (Cdk4)-retinoblastoma protein (pRb) pathway to allow the S-phase entry of neurons. However, neurons do not proceed through the cell cycle and die by apoptosis. These results indicate that APC/C-Cdh1 actively suppresses an aberrant cell cycle entry and death of neurons, highlighting its critical function in neuroprotection.

  5. Accumulation of potassium, rubidium and caesium (133Cs and 137Cs in various fractions of soil and fungi in a Swedish forest.

    PubMed

    Vinichuk, M; Taylor, A F S; Rosén, K; Johanson, K J

    2010-05-15

    Radiocaesium ((137)Cs) was widely deposited over large areas of forest in Sweden as a result of the Chernobyl accident in 1986 and many people in Sweden eat wild fungi and game obtained from these contaminated forests. In terms of radioisotope accumulation in the food chain, it is well known that fungal sporocarps efficiently accumulate radiocaesium ((137)Cs), as well as the alkali metals potassium (K), rubidium (Rb) and caesium (Cs). The fungi then enhance uptake of these elements into host plants. This study compared the accumulation of these three alkali metals in bulk soil, rhizosphere, soil-root interface, fungal mycelium and sporocarps of mycorrhizal fungi in a Swedish forest. The soil-root interface was found to be distinctly enriched in K and Rb compared with the bulk soil. Potassium concentrations increased in the order: bulk soilRb concentration in the order: bulk soilRb and K than Cs, so the uptake of (137)Cs could be prevented by providing additional Rb or K at contaminated sites. The levels of K, Rb, and Cs found in sporocarps were at least one order of magnitude higher than those in fungal mycelium. These results provide new insights into the use of transfer factors or concentration ratios. The final step, the transfer of alkali metals from fungal mycelium to sporocarps, raised some specific questions about possible mechanisms. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. RB1, development, and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chinnam, Meenalakshmi; Goodrich, David W.

    2013-01-01

    The RB1 gene is the first tumor suppressor gene identified whose mutational inactivation is the cause of a human cancer, the pediatric cancer retinoblastoma. The twenty five years of research since its discovery has not only illuminated a general role for RB1 in human cancer, but also its critical importance in normal development. Understanding the molecular function of the RB1 encoded protein, pRb, is a long-standing goal that promises to inform our understanding of cancer, its relationship to normal development, and possible therapeutic strategies to combat this disease. Achieving this goal has been difficult, complicated by the complexity of pRb and related proteins. The goal of this review is to explore the hypothesis that, at its core, the molecular function of pRb is to dynamically regulate the location specific assembly or disassembly of protein complexes on the DNA in response to the output of various signaling pathways. These protein complexes participate in a variety of molecular processes relevant to DNA including gene transcription, DNA replication, DNA repair, and mitosis. Through regulation of these processes, RB1 plays a uniquely prominent role in normal development and cancer. PMID:21295686

  7. 250W diode laser for low pressure Rb vapor pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podvyaznyy, A.; Venus, G.; Smirnov, V.; Mokhun, O.; Koulechov, V.; Hostutler, D.; Glebov, L.

    2010-02-01

    The diode pumped alkali vapor lasers operating at subatmospheric pressure require developing of a new generation of high-power laser diode sources with about 10 GHz wide emission spectrum. The latest achievements in the technology of volume Bragg gratings (VBGs) recorded in photo-thermo-refractive glass opened new opportunities for the design and fabrication of compact external cavity laser diodes, diode bars and stacks with reflecting VBGs as output couplers. We present a diode laser system providing up to 250 W output power and emission spectral width of 20 pm (FWHM) at the wavelength of 780 nm. The stability and position of an emission wavelength is determined by the resonant wavelength of a VBG which is controlled by temperature. Stability of an emitting wavelength is within 5 pm. Thermal tuning of the wavelength provides maximum overlapping of emitting line with absorption spectrum of a Rb (rubidium)- cell. The designed system consists of 7 modules tuned to the same wavelength corresponding to D2 spectral line of Rb87 or Rb85 and coupled to a single output fiber. Analogous systems could be used for other Rb isotopes spectral lines as well as for lasers based on other alkali metal vapors (Cs and K) or any agents with narrow absorption lines.

  8. Cyclin D activates the Rb tumor suppressor by mono-phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Narasimha, Anil M; Kaulich, Manuel; Shapiro, Gary S; Choi, Yoon J; Sicinski, Piotr; Dowdy, Steven F

    2014-06-04

    The widely accepted model of G1 cell cycle progression proposes that cyclin D:Cdk4/6 inactivates the Rb tumor suppressor during early G1 phase by progressive multi-phosphorylation, termed hypo-phosphorylation, to release E2F transcription factors. However, this model remains unproven biochemically and the biologically active form(s) of Rb remains unknown. In this study, we find that Rb is exclusively mono-phosphorylated in early G1 phase by cyclin D:Cdk4/6. Mono-phosphorylated Rb is composed of 14 independent isoforms that are all targeted by the E1a oncoprotein, but show preferential E2F binding patterns. At the late G1 Restriction Point, cyclin E:Cdk2 inactivates Rb by quantum hyper-phosphorylation. Cells undergoing a DNA damage response activate cyclin D:Cdk4/6 to generate mono-phosphorylated Rb that regulates global transcription, whereas cells undergoing differentiation utilize un-phosphorylated Rb. These observations fundamentally change our understanding of G1 cell cycle progression and show that mono-phosphorylated Rb, generated by cyclin D:Cdk4/6, is the only Rb isoform in early G1 phase.

  9. High-pressure behaviour of Cs{sub 2}V{sub 3}O{sub 8} fresnoite

    SciTech Connect

    Grzechnik, Andrzej; Yeon, Jeongho; Zur Loye, Hans-Conrad; Friese, Karen

    2016-06-15

    Crystal structure of Cs{sub 2}V{sub 3}O{sub 8} fresnoite (P4bm, Z=2) has been studied using single-crystal X-ray diffraction in a diamond anvil cell to 8.6 GPa at room temperature. Cs{sub 2}V{sub 3}O{sub 8} undergoes a reversible first-order phase transition at about 4 GPa associated with anomalies in the pressure dependencies of the lattice parameters and unit-cell volume but without any symmetry change. Both structures consist of layers of corner-sharing V{sup 5+}O{sub 4} tetrahedra and V{sup 4+}O{sub 5} tetragonal pyramids separated by the Cs{sup +} cations located between the layers. At low pressures, the compression has little effect on the polarity of the structure. Above 4 GPa, the pseudosymmetry with respect to the corresponding centrosymmetric space group P4/mbm abruptly increases. The effects of external pressure and of the A{sup +} cation substitution in the vanadate fresnoites A{sub 2}V{sub 3}O{sub 8} (A{sup +}: K{sup +}, Rb{sup +}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, Cs{sup +}) are discussed. - Graphical abstract: Non-centrosymmetric Cs{sub 2}V{sub 3}O{sub 8} undergoes a reversible first-order phase transition at about 4 GPa associated with an abrupt change of the pseudosymmetry with respect to the centrosymmetric space group P4/mbm. Display Omitted - Highlights: • High-pressure behaviour of vanadate fresnoites depends on alkali metal cations. • The size of the alkali metal cation determines whether the high-pressure phase is centrosymmetric. • No incommensurate structures are observed upon compression.

  10. Procedures for precise measurements of (135)Cs/(137)Cs atom ratios in environmental samples at extreme dynamic ranges and ultra-trace levels by thermal ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dunne, James A; Richards, David A; Chen, Hsin-Wei

    2017-11-01

    Determination of (135)Cs/(137)Cs atom ratios has the potential to be a powerful tool for nuclear forensics and monitoring environmental processes. We present optimized chemical separation techniques and thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) protocols to obtain precise (135)Cs/(137)Cs atom ratios for a range of environmental sample types. We use a combination of double AMP-PAN separation and Sr-spec resin column purification to yield excellent separation from the alkali metals (Rb separation factor > 600), which normally suppress ionization of Cs. A range of emission activators for the ionization of Cs were evaluated and glucose solution yielded the optimal combination of a stable Cs(+) beam, minimal low-temperature polyatomic interferences and improved ionization efficiency. Mass-spectrometric determination of low abundance (135)Cs and (137)Cs is compromised by the presence of a very large (133)Cs(+) beam, which may be scattered and cause significant spectral interferences. These are explored using multi-static Faraday cup - ion counter methods and a range of energy filter settings. The method is evaluated using environmental samples and standards from regions affected by fallout from Chernobyl (IAEA-330) and Fukushima nuclear disasters. Where the intensity of (133)Cs(+) is large relative to (135)Cs(+) and (137)Cs(+) (< 30cps), minor polyatomic interferences need to be considered. In the absence of a standard with (135, 137)Cs/(133)Cs < 1 × 10(-8), we explored the reproducibility of (135)Cs/(137)Cs atom ratios at these high dynamic ranges and extremely low abundance ((137)Cs ≈ 12 fg g(-1)) for sediments from an estuarine setting in SW England, UK. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Ternary K2Zn5As4-type pnictides Rb2Cd5As4 and Rb2Zn5Sb4, and the solid solution Rb2Cd5(As,Sb)4.

    PubMed

    He, Hua; Stoyko, Stanislav S; Mar, Arthur; Bobev, Svilen

    2013-05-01

    Dirubidium pentacadmium tetraarsenide, Rb2Cd5As4, dirubidium pentazinc tetraantimonide, Rb2Zn5Sb4, and the solid-solution phase dirubidium pentacadmium tetra(arsenide/antimonide), Rb2Cd5(As,Sb)4 [or Rb2Cd5As3.00(1)Sb1.00(1)], have been prepared by direct reaction of the component elements at high temperature. These compounds are charge-balanced Zintl phases and adopt the orthorhombic K2Zn5As4-type structure (Pearson symbol oC44), featuring a three-dimensional [M5Pn4](2-) framework [M = Zn or Cd; Pn is a pnicogen or Group 15 (Group V) element] built of linked MPn4 tetrahedra, and large channels extending along the b axis which host Rb(+) cations. The As and Sb atoms in Rb2Cd5(As,Sb)4 are randomly disordered over the two available pnicogen sites. Band-structure calculations predict that Rb2Cd5As4 is a small-band-gap semiconductor and Rb2Zn5Sb4 is a semimetal.

  12. Do CS-US Pairings Actually Matter? A Within-Subject Comparison of Instructed Fear Conditioning with and without Actual CS-US Pairings

    PubMed Central

    Raes, An K.; De Houwer, Jan; De Schryver, Maarten; Brass, Marcel; Kalisch, Raffael

    2014-01-01

    Previous research showed that instructions about CS-US pairings can lead to fear of the CS even when the pairings are never presented. In the present study, we examined whether the experience of CS-US pairings adds to the effect of instructions by comparing instructed conditioning with and without actual CS-US pairings in a within-subject design. Thirty-two participants saw three fractals as CSs (CS+1, CS+2, CS−) and received electric shocks as USs. Before the start of a so-called training phase, participants were instructed that both CS+1 and CS+2 would be followed by the US, but only CS+1 was actually paired with the US. The absence of the US after CS+2 was explained in such a way that participants would not doubt the instructions about the CS+2-US relation. After the training phase, a test phase was carried out. In this phase, participants expected the US after both CS+s but none of the CS+s was actually paired with the US. During test, self-reported fear was initially higher for CS+1 than for CS+2, which indicates that the experience of actual CS-US pairings adds to instructions about these pairings. On the other hand, the CS+s elicited similar skin conductance responses and US expectancies. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:24465447

  13. Interaction of the cesium cation with mono-, di-, and tricarboxylic acids in the gas phase. A Cs+ affinity scale for cesium carboxylates ion pairs.

    PubMed

    Mayeux, Charly; Tammiku-Taul, Jaana; Massi, Lionel; Lohu, Ene-Liis; Burk, Peeter; Maria, Pierre-Charles; Gal, Jean-François

    2009-10-01

    Humic substances (HS), including humic and fulvic acids, play a significant role in the fate of metals in soils. The interaction of metal cations with HS occurs predominantly through the ionized (anionic) acidic functions. In the context of the effect of HS on transport of radioactive cesium isotopes in soils, a study of the interaction between the cesium cation and model carboxylic acids was undertaken. Structure and energetics of the adducts formed between Cs+ and cesium carboxylate salts [Cs+RCOO-] were studied by the kinetic method and density functional theory (DFT). Clusters generated by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry from mixtures of a cesium salt (nitrate, iodide, trifluoroacetate) and carboxylic acids were quantitatively studied by CID. By combining the results of the kinetic method and the energetic data from DFT calculations, a scale of cesium cation affinity, CsCA, was built for 33 cesium carboxylates representing the first scale of cation affinity of molecular salts. The structural effects on the CsCA values are discussed.

  14. Phase coexistence in the mixed crystal Rb[sub 1-x](NH[sub 4])[sub x]H[sub 2]AsO[sub 4

    SciTech Connect

    Pinto, N.J.

    1992-01-01

    A study of the coexistence phenomenon in mixed crystals of rubidium ammonium dihydrogen arsenate has been done. Coexistence in this study refers to the simultaneous presence of ferroelectric and proton glass phases as temperature is lowered below the ferroelectric phase transition temperature T[sub c]. Such coexistence is found to exist in these mixed crystals only for small ammonium concentrations. The results show that coexistence exists for lower ammonium concentration than previously suggested. A study was also done on crystals with larger ammonium concentrations that show pure proton glass behavior and the results compared with the coexistence phenomenon. Dielectric, spontaneous polarization and nuclear magnetic resonance experiments on mixed crystals with small ammonium concentrations show that at low temperatures there exists intimate coexistence of ferroelectric clusters with proton glass clusters below the glass transition temperature T[sub g]. In the proton glass phase, it is observed that a spread of relaxation times due to the creation and annihilation of HAsO[sub 4] and H[sub 3]AsO[sub 4] pairs as they diffuse through the crystal. Spin lattice relaxation times for the acid deuterons in a 10% ammoniated sample show a broad T[sub 1] minimum near the glass transition temperature which is characteristic of proton glasses. Field-cooling experiments were also done on the pure proton glass. The results are consistent with dielectric measurements, but the remanent polarization was found to be extremely small. This polarization was found to depend on the rate of heating and cooling the sample while performing the experiment.

  15. Rb based alkali antimonide high quantum efficiency photocathodes for bright electron beam sources and photon detection applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cultrera, L.; Gulliford, C.; Bartnik, A.; Lee, H.; Bazarov, I.

    2017-02-01

    High quantum efficiency alkali antimonide photocathodes have been grown over both stainless steel and glass substrates using sequential evaporation of Sb, K, Rb, and Cs. Quantum efficiencies well above 25% have been measured at 400 nm. A bi-alkali Rb-K-Sb photocathode grown on a stainless steel substrate has been installed in a high voltage DC gun at Cornell University and the intrinsic electron beam emittance was measured at different photon energies.

  16. Magnetic dipole bands in 82Rb, 83Rb and 84Rb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwengner, R.; Schnare, H.; Frauendorf, S.; Dönau, F.; Käubler, L.; Prade, H.; Grosse, E.; Jungclaus, A.; Lieb, K. P.; Lingk, C.; Skoda, S.; Eberth, J.; de Angelis, G.; Gadea, A.; Farnea, E.; Napoli, D. R.; Ur, C. A.; Lo Bianco, G.

    1998-12-01

    We have studied the isotopes 82Rb45, 83Rb46 and 84Rb47 to search for magnetic rotation which is predicted in the tilted-axis cranking model for a certain mass region around A=80. Excited states in these nuclei were populated via the reaction 11B+76Ge with E=50 MeV at the XTU tandem accelerator of the LNL Legnaro. Based on a γ-coincidence experiment using the spectrometer GASP we have found magnetic dipole bands in each studied nuclide. The regular M1 bands observed in the odd-odd nuclei 82Rb and 84Rb include B(M1)/B(E2) ratios decreasing smoothly with increasing spin in a range of 13-⩽Jπ⩽16-. These bands are interpreted in the tilted-axis cranking model on the basis of four-quasiparticle configurations of the type π(fp)πg9/22νg9/2. This is the first evidence of magnetic rotation in the A≈80 region. In contrast, the M1 sequences in the odd-even nucleus 83Rb are not regular, and the B(M1)/B(E2) ratios show a pronounced staggering.

  17. Experiments with a mixture of ^85Rb and ^87Rb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papp, Scott B.; Pino, Juan M., II; Wieman, Carl E.

    2004-05-01

    Through use of a Feshbach resonance in ^85Rb, novel methods for the manipulation of a BEC were demonstrated at JILA. Recent experiments [1] utilizing rapid magnetic field pulses observed a coherent superposition of atomic and molecular BEC. These experiments have prompted the need for a new apparatus to produce ^85Rb BEC. We have constructed a vacuum system consisting of two chambers at different base pressures. The first chamber contains a vapor cell magneto-optical trap (MOT), and the second is a UHV glass cell. The chambers are connected through a long thin tube with a 90^o bend. Atoms are transferred between the two chambers via a moving quadrupole magnetic potential [2]. Once in the UHV chamber the atoms are loaded into a Ioffe-Pritchard style magnetic trap. To cool the gas towards the BEC transition temperature, we sympathetically cool ^85Rb with ^87Rb. This requires high numbers of ^87Rb to provide sufficient collision rate for runaway evaporation. We discuss the characterization of the above apparatus. [1] E.A. Donley et al., Nature 417, 529 (2002). [2] H. J. Lewandowski et al., J. Low Temp. Phys. 132, 309 (2003); M. Greiner et al., Phys. Rev. A. 63, 031401 (2001).

  18. Distribution of sup 137 Cs in soils due to the Goiania accident and decisions for remedial action during the recovery phase

    SciTech Connect

    Amaral, E.C.; Vianna, M.E.; Godoy, J.M.; Rochedo, E.R.; Campos, M.J.; do Rio, M.A.; Oliveira, J.P.; Pereira, J.C.; Reis, W.G. )

    1991-01-01

    In September 1987, a powder radioactive source was removed from a teletherapy machine in Goiania, Brazil. Subsequently, it was ruptured in a residential garden causing the dissemination of {sup 137}Cs throughout the city. Soil resuspension processes and burial of contaminated house waste in unused gardens were the major contributors to the Cs dissemination in soils at the secondary contaminated sites. Only locations within a radius of 50 m from the primary contaminated sites presented the need for remedial action. The radiation dose-rate measurements and the soil profiles were good indicators of the extent of the secondary contamination and were fundamental for the decisions taken regarding decontamination procedures. In cases of surface contamination, 60% on average of the total activity remained in the upper 1.5-cm layer over the first 5 mo after the accident, and topsoil removal proved to be an effective procedure for decontamination.

  19. Regulation of RB Transcription In Vivo by RB Family Members▿ ‡

    PubMed Central

    Burkhart, Deborah L.; Ngai, Lynn K.; Roake, Caitlin M.; Viatour, Patrick; Thangavel, Chellappagounder; Ho, Victoria M.; Knudsen, Erik S.; Sage, Julien

    2010-01-01

    In cancer cells, the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor RB is directly inactivated by mutation in the RB gene or functionally inhibited by abnormal activation of cyclin-dependent kinase activity. While variations in RB levels may also provide an important means of controlling RB function in both normal and cancer cells, little is known about the mechanisms regulating RB transcription. Here we show that members of the RB and E2F families bind directly to the RB promoter. To investigate how the RB/E2F pathway may regulate Rb transcription, we generated reporter mice carrying an eGFP transgene inserted into a bacterial artificial chromosome containing most of the Rb gene. Expression of eGFP largely parallels that of Rb in transgenic embryos and adult mice. Using these reporter mice and mutant alleles for Rb, p107, and p130, we found that RB family members modulate Rb transcription in specific cell populations in vivo and in culture. Interestingly, while Rb is a target of the RB/E2F pathway in mouse and human cells, Rb expression does not strictly correlate with the cell cycle status of these cells. These experiments identify novel regulatory feedback mechanisms within the RB pathway in mammalian cells. PMID:20100864

  20. Cs 728 nm Laser Spectroscopy and Faraday Atomic Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhong-Zheng; Tao, Zhi-Ming; Jiang, Zhao-Jie; Chen, Jing-Biao

    2014-12-01

    We mainly present the 728 nm laser spectroscopy and Faraday atomic filter of Cs atoms with 650 MHz linewidth and 2.6% transmission based on an electrodeless discharge vapor lamp, compared with Rb 728 nm laser spectroscopy. Accidentally, this remarkably strong Cs 728 nm transition from the 6F7/2 state to the 5D5/2 state is only about 2.5 GHz away from the Rb 728 nm transition of the future potential four-level active optical clock, once laser cooled and trapped from the 7S1/2 state to the 5P1/2 state, as we proposed previously. A Faraday atomic filter stabilized 728 nm laser using a Cs electrodeless discharge vapor lamp with a power of 10mW will provide a frequency reference to evaluate the performance of the potential Rb four-level active optical clock at 728 nm with power less than 1 nW by 2.5 GHz heterodyne measurements.

  1. Cortical excitatory neurons become protected from cell division during neurogenesis in an Rb family-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Oshikawa, Mio; Okada, Kei; Nakajima, Kazunori; Ajioka, Itsuki

    2013-06-01

    Cell cycle dysregulation leads to abnormal proliferation and cell death in a context-specific manner. Cell cycle progression driven via the Rb pathway forces neurons to undergo S-phase, resulting in cell death associated with the progression of neuronal degeneration. Nevertheless, some Rb- and Rb family (Rb, p107 and p130)-deficient differentiating neurons can proliferate and form tumors. Here, we found in mouse that differentiating cerebral cortical excitatory neurons underwent S-phase progression but not cell division after acute Rb family inactivation in differentiating neurons. However, the differentiating neurons underwent cell division and proliferated when Rb family members were inactivated in cortical progenitors. Differentiating neurons generated from Rb(-/-); p107(-/-); p130(-/-) (Rb-TKO) progenitors, but not acutely inactivated Rb-TKO differentiating neurons, activated the DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway without increasing trimethylation at lysine 20 of histone H4 (H4K20), which has a role in protection against DNA damage. The activation of the DSB repair pathway was essential for the cell division of Rb-TKO differentiating neurons. These results suggest that newly born cortical neurons from progenitors become epigenetically protected from DNA damage and cell division in an Rb family-dependent manner.

  2. Pressure-induced metathesis reaction to sequester Cs.

    PubMed

    Im, Junhyuck; Seoung, Donghoon; Lee, Seung Yeop; Blom, Douglas A; Vogt, Thomas; Kao, Chi-Chang; Lee, Yongjae

    2015-01-06

    We report here a pressure-driven metathesis reaction where Ag-exchanged natrolite (Ag16Al16Si24O80·16H2O, Ag-NAT) is pressurized in an aqueous CsI solution, resulting in the exchange of Ag(+) by Cs(+) in the natrolite framework forming Cs16Al16Si24O80·16H2O (Cs-NAT-I) and, above 0.5 GPa, its high-pressure polymorph (Cs-NAT-II). During the initial cation exchange, the precipitation of AgI occurs. Additional pressure and heat at 2 GPa and 160 °C transforms Cs-NAT-II to a pollucite-related, highly dense, and water-free triclinic phase with nominal composition CsAlSi2O6. At ambient temperature after pressure release, the Cs remains sequestered in a now monoclinic pollucite phase at close to 40 wt % and a favorably low Cs leaching rate under back-exchange conditions. This process thus efficiently combines the pressure-driven separation of Cs and I at ambient temperature with the subsequent sequestration of Cs under moderate pressures and temperatures in its preferred waste form suitable for long-term storage at ambient conditions. The zeolite pollucite CsAlSi2O6·H2O has been identified as a potential host material for nuclear waste remediation of anthropogenic (137)Cs due to its chemical and thermal stability, low leaching rate, and the large amount of Cs it can contain. The new water-free pollucite phase we characterize during our process will not display radiolysis of water during longterm storage while maintaining the Cs content and low leaching rate.

  3. Improving CS regulations.

    SciTech Connect

    Nesse, R.J.; Scheer, R.M.; Marasco, A.L.; Furey, R.

    1980-10-01

    President Carter issued Executive Order 12044 (3/28/78) that required all Federal agencies to distinguish between significant and insignificant regulations, and to determine whether a regulation will result in major impacts. This study gathered information on the impact of the order and the guidelines on the Office of Conservation and Solar Energy (CS) regulatory practices, investigated problems encountered by the CS staff when implementing the order and guidelines, and recommended solutions to resolve these problems. Major tasks accomplished and discussed are: (1) legislation, Executive Orders, and DOE Memoranda concerning Federal administrative procedures relevant to the development and analysis of regulations within CS reviewed; (2) relevant DOE Orders and Memoranda analyzed and key DOE and CS staff interviewed in order to accurately describe the current CS regulatory process; (3) DOE staff from the Office of the General Counsel, the Office of Policy and Evaluation, the Office of the Environment, and the Office of the Secretary interviewed to explore issues and problems encountered with current CS regulatory practices; (4) the regulatory processes at five other Federal agencies reviewed in order to see how other agencies have approached the regulatory process, dealt with specific regulatory problems, and responded to the Executive Order; and (5) based on the results of the preceding four tasks, recommendations for potential solutions to the CS regulatory problems developed. (MCW)

  4. Temperature and composition phase diagram in the iron-based ladder compounds Ba 1 - x Cs x Fe 2 Se 3

    SciTech Connect

    Hawai, Takafumi; Nambu, Yusuke; Ohgushi, Kenya; Du, Fei; Hirata, Yasuyuki; Avdeev, Maxim; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Sekine, Yurina; Fukazawa, Hiroshi; Ma, Jie; Chi, Songxue; Ueda, Yutaka; Yoshizawa, Hideki; Sato, Taku J.

    2015-05-28

    We investigated the iron-based ladder compounds (Ba,Cs)Fe₂Se₃. Their parent compounds BaFe₂Se₃ and CsFe₂Se₃ have different space groups, formal valences of Fe, and magnetic structures. Electrical resistivity, specific heat, magnetic susceptibility, x-ray diffraction, and powder neutron diffraction measurements were conducted to obtain a temperature and composition phase diagram of this system. Block magnetism observed in BaFe₂Se₃ is drastically suppressed with Cs doping. In contrast, stripe magnetism observed in CsFe₂Se₃ is not so fragile against Ba doping. A new type of magnetic structure appears in intermediate compositions, which is similar to stripe magnetism of CsFe₂Se₃, but interladder spin configuration is different. Intermediate compounds show insulating behavior, nevertheless a finite T-linear contribution in specific heat was obtained at low temperatures.

  5. Fluorine speciation analysis using reverse phase liquid chromatography coupled off-line to continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry (CS-MAS): identification and quantification of novel fluorinated organic compounds in environmental and biological samples.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhiwei; McNee, David; Gleisner, Heike; Raab, Andrea; Kyeremeh, Kwaku; Jaspars, Marcel; Krupp, Eva; Deng, Hai; Feldmann, Jörg

    2012-07-17

    Driven by increasing demand for the monitoring of industrial perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), the identification of novel fluorine containing compounds (FOCs) and the tracking of organofluorine drugs and their degradation products, there is a clear need for sensitive, fluorine-specific detection of unknown FOCs. Here we report the first ever direct fluorine-specific (speciation) method; capable of individually detecting untargeted FOCs in environmental and biological samples through the application of continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry (CS-MAS) using a commercial CS-AAS. Two model FOCs (2,4,6, trifluorobenzoic acid (TFBA) and 5-fluoroindol-5-carboxylic acid (FICA)) were used, achieving fluorine-specific detection across a range of 0.1 to 300 ng/mL fluorine, corresponding to a limit of detection of 4 pg F and 5.26 nM for both compounds. Both TFBA and FICA showed a similar response to CS-MAS detection, potentially enabling the quantification of fluorine content in novel FOCs without having molecular standards available. This paper also reports the use of reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled off-line with CS-MAS for the identification of single organofluorines in a mixture of FOCs via fraction collection. The linear range of both FOCs was determined to be from 1 to 500 ng/mL. The limits of detection of those species were just above 1 ng/mL (100 pg) and can therefore compete with targeted analytical methods such as ESI-MS. Finally, as a proof of principle the analysis of a fluoride-containing groundwater sample from Ghana demonstrated that this method can be used in the detection of novel FOCs, with identification achieved through parallel ESI-MS. Coupled HPLC-CS-MAS/ESI-MS is the first analytical methodology capable of selectively detecting and identifying novel FOCs, making possible the quantification of all fluorine containing compounds in one sample. This is the necessary analytical requirement to perform

  6. Lunar Rb-Sr chronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.

    1977-01-01

    It has been established with the aid of Rb-Sr studies that lunar chronology consists of five episodes, including the formation of the moon approximately 4.6 AE ago (1 AE = 1000 million years), a period of intense bombardment by planetary debris resulting in the formation of the major lunar basins, the end of this period at 3.9-4.0 AE ago, a period of mare flooding extending from 3.9 to 3.2 AE ago, and a relatively quiescent period from 3.2 AE ago to the present. In addition, Rb-Sr-studies have provided valuable constraints on the geochemical evolution of the moon through the determination of the initial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios which limit the Rb/Sr ratios of the source materials for lunar rocks. Attention is given to the characteristics of the Rb-Sr method, the analytical techniques, the ages of lunar mare basalts, the non-mare rocks, the studies conducted in connection with the various Apollo missions, the lunar cataclysm, lunar soils, and aspects of crustal contamination.

  7. RB1 in cancer: different mechanisms of RB1 inactivation and alterations of pRb pathway in tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Di Fiore, Riccardo; D'Anneo, Antonella; Tesoriere, Giovanni; Vento, Renza

    2013-08-01

    Loss of RB1 gene is considered either a causal or an accelerating event in retinoblastoma. A variety of mechanisms inactivates RB1 gene, including intragenic mutations, loss of expression by methylation and chromosomal deletions, with effects which are species-and cell type-specific. RB1 deletion can even lead to aneuploidy thus greatly increasing cancer risk. The RB1gene is part of a larger gene family that includes RBL1 and RBL2, each of the three encoding structurally related proteins indicated as pRb, p107, and p130, respectively. The great interest in these genes and proteins springs from their ability to slow down neoplastic growth. pRb can associate with various proteins by which it can regulate a great number of cellular activities. In particular, its association with the E2F transcription factor family allows the control of the main pRb functions, while the loss of these interactions greatly enhances cancer development. As RB1 gene, also pRb can be functionally inactivated through disparate mechanisms which are often tissue specific and dependent on the scenario of the involved tumor suppressors and oncogenes. The critical role of the context is complicated by the different functions played by the RB proteins and the E2F family members. In this review, we want to emphasize the importance of the mechanisms of RB1/pRb inactivation in inducing cancer cell development. The review is divided in three chapters describing in succession the mechanisms of RB1 inactivation in cancer cells, the alterations of pRb pathway in tumorigenesis and the RB protein and E2F family in cancer.

  8. Phase diagram and thermodynamic calculations of alkali and alkaline earth metal zirconates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, Smruti; Sood, D. D.; Prasad, R.

    1996-02-01

    The ternary phase diagrams and partial pressures of various gaseous species over the equilibrium phase fields have been calculated for the MZrO (M = Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Sr and Ba) systems by using the SOLGASMIX-PV program, which computes equilibrium composition by direct minimization of the Gibbs energy of a system. The available experimental Gibbs energy data reported in the literature for binary and ternary compounds were used for these calculations. Where no data exist, values were estimated. These ternary phase diagrams are being reported for the first time, except for the lithium system.

  9. What’s So Special about RB?

    PubMed Central

    Burd, Christin E.; Sharpless, Norman E.

    2013-01-01

    RB, p107, and p130 are highly related proteins, each capable of regulating cellular proliferation. However, only RB is frequently mutated in cancer. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Chicas et al. shed new light on this conundrum, defining a “special,” nonredundant role for RB in promoting cellular senescence. PMID:20385355

  10. First-principles study of paraelectric and ferroelectric CsH2PO4 including dispersion forces: Stability and related vibrational, dielectric, and elastic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Troeye, Benoit; van Setten, Michiel Jan; Giantomassi, Matteo; Torrent, Marc; Rignanese, Gian-Marco; Gonze, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Using density functional theory (DFT) and density functional perturbation theory (DFPT), we investigate the stability and response functions of CsH2PO4 , a ferroelectric material at low temperature. This material cannot be described properly by the usual (semi)local approximations within DFT. The long-range e--e- correlation needs to be properly taken into account, using, for instance, Grimme's DFT-D methods, as investigated in this work. We find that DFT-D3(BJ) performs the best for the members of the dihydrogenated alkali phosphate family (KH2PO4 , RbH2PO4 , CsH2PO4 ), leading to experimental lattice parameters reproduced with an average deviation of 0.5%. With these DFT-D methods, the structural, dielectric, vibrational, and mechanical properties of CsH2PO4 are globally in excellent agreement with the available experiments (<2 % MAPE for Raman-active phonons). Our study suggests the possible existence of a new low-temperature phase of CsH2PO4 , not yet reported experimentally. Finally, we report the implementation of DFT-D contributions to elastic constants within DFPT.

  11. From Nonluminescent Cs4PbX6 (X = Cl, Br, I) Nanocrystals to Highly Luminescent CsPbX3 Nanocrystals: Water-Triggered Transformation through a CsX-Stripping Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wu, Linzhong; Hu, Huicheng; Xu, Yong; Jiang, Shu; Chen, Min; Zhong, Qixuan; Yang, Di; Liu, Qipeng; Zhao, Yun; Sun, Baoquan; Zhang, Qiao; Yin, Yadong

    2017-09-13

    We report a novel CsX-stripping mechanism that enables the efficient chemical transformation of nonluminescent Cs4PbX6 (X = Cl, Br, I) nanocrystals (NCs) to highly luminescent CsPbX3 NCs. During the transformation, Cs4PbX6 NCs dispersed in a nonpolar solvent are converted into CsPbX3 NCs by stripping CsX through an interfacial reaction with water in a different phase. This process takes advantage of the high solubility of CsX in water as well as the ionic nature and high ion diffusion property of Cs4PbX6 NCs, and produces monodisperse and air-stable CsPbX3 NCs with controllable halide composition, tunable emission wavelength covering the full visible range, narrow emission width, and high photoluminescent quantum yield (up to 75%). An additional advantage is that this is a clean synthesis as Cs4PbX6 NCs are converted into CsPbX3 NCs in the nonpolar phase while the byproduct of CsX is formed in water that could be easily separated from the organic phase. The as-prepared CsPbX3 NCs show enhanced stability against moisture because of the passivated surface. Our finding not only provides a new pathway for the preparation of highly luminescent CsPbX3 NCs but also adds insights into the chemical transformation behavior and stabilization mechanism of these emerging perovskite nanocrystals.

  12. Preparation of {sup 82}Sr from a metallic Rb target in a 100 MeV proton beam

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuikov, B.L.; Kokhanyuk, V.M.; Glushchenko, V.N. |||

    1995-07-01

    The medical radioisotope {sup 82}Sr was obtained by irradiating a metallic Rb target with protons accelerated to an energy of 100 MeV. The yield of {sup 82}Sr was chemically isolated by dissolving metallic Rb in isobutanol with subsequent conversion to the chloride, distillation of the organic phase, and removal of Rb{sup +} on cation exchanger. The product has high radionuclidic purity.

  13. Syntheses, Structures, and Physical Properties of the New Quaternary Rare-Earth Chalcogenides RbNd

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Fu Qiang; Ibers, James A.

    2001-05-01

    Eight quaternary rare-earth chalcogenides, RbNd{sub 2}CuS{sub 4}, RbSm{sub 2}CuS{sub 4}, CsLa{sub 2}CuSe{sub 4}, CsSm{sub 2}CuSe{sub 4}, RbEr{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}S{sub 5}, CsGd{sub 2}Ag{sub 3}Se{sub 5}, CsTb{sub 2}Ag{sub 3}Se{sub 5}, and Rb{sub 2}Gd{sub 4}Cu{sub 4}S{sub 9}, have been synthesized at 973 K with the use of a reactive flux of A{sub 2}Q{sub 3} (A=Rb, Cs; Q=S, Se). All structural data were obtained at 153 K. The isostructural compounds ALn{sub 2}CuQ{sub 4} (Ln=rare earth) crystallize with four formula units in the KGd{sub 2}CuS{sub 4} structure type in space group Cmcm of the orthorhombic system; the isostructural compounds Aln{sub 2}M{sub 3}Q{sub 5} (M=Cu, Ag) crystallize with four formula units in the RbSm{sub 2}Ag{sub 3}Se{sub 5} structure type in space group Cmcm of the orthorhombic system; and Rb{sub 2}Gd{sub 4}Cu{sub 4}S{sub 9} crystallizes with two formula units in space group C2/m of the monoclinic system. The cell dimensions of ALn{sub 2}CuQ{sub 4} (a, b, c ({angstrom})) are as follows: RbNd{sub 2}CuS{sub 4}, 4.0762(3), 13.954(1), 13.964(1); RbSm{sub 2}CuS{sub 4}, 4.0391(3), 13.815(1), 13.860(1); CsLa{sub 2}CuSe{sub 4}, 4.3129(6), 14.959(2), 14.798(2); CsSm{sub 2}CuSe{sub 4}, 4.2066(3), 14.6101(9), 14.5164(9). The corresponding R{sub 1} indices for the refined structures are 0.0264, 0.0196, 0.0258, and 0.0224. The cell dimensions of ALn{sub 2}M{sub 3}Q{sub 5} are as follows: RbEr{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}S{sub 5}, 3.9283(3), 13.897(1), 16.348(1); CsGd{sub 2}Ag{sub 3}Se{sub 5}, 4.2943(4), 15.424(1), 17.501(2); CsTb{sub 2}Ag{sub 3}Se{sub 5}, 4.2779(4), 15.429(2), 17.426(2). The R{sub 1} indices are 0.0257, 0.0255, and 0.0241. The cell dimensions of Rb{sub 2}Gd{sub 4}Cu{sub 4}S{sub 9} (a, b, c ({angstrom}), ({sup o})) is 13.897(1), 3.9883(3), 16.054(1), 109.273(1), and the R{sub 1} index is 0.0199. All eight compounds have closely related three-dimensional tunnel structures. All alkali metal atoms in the tunnels are coordinated to eight Q atoms. Their anionic

  14. EXTRAGALACTIC CS SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Bayet, E.; Viti, S.; Aladro, R.; MartIn, S.; MartIn-Pintado, J.

    2009-12-10

    We present a coherent and homogeneous multi-line study of the CS molecule in nearby (D < 10 Mpc) galaxies. We include, from the literature, all the available observations from the J = 1-0 to the J = 7-6 transitions toward NGC 253, NGC 1068, IC 342, Henize 2-10, M 82, the Antennae Galaxies, and M 83. We have, for the first time, detected the CS(7-6) line in NGC 253, M 82 (both in the northeast and southwest molecular lobes), NGC 4038, M 83 and tentatively in NGC 1068, IC 342, and Henize 2-10. We use the CS molecule as a tracer of the densest gas component of the interstellar medium in extragalactic star-forming regions, following previous theoretical and observational studies by Bayet et al. In this first paper out of a series, we analyze the CS data sample under both local thermodynamical equilibrium (LTE) and non-LTE (large velocity gradient) approximations. We show that except for M 83 and Overlap (a shifted gas-rich position from the nucleus NGC 4039 in the Antennae Galaxies), the observations in NGC 253, IC 342, M 82-NE, M 82-SW, and NGC 4038 are not well reproduced by a single set of gas component properties and that, at least, two gas components are required. For each gas component, we provide estimates of the corresponding kinetic temperature, total CS column density, and gas density.

  15. DFT study of Rb-TFA structure after high-pressure action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholtzová, Eva

    2011-12-01

    The pressure-induced A-B phase transition of synthetic Rb-tetra-ferri-annite (Rb-TFA) mica was studied theoretically by means of Density Functional Theory (DFT) method. The calculations show that Rb-TFA keeps a Franzini A-type structure up to at least 5.39 GPa of pressure, whereas at higher pressure, it transforms to a Franzini B-type structure. The negative value of the tetrahedral rotation angle α = -4.68° has appeared at 5.56 GPa of calculated pressure. This result is in a relatively good agreement with experimentally estimated phase transition area in the range of 3.36-3.84 GPa. The energy difference between the A and B structures is very small (ΔE = 8 kJ/mol). The detailed analysis of the optimized structural data shows minimal changes in the structure of Rb-TFA after the pressure-induced phase transition.

  16. Solid-phase extraction and separation procedure for trace aluminum in water samples and its determination by high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS FAAS).

    PubMed

    Ciftci, Harun; Er, Cigdem

    2013-03-01

    In the present study, a separation/preconcentration procedure for determination of aluminum in water samples has been developed by using a new atomic absorption spectrometer concept with a high-intensity xenon short-arc lamp as continuum radiation source, a high-resolution double-echelle monochromator, and a charge-coupled device array detector. Sample solution pH, sample volume, flow rate of sample solution, volume, and concentration of eluent for solid-phase extraction of Al chelates with 4-[(dicyanomethyl)diazenyl] benzoic acid on polymeric resin (Duolite XAD-761) have been investigated. The adsorbed aluminum on resin was eluted with 5 mL of 2 mol L(-1) HNO(3) and its concentration was determined by high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS FAAS). Under the optimal conditions, limit of detection obtained with HR-CS FAAS and Line Source FAAS (LS-FAAS) were 0.49 μg L(-1) and 3.91 μg L(-1), respectively. The accuracy of the procedure was confirmed by analyzing certified materials (NIST SRM 1643e, Trace elements in water) and spiked real samples. The developed procedure was successfully applied to water samples.

  17. Luminescence of the elpasolite series M{sup I}{sub 2}M{sup II}MCl{sub 6} (M{sup I}=Cs, Rb; M{sup II}=Li, Na; M=Lu, Y, Sc, In) doped with europium using synchrotron radiation excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, Peter A.; Duan Changkui; Jia Guohua; Cheng, Bing-Ming

    2012-04-15

    The excitation and emission spectra of a series of cubic hexachloroelpasolites doped with europium have been investigated using synchrotron radiation at 10 K. Besides the Eu{sup 3+} emission from {sup 5}D{sub J} (J=0-3) multiplets, emission from {sup 5}H{sub 3} is also observed for Cs{sub 2}NaIn{sub 0.995}Eu{sub 0.005}Cl{sub 6}, since the gap to the next lowest level is spanned by seven phonons. The excitation spectra of samples indicate impurities due to oxygen and divalent europium. Broad band emission from Eu{sup 2+} is reported from the crystalline samples grown in vacuum by the Bridgman process, with the maximum wavelength shifting to the red with increasing lattice parameter for the series Cs{sub 2}NaMCl{sub 6}:Eu{sup 2+} (M=Lu, Y, Eu). - Graphical abstract: Luminescence of Eu{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 2+} in elpasolite hosts under synchrotron radiation is observed and assigned. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of M{sup I}{sub 2}M{sup II}MCl{sub 6}-doped with europium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 10 K spectra indicate broad bands due to Eu-O CT, Eu-Cl CT and Eu{sup 2+} transitions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ultraviolet emission from the {sup 3}H{sub 5} level of Eu{sup 3+}, not only restricted to fluorides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Correlation between Eu{sup 2+} emission maximum and host lattice parameter.

  18. Antiferromagnetic resonance in Rb1C60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennati, M.; Griffin, R. G.; Knorr, S.; Grupp, A.; Mehring, M.

    1998-08-01

    High-frequency (94 and 140 GHz) ESR was used to investigate the magnetic properties of the low-dimensional conductor Rb1C60. Below 35 K new features of the electron spin resonance are distinguished from the CESR signal of the conducting phase. The analysis of the resonance linewidth and line shift allows a clear identification of a frequency-dependent antiferromagnetic resonance line (AFMR) below 25 K. The characteristic temperature TN for the ordering transition is 25 K. Between 25 K

  19. Crystal growth and magnetic properties of a kagomé compound Cs2NaMn3F12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Meiyan; He, Zhangzhen; Tang, Yingying; Qiu, Chaoqun

    2017-10-01

    Cs2NaMn3F12, one of manganese based fluorides A2A‧Mn3F12 (A = Rb, Cs; A‧ = Li, Na, K), has been found to exhibit a typical kagomé structure. Here, we report the first successful growth of large-sized single crystals of Cs2NaMn3F12 by means of a hydrothermal method. Good quality of grown crystals is confirmed by the XRD and EDS techniques. Magnetic measurements suggest that Cs2NaMn3F12 possesses an antiferromagnetic ordering at 2.5 K and a remarkably geometrical frustration effect in the system.

  20. Inorganic materis for anomalous-dispersion phase-matched second harmonic generation: Rubidium titanyl arsenate isomorphs, Rb[Ti{sub 1-2x}Ln{sub x}Nb{sub x}]OAsO{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.T.; Phillips, M.L.F.; Stucky, G.D.

    1993-12-31

    We report the synthesis and optical properties of Rb[Ti{sub 1-2x}Ln{sub x}Nb{sub x}]OAsO{sub 4}. The solid solubility of lanthanide ions in the materials decreases exponentially as the size of the lanthanide ion increases. The materials exhibit absorption spectra characteristic of the particular lanthanide ion in the structure. The spectral regions between absorption peaks are transparent and will allow the transmission of fundamental and second-harmonic radiation. The charge transfer band is red-shifted 0 to 27 nm relative to RbTiOAsO{sub 4} (midpoint 331 nm). Second-harmonic intensities measured at 532 nm decrease exponentially as lanthanide ion concentration increases.

  1. High-accuracy measurement of the 87Rb ground-state hyperfine splitting in an atomic fountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bize, S.; Sortais, Y.; Santos, M. S.; Mandache, C.; Clairon, A.; Salomon, C.

    1999-03-01

    We describe the operation of a laser-cooled rubidium 87Rb frequency standard. We present a new measurement of the 87Rb hyperfine frequency with a 1.3 × 10-14 relative accuracy, by comparison with a Cs fountain primary standard. The measured 87Rb ground-state hyperfine splitting is ν87 = 6 834 682 610.90429(9) Hz. This value differs from previously published values (see Essen L., Hope E. G. and Sutcliffe D., Nature 189 1961 298; Penselin S., Moran T., Cohen W. and Wscinkler G., Phys. Rev. 127 1962 524; Arditi M. and Cerez P. IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-21 1972 391) by about 2 - 3 Hz and is 104 times more accurate. Because of the low collisional shift in 87Rb, future improvements may lead to a stability of 1 × 10-14τ-1/2 and a relative accuracy in the 10-17 range.

  2. Rb depletion in biotites and whole rocks across an amphibolite to granulite facies transition zone, Tamil Nadu, South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Edward; Ahmed, Khurram; Harlov, Daniel E.

    2002-09-01

    Relatively low concentrations of Rb and high K/Rb ratios are characteristic of many granulite facies terranes. This depletion in Rb has been attributed to both the removal of a partial melt and exchange with a metamorphic fluid phase. These models have been tested using Rb concentrations in biotites and whole rocks from intermediate and felsic gneisses collected along a traverse from just north of Krishnagiri to just north of Salem in Tamil Nadu State, South India. Along this traverse, the northern amphibolite-facies zone gives way to a clinopyroxene zone in which clinopyroxene appears in intermediate and felsic gneisses. Further south is the lowland charnockite zone characterised by the presence of orthopyroxene and the scarcity of clinopyroxene in intermediate to felsic gneisses. The abundance of orthopyroxene increases southwards and it is the dominant ferromagnesium silicate in the highland charnockite zone. There is a good correlation between Rb in biotite and whole-rock Rb in samples collected throughout the traverse. Intermediate and felsic gneisses in the northern portion of this traverse have relatively high modal abundances of biotite, low Ti concentrations in the biotites, high whole-rock Rb concentrations, low K/Rb ratios and high Rb concentrations within the biotites. Ti concentrations in the biotites increase southward into the clinopyroxene zone and then remain relatively constant. High K/Rb ratios first appear at the southern boundary of the clinopyroxene zone. In the lowland and highland charnockite zones, the majority of the rocks have relatively low Rb concentrations and high K/Rb ratios. Low Rb concentrations in biotites (at or near the detection limit of 65 ppm) first appear in the lowland charnockite zone and persist into the highland charnockite zone. A smaller group of rocks in the highland charnockite zone contain biotites with moderate Rb concentrations. Most of these rocks also contain anomalously high biotite concentrations and low K/Rb

  3. Ceramic Breeder Blanket for ARIES-CS

    SciTech Connect

    Raffray, A.R.; Malang, S.; El-Guebaly, L.; Wang, X.

    2005-05-15

    This paper describes the conceptual design of a ceramic breeder blanket considered as one of the candidate blankets in the first phase of the ARIES-CS study. The blanket is coupled to a Brayton power cycle to avoid the safety concern associated with the possibility of Be/steam reaction in case of accident.

  4. HAUSP, a novel deubiquitinase for Rb - MDM2 the critical regulator.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Seemana; Ghosh, Mrinal K

    2014-07-01

    Tumor suppressor retinoblastoma-associated protein (Rb) is an important cell cycle regulator, arresting cells in early G1. It is commonly inactivated in cancers and its level is maintained during the cell cycle. Rb is regulated by various post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation, acetylation, ubiquitination and so on. Several E3 ligases including murine double minute 2 (MDM2) promote the degradation of Rb. This study focuses on the role of HAUSP (herpes virus associated ubiquitin specific protease) on Rb. Here, we show that HAUSP colocalizes and interacts with Rb to stabilize it from proteasomal degradation by removing wild-type and K48-linked ubiquitin chains in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. HAUSP deubiquitinates Rb in vivo and in vitro, leading to an increased cell population in the G1 phase. Hence, HAUSP is a novel deubiquitinase for Rb. Immunohistochemistry, western blotting and cell-based assays show that HAUSP is overexpressed in glioma and contributes towards glioma progression. However, HAUSP activity on Rb is abrogated in glioma (cancer), where these two proteins show an inverse relationship. MDM2 (a known substrate of HAUSP) serves as a better target for HAUSP-mediated deubiquitination in cancer cells, facilitating degradation of Rb and oncogenic progression. This novel regulatory axis is proteasome mediated, p53 independent, and the level of MDM2 is critical. The shift in equilibrium by differential deubiquitination in regulation of Rb explains a subtle difference existing between normal and cancer cells. This leads to speculation about a new possibility for distinguishing cancer cells from normal cells at the molecular level, which may be investigated for therapeutic intervention in the future.

  5. Layered polymeric nitrogen in RbN3 at high pressures

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoli; Li, Jianfu; Xu, Ning; Zhu, Hongyang; Hu, Ziyu; Chen, Li

    2015-01-01

    The structural evolutionary behaviors of nitrogen in RbN3 have been studied up to 300 GPa using a particle swarm optimization structure searching method combined with density functional calculations. Three stable new phases with P-1, P6/mmm and C2/m structure at pressure of 30, 50 and 200 GPa are identified for the first time. The analysis of the crystal structures of three new predicated phases reveals that the transition of N3− ions goes from linear molecules to polymeric chains, benzene-like rings and then to polymeric layers induced by pressure. The electronic structures of three predicted phases reveal that the structural changes are accompanied and driven by the change of orbital hybridization of N atoms from sp to sp2 and finally to partial sp3. Most interestingly, the Rb atoms show obvious transition metal-like properties through the occupation of 4d orbitals in high-pressure phases. Moreover, the Rb atoms are characterized by strong hybridization between 4d orbitals of Rb and 2p orbitals of N in C2/m structure. Our studies complete the structural evolution of RbN3 under pressure and reveal for the first time that the Rb atoms in rubidium nitride possess transition element-like properties under pressure. PMID:26564812

  6. Quasi-one-dimensional electronic structure in orthorhombic RbC[sub 60

    SciTech Connect

    Chauvet, O.; Oszlanyi, G.; Forro, L. ); Stephens, P.W. ); Tegze, M.; Faigel, G.; Janossy, A. )

    1994-04-25

    X-ray diffraction studies show that the stable phase of the alkali fullerene RbC[sub 60] is orthorhombic ([ital o]-RbC[sub 60]) below 350 K. C[sub 60] molecules form chains along [bold a] with an unusually short spacing of 9.12 A and magnetic properties suggest that [ital o]-RbC[sub 60] is a quasi-1D metal with a transition to a spin density wave ground state at 50 K. The high temperature fcc phase of RbC[sub 60] may be stabilized below 300 K by quenching from 500 K; it is paramagnetic above 300 K and transforms into a nonmagnetic ground state beween 300 and 250 K.

  7. Ba2+-inhibitable /sup 86/Rb+ fluxes across membranes of vesicles from toad urinary bladder

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, H.; Civan, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    /sup 86/Rb+ fluxes have been measured in suspensions of vesicles prepared from the epithelium of toad urinary bladder. A readily measurable barium-sensitive, ouabain-insensitive component has been identified; the concentration of external Ba2+ required for half-maximal inhibition was 0.6 mM. The effects of externally added cations on /sup 86/Rb+ influx and efflux have established that this pathway is conductive, with a selectivity for K+, Rb+ and Cs+ over Na+ and Li+. The Rb+ uptake is inversely dependent on external pH, but not significantly affected by internal Ca2+ or external amiloride, quinine, quinidine or lidocaine. It is likely, albeit not yet certain, that the conductive Rb+ pathway is incorporated in basolateral vesicles oriented right-side-out. It is also not yet clear whether this pathway comprises the principle basolateral K+ channel in vivo, and that its properties have been unchanged during the preparative procedures. Subject to these caveats, the data suggest that the inhibition by quinidine of Na+ transport across toad bladder does not arise primarily from membrane depolarization produced by a direct blockage of the basolateral channels. It now seems more likely that the quinidine-induced elevation of intracellular Ca2+ activity directly blocks apical Na+ entry.

  8. Pulsed Optically Pumped Rb clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micalizio, S.; Levi, F.; Godone, A.; Calosso, C. E.; François, B.; Boudot, R.; Affolderbach, C.; Kang, S.; Gharavipour, M.; Gruet, F.; Mileti, G.

    2016-06-01

    INRIM demonstrated a Rb vapour cell clock based on pulsed optical pumping (POP) with unprecedented frequency stability performances, both in the short and in the medium-long term period. In the frame of a EMRP project, we are developing a new clock based on the same POP principle but adopting solutions aimed at reducing the noise sources affecting the INRIM clock. At the same time, concerning possible technological applications, particular care are devoted in the project to reduce the size and the weight of the clock, still keeping the excellent stability of the INRIM clock. The paper resumes the main results of this activity.

  9. [Aberrant Expression of Rb and pRb-780, pRb-795 in Lung Adenocarcinoma Patients with EGFR Mutations and Their Clinical Significance].

    PubMed

    Dong, Yunlong; Liu, Minghui; Li, Yongwen; Li, Ying; Zhao, Chenlong; Yuan, Yin; Du, Hui; Zhang, Zihe; Zhang, Hongbing; Liu, Hongyu; Chen, Jun

    2017-05-20

    Rb is an important tumor suppressor gene that regulates cell cycle progression. Rb dysfunction can lead to over proliferation of cells and lead to the occurrence of tumor. Loss or reduced Rb expression as well as over phosphorylation of Rb are important mechanisms of Rb dysfunction. The mutated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene is an important driver gene in lung adenocarcinoma, and plays an important role in the development of lung cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the status of Rb in lung adenocarcinoma patients with EGFR mutations and define the clinicopathologic features. 23 cases pulmonary adenocarcinoma patients with EGFR mutations were collected. The status of Rb and pRb-780, pRb-795 were determined byimmunohistochemistry. Loss or reduced Rb expression were detected in 16 of 23 samples (69.6%). pRb-780 and pRb-795 over-expressed were identified in 17 (73.9%) and 16 (69.6%) of 23 samples respectively. All the 23 patients had showed loss/reduced Rb expression or over-expressed Rb phosphorylation. Further analysis showed that over expression of pRb-780 and pRb-795 occurred more frequently in advanced patients. Aberrant expressionof Rb is frequently occurred in lung adenocarcinoma patients with EGFR mutations and may be an important pathogenesis in patients with lung adenocarcinoma.
.

  10. Activation of CS2 and CS by ML3 complexes.

    PubMed

    Ariafard, Alireza; Brookes, Nigel J; Stranger, Robert; Yates, Brian F

    2008-09-10

    The aim of this study was to determine the best neutral ML3 metal complexes for activating and cleaving the multiple bonds in CS2 and CS. Current experimental results show that, so far, only one bond in CS2 can be cleaved, and that CS can be activated but the bond is not broken. In the work described in this paper, density functional theory calculations have been used to evaluate the effectiveness of different ML3 complexes to activate the C-S bonds in CS2 and CS, with M = Mo, Re, W, and Ta and L = NH2. These calculations show that the combination of Re and Ta in the L3Re/CS2/TaL3 complex would be the most promising system for the cleavage of both C-S bonds of CS2. The reaction to cleave both C-S bonds is predicted to be exothermic by about 700 kJ mol(-1) and to proceed in an almost barrierless fashion. In addition, we are able to rationalize why the breaking of the C-S bond in CS has not been observed experimentally with M = Mo: this reaction is strongly endothermic. There is a subtle interplay between charge transfer and pi back-donation, and it appears that the Mo-C and Mo-S bonds are not strong enough to compensate for the breaking of the C-S bond. Our results suggest that, instead, CS could be cleaved with ReL3 or, even better, with a combination of ReL3 and TaL3. Molecular orbitals and Mulliken charges have been used to help explain these trends and to make predictions about the most promising systems for future experimental exploration.

  11. Near-yrast, medium-spin, excited states of {sup 91}Rb, {sup 93}Rb, and {sup 95}Rb

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, G. S.; Sieja, K.; Dare, J. A.; Orlandi, R.; Smith, A. G.; Tsekhanovich, I.; Varley, B. J.; Durell, J. L.; Smith, J. F.; Jolie, J.; Linneman, A.; Scherillo, A.; Soldner, T.; Faust, H.; Zlomaniec, A.; Rzaca-Urban, T.; Ahmad, I.; Greene, J. P.

    2010-08-15

    The medium-spin structure of the nuclei {sup 93}Rb and {sup 95}Rb is studied following the neutron-induced fission of {sup 235}U at the PF1B neutron guide, using the FIFI spectrometer, and at the Lohengrin mass spectrometer of the Institut Laue-Langevin Grenoble. These nuclei, plus {sup 91}Rb, are also studied following the spontaneous fission of {sup 248}Cm and {sup 252}Cf sources, using the EUROGAM-II and Gammasphere detector arrays, respectively. A high-spin isomeric state, with a half-life of 111(11) ns, is found in {sup 93}Rb at an excitation energy of 4422.4 keV, which most likely corresponds to the fully aligned [{pi}(g{sub 9/2}) x {nu}(g{sub 7/2}h{sub 11/2})]{sub 27/2}{sup -} configuration. An analogous configuration is proposed for the 5297.9-keV level observed in {sup 91}Rb. A new E3 decay branch of the 1133.9-keV isomer in {sup 91}Rb is found, for which the rather low transition rate of B(E3)=3.8(10) W.u. is determined. The energy of the isomeric state of {sup 95}Rb is now proposed to be at 810.6 keV, with a spin of (9/2{sup +}), and its half-life determined to be T{sub 1/2}=94(7) ns. A cascade of prompt transitions is observed on top of the 810.6-keV isomer in {sup 95}Rb. The near-yrast structures of {sup 91}Rb, {sup 93}Rb, and {sup 95}Rb are compared to the results of shell-model calculations, which support the proposed 27/2{sup -} interpretation of states in {sup 91}Rb and {sup 93}Rb. An analogous 27/2{sup -} state is expected to occur in {sup 95}Rb, as a long-lived isomer at 3.24 MeV. No such isomeric decay could be observed in a measurement using the Lohengrin spectrometer, which shows that, if it exists, its population, following the fission of {sup 235}U, is at least four times lower than that of the analogous 27/2{sup -} isomer in {sup 97}Y.

  12. CsEuBr3: Crystal structure and its role in the photostimulation of CsBr :Eu2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesse, S.; Zimmermann, J.; von Seggern, H.; Ehrenberg, H.; Fuess, H.; Fasel, C.; Riedel, R.

    2006-10-01

    CsBr :Eu2+ has recently been investigated as a photostimulable x-ray storage phosphor with great potential for application in high-resolution image plates. In a recent paper Hackenschmied et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 93, 5109 (2003)] suggested that segregations of CsEuBr3 or Cs4EuBr6 formed within CsBr :Eu2+ during annealing are responsible for an increase in the photostimulated luminescence (PSL) yield. In this work single crystals of CsEuBr3 were prepared by a one step synthesis and identified by x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis as single phase perovskites. It was concluded that, after preparation, CsEuBr3 degrades in normal atmosphere into at least two phases, one of which is the orthorhombic structure of Cs2EuBr5•10H2O. The XRD powder diffraction pattern of this compound is very similar to that of the segregations observed within CsBr :Eu2+ and reported by Hackenschmied et al. However, the increased PSL yield in CsBr :Eu2+ after annealing cannot be due to the segregations, because the trivalent nature of the europium in the segregations renders them PSL inactive.

  13. Reaction-transport-mechanical (RTM) simulator Sym.CS: Putting together water-rock interaction, multi-phase and heat flow, composite petrophysics model, and fracture mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolini, C.; Park, A. J.; Mellors, R. J.; Castillo, J.

    2009-12-01

    A typical CO2 sequestration scenario involves the use of multiple simulators for addressing multiphase fluid and heat flow, water-rock interaction and mass-transfer, rock mechanics, and other chemical and physical processes. The benefit of such workflow is that each model can be constrained rigorously; however, the drawback is final modeling results may achieve only a limited extent of the theoretically possible capabilities of each model. Furthermore, such an approach in modeling carbon sequestration cannot capture the nonlinearity of the various chemical and physical processes. Hence, the models can only provide guidelines for carbon sequestration processes with large margins of error. As an alternative, a simulator is being constructed by a multi-disciplinary team with the aim of implementing a large array of fundamental phenomenologies, including, but not limited to: water-rock interaction using elemental mass-balance and explicit mass-transfer and reaction coupling methods; multi-phase and heat flow, including super-critical CO2 and oil; fracture mechanics with anisotropic permeabilities; rheological rock mechanics based on incremental stress theory; and a composite petrophysics model capable of describing changing rock composition and properties. The modules representing the processes will be solved using a layered iteration method, with the goal of capturing the nonlinear feedback among all of the processes. The simulator will be constructed using proven optimization and modular, object-oriented, and service-oriented programming methods. Finally, a novel AJAX (asynchronous JavaScript and XML) user interface is being tested to host the simulator that will allow usage through an Internet browser. Currently, the water-rock interaction, composite petrophysics, and multi-phase fluid and heat flow modules are available for integration. Results of the water-rock interaction and petrophysics coupling has been used to model interaction between a CO2-charged water and

  14. The N-Terminal Phosphorylation of RB by p38 Bypasses Its Inactivation by CDKs and Prevents Proliferation in Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Gubern, Albert; Joaquin, Manel; Marquès, Miriam; Maseres, Pedro; Garcia-Garcia, Javier; Amat, Ramon; González-Nuñez, Daniel; Oliva, Baldo; Real, Francisco X; de Nadal, Eulàlia; Posas, Francesc

    2016-10-06

    Control of the G1/S phase transition by the Retinoblastoma (RB) tumor suppressor is critical for the proliferation of normal cells in tissues, and its inactivation is one of the most fundamental events leading to cancer. Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) phosphorylation inactivates RB to promote cell cycle-regulated gene expression. Here we show that, upon stress, the p38 stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) maximizes cell survival by downregulating E2F gene expression through the targeting of RB. RB undergoes selective phosphorylation by p38 in its N terminus; these phosphorylations render RB insensitive to the inactivation by CDKs. p38 phosphorylation of RB increases its affinity toward the E2F transcription factor, represses gene expression, and delays cell-cycle progression. Remarkably, introduction of a RB phosphomimetic mutant in cancer cells reduces colony formation and decreases their proliferative and tumorigenic potential in mice.

  15. Trace element partitioning between vapor, brine and halite under extreme phase separation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foustoukos, D. I.; Seyfried, W. E.

    2007-04-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the partitioning of Li, Br, Rb, Cs and B between vapor, brine and halite during subcritical and supercritical phase separation in the NaCl-H 2O system (388-550 °C, 250-350 bars). Results indicate that Li and Br partition preferentially into the low-salinity vapor fluids, while Rb and Cs become more enriched in the coexisting brines. Under more extreme conditions of pressure and temperature in the two-phase region, especially near the vapor-brine-halite boundary, strong salting-out effects imposed on neutral aqueous species enhance significantly partitioning of all trace elements into the low-salinity fluid. Dissolved boron is strongly affected by this and a particularly strong enrichment into vapors is observed, a trend that can be effectively correlated with changes in reduced density. Exclusion of Li, Br, Rb, Cs and B from halite, when precipitated, further increases the solubility of these species in the coexisting Cl-poor fluid. In general, the lack of distortion in the partitioning behavior of trace elements between vapor, brine and/or halite with the transition from subcritical to supercritical conditions in the NaCl-H 2O system precludes the need for special reference to the critical point of seawater when interpreting phase relations in submarine hydrothermal systems. The combination of experimentally determined trace element partitioning data with constraints imposed by mineral solubility provides a means to better understand the origin and evolution of hot spring vent fluids. For example, in Brandon hydrothermal system (21°S EPR) supercritical phase separation and subseafloor mixing appear to be the main heat and mass transport mechanisms fueled by a shallow magmatic intrusion, with boron systematics ruling out major contributions from magmatic degassing processes accompanying the near-seafloor volcanism.

  16. RB Loss Promotes Prostate Cancer Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Thangavel, Chellappagounder; Boopathi, Ettickan; Liu, Yi; Haber, Alex; Ertel, Adam; Bhardwaj, Anshul; Addya, Sankar; Williams, Noelle; Ciment, Stephen J; Cotzia, Paolo; Dean, Jeffry L; Snook, Adam; McNair, Chris; Price, Matt; Hernandez, James R; Zhao, Shuang G; Birbe, Ruth; McCarthy, James B; Turley, Eva A; Pienta, Kenneth J; Feng, Felix Y; Dicker, Adam P; Knudsen, Karen E; Den, Robert B

    2017-02-15

    RB loss occurs commonly in neoplasia but its contributions to advanced cancer have not been assessed directly. Here we show that RB loss in multiple murine models of cancer produces a prometastatic phenotype. Gene expression analyses showed that regulation of the cell motility receptor RHAMM by the RB/E2F pathway was critical for epithelial-mesenchymal transition, motility, and invasion by cancer cells. Genetic modulation or pharmacologic inhibition of RHAMM activity was sufficient and necessary for metastatic phenotypes induced by RB loss in prostate cancer. Mechanistic studies in this setting established that RHAMM stabilized F-actin polymerization by controlling ROCK signaling. Collectively, our findings show how RB loss drives metastatic capacity and highlight RHAMM as a candidate therapeutic target for treating advanced prostate cancer. Cancer Res; 77(4); 982-95. ©2016 AACR.

  17. Rb-Sr Isotopic Systematics of Alkali-Rich Fragments in the Yamato-74442 LL-Chondritic Breccia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yokoyama, T.; Misawa, K.; Okano, O.; Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Simo, J. I.; Tappa, M. J.; Yoneda, S.

    2012-01-01

    Alkali-rich igneous fragments were identified in the brecciated LL-chondrites, Kr henberg (LL5)], Bhola (LL3-6) and Yamato (Y)-74442 (LL4), and show characteristic fractionation patterns of alkaline elements. The K-Rb-Cs-rich fragments in Kr henberg, Bhola, and Y-74442 are very similar in mineralogy and petrography (olivine + pyroxene + glass), suggesting that they could have come from related precursor materials. We have undertaken Rb-Sr isotopic studies on alkali-rich fragments in Y-74442 to precisely determine their crystallization ages and the isotopic signatures of their precursor material(s).

  18. Luminescence of CsPbBr 3-like quantum dots in CsBr single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikl, M.; Nitsch, K.; Mihóková, E.; Polák, K.; Fabeni, P.; Pazzi, G. P.; Gurioli, M.; Santucci, S.; Phani, R.; Scacco, A.; Somma, F.

    Luminescence and decay kinetics of the Pb 2+ aggregates in CsBr host crystals were measured in the 4-300 K temperature interval and in 10 -10-10 -3 time scale. Their emission properties are similar to those of CsPbBr 3 bulk crystal showing a subnanosecond free exciton emission in the 520-540 nm spectral region and slower trapped exciton emission in the 530-580 nm spectral region. An efficient energy exchange between the free and trapped exciton states is shown by the temperature dependencies of emission spectra. The quantum size effect is demonstrated in the high energy shift and broadening of the absorption and emission spectra and an estimate of the size of the CsPbBr 3-like aggregates is provided. Independent evidence of the presence of the CsPbBr 3 and Cs 4PbBr 6 aggregated phases in the CsBr host was obtained by X-ray structural studies.

  19. Reverse mutational analysis reveals threonine-373 as a potentially sufficient phosphorylation site for inactivation of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (pRB).

    PubMed

    Lents, Nathan H; Gorges, Laura L; Baldassare, Joseph J

    2006-08-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that constitutive cyclin E expression can alleviate the requirement for cyclin D-CDK activity in the inactivation of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb). Rb(DeltaCDK), a mutant construct of pRb with 15 of the 16 CDK phosphorylation sites mutated to alanine represses activation of E2F by mitogen, despite cyclin E overexpression. However, restoration of the four cyclin E-CDK2 phosphorylation sites to Rb(DeltaCDK) renders this construct sensitive to inactivation by CDK phosphorylation. In the present study, we engage a "reverse mutational analysis" by restoring cyclin E-CDK2 phosphorylation sites to Rb(DeltaCDK) individually and in combinations in an attempt to discover phosphorylation sites on Rb that are critical for inactivation. Surprisingly, we report that, in both rodent and human cells, restoration of threonine-373 to Rb(DeltaCDK), alone or in combination with other phospho-restorations, results in a loss of the constitutively repressive effect of this construct on E2F activation. Further, induction of endogenous cyclin A protein is blocked by Rb(DeltaCDK), but not by mutants of Rb(DeltaCDK) containing a restored threonine-373. Finally, while S phase entry is blocked by expression of Rb(DeltaCDK), restoration of threonine-373 largely attenuates this effect. These findings reveal that phosphorylation of threonine-373 by CDK2-cyclin E represent a potentially crucial event in the inactivation of the pRb protein.

  20. On the possibility for Rb- and Eu-cation ordering in type-I clathrates: synthesis and homogeneity range of the novel compounds Rb(8-x)Eu(x)(In,Ge)46 (0.6 ≤ x ≤ 1.8).

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Marion C; Bobev, Svilen

    2013-12-15

    Studies in the Rb-Eu-In-Ge system confirm the existence of the phase Rb(8-x)Eu(x)(In,Ge)46 (0.6 ≤ x ≤ 1.8), crystallizing with the cubic clathrate type-I structure. The In and Ge content can be varied, concomitant with changes in the Rb-Eu ratio. Two of the three framework sites are occupied by statistical mixtures of Ge and In atoms, while the site with the lowest multiplicity is taken by the In atoms only. Based on the three refined formulae [heptarubidium europium nonaindium heptatriacontagermanide, Rb7.39(3)Eu0.61(3)In8.88(5)Ge37.12(5), and two forms of hexarubidium dieuropium decaindium hexatriacontagermanide, Rb6.30(3)Eu1.70(3)In9.76(4)Ge36.24(4) and Rb6.24(2)Eu1.76(2)In10.16(5)Ge35.84(5)] and the explored different synthetic routes, it can be suggested that the known ternary phase Rb8In8Ge38 and the hypothetical quaternary phase Rb6Eu2In10Ge36 represent the boundaries of the homogeneity range. In the former limiting composition, both the (Ge,In)20 and the (Ge,In)24 cages are fully occupied by Rb atoms only, whereas Rb6Eu2In10Ge36 has Rb atoms encapsulated in the larger tetrakaidecahedra, with Eu atoms filling the smaller pentagonal dodecahedra. For the solid solutions Rb(8-x)Eu(x)(In,Ge)46, Rb and Eu are statistically disordered in the dodecahedral cage, and the tetrakaidecahedral cage is only occupied by Rb atoms.

  1. High-temperature crystal structures and chemical modifications in RbH2PO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botez, Cristian E.; Martinez, Heber; Tackett, Ronald J.; Chianelli, Russell R.; Zhang, Jianzhong; Zhao, Yusheng

    2009-08-01

    We have used laboratory and synchrotron x-ray diffraction to investigate the structural and chemical changes undergone by polycrystalline RbH2PO4 upon heating within the 30-250 °C temperature interval. Our data show no evidence of the previously reported onset of partial polymerization at T = 96 °C (Park et al 2001 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 13 9411) which was proposed as an explanation for the high-temperature proton conductivity enhancement in phosphate-based solid acids. Instead, we found that a tetragonal \\to monoclinic polymorphic transition initiates at T≈90 °C. The transition is complete at T≈130 °C, and the new monoclinic RbH2PO4 polymorph is stable upon further heating to T = 200 °C. Moreover, its crystal structure is isomorphic to that of monoclinic CsH2PO4. This remarkable similarity suggests that the microscopic structures and dynamics responsible for the high-temperature superprotonic behavior of RbH2PO4 could be the same as those of its Cs-based counterpart.

  2. High-temperature crystal structures and chemical modifications in RbH(2)PO(4).

    PubMed

    Botez, Cristian E; Martinez, Heber; Tackett, Ronald J; Chianelli, Russell R; Zhang, Jianzhong; Zhao, Yusheng

    2009-08-12

    We have used laboratory and synchrotron x-ray diffraction to investigate the structural and chemical changes undergone by polycrystalline RbH(2)PO(4) upon heating within the 30-250 °C temperature interval. Our data show no evidence of the previously reported onset of partial polymerization at T = 96 °C (Park et al 2001 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 13 9411) which was proposed as an explanation for the high-temperature proton conductivity enhancement in phosphate-based solid acids. Instead, we found that a tetragonal [Formula: see text] monoclinic polymorphic transition initiates at T≈90 °C. The transition is complete at T≈130 °C, and the new monoclinic RbH(2)PO(4) polymorph is stable upon further heating to T = 200 °C. Moreover, its crystal structure is isomorphic to that of monoclinic CsH(2)PO(4). This remarkable similarity suggests that the microscopic structures and dynamics responsible for the high-temperature superprotonic behavior of RbH(2)PO(4) could be the same as those of its Cs-based counterpart.

  3. Antiferromagnetism in a bosonic mixture of rubidium ({sup 87}Rb) and potassium ({sup 41}K)

    SciTech Connect

    Shrestha, Uttam

    2010-10-15

    We simulate the experimental possibility of observing antiferromagnetic (AF) order in bosonic mixtures of rubidium ({sup 87}Rb) and potassium ({sup 41}K) in a two-dimensional optical lattice in the presence of harmonic confinement. By tuning the interspecies interactions and the lattice heights, we have found the ground states, within the mean-field approximation, that interpolate from phase separation to AF order. For a moderate lattice height, the coexistence of the Mott and AF phases is possible for the Rb atoms whereas the K atoms remain in the AF-superfluid phase. This observation may provide an experimentally feasible route to hitherto unobserved AF order for {sup 87}Rb-{sup 41}K mixtures.

  4. Heparin cofactor II (RbHCII) from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus): molecular characterization, cloning and expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Youngdeuk; Lee, Sukkyoung; Kim, Yucheol; Kim, Hyowon; Jung, Sung-Ju; Oh, Myung-Joo; Choi, Cheol Young; Yeo, Sang-Yeob; Lee, Sang-Jun; Lee, Jehee

    2011-01-01

    Heparin cofactor (HCII) is a serine protease inhibitor (SPI), and plays important physiological roles in various biological events including hemostasis. The gene encoding the HCII was isolated from GS-FLX™ genomic data of rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus), designated as RbHCII. The RbHCII (1950 bp) consists of a 1512 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 504 amino acids (aa), with a signal peptide of 19 aa residues. The predicted molecular mass and the estimated isoelectric point of RbHCII were 58 kDa and 5.9, respectively. The deduced aa sequence of RbHCII displayed a characteristic serpin domain and a serpin signature motif (FTVDQPFLFLI). RbHCII demonstrated homology with vertebrate HCIIs and the greatest degree of similarity (90.1%) was observed with Gasterosteus aculeatus HCII. Various functional domains including the reactive center loop (RCL), glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and thrombin binding sites and acidic repeats of human and RbHCII were found to be orthologs through the molecular modeling studies. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that RbHCII belongs to the clade D serpins, and is closely related to the clade A members. Constitutive expression of RbHCII mRNA was detected at different levels in various tissues in a tissue-specific manner. Interestingly, RbHCII transcription was significantly downregulated (p < 0.05) in liver after challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Edwardsiella tarda and rock bream iridovirus (RBIV). However, after the immune challenges, RbHCII showed a significant downregulation in blood tissue only at the late-phase of investigation. The recombinant RbHCII (rRbHCII) was overexpressed in Rosetta-gami (DE3) cells and purified using the pMAL™ system. The rRbHCII inhibited thrombin and chymotrypsin in a dose-dependent manner. Remarkably, heparin was found to be an enhancer of RbHCII's thrombin-inhibitory activity. Correlating the heparin-dependent thrombin-inhibition activity of RbHCII with its temporal downregulation against immune

  5. Piezoelectricity enhancement in Dion-Jacobson RbBiNb2O7 via negative pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, Gaoyang; Shi, Jing

    2014-12-01

    We use first-principles calculations to study the structural, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of the recently synthesized Dion-Jacobson RbBiNb2O7, a novel layered-perovskite piezoelectrics with extremely high Curie temperature TC. We show that ferroelectric RbBiNb2O7 crystalizes in orthorhombic Pmc21 phase, exhibiting in-plane spontaneous polarization. We well reproduce the major experimental results for RbBiNb2O7. We further propose that under 5% volume-expansion-induced negative pressure, ˜3× increase of dielectric permittivity and ˜2× increase of piezoelectricity can be achieved in RbBiNb2O7. The decomposed piezoelectricity analysis reveals that the activation of piezoelectric response of cation Rb by negative pressure can lead to large piezoelectricity enhancement. Based on our calculations, we demonstrate that negative pressure is a promising way to optimize the performance of RbBiNb2O7 as high-TC piezoelectrics.

  6. Lysine methylation regulates the pRb tumour suppressor protein.

    PubMed

    Munro, S; Khaire, N; Inche, A; Carr, S; La Thangue, N B

    2010-04-22

    The pRb tumour suppressor protein has a central role in coordinating early cell cycle progression. An important level of control imposed on pRb occurs through post-translational modification, for example, phosphorylation. We describe here a new level of regulation on pRb, mediated through the targeted methylation of lysine residues, by the methyltransferase Set7/9. Set7/9 methylates the C-terminal region of pRb, both in vitro and in cells, and methylated pRb interacts with heterochromatin protein HP1. pRb methylation is required for pRb-dependent cell cycle arrest and transcriptional repression, as well as pRb-dependent differentiation. Our results indicate that methylation can influence the properties of pRb, and raise the interesting possibility that methylation modulates pRb tumour suppressor activity.

  7. Progress Towards BEC in ^85Rb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zirbel, J. J.; Papp, S. B.; Smith, J. T. T.; Wieman, C. E.

    2003-05-01

    Through use of a Feshbach resonance in ^85Rb, novel methods for the manipulation of a BEC were demonstrated at JILA. Recent experiments [1] utilizing rapid magnetic field pulses observed a coherent superposition of atomic and molecular BEC. These experiments have prompted the need for a new apparatus to produce ^85Rb BEC with enhanced optical access and the ability to directly detect the presence of a molecular condensate. We have constructed a vacuum system consisting of two chambers at different base pressures. The first chamber contains a vapor cell magneto-optical trap (MOT), and the second is a UHV glass cell. The chambers are connected through a long thin tube with a 90^o bend. Atoms are transferred between the two chambers via a moving quadrupole magnetic potential [2]. Once in the UHV chamber the atoms are loaded into a Ioffe-Pritchard style magnetic trap. To cool the gas towards the BEC transition temperature, we will sympathetically cool ^85Rb with ^87Rb. This requires high numbers of ^87Rb to provide sufficient collision rate for runaway evaporation. We discuss characterization of the above apparatus and our scheme for direct ^85Rb molecule detection. [1] E.A. Donley et al., Nature 417, 529 (2002). [2] M. Greiner et al., Phys. Rev. A. 63, 031401 (2001).

  8. RB: An essential player in adult neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fong, Bensun C; Slack, Ruth S

    2017-01-01

    The fundamental mechanisms underlying adult neurogenesis remain to be fully clarified. Members of the cell cycle machinery have demonstrated key roles in regulating adult neural stem cell (NSC) quiescence and the size of the adult-born neuronal population. The retinoblastoma protein, Rb, is known to possess CNS-specific requirements that are independent from its classical role as a tumor suppressor. The recent study by Vandenbosch et al. has clarified distinct requirements for Rb during adult neurogenesis, in the restriction of proliferation, as well as long-term adult-born neuronal survival. However, Rb is no longer believed to be the main cell cycle regulator maintaining the quiescence of adult NSCs. Future studies must consider Rb as part of a larger network of regulatory effectors, including the other members of the Rb family, p107 and p130. This will help elucidate the contribution of Rb and other pocket proteins in the context of adult neurogenesis, and define its crucial role in regulating the size and fate of the neurogenic niche.

  9. Formation of zeolites in metakaolin-based geopolymers and their potential application for Cs immobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbel Haddad, M.; Ofer-Rozovsky, E.; Bar-Nes, G.; Borojovich, E. J. C.; Nikolski, A.; Mogiliansky, D.; Katz, A.

    2017-09-01

    Alkali-activated aluminisilicate materials, also known as geopolymers, have been considered as attractive candidates for nuclear waste immobilization, due to their ability to incorporate cations, combined with high chemical resistance and suitable mechanical and thermal properties. The goal of the present research was to study the incorporation and immobilization of Cs in low-Si geopolymers (SiO2:Al2O3 molar ratio ≤ 2) which are known to have a relatively high crystalline phase content. A series of low-Si geopolymers was prepared from metakaolin using activating solutions containing CsOH and NaOH at different proportions. The structural evolution of the resulting products was followed using X-ray diffraction, the incorporation of Cs in the geopolymer was followed by pore water analysis, and its immobilization efficiency was determined from leaching tests following the ANSI/ANS-16.1 standard procedure. Like low-Si NaOH-based geopolymers, the mixed CsOH-NaOH geopolymers contain a significant amount of crystalline material which is imbedded within an amorphous matrix. Formulations with 1%Cs yielded the crystalline phases zeolite A and zeolite X. At 50%Cs the Cs-bearing zeolite F was formed. All three phases were observed at an intermediate Cs content (7%Cs). Pore water analysis indicated a preference for Cs uptake from the activating solution, while leaching experiments indicated selectivity for Cs immobilization in the mixed CsOH-NaOH geopolymers. Correlation of the apparent diffusion constants for both Na and Cs, as obtained from the leaching experiments, with the structural data lead to the conclusion that Cs is more efficiently bound by zeolite F, whereas Na binding is preferred by zeolites A and X. Nevertheless, the leachability indices for both Cs and Na were well above 6, indicating that such matrices may be considered as waste forms for 137Cs.

  10. Diode laser 87Rb optical pumping in an evacuated wall-coated cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, W. K.; Robinson, H. G.; Johnson, C. E.

    1984-01-01

    The evacuated wall coated sealed cell coupled with diode laser optical pumping offers a number of attractive potential advantages for use in Rb or Cs atomic frequency standards. An investigation of systematic effects is required to explore possible limitations of the technique. The use of diode laser optical pumping of 87 Rb in an evacuated wall coated sealed cell is presented. Experimental results/discussion to be presented include the signal strength and line broadening of the 0 - 0 hyperfine resonance as a function of light intensity for the D1 optical transitions (F - F prime) - (2 1 prime) and (2 - 2 prime), shift of the 0 - 0 hyperfine frequency as a function of laser intensity and de-tuning from optical resonance, and diode laser frequency stabilization techniques.

  11. Dephosphorylation of threonine-821 of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (Rb) is required for apoptosis induced by UV and Cdk inhibition.

    PubMed

    Lentine, Brandon; Antonucci, Lisa; Hunce, Ray; Edwards, Justina; Marallano, Valerie; Krucher, Nancy A

    2012-09-01

    The Retinoblastoma protein (Rb) is important in the control of cell proliferation and apoptosis. Its activity is controlled by reversible phosphorylation on several serine and threonine residues. When Rb is hypophosphorylated, it inhibits proliferation by preventing passage through the G 1- S phase transition. Hyperphosphorylated Rb promotes cell cycle progression. The role of Rb phosphorylation in the control of apoptosis is largely unknown, although several apoptotic stimuli result in dephosphorylation of Rb. It may be that dephosphorylation of specific amino acids signals apoptosis vs. cell cycle arrest. Using glutamic acid mutagenesis, we have generated 15 single phosphorylation site mutants of Rb to alter serine/threonine to glutamic acid to mimic the phosphorylated state. By calcium phosphate transfection, mutant plasmids were introduced into C33A Rb-null cells, and apoptosis was induced using UV. Apoptosis was measured by ELISA detection of degraded DNA and by immunoblotting to assess proteolytic cleavage of PARP. Our results show that only mutation of threonine-821 to glutamic acid (T821E) blocked apoptosis by 50%, whereas other sites tested had little effect. In Rb-null Saos-2 and SKUT-1 cells, the T821E mutation also blocked apoptosis induced by the cdk inhibitor, Roscovitine, by 50%. In addition, we show that endogenous Rb is dephosphorylated on threonine-821 when cells are undergoing apoptosis. Thus, our data indicates that dephosphorylation of threonine-821 of Rb is required for cells to undergo apoptosis.

  12. Mentoring and the 6Cs.

    PubMed

    Young, Lorna

    2016-02-10

    As a staff nurse in a rehabilitation unit, I have been involved in patient care initiatives using the 6Cs of nursing: care, compassion, competence, communication, courage and commitment. However, I had not appreciated the benefits of using the 6Cs of nursing in the mentorship role.

  13. CsAlSi/sub 5/O/sub 12/: a possible host for /sup 137/Cs immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Adl, T.; Vance, E.R.

    1982-03-31

    CsAlSi/sub 5/O/sub 12/ exhibits more acid resistance than pollucite (CsAlSi/sub 2/O/sub 6/). At pH values of 1.02 and 1.40, the extraction of Cs from CsAlSi/sub 5/O/sub 12/ at 25/sup 0/C was approximately proportional to the square root of leach time. The Cs extraction at 25/sup 0/C varied as (H/sup +/)/sup 0/ /sup 36/ over the pH range of 1 to 6. Also, the Cs extraction in various brines at 300/sup 0/C/30 MPa was comparable with that for pollucite. CsAlSi/sub 5/O/sub 12/ can be crystallized at about 1000/sup 0/C from calcines if a small amount of CaO is present, but in the absence of such sintering acids, crystallization temperatures of about 1400/sup 0/C are necessary. Compatibility data were also obtained with respect to several other phases with which CsAlSi/sub 5/O/sub 12/ might be expected to coexist in tailored ceramics designed for high-level defense waste.

  14. LIMD1 antagonizes E2F1 activity and cell cycle progression by enhancing Rb function in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mayank, Adarsh K; Sharma, Shipra; Deshwal, Ravi K; Lal, Sunil K

    2014-07-01

    Tumour suppressor genes restrain inappropriate cell growth and division, as well as stimulate cell death to maintain tissue homeostasis. Loss of function leads to abnormal cellular behaviour, including hyperproliferation of cell and perturbation of cell cycle regulation. LIMD1 is a tumour suppressor gene located at chromosome 3p21.3, a region commonly deleted in many solid malignancies. LIMD1 interacts with retinoblastoma (Rb) and is involved in Rb-mediated downregulation of E2F1-target genes. However, the role of LIMD1 in cell cycle regulation remains unclear. We propose that LIMD1 induces cell cycle arrest, utilising Rb-E2F1 axis, and show that ectopic expression of LIMD1 in A549 cells results in hypo-phosphorylation that potentiates Rb function, which correlates with downregulation of E2F1. In agreement with these observations, LIMD1 overexpression retards cell cycle progression and blocks S-phase entry, as cells accumulate in G0/G1 phase and have reduced incorporation of BrdU. Most significantly, LIMD1-dependent effects on Rb function and cell cycle are reversed on depletion of endogenous LIMD1, underscoring its centrality in Rb-mediated cell cycle regulation. Hence, our findings provide new insight into cell cycle control by Rb-LIMD1 nexus.

  15. Trapping of Rb Atoms by ac Electric Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Schlunk, Sophie; Marian, Adela; Geng, Peter; Meijer, Gerard; Schoellkopf, Wieland; Mosk, Allard P.

    2007-06-01

    We demonstrate trapping of an ultracold gas of neutral atoms in a macroscopic ac electric trap. Three-dimensional confinement is obtained by switching between two saddle-point configurations of the electric field. Stable trapping is observed in a narrow range of switching frequencies around 60 Hz. The dynamic confinement of the atoms is directly visualized at different phases of the ac switching cycle. We observe about 10{sup 5} Rb atoms in the 1 mm{sup 3} large and several microkelvins deep trap with a lifetime of approximately 5 s.

  16. High-temperature, high-pressure hydrothermal synthesis, crystal structure, and solid-state NMR spectroscopy of Cs2(UO2)(Si2O6) and variable-temperature powder X-ray diffraction study of the hydrate phase Cs2(UO2)(Si2O6) x 0.5H2O.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Shan; Chiang, Ray-Kuang; Kao, Hsien-Ming; Lii, Kwang-Hwa

    2005-05-30

    A new uranium(VI) silicate, Cs2(UO2)(Si2O6), has been synthesized by a high-temperature, high-pressure hydrothermal method and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. It crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Ibca (No. 73) with a = 15.137(1) A, b = 15.295(1) A, c = 16.401(1) A, and Z = 16. Its structure consists of corrugated achter single chains of silicate tetrahedra extending along the c axis linked together via corner-sharing by UO6 tetragonal bipyramids to form a 3-D framework which delimits 8- and 6-ring channels. The Cs+ cations are located in the channels or at sites between channels. The 29Si and 133Cs MAS NMR spectra are consistent with the crystal structure as determined from X-ray diffraction, and the resonances in the spectra are assigned. Variable-temperature in situ powder X-ray diffraction study of the hydrate Cs2(UO2)(Si2O6) x 0.5H2O indicates that the framework structure is stable up to 800 degrees C and transforms to the structure of the title compound at 900 degrees C. A comparison of related uranyl silicate structures is made.

  17. Vortex dynamics in Rb3C60 observed by 87Rb and 13C NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, G.; Mehring, M.; Rachdi, F.; Fischer, J. E.

    1996-08-01

    The vortex dynamics in Rb3C60 is investigated by 87Rb and 13C NMR. It is shown that spin-spin relaxation as well as two-dimensional exchange experiments allow an estimation of the time scale of vortex fluctuations. The effective pinning potential is deduced from the temperature dependence of the NMR parameters.

  18. Local structure of solid Rb at megabar pressures

    SciTech Connect

    De Panfilis, S.; Gorelli, F.; Santoro, M.; Ulivi, L.; Gregoryanz, E.; Irifune, T.; Shinmei, T.; Kantor, I.; Mathon, O.; Pascarelli, S.

    2015-06-07

    We have investigated the local and electronic structure of solid rubidium by means of x-ray absorption spectroscopy up to 101.0 GPa, thus doubling the maximum investigated experimental pressure. This study confirms the predicted stability of phase VI and was completed by the combination of two pivotal instrumental solutions. On one side, we made use of nanocrystalline diamond anvils, which, contrary to the more commonly used single crystal diamond anvils, do not generate sharp Bragg peaks (glitches) at specific energies that spoil the weak fine structure oscillations in the x-ray absorption cross section. Second, we exploited the performance of a state-of-the-art x-ray focussing device yielding a beam spot size of 5 × 5 μm{sup 2}, spatially stable over the entire energy scan. An advanced data analysis protocol was implemented to extract the pressure dependence of the structural parameters in phase VI of solid Rb from 51.2 GPa up to the highest pressure. A continuous reduction of the nearest neighbour distances was observed, reaching about 6% over the probed pressure range. We also discuss a phenomenological model based on the Einstein approximation to describe the pressure behaviour of the mean-square relative displacement. Within this simplified scheme, we estimate the Grüneisen parameter for this high pressure Rb phase to be in the 1.3–1.5 interval.

  19. αB-crystallin promotes oncogenic transformation and inhibits caspase activation in cells primed for apoptosis by Rb inactivation.

    PubMed

    Petrovic, Vladimir; Malin, Dmitry; Cryns, Vincent L

    2013-04-01

    The retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor gene is frequently inactivated in cancer, resulting in deregulated activation of E2F transcription factors, which promote S-phase entry, p53-dependent and p53-independent apoptosis. Transformed cells evade p53-dependent apoptosis initiated by Rb inactivation by TP53 mutation. However, the mechanisms by which cancer cells circumvent p53-independent apoptosis in this context are poorly understood. Because Rb inactivation primes cells for apoptosis by p53-independent induction of procaspases, we postulated that αB-crystallin, an inhibitor of procaspase-3 activation, would suppress caspase activation in cells with combined Rb and p53 inactivation. Notably, αB-crystallin is commonly expressed in ER/PR/HER2 "triple-negative" breast carcinomas characterized by frequent Rb loss and TP53 mutation. We report that αB-crystallin (-/-) knock out (KO) MEFs immortalized by dominant negative (DN) p53 are resistant to transformation by the adenovirus E1A oncoprotein, which inactivates Rb, while wild-type (WT) MEFs are readily transformed by DN p53 and E1A. αB-crystallin (-/-) KO MEFs stably expressing DN p53 and E1A were more sensitive to chemotherapy-induced caspase-3 activation and apoptosis than the corresponding WT MEFs, despite comparable induction of procaspases by E1A. Similarly, silencing Rb in WT and αB-crystallin (-/-) KO MEFs immortalized by DN p53 increased procaspase levels and sensitized αB-crystallin (-/-) KO MEFs to chemotherapy. Furthermore, silencing αB-crystallin in triple-negative breast cancer cells, which lack Rb and express mutant p53, enhanced chemotherapy sensitivity compared to non-silencing controls. Our results indicate that αB-crystallin inhibits caspase activation in cells primed for apoptosis by Rb inactivation and plays a novel oncogenic role in the context of combined Rb and p53 inactivation.

  20. Phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein (p-Rb) is involved in neuronal apoptosis after traumatic brain injury in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Xiaojuan; Yang, Huilin; Zhu, Xinhui; Yi, Hong; Zhu, Xuesong; Zhang, Jie

    2013-04-01

    Phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein (p-Rb), a well identified cell cycle related protein, is involved in regulating the biological functions of various cell types including neurons. One attractive biological function of p-Rb is releasing E2F transcription factor to induce S-phase entry and cellular proliferation of mitotic cells. However, some studies point out that the role of p-Rb in post-mitotic cells such as mature neurons is unique; it may induce cellular apoptosis rather than proliferation via regulating cell cycle reactivation. Up to now, the knowledge of p-Rb function in CNS is still limited. To investigate whether p-Rb is involved in CNS injury and repair, we performed a traumatic brain injury model in adult rats. Up-regulation of p-Rb was observed in the injured brain cortex by western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry staining. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxy-UTP-nick end labeling (TUNEL) and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining suggested that p-Rb was relevant to neuronal apoptosis after brain injury. In addition, glutamate excitotoxic model of primary cortex neurons was introduced to further investigate the role of p-Rb in neuronal apoptosis; the result implied p-Rb was associated with cell cycle activation in the apoptotic neurons. Based on our data, we suggested that p-Rb might play an important role in neuronal apoptosis after traumatic brain injury in rat; which might also provide a basis for the further study on its role in regulating cell cycle re-entry in apoptotic neurons, and might gain a novel strategy for the clinical therapy for traumatic brain injury.

  1. FGF signaling targets the pRb-related p107 and p130 proteins to induce chondrocyte growth arrest

    PubMed Central

    Laplantine, Emmanuel; Rossi, Ferdinand; Sahni, Malika; Basilico, Claudio; Cobrinik, David

    2002-01-01

    Unregulated FGF signaling affects endochondral ossification and long bone growth, causing several genetic forms of human dwarfism. One major mechanism by which FGFs regulate endochondral bone growth is through their inhibitory effect on chondrocyte proliferation. Because mice with targeted mutations of the retinoblastoma (Rb)-related proteins p107 and p130 present severe endochondral bone defects with excessive chondrocyte proliferation, we have investigated the role of the Rb family of cell cycle regulators in the FGF response. Using a chondrocyte cell line, we found that FGF induced a rapid dephosphorylation of all three proteins of the Rb family (pRb, p107, and p130) and a blockade of the cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. This cell cycle block was reversed by inactivation of Rb proteins with viral oncoproteins such as polyoma large T (PyLT) antigen and Adenovirus E1A. Expression of a PyLT mutant that efficiently binds pRb, but not p107 and p130, allowed the cells to be growth inhibited by FGF, suggesting that pRb itself is not involved in the FGF response. To investigate more precisely the role of the individual Rb family proteins in FGF-mediated growth inhibition, we used chondrocyte micromass culture of limb bud cells isolated from mice lacking Rb proteins individually or in combination. Although wild-type as well as Rb−/− chondrocytes were similarly growth inhibited by FGF, chondrocytes null for p107 and p130 did not respond to FGF. Furthermore, FGF treatment of metatarsal bone rudiments obtained from p107−/−;p130−/− embryos failed to inhibit proliferation of growth plate chondrocytes, whereas rudiments from p107-null or p130-null embryos showed only a slight inhibition of growth. Our findings indicate that p107 and p130, but not pRb, are critical effectors of FGF-mediated growth inhibition in chondrocytes. PMID:12177046

  2. Electronic correlations and magnetic ordering in CsC60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thier, K.-F.; Mehring, M.; Rachdi, F.

    1998-08-01

    We investigate the spin arrangement in the magnetically ordered orthorhombic phase of CsC60 by a comparison of 133Cs NMR data and simulations of a 3D ordered anisotropic antiferromagnet. Consistent results are obtained for two different magnetic ordering vectors. The agreement between simulation and experiment can be further improved by including a substantial amount of magnetic disorder. In addition, the metastable low temperature cubic phase is investigated using 13C NMR. We find a strongly correlated metallic system that transforms to the semiconducting dimer phase at T=140 K.

  3. Crystal structure of Rb-elpasolite Rb{sub 2}NaAlF{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Yakubovich, O. V. Kiryukhina, G. V.; Dimitrova, O. V.

    2013-05-15

    Single crystals of Rb{sub 2}NaAlF{sub 6}, the Rb analogue of the mineral elpasolite, are obtained in the NaF-Rb{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Rb{sub 3}PO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}O system under hydrothermal conditions, and their structure is determined by X-ray diffraction (R = 0.0188): a = 8.3087(1) A, space group Fm3bar m, Z = 4, and {rho}{sub calcd} = 3.88 g/cm{sup 3}. The hypothesis that Rb elpasolite exists in nature in late associations of pegmatites enriched in rubidium is proposed.

  4. Materials Data on Cs2RbNF6 (SG:225) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-11

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  5. Materials Data on Cs2RbPbF6 (SG:225) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-11

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  6. Materials Data on Cs2RbGaF6 (SG:225) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-11

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  7. Materials Data on CsRb2InF6 (SG:225) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-11

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  8. Materials Data on Cs2RbInBr6 (SG:225) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-04-20

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  9. Materials Data on Cs2RbTlF6 (SG:225) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-11

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  10. Materials Data on CsRb2GaF6 (SG:225) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-11

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  11. Materials Data on Cs2RbInF6 (SG:225) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-11

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  12. Materials Data on Cs11Rb7O3 (SG:19) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-04-22

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  13. Materials Data on Cs3Rb (SG:194) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-08-20

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  14. Materials Data on CsRbN (SG:216) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-09-21

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  15. Materials Data on CsRbP (SG:216) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-09-21

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  16. Materials Data on CsRbAs (SG:216) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-09-21

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  17. Bichromatic state-insensitive trapping of cold 133Cs-87Rb atomic mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metbulut, M. M.; Renzoni, F.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate simultaneous state-insensitive trapping of a mixture of two different atomic species, Caesium and Rubidium. The magic wavelengths of the Caesium and Rubidium atoms are different, 935.6 and 789.9 nm respectively, thus single-frequency simultaneous state-insensitive trapping is not possible. We thus identify bichromatic trapping as a viable approach to tune the two magic wavelengths to a common value. Correspondingly, we present several common magic wavelength combinations appropriate for simultaneous state-insensitive trapping of the two atomic species.

  18. Crystal growth and characterization of Eu2+ doped RbCaX3 (X = Cl, Br) scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebrova, N. V.; Grippa, A. Yu.; Pushak, A. S.; Gorbacheva, T. E.; Pedash, V. Yu.; Viagin, O. G.; Cherginets, V. L.; Tarasov, V. A.; Vistovskyy, V. V.; Vas'kiv, A. P.; Myagkota, S. V.

    2017-05-01

    The single crystals of RbCa1-yEuyX3 (X = Cl, Br; y = 0.03, 0.05, 0.08) were obtained by the Bridgman-Stockbarger technique. The luminescent and luminescent-kinetic properties of RbCaCl3:5%Eu and RbCaBr3:5%Eu under photo- and X-ray excitation (35-40 keV) at 77 and 293 K were studied. The luminescence spectra of the crystals exhibit one dominant band which corresponds to Eu2+ emission. The scintillation properties of all the grown crystals under 137Cs 662 keV gamma-ray excitation were investigated. The maximal values of relative light output were found for RbCaCl3:8%Eu2+ and RbCaBr3:8%Eu2+ which are approximately equal to 50% and 77% of NaI:Tl with decay time 2.7 and 3.6 μs respectively. The hygroscopicity of the crystals was estimated.

  19. Bandhead Energies in 125Cs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ji; Hu, Xue-Yuan; Ma, Ying-Jun; Liu, Yun-Zuo; Tetsuro, Komatsubara; Kohei, Furuno; Zhang, Yu-Hu; Zhou, Wen-Ping; Wang, Shou-Yu

    Excited states in 125Cs have been studied with the fusion-evaporation-reaction 116Cd(14N,5n)125Cs at 65 MeV beam energy, using the Nordball-multidetector-system at the Niels-Bohr-Institute in Denmark. The level scheme of 125Cs was extended with the addition of more than 40 new γ-transitions. Moreover, the bandhead excitation energies of the previously known g9/2 and h11/2 bands were unambiguously corrected with plenty of hard evidence.

  20. Molecular pathways: regulation of metabolism by RB.

    PubMed

    Clem, Brian F; Chesney, Jason

    2012-11-15

    The discovery of the retinoblastoma (RB-1) gene as a tumor suppressor that is disrupted in a majority of human cancers either via direct or indirect genetic alterations has resulted in increased interest in its functions and downstream effectors. Although the canonical pathway that links this tumor suppressor to human cancers details its interaction with the E2F transcription factors and cell-cycle progression, recent studies have shown an essential role for RB-1 in the suppression of glycolytic and glutaminolytic metabolism. Characterization of the precise metabolic transporters and enzymes suppressed by the RB-E2F axis should enable the identification of small molecule antagonists that have selective and potent antitumor properties. ©2012 AACR.

  1. Rotational bands in {sup 76}Rb

    SciTech Connect

    Harder, A.; Kabadiyski, M.K.; Lieb, K.P.; Rudolph, D.; Gross, C.J.; Cunningham, R.A.; Hannachi, F.; Simpson, J.; Warner, D.D.; Roth, H.A.; Skeppstedt, O.; Gelletly, W.; Varley, B.J.

    1995-06-01

    High spin states in {sup 76}Rb were investigated via the reaction {sup 40}Ca({sup 40}Ca,3{ital pn}){sup 76}Rb at 128 MeV. The level scheme was established from {gamma}{gamma}, {gamma}{gamma}{gamma} and recoil-{gamma} coincidences measured in the EUROGAM I array in combination with the Daresbury recoil separator. The known rotational bands were extended up to the excitation energy {ital E}{sub {ital x}}{approx}9.2 MeV and spins {ital I}{sup {pi}}=(21{sup +}) and (19{sup {minus}}). The band head energies could be fixed by many interband transitions. Two new bands were identified. The level scheme is discussed in terms of the cranked shell model. In the negative parity bands {sup 76}Rb behaves like a rigid rotor until the first band crossings.

  2. Anisotropic electronic structure of orthorhombic RbC60: A high-field ESR investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmer, J.; Grupp, A.; Mehring, M.; Hone, J.; Zettl, A.

    2001-02-01

    The full anisotropy of the electronic g tensor of a RbC60 single crystal was determined by applying high-field ESR. The principal values of the g tensor gxx=2.0014, gyy=2.0012, and gzz=2.0019 reflect the orthorhombic symmetry and 3D nature of this polymeric phase.

  3. Transformation of Sintered CsPbBr3 Nanocrystals to Cubic CsPbI3 and Gradient CsPbBrxI3-x through Halide Exchange.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Jacob B; Schleper, A Lennart; Kamat, Prashant V

    2016-07-13

    All-inorganic cesium lead halide (CsPbX3, X = Br(-), I(-)) perovskites could potentially provide comparable photovoltaic performance with enhanced stability compared to organic-inorganic lead halide species. However, small-bandgap cubic CsPbI3 has been difficult to study due to challenges forming CsPbI3 in the cubic phase. Here, a low-temperature procedure to form cubic CsPbI3 has been developed through a halide exchange reaction using films of sintered CsPbBr3 nanocrystals. The reaction was found to be strongly dependent upon temperature, featuring an Arrhenius relationship. Additionally, film thickness played a significant role in determining internal film structure at intermediate reaction times. Thin films (50 nm) showed only a small distribution of CsPbBrxI3-x species, while thicker films (350 nm) exhibited much broader distributions. Furthermore, internal film structure was ordered, featuring a compositional gradient within film. Transient absorption spectroscopy showed the influence of halide exchange on the excited state of the material. In thicker films, charge carriers were rapidly transferred to iodide-rich regions near the film surface within the first several picoseconds after excitation. This ultrafast vectorial charge-transfer process illustrates the potential of utilizing compositional gradients to direct charge flow in perovskite-based photovoltaics.

  4. Superconductivity in the orthorhombic phase of thermoelectric CsPb{sub x}Bi{sub 4−x}Te{sub 6} with 0.3≤x≤1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, R.X.; Yang, H.X.; Tian, H.F.; Chen, G.F.; Wu, S.L.; Wei, L.L.; Li, J.Q.

    2015-12-15

    Experimental measurements clearly reveal the presence of bulk superconductivity in the CsPb{sub x}Bi{sub 4−x}Te{sub 6} (0.3≤x≤1.0) materials, i.e. the first member of the thermoelectric series of Cs[Pb{sub m}Bi{sub 3}Te{sub 5+m}], these materials have the layered orthorhombic structure containing infinite anionic [PbBi{sub 3}Te{sub 6}]{sup −} slabs separated with Cs{sup +} cations. Temperature dependences of electrical resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, and specific heat have consistently demonstrated that the superconducting transition in Cs{sub 0.96}Pb{sub 0.25}Bi{sub 3.75}Te{sub 6.04} occurs at T{sub c}=3.1 K, with a superconducting volume fraction close to 100% at 1.8 K. Structural study using aberration-corrected STEM/TEM reveals a rich variety of microstructural phenomena in correlation with the Pb-ordering and chemical inhomogeneity. The superconducting material Cs{sub 0.96}Pb{sub 0.25}Bi{sub 3.75}Te{sub 6.04} with the highest T{sub c} shows a clear ordered structure with a modulation wave vector of q≈a*/2+c*/1.35 on the a–c plane. Our study evidently demonstrates that superconductivity deriving upon doping of narrow-gap semiconductor is a viable approach for exploration of novel superconductors. - Graphical abstract: Bulk superconductivity is discovered in the orthorhombic Cs{sub 0.96}Pb{sub 0.22}Bi{sub 3.80}Te{sub 6.02} materials with the superconducting transition T{sub c}=3.1 K. The compound shows a clear ordered structure with a modulation wave vector of q≈a*/2+c*/1.35 on the a–c plane. - Highlights: • Bulk superconductivity is discovered in the orthorhombic CsPb{sub x}Bi{sub 4−x}Te{sub 6} materials. • The superconducting transition in Cs{sub 0.96}Pb{sub 0.22}Bi{sub 3.80}Te{sub 6.02} occurs at T{sub c}=3.1 K. • Physical property measurements concerning the bulk superconductivity were present. • Structural modulation due to Pb-ordering was observed.

  5. Measurement of inelastic losses in a sample of ultracold {sup 85}Rb

    SciTech Connect

    Altin, P. A.; Robins, N. P.; Poldy, R.; Debs, J. E.; Doering, D.; Figl, C.; Close, J. D.

    2010-01-15

    We report on measurements of inelastic loss processes in ultracold {sup 85}Rb |F=2> atoms. Our apparatus creates ultracold {sup 85}Rb clouds by sympathetic cooling with a {sup 87}Rb reservoir in a quadrupole-Ioffe magnetic trap and subsequently in a weak, large-volume optical dipole trap. We demonstrate strong sympathetic cooling of {sup 85}Rb in the magnetic trap, increasing its phase-space density by three orders of magnitude with no detectable loss in number. Ultracold samples created in this way are used to observe the variation of inelastic loss in {sup 85}Rb |F=2, m{sub F}=-2> clouds as a function of magnetic field near the 155-G Feshbach resonance and to measure the decay due to inelastic losses in all five Zeeman sublevels of the F=2 manifold, finding a particularly high three-body recombination rate in the lowest energy state. We have also observed and characterized a previously unobserved loss feature at 219.9(1) G with a width of 0.28(6) G, which we associate with a narrow Feshbach resonance predicted by theory.

  6. p107 in the public eye: an Rb understudy and more

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    p107 and its related family members Rb and p130 are critical regulators of cellular proliferation and tumorigenesis. Due to the extent of functional overlap within the Rb family, it has been difficult to assess which functions are exclusive to individual members and which are shared. Like its family members, p107 can bind a variety of cellular proteins to affect the expression of many target genes during cell cycle progression. Unlike Rb and p130, p107 is most highly expressed during the G1 to S phase transition of the cell cycle in actively dividing cells and accumulating evidence suggests a role for p107 during DNA replication. The specific roles for p107 during differentiation and development are less clear, although emerging studies suggest that it can cooperate with other Rb family members to control differentiation in multiple cell lineages. As a tumor suppressor, p107 is not as potent as Rb, yet studies in knockout mice have revealed some tumor suppressor functions in mice, depending on the context. In this review, we identify the unique and overlapping functions of p107 during the cell cycle, differentiation, and tumorigenesis. PMID:20359370

  7. The RB-E2F1 Pathway Regulates Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hong; Martin, Vanesa; Gomez-Manzano, Candelaria; Johnson, David G.; Alonso, Marta; White, Erin; Xu, Jing; McDonnell, Timothy J.; Shinojima, Naoki; Fueyo, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Autophagy is a protective mechanism that renders cells viable in stressful conditions. Emerging evidence suggests that this cellular process is also a tumor suppressor pathway. Previous studies showed that cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKI) induce autophagy. Whether retinoblastoma protein (RB), a key tumor suppressor and downstream target of CDKIs, induces autophagy is not clear. Here, we show that RB triggers autophagy and that the RB activators p16INK4a and p27/kip1 induce autophagy in an RB-dependent manner. RB binding to E2 transcription factor (E2F) is required for autophagy induction and E2F1 antagonizes RB-induced autophagy, leading to apoptosis. Downregulation of E2F1 in cells results in high levels of autophagy. Our findings indicate that RB induces autophagy by repressing E2F1 activity. We speculate that this newly discovered aspect of RB function is relevant to cancer development and therapy. PMID:20807803

  8. Atomic and electronic structures of rubidium adsorption on Si(001)(2 x 1) surface: Comparison with Cs/Si(001) surface

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, H Y.; Zu, Xiaotao; Zhang, Yanfeng; Gao, Fei

    2006-04-21

    First-principles calculations based on DFT-GGA method have been performed on rubidium adsorption on Si(001)(2?1) surface. The atomic and electronic structures of Si(001)(2?1)-Rb have been calculated and compared with those of Cs adsorption (J.Chem. Phys.122 (2005) 174704). It turns out that the saturation coverage of Rb is one monolayer rather than half a monolayer, similar to that of Cs adsorption. Comparison of Rb on Si(001)(2?1) with Cs adsorption showed that at saturation coverage larger alkali metal (AM) atom leads to stronger AM-AM interaction and weaker AM-Si interaction. However, for low coverage of 0.25 and 0.5 ML the Rb-Si interaction is surprisingly weaker than Cs-Si interaction. Further detailed analysis suggested that this is a consequence of depolarization effect with decreasing AM size below 1 ML coverage. For the saturation coverage the dispersion curves show that the surface is of semi-conducting character. This result does not support the direct and inverse angle-resolved photoemission investigation where a metallization is observed at saturation coverage.

  9. 133Cs and 75As NMR investigation of the normal metallic state of quasi-one-dimensional Cs2Cr3As3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhi, Haizhao; Lee, Drake; Imai, Takashi; Tang, Zhangtu; Liu, Yi; Cao, Guanghan

    2016-05-01

    We report 133Cs NMR and 75As nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) measurements on the normal metallic state above Tc of a quasi-one-dimensional superconductor Cs2Cr3As3 (Tc<1.6 K). From the 133Cs NMR Knight shift 133K measured at the Cs1 site, we show that the uniform spin susceptibility χspin increases from 295 K to ˜60 K, followed by a mild suppression; χspin then levels off below ˜10 K. In contrast, a vanishingly small magnitude of 133K indicates that Cs2 sites contribute very little to electrical conduction and the exchange interactions between 3d electrons at Cr sites. Low frequency Cr spin dynamics, reflected on 75As1 /T1T (the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate 1 /T1 divided by temperature T ), shows an analogous trend as χspin. Comparison with the results of 1 /T1T near Tc with K2Cr3As3 (Tc=6.1 K) and Rb2Cr3As3 (Tc=4.8 K) establishes a systematic trend that substitution of K+ ions with larger alkali ions progressively suppresses Cr spin fluctuations together with Tc.

  10. Ras Regulates Rb via NORE1A.

    PubMed

    Barnoud, Thibaut; Donninger, Howard; Clark, Geoffrey J

    2016-02-05

    Mutations in the Ras oncogene are one of the most frequent events in human cancer. Although Ras regulates numerous growth-promoting pathways to drive transformation, it can paradoxically promote an irreversible cell cycle arrest known as oncogene-induced senescence. Although senescence has clearly been implicated as a major defense mechanism against tumorigenesis, the mechanisms by which Ras can promote such a senescent phenotype remain poorly defined. We have shown recently that the Ras death effector NORE1A plays a critical role in promoting Ras-induced senescence and connects Ras to the regulation of the p53 tumor suppressor. We now show that NORE1A also connects Ras to the regulation of a second major prosenescent tumor suppressor, the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein. We show that Ras induces the formation of a complex between NORE1A and the phosphatase PP1A, promoting the activation of the Rb tumor suppressor by dephosphorylation. Furthermore, suppression of Rb reduces NORE1A senescence activity. These results, together with our previous findings, suggest that NORE1A acts as a critical tumor suppressor node, linking Ras to both the p53 and the Rb pathways to drive senescence. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Ras Regulates Rb via NORE1A*

    PubMed Central

    Barnoud, Thibaut; Donninger, Howard; Clark, Geoffrey J.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the Ras oncogene are one of the most frequent events in human cancer. Although Ras regulates numerous growth-promoting pathways to drive transformation, it can paradoxically promote an irreversible cell cycle arrest known as oncogene-induced senescence. Although senescence has clearly been implicated as a major defense mechanism against tumorigenesis, the mechanisms by which Ras can promote such a senescent phenotype remain poorly defined. We have shown recently that the Ras death effector NORE1A plays a critical role in promoting Ras-induced senescence and connects Ras to the regulation of the p53 tumor suppressor. We now show that NORE1A also connects Ras to the regulation of a second major prosenescent tumor suppressor, the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein. We show that Ras induces the formation of a complex between NORE1A and the phosphatase PP1A, promoting the activation of the Rb tumor suppressor by dephosphorylation. Furthermore, suppression of Rb reduces NORE1A senescence activity. These results, together with our previous findings, suggest that NORE1A acts as a critical tumor suppressor node, linking Ras to both the p53 and the Rb pathways to drive senescence. PMID:26677227

  12. Inoculation of Pichia kudriavzevii RB1 degrades the organic acids present in raw compost material and accelerates composting.

    PubMed

    Nakasaki, Kiyohiko; Araya, Shogo; Mimoto, Hiroshi

    2013-09-01

    In this study, the yeast strain Pichia kudriavzevii RB1 was used as an inoculum to accelerate organic matter degradation of rabbit food with added organic acids, which was used as a model food waste for composting. The RB1 strain rapidly degraded the organic acids present in the raw compost material, leading to an increase in pH beyond the neutral level, within 2 days. Both mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria proliferated faster in the compost with RB1 inoculation than in that without inoculation. Although the yeast died with the increase in compost temperature, it affected the early stages of composting prior to the thermophilic stage and accelerated the composting process by 2 days by eliminating the initial lag phase seen in the growth of other microorganisms. Moreover, populations of Bacillus thermoamylovorans, Bacillus foraminis, and Bacillus coagulans became dominant during the thermophilic stages of both composting with and without RB1 inoculation.

  13. Magnetic merging of ultracold atomic gases of {sup 85}Rb and {sup 87}Rb

    SciTech Connect

    Haendel, S.; Wiles, T. P.; Marchant, A. L.; Hopkins, S. A.; Adams, C. S.; Cornish, S. L.

    2011-05-15

    We report the magnetic merging of ultracold atomic gases of {sup 85}Rb and {sup 87}Rb by the controlled overlap of two initially spatially separated magnetic traps. We present a detailed analysis of the combined magnetic-field potential as the two traps are brought together that predicts a clear optimum trajectory for the merging. We verify this prediction experimentally using {sup 85}Rb and find that the final atom number in the merged trap is maximized with minimal heating by following the predicted optimum trajectory. Using the magnetic-merging approach allows us to create variable-ratio isotopic Rb mixtures with a single laser-cooling setup by simply storing one isotope in a magnetic trap before jumping the laser frequencies to the transitions necessary to laser cool the second isotope.

  14. Observation of broad p-wave Feshbach resonances in a 85 Rb-87 Rb mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Shen; Cui, Yue; Shen, Chuyang; Gao, Bo; Tey, Meng Khoon; You, Li

    2016-05-01

    Many Feshbach resonances are observed in an ultracold mixture of 85 Rb-87 Rb atoms, including three previously unknown resonances in the lowest ground state channel of 85 Rb | 2 , 2 > ⊗87 Rb | 1 , 1 > and three new ones in the higher ground channel | 2 , - 2 > ⊗ | 1 , - 1 >. Of particular interests, we discover a wide and open-channel-dominated p-wave resonance, implicating exciting opportunities for studying a variety of p-wave interaction dominated physics of superfluid boson mixtures, such as three-body recombination decay and formation of p-wave heteronuclear molecules. This study is made possible by the predictive power of the semi-analytic multi-channel quantum defect theory (MQDT).

  15. RB1: a prototype tumor suppressor and an enigma

    PubMed Central

    Dyson, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    The retinoblastoma susceptibility gene (RB1) was the first tumor suppressor gene to be molecularly defined. RB1 mutations occur in almost all familial and sporadic forms of retinoblastoma, and this gene is mutated at variable frequencies in a variety of other human cancers. Because of its early discovery, the recessive nature of RB1 mutations, and its frequency of inactivation, RB1 is often described as a prototype for the class of tumor suppressor genes. Its gene product (pRB) regulates transcription and is a negative regulator of cell proliferation. Although these general features are well established, a precise description of pRB's mechanism of action has remained elusive. Indeed, in many regards, pRB remains an enigma. This review summarizes some recent developments in pRB research and focuses on progress toward answers for the three fundamental questions that sit at the heart of the pRB literature: What does pRB do? How does the inactivation of RB change the cell? How can our knowledge of RB function be exploited to provide better treatment for cancer patients? PMID:27401552

  16. RB1: a prototype tumor suppressor and an enigma.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Nicholas J

    2016-07-01

    The retinoblastoma susceptibility gene (RB1) was the first tumor suppressor gene to be molecularly defined. RB1 mutations occur in almost all familial and sporadic forms of retinoblastoma, and this gene is mutated at variable frequencies in a variety of other human cancers. Because of its early discovery, the recessive nature of RB1 mutations, and its frequency of inactivation, RB1 is often described as a prototype for the class of tumor suppressor genes. Its gene product (pRB) regulates transcription and is a negative regulator of cell proliferation. Although these general features are well established, a precise description of pRB's mechanism of action has remained elusive. Indeed, in many regards, pRB remains an enigma. This review summarizes some recent developments in pRB research and focuses on progress toward answers for the three fundamental questions that sit at the heart of the pRB literature: What does pRB do? How does the inactivation of RB change the cell? How can our knowledge of RB function be exploited to provide better treatment for cancer patients?

  17. Ultracold thermalization of {sup 7}Li and {sup 87}Rb

    SciTech Connect

    Marzok, C.; Deh, B.; Courteille, Ph. W.; Zimmermann, C.

    2007-11-15

    We report on measurements of cross-species thermalization inside a magnetically trapped spin-polarized mixture of {sup 87}Rb and {sup 7}Li atoms with both atoms in their respective low-field-seeking magnetic substates |F=2,m{sub F}=2>. Measurement of the thermalization velocity in the ultracold regime below 10 {mu}K allows for the derivation of the absolute value of the pure triplet s-wave scattering length governing the interaction. We find |a{sub 7,87}|=(59{+-}19)a{sub B}. We propose to study both species in the condensed regime to derive the sign of a{sub 7,87}. In this context, we present numerical solutions to the coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equation based on the hypothesis of a positive sign. According to the simulations, phase separation of the Li and Rb |2,2> clouds occurs along with a mean-field stabilization allowing for larger atom numbers of condensed {sup 7}Li atoms before collapse sets in. Observation of this mean-field stabilization would directly fix the sign of a{sub 7,87}. We discuss our results in the light of this proposal.

  18. Dielectric breakdown during Cs+ sputtering of polyvinyl chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahoud, F.; Guillot, J.; Audinot, J. N.; Bertrand, P.; Delcorte, A.; Migeon, H. N.

    2014-02-01

    Thin films of insulating polymers are sometimes analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) or by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) without the use of an electron gun. In this work, both SIMS and XPS have been used to study the chemical and structural modifications due to the charge effect during Cs+ sputtering of a thin film of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The kinetic energy distribution study shows that at a small primary fluence ˜1015 Cs+ ions/cm2, the dielectric breakdown voltage of the PVC film is reached, i.e. the minimum voltage that causes a portion of an insulator to become electrically conductive. XPS study indicates that the conducting phase created in the PVC film after energetic Cs+ bombardment consists of graphitized carbon and metallic cesium clusters. After the dielectric breakdown of the film, the positive charge, previously accumulated on the surface, is neutralized through the conductive regions, which are created in the insulating film. During Cs+ sputtering of a PVC film, the chemical structure of the analyzed surface is completely modified and some ionic bonds such as CsC and CsCl are also created.

  19. CS1 is a novel topoisomerase IIα inhibitor with favorable drug resistance profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Yan; Chen, Wang; Zhao, Baobing; Hao, Huilin; Li, Zhenyu; Lu, Chunhua; Shen, Yuemao

    2014-10-24

    Highlights: • CS1 is a novel nonintercalating topoisomerase IIα poison. • CS1 shows potent in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity. • CS1 shows 6–10-fold less toxicity to normal cells compared with etoposide. • CS1 is not a substrate of P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance irrelevant. - Abstract: DNA topoisomerase II (Topo II) is an essential nuclear enzyme and a validated target for anticancer agent screening. CS1, a novel 2-phenylnaphthalene, had potent cytotoxicity against nine tested tumor cell lines and showed 6–10-fold less toxicity against normal cell lines compared with etoposide. In addition, CS1 showed potential anti-multidrug resistance capabilities. kDNA decatenation, DNA relaxation and cleavage complex assays indicated that CS1 acted as a nonintercalating topoisomerase IIα (Topo IIα) inhibitor by stabilizing the DNA-Topo IIα cleavage complex. CS1 also induced DNA breaks in MDA-MB-231 cells evidenced by comet tails and the accumulation of γH2AX foci. The ability of CS1 in inducing DNA breaks mediated by Topo II resulted in G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis. Moreover, CS1 exhibited dramatic in vivo antitumor activity and lower toxicity compared with etoposide. This work supports the development of CS1 as a promising candidate for the treatment of cancer by targeting Topo IIα.

  20. Two dimensional fluoride ion conductor RbSn {2}F {5} studied by impedance spectroscopy and {19}F, {119}Sn, and {87}Rb NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, K.; Ahmad, M. M.; Ogiso, Y.; Okuda, T.; Chikami, J.; Miehe, G.; Ehrenberg, H.; Fuess, H.

    2004-07-01

    RbSn2F5 is a two-dimensional fluoride ion conductor. It undergoes a first-order phase transition to a superionic state at 368 K. The structure of the low temperature phase has been determined from the Rietveld analysis of the X-ray powder diffraction. The dynamic properties of the fluoride ions in RbSn2F5 have been studied by impedance spectroscopy and solid state NMR. The dc ionic conductivity of this sample shows an abrupt increase at the phase transition temperature. We have obtained the hopping frequency and the concentration of the charge carriers (F- ions) at different temperatures from the analysis of the conductivity spectra using Almond-West formalism. The estimated values of the charge carriers’ concentration agree well with that determined from the structure and were found to be independent of temperature. The relatively small value of the power-law exponent, n ≈ 0.55, supports the two-dimensional property of the investigated material. Furthermore, 19F NMR with simulation has suggested the diffusive motions of the fluoride ions between different sites. In contrast, 119Sn and 87Rb NMR spectra below 250 K supported the intrinsic disordered nature due to the random distribution of the fluoride ion vacancies.

  1. Rb1 family mutation is sufficient for sarcoma initiation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongqing; Sánchez-Tilló, Ester; Lu, Xiaoqin; Clem, Brian; Telang, Sucheta; Jenson, Alfred B; Cuatrecasas, Miriam; Chesney, Jason; Postigo, Antonio; Dean, Douglas C

    2013-01-01

    It is thought that genomic instability precipitated by Rb1 pathway loss rapidly triggers additional cancer gene mutations, accounting for rapid tumour onset following Rb1 mutation. However, recent whole-genome sequencing of retinoblastomas demonstrated little genomic instability, but instead suggested rapid epigenetic activation of cancer genes. These results raise the possibility that loss of the Rb1 pathway, which is a hallmark of cancers, might be sufficient for cancer initiation. Yet, mutation of the Rb1 family or inactivation of the Rb1 pathway in primary cells has proven insufficient for tumour initiation. Here we demonstrate that traditional nude mouse assays impose an artificial anoikis and proliferation barrier that prevents Rb1 family mutant fibroblasts from initiating tumours. By circumventing this barrier, we show that primary fibroblasts with only an Rb1 family mutation efficiently form sarcomas in nude mice, and a Ras-ZEB1-Akt pathway then causes transition of these tumours to an invasive phenotype.

  2. Infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy of cationized methionine: effects of alkali-metal cation size on gas-phase conformation.

    PubMed

    Carl, Damon R; Cooper, Theresa E; Oomens, Jos; Steill, Jeff D; Armentrout, P B

    2010-04-14

    The gas-phase structures of alkali-metal cation complexes of the amino acid methionine (Met) as well as protonated methionine are investigated using infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy utilizing light generated by a free electron laser. Spectra of Li(+)(Met) and Na(+)(Met) are similar and relatively simple, whereas the spectra of K(+)(Met), Rb(+)(Met), and Cs(+)(Met) include distinctive new bands. Measured IRMPD spectra are compared to spectra calculated at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level of theory to identify the conformations present in the experimental studies. For Li(+) and Na(+) complexes, the only conformation present is a charge-solvated, tridentate structure that binds the metal cation to the amine and carbonyl groups of the amino acid backbone and the sulfur atom of the side chain, [N,CO,S]. In addition to the [N,CO,S] conformer, bands corresponding to alkali-metal cation binding to a bidentate zwitterionic structure, [CO(2)(-)], are clearly present for the K(+), Rb(+), and Cs(+) complexes. Theoretical calculations of the lowest energy conformations of Rb(+) and Cs(+) complexes suggest that the experimental spectra could also include contributions from two additional charge-solvated structures, tridentate [COOH,S] and bidentate [COOH]. For H(+)(Met), the IRMPD action spectrum is reproduced by multiple low-energy [N,CO,S] conformers, in which the protonated amine group hydrogen bonds to the carbonyl oxygen atom and the sulfur atom of the amino acid side chain. These [N,CO,S] conformers only differ in their side-chain orientations.

  3. Electronic structure of β-RbSm(MoO₄)₂ and chemical bonding in molybdates.

    PubMed

    Atuchin, V V; Aleksandrovsky, A S; Chimitova, O D; Diao, Cheng-Peng; Gavrilova, T A; Kesler, V G; Molokeev, M S; Krylov, A S; Bazarov, B G; Bazarova, J G; Lin, Zheshuai

    2015-01-28

    Microcrystals of orthorhombic rubidium samarium molybdate, β-RbSm(MoO4)2, have been fabricated by solid state synthesis at T = 450 °C, 70 h, and at T = 600 °C, 150 h. The crystal structure has been refined by the Rietveld method in space group Pbcn with cell parameters a = 5.0984(2), b = 18.9742(6) and c = 8.0449(3) Å (R(B) = 1.72%). Thermal properties of β-RbSm(MoO4)2 were traced by DSC over the temperature range of T = 20-965 °C, and the earlier reported β ↔ α phase transition at T ∼ 860-910 °C was not verified. The electronic structure of β-RbSm(MoO4)2 was studied by employing theoretical calculations and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It has been established that the O 2p-like states contribute mainly to the upper part of the valence band and occupy the valence band maximum, whereas the Mo 4d-like states contribute mainly to the lower part of the valence band. Chemical bonding effects have been analysed from the element core level binding energy data. In addition, it was found that the luminescence spectrum of β-RbSm(MoO4)2 is rather peculiar among the Sm(3+) containing materials. The optical refractive index dispersion in β-RbSm(MoO4)2 was also predicted by the first-principles calculations.

  4. CHeCS Commanding Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Jamie

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Crew Health Care System (CHeCS) commanding hardware. It includes information on the hardware status, commanding plan, and command training status with specific information the EV-CPDS 2 and 3, TEPC, MEC, and T2

  5. Seven Cs for Effective Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emdin, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    When faced with students who have learning skills, styles, and backgrounds very different from their own, teachers can promote academic rigor by engaging in reality pedagogy. This approach proposes seven strategies, or Cs: Cogenerative dialogues (in which teachers solicit feedback from a dissimilar group of students); coteaching (in which students…

  6. Thermal, optical, and dielectric properties of fluoride Rb2TaF7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogorel'tsev, E. I.; Mel'nikova, S. V.; Kartashev, A. V.; Gorev, M. V.; Flerov, I. N.; Laptash, N. M.

    2017-05-01

    The thermal, optical, and dielectric properties of fluoride Rb2TaF7 were investigated. It was observed that the variation in chemical pressure in fluorides A 2 +TaF7 caused by the cation substitution of rubidium for ammonium does not affect the ferroelastic nature of structural distortions, but leads to stabilization of the high- and low-temperature phases and enhancement of birefringence. The entropy of the phase transition P4/nmm ↔ Cmma is typical of the shift transformations, which is consistent with a model of the initial and distorted phase structures. The anisotropy of chemical pressure causes the change of signs of the anomalous strain and baric coefficient dT/ dp of Rb2TaF7 as compared with the values for its ammonium analog.

  7. Static electric field effects in photodetachment of Cs^-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khuskivadze, Amiran; Fabrikant, Ilya; Thumm, Uwe

    2003-05-01

    We calculate near-threshold photodetachment cross sections for Cs^- in the presence of a dc electric field using three different approaches: the frame transformation method (i) including and (ii) not including the rescattering effect and (iii) the Kirchhoff integral approach^1. Radial wavefunctions for electron motion were obtained by using the Pauli-equation method with a model potential describing the effective electron-atom interaction^2. Our calculations show the inadequacy of the frame transformation method in the ^3P resonance region even for weak fields (<10 kV/cm). We show that the triplet and singlet contributions to the total cross section can be manipulated by variation of the electric field. This allows the controlled enhancement of the spin-orbit effects in the photodetachment process and creation of more favorable conditions for observations of the ^3P resonance in Cs^- and other negative ions, such as, e.g. Rb^- ^3. ^1I.I. Fabrikant, J. Phys. B 26, 2533 (1993). ^2C. Bahrim, U. Thumm, A. A. Khuskivadze, and I. I. Fabrikant, Phys. Rev. A 66, 052712 (2002). ^3C. Bahrim, U. Thumm, and I. I. Fabrikant, Phys. Rev. A 63, 042710 (2001).

  8. RB localizes to DNA double-strand breaks and promotes DNA end resection and homologous recombination through the recruitment of BRG1.

    PubMed

    Vélez-Cruz, Renier; Manickavinayaham, Swarnalatha; Biswas, Anup K; Clary, Regina Weaks; Premkumar, Tolkappiyan; Cole, Francesca; Johnson, David G

    2016-11-15

    The retinoblastoma (RB) tumor suppressor is recognized as a master regulator that controls entry into the S phase of the cell cycle. Its loss leads to uncontrolled cell proliferation and is a hallmark of cancer. RB works by binding to members of the E2F family of transcription factors and recruiting chromatin modifiers to the promoters of E2F target genes. Here we show that RB also localizes to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) dependent on E2F1 and ATM kinase activity and promotes DSB repair through homologous recombination (HR), and its loss results in genome instability. RB is necessary for the recruitment of the BRG1 ATPase to DSBs, which stimulates DNA end resection and HR. A knock-in mutation of the ATM phosphorylation site on E2F1 (S29A) prevents the interaction between E2F1 and TopBP1 and recruitment of RB, E2F1, and BRG1 to DSBs. This knock-in mutation also impairs DNA repair, increases genomic instability, and renders mice hypersensitive to IR. Importantly, depletion of RB in osteosarcoma and breast cancer cell lines results in sensitivity to DNA-damaging drugs, which is further exacerbated by poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. We uncovered a novel, nontranscriptional function for RB in HR, which could contribute to genome instability associated with RB loss.

  9. Reactive barriers for 137Cs retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumhansl, James L.; Brady, Patrick V.; Anderson, Howard L.

    2001-02-01

    137Cs was dispersed globally by cold war activities and, more recently, by the Chernobyl accident. Engineered extraction of 137Cs from soils and groundwaters is exceedingly difficult. Because the half-life of 137Cs is only 30.2 years, remediation might be more effective (and less costly) if 137Cs bioavailability could be demonstrably limited for even a few decades by use of a reactive barrier. Essentially permanent isolation must be demonstrated in those few settings where high nuclear level wastes contaminated the environment with 135Cs (half-life 2.3×10 6 years) in addition to 137Cs. Clays are potentially a low-cost barrier to Cs movement, though their long-term effectiveness remains untested. To identify optimal clays for Cs retention, Cs desorption was measured for five common clays: Wyoming Montmorillonite (SWy-1), Georgia Kaolinites (KGa-1 and KGa-2), Fithian Illite (F-Ill), and K-Metabentonite (K-Mbt). Exchange sites were pre-saturated with 0.16 M CsCl for 14 days and readily exchangeable Cs was removed by a series of LiNO 3 and LiCl washes. Washed clays were then placed into dialysis bags and the Cs release to the deionized water outside the bags measured. Release rates from 75 to 139 days for SWy-1, K-Mbt and F-Ill were similar; 0.017% to 0.021% sorbed Cs released per day. Both kaolinites released Cs more rapidly (0.12% to 0.05% of the sorbed Cs per day). In a second set of experiments, clays were Cs-doped for 110 days and subjected to an extreme and prolonged rinsing process. All the clays exhibited some capacity for irreversible Cs uptake. However, the residual loading was greatest on K-Mbt (˜0.33 wt.% Cs). Thus, this clay would be the optimal material for constructing artifical reactive barriers.

  10. The Origin of the RB1 Imprint

    PubMed Central

    Kanber, Deniz; Buiting, Karin; Roos, Christian; Gromoll, Jörg; Kaya, Sabine; Horsthemke, Bernhard; Lohmann, Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    The human RB1 gene is imprinted due to a differentially methylated CpG island in intron 2. This CpG island is part of PPP1R26P1, a truncated retrocopy of PPP1R26, and serves as a promoter for an alternative RB1 transcript. We show here by in silico analyses that the parental PPP1R26 gene is present in the analysed members of Haplorrhini, which comprise Catarrhini (Old World Monkeys, Small apes, Great Apes and Human), Platyrrhini (New World Monkeys) and tarsier, and Strepsirrhini (galago). Interestingly, we detected the retrocopy, PPP1R26P1, in all Anthropoidea (Catarrhini and Platyrrhini) that we studied but not in tarsier or galago. Additional retrocopies are present in human and chimpanzee on chromosome 22, but their distinct composition indicates that they are the result of independent retrotransposition events. Chimpanzee and marmoset have further retrocopies on chromosome 8 and chromosome 4, respectively. To examine the origin of the RB1 imprint, we compared the methylation patterns of the parental PPP1R26 gene and its retrocopies in different primates (human, chimpanzee, orangutan, rhesus macaque, marmoset and galago). Methylation analysis by deep bisulfite sequencing showed that PPP1R26 is methylated whereas the retrocopy in RB1 intron 2 is differentially methylated in all primates studied. All other retrocopies are fully methylated, except for the additional retrocopy on marmoset chromosome 4, which is also differentially methylated. Using an informative SNP for the methylation analysis in marmoset, we could show that the differential methylation pattern of the retrocopy on chromosome 4 is allele-specific. We conclude that the epigenetic fate of a PPP1R26 retrocopy after integration depends on the DNA sequence and selective forces at the integration site. PMID:24282601

  11. In-situ Rb-Sr geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, F. S.; Nowicki, K.; Whitaker, T.

    This paper reports on the first rubidium-strontium (Rb-Sr) radiometric dates using a Laser Desorption Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry (LDRIMS) instrument capable of being miniaturized for flight to another planet. The LDRIMS instrument produces dates in under 24 hours, requires minimal sample preparation, and avoids the interference and mass resolution issues associated with other geochronology measurements. We have begun testing the bench-top prototype on the Boulder Creek Granite (BCG), from Colorado, comprised primarily of a gneissic quartz monzonite and granodiorite; whole rock Rb-Sr TIMS measurements result in dates of 1700± 40 Ma [1]. Data reduction of the LDRIMS Rb-Sr measurements on calibrated repeat runs result in a date for the BCG of 1.727± 0.087 Ga (n=288, MSWD=1). Most geochronology applications are willing to accept an MSWD up to ~2.7; at MSWD=2, the precision improves to ± 0.062 Ga. This technology is moving from lab prototype to field deployable instrument, and provides an opportunity to directly address the science goals of Mars Sample Return (MSR) within the bounds posed by current scientific, fiscal, and political pressures on the Mars program. Additionally, LDRIMS could potentially be flown to the Moon under the Discovery or New Frontiers program. We posit that in-situ geochronology missions to Mars to triage and validate samples for Mars Sample Return (MSR) are technically feasible in the 2018-2022 time frame.

  12. Rb-Sr dating of clay diagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    The Rb-Sr isotopic age method can be used to date a variety of post-depositional events related to the formation of diagenetic illite or the recrystallization of glauconite. Once these diagenetically-altered minerals have equilibrated with pore water, they appear to remain closed chemical systems under subsequent normal sedimentary conditions. Meaningful isotopic data from illite in shales are obtained only after separation of the coarse-grained, detrital illite from the fine-grained diagenetic illite, followed by removal of exchangeable Rb and Sr by a cation exchange reagent (NH/sub 4/OAc). Rb-Sr isochrons indicate that formation of diagenetic illite is a rapid, and therefore, datable geologic event. Illite from an Upper Aptian red mudstone (Hensel Fm.) in the Llano Uplift records an age of 118 +/- 4 m.y. The clays were likely derived from a local, deeply weathered Precambrian surface, suggestion that clays formed in ancient weathering zones can be used to determine the age of associated sediments. Glauconites from the Llano Uplift record four periods of recrystallization at 430, 350, 328, and 270-280 m.y. All the ages correlate with times of regional emergence. Isotopic values of stable oxygen are uniformly less positive than for Recent glauconite, suggesting that meteoric water has been instrumental in promoting recrystallization.

  13. Host range and cell cycle activation properties of polyomavirus large T-antigen mutants defective in pRB binding

    SciTech Connect

    Freund, R.; Bauer, P.H.; Benjamin, T.L.; Crissman, H.A.; Bradbury, E.M. |

    1994-11-01

    The authors have examined the growth properties of polyomavirus large T-antigen mutants that ar unable to bind pRB, the product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. These mutants grow poorly on primary mouse cells yet grow well on NIH 3T3 and other established mouse cell lines. Preinfection of primary baby mouse kidney (BMK) epithelial cells with wild-type simian virus 40 renders these cells permissive to growth of pRB-binding polyomavirus mutants. Conversely, NIH 3T3 cells transfected by and expressing wild-type human pRB become nonpermissive. Primary fibroblasts for mouse embryos that carry a homozygous knockout of the RB gene are permissive, while those from normal littermates are nonpermissive. The host range of polyomavirus pRB-binding mutants is thus determined by expression or lack of expression of functional pRB by the host. These results demonstrate the importance of pRB binding by large T antigen for productive viral infection in primary cells. Failure of pRB-binding mutants to grow well in BMK cells correlates with their failure to induce progression from G{sub 0} or G{sub 1} through the S phase of the cell cycle. Time course studies show delayed synthesis and lower levels of accumulation of large T antigen, viral DNA, and VP1 in mutant compared with wild-type virus-infected BMK cells. These results support a model in which productive infection by polyomavirus in normal mouse cells is tightly coupled to the induction and progression of the cell cycle. 48 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Selective disruption of rb-raf-1 kinase interaction inhibits pancreatic adenocarcinoma growth irrespective of gemcitabine sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Treviño, José G; Verma, Monika; Singh, Sandeep; Pillai, Smitha; Zhang, Dongyu; Pernazza, Daniele; Sebti, Said M; Lawrence, Nicholas J; Centeno, Barbara A; Chellappan, Srikumar P

    2013-12-01

    Inactivation of the retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor protein is widespread in human cancers. Inactivation of Rb is thought to be initiated by association with Raf-1 (C-Raf) kinase, and here we determined how RRD-251, a disruptor of the Rb-Raf-1 interaction, affects pancreatic tumor progression. Assessment of phospho-Rb levels in resected human pancreatic tumor specimens by immunohistochemistry (n = 95) showed that increased Rb phosphorylation correlated with increasing grade of resected human pancreatic adenocarcinomas (P = 0.0272), which correlated with reduced overall patient survival (P = 0.0186). To define the antitumor effects of RRD-251 (50 μmol/L), cell-cycle analyses, senescence, cell viability, cell migration, anchorage-independent growth, angiogenic tubule formation and invasion assays were conducted on gemcitabine-sensitive and -resistant pancreatic cancer cells. RRD-251 prevented S-phase entry, induced senescence and apoptosis, and inhibited anchorage-independent growth and invasion (P < 0.01). Drug efficacy on subcutaneous and orthotopic xenograft models was tested by intraperitoneal injections of RRD-251 (50 mg/kg) alone or in combination with gemcitabine (250 mg/kg). RRD-251 significantly reduced tumor growth in vivo accompanied by reduced Rb phosphorylation and lymph node and liver metastasis (P < 0.01). Combination of RRD-251 with gemcitabine showed cooperative effect on tumor growth (P < 0.01). In conclusion, disruption of the Rb-Raf-1 interaction significantly reduces the malignant properties of pancreatic cancer cells irrespective of their gemcitabine sensitivity. Selective targeting of Rb-Raf-1 interaction might be a promising strategy targeting pancreatic cancer.

  15. A Gynecologic Oncology Group Randomized Phase III Trial of Whole Abdominal Irradiation (WAI) vs Cisplatin-Ifosfamide and Mesna (CIM) as Post-Surgical Therapy in Stage I-IV Carcinosarcoma (CS) of the Uterus

    PubMed Central

    Wolfson, Aaron H.; Brady, Mark F.; Rocereto, Thomas; Mannel, Robert S.; Lee, Yi-Chun; Futoran, Robert J.; Cohn, David E.; Ioffe, Olga B.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE After initial surgery, there has been no established consensus regarding adjunctive therapy for patients with uterine carcinosarcoma (CS). This study was designed to compare patient outcome following treatment with adjuvant whole abdominal irradiation (WAI) versus (vs) chemotherapy for patients with this rare group of female pelvic malignancies. PATIENTS AND METHODS Eligible, consenting women with stage I-IV uterine CS, no more than 1 cm postsurgical residuum and/or no extra-abdominal spread had their treatments randomly assigned as either WAI or three cycles of cisplatin (C), ifosfamide (I), and mesna (M). RESULTS 232 patients were enrolled, of whom 206 (WAI=105; CIM=101) were deemed eligible. Patient demographics and characteristics were similar between arms. FIGO stage (both arms) was: I=64 (31%); II=26 (13%); III=92 (45%); IV=24 (12%). The estimated crude probability of recurring within 5 years was 58% (WAI) and 52% (CIM). Adjusting for stage and age, the recurrence rate was 21% lower for CIM patients than for WAI patients, (relative hazard [RH] = 0.789, 95% confidence interval [CI]: (0.530 –1.176), p = 0.245, 2-tail test). The estimated death rate was 29% lower among the CIM group (RH = 0.712, 95% CI: 0.484 – 1.048, p = 0.085, 2-tail test). CONCLUSION We did not find a statistically significant advantage in recurrence rate or survival for adjuvant CIM over WAI in patients with uterine CS. However, the observed differences favor the use of combination chemotherapy in future trials. PMID:17822748

  16. Rb regulates fate choice and lineage commitment in vivo.

    PubMed

    Calo, Eliezer; Quintero-Estades, Jose A; Danielian, Paul S; Nedelcu, Simona; Berman, Seth D; Lees, Jacqueline A

    2010-08-26

    Mutation of the retinoblastoma gene (RB1) tumour suppressor occurs in one-third of all human tumours and is particularly associated with retinoblastoma and osteosarcoma. Numerous functions have been ascribed to the product of the human RB1 gene, the retinoblastoma protein (pRb). The best known is pRb's ability to promote cell-cycle exit through inhibition of the E2F transcription factors and the transcriptional repression of genes encoding cell-cycle regulators. In addition, pRb has been shown in vitro to regulate several transcription factors that are master differentiation inducers. Depending on the differentiation factor and cellular context, pRb can either suppress or promote their transcriptional activity. For example, pRb binds to Runx2 and potentiates its ability to promote osteogenic differentiation in vitro. In contrast, pRb acts with E2F to suppress peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma subunit (PPAR-gamma), the master activator of adipogenesis. Because osteoblasts and adipocytes can both arise from mesenchymal stem cells, these observations suggest that pRb might play a role in the choice between these two fates. However, so far, there is no evidence for this in vivo. Here we use mouse models to address this hypothesis in mesenchymal tissue development and tumorigenesis. Our data show that Rb status plays a key role in establishing fate choice between bone and brown adipose tissue in vivo.

  17. Rb suppresses human cone-precursor-derived retinoblastoma tumours.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoliang L; Singh, Hardeep P; Wang, Lu; Qi, Dong-Lai; Poulos, Bradford K; Abramson, David H; Jhanwar, Suresh C; Cobrinik, David

    2014-10-16

    Retinoblastoma is a childhood retinal tumour that initiates in response to biallelic RB1 inactivation and loss of functional retinoblastoma (Rb) protein. Although Rb has diverse tumour-suppressor functions and is inactivated in many cancers, germline RB1 mutations predispose to retinoblastoma far more strongly than to other malignancies. This tropism suggests that retinal cell-type-specific circuitry sensitizes to Rb loss, yet the nature of the circuitry and the cell type in which it operates have been unclear. Here we show that post-mitotic human cone precursors are uniquely sensitive to Rb depletion. Rb knockdown induced cone precursor proliferation in prospectively isolated populations and in intact retina. Proliferation followed the induction of E2F-regulated genes, and depended on factors having strong expression in maturing cone precursors and crucial roles in retinoblastoma cell proliferation, including MYCN and MDM2. Proliferation of Rb-depleted cones and retinoblastoma cells also depended on the Rb-related protein p107, SKP2, and a p27 downregulation associated with cone precursor maturation. Moreover, Rb-depleted cone precursors formed tumours in orthotopic xenografts with histological features and protein expression typical of human retinoblastoma. These findings provide a compelling molecular rationale for a cone precursor origin of retinoblastoma. More generally, they demonstrate that cell-type-specific circuitry can collaborate with an initiating oncogenic mutation to enable tumorigenesis.

  18. Antiobesity and Antihyperglycemic Effects of Ginsenoside Rb1 in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Ye; Shen, Ling; Liu, Kristina J.; Tso, Patrick; Xiong, Yuqing; Wang, Guangji; Woods, Stephen C.; Liu, Min

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Obesity and type 2 diabetes are national and worldwide epidemics. Because currently available antiobesity and antidiabetic drugs have limited efficacy and/or safety concerns, identifying new medicinal agents, such as ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1) as reported here, offers exciting possibilities for future development of successful antiobesity and antidiabetic therapies. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Changes in feeding behavior after acute intraperitoneal administration of Rb1 and the effects of intraperitoneal Rb1 for 4 weeks on body weight, energy expenditure, and glucose tolerance in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats were assessed. We also examined the effects of Rb1 on signaling pathways and neuropeptides in the hypothalamus. RESULTS Acute intraperitoneal Rb1 dose-dependently suppressed food intake without eliciting signs of toxicity. This inhibitory effect on feeding may be mediated by central mechanisms because Rb1 stimulated c-Fos expression in brain areas involved in energy homeostasis. Consistent with this, Rb1 activated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway and inhibited NPY gene expression in the hypothalamus. Four-week administration of Rb1 significantly reduced food intake, body weight gain, and body fat content and increased energy expenditure in HFD-induced obese rats. Rb1 also significantly decreased fasting blood glucose and improved glucose tolerance, and these effects were greater than those observed in pair-fed rats, suggesting that although Rb1's antihyperglycemic effect is partially attributable to reduced food intake and body weight; there may be additional effects of Rb1 on glucose homeostasis. CONCLUSIONS These results identify Rb1 as an antiobesity and antihyperglycemic agent. PMID:20682695

  19. Mass spectrometry studies of fission product behavior: 2, Gas phase species

    SciTech Connect

    Blackburn, P.E.; Johnson, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    Revaporization of fission products from reactor system surfaces has become a complicating factor in source term definition. Critical to this phenomena is understanding the nature and behavior of the vapor phase species. This study characterizes the stability of the CsI . CsOH vapor phase complex. Vapor pressures were measured with a mass spectrometer. Thermodynamic data were obtained for CsOH(g), Cs/sub 2/(OH)/sub 2/(g), CsI(g), Cs/sub 2/I/sub 2/(g) and CsI . CsOH(g). Activity coefficients were derived for the CsI-CsOH system. The relative ionization cross section of CsOH is about ten times the cross section of CsI(g). CsI . CsOH fragments to Cs/sub 2/OH/sup +/ and an iodine atom. 17 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Magnetoencephalography with a Cs-based high-sensitivity compact atomic magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Jingwei; Wan, Shuangai; Sun, Yifan; Dou, Rongshe; Guo, Yuhao; Wei, Kequan; He, Kaiyan; Qin, Jie; Gao, Jia-Hong

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, substantial progress has been made in developing a new generation of magnetoencephalography (MEG) with a spin-exchange relaxation free (SERF)-based atomic magnetometer (AM). An AM employs alkali atoms to detect weak magnetic fields. A compact AM array with high sensitivity is crucial to the design; however, most proposed compact AMs are potassium (K)- or rubidium (Rb)-based with single beam configurations. In the present study, a pump-probe two beam configuration with a Cesium (Cs)-based AM (Cs-AM) is introduced to detect human neuronal magnetic fields. The length of the vapor cell is 4 mm, which can fully satisfy the need of designing a compact sensor array. Compared with state-of-the-art compact AMs, our new Cs-AM has two advantages. First, it can be operated in a SERF regime, requiring much lower heating temperature, which benefits the sensor with a closer distance to scalp due to ease of thermal insulation and less electric heating noise interference. Second, the two-beam configuration in the design can achieve higher sensitivity. It is free of magnetic modulation, which is necessary in one-beam AMs; however, such modulation may cause other interference in multi-channel circumstances. In the frequency band between 10 Hz and 30 Hz, the noise level of the proposed Cs-AM is approximately 10 f T/Hz(1/2), which is comparable with state-of-the-art K- or Rb-based compact AMs. The performance of the Cs-AM was verified by measuring human auditory evoked fields (AEFs) in reference to commercial superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) channels. By using a Cs-AM, we observed a clear peak in AEFs around 100 ms (M100) with a much larger amplitude compared with that of a SQUID, and the temporal profiles of the two devices were in good agreement. The results indicate the possibility of using the compact Cs-AM for MEG recordings, and the current Cs-AM has the potential to be designed for multi-sensor arrays and gradiometers for future neuroscience

  1. Magnetoencephalography with a Cs-based high-sensitivity compact atomic magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Jingwei; Wan, Shuangai; Sun, Yifan; Dou, Rongshe; Guo, Yuhao; Wei, Kequan; He, Kaiyan; Qin, Jie; Gao, Jia-Hong

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, substantial progress has been made in developing a new generation of magnetoencephalography (MEG) with a spin-exchange relaxation free (SERF)-based atomic magnetometer (AM). An AM employs alkali atoms to detect weak magnetic fields. A compact AM array with high sensitivity is crucial to the design; however, most proposed compact AMs are potassium (K)- or rubidium (Rb)-based with single beam configurations. In the present study, a pump-probe two beam configuration with a Cesium (Cs)-based AM (Cs-AM) is introduced to detect human neuronal magnetic fields. The length of the vapor cell is 4 mm, which can fully satisfy the need of designing a compact sensor array. Compared with state-of-the-art compact AMs, our new Cs-AM has two advantages. First, it can be operated in a SERF regime, requiring much lower heating temperature, which benefits the sensor with a closer distance to scalp due to ease of thermal insulation and less electric heating noise interference. Second, the two-beam configuration in the design can achieve higher sensitivity. It is free of magnetic modulation, which is necessary in one-beam AMs; however, such modulation may cause other interference in multi-channel circumstances. In the frequency band between 10 Hz and 30 Hz, the noise level of the proposed Cs-AM is approximately 10 f T/Hz1/2, which is comparable with state-of-the-art K- or Rb-based compact AMs. The performance of the Cs-AM was verified by measuring human auditory evoked fields (AEFs) in reference to commercial superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) channels. By using a Cs-AM, we observed a clear peak in AEFs around 100 ms (M100) with a much larger amplitude compared with that of a SQUID, and the temporal profiles of the two devices were in good agreement. The results indicate the possibility of using the compact Cs-AM for MEG recordings, and the current Cs-AM has the potential to be designed for multi-sensor arrays and gradiometers for future neuroscience

  2. Rb selectively inhibits innate IFN-β production by enhancing deacetylation of IFN-β promoter through HDAC1 and HDAC8.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jun; Liu, Xingguang; Zhang, Peng; Li, Dong; Xu, Sheng; Zhou, Qingqing; Guo, Meng; Huai, Wanwan; Chen, Xiang; Wang, Quanxing; Li, Nan; Cao, Xuetao

    2016-09-01

    Type I IFN production is tightly controlled by host to generate efficient viral clearance without harmful immunopathology or induction of autoimmune disorders. Epigenetic regulation of type I IFN production in innate immunity and inflammatory disorders remains to be fully understood. Several tumor suppressors have been shown to regulate immune response and inflammation. However, the non-classical functions of tumor suppressors in innate immunity and inflammatory diseases need further identification. Here we report retinoblastoma protein (Rb) deficiency selectively enhanced TLR- and virus-triggered production of IFN-β which thus induced more IFN-α generation in the later phase of innate stimuli, but had no effect on the production of TNF, IL-6 and early phase IFN-α in macrophages. Rb1(fl/fl)Lyz2cre(+) Rb-deficient mice exhibited more resistant to lethal virus infection and more effective clearance of influenza virus. Rb selectively bound Ifnb1 enhancer region, but not the promoter of Ifna4, Tnf and Il6, by interacting with c-Jun, the component of IFN-β enhanceosome. Then Rb recruited HDAC1 and HDAC8 to attenuate acetylation of Histone H3/H4 in Ifnb1 promoter, resulting in suppression of Ifnb1 transcription. Therefore, Rb selectively inhibits innate IFN-β production by enhancing deacetylation of Ifnb1 promoter, exhibiting a previous unknown non-classical role in innate immunity, which also suggests a role of Rb in the regulation of type I IFN production in inflammatory or autoimmune diseases.

  3. Infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy of cationized histidine: effects of metal cation size on gas-phase conformation.

    PubMed

    Citir, Murat; Hinton, Christopher S; Oomens, Jos; Steill, Jeffrey D; Armentrout, P B

    2012-02-16

    The gas phase structures of cationized histidine (His), including complexes with Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Rb(+), and Cs(+), are examined by infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectroscopy utilizing light generated by a free electron laser, in conjunction with quantum chemical calculations. To identify the structures present in the experimental studies, measured IRMPD spectra are compared to spectra calculated at B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) (Li(+), Na(+), and K(+) complexes) and B3LYP/HW*/6-311+G(d,p) (Rb(+) and Cs(+) complexes) levels of theory, where HW* indicates that the Hay-Wadt effective core potential with additional polarization functions was used on the metals. Single point energy calculations were carried out at the B3LYP, B3P86, and MP2(full) levels using the 6-311+G(2d,2p) basis set. On the basis of these experiments and calculations, the only conformation that reproduces the IRMPD action spectra for the complexes of the smaller alkali metal cations, Li(+)(His) and Na(+)(His), is a charge-solvated, tridentate structure where the metal cation binds to the backbone carbonyl oxygen, backbone amino nitrogen, and nitrogen atom of the imidazole side chain, [CO,N(α),N(1)], in agreement with the predicted ground states of these complexes. Spectra of the larger alkali metal cation complexes, K(+)(His), Rb(+)(His), and Cs(+)(His), have very similar spectral features that are considerably more complex than the IRMPD spectra of Li(+)(His) and Na(+)(His). For these complexes, the bidentate [CO,N(1)] conformer in which the metal cation binds to the backbone carbonyl oxygen and nitrogen atom of the imidazole side chain is a dominant contributor, although features associated with the tridentate [CO,N(α),N(1)] conformer remain, and those for the [COOH] conformer are also clearly present. Theoretical results for Rb(+)(His) and Cs(+)(His) indicate that both [CO,N(1)] and [COOH] conformers are low-energy structures, with different levels of theory predicting different

  4. CS2SAT Desktop Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2006-03-15

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed a Control System Cyber Security Self-Assessment Tool (CS2SAT) desktop tool that provides a repeatable and systematic approach for control system users to assess the cyber security posture of their control system networks. The tool assists users in identifying the cyber security parameters of their systems and then offers security objectives, in the form of requirements, for improving the security of their specific network. Each requirement is linked to a series of associated recommendations for compliance dependent upon the desired level of security protection. Each requirement is supported by links to the original standards document and recommendations are supported by links to whitepapers and other help documents. Package also includes two back-end supporting codes: CS2SAT Requirements Matrix and Control System Security Information System.

  5. 87Rb NMR and the T' problem in Rb3C60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, G.; Thier, K.-F.; Mehring, M.; Rachdi, F.; Fischer, J. E.

    1996-03-01

    87Rb NMR was used to investigate the appearance and disappearance of the T' line in Rb3C60. One-dimensional and two-dimensional experiments together with T-12 relaxation data reveal an exchange process only between T and T' lines with an activation energy of 580 meV. Different models are discussed in order to explain the data by orientational disorder, vacancy diffusion, and the off-center position of O sites as well as C 3-60 reorientations.

  6. ITER CS Intermodule Support Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Myatt, R.; Freudenberg, Kevin D

    2011-01-01

    With five independently driven, bi-polarity power supplies, the modules of the ITER central solenoid (CS) can be energized in aligned or opposing field directions. This sets up the possibility for repelling modules, which indeed occurs, particularly between CS2L and CS3L around the End of Burn (EOB) time point. Light interface compression between these two modules at EOB and wide variations in these coil currents throughout the pulse produce a tendency for relative motion or slip. Ideally, the slip is purely radial as the modules breathe without any accumulative translational motion. In reality, however, asymmetries such as nonuniformity in intermodule friction, lateral loads from a plasma Vertical Disruption Event (VDE), magnetic forces from manufacturing and assembly tolerances, and earthquakes can all contribute to a combination of radial and lateral module motion. This paper presents 2D and 3D, nonlinear, ANSYS models which simulate these various asymmetries and determine the lateral forces which must be carried by the intermodule structure. Summing all of these asymmetric force contributions leads to a design-basis lateral load which is used in the design of various support concepts: the CS-CDR centering rings and a variation, the 2001 FDR baseline radial keys, and interlocking castles structures. Radial key-type intermodule structure interface slip and stresses are tracked through multiple 15 MA scenario current pulses to demonstrate stable motion following the first few cycles. Detractions and benefits of each candidate intermodule structure are discussed, leading to the simplest and most robust configuration which meets the design requirements: match-drilled radial holes and pin-shaped keys.

  7. Redeployment of Myc and E2f1-3 drives Rb deficient cell cycles

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huayang; Tang, Xing; Srivastava, Arunima; Pécot, Thierry; Daniel, Piotr; Hemmelgarn, Benjamin; Reyes, Stephan; Fackler, Nicholas; Bajwa, Amneet; Kladney, Raleigh; Koivisto, Christopher; Chen, Zhong; Wang, Qianben; Huang, Kun; Machiraju, Raghu; Sáenz-Robles, Maria Teresa; Cantalupo, Paul; Pipas, James M.; Leone, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Robust mechanisms to control cell proliferation have evolved to maintain the integrity of organ architecture. Here, we investigated how two critical proliferative pathways, Myc and E2f, are integrated to control cell cycles in normal and Rb deficient cells using a murine intestinal model. We show that Myc and E2f1-3 have little impact on normal G1-S transitions. Instead, they synergistically control an S-G2 transcriptional program required for normal cell divisions and maintaining crypt-villus integrity. Surprisingly, Rb deficiency results in the Myc-dependent accumulation of E2f3 protein and chromatin repositioning of both Myc and E2f3, leading to the ‘super activation’ of a G1-S transcriptional program, ectopic S phase entry and rampant cell proliferation. These findings reveal that Rb deficient cells hijack and redeploy Myc and E2f3 from an S-G2 program essential for normal cell cycles to a G1-S program that re-engages ectopic cell cycles, exposing an unanticipated addiction of Rb-null cells on Myc. PMID:26192440

  8. Conditional Mutation of Rb Causes Cell Cycle Defects without Apoptosis in the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    MacPherson, D.; Sage, J.; Crowley, D.; Trumpp, A.; Bronson, R. T.; Jacks, T.

    2003-01-01

    Targeted disruption of the retinoblastoma gene in mice leads to embryonic lethality in midgestation accompanied by defective erythropoiesis. Rb−/− embryos also exhibit inappropriate cell cycle activity and apoptosis in the central nervous system (CNS), peripheral nervous system (PNS), and ocular lens. Loss of p53 can prevent the apoptosis in the CNS and lens; however, the specific signals leading to p53 activation have not been determined. Here we test the hypothesis that hypoxia caused by defective erythropoiesis in Rb-null embryos contributes to p53-dependent apoptosis. We show evidence of hypoxia in CNS tissue from Rb−/− embryos. The Cre-loxP system was then used to generate embryos in which Rb was deleted in the CNS, PNS and lens, in the presence of normal erythropoiesis. In contrast to the massive CNS apoptosis in Rb-null embryos at embryonic day 13.5 (E13.5), conditional mutants did not have elevated apoptosis in this tissue. There was still significant apoptosis in the PNS and lens, however. Rb−/− cells in the CNS, PNS, and lens underwent inappropriate S-phase entry in the conditional mutants at E13.5. By E18.5, conditional mutants had increased brain size and weight as well as defects in skeletal muscle development. These data support a model in which hypoxia is a necessary cofactor in the death of CNS neurons in the developing Rb mutant embryo. PMID:12529408

  9. Heterogeneous photo-catalysis system for the degradation of azo dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5).

    PubMed

    Huang, Yao-Hui; Wei, Hau-Cheng; Chen, Hung-Ta

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated a heterogeneous photo-catalysis system by introducing a novel brick supported iron oxide (denoted as B1) for the heterogeneous photoassisted degradation of Reactive Black 5 (RB5) at pH value from 3 to 7 in a three-phase (gas-liquid-solid) fluidized bed reactor (3P-FBR). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and N(2) adsorption/desorption were used to characterize the B1 catalyst. The in situ formation of hydrogen peroxide and the depletion of oxalic acid by photochemical cycle of Fe(III)-oxalate complex under UVA light (λ = 365 nm) were studied. The effects of the solution pH and the concentration of oxalic acid on the degradation of RB5 are elucidated. About 90% decolourization was measured and 80% of the total organic carbon (TOC) was eliminated at pH 5.0 after 120 min for 20 mg/L RB5 in presence of 10 g/L B1 catalyst, 30 mg/L oxalic acid under 15 W UVA light. A mechanism for the photocatalytic degradation of RB5 over B1 catalyst is proposed.

  10. Optimal High-TC Superconductivity in Cs3C60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harshman, Dale; Fiory, Anthony

    The highest superconducting transition temperatures in the (A1-xBx)3C60 superconducting family are seen in the A15 and FCC structural phases of Cs3C60 (optimized under hydrostatic pressure), exhibiting measured values for near-stoichiometric samples of TC0 meas . = 37.8 K and 35.7 K, respectively. It is argued these two Cs-intercalated C60 compounds represent the optimal materials of their respective structures, with superconductivity originating from Coulombic e- h interactions between the C60 molecules, which host the n-type superconductivity, and mediating holes associated with the Cs cations. A variation of the interlayer Coulombic pairing model [Harshman and Fiory, J. Supercond. Nov. Magn. 28 ̲, 2967 (2015), and references therein] is introduced in which TC0 calc . ~ 1 / lζ , where l relates to the mean spacing between interacting charges on surfaces of the C60 molecules, and ζ is the average radial distance between the surface of the C60 molecules and the neighboring Cs cations. For stoichiometric Cs3C60, TC0 calc . = 38.08 K and 35.67 K for the A15 and FCC macrostructures, respectively; the dichotomy is attributable to differences in ζ.

  11. Encapsulation of Cs/Sr contaminated clinoptilolite in geopolymers produced from metakaolin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuenzel, C.; Cisneros, J. F.; Neville, T. P.; Vandeperre, L. J.; Simons, S. J. R.; Bensted, J.; Cheeseman, C. R.

    2015-11-01

    The encapsulation of caesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) contaminated clinoptilolite in Na and K based metakaolin geopolymers is reported. When Cs or Sr loaded clinoptilolite is mixed with a metakaolin geopolymer paste, the high pH of the activating solution and the high concentration of ions in solution cause ion exchange reactions and dissolution of clinoptilolite with release of Cs and Sr into the geopolymer matrix. The leaching of Cs and Sr from metakaolin-based geopolymer has therefore been investigated. It was found that Na-based geopolymers reduce leaching of Cs compared to K-based geopolymers and the results are in agreement with the hard and soft acids and bases (HSAB) theory. Cs ions are weak Lewis acids and aluminates are a weak Lewis base. During the formation of the geopolymer matrix Cs ions are preferentially bound to aluminate phases and replace Na in the geopolymer structure. Sr uptake by Na-geopolymers is limited to 0.4 mol Sr per mole of Al and any additional Sr is immobilised by the high pH which causes precipitation of Sr as low solubility hydroxide and carbonate phases. There was no evidence of any other phases being formed when Sr or Cs are added to metakaolin geopolymers.

  12. Synthesis and properties of zirconium-doped RbTiOPO{sub 4} single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Agapova, E. I.; Voronkova, V. I. Kharitonova, E. P.; Leont'eva, I. N.; Stefanovich, S. Yu.; Sorokina, N. I.; Dudka, A. P.; Alekseeva, O. A.; Kononkova, N. N.

    2008-03-15

    Single crystals of the solid solutions RbTi{sub 1-x}Zr{sub x}OPO{sub 4} (0.015 < x < 0.034) were grown and their physical properties were studied. In the presence of zirconium in the crystals with the maximum content x = 0.034, the ferroelectric phase transition and the high-temperature transition from the orthorhombic to the cubic phase are shifted to lower temperatures by 100 and 50 Degree-Sign C, respectively. In the temperature range from 700 Degree-Sign C to room temperature, the conductivity of doped crystals decreases compared to that of the undoped crystals. It is of particular interest that the intensity of the second-harmonic generation of the doped crystals is substantially higher than that of RbTiOPO{sub 4}.

  13. Water-resistant, monodispersed and stably luminescent CsPbBr3/CsPb2Br5 core-shell like structure lead halide perovskite nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Bo; Song, Pengjie; Cao, Jingyue; Zhao, Suling; Shen, Zhaohui; Gao, Di; Liang, Zhiqin; Xu, Zheng; Song, Dandan; Xu, Xurong

    2017-08-30

    Lead halide perovskite materials are blooming for optoelectronic applications due to their excellent properties, while their instability due to their extreme ease for hydrolysis is still a bottleneck for their potential applications. In this work, water-resistant, monodispersed and stably luminescent cesium lead bromine perovskite nanocrystals coated with CsPb2Br5 were obtained with modified non-stoichiometric solution-phase method. CsPb2Br5 2D layers coated on the surface of CsPbBr3 nanocrystals and formed core-shell like structure in the synthetic processes. The stability of luminescence of CsPbBr3 nanocrystals in water and ethanol atmosphere was greatly enhanced by the PL-inactive CsPb2Br5-coating with wide bandgap. The water-stable-enhanced NCs pave a pathway for more stable QLED applications and even biological fluorescence detection applications. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  14. TGF{beta}-mediated formation of pRb-E2F complexes in human myeloid leukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Xiaotang

    2008-05-02

    TGF{beta} is well known for its inhibitory effect on cell cycle G1 checkpoint kinases. However, its role in the control of pRb-E2F complexes is not well established. TGF{beta} inhibits phosphorylation of pRb at several serine and threonine residues and regulates the association of E2F transcription factors with pRb family proteins. Recent studies found that predominantly E2F-4, p130, and histone deacetylase (HDAC) are found to bind to corresponding E2F-responsive promoters in G0/G1 phase. As cells progress through mid-G1, p130-E2F4 complex are replaced by p107-E2F4 followed by activators E2F1, 2, and 3. pRb was not detectable in the promoters containing the E2F-responsive site in cycling cells but was associated with E2F4-p130 complexes or E2F4-p107 complexes during G0/G1 phase. In human myeloid leukemia cell line, MV4-11, TGF{beta} upregulated pRb-E2F-4 and p130-E2F-4, and downregulated p107-E2F-4 complexes. However, pRB-E2F1 and pRb-E2F3 complexes were found in proliferating cells but not in TGF{beta} arrested G1 cells. In addition, electrophoretic gel mobility shift assay (EMSA) could not detect pRb-E2F DNA-binding activities either in S or G1 phase but exhibited the existence of p107-E2F4 in proliferating cells and p130-E2F4 complexes in TGF{beta}-arrested G1 cells, respectively. Our data suggest that p107 and p130, but not pRb, and the repressor E2F, but not activator E2Fs, play a critical role in regulating E2F-responsive gene expression in TGF{beta}-mediated cell cycle control in human myeloid leukemia cells.

  15. Dual Hg-Rb magneto-optical trap.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, Marcin; Nagórny, Bartłomiej; Munoz-Rodriguez, Rodolfo; Ciuryło, Roman; Żuchowski, Piotr Szymon; Bilicki, Sławomir; Piotrowski, Marcin; Morzyński, Piotr; Zawada, Michał

    2017-02-20

    We present a two-species laser cooling apparatus capable of simultaneously collecting Rb and Hg atomic gases into a magneto-optical trap (MOT). The atomic sources, laser system, and vacuum set-up are described. While there is a loss of Rb atoms in the MOT due to photoionization by the Hg cooling laser, we show that it does not prevent simultaneous trapping of Rb and Hg. We also demonstrate interspecies collision-induced losses in the 87Rb-202Hg system.

  16. Quorum Sensing Activity in Pandoraea pnomenusa RB38

    PubMed Central

    Ee, Robson; Lim, Yan-Lue; Kin, Lin-Xin; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-01-01

    Strain RB38 was recovered from a former dumping area in Malaysia. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and genomic analysis identified strain RB-38 as Pandoraea pnomenusa. Various biosensors confirmed its quorum sensing properties. High resolution triple quadrupole liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis was subsequently used to characterize the N-acyl homoserine lactone production profile of P. pnomenusa strain RB38, which validated that this isolate produced N-octanoyl homoserine lactone as a quorum sensing molecule. This is the first report of the production of N-octanoyl homoserine lactone by P. pnomenusa strain RB38. PMID:24919016

  17. Quorum sensing activity in Pandoraea pnomenusa RB38.

    PubMed

    Ee, Robson; Lim, Yan-Lue; Kin, Lin-Xin; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-06-10

    Strain RB38 was recovered from a former dumping area in Malaysia. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and genomic analysis identified strain RB-38 as Pandoraea pnomenusa. Various biosensors confirmed its quorum sensing properties. High resolution triple quadrupole liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was subsequently used to characterize the N-acyl homoserine lactone production profile of P. pnomenusa strain RB38, which validated that this isolate produced N-octanoyl homoserine lactone as a quorum sensing molecule. This is the first report of the production of N-octanoyl homoserine lactone by P. pnomenusa strain RB38.

  18. Dual Hg-Rb magneto-optical trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witkowski, Marcin; Nagórny, Bartłomiej; Munoz-Rodriguez, Rodolfo; Ciuryło, Roman; Żuchowski, Piotr Szymon; Bilicki, Sławomir; Piotrowski, Marcin; Morzyński, Piotr; Zawada, Michał

    2017-02-01

    We present a two-species laser cooling apparatus capable of simultaneously collecting Rb and Hg atomic gases into a magneto-optical trap (MOT). The atomic sources, laser system, and vacuum set-up are described. While there is a loss of Rb atoms in the MOT due to photoionization by the Hg cooling laser, we show that it does not prevent simultaneous trapping of Rb and Hg. We also demonstrate interspecies collision-induced losses in the ${}^{87}$Rb-${}^{202}$Hg system.

  19. RB tumor suppressive function in response to xenobiotic hepatocarcinogens.

    PubMed

    Reed, Christopher; Hutcheson, Jack; Mayhew, Christopher N; Witkiewicz, Agnieszka K; Knudsen, Erik S

    2014-06-01

    Diverse etiologic events are associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. During hepatocarcinogenesis, genetic events likely occur that subsequently cooperate with long-term exposures to further drive the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, the frequent loss of the retinoblastoma (RB) tumor suppressor in hepatocellular carcinoma was modeled in response to diverse hepatic stresses. Loss of RB did not significantly affect the response to a steatotic stress as driven by a methionine- and choline-deficient diet. In addition, RB status did not significantly influence the response to peroxisome proliferators that can drive hepatomegaly and tumor development in rodents. However, RB loss exhibited a highly significant effect on the response to the xenobiotic1,4-Bis-[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)] benzene. Loss of RB yielded a unique proliferative response to this agent, which was distinct from both regenerative stresses and genotoxic carcinogens. Long-term exposure to 1,4-Bis-[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)] benzene yielded profound tumor development in RB-deficient livers that was principally absent in RB-sufficient tissue. These data demonstrate the context specificity of RB and the key role RB plays in the suppression of hepatocellular carcinoma driven by xenobiotic stress.

  20. Rb regulates fate choice and lineage commitment in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Calo, Eliezer; Quintero-Estades, Jose A.; Danielian, Paul S.; Nedelcu, Simona; Berman, Seth D.; Lees, Jacqueline A.

    2010-01-01

    Mutation of the RB-1 tumour suppressor occurs in one third of all human tumours and is particularly associated with retinoblastoma and osteosarcoma1. Numerous functions have been ascribed to the product of the human RB-1 gene, pRB. The best known is pRB’s ability to promote cell cycle exit through inhibition of the E2F transcription factors and the transcriptional repression of genes encoding cell cycle regulators1. In addition, pRB has been shown in vitro to regulate several transcription factors that are master differentiation inducers2. Depending on the differentiation factor and cellular context, pRB can either suppress or promote their transcriptional activity. For example, pRB binds to Runx2 and potentiates its ability to promote osteogenic differentiation program in vitro3. In contrast, pRB acts together with E2F to suppress PPARγ, the master activator of adipogenesis4,5. Since osteoblasts and adipocytes can both arise from mesenchymal stem cells, these observations suggest that pRB might play a role in the choice between these two fates. However, to date, there is no evidence for this in vivo. Here we use mouse models to address this hypothesis in the context of mesenchymal tissue development and tumorigenesis. Our data show that Rb status plays a key role in establishing fate choice between bone and brown adipose tissue in vivo. PMID:20686481

  1. Selective Chemosensitization of Rb Mutant Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-07-01

    3 jopaA o E +•» to o ü 2 3 O) U. Vt3*> OOCd» Vl.3» (0 O CM ll I S j 41 • A I O O) Di (0 o CM • o 00 CO Q. o o Q. Ö...Rb) protein, and inac- tivation of both is essential for viral transformation (Lane and Crawford 1979; Linzer and Levine 1979; De- Caprio et al...wild-type MEFs expressing El A dis - played an ~10-fold increase in p53 and Mdm2 levels as compared to their ARF-deficient counterparts, the abso

  2. Selective Chemosensitization of Rb Mutant Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-07-01

    examined the ability of each E1A mutant to induce p53. Cells expressing full-length E1A dis - played a 20- to 30-fold increase in steady-state p53...retinoblastoma (Rb) protein, and inac- tivation of both is essential for viral transformation (Lane and Crawford 1979; Linzer and Levine 1979; De- Caprio et al...Western blotting. Despite the fact that wild-type MEFs expressing El A dis - played an -10-fold increase in p53 and Mdm2 levels as compared to their Ai?F

  3. Thermodynamic studies on Cs 4U 5O 17(s) and Cs 2U 2O 7(s) by emf and calorimetric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayanthi, K.; Iyer, V. S.; Venugopal, V.

    1997-12-01

    The oxygen potentials over the phase field: Cs 4U 5O 17(s)+Cs 2U 2O 7(s)+Cs 2U 4O 12(s) was determined by measuring the emf values between 1048 and 1206 K using a solid oxide electrolyte galvanic cell. The oxygen potential existing over the phase field for a given temperature can be represented by: Δ μ(O 2) (kJ/mol) (±0.5)=-272.0+0.207 T (K). The differential thermal analysis showed that Cs 4U 5O 17(s) is stable in air up to 1273 K. The molar Gibbs energy formation of Cs 4U 5O 17(s) was calculated from the above oxygen potentials and can be given by, Δ fG0 (kJ/mol)±6=-7729+1.681 T (K). The enthalpy measurements on Cs 4U 5O 17(s) and Cs 2U 2O 7(s) were carried out from 368.3 to 905 K and 430 to 852 K respectively, using a high temperature Calvet calorimeter. The enthalpy increments, ( H0T- H0298), in J/mol for Cs 4U 5O 17(s) and Cs 2U 2O 7(s) can be represented by, H0T- H0298.15 (Cs 4U 5O 17) kJ/mol±0.9=-188.221+0.518 T (K)+0.433×10 -3T2 (K)-2.052×10 -5T3 (K) (368 to 905 K) and H0T- H0298.15 (Cs 2U 2O 7) kJ/mol±0.5=-164.210+0.390 T (K)+0.104×10 -4T2 (K)+0.140×10 5(1/ T (K)) (411 to 860 K). The thermal properties of Cs 4U 5O 17(s) and Cs 2U 2O 7(s) were derived from the experimental values. The enthalpy of formation of (Cs 4U 5O 17, s) at 298.15 K was calculated by the second law method and is: Δ fH0298.15=-7645.0±4.2 kJ/mol.

  4. Transfer kinetics and coefficients of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 134}Cs, and {sup 137}Cs from forage contaminated by Chernobyl fallout to milk of cows

    SciTech Connect

    Fabbri, S.; Sogni, R.; Lusardi, E.

    1994-04-01

    A experiment was conducted to study kinetics, transfer coefficients, and biological half-lives of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 134}Cs, and {sup 137}Cs from feed to milk. A cow was fed a diet containing alfalfa hay contaminated by Chernobyl fallout for 14.5 wk. The time-dependent activity in milk was approximated by a two-compartment model with fast biological half-lives of 2, 0.9, and 1 d and slow biological half-lives of 36.9, 8.7, and 12.4 d for {sup 90}Sr, {sup 134}Cs, and {sup 137}Cs respectively. The transfer coefficients determined in the experiment were 0.0008 d L{sup -1} for {sup 90}Sr, 0.0029 d L{sup -1} for {sup 137}Cs, and 0.0031 d L{sup -1} for {sup 137}Cs. The biological elimination phases of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs were described by a two-compartment model while a one-compartment model was proposed for {sup 90}Sr. 18 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Solid-phase epitaxy of silicon amorphized by implantation of the alkali elements rubidium and cesium

    SciTech Connect

    Maier, R.; Haeublein, V.; Ryssel, H.; Voellm, H.; Feili, D.; Seidel, H.; Frey, L.

    2012-11-06

    The redistribution of implanted Rb and Cs profiles in amorphous silicon during solid-phase epitaxial recrystallization has been investigated by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy. For the implantation dose used in these experiments, the alkali atoms segregate at the a-Si/c-Si interface during annealing resulting in concentration peaks near the interface. In this way, the alkali atoms are moved towards the surface. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy in ion channeling configuration was performed to measure average recrystallization rates of the amorphous silicon layers. Preliminary studies on the influence of the alkali atoms on the solid-phase epitaxial regrowth rate reveal a strong retardation compared to the intrinsic recrystallization rate.

  6. Identification of the genomic mutation in Epha4(rb-2J/rb-2J) mice.

    PubMed

    Mohd-Zin, Siti W; Abdullah, Nor-Linda; Abdullah, Aminah; Greene, Nicholas D E; Cheah, Pike-See; Ling, King-Hwa; Yusof, Hadri; Marwan, Ahmed I; Williams, Sarah M; York, Kerri T; Ahmad-Annuar, Azlina; Abdul-Aziz, Noraishah M

    2016-07-01

    The EphA4 receptor tyrosine kinase is involved in numerous cell-signalling activities during embryonic development. EphA4 has the ability to bind to both types of ephrin ligands, the ephrinAs and ephrinBs. The C57BL/6J-Epha4rb-2J/GrsrJ strain, denoted Epha4(rb-2J/rb-2J), is a spontaneous mouse mutant that arose at The Jackson Laboratory. These mutants exhibited a synchronous hind limb locomotion defect or "hopping gait" phenotype, which is also characteristic of EphA4 null mice. Genetic complementation experiments suggested that Epha4(rb-2J) corresponds to an allele of EphA4, but details of the genomic defect in this mouse mutant are currently unavailable. We found a single base-pair deletion in exon 9 resulting in a frame shift mutation that subsequently resulted in a premature stop codon. Analysis of the predicted structure of the truncated protein suggests that both the kinase and sterile α motif (SAM) domains are absent. Definitive determination of genotype is needed for experimental studies of mice carrying the Epha4(rb-2J) allele, and we have also developed a method to ease detection of the mutation through RFLP. Eph-ephrin family members are reportedly expressed as numerous isoforms. Hence, delineation of the specific mutation in EphA4 in this strain is important for further functional studies, such as protein-protein interactions, immunostaining and gene compensatory studies, investigating the mechanism underlying the effects of altered function of Eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases on phenotype.

  7. Antiferromagnetic resonance in the Mott insulator fcc-Cs3C60.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yuta; Shibasaki, Seiji; Kubozono, Yoshihiro; Kambe, Takashi

    2013-09-11

    The magnetic ground state of the fcc phase of the Mott insulator Cs3C60 was studied using a low-temperature electron spin resonance technique, and antiferromagnetic resonance (AFMR) below 1.57 K was directly observed at ambient pressure. The AFMR modes for the fcc phase of Cs3C60 were investigated using a conventional two-sublattice model with uniaxial anisotropy, and the spin-flop field was determined to be 4.7 kOe at 1.57 K. The static magnetic exchange interactions and anisotropy field for fcc-Cs3C60 were also estimated.

  8. Upper Cenozoic basalts with high Sr-87/Sr-86 and Sr/Rb ratios, southern Great Basin, western United States.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedge, C. E.; Noble, D. C.

    1971-01-01

    The initial strontium isotopic composition of 15 mafic volcanic rocks from the southern Great Basin has been determined. Results indicate that the basalts must have been derived from unusual mantle material in which an originally high Rb/Sr ratio was markedly lowered during an earlier phase of magmatic activity.

  9. Cs sorption by "soluble" and "insoluble" iron hexacyanocobaltates probed by Mössbauer spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rykov, A. I.; Wang, J.; Zhang, T.; Nomura, K.

    2013-04-01

    Efficient sorbents of radiocesium are essential for purifying the radioactive contaminated wastewaters and soils. Cyanometallates analogous of Prussian Blue possess a very high sorption capacity and selectivity for Cs. Aiming to explore the mechanisms of Cs fixation in cobalticyanides our study focuses on the Mössbauer spectra in cesium-embedding ferrous hexacyanocobaltates prepared by three different routes: the precipitation of CsFe[Co(CN)6], ion exchange of K for Cs in "soluble" KFe[Cs(CN)6] and Cs intercalation into "insoluble" porous Fe[Cs(CN)6]2/3. The Cs capture is accompanied by removal of anionic vacancies and densifying the porous framework that is seen in Mössbauer spectra through increasing the population of the Fe2+ species enclosed into FeN6 octahedra. The number of water molecules coordinating to iron, on average, decreases. This leads to reduction of the asymmetry in distribution of the Fe2 + valence electron over d-orbitals and reduces also the valence term of electric field gradient. An exception to this rule applies where recrystallization is prevented during the Cs intrusion into existing dense phase at low temperature.

  10. Topologically identical, but geometrically isomeric layers in hydrous α-, β-Rb[UO{sub 2}(AsO{sub 3}OH)(AsO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2})]·H{sub 2}O and anhydrous Rb[UO{sub 2}(AsO{sub 3}OH)(AsO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2})

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Na; Klepov, Vladislav V.; Villa, Eric M.; Bosbach, Dirk; Suleimanov, Evgeny V.; Depmeier, Wulf; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.; Alekseev, Evgeny V.

    2014-07-01

    The hydrothermal reaction of uranyl nitrate with rubidium nitrate and arsenic (III) oxide results in the formation of polymorphic α- and β-Rb[UO{sub 2}(AsO{sub 3}OH)(AsO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2})]·H{sub 2}O (α-, β-RbUAs) and the anhydrous phase Rb[UO{sub 2}(AsO{sub 3}OH)(AsO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2})] (RbUAs). These phases were structurally, chemically and spectroscopically characterized. The structures of all three compounds are based upon topologically identical, but geometrically isomeric layers. The layers are linked with each other by means of the Rb cations and hydrogen bonding. Dehydration experiments demonstrate that water deintercalation from hydrous α- and β-RbUAs yields anhydrous RbUAs via topotactic reactions. - Graphical abstract: Three different layer geometries observed in the structures of Rb[UO{sub 2}(AsO{sub 3}OH)(AsO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2})] and α- and β- Rb[UO{sub 2}(AsO{sub 3}OH)(AsO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2})]·H{sub 2}O. Two different coordination environments of uranium polyhedra (types I and II) are shown schematically on the top of the figure. - Highlights: • Three new uranyl arsenates were synthesized from the hydrothermal reactions. • The phases consist of the topologically identical but geometrically different layers. • Topotactic transitions were observed in the processes of mono-hyrates dehydration.

  11. Involvement of retinoblastoma (Rb) and E2F transcription factors during photodynamic therapy of human epidermoid carcinoma cells A431.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, N; Gupta, S; Mukhtar, H

    1999-03-11

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT), a promising new therapeutic modality for the management of a variety of solid malignancies and many non-malignant diseases, is a bimodal therapy using a porphyrin based photosensitizing chemical and visible light. The proper understanding of the mechanism of PDT-mediated cancer cell-kill may result in improving the efficacy of this treatment modality. Earlier we have shown (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA; 95: 6977-6982, 1998) that silicon phthalocyanine (Pc4)-PDT results in an induction of the cyclin kinase inhibitor WAF1/CIP1/p21 which, by inhibiting cyclins (E and D1) and cyclin dependent kinases (cdk2 and cdk6), results in a G0/G1-phase arrest followed by apoptosis in human epidermoid carcinoma cells A431. We have also demonstrated the generation of nitric oxide during PDT-mediated apoptosis (Cancer Res.; 58: 1785-1788, 1998). Retinoblastoma (pRb) and E2F family transcription factors are important proteins, which regulate the G1-->S transition in the cell cycle. Here, we provide evidence for the involvement of pRb-E2F/DP machinery as an important contributor of PDT-mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Western blot analysis demonstrated a decrease in the hyper-phosphorylated form of pRb at 3, 6 and 12 h post-PDT with a relative increase in hypo-phosphorylated pRb. Western blot analysis also revealed that PDT-caused decrease in phosphorylation of pRb occurs at serine-780. The ELISA data demonstrated a time dependent accumulation of hypo-phosphorylated pRb by PDT. This response was accompanied with down-regulation in the protein expression of all five E2F (1-5) family transcription factors, and their heterodimeric partners DP1 and DP2. These results suggest that Pc4-PDT of A431 cells results in a down regulation of hyper-phosphorylated pRb protein with a relative increase in hypo-phosphorylated pRb that, in turn, compromises with the availability of free E2F. We suggest that these events result in a stoppage of the cell cycle

  12. The high temperature synthesis of CsAlSiO 4-ANA, a new polymorph in the system Cs 2OAl 2O 3SiO 2. I. The end member of ANA type of zeolite framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrijevic, R.; Dondur, V.; Petranovic, N.

    1991-12-01

    High temperature phase transformations of Cs + exchanged zeolites were investigated. Above 1000°C, CsX, CsY (FAU), and Cs, ZK-4 (LTA) frameworks recrystallized in a pollucite phase. A Cs + loaded mordenite recrystallized at 1300°C in the orthorhombic CsAlSi 5O 12 phase. A Cs + exchanged zeolite A at 960°C recrystallized in a mixture of two polymorphic CsAlSiO 4 phases having different (Al,Si)O 4 frameworks. The unstable orthorhombic CsAlSiO 4ABW phase has a topotactic transition at 1150°C into an ordered low CsAlSiO 4-ANA framework. Further calcination produces, at 1200°C, transformation of the low CsAlSiO 4-ANA phase to the more stable high CsAlSiO 4-ANA polymorph having cubic ( a 0 = 13.6595 (5) Å) symmetry and an ordered SiAl distribution. The crystal structure of high CsAlSiO 4ANA, a new polymorph in the system Cs 2OAl 2O 3SiO 2, was determined using X-ray Rietveld analyses and 29Si MAS NMR spectroscopy.

  13. Dielectric, electromechanical, and elastic properties of Rb1- x (NH4) x H2PO4 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotkov, L. N.; Likhovaya, D. V.; Levitskii, R. R.; Zachek, I. R.

    2017-01-01

    The longitudinal dielectric, piezoelectric, and elastic characteristics of ferroelectric RbH2PO4 and antiferroelectric NH4H2PO4 crystals are calculated in terms of the modified model of proton ordering with allowance for the piezoelectric coupling in an approximation of a four-particle cluster. The results obtained agree well with known experimental data. Along with this, the electromechanical properties of a Rb0.2(NH4)0.8H2PO4 single crystal undergoing an antiferroelectric phase transition have been studied experimentally over a wide temperature range. The model predictions and the experimental data agree qualitatively.

  14. Reactive barriers for {sup 137}Cs retention

    SciTech Connect

    KRUMHANSL,JAMES L.; BRADY,PATRICK V.; ANDERSON,HOWARD L.

    2000-05-19

    {sup 137}Cs was dispersed globally by cold war activities and, more recently, by the Chernobyl accident. Engineered extraction of {sup 137}Cs from soils and groundwaters is exceedingly difficult. Because the half life of {sup 137}Cs is only 30.2 years, remediation might be more effective (and less costly) if {sup 137}Cs bioavailability could be demonstrably limited for even a few decades by use of a reactive barrier. Essentially permanent isolation must be demonstrated in those few settings where high nuclear level wastes contaminated the environment with {sup 135}Cs (half life 2.3x10{sup 6} years) in addition to {sup 137}Cs. Clays are potentially a low-cost barrier to Cs movement, though their long-term effectiveness remains untested. To identify optimal clays for Cs retention Cs resorption was measured for five common clays: Wyoming Montmorillonite (SWy-1), Georgia Kaolinites (KGa-1 and KGa-2), Fithian Illite (F-Ill), and K-Metabentonite (K-Mbt). Exchange sites were pre-saturated with 0.16 M CsCl for 14 days and readily exchangeable Cs was removed by a series of LiNO{sub 3} and LiCl washes. Washed clay were then placed into dialysis bags and the Cs release to the deionized water outside the bags measured. Release rates from 75 to 139 days for SWy-1, K-Mbt and F- 111 were similar; 0.017 to 0.021% sorbed Cs released per day. Both kaolinites released Cs more rapidly (0.12 to 0.05% of the sorbed Cs per day). In a second set of experiments, clays were doped for 110 days and subjected to an extreme and prolonged rinsing process. All the clays exhibited some capacity for irreversible Cs uptake so most soils have some limited ability to act as a natural barrier to Cs migration. However, the residual loading was greatest on K-Mbt ({approximately} 0.33 wt% Cs). Thus, this clay would be the optimal material for constructing artificial reactive barriers.

  15. ^3He Polarization by Rb Spin Exchange in a Multistage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulter, K. P.; Chupp, T. E.; Smith, T. B.; Welsh, R. C.; Zerger, J. N.

    1999-10-01

    Polarization of ^3He by spin exchange with optically pumped Rb has benefited greatly from the use of high powered laser diode arrays. Efficient use of these lasers requires operation of cells with high ^3He densities to match better the pressure broadened Rb absorption line to the wide laser spectral profile. However, lower delivery pressures are often required. For example, for low energy neutron spin filters the optimum ^3He thickness (for practical polarizations) would produce impractically thin cells. A multistage system is practical for applications requiring high ^3He polarization delivered at variable pressure because the optical pumping stage can be separated from the delivery/refilling stages. Additionally, operation can be improved by choosing the appropriate glass for each stage. We have constructed a multistage system that consists of a 70 cc pump cell (Corning 7056 glass), a transition region (Pyrex Glass), and a 350 cc receiving cell (Cs-coated Fused Silica). The cells are connected using commercial Viton-rubber o-ring sealed Pyrex glass valves and ball and socket joints. The transition region is connected to a vacuum pump and gas fill system so that cells may be refilled in situ. Both pump cells and receiving cells have exhibited intrinsic ^3He relaxation times of >35 hours. We will report on tests of this prototype system.

  16. Rietveld refinement of the crystal structures of Rb2 XSi5O12 (X = Ni, Mn).

    PubMed

    Bell, Anthony M T; Henderson, C Michael B

    2016-02-01

    The synthetic leucite silicate framework mineral analogues Rb2 XSi5O12 {X = Ni [dirubidium nickel(II) penta-silicate] and Mn [dirubidium manganese(II) penta-silicate]} have been prepared by high-temperature solid-state synthesis. The results of Rietveld refinements, using X-ray powder diffraction data collected using Cu Kα X-rays, show that the title compounds crystallize in the space group Pbca and adopt the cation-ordered structure of Cs2CdSi5O12 and other leucites. The structures consist of tetra-hedral SiO4 and XO4 units sharing corners to form a partially substituted silicate framework. Extraframework Rb(+) cations sit in channels in the framework. All atoms occupy the 8c general position for this space group. In these refined structures, silicon and X atoms are ordered onto separate tetra-hedrally coordinated sites (T-sites). However, the Ni displacement parameter and the Ni-O bond lengths suggest that for the X = Ni sample, there may actually be some T-site cation disorder.

  17. Rietveld refinement of the crystal structures of Rb2 XSi5O12 (X = Ni, Mn)

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Anthony M. T.; Henderson, C. Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    The synthetic leucite silicate framework mineral analogues Rb2 XSi5O12 {X = Ni [dirubidium nickel(II) penta­silicate] and Mn [dirubidium manganese(II) penta­silicate]} have been prepared by high-temperature solid-state synthesis. The results of Rietveld refinements, using X-ray powder diffraction data collected using Cu Kα X-rays, show that the title compounds crystallize in the space group Pbca and adopt the cation-ordered structure of Cs2CdSi5O12 and other leucites. The structures consist of tetra­hedral SiO4 and XO4 units sharing corners to form a partially substituted silicate framework. Extraframework Rb+ cations sit in channels in the framework. All atoms occupy the 8c general position for this space group. In these refined structures, silicon and X atoms are ordered onto separate tetra­hedrally coordinated sites (T-sites). However, the Ni displacement parameter and the Ni—O bond lengths suggest that for the X = Ni sample, there may actually be some T-site cation disorder. PMID:26958399

  18. RB, the conductor that orchestrates life, death and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Khidr, L; Chen, P-L

    2006-08-28

    The retinoblastoma susceptibility gene was the first tumor suppressor gene identified in humans and the first tumor suppressor gene knocked out by targeted deletion in mice. RB serves as a transducer between the cell cycle machinery and promoter-specific transcription factors, its most documented activity being the repression of the E2F family of transcription factors, which regulate the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation and survival. Recent investigations of RB function suggest that it works as a fundamental regulator to coordinate pathways of cellular growth and differentiation. In this review, we unravel the novel role of an equally important aspect of RB in downregulating the differentiation inhibitor EID-1 during cellular differentiation by teasing apart the signal, which elicit differentiation and limit cell cycle progression, since the molecular mechanisms relating to RB activation of differentiation is much less understood. We review the various roles for RB in differentiation of neurons, muscle, adipose tissue, and the retina. In addition, we provide an update for the current models of the role of RB in cell cycle to entry and exit, extending the view toward chromatin remodeling and expose the dichotomies in the regulation of RB family members. We conclude with a discussion of a novel RB regulatory network, incorporating the dynamic contribution of EID family proteins.

  19. Neutron Diffraction Study of a Rb0.5Tl0.5H2PO4 Single Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, In-Hwan; Mattauch, Stefan; Heger, Gernot; Lee, Cheol Eui

    2008-09-01

    Crystal structure analysis of a mixed crystal Rb1-xTlxH2PO4 (x = 0.5) was performed at room temperature by neutron diffraction on a high-quality single crystal grown from aqueous solution. RbH2PO4 (RDP) and TlH2PO4 (TDP) show distinct crystal structures despite the same ionic radii of Rb and Tl. The crystal structure of Rb0.5Tl0.5H2PO4 is isotypic to TDP showing disordered H atoms in the O\\underline{\\cdots}H\\underline{\\cdots}O hydrogen bonds. The lone-pair electrons of Tl+ ions are believed to stabilize the two-dimensional network of hydrogen bonded PO4-groups. In contrast to the case of TDP, Rb0.5Tl0.5H2PO4 shows no phase transition at low temperatures despite the disordered character, with a strengthening of two hydrogen bonds as indicated by shorter O\\cdotsO distances and greater O\\underline{\\cdots}H\\underline{\\cdots}O bond angles.

  20. Bandwidth and Electron Correlation-Tuned Superconductivity in Rb0.8Fe2(Se1-zSz)2

    DOE PAGES

    Yi, M.; Wang, Meng; Kemper, A. F.; ...

    2015-12-15

    Here, we present a systematic angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy study of the substitution dependence of the electronic structure of Rb0.8Fe2(Se1-zSz)2 (z = 0, 0.5, 1), where superconductivity is continuously suppressed into a metallic phase. Going from the nonsuperconducting Rb0.8Fe2S2 to superconducting Rb0.8Fe2Se2, we observe little change of the Fermi surface topology, but a reduction of the overall bandwidth by a factor of 2. Hence, for these heavily electron-doped iron chalcogenides, we have identified electron correlation as explicitly manifested in the quasiparticle bandwidth to be the important tuning parameter for superconductivity, and that moderate correlation is essential to achieving high TC.

  1. Regulation of Cell Transformation by Rb-Controlled Redox Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenwen; Zhang, Huamei; Li, Binghui; Ying, Guoguang

    2014-01-01

    Rb is a tumor suppressor, and regulates various biological progresses, such as cell proliferation, development, metabolism and cell death. In the current study, we show that Rb knockout in 3T3 cells leads to oxidative redox state and low mitochondrial membrane potential by regulating mitochondrial activity. Our results indicate that Rb plays an important role in controlling redox homeostasis. More importantly, the functions of Rb in modulating cell proliferation, death and transformation are, at least in part, mediated by its controlling cellular redox state. In addition, our results also suggest that the cellular redox state possibly determines various biological activities, including cell survival, death and transformation, where Rb is functioning as a regulator of redox homeostasis. PMID:25019272

  2. pRb, a local chromatin organizer with global possibilities

    PubMed Central

    Longworth, Michelle S.; Dyson, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    The retinoblastoma (Rb) family of proteins are well known for their tumor suppressor properties and for their ability to regulate transcription. The action of Rb-family members correlates with the appearance of repressive chromatin marks at promoter regions of genes encoding key regulators of cell proliferation. Recent studies raise the possibility that Rb family members do not simply act by controlling the activity of individual promoters but that they may also function by promoting the more general organization of chromatin. In several contexts, Rb-family members stimulate the compaction or condensation of chromatin and promote the formation of heterochromatin. In this review, we summarize studies that link pRb family members to the condensation or compaction of DNA. PMID:19714354

  3. Uncommon RB1 somatic mutations in a unilateral retinoblastoma patient.

    PubMed

    Ottaviani, Daniela; Alonso, Cristina; Szijan, Irene

    2015-01-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in children. Somatic inactivation of both alleles of the RB1 tumor suppressor gene in a developing retina is a crucial event in the initiation of tumorigenesis in most cases of isolated unilateral retinoblastoma. We analyzed the DNA from tumor tissue and peripheral blood of a unilateral retinoblastoma patient to determine the RB1 mutation status and to provide an accurate genetic counseling. A comprehensive approach, based on our previous experience, was used to identify the causative RB1 mutations. Screening for RB1 mutations was performed by PCR direct sequencing, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and Real Time-PCR analyses. Three different mutations were identified in the tumor DNA, which were absent in blood DNA. The somatic origin of these mutations was vital to rule out the heritable condition in this patient.

  4. [Interaction of two tumor suppressors: Phosphatase CTDSPL and Rb protein].

    PubMed

    Beniaminov, A D; Krasnov, G S; Dmitriev, A A; Puzanov, G A; Snopok, B A; Senchenko, V N; Kashuba, V I

    2016-01-01

    Earlier we established that CTDSPL gene encoding small carboxy-terminal domain serine phosphatase can be considered a classical tumor suppressor gene. Besides, transfection of tumor cell line MCF-7 with CTDSPL led to the content decrease of inactive phosphorylated form of another tumor suppressor, retinoblastoma protein (Rb), and subsequently to cell cycle arrest at the G1/S boundary. This result implied that small phosphatase CTDSPL is able to specifically dephosphorylate and activate Rb protein. In order to add some fuel to this hypothesis, in the present work we studied the interaction of two tumor suppressors CTDSPL and Rb in vitro. GST pool-down assay revealed that CTDSPL is able to precipitate Rb protein from MCF-7 cell extracts, while surface plasmon resonance technique showed that interaction of the two proteins is direct. Results of this study reassert that phosphatase CTDSPL and Rb could be involved in the common mechanism of cell cycle regulation.

  5. Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis: Characterization Rb Promoted Iron Catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar,A.; Jacobs, G.; Ji, Y.; Hamdeh, H.; Davis, B.

    2008-01-01

    Rubidium promoted iron Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) catalysts were prepared with two Rb/Fe atomic ratios (1.44/100 and 5/100) using rubidium nitrate and rubidium carbonate as rubidium precursors. Results of catalytic activity and deactivation studies in a CSTR revealed that rubidium promoted catalysts result in a steady conversion with a lower deactivation rate than that of the corresponding unpromoted catalyst although the initial activity of the promoted catalyst was almost half that of the unpromoted catalyst. Rubidium promotion results in lower methane production, and higher CO2, alkene and 1-alkene fraction in FTS products. M{umlt o}ssbauer spectroscopic measurements of CO activated and working catalyst samples indicated that the composition of the iron carbide phase formed after carbidization was -Fe5 C2 for both promoted and unpromoted catalysts. However, in the case of the rubidium promoted catalyst, '-Fe2.2C became the predominant carbidic phase as FTS continued and the overall catalyst composition remained carbidic in nature. In contrast, the carbide content of the unpromoted catalyst was found to decline very quickly as a function of synthesis time. Results of XANES and EXAFS measurements suggested that rubidium was present in the oxidized state and that the compound most prevalent in the active catalyst samples closely resembled that of rubidium carbonate.

  6. 75 FR 51654 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-22B and RB211-524 Series Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ...-10] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-22B and RB211-524 Series.... The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: 2010-17-10 Rolls-Royce plc: Amendment 39... AD applies to Rolls-Royce plc RB211-22B series and RB211-524B4-D-02, RB211-524D4-19,...

  7. Phase diagram investigations of K-Sr-U-O system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keskar, Meera; Agarwal, R.

    2011-06-01

    In continuation of our previous work on phase diagram investigations of alkali metal-alkaline earth metal-uranium oxides, the sub-solidus phase relations in K-Sr-U-O quaternary system were determined at 850 °C in air. A pseudo-ternary phase diagram of UO 3-SrO-K 2O was drawn using reported ternary compounds in K 2O-UO 3 and SrO-UO 3 systems, a single quaternary compound, K 8Sr 2U 6O 24 and various phase mixtures. These compounds and mixtures were synthesized by solid route, by heating K 2CO 3, SrCO 3 and UO 3 in different molar proportions at 850 °C. The phase fields of K 2O-SrO-UO 3 pseudo-ternary phase diagram were established by X-ray powder diffraction analysis. Gibbs energies of formation of binary and ternary uranates were estimated. The Gibbs energies of formations of A8Sr 2U 6O 24 ( A = Na/K/Rb/Cs) type compounds for different alkali metals were compared to find a reason for the stability of the compound for sodium, potassium and rubidium and its instability for cesium.

  8. Rb silencing mediated by the down-regulation of MeCP2 is involved in cell transformation induced by long-term exposure to hydroquinone.

    PubMed

    Liu, Linhua; Ling, Xiaoxuan; Wu, Minhua; Chen, Jialong; Chen, Shaoqiao; Tan, Qiang; Chen, Jiansong; Liu, Jiaxian; Zou, Fei

    2017-02-01

    Hydroquinone (HQ), a metabolite of benzene, is a well-known human carcinogen; however, its molecular mechanisms of action remain unclear. MeCP2 has been traditionally described as a transcriptional repressor, though growing evidence indicates that it also activates gene expression. Here, we investigated whether some epigenetic machinery genes are aberrantly expressed as target tumor suppressor genes in HQ-transformed TK6 lymphoblastoid cells. Our results showed that treatment with 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine or trichostatin A enhanced the expression of Rb, resulting in cell arrest in G1-phase, and subsequently, an increase in apoptosis and a decrease in cell growth. Moreover, we hypothesised that Rb was silenced by the down-regulation of MeCP2 in HQ-transformed cells, resulting in the dynamic expression of Rb and epigenetic machinery proteins in HQ-transformed cells at different time points. The expression of Rb and MeCP2 in patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL) showed that positive staining for MeCP2 or Rb was significantly lower in B-NHL tumor tissues, and these changes were significantly and negatively correlated with the grade of B-NHL. The restoration of MeCP2 in HQ-transformed cells enhanced the expression of Rb, promoted cell apoptosis, and inhibited cell growth. The changes in the expression patterns of MeCP2 and Rb were inversely correlated with the degree of DNA methylation. A ChiP assay revealed that MeCP2 proteins were recruited to the Rb promoter with lower 5'-methylcytosine levels. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the down-regulation of MeCP2 silences Rb, a process involved in cell transformation resulting from long-term exposure to HQ. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. [Assessment of health effects of CS gas].

    PubMed

    Schindel, H J

    1993-07-01

    O-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (CS) gas or aerosol is by no means a harmless tear-gas, as often is described; in particular, CS is a very effective irritating war gas. The effects of CS on humans are relatively unknown because publications in this respect are mostly on military medical research, partly classified as secret, and brought to the knowledge of a small number of experts only. CS is highly soluble in water, and hence the effects in police water jets are very low. The efficacy of CS-containing water-jetting consists only in the pressure of the jet stream. Medically, in police use, CS is therefore considered to be harmless. Military medical research results, however, show that persons older than 30 years, those under physical strain, and those with hitherto undetected aneurysm are especially at risk.

  10. RB1 Methylation by SMYD2 Enhances Cell Cycle Progression through an Increase of RB1 Phosphorylation12

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyun-Soo; Hayami, Shinya; Toyokawa, Gouji; Maejima, Kazuhiro; Yamane, Yuka; Suzuki, Takehiro; Dohmae, Naoshi; Kogure, Masaharu; Kang, Daechun; Neal, David E; Ponder, Bruce AJ; Yamaue, Hiroki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Hamamoto, Ryuji

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that RB functions are regulated by posttranslational modifications such as phosphorylation and acetylation, but the significance of lysine methylation on RB has not been fully elucidated. Our expression analysis of SMYD2 by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that expression levels of SMYD2 are significantly elevated in human bladder carcinomas compared with nonneoplastic bladder tissues (P < .0001), and its expression levels in tumor tissues were much higher than those of any other normal tissues. SMYD2 knockdown resulted in the suppression of cancer cell growth, and cell cycle analysis indicated that SMYD2 might play a crucial role in the G1/S transition. According to an in vitro methyltransferase assay, we found that SMYD2 methylates RB1 protein, and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis revealed lysine 810 of RB1 to be methylated by SMYD2. Importantly, this methylation enhanced Ser 807/811 phosphorylation of RB1 both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we demonstrated that methylated RB1 accelerates E2F transcriptional activity and promotes cell cycle progression. SMYD2 is an important oncoprotein in various types of cancer, and SMYD2-dependent RB1 methylation at lysine 810 promotes cell cycle progression of cancer cells. Further study may explore SMYD2-dependent RB1 methylation as a potential therapeutic target in human cancer. PMID:22787429

  11. Refractometry of Rb2ZnCl4 crystals under uniaxial pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadnik, V. I.; Stakhura, V. B.; Andrievskii, B. V.

    2017-06-01

    The influence of uniaxial pressures applied along the main crystallophysical directions on the dispersion and temperature dependences of the refractive index n i of Rb2ZnCl4 crystals has been investigated. The n i value is found to be rather sensitive to uniaxial pressures, whereas uniaxial stress does not change the character of the dispersion and temperature dependences of n i. The pressure-induced changes in electronic polarizability αi, refraction R, and the parameters of UV oscillators are studied for mechanically deformed Rb2ZnCl4 crystals. The contributions of the UV and IR oscillators to the changes in n i at different temperatures, in different spectral regions, and under different mechanical stresses are estimated. The points of paraelectric-incommensurate-commensurate phase transitions (PTs) are found to undergo a significant pressure-induced shift to different temperature regions, depending on the pressure-application direction.

  12. Electronic structure of β-RbNd(MoO4)2 by XPS and XES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atuchin, V. V.; Khyzhun, O. Y.; Chimitova, O. D.; Molokeev, M. S.; Gavrilova, T. A.; Bazarov, B. G.; Bazarova, J. G.

    2015-02-01

    β-RbNd(MoO4)2 microplates have been prepared by the multistage solid state synthesis method. The phase composition and micromorphology of the final product have been evaluated by XRD and SEM methods. The electronic structure of β-RbNd(MoO4)2 molybdate has been studied employing the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES). For the molybdate, the XPS core-level and valence-band spectra, as well as XES bands representing energy distribution of the Mo 4d- and O 2p-like states, have been measured. It has been established that the O 2p-like states contribute mainly to the upper portion of the valence band with also significant contributions throughout the whole valence-band region. The Mo 4D-like states contribute mainly to a lower valence band portion.

  13. Observation of Quantum Beating in rb at 2.1 THz and 18.2 THz: Long-Range Rb^{*}-Rb Interactions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldshlag, William; Ricconi, Brian J.; Eden, J. Gary

    2017-06-01

    The interaction of Rb 7s ^{2}S_{1/2}, 5d ^{2}D_{3/2,5/2} and 5p ^{2}P_{3/2} atoms with the background species at long range (100-1000Å) has been observed by pump-probe ultrafast laser spectroscopy. Parametric four-wave mixing in Rb vapor with pairs of 50-70 fs pulses produces coherent Rb 6P-5S emission at 420 nm that is modulated by Rb quantum beating. The two dominant beating frequencies are 18.2 THz and 2.07 THz, corresponding to quantum beating between 7S and 5D states and to the (5D-5P_{3/2})-(5P_{3/2}-5S) defect, respectively. Analysis of Rabi oscillations in these pump-probe experiments allows for the mean interaction energy at long range to be determined. The figure shows Fourier transform spectra of representative Rabi oscillation waveforms. The waveform and spectrum at left illustrate quantum beating in Rb at 2.1 THz. The spectrum at right is dominated by the 18.2 THz frequency component generated by 7S-5D beating in Rb. Insets show respective temporal behaviors of the 6P-5S line near the coherent transient (zero interpulse delay).

  14. Microscopic dynamics of AC{sub 60} compounds in the plastic, polymer, and dimer phases investigated by inelastic neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Schober, H.; Toelle, A.; Renker, B.; Heid, R.; Gompf, F.

    1997-09-01

    We present inelastic neutron-scattering results for AC{sub 60} (A=K,Rb,Cs) compounds. The spectra of the high-temperature fcc phases strongly resemble the ones of pristine C{sub 60} in the plastic phase. At equal temperatures we find identical rotational diffusion constants for pristine C{sub 60} and Rb{sub 1}C{sub 60} (D{sub r}=2.4 10{sup 10} s{sup {minus}1} at 400 K). The changes taking place in the inelastic part of the spectra on cooling AC{sub 60} indicate the formation of strong intermolecular bonds. The buildup of intensities in the gap region separating internal and external vibrations in pure C{sub 60} is the most prominent signature of this transition. The spectra of the low-temperature phases depend on their thermal history. The differences can be explained by the formation of a polymer phase (upon slow cooling from the fcc phase) and a dimer phase (upon fast cooling), respectively. The experimental data are analyzed on the basis of lattice dynamical calculations. The density-of-states are well modeled assuming a [2+2] bond for the polymer and a single intercage bond for the dimer. Indications for different intercage bonding are also found in the internal mode spectra, which, on the other hand, react only weakly to the charge transfer. The dimer phase is metastable and converts into the polymer phase with a strongly temperature-dependent time constant. The transition from the polymer to the fcc phase is accompanied by inelastic precursor effects which are interpreted as the signature of inhomogeneities arising from plastic monomer regions embedded in the polymer phase. In the polymer phase AC{sub 60} compounds show strong anharmonic behavior in the low-temperature region. The possible connection with the metal-to-insulator transition is discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  15. Microstructure of Cs-implanted zirconia: Role of temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, L.; Thome, L.; Garrido, F.; Kaitasov, O.; Houdelier, F.

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify experimentally the phase which includes cesium in yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ). The solubility and retention of cesium in YSZ were studied at high temperature (HT). Cesium was ion implanted (at 300 keV) into YSZ at room temperature (RT), 750 deg. C, or 900 deg. C at fluences up to 5x10{sup 16} cm{sup -2}. The temperature dependence of the radiation-induced damage and of the cesium distribution in YSZ single crystals was investigated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and ion channeling. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies were performed in order to determine the damage nature and search for a predicted ternary phase of cesium zirconate. Whatever the implantation temperature, the thickness of the damaged layer increases inwards with ion fluence. At RT, amorphization occurs, caused by the high Cs concentration (7 at. %). In situ TEM during postannealing shows recrystallization of cubic zirconia after release of cesium. A high implantation temperature has a significant influence on the nature of radiation defects and on the retained Cs concentration. At HT, dislocation loops and voids are formed but no amorphization is observed whereas polygonization occurs at high fluence. The implanted cesium concentration reaches a saturation value of 1.5 at. % above which Cs can no longer be retained in the matrix and is then released at the surface. At that concentration, cesium forms a solid solution in YSZ; no other phase is formed, neither during irradiation nor after thermal annealing.

  16. Microstructure of Cs-implanted zirconia: Role of temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, L.; Thomé, L.; Garrido, F.; Kaitasov, O.; Houdelier, F.

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify experimentally the phase which includes cesium in yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ). The solubility and retention of cesium in YSZ were studied at high temperature (HT). Cesium was ion implanted (at 300 keV) into YSZ at room temperature (RT), 750 °C, or 900 °C at fluences up to 5×1016 cm-2. The temperature dependence of the radiation-induced damage and of the cesium distribution in YSZ single crystals was investigated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and ion channeling. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies were performed in order to determine the damage nature and search for a predicted ternary phase of cesium zirconate. Whatever the implantation temperature, the thickness of the damaged layer increases inwards with ion fluence. At RT, amorphization occurs, caused by the high Cs concentration (7at.%). In situ TEM during postannealing shows recrystallization of cubic zirconia after release of cesium. A high implantation temperature has a significant influence on the nature of radiation defects and on the retained Cs concentration. At HT, dislocation loops and voids are formed but no amorphization is observed whereas polygonization occurs at high fluence. The implanted cesium concentration reaches a saturation value of 1.5 at. % above which Cs can no longer be retained in the matrix and is then released at the surface. At that concentration, cesium forms a solid solution in YSZ; no other phase is formed, neither during irradiation nor after thermal annealing.

  17. Optical pumping in a microfabricated Rb vapor cell using a microfabricated Rb discharge light source

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatraman, V.; Kang, S.; Affolderbach, C.; Mileti, G.; Shea, H.

    2014-02-03

    Miniature (Rb discharge lamp light source, as well as (2) a conventional glass-blown Rb discharge lamp. The microfabricated Rb lamp cell is a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) light source, having the same inner cell volume of around 40 mm{sup 3} as that of the resonance cell, both filled with suitable buffer gases. A miniature (∼2 cm{sup 3} volume) test setup based on the M{sub z} magnetometer interrogation technique was used for observation of optical-radiofrequency double-resonance signals, proving the suitability of the microfabricated discharge lamp to introduce efficient optical pumping. The pumping ability of this light source was found to be comparable to or even better than that of a conventional glass-blown lamp. The reported results indicate that the micro-fabricated DBD discharge lamp has a high potential for the development of a new class of miniature atomic clocks, magnetometers, and quantum sensors.

  18. Electromechanical and relaxation dielectric properties of RbHSO4 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zachek, I. R.; Shchur, Ya.; Levitskii, R. R.

    2015-12-01

    The temperature dependence of static and dynamic dielectric permittivity, piezoelectric stresses, elastic constants and heat capacity of ferroelectric RbHSO4 are described based on the four-sublattice pseudo-spin model within the mean field approximation. The pseudo-spins are ascribed to SO4(1f) (f = 1, …, 4) groups which have the dynamic dipole moment in paraelectric phase and manifest a static distortion in ferroelectric phase. We established a set of adjustable model parameters which made it possible to interpret various experimental data.

  19. Direct Observation of Charge Transfer in Double-Perovskite-Like RbMn[Fe(CN)6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, K.; Moritomo, Y.; Takata, M.; Sakata, M.; Umekawa, M.; Hamada, N.; Ohkoshi, S.; Tokoro, H.; Hashimoto, K.

    2003-12-01

    The charge density distribution has been determined for a transition metal cyanide, RbMn[Fe(CN)6], by means of the maximum entropy Rietveld method combined with the highly angularly resolved synchrotron radiation x-ray powder diffraction at SPring-8 BL02B2. We directly observed a charge transfer from the Mn site to the Fe site in the low-temperature phase. On the basis of a local density approximation calculation, we discuss the origin for the anisotropic bonding electron distribution around the Mn3+ ion in the low-temperature phase.

  20. Growth suppression by an E2F-binding-defective retinoblastoma protein (RB): contribution from the RB C pocket.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, L L; Su, H; Baskaran, R; Knudsen, E S; Wang, J Y

    1998-07-01

    Growth suppression by the retinoblastoma protein (RB) is dependent on its ability to form complexes with transcription regulators. At least three distinct protein-binding activities have been identified in RB: the large A/B pocket binds E2F, the A/B pocket binds the LXCXE peptide motif, and the C pocket binds the nuclear c-Abl tyrosine kinase. Substitution of Trp for Arg 661 in the B region of RB (mutant 661) inactivates both E2F and LXCXE binding. The tumor suppression function of mutant 661 is not abolished, because this allele predisposes its carriers to retinoblastoma development with a low penetrance. In cell-based assays, 661 is shown to inhibit G1/S progression. This low-penetrance mutant also induces terminal growth arrest with reduced but detectable activity. We have constructed mutations that disrupt C pocket activity. When overproduced, the RB C-terminal fragment did not induce terminal growth arrest but could inhibit G1/S progression, and this activity was abolished by the C-pocket mutations. In full-length RB, the C-pocket mutations reduced but did not abolish RB function. Interestingly, combination of the C-pocket and 661 mutations completely abolished RB's ability to cause an increase in the percentage of cells in G1 and to induce terminal growth arrest. These results suggest that the A/B or C region can induce a prolongation of G1 through mechanisms that are independent of each other. In contrast, long-term growth arrest requires combined activities from both regions of RB. In addition, E2F and LXCXE binding are not the only mechanisms through which RB inhibits cell growth. The C pocket also contributes to RB-mediated growth suppression.