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Sample records for rb cs phase

  1. The superconducting phase and electronic excitations of (Rb,Cs) Fe 2 As 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanter, J.; Shermadini, Z.; Khasanov, R.; Amato, A.; Bukowski, Z.; Batlogg, B.

    2011-03-01

    We present specific heat, transport and Muon-Spin Rotation (μ SR) results on (Rb,Cs) Fe 2 As 2 . RbFe 2 As 2 was only recently found to be superconducting below 2.6 K by Bukowski et al. Compared to the related BaFe 2 As 2 the electron density is lower and no magnetic order is observed. For the superconducting phase the superfluid density was calculated from μ SR data. The temperature dependence of the superfluid density and the magnetic penetration depth is well described by a multi-gap scenario. In addition the electronic contribution the specific heat was studied for different compositions and magnetic fields and reveals a high value for the Sommerfeld coefficient γ .

  2. NMR relaxation study of the phase transitions and relaxation mechanisms of the alums MCr(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}.12H{sub 2}O (M=Rb and Cs) single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Ae Ran; Paik, Younkee; Lim, Kye-Young

    2011-06-15

    The physical properties and phase transition mechanisms of MCr(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}.12H{sub 2}O (M=Rb and Cs) single crystals have been investigated. The phase transition temperatures, NMR spectra, and the spin-lattice relaxation times T{sub 1} of the {sup 87}Rb and {sup 133}Cs nuclei in the two crystals were determined using DSC and FT NMR spectroscopy. The resonance lines and relaxation times of the {sup 87}Rb and {sup 133}Cs nuclei undergo significant changes at the phase transition temperatures. The sudden changes in the splitting of the Rb and Cs resonance lines are attributed to changes in the local symmetry of their sites, and the changes in the temperature dependences of T{sub 1} are related to variations in the symmetry of the octahedra of water molecules surrounding Rb{sup +} and Cs{sup +}. We also compared these {sup 87}Rb and {sup 133}Cs NMR results with those obtained for the trivalent cations Cr and Al in MCr(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}.12H{sub 2}O and MAl(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}.12H{sub 2}O crystals. - Graphical Abstract: The physical properties and phase transition mechanisms of MCr(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}.12H{sub 2}O (M=Rb, Cs, and NH{sub 4}) single crystals have been investigated. Highlights: > The physical properties and phase transition mechanisms of MCr(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}.12H{sub 2}O (M=Rb and Cs) crystals {yields} The NMR spectra and the spin-lattice relaxation times T{sub 1} of the {sup 87}Rb and {sup 133}Cs nuclei in the two crystals {yields} The variations in the symmetry of the octahedra of water molecules surrounding Rb{sup +} and Cs{sup +}.

  3. Comparative Raman spectroscopic study of phase stability and anharmonic effects in AZr2(PO4)3 (A = K, Rb and Cs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamali, K.; Ravindran, T. R.; Ravi, C.

    2016-02-01

    AZr2(PO4)3 (A = Na, K, Rb, Cs) are a set of framework structured compounds that exhibit tunable ultralow thermal expansion over the wide temperature range of 293-1273 K. We report a systematic Raman spectroscopic investigation on AZr2(PO4)3 (A = K, Rb and Cs) compounds as a function of temperature in the range 80-860 K and pressures of up to 32 GPa. To get insight into the thermal expansion property, phonon anharmonicity has been investigated by studying the temperature and pressure dependence of Raman peak shifts and line widths and computed bulk modulus. We have compared the phase transition and amorphization pressures of the various members of AZr2(PO4)3 to account for the stability of the ambient rhombohedral phase. We find that unlike most of the anomalous thermal expansion materials, in AZr2(PO4)3 (A = K, Rb and Cs), the phonons that are anharmonic with temperature do not necessarily exhibit anharmonicity with pressure.

  4. High-resolution {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance evidence of phase transition of Rb,Cs-intercalated single-walled nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Bouhrara, M.; Saih, Y.; Waagberg, T.; Goze-Bac, C.; Abou-Hamad, E.

    2011-09-01

    We present 13 C high-resolution magic-angle-turning (MAT) and magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance data of Cs and Rb intercalated single walled carbon nanotubes. We find two distinct phases at different intercalation levels. A simple charge transfer is applicable at low intercalation level. The new phase at high intercalation level is accompanied by a hybridization of alkali (s) orbitals with the carbon (sp2) orbitals of the single walled nanotubes, which indicate bundle surface sites is the most probable alkali site.

  5. Simple-design ultra-low phase noise microwave frequency synthesizers for high-performing Cs and Rb vapor-cell atomic clocks.

    PubMed

    François, B; Calosso, C E; Abdel Hafiz, M; Micalizio, S; Boudot, R

    2015-09-01

    We report on the development and characterization of novel 4.596 GHz and 6.834 GHz microwave frequency synthesizers devoted to be used as local oscillators in high-performance Cs and Rb vapor-cell atomic clocks. The key element of the synthesizers is a custom module that integrates a high spectral purity 100 MHz oven controlled quartz crystal oscillator frequency-multiplied to 1.6 GHz with minor excess noise. Frequency multiplication, division, and mixing stages are then implemented to generate the exact output atomic resonance frequencies. Absolute phase noise performances of the output 4.596 GHz signal are measured to be -109 and -141 dB rad(2)/Hz at 100 Hz and 10 kHz Fourier frequencies, respectively. The phase noise of the 6.834 GHz signal is -105 and -138 dB rad(2)/Hz at 100 Hz and 10 kHz offset frequencies, respectively. The performances of the synthesis chains contribute to the atomic clock short term fractional frequency stability at a level of 3.1 × 10(-14) for the Cs cell clock and 2 × 10(-14) for the Rb clock at 1 s averaging time. This value is comparable with the clock shot noise limit. We describe the residual phase noise measurements of key components and stages to identify the main limitations of the synthesis chains. The residual frequency stability of synthesis chains is measured to be at the 10(-15) level for 1 s integration time. Relevant advantages of the synthesis design, using only commercially available components, are to combine excellent phase noise performances, simple-architecture, low-cost, and to be easily customized for signal output generation at 4.596 GHz or 6.834 GHz for applications to Cs or Rb vapor-cell frequency standards.

  6. Simple-design ultra-low phase noise microwave frequency synthesizers for high-performing Cs and Rb vapor-cell atomic clocks

    SciTech Connect

    François, B.; Calosso, C. E.; Micalizio, S.; Abdel Hafiz, M.; Boudot, R.

    2015-09-15

    We report on the development and characterization of novel 4.596 GHz and 6.834 GHz microwave frequency synthesizers devoted to be used as local oscillators in high-performance Cs and Rb vapor-cell atomic clocks. The key element of the synthesizers is a custom module that integrates a high spectral purity 100 MHz oven controlled quartz crystal oscillator frequency-multiplied to 1.6 GHz with minor excess noise. Frequency multiplication, division, and mixing stages are then implemented to generate the exact output atomic resonance frequencies. Absolute phase noise performances of the output 4.596 GHz signal are measured to be −109 and −141 dB rad{sup 2}/Hz at 100 Hz and 10 kHz Fourier frequencies, respectively. The phase noise of the 6.834 GHz signal is −105 and −138 dB rad{sup 2}/Hz at 100 Hz and 10 kHz offset frequencies, respectively. The performances of the synthesis chains contribute to the atomic clock short term fractional frequency stability at a level of 3.1 × 10{sup −14} for the Cs cell clock and 2 × 10{sup −14} for the Rb clock at 1 s averaging time. This value is comparable with the clock shot noise limit. We describe the residual phase noise measurements of key components and stages to identify the main limitations of the synthesis chains. The residual frequency stability of synthesis chains is measured to be at the 10{sup −15} level for 1 s integration time. Relevant advantages of the synthesis design, using only commercially available components, are to combine excellent phase noise performances, simple-architecture, low-cost, and to be easily customized for signal output generation at 4.596 GHz or 6.834 GHz for applications to Cs or Rb vapor-cell frequency standards.

  7. Simple-design ultra-low phase noise microwave frequency synthesizers for high-performing Cs and Rb vapor-cell atomic clocks.

    PubMed

    François, B; Calosso, C E; Abdel Hafiz, M; Micalizio, S; Boudot, R

    2015-09-01

    We report on the development and characterization of novel 4.596 GHz and 6.834 GHz microwave frequency synthesizers devoted to be used as local oscillators in high-performance Cs and Rb vapor-cell atomic clocks. The key element of the synthesizers is a custom module that integrates a high spectral purity 100 MHz oven controlled quartz crystal oscillator frequency-multiplied to 1.6 GHz with minor excess noise. Frequency multiplication, division, and mixing stages are then implemented to generate the exact output atomic resonance frequencies. Absolute phase noise performances of the output 4.596 GHz signal are measured to be -109 and -141 dB rad(2)/Hz at 100 Hz and 10 kHz Fourier frequencies, respectively. The phase noise of the 6.834 GHz signal is -105 and -138 dB rad(2)/Hz at 100 Hz and 10 kHz offset frequencies, respectively. The performances of the synthesis chains contribute to the atomic clock short term fractional frequency stability at a level of 3.1 × 10(-14) for the Cs cell clock and 2 × 10(-14) for the Rb clock at 1 s averaging time. This value is comparable with the clock shot noise limit. We describe the residual phase noise measurements of key components and stages to identify the main limitations of the synthesis chains. The residual frequency stability of synthesis chains is measured to be at the 10(-15) level for 1 s integration time. Relevant advantages of the synthesis design, using only commercially available components, are to combine excellent phase noise performances, simple-architecture, low-cost, and to be easily customized for signal output generation at 4.596 GHz or 6.834 GHz for applications to Cs or Rb vapor-cell frequency standards. PMID:26429467

  8. Dual-species Bose-Einstein condensate of Rb87 and Cs133

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarron, D. J.; Cho, H. W.; Jenkin, D. L.; Köppinger, M. P.; Cornish, S. L.

    2011-07-01

    We report the formation of a dual-species Bose-Einstein condensate of Rb87 and Cs133 in the same trapping potential. Our method exploits the efficient sympathetic cooling of Cs133 via elastic collisions with Rb87, initially in a magnetic quadrupole trap and subsequently in a levitated optical trap. The two condensates each contain up to 2×104 atoms and exhibit a striking phase separation, revealing the mixture to be immiscible due to strong repulsive interspecies interactions. Sacrificing all the Rb87 during the cooling, we create single-species Cs133 condensates of up to 6×104 atoms.

  9. Half metallic ferromagnetism in alkali metal nitrides MN (M = Rb, Cs): A first principles study

    SciTech Connect

    Murugan, A. Rajeswarapalanichamy, R. Santhosh, M. Sudhapriyanga, G.; Kanagaprabha, S.

    2014-04-24

    The structural, electronic and elastic properties of two alkali metal nitrides (MN: M= Rb, Cs) are investigated by the first principles calculations based on density functional theory using the Vienna ab-initio simulation package. At ambient pressure the two nitrides are stable in ferromagnetic state with CsCl structure. The calculated lattice parameters are in good agreement with the available results. The electronic structure reveals that these materials are half metallic in nature. A pressure-induced structural phase transition from CsCl to ZB phase is observed in RbN and CsN.

  10. Measurements of the ground-state polarizabilities of Cs, Rb, and K using atom interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregoire, Maxwell D.; Hromada, Ivan; Holmgren, William F.; Trubko, Raisa; Cronin, Alexander D.

    2015-11-01

    We measured the ground-state static electric-dipole polarizabilities of Cs, Rb, and K atoms using a three-nanograting Mach-Zehnder atom beam interferometer. Our measurements provide benchmark tests for atomic structure calculations and thus test the underlying theory used to interpret atomic parity-nonconservation experiments. We measured αCs=4 π ɛ0×59.39 (9 ) Å3,αRb=4 π ɛ0×47.39 (8 ) Å3 , and αK=4 π ɛ0×42.93 (7 ) Å3 . In atomic units, these measurements are αCs=401.2 (7 ) ,αRb=320.1 (6 ) , and αK=290.0 (5 ) . We report ratios of polarizabilities αCs/αRb=1.2532 (10 ) ,αCs/αK=1.3834 (9 ) , and αRb/αK=1.1040 (9 ) with smaller fractional uncertainty because the systematic errors for individual measurements are largely correlated. Since Cs atom beams have short de Broglie wavelengths, we developed measurement methods that do not require resolved atom diffraction. Specifically, we used phase choppers to measure atomic beam velocity distributions, and we used electric field gradients to give the atom interference pattern a phase shift that depends on atomic polarizability.

  11. Satellite bands of the RbCs molecule in the range of highly excited states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakić, Mario; Beuc, Robert; Bouloufa-Maafa, Nadia; Dulieu, Olivier; Vexiau, Romain; Pichler, Goran; Skenderović, Hrvoje

    2016-05-01

    We report on the observation of three RbCs satellite bands in the blue and green ranges of the visible spectrum. Absorption measurements are performed using all-sapphire cell filled with a mixture of Rb and Cs. We compare high resolution absorption spectrum of Rb-Cs vapor mixture with pure Rb and Cs vapor spectra from the literature. After detailed analysis, the new satellite bands of RbCs molecule at 418.3 nm, 468.3, and 527.5 nm are identified. The origin of these bands is discussed by direct comparison with difference potentials derived from quantum chemistry calculations of RbCs potential energy curves. These bands originate from the lower Rydberg states of the RbCs molecule. This study thus provides further insight into photoassociation of lower Rydberg molecular states, approximately between Cs(7s) + Rb(5s) and Cs(6s) + Rb(6p) asymptotes, in ultracold gases.

  12. Dual-species Bose-Einstein condensate of {sup 87}Rb and {sup 133}Cs

    SciTech Connect

    McCarron, D. J.; Cho, H. W.; Jenkin, D. L.; Koeppinger, M. P.; Cornish, S. L.

    2011-07-15

    We report the formation of a dual-species Bose-Einstein condensate of {sup 87}Rb and {sup 133}Cs in the same trapping potential. Our method exploits the efficient sympathetic cooling of {sup 133}Cs via elastic collisions with {sup 87}Rb, initially in a magnetic quadrupole trap and subsequently in a levitated optical trap. The two condensates each contain up to 2x10{sup 4} atoms and exhibit a striking phase separation, revealing the mixture to be immiscible due to strong repulsive interspecies interactions. Sacrificing all the {sup 87}Rb during the cooling, we create single-species {sup 133}Cs condensates of up to 6x10{sup 4} atoms.

  13. In-situ Dehydration Studies of Fully K- Rb- and Cs-exchanged Natrolites

    SciTech Connect

    Y Lee; D Seoung; D Liu; M Park; S Hong; H Chen; J Bai; C Kao; T Vogt; Y Lee

    2011-12-31

    In-situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction studies of K-, Rb-, and Cs-exchanged natrolites between room temperature and 425 C revealed that the dehydrated phases with collapsed frameworks start to form at 175, 150, and 100 C, respectively. The degree of the framework collapse indicated by the unit-cell volume contraction depends on the size of the non-framework cation: K-exchanged natrolite undergoes an 18.8% unit-cell volume contraction when dehydrated at 175 C, whereas Rb- and Cs-exchanged natrolites show unit-cell volume contractions of 18.5 and 15.2% at 150 and 100 C, respectively. In the hydrated phases, the dehydration-induced unit-cell volume reduction diminishes as the cation size increases and reveals increasingly a negative slope as smaller cations are substituted into the pores of the natrolite structure. The thermal expansion of the unit-cell volumes of the dehydrated K-, Rb-, and Cs-phases have positive thermal expansion coefficients of 8.80 x 10{sup -5} K{sup -1}, 1.03 x 10{sup -4} K{sup 01}, and 5.06 x 10{sup -5} K{sup -1}, respectively. Rietveld structure refinements of the dehydrated phases at 400 C reveal that the framework collapses are due to an increase of the chain rotation angles, {Psi}, which narrow the channels to a more elliptical shape. Compared to their respective hydrated structures at ambient conditions, the dehydrated K-exchanged natrolite at 400 C shows a 2.2-fold increase in {Psi}, whereas the dehydrated Rb- and Cs-natrolites at 400 C reveal increases of {Psi} by ca. 3.7 and 7.3 times, respectively. The elliptical channel openings of the dehydrated K-, Rb-, to Cs-phases become larger as the cation size increases. The disordered non-framework cations in the hydrated K-, Rb-, and Cs-natrolite order during dehydration and the subsequent framework collapse. The dehydrated phases of Rb- and Cs-natrolite can be stabilized at ambient conditions.

  14. Elastic scattering of electrons from Rb, Cs and Fr atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangwar, R. K.; Tripathi, A. N.; Sharma, L.; Srivastava, R.

    2010-04-01

    Differential, integrated elastic, momentum-transfer and total cross sections as well as differential S, T and U spin parameters for scattering of electrons from rubidium, caesium and francium atoms in the incident energy range up to 300 eV are calculated using a relativistic Dirac equation. The projectile electron-target atom interaction is represented by both real and complex parameter-free optical potentials for obtaining the solution of a Dirac equation for scattered electrons. The Dirac-Fock wavefunctions have been used to represent the Rb, Cs and Fr target atoms. The results of differential cross sections and spin asymmetry parameter S for e-Rb and e-Cs have been compared with the available experimental and theoretical results. Detailed results are reported for the elastic scattering of electrons from the ground states of a francium atom for the first time in the wide range of incident electron energies. The results of electron-Fr elastic scattering show the similar features to those obtained in the case of e-Rb and e-Cs elastic scattering.

  15. Insights into the structures of the gas-phase hydrated cations M⁺(H₂O)(n)Ar (M = Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs; n = 3-5) using infrared photodissociation spectroscopy and thermodynamic analysis.

    PubMed

    Ke, Haochen; van der Linde, Christian; Lisy, James M

    2015-03-12

    The hydration of alkali cations yields a variety of structural conformers with varying numbers of water molecules in the first solvation shell. How these ions move from the aqueous phase into biological systems, such as at the entrance of an ion channel, depends on the interplay between competing intermolecular forces, which first must involve ion-water and water-water interactions. New infrared action spectra, using argon as a messenger or "spy", for Li(+), Na(+), and K(+), with up to five water molecules are reported, and new structural conformers determined from ab initio calculations, combined with previous results on Rb(+) and Cs(+), have identified structural transitions at each hydration level. These transitions are a result of the delicate balance between competing noncovalent interactions and represent a quantitative microscopic view of the macroscopic enthalpy-entropy competition between energy and structural variety. Smaller cations (Li(+) and Na(+)), with higher charge density, yield structural configurations with extended linear networks of hydrogen bonds. Larger cations (Rb(+) and Cs(+)), with lower charge density, generate configurations with cyclic hydrogen-bonded water subunits. It appears that K(+) is somewhat unique, with very simple (and predominantly) single structural conformers. This has led to the suggestion that K(+) can "move" easily in or through biological systems, concealing its identity as an ion, under the "appearance" or disguise of a water molecule. PMID:25651135

  16. Measurements of the Ground-State Polarizabilities of Cs, Rb, and K using Atom Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregoire, Maxwell; Hromada, Ivan; Holmgren, William; Trubko, Raisa; Cronin, Alex

    2016-05-01

    We measured the ground-state static electric-dipole polarizabilities of Cs, Rb, and K atoms with 0.2% uncertainty using a three-nanograting Mach-Zehnder atom beam interferometer. Since thermal Cs atoms have short de Broglie wavelengths, we developed measurement methods that do not require resolved atom diffraction: we used phase choppers to measure atomic beam velocity distributions, and electric field gradients to induce polarizability-dependent phase shifts. Our measurements provide benchmark tests for atomic structure calculations and thus test the underlying theory used to interpret atomic parity non-conservation experiments.

  17. Electron Impact Ionization Cross Sections in Rb and Cs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddish, T. J.; Lukomski, M.; Sutton, S.; Kedzierski, W.; McConkey, J. W.; Bartschat, K.; Bartlett, P. L.; Stelbovics, A. T.; Bray, I.

    2006-05-01

    We present a new atom trapping technique for determining absolute, total ionisation cross sections (TICS) out of an excited atom. The novel feature of this method is in utilizing Doppler cooling of neutral atoms to determine ionisation cross sections. This fluorescence-monitoring experiment, which is a variant of the `trap loss' technique, has enabled us to obtain the experimental electron impact ionisation cross sections out of the Cs 6^2P3/2 excited state between 7 - 400 eV. New CCC, R-Matrix with Pseudo-States (RMPS), and Born approximation single ionisation cross sections (SICS) are also presented for both the ground and excited states of Cs and Rb, and compared with the available experimental data. The comparison of the results reveals the importance of the autoionisation and multiple ionisation contributions to the TICS. The autoionisation contribution appears to be substantial for ionisation out of the Cs 6^2P and Rb 5^2P excited states; ˜ 3-4 larger than the direct ionisation contribution predicted by CCC at ˜ 30-50 eV. This surprising result shows the importance of multi-electron processes in determining the ionisation cross sections of heavy alkali atoms.

  18. Half-metallic ferromagnetism of RbSe and CsTe compounds: A density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Huan-Huan; Ma, Run-Yu; Gao, Qiang; Li, Lei; Deng, Jian-Bo

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the electronic structures and magnetic properties of RbSe and CsTe compounds in CsCl, RS and ZB structures by using density functional theory calculation. It is shown that these two compounds exhibit half-metallic ferromagnetism with an integer magnetic moment of 1.00 μB per formula unit in all the three structures. Total energy calculations indicate the CsCl phase is more stable than the other two phases. We investigate these two compounds with CsCl structure in detail. The ferromagnetism results mainly from the spin-polarization of p states of anion Se (Te) for the two compounds.

  19. Investigation of substitution effects and the phase transition in type-I clathrates Rb{sub x}Cs{sub 8-x}Sn{sub 44}square{sub 2} (1.3<=x<=2.1) using single-crystal X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, heat capacity and electrical resistivity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Kaltzoglou, Andreas; Faessler, Thomas F.; Gold, Christian; Scheidt, Ernst-Wilhelm; Scherer, Wolfgang; Kume, Tetsuji; Shimizu, Hiroyasu

    2009-10-15

    The substitution of cations in Rb{sub x}Cs{sub 8-x}Sn{sub 44}square{sub 2}(1.3<=x<=2.1) is reported. The compounds crystallize at room temperature in the space group la3-bard adopting the type-I clathrate 2x2x2 superstructure with partly ordered framework vacancies (square), whereas at higher temperatures they transform to the primitive, more disordered modification (space group Pm3-barn). The guest atom distributions in the Sn cages on the Rb: Cs ratios is studied by means of single-crystal X-ray diffraction for Rb{sub 2.1(1)}Cs{sub 5.8(1)}Sn{sub 44} at T=293 K (1), Rb{sub 1.42(8)}Cs{sub 6.58(8)}Sn{sub 44} at T=293 K (2a), Rb{sub 1.46(5)}Cs{sub 6.54(5)}Sn{sub 44} at T=373 K (2b) and Rb{sub 1.32(8)}Cs{sub 6.68(8)}Sn{sub 44} at T=293 K (3). The structural order-disorder phase transition influences the electrical resistivity. The hysteresis observed for the electrical resistivity in combination with the symmetric shape of the specific heat anomaly suggests that the transformation is of first-order type and is characterized by an entropy change of about 2.5 J mol{sup -1} K{sup -1}. The Raman spectrum for the low-temperature modification of 2 is also reported. - Graphical Abstract: The effects of substitution of cations in the type-I clathrates Rb{sub x}Cs{sub 8-x}Sn{sub 44} (1.3<=x<=2.1) are reported. The distribution of the guests in the Sn cages under different reaction stoichiometries and annealing times is studied by X-ray diffraction. A structural phase transition in Rb{sub 1.4}Cs{sub 6.6}Sn{sub 44} at 333-363 K affects significantly the electrical resistivity and heat capacity.

  20. New-Structure-Type Fe-Based Superconductors: CaAFe4As4 (A = K, Rb, Cs) and SrAFe4As4 (A = Rb, Cs).

    PubMed

    Iyo, Akira; Kawashima, Kenji; Kinjo, Tatsuya; Nishio, Taichiro; Ishida, Shigeyuki; Fujihisa, Hiroshi; Gotoh, Yoshito; Kihou, Kunihiro; Eisaki, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Yoshiyuki

    2016-03-16

    Fe-based superconductors have attracted research interest because of their rich structural variety, which is due to their layered crystal structures. Here we report the new-structure-type Fe-based superconductors CaAFe4As4 (A = K, Rb, Cs) and SrAFe4As4 (A = Rb, Cs), which can be regarded as hybrid phases between AeFe2As2 (Ae = Ca, Sr) and AFe2As2. Unlike solid solutions such as (Ba(1-x)K(x))Fe2As2 and (Sr(1-x)Na(x))Fe2As2, Ae and A do not occupy crystallographically equivalent sites because of the large differences between their ionic radii. Rather, the Ae and A layers are inserted alternately between the Fe2As2 layers in the c-axis direction in AeAFe4As4 (AeA1144). The ordering of the Ae and A layers causes a change in the space group from I4/mmm to P4/mmm, which is clearly apparent in powder X-ray diffraction patterns. AeA1144 is the first known structure of this type among not only Fe-based superconductors but also other materials. AeA1144 is formed as a line compound, and therefore, each AeA1144 has its own superconducting transition temperature of approximately 31-36 K. PMID:26943024

  1. Cation ordering and effect of biaxial strain in double perovskite CsRbCaZnCl6

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pilania, G.; Uberuaga, B. P.

    2015-03-19

    Here, we investigate the electronic structure, energetics of cation ordering, and effect of biaxial strain on double perovskite CsRbCaZnCl6 using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. The two constituents (i.e., CsCaCl3 and RbZnCl3) forming the double perovskite exhibit a stark contrast. While CsCaCl3 is known to exist in a cubic perovskite structure and does not show any epitaxial strain induced phase transitions within an experimentally accessible range of compressive strains, RbZnCl3 is thermodynamically unstable in the perovskite phase and exhibits ultra-sensitive response at small epitaxial strains if constrained in the perovskite phase. We show that combining the two compositionsmore » in a double perovskite structure not only improves overall stability but also the strain-polarization coupling of the material. Our calculations predict a ground state with P4/nmm space group for the double perovskite, where A-site cations (i.e., Cs and Rb) are layer-ordered and B-site cations (i.e., Ca and Zn) prefer a rocksalt type ordering. The electronic structure and bandgap in this system are shown to be quite sensitive to the B-site cation ordering and is minimally affected by the ordering of A-site cations. We find that at experimentally accessible compressive strains CsRbCaZnCl6 can be phase transformed from its paraelectric ground state to an antiferroelectric state, where Zn atoms contribute predominantly to the polarization. Furthermore, both energy difference and activation barrier for a transformation between this antiferroelectric state and the corresponding ferroelectric configuration are predicted to be small. As a result, the computational approach presented here opens a new pathway towards a rational design of novel double perovskites with improved strain response and functionalities.« less

  2. Cation ordering and effect of biaxial strain in double perovskite CsRbCaZnCl6

    SciTech Connect

    Pilania, G.; Uberuaga, B. P.

    2015-03-19

    Here, we investigate the electronic structure, energetics of cation ordering, and effect of biaxial strain on double perovskite CsRbCaZnCl6 using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. The two constituents (i.e., CsCaCl3 and RbZnCl3) forming the double perovskite exhibit a stark contrast. While CsCaCl3 is known to exist in a cubic perovskite structure and does not show any epitaxial strain induced phase transitions within an experimentally accessible range of compressive strains, RbZnCl3 is thermodynamically unstable in the perovskite phase and exhibits ultra-sensitive response at small epitaxial strains if constrained in the perovskite phase. We show that combining the two compositions in a double perovskite structure not only improves overall stability but also the strain-polarization coupling of the material. Our calculations predict a ground state with P4/nmm space group for the double perovskite, where A-site cations (i.e., Cs and Rb) are layer-ordered and B-site cations (i.e., Ca and Zn) prefer a rocksalt type ordering. The electronic structure and bandgap in this system are shown to be quite sensitive to the B-site cation ordering and is minimally affected by the ordering of A-site cations. We find that at experimentally accessible compressive strains CsRbCaZnCl6 can be phase transformed from its paraelectric ground state to an antiferroelectric state, where Zn atoms contribute predominantly to the polarization. Furthermore, both energy difference and activation barrier for a transformation between this antiferroelectric state and the corresponding ferroelectric configuration are predicted to be small. As a result, the computational approach presented here opens a new pathway towards a rational design of novel double perovskites with improved strain response and functionalities.

  3. Cation ordering and effect of biaxial strain in double perovskite CsRbCaZnCl{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Pilania, G. Uberuaga, B. P.

    2015-03-21

    Here, we investigate the electronic structure, energetics of cation ordering, and effect of biaxial strain on double perovskite CsRbCaZnCl{sub 6} using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. The two constituents (i.e., CsCaCl{sub 3} and RbZnCl{sub 3}) forming the double perovskite exhibit a stark contrast. While CsCaCl{sub 3} is known to exist in a cubic perovskite structure and does not show any epitaxial strain induced phase transitions within an experimentally accessible range of compressive strains, RbZnCl{sub 3} is thermodynamically unstable in the perovskite phase and exhibits ultra-sensitive response at small epitaxial strains if constrained in the perovskite phase. We show that combining the two compositions in a double perovskite structure not only improves overall stability but also the strain-polarization coupling of the material. Our calculations predict a ground state with P4/nmm space group for the double perovskite, where A-site cations (i.e., Cs and Rb) are layer-ordered and B-site cations (i.e., Ca and Zn) prefer a rocksalt type ordering. The electronic structure and bandgap in this system are shown to be quite sensitive to the B-site cation ordering and is minimally affected by the ordering of A-site cations. We find that at experimentally accessible compressive strains CsRbCaZnCl{sub 6} can be phase transformed from its paraelectric ground state to an antiferroelectric state, where Zn atoms contribute predominantly to the polarization. Furthermore, both energy difference and activation barrier for a transformation between this antiferroelectric state and the corresponding ferroelectric configuration are predicted to be small. The computational approach presented here opens a new pathway towards a rational design of novel double perovskites with improved strain response and functionalities.

  4. Narrow 87Rb and 133Cs hyperfine transitions in evacuated wall-coated cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, H. G.; Johnson, C. E.

    1983-01-01

    An extension of work on wall-coated cells was made to include observation by a triple resonance technique of the 0-0 hyperfine transitions in 87Rb and 133Cs. Conventional RF excited lamps were used. Interest in such cells is for possible application in atomic clocks. The Rb cell would appear to remain especially promising in this respect.

  5. Improved tests of local position invariance using 87Rb and 133Cs fountains.

    PubMed

    Guéna, J; Abgrall, M; Rovera, D; Rosenbusch, P; Tobar, M E; Laurent, Ph; Clairon, A; Bize, S

    2012-08-24

    We report tests of local position invariance based on measurements of the ratio of the ground state hyperfine frequencies of 133Cs and 87Rb in laser-cooled atomic fountain clocks. Measurements extending over 14 years set a stringent limit to a possible variation with time of this ratio: d ln(ν(Rb)/ν(Cs))/dt=(-1.39±0.91)×10(-16) yr(-1). This improves by a factor of 7.7 over our previous report [H. Marion et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 150801 (2003)]. Our measurements also set the first limit to a fractional variation of the Rb/Cs frequency ratio with gravitational potential at the level of c(2)d ln(ν(Rb)/ν(Cs))/dU=(0.11±1.04)×10(-6), providing a new stringent differential redshift test. The above limits equivalently apply to the fractional variation of the quantity α(-0.49)(g(Rb)/g(Cs)), which involves the fine-structure constant α and the ratio of the nuclear g-factors of the two alkalis. The link with variations of the light quark mass is also presented together with a global analysis combining other available highly accurate clock comparisons. PMID:23002732

  6. Superconductivity in Fe-Based Compound EuAFe4As4 (A = Rb and Cs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Kenji; Kinjo, Tatsuya; Nishio, Taichiro; Ishida, Shigeyuki; Fujihisa, Hiroshi; Gotoh, Yoshito; Kihou, Kunihiro; Eisaki, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Yoshiyuki; Iyo, Akira

    2016-06-01

    We report the discovery of a novel Fe-based superconductor EuAFe4As4 (A = Rb, Cs) and describe its superconducting properties. EuAFe4As4 has a tetragonal unit cell with a P4/mmm (No. 123) space group, indicating that this material is an 1144-type compound. The magnetic susceptibility and electrical resistivity indicate superconducting transitions at approximately 36 and 35 K for EuRbFe4As4 and EuCsFe4As4, respectively. Moreover, an anomalous magnetic transition appears at approximately 15 K, suggesting the coexistence of superconductivity and a magnetic ordered state formed by the Eu2+ ions. The determined upper critical magnetic fields and coherence lengths are approximately 920 kOe and 1.8 nm for EuRbFe4As4 and 875 kOe and 1.9 nm for EuCsFe4As4, respectively.

  7. Syntheses, crystal structure, and electronic properties of the five ABaMQ4 compounds RbBaPS4, CsBaPS4, CsBaVS4, RbBaVSe4, and CsBaVSe4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesbah, Adel; Prakash, Jai; Rocca, Dario; Lebègue, Sébastien; Beard, Jessica C.; Lewis, Benjamin A.; Ibers, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Five new compounds belonging to the ABaMQ4 family were synthesized by solid-state chemistry at 1123 K. The compounds RbBaPS4, CsBaPS4, CsBaVS4, RbBaVSe4, and CsBaVSe4 are isostructural and have the TlEuPS4 structure type. They crystallize in space group D162h - Pnma of the orthorhombic system. Their structure consists isolated MQ4 tetrahedra separated by A and Ba atoms to form a salt-like structure. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations of the electronic structures with the use of the HSE functional suggest that the compounds are semiconductors with calculated band gaps of 3.3 eV (RbBaPS4), 3.4 eV (CsBaPS4), 2.3 eV (CsBaVS4), and 1.6 eV (RbBaVSe4).

  8. Theoretical study of the spectral shift of the absorption line of Rb and Cs in liquid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modesto-Costa, Lucas; Mukherjee, Prasanta K.; Canuto, Sylvio

    2015-07-01

    A combined and sequential use of Monte Carlo simulation and time-dependent density functional theory is made to obtain the excitation line shifts and widths of Rb and Cs embedded in liquid 4He. In each case calculations are made on 100 statistically uncorrelated configurations with Rb (Cs) surrounded by nearly 60 He atoms treated explicitly. Different basis sets and functionals are used for obtaining the blue shifts of the absorption lines 5s → 5p of Rb and 6s → 6p of Cs. Estimate of the line broadening is also made and results for both the shift and broadening are obtained in good agreement with experiment.

  9. Molecular spectroscopy for ground-state transfer of ultracold RbCs molecules.

    PubMed

    Debatin, Markus; Takekoshi, Tetsu; Rameshan, Raffael; Reichsöllner, Lukas; Ferlaino, Francesca; Grimm, Rudolf; Vexiau, Romain; Bouloufa, Nadia; Dulieu, Olivier; Nägerl, Hanns-Christoph

    2011-11-14

    We perform one- and two-photon high resolution spectroscopy on ultracold samples of RbCs Feshbach molecules with the aim to identify a suitable route for efficient ground-state transfer in the quantum-gas regime to produce quantum gases of dipolar RbCs ground-state molecules. One-photon loss spectroscopy allows us to probe deeply bound rovibrational levels of the mixed excited (A(1)Σ(+)-b(3)Π)0(+) molecular states. Two-photon dark state spectroscopy connects the initial Feshbach state to the rovibronic ground state. We determine the binding energy of the lowest rovibrational level |v'' = 0, J'' = 0> of the X(1)Σ(+) ground state to be D = 3811.5755(16) cm(-1), a 300-fold improvement in accuracy with respect to previous data. We are now in the position to perform stimulated two-photon Raman transfer to the rovibronic ground state. PMID:21853182

  10. Channel waveguides on RbTiOPO4 by Cs+ ion exchange.

    PubMed

    Cugat, J; Solé, R; Carvajal, J J; Mateos, X; Massons, J; Lifante, G; Díaz, F; Aguiló, M

    2013-02-01

    In this Letter we report Cs(+) ion exchange channel waveguides on RbTiOPO(4) (RTP) for what we believe is the first time. A Ti channel mask was fabricated on an RTP substrate by conventional photolithography. The ion exchange process was carried out in a CsNO(3) melt, and the channels produced ranged from 6 to 11 μm in width. The near-field pattern of the modes was recorded, and type II second harmonic generation in waveguide regime was obtained, producing 512.5 nm green light. The optical characterization shows optical losses of 3.8 dB/cm.

  11. Completion of the alkali metal titanium (III) pyrophosphate series: Synthesis and structure of AITiP 2O 7 ( AI = K, Rb, Cs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shumin; Hwu, Shiou-Jyh

    1991-05-01

    The structure of a new titanium (III) pyrophosphate RbTiP 2O 7 has been determined. It crystallizes in a monoclinic unit cell ( {P2 1}/{c}, Z = 4 ) with dimensions a = 7.542 (7) Å, b = 10.256 (2) Å, c = 8.270 (3) Å, β = 105.59 (5)°, V = 616.2 (6) Å 3. The single crystal structure refinement gives a final structure solution with R index on F20 of 0.046 for 101 variables and GOF = 1.76. RbTiP 2O 7 is isostructural with KAlP 2O 7, whose structure is also adopted by trivalent transition metal containing pyrophosphates; namely MIMoP 2O 7 ( MI = K, Rb, and Cs) and KFeP 2O 7. The potassium and cesium analogues are also synthesized. The structure differences between LiTiP 2O 7, NaTiP 2O 7 (β-phase), and (K,Rb,Cs)TiP 2O 7 are contrasted by the connectivity of the TiO 6 octahedra and P 2O 7 pyrophosphate groups. The structural relationship between RbTiP 2O 7 and previously reported BaTi 2(P 2O 7) 2 versus the role of electropositive cations in the formation of Ti(P 2O 7) nO 6-2 n units ( n is 1 for Rb + and 2 for Ba 2+) are discussed.

  12. Four new hydroxymonophosphates with closely related intersecting tunnels structures: The series AMIII(PO 3(OH)) 2 with A=Rb, Cs; M=Fe, Al, Ga, In

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesage, J.; Adam, L.; Guesdon, A.; Raveau, B.

    2007-06-01

    The family of hydroxymonophosphates of generic formula AMIII(PO 3(OH)) 2 has been revisited using hydrothermal techniques. Four new phases have been synthesized: CsIn(PO 3(OH)) 2, RbFe(PO 3(OH)) 2, RbGa(PO 3(OH)) 2 and RbAl(PO 3(OH)) 2. Single crystal diffraction studies show that they exhibit two different structural types from previously observed other phases with A=H 3O, NH 4, Rb and M=Al, V, Fe. The "Cs-In" and "Rb-Fe" phosphates crystallize in the triclinic space group P1¯, with the cell parameters a=7.4146(3) Å, b=9.0915(3) Å, c=9.7849(3) Å, α=65.525(3)°, β=70.201(3)°, γ=69.556(3)° and V=547.77(4) Å 3 ( Z=3) for CsIn(PO 3(OH)) 2 and a=7.2025(4) Å, b=8.8329(8) Å, c=9.4540(8) Å, α=65.149(8)°, β=70.045(6)°, γ=69.591(6)° and V=497.44(8) Å 3 ( Z=3) for α-RbFe(PO 3(OH)) 2. The "Rb-Al" and "Rb-Ga" phosphates crystallize in the R 3¯c space group, with a=8.0581(18) Å and c=51.081(12) Å ( V=2872.5(11) Å 3 and Z=18) for RbAl(PO 3(OH)) 2 and a=8.1188(15) Å and c=51.943(4) Å ( V=2965(8) Å and Z=18) for RbGa(PO 3(OH)) 2. These two structural types are closely related. Both are built up from MIIIO6 octahedra sharing their apices with PO 3(OH) tetrahedra to form [M 3(PO 3OH) 6] units, but the latter exhibits a different configuration of their tetrahedra. The three-dimensional host-lattices result from the connection of the [ M3(PO 3OH) 6] units and they present numerous intersecting tunnels containing the monovalent cations.

  13. First-principle study of half-metallic ferromagnetism in rocksalt XO (X=Li, K, Rb, Cs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Gang; Liu, Xiao-Xiong; Xie, Huan-Huan; Li, Lei; Gao, Qiang; Deng, Jian-Bo

    2016-01-01

    By using first-principles calculation, we have studied the structure, electronic and magnetic properties of XO (X=Li, K, Rb, Cs) at equilibrium lattice constant in the rocksalt structure. The calculations reveal that the ferromagnetic phase of these compounds is more stable than the nonferromagnetic phase ones and they can be synthetized. All the compounds show half-metallic behaviors at equilibrium lattice constant with an integer magnetic moment of 1μB per formula unit. The half-metallic band gap of these compounds is very large and all the compounds keep their half-metallic characteristic in a wide range of lattice constants. Therefore, we expect that they can be useful in spintronic applications.

  14. K Rb Cs partitioning between phlogopite and fluid: experiments and consequences for the LILE signatures of island arc basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melzer, Stefan; Wunder, Bernd

    2001-10-01

    The distribution of Rb-K and Cs-K between phlogopite and 1- to 2-m aqueous (K,Rb,Cs)-chloride solutions was investigated at 800 °C and pressures of 0.2, 2 and 4 GPa. Phlogopite of the solid solution binaries KAlMg 3Si 3O 10(OH) 2 (phlogopite)-RbAlMg 3Si 3O 10(OH) 2 (Rb-phlogopite) and KAlMg 3Si 3O 10(OH) 2-CsAlMg 3Si 3O 10(OH) 2 (Cs-phlogopite) formed within the experiments according to the chemical exchange vectors XIIK -1+XIIRb 1+ and XIIK -1+XIICs 1+ involving the interlayer sites. The compositions of phlogopite and coexisting fluids were determined from EMP and ICP analyses, respectively. The following K-Rb and K-Cs exchange coefficients KDphl-fluid between phlogopite and fluid were derived by extrapolating the measured Rb and Cs concentrations to the parts per million range, for which Henry's law is valid: KDphl-fluid(Rb-K): 1.71±0.06 at 0.2 GPa, 2.73±0.10 at 2 GPa and 2.76±0.15 at 4 GPa and KDphl-fluid(Cs-K): 0.57±0.05 at 0.2 GPa, 0.73±0.09 at 2 GPa and 0.93±0.26 at 4 GPa. Based on the contrasting and slightly pressure-dependent fractionation behaviour of Rb and Cs relative to K between phlogopite and hydrous fluids—Rb preferentially partitions into phlogopite, whereas Cs fractionates into the fluid—variations in the large ion lithophile element (LILE) ratios within rocks and infiltrated fluids, as a result of formation or breakdown of phlogopite, are discussed by applying models of Rayleigh fractionation and ion exchange processes operating in a one-dimensional chromatographic rock column. Assuming significant amounts of metasomatically formed phlogopite within the mantle wedge, calculations using the chromatographic column model, led to Cs/K ratios significantly lower than those observed for island arc basalts (IAB). We therefore propose that metasomatic formation of phlogopite within the mantle wedge should be limited and does not significantly influence the LILE characteristics of IAB.

  15. The RbCs X(1)Sigma(+) Ground Electronic State: New Spectroscopic Study.

    PubMed

    Fellows; Gutterres; Campos; Vergès; Amiot

    1999-09-01

    In this paper a new spectroscopic investigation on the X(1)Sigma(+) electronic ground state of the RbCs molecule is reported. This study is conducted by using laser-induced fluorescence combined with Fourier transform spectroscopy (LIF-FTS). More than 23 000 spectral data are used in a global linear reduction to molecular constants. With these new and improved molecular constants, the potential energy curve has been calculated by the inverted perturbation approach (IPA). Accurate values for the dissociation energy and the long-range parameters have been derived. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  16. A controllable double-well magneto-optical trap for Rb and Cs atoms.

    PubMed

    Lin, C T; Chen, C R; Yang, I H; Yin, Jianping; Han, D J

    2008-04-28

    We experimentally demonstrate a novel scheme to simultaneously confine two atomic species of (87)Rb and (133)Cs with adjustable spatial separation by a controllable double-well magneto-optic trap. Using a single-loop wire and a magnetic bias field, the two clouds, each containing more than 1 x 10(6) atoms, are spatially separated above and below the wire center of the double-well MOT. The cloud interdistance can be controlled by independently varying the wire current and external bias field. This allows to load the double-well magnetic trap, and to study the dynamics of cold collisions between two-species atoms.

  17. Ground electronic states of RbO2+, CsO2+ and FrO2: the ionization energies of RbO2 and CsO2.

    PubMed

    Lee, Edmond P F; Wright, Timothy G

    2005-04-14

    Calculations are performed to establish the ground electronic states of RbO2+, CsO2+, and FrO2. In the case of the cations, both linear and C2v orientations were considered; for FrO2, the two lowest electronic states, 2A2 and 2B2, were considered in C2v symmetry. In addition, calculations were also performed on the x2 A2 ground states of RbO2 and CsO2 to derive ionization energies. Binding energies and heats of formation are also derived. The bonding in FrO2 is found to be less ionic than that of RbO2 and CsO2. PMID:16833657

  18. New results on Efimov physics and the creation of RbCs molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferlaino, Francesca

    2011-05-01

    I will present new results from two different experiments on ultracold gases, both based on scattering length tunability near Feshbach resonances. In a first experiment, we investigate universal few-body physics with ultracold cesium atoms. We detect various Efimov states in a magnetic field range up to 1000G by measuring loss resonances in three-body recombination processes. We find in total five distinct Efimov resonances in the same spin channel, all resulting from different Feshbach resonances. Surprisingly, all Efimov resonances occur at the same value of the scattering length, which points to universality across all Feshbach resonances and rules out a significant variation of the three-body parameter. In a second experiment, we produce a degenerate or near-degenerate ultracold mixture of 87Rb and 133Cs atoms. We investigate the interspecies scattering properties by Feshbach spectroscopy and we determine the background inter-species scattering length to be unusually large and positive. Starting with magneto-associated Feshbach molecules, we perform spectroscopic measurements on the two-photon optical transition that will serve to transfer RbCs molecules to the rovibronic ground state via a STIRAP transfer scheme. This work constitutes a first step towards the production of a quantum gas of ground-state polar molecules.

  19. Magnetic-sublevel-independent magic wavelengths: Application to Rb and Cs atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sukhjit; Sahoo, B. K.; Arora, Bindiya

    2016-06-01

    A generic scheme to trap atoms at the magic wavelengths λmagic that are independent of vector and tensor components of the interactions of the atoms with the external electric field is presented. The λmagic for the laser cooling D2 lines in the Rb and Cs atoms are demonstrated and their corresponding polarizability values without vector and tensor contributions are given. Consequently, these λmagic are independent of magnetic sublevels and hyperfine levels of the atomic states involved in the transition, thus, they can offer unique approaches to carrying out many high-precision measurements with minimal systematics. Inevitably, the proposed technique can also be used for electronic or hyperfine transitions in other atomic systems.

  20. Room temperature light emission from the low-dimensional semiconductors AZrPS{sub 6} ( A = K, Rb, Cs).

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, S.; Szarko, J. M.; Yuhas, B. D.; Malliakas, C. D.; Chen, L. X.; Kanatzidis, M. G.

    2010-03-29

    The new semiconducting thiophosphate compounds KZrPS{sub 6}, RbZrPS{sub 6}, and CsZrPS{sub 6} exhibit red light emission at room temperature. The materials have longer photoluminescence lifetimes than most of the inorganic chalcogenide semiconductors. They can be solution processed into thin films for potential device fabrication.

  1. Communication: Hydration structure and polarization of heavy alkali ions: A first principles molecular dynamics study of Rb+ and Cs+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Takashi; Boero, Mauro

    2012-07-01

    Hydration structure and polarization of Rb+ and Cs+ in liquid water at ambient conditions were studied by first principles molecular dynamics. Our systematic analysis of the relevant electronic structures, based on maximally localized Wannier functions, revealed that the dipole moment of H2O molecules in the first solvation shell of the ions slightly increases with increasing the atomic number. We also found that the polarization of heavy alkali ions, particularly Cs+, tends to stabilize a peculiar asymmetric hydration structure with relevant consequences in the extraction of the harmful 137Cs resulting from nuclear wastes.

  2. Syntheses and properties of a series of chromium vanadates ACrV{sub 2}O{sub 7} (A=Na, K, Rb, Cs) with layered structure

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yonggang; Liang Jie; Wen Ting; Li Kuo; Wang Yingxia; Li Guobao; Liao Fuhui; Lin Jianhua

    2012-08-15

    A series of layered compounds ACrV{sub 2}O{sub 7} (A=Na, K, Rb, Cs) were investigated by means of powder X-ray diffraction technique, thermal analysis and IR spectroscopy. As a new member in this family, the structure of CsCrV{sub 2}O{sub 7} is confirmed by Rietveld refinement applying powder X-ray diffraction data. Isostructural NaCrV{sub 2}O{sub 7} was obtained by ion-exchange reaction of KCrV{sub 2}O{sub 7} in NaNO{sub 3} melt under 350 Degree-Sign C and was testified to be a metastable phase. These compounds crystallize in a monoclinic structure in the space group P2/c, and consist of planar CrV{sub 2}O{sub 7}{sup -} slabs interleaved by alkali-metal cations. ACrV{sub 2}O{sub 7} (A=K, Rb, Cs) present decreasing melting points and characteristic vibration of V=O bond in IR spectra. Magnetic measurements reveal weak antiferromagnetic interactions between Cr{sup 3+} cations in the isolated chains. - Graphical Abstract: A series of layered chromium vanadates ACrV{sub 2}O{sub 7} (A=Na, K, Rb, Cs) have been synthesized by direct solid state reactions and ion-exchange routes. The interlayer alkali-metal cations were testified ion-exchangeable by some smaller monovalent cations. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The entire family of ACrV{sub 2}O{sub 7} (A=Na, K, Rb, Cs) have been prepared via solid-state reactions and ion-exchange routes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CsCrV{sub 2}O{sub 7} and a metastable phase of NaCrV{sub 2}O{sub 7} (ie-NaCrV{sub 2}O{sub 7}) were synthesized for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural characterization, spectra features and physical property measurements were carried out contrastively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alkali-metal cations in the layered structure were testified to be ion-exchangeable with smaller monovalent ions.

  3. Singlet and triplet potentials of the ground-state atom pair Rb + Cs studied by Fourier-transform spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Docenko, O.; Tamanis, M.; Ferber, R.; Knoeckel, H.; Tiemann, E.

    2011-05-15

    A comprehensive study of the X {sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +} and a {sup 3}{Sigma}{sup +} electronic states of the Rb and Cs atom pair in RbCs is presented. Abundant spectroscopic data for the {sup 85}Rb{sup 133}Cs and {sup 87}Rb{sup 133}Cs isotopologues were obtained from Fourier-transform spectra of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) from the B {sup 1}{Pi} and (4){sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +} states to the a {sup 3}{Sigma}{sup +} (4549 transitions) and X {sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +} (15 709 transitions) states. The X {sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +} state data were complemented by about 15 500 transitions obtained by Fellows et al.[J. Mol. Spectrosc. 197, 19 (1999)]. LIF progressions to the a {sup 3}{Sigma}{sup +} state range from v{sub a}=0 to 37, reaching an outer turning point at 15.97 A. For the X {sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +} state, by analyzing LIF from the shelflike (4){sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}, the data are extended from v{sub x}=119 as observed in the above-cited paper to v{sub x}=129, extending the outer turning point from 10.7 to 17.55 A. From these data, potential energy curves were constructed simultaneously for both hyperfine coupled states X {sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +} and a {sup 3}{Sigma}{sup +} in a coupled-channels fitting routine. This allowed us to accurately model the potential close to the Rb(5s) + Cs(6s) atom-pair asymptote, which is required to simulate cold collision processes and to analyze the Feshbach resonances observed for {sup 87}Rb{sup 133}Cs by Pilch et al.[Phys. Rev. A 79, 042718 (2009)]. Dissociation energies were determined for the X {sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +} state as D{sub e}=3836.373(40) cm{sup -1} and for the a {sup 3}{Sigma}{sup +} state as D{sub e}=259.341(30) cm{sup -1}.

  4. First-principles study on the bulk and (1 1 1) surface half-metallicity of KS and RbS in CsCl structure

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Lei; Lei, Gang; Gao, Qiang; Deng, Jian-Bo; Hu, Xian-Ru

    2015-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Spin-polarized total and atomic DOS at S-(1 1 1) terminated slab and bulk in CsCl-type RbS. - Highlights: • The half metallic properties of CsCl-type RbS and KS have been studied. • The RbS's and KS's (1 1 1) slabs have been investigated. • Surface energy of RbS's and KS's (1 1 1) slabs are calculated. - Abstract: The electronic and magnetic properties of RbS and KS in CsCl structure have been investigated by using the full-potential local-orbital minimum-basis method. Calculating the relation between the total energies and lattice parameters for RbS and KS, we find out that the equilibrium lattice parameters are 4.02 Å and 3.84 Å for RbS and KS, respectively. According to our calculations in generalized gradient approximation approximation, both RbS and KS are half-metallic ferromagnets with the magnetic moments of 1 μ{sub B} per formula unit, and band gap of 4.287 eV for RbS and 4.395 eV for KS. We also have studied the electronic and magnetic properties of (1 1 1) surfaces of RbS and KS, and have found out that the half-metallicity of their bulk is preserved in all of those surfaces. Finally, through the calculations of formation energy of RbS and KS, it is found that their thin films are stable in the equilibrium conditions, and the Rb-terminated (1 1 1) slab of RbS and the K-terminated (1 1 1) slab of KS are more stable than their S-terminated (1 1 1) slabs. All of the above properties lead the compounds of RbS and KS in CsCl structure to be promising candidates for spintronic applications.

  5. Dry deposition of 88Rb and 138Cs from a boiling water reactor plume.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, S P; Gryning, S E; Karlberg, O; Lyck, E; Thykier-Nielsen, S

    1990-03-01

    Double tracer experiments were made in May 1981 at the Ringhals nuclear power plant in Sweden to investigate atmospheric-dispersion and dose models. Sulphurhexafluoride (SF6) and radioactive noble gases were released simultaneously from a 110-m stack and detected downwind at distances of 3-4 km. The experiments were made under near-neutral conditions. One-hour measurements at ground level yielded cross-wind profiles of SF6 concentrations and gamma radiation from the plume. In-situ gamma spectrometric measurements demonstrated a significant surplus of gamma rays from the noble gas daughters (88Rb and 138Cs) compared with those from the noble gases. This surplus was interpreted as due to dry deposition from the plume, and deposition velocities were estimated at 0.02-0.10 m s-1. These values are very high when compared with values recommended for calculating consequences of nuclear accidents. The high values are believed to be due to the very small size of the daughter particles.

  6. Dry deposition of 88Rb and 138Cs from a boiling water reactor plume.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, S P; Gryning, S E; Karlberg, O; Lyck, E; Thykier-Nielsen, S

    1990-03-01

    Double tracer experiments were made in May 1981 at the Ringhals nuclear power plant in Sweden to investigate atmospheric-dispersion and dose models. Sulphurhexafluoride (SF6) and radioactive noble gases were released simultaneously from a 110-m stack and detected downwind at distances of 3-4 km. The experiments were made under near-neutral conditions. One-hour measurements at ground level yielded cross-wind profiles of SF6 concentrations and gamma radiation from the plume. In-situ gamma spectrometric measurements demonstrated a significant surplus of gamma rays from the noble gas daughters (88Rb and 138Cs) compared with those from the noble gases. This surplus was interpreted as due to dry deposition from the plume, and deposition velocities were estimated at 0.02-0.10 m s-1. These values are very high when compared with values recommended for calculating consequences of nuclear accidents. The high values are believed to be due to the very small size of the daughter particles. PMID:2312294

  7. Potential Energy Surfaces of M+NG, M = K, RB, CS and NG = he, NE, AR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, L.; Weeks, David E.; Kedzoria, Gary S.

    2011-06-01

    Pressure broadening (PB) plays an important role in the operation of optically pumped alkali lasers (OPAL) by broadening the absorption features of the alkali metal via a perturbing noble gas. While sophisticated PB models exist, they require a knowledge of the interaction potentials involved to become predictive. As a first step toward studying the PB at work in OPAL systems, ab initio potential energy surfaces have been generated for a series of combinations of alkali metals (K, Rb, and Cs) and noble gas atoms (He, Ne, and Ar) which potentially may comprise such systems. These surfaces include the ground state X^2Σ1/2^+, as well as the excited states A^2Π1/2, A^2Π3/2, and B^2Σ^+1/2. They are calculated using the multi-configurational singles and doubles configuration interaction method, including the spin-orbit interaction through the use of two-component pseudopotentials, implemented in the COLUMBUS suite of molecular structure programs. Where possible, results are compared to both experimentally measured and previous theoretical predictions of spectroscopic constants as well as experimentally determined vibrational energy levels.

  8. Investigation on ultracold RbCs molecules in (2)0{sup +} long-range state below the Rb(5S{sub 1/2}) + Cs(6P{sub 1/2}) asymptote by high resolution photoassociation spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Jinpeng; Ji, Zhonghua; Li, Zhonghao; Zhao, Yanting Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang

    2015-07-28

    We present high resolution photoassociation spectroscopy of RbCs molecules in (2)0{sup +} long-range state below the Rb(5S{sub 1/2}) + Cs(6P{sub 1/2}) asymptote and derive the corresponding C{sub 6} coefficient, which is used to revise the potential energy curves. The excited state molecules are produced in a dual-species dark spontaneous force optical trap and detected by ionizing ground state molecules after spontaneous decay, using a high sensitive time-of-flight mass spectrum. With the help of resonance-enhanced two-photon ionization technique, we obtain considerable high resolution photoassociation spectrum with rovibrational states, some of which have never been observed before. By applying the LeRoy-Bernstein method, we assign the vibrational quantum numbers and deduce C{sub 6} coefficient, which agrees with the theoretical value of A{sup 1}Σ{sup +} state correlated to Rb(5S{sub 1/2}) + Cs(6P{sub 1/2}) asymptote. The obtained C{sub 6} coefficient is used to revise the long-range potential energy curve for (2)0{sup +} state, which possesses unique A − b mixing characteristic and can be a good candidate for the production of absolutely ground state molecule.

  9. Emergent Kondo Lattice Behavior in Iron-Based Superconductors A Fe2As2 (A =K , Rb, Cs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y. P.; Zhao, D.; Wang, A. F.; Wang, N. Z.; Xiang, Z. J.; Luo, X. G.; Wu, T.; Chen, X. H.

    2016-04-01

    Here, we experimentally study the origin of d -electron heavy fermion (HF) behavior in iron-based superconductors (FeSCs) A Fe2As2 (A =K , Rb, Cs). Nuclear magnetic resonance on 75As reveals a universal coherent-incoherent crossover with a characteristic temperature T*. Below T*, a so-called "Knight shift anomaly" is first observed in FeSCs, which exhibits a scaling behavior similar to f -electron HF materials. Furthermore, the scaling rule also regulates the manifestation of magnetic fluctuation. These results undoubtedly support an emergent Kondo lattice scenario for the d -electron HF behavior, which qualifies the A Fe2As2 (A =K , Rb, Cs) as d -electron HF superconductors.

  10. Emergent Kondo Lattice Behavior in Iron-Based Superconductors AFe_{2}As_{2} (A=K, Rb, Cs).

    PubMed

    Wu, Y P; Zhao, D; Wang, A F; Wang, N Z; Xiang, Z J; Luo, X G; Wu, T; Chen, X H

    2016-04-01

    Here, we experimentally study the origin of d-electron heavy fermion (HF) behavior in iron-based superconductors (FeSCs) AFe_{2}As_{2} (A=K, Rb, Cs). Nuclear magnetic resonance on ^{75}As reveals a universal coherent-incoherent crossover with a characteristic temperature T^{*}. Below T^{*}, a so-called "Knight shift anomaly" is first observed in FeSCs, which exhibits a scaling behavior similar to f-electron HF materials. Furthermore, the scaling rule also regulates the manifestation of magnetic fluctuation. These results undoubtedly support an emergent Kondo lattice scenario for the d-electron HF behavior, which qualifies the AFe_{2}As_{2} (A=K, Rb, Cs) as d-electron HF superconductors. PMID:27104721

  11. Analysis of strongly coupled electronic states in diatomic molecules: Low-lying excited states of RbCs

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeman, T.; Fellows, C.E.; Gutterres, R.F.; Amiot, C.

    2003-05-01

    Analysis and assignment of spectra involving the lowest excited states of the heavier alkali-metal atom dimers are complicated by the strong spin-orbit coupling elements. Here we report an analysis of the Fourier-transform spectroscopy data from laser-induced fluorescence of the coupled A {sup 1}{sigma}{sup +} and b {sup 3}{pi} states of RbCs, using the discrete variable representation. Fitted parameters are given and special effects due to strong coupling are discussed.

  12. A full dimensional investigation of infrared spectroscopy of the RbCs dimer using the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Huihui; Yang, Yonggang Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang

    2013-12-28

    The geometry and infrared absorption spectrum of (RbCs){sub 2} have been studied by full dimensional quantum dynamics simulations. For this purpose, the potential energy and dipole moment surfaces are generated by means of a cluster expansion with all two and three mode correlations, and fitted to analytical expressions with negligible deviations. Accordingly, the ground state (RbCs){sub 2} has a diamond geometry with D{sub 2h} symmetry. The infrared spectrum with frequencies up to 120 cm{sup −1}, exhibits rich details of the fundamentals, overtones, and combination bands; the highest fundamental frequency of (RbCs){sub 2} is only 40.26 cm{sup −1}. The present study unravels important details of the interactions between the widely investigated ultracold RbCs molecules.

  13. Theoretical study of the low-lying electronic states of the RbCs+ molecular ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korek, M.; Allouche, A. R.

    2001-09-01

    The potential energy has been calculated over a wide range of internuclear distance for the 64 lowest molecular states of symmetry 2Σ+, 2Π, 2Δ, and Ω = ½, 3/2, 3/2 of the molecular ion RbCs+. This calculation has been done by using an ab initio method based on non-empirical pseudopotentials and parametrized l-dependent polarization potentials. We used Gaussian basis sets for both atoms and the spin-orbit effect has been taken into account through a non-empirical spin-orbit pseudopotential. For the four bound states (1) 2Σ+, (1) 2Π, (1) Ω = ½ and (1) Ω = 3/2 the main spectroscopic constants ωe, Be, and De have been derived. By replacing the rovibrational differential Schrödinger equation by a Volterra integral equation the wavefunction is given by Ψ = ∑i = 01{aifi}, where the coefficients ai are obtained from the boundary conditions of the wavefunction and fi are two well defined canonical functions. Using these functions the eigenvalues Ev, the rotational constants Bv and the centrifugal distortion constants Dv have been calculated for the four considered bound states up to v = 121 as well as the dipole moment functions and oscillator strengths for transitions between (1) 2Σ+ and (1) 2Π. No comparison of these values with other results is yet possible because they are given here for the first time. Extensive tables of energy values versus internuclear distance and the values of Ev, Bv and Dv are displayed at the following address: http://lasim.univ-lyon1.fr/allouche/rbcsplus

  14. Spin Frustration and Field-Induced Transitions of Modified Pyrochlore Fluorides ACr2F6 (A = Rb and Cs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Hiroaki; Matsuo, Akira; Kindo, Koichi; Yoshimura, Kazuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the magnetic properties of the modified pyrochlore fluorides ACr2F6 (A = Rb and Cs), which consist of antiferromagnetically interacting Cr3+ and Cr2+. Both systems have Curie-Weiss temperatures of about -40 K and exhibit magnetic ordering at about 17 K. Below the ordering temperatures, RbCr2F6 has a small spontaneous magnetic moment but not CsCr2F6. In a magnetic field, they exhibit a change in the slope of their magnetization curves at about 3 T, which is likely to be due to a spin flop. In addition, we found field-induced magnetic transitions of RbCr2F6 at 25 T, where it has a magnetic moment of about 4 μB per formula unit. The spin structure at about 25 T is considered to be a collinear one, in which all Cr2+ ions and half of the Cr3+ ions are aligned parallel to the field and the other half of the Cr3+ ions are antiparallel.

  15. Two spatially separated phases in semiconducting Rb0.8Fe1.5S2

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Meng; Tian, Wei; Valdivia, P.; Chi, Songxue; Bourret-Courchesne, E.; Dai, Pengcheng; Birgeneau, R. J.

    2014-09-26

    We report neutron scattering and transport measurements on semiconducting Rb0.8Fe1.5S2, a compound isostructural and isoelectronic to the well-studied A0.8FeySe2(A = K, Rb, Cs, Tl/K) superconducting systems. Both resistivity and DC susceptibility measurements reveal a magnetic phase transition at T = 275 K. Neutron diffraction studies show that the 275 K transition originates from a phase with rhombic iron vacancy order which exhibits an in-plane stripe antiferromagnetic ordering below 275 K. In addition, the stripe antiferromagnetic phase interdigitates mesoscopically with an ubiquitous phase with √5 x√5 iron vacancy order. This phase has a magnetic transition at TN = 425 K andmore » an iron vacancy order-disorder transition at TS = 600 K. These two different structural phases are closely similar to those observed in the isomorphous Se materials. Based on the close similarities of the in-plane antiferromagnetic structures, moments sizes, and ordering temperatures in semiconducting Rb0.8Fe1.5S2 and K0.81Fe1.58Se2, we argue that the in-plane antiferromagnetic order arises from strong coupling between local moments. Superconductivity, previously observed in the A0.8FeySe2₋ zSz system, is absent in A0.8Fe1.5S2, which has a semiconducting ground state. We discuss the implied relationship between stripe and block antiferromagnetism and superconductivity in these materials as well as a strategy for further investigation.« less

  16. Synthesis and characterization of ASnF{sub 3} (A=Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Rb{sup +}, Cs{sup +})

    SciTech Connect

    Thao Tran, T.; Shiv Halasyamani, P.

    2014-02-15

    A family of alkali metal tin(II) fluorides, ASnF{sub 3} (A=Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Rb{sup +}, or Cs{sup +}), has been synthesized through a low temperature solvothermal technique. A fluorine free solvent, methanol, was used in the synthesis. NaSnF{sub 3}, KSnF{sub 3}, and RbSnF{sub 3} have been reported previously; however for RbSnF{sub 3} the reported space group is incorrect. CsSnF{sub 3} is a new alkali tin(II) fluoride, and exhibits a ‘zero-dimensional’ crystal structure with isolated SnF{sub 3}{sup −} anions separated by Cs{sup +} cations. In addition to the synthesis, infrared, UV–vis, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis measurements were performed. - Graphical abstract: Ball-and-stick diagrams of CsSnF{sub 3}. Display Omitted - Highlights: • A family of ASnF{sub 3} (A=Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Rb{sup +} or Cs{sup +}) has been synthesized solvothermally at low temperatures. • Fluorine-free solvent, methanol, was used instead of conventional fluorinating agents. • RbSnF{sub 3} described in the correct space group exhibits infinite chains of corner-sharing SnF{sub 4} polyhedra. • New CsSnF{sub 3} exhibits a ‘zero-dimensional’ crystal structure consisting of isolated SnF{sub 3}{sup −} anionic polyhedra.

  17. Structural, electronic and optical properties of novel carbonate fluorides ABCO{sub 3}F (A=K, Rb, Cs; B=Ca, Sr)

    SciTech Connect

    Narsimha Rao, E.; Appalakondaiah, S.; Yedukondalu, N.; Vaitheeswaran, G.

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, we performed first principles calculations on the electronic and optical properties of layered alkali–alkaline earth carbonate fluorides which attract attention in the domain of nonlinear optics. The calculated lattice parameters and volumes with and without inclusion of van der Waals (vdW) correction methods to standard density functional methods were compared with experiments. We observed that vdW interactions are predominant in RbCaCO{sub 3}F and CsCaCO{sub 3}F as compared with other computed compounds. The calculated bulk modulus from single crystal elastic constants reveals that these materials are all relatively harder than the KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} (KDP) crystal. We also found that these materials are wide band gap insulators as obtained from Tran–Blaha modified Becke–Johnson potential. The linear optical properties such as dielectric function, refractive indices, birefringence and absorption spectra are presented. Finally, the calculated birefringence values indicate that these crystals could be promising for producing phase matching in the deep ultra-violet region. - Graphical abstract: The co- and anti-parallel alignment of CO{sub 3} groups leads to larger and smaller SHG coefficients in (a) KCaCO{sub 3}F, (b) KSrCO{sub 3}F, (c) RbSrCO{sub 3}F, (d) RbCaCO{sub 3}F, and (e) CsCaCO{sub 3}F. - Highlights: • Effect of van der Waals interactions on structural properties. • Single-crystalline elastic constants and mechanical stability. • Electronic properties. • Linear optical properties. • Comparison of present computed compounds with other well known materials in non-linear optical materials.

  18. Strain-Driven Approach to Quantum Criticality in A Fe2 As2 with A =K , Rb, and Cs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eilers, Felix; Grube, Kai; Zocco, Diego A.; Wolf, Thomas; Merz, Michael; Schweiss, Peter; Heid, Rolf; Eder, Robert; Yu, Rong; Zhu, Jian-Xin; Si, Qimiao; Shibauchi, Takasada; Löhneysen, Hilbert v.

    2016-06-01

    The iron-based superconductors A Fe2 As2 with A =K , Rb, Cs exhibit large Sommerfeld coefficients approaching those of heavy-fermion systems. We have investigated the magnetostriction and thermal expansion of this series to shed light on this unusual behavior. Quantum oscillations of the magnetostriction allow identifying the band-specific quasiparticle masses which by far exceed the band-structure derived masses. The divergence of the Grüneisen ratio derived from thermal expansion indicates that with increasing volume along the series a quantum critical point is approached. The critical fluctuations responsible for the enhancement of the quasiparticle masses appear to weaken the superconducting state.

  19. Strain-Driven Approach to Quantum Criticality in AFe_{2}As_{2} with A=K, Rb, and Cs.

    PubMed

    Eilers, Felix; Grube, Kai; Zocco, Diego A; Wolf, Thomas; Merz, Michael; Schweiss, Peter; Heid, Rolf; Eder, Robert; Yu, Rong; Zhu, Jian-Xin; Si, Qimiao; Shibauchi, Takasada; Löhneysen, Hilbert V

    2016-06-10

    The iron-based superconductors AFe_{2}As_{2} with A=K, Rb, Cs exhibit large Sommerfeld coefficients approaching those of heavy-fermion systems. We have investigated the magnetostriction and thermal expansion of this series to shed light on this unusual behavior. Quantum oscillations of the magnetostriction allow identifying the band-specific quasiparticle masses which by far exceed the band-structure derived masses. The divergence of the Grüneisen ratio derived from thermal expansion indicates that with increasing volume along the series a quantum critical point is approached. The critical fluctuations responsible for the enhancement of the quasiparticle masses appear to weaken the superconducting state. PMID:27341252

  20. Independent cross sections of Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Fr isotopes produced in Ta and U targets bombarded by /sup 12/C ions up to 77 MeV/nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    de Saint Simon, M.; Haan, S.; Audi, G.; Coc, A.; Epherre, M.; Guimbal, P.; Langevin, M.; Mueller, A.C.; Thibault, C.; Touchard, F.

    1982-12-01

    Isotopic distribution measurements for Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Fr in the reactions /sup 181/Ta(/sup 12/C,X )Na,K,Rb,Cs and /sup 238/U(/sup 12/C,X )Na,K,Rb,Cs,Fr at different energies E = 13, 27, and 77 MeV/nucleon are reported. The independently observed yields of Rb and Cs show an important contribution for neutron-deficient nuclei. The U target shows very broad isotopic distributions which may be understood as a sum of two components. The results are compared to those obtained by nuclear reactions induced by protons over a wide energy range.

  1. SUMOylation of Rb enhances its binding with CDK2 and phosphorylation at early G1 phase.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fengxi; Qian, Jiang; Yue, Han; Li, Xiaofeng; Xue, Kang

    2016-07-01

    Retinoblastoma protein (Rb) is a prototypical tumor suppressor that is vital to the negative regulation of the cell cycle and tumor progression. Hypo-phosphorylated Rb is associated with G0/G1 arrest by suppressing E2F transcription factor activity, whereas Rb hyper-phosphorylation allows E2F release and cell cycle progression from G0/G1 to S phase. However, the factors that regulate cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK)-dependent hyper-phosphorylation of Rb during the cell cycle remain obscure. In this study, we show that throughout the cell cycle, Rb is specifically small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)ylated at early G1 phase. SUMOylation of Rb stimulates its phosphorylation level by recruiting a SUMO-interaction motif (SIM)-containing kinase CDK2, leading to Rb hyper-phosphorylation and E2F-1 release. In contrast, a SUMO-deficient Rb mutant results in reduced SUMOylation and phosphorylation, weakened CDK2 binding, and attenuated E2F-1 sequestration. Furthermore, we reveal that Rb SUMOylation is required for cell proliferation. Therefore, our study describes a novel mechanism that regulates Rb phosphorylation during cell cycle progression. PMID:27163259

  2. SUMOylation of Rb enhances its binding with CDK2 and phosphorylation at early G1 phase

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Fengxi; Qian, Jiang; Yue, Han; Li, Xiaofeng; Xue, Kang

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Retinoblastoma protein (Rb) is a prototypical tumor suppressor that is vital to the negative regulation of the cell cycle and tumor progression. Hypo-phosphorylated Rb is associated with G0/G1 arrest by suppressing E2F transcription factor activity, whereas Rb hyper-phosphorylation allows E2F release and cell cycle progression from G0/G1 to S phase. However, the factors that regulate cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK)-dependent hyper-phosphorylation of Rb during the cell cycle remain obscure. In this study, we show that throughout the cell cycle, Rb is specifically small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)ylated at early G1 phase. SUMOylation of Rb stimulates its phosphorylation level by recruiting a SUMO-interaction motif (SIM)-containing kinase CDK2, leading to Rb hyper-phosphorylation and E2F-1 release. In contrast, a SUMO-deficient Rb mutant results in reduced SUMOylation and phosphorylation, weakened CDK2 binding, and attenuated E2F-1 sequestration. Furthermore, we reveal that Rb SUMOylation is required for cell proliferation. Therefore, our study describes a novel mechanism that regulates Rb phosphorylation during cell cycle progression. PMID:27163259

  3. Synthesis and structures of type-I clathrates: Rb6Na2Ge44.89(1), Cs6Na2Zn4Ge42 and Cs6.40(1)Na1.60(1)Ga8Ge38

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Mu, Gang; Huang, Fuqiang; Xie, Xiaoming

    2016-10-01

    Type-I clathrates of Rb6Na2Ge44.89(1), Cs6Na2Zn4Ge42 and Cs6.40(1)Na1.60(1)Ga8Ge38 were synthesized via solid-state reaction. Rb6Na2Ge44.89(1), Cs6Na2Zn4Ge42 and Cs6.40(1)Na1.60(1)Ga8Ge38 were found to crystalize in the cubic space group of Pm 3 ̅ n with lattice parameters of a=10.72755(5) Å, a=10.79501(8) Å and a=10.79726(5) Å, respectively. Theoretical calculations indicated semiconducting features for the calculation models of Rb6Na2Ge44, Cs6Na2Zn4Ge42 and Cs6Na2Ga8Ge38 with band gaps of 0.002 eV, 0.297 eV and 0.221 eV, respectively.

  4. Activity of vanadium catalysts for sulfuric acid production, promoted with Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Mg compounds, at various pressures of sulfur oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanenko, S.V.; Dzhoraev, R.R.

    1995-12-10

    The activities of vanadium catalysts promoted with Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Mg sulfates (ratio Me:V = 4) were studied in conditions of low (up to 1 kPa) and high (up to 70 kPa) partial pressures of sulfur oxides at 693 and 758 K. The authors report results of reaction kinetic studies.

  5. Uptake and Loss of Na+, Rb+, and Cs+ in Relation to an Active Mechanism for Extrusion of Na+ in Scenedesmus 1

    PubMed Central

    Kylin, Anders

    1966-01-01

    The mechanism for extrusion of Na+ from Scenedesmus cells is characterized physiologically. It is stimulated by phosphate but oxygen is not necessary. Rb+ and Cs+ may also be extruded, but in the presence of Na+ they cannot compete for the sites on the inside of the transport system. When Na+ is extruded, Rb+ and, by inference, K+ seems to be transported as counter ion from the outside, and sodium ions compete only weakly for this external site. The parallelism between these findings and the Na+-K+-activated adenosine triphosphatases known from animal tissues is pointed out. With low additions of phosphate, the extrusion mechanism can keep the cells practically free from Na+. Increasing the concentrations of external phosphate stimulates uptake more than extrusion, and a net uptake occurs. As for Rb+ and Cs+, they are taken up in the absence of external phosphate, but additions of P will greatly enhance the amounts absorbed. Two different ways of uptake are indicated. PMID:5932402

  6. Low-lying {sup 3}P{sup o} and {sup 3}S{sup e} states of Rb{sup -}, Cs{sup -}, and Fr{sup -}

    SciTech Connect

    Bahrim, C.; Thumm, U.

    2000-02-01

    Our Dirac R-matrix calculations suggest that none of the heavy alkali-metal negative ions, Rb, Cs, and Fr, has an excited bound state. Their lowest excited state appears to be a multiplet of {sup 3}P{sub J}{sup o}-shape resonances, the J=1 component of which was recently observed in photodetachment experiments on Cs{sup -}. We analyze these {sup 3}P{sub J}{sup o} and the {sup 3}S{sup e} excited negative ion states in partial and converged total scattering cross sections for slow electrons with incident kinetic energies below 120 meV. Our results are in excellent agreement with available experimental data. We also propose a new value for the electron affinity of Fr, provide the scattering length for electronic collisions with Rb, Cs, and Fr, and discuss the nuclear charge dependence of relativistic effects in the resonance profiles. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  7. Phase-modulated electronic wave packet interferometry reveals high resolution spectra of free Rb atoms and Rb*He molecules.

    PubMed

    Bruder, Lukas; Mudrich, Marcel; Stienkemeier, Frank

    2015-10-01

    Phase-modulated wave packet interferometry is combined with mass-resolved photoion detection to investigate rubidium atoms attached to helium nanodroplets in a molecular beam experiment. The spectra of atomic Rb electronic states show a vastly enhanced sensitivity and spectral resolution when compared to conventional pump-probe wave packet interferometry. Furthermore, the formation of Rb*He exciplex molecules is probed and for the first time a fully resolved vibrational spectrum for transitions between the lowest excited 5Π3/2 and the high-lying electronic states 2(2)Π, 4(2)Δ, 6(2)Σ is obtained and compared to theory. The feasibility of applying coherent multidimensional spectroscopy to dilute cold gas phase samples is demonstrated in these experiments.

  8. Crystal Structure and Characterization of CsH 5(AsO 4) 2: A New Cesium Pentahydrogen Arsenate, and Comparison with CsH 5(PO 4) 2 and RbH 5(AsO 4) 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naı̈li, H.; Mhiri, T.; Jaud, J.

    2001-10-01

    Chemical preparation and X-ray single-crystal, vibrational, and calorimetric studies of CsH5(AsO4)2 are described. The new compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system P21/c with cell parameters a=10.983(1) Å, b=7.943(1) Å, c=9.844(1) Å, β=96.15(1)°, V=853.82(6) Å3, Z=4, and ρcal=3.235 g cm-3. The refinement of data leads to R1=0.0396 and WR2=0.0809 for 2377 observed reflections (I>2σ (I)) refined with 122 parameters. The structure is different from RbH5(AsO4)2 (orthorhombic) and similar to CsH5(PO4)2 (monoclinic). The atomic arrangement can be described as layered organization of isolated arsenate tetrahedra; interleaved cesium cations ensure the cohesion of the structure. As in all atomic arrangements, we can observe the formation of an infinite network of anions connected by strong H bonds (2.436(4)-2.597(5) Å). The hydrogen atoms were located from difference maps and the short contact (2.436(4) Å), which is not astride any symmetry element, is of the type O-H···O asymmetrical. The Raman and infrared spectra of CsH5(AsO4)2 recorded at room temperature in the frequency ranges 10-1000 cm-1 and 250-4000 cm-1, respectively, confirm the presence of two independent AsO3-4 groups in the crystal. An assignment of all the bands is given. Differential scanning calorimetry shows that the title compound does not exhibit any phase transition in the range 123-473 K.

  9. Scattering parameters for cold Li-Rb and Na-Rb collisions derived from variable phase theory

    SciTech Connect

    Ouerdane, H.; Jamieson, M.J.

    2004-08-01

    We show how the scattering phase shift, the s-wave scattering length, and the p-wave scattering volume can be obtained from Riccati equations derived in variable phase theory. We find general expressions that provide upper and lower bounds for the scattering length and the scattering volume. We show how, in the framework of the variable phase method, Levinson's theorem yields the number of bound states supported by a potential. We report results from a study of the heteronuclear alkali-metal dimers NaRb and LiRb. We consider ab initio molecular potentials for the X {sup 1}{sigma}{sup +} and a {sup 3}{sigma}{sup +} states of both dimers and compare and discuss results obtained from experimentally based X {sup 1}{sigma}{sup +} and a {sup 3}{sigma}{sup +} potentials of NaRb. We explore the mass dependence of the scattering data by considering all isotopomers and we calculate the numbers of bound states supported by the molecular potentials for each isotopomer.

  10. Syntheses, structures and magnetic properties of the alkali oxonickelates(I) A3NiO2 (A = K, Rb, Cs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Đuriš, Katarina; Magdysyuk, Oxana V.; Jansen, Martin

    2012-10-01

    New oxonickelates(I), Rb3NiO2 and Cs3NiO2, were prepared via the azide/nitrate route, starting from stoichiometric mixtures of azides, nitrates and NiO as precursors. The mixtures were heated steadily in a controlled heating regime up to 723 K and annealed at this temperature for 50 h (30 h for cesium compound) in specially designed containers with silver inlays. The crystal structures of Rb3NiO2 and Cs3NiO2 were solved and refined by X-ray powder methods. Room temperature α-Rb3NiO2 (P41212, Z = 4, a = 6.2651(2) Å, b = 14.7438(3) Å; Rwp = 6.30%) and high temperature β-Rb3NiO2 (at 523 K P42/mnm, Z = 2, a = 6.2750(2) Å, b = 7.5088(3) Å; Rwp = 7.85%) were found to be isostructural to room and high temperature α- and β-K3NiO2, respectively. Cs3NiO2 crystallizes at room temperature isostructural with the β-K3NiO2 (P42/mnm, Z = 2, a = 6.4336(3) Å, b = 8.0844(4) Å; Rwp = 5.21%). A3NiO2 (A = K, Rb, Cs) are paramagnetic in the whole temperature range investigated. The magnetic susceptibility data have been evaluated by the Curie-Weiss law, where the calculated magnetic moments are as expected for a d9 system (μ = 1.73-2.20μB). Negative values of Weiss constants are indicative for antiferromagnetic interactions in this family of compounds.

  11. Efficient Type II phase-matching second-harmonic generation in Ba:Yb:Nb:RbTiOPO4/RbTiOPO4 waveguides.

    PubMed

    Cugat, J; Solé, R; Carvajal, J J; Mateos, X; Pujol, M C; Massons, J; Díaz, F; Aguiló, M

    2011-05-15

    Efficient Type II phase-matching second-harmonic generation of a 1125 nm fundamental beam has been obtained using Ba:Yb:Nb:RbTiOPO(4)/RbTiOPO(4) waveguides grown by liquid phase epitaxy. The refractive indices of the epitaxial layer have been measured at different wavelengths, and the Sellmeier coefficients of the chromatic dispersion curves have been obtained. The phase-matching curve shows that the Ba(2+) doping in RbTiOPO(4) contributes to increase the phase-matching range until 900 nm. The measured effective refractive indices of the propagation modes agree well with the theoretical calculations.

  12. New alkali metal diphosphates how materials to preserve the security of the environment: CsNaCu(P2O7), Rb2Cu(P2O7) and CsNaCo(P2O7) synthesis and crystal structure determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyatieva, Anastasiya; Filatova, Alyona; Spiridonova, Dariya; Krivovichev, Sergey

    2013-04-01

    In this work we describe preliminary results of the synthesis and of a crystal-chemical study of synthetic phosphates with transition metals. Due to the increasing requirements for environmental safety specialists from various industries, we are searching for sustainable forms of immobilization of hazardous waste during storage. We are also developing a component-based waste for new materials. In our continued exploratory synthesis of compounds containing transition-metals, we were able to produce the new diphosphate phases CsNaCu(P2O7), Rb2Cu(P2O7) and CsNaCo(P2O7). A crystal chemical study has allowed us to identify new phosphates. Crystals of CsNaCu(P2O7) (Phase 1) is orthorhombic, crystallizes in space group Pmn21, with a = 5.147(8), b = 15.126(2), c = 9.717(2) Å, V = 756.20 Å3, R1 = 0.066 and Rb2Cu(P2O7) (Phase 2) is orthorhombic as well, crystallizes in space group Pmcn, with a = 5.183(8), b = 10.096(1), c = 15.146(3) Å, V = 793.55 Å3, R1 = 0.063, they have been obtained by high-temperature reaction of RbNO3, CsNO3, Cu(NO3)2, NaOH and (NH4)4P2O7. Synthetic crystals of the phosphate of copper and rubidium were studied in detail by us on the structures of Rb2Cu(P2O7) and Rb2Cu3(P2O7)2 - new alkali metal copper diphosphates (CHERNYATIEVA et al., 2008). Here we report the synthesis, the structure and the properties of the title compounds and we compare these phases with the previously discovered K2CuP2O7 (ELMAADI et al., 1995) and CsNaMnP2O7 (HUANG et al., 1998). These structures crystallize in other space groups, although their structures are also based on 2-D layers, formed by P2O7 groups combined with polyhedra of the transition metals (CHERNYATIEVA et al., 2012). A crystal chemical study has allowed us to identify even new diphosphates CsNaCu(P2O7) (Phase 3). Crystals of CsNaCoP2O7 is monoclinic, space group P 21/n, with a = 7,424(2), b = 7,648(1), c = 12,931(3)Å, β = 90,71(2)° , V = 734.2(3) Å3 and R1 = 0.060. The structure is based framework of Co

  13. Evolution of quasiparticle excitations with enhanced electron correlations in superconducting A Fe2As2 (A =K , Rb, and Cs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizukami, Y.; Kawamoto, Y.; Shimoyama, Y.; Kurata, S.; Ikeda, H.; Wolf, T.; Zocco, D. A.; Grube, K.; Löhneysen, H. v.; Matsuda, Y.; Shibauchi, T.

    2016-07-01

    In the heavily hole-doped iron-based superconductors A Fe2As2 (A =K , Rb, and Cs), the electron effective mass increases rapidly with alkali-ion radius. To study the superconducting gap structure in this series, we measure the in-plane London penetration depth λa b(T ) in clean crystals of A Fe2As2 down to low temperature T ˜0.1 K. In KFe2As2 , the superfluid stiffness ρsa b(T ) =λab 2(0 ) /λab 2(T ) at low temperatures can be accounted for by the strongly band-dependent multiple gaps reported recently. Although the λa b(T ) in all systems exhibits similar nonexponential temperature dependence indicating nodes or small minima in the gap, we find that the quasiparticle excitations at low temperatures show a systematic suppression with increasing alkali-ion radius. A possible origin of such evolution of low-energy excitations is discussed in terms of the momentum-dependent effect of enhanced quasiparticle mass near a quantum critical point.

  14. Shape resonances in ground-state diatomic molecules: General trends and the example of RbCs

    SciTech Connect

    Londono, B. E.; Mahecha, J. E.; Luc-Koenig, E.; Crubellier, A.

    2010-07-15

    The presence of shape resonances due to tunneling through the centrifugal barrier modifies strongly the dynamics of cold atom scattering. As shown on the example of the ground and lowest triplet electronic states of the {sup 85}Rb{sup 133}Cs molecule, the crucial parameter is, as usual for cold collisions, the scattering length. A general description of shape resonances of diatomic molecules is given from three simple single channel asymptotic models, whose respective performances are discussed. The first model, which consists of a R{sup -6} potential limited at short range by a repulsive wall, positioned to reproduce the s-wave scattering length, accounts satisfactorily for the main system-independent properties of shape resonances. Introduction in the model of energy- and angular-momentum-dependent nodal lines specific to the inner part of the potential greatly improves its efficiency. When the energy and angular momentum dependence of the nodal lines cannot be deduced from full potential calculations or from experiment, a rough, but universal, estimate of these properties is obtained by extending the R{sup -6} behavior of the potential up to the origin.

  15. Measurement of the binding energy of ultracold 87Rb133Cs molecules using an offset-free optical frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molony, Peter K.; Kumar, Avinash; Gregory, Philip D.; Kliese, Russell; Puppe, Thomas; Le Sueur, C. Ruth; Aldegunde, Jesus; Hutson, Jeremy M.; Cornish, Simon L.

    2016-08-01

    We report the binding energy of 87Rb133Cs molecules in their rovibrational ground state measured using an offset-free optical frequency comb based on difference frequency generation technology. We create molecules in the absolute ground state using stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) with a transfer efficiency of 88%. By measuring the absolute frequencies of our STIRAP lasers, we find the energy-level difference from an initial weakly bound Feshbach state to the rovibrational ground state with a resolution of ˜5 kHz over an energy-level difference of more than 114 T Hz ; this lets us discern the hyperfine splitting of the ground state. Combined with theoretical models of the Feshbach-state binding energies and ground-state hyperfine structure, we determine a zero-field binding energy of h ×114 268 135.24 (4 )(3 )M Hz . To our knowledge, this is the most accurate determination to date of the dissociation energy of a molecule.

  16. Optically isotropy in scintillator host compounds M{sub 2}LaCl{sub 5} (M=Rb, and Cs): Ab-initio study

    SciTech Connect

    Shwetha, G.; Kanchana, V.; Vaitheeswaran, G.

    2015-06-24

    Full potential linearized augmented plane wave method (FP-LAPW) has been used to calculate the electronic structure and optical properties of high light output scintillator host compounds M{sub 2}LaCl{sub 5} (M=Rb, and Cs) with in the Tran Blaha modified Becke Johnson (TB-mBJ) potential. These are wide band gap materials with the band gap of 4.75, and 4.72 eV for Rb{sub 2}LaCl{sub 5}, and Cs{sub 2}LaCl{sub 5} respectively. From the calculated optical properties of these compounds, we find these compounds to be optically isotropic, though they are structurally anisotropic, which is an important criteria for the ceramic scintillators.

  17. The determination of potential energy curve and dipole moment of the (5)0+ electronic state of 85Rb133Cs molecule by high resolution photoassociation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jinpeng; Zhao, Yanting; Ji, Zhonghua; Li, Zhonghao; Kim, Jin-Tae; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang

    2015-12-01

    We present the formation of ultracold 85Rb133Cs molecules in the (5)0+ electronic state by photoassociation and their detection via resonance-enhanced two-photon ionization. Up to v = 47 vibrational levels including the lowest v = 0 vibrational and lowest J = 0 levels are identified with rotationally resolved high resolution photoassociation spectra. Precise Dunham coefficients are determined for the (5)0+ state with high accuracy, then the Rydberg-Klein-Rees potential energy curve is derived. The electric dipole moments with respect to the vibrational numbers of the (5)0+ electronic state of 85Rb133Cs molecule are also measured in the range between 1.9 and 4.8 D. These comprehensive studies on previously unobserved rovibrational levels of the (5)0+ state are helpful to understand the molecular structure and discover suitable transition pathways for transferring ultracold atoms to deeply bound rovibrational levels of the electronic ground state.

  18. Synthesis and structural characterization of the new clathrates K8Cd4Ge42, Rb8Cd4Ge42, and Cs8Cd4Ge42

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Schafer, Marion; Bobev, Svilen

    2016-03-25

    This paper presents results from our exploratory work in the systems K-Cd-Ge, Rb-Cd-Ge, and Cs-Cd-Ge, which yielded the novel type-I clathrates with refined compositions K8Cd3.77(7)Ge42.23, Rb8Cd3.65(7)Ge42.35, and Cs7.80(1)Cd3.65(6)Ge42.35. The three compounds represent rare examples of clathrates of germanium with the alkali metals, where a d10 element substitutes a group 14 element. The three structures, established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, indicate that the framework-building Ge atoms are randomly substituted by Cd atoms on only one of the three possible crystallographic sites. Furthermore, this and several other details of the crystal chemistry are elaborated.

  19. Triple-barrel structure of inwardly rectifying K+ channels revealed by Cs+ and Rb+ block in guinea-pig heart cells.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, H; Matsuura, H; Noma, A

    1989-06-01

    1. The hypothesis that the inwardly rectifying K+ channel consists of a triple-barrel structure was investigated. Inward currents were recorded under the blocking effects of external Cs+ or Rb+ in the cell-attached configuration of the patch-clamp technique using single ventricular cells enzymatically isolated from guinea-pig hearts. 2. Cs+ (10-100 microM) or Rb+ (20-100 microM) added to the 150 mM-K+ pipette solution induced rapid open-blocked transitions in the inward open-channel currents. In about 20% of experiments the inward current showed two intermediate current levels equally spaced between the unit amplitude and the zero-conductance level. The current fluctuated between these four levels. In the remaining experiments no obvious sublevels were observed except spontaneous ones, whose amplitudes were not always equal to one-third or two-thirds of the unit amplitude. 3. In experiments showing sublevels, the probability that the open-channel current stayed at each level was measured at various concentrations of blockers and membrane potentials. In both Cs+ and Rb+ block, the distribution of the current levels showed reasonable agreement with the binomial theorem. This finding suggests that the inwardly rectifying K+ channel is composed of three equally conductive subunits and each subunit is independently blocked by Cs+ or Rb+. 4. The dwell-time histogram in each substate was well fitted with a single-exponential function. On the assumption of the binomial model, the blocking (mu) and unblocking (lambda) rate for Cs+ and Rb+ were calculated. The value of mu was linearly proportional to the concentration of the blocking ion at a given membrane potential and increased with hyperpolarization (e-fold increase with a change of -43.5 mV in the Cs+ block). lambda was almost independent of the concentration of the blocking ion and less dependent on the membrane potential than mu. 5. The open and blocked times were calculated in experiments showing no clear sublevels

  20. Rb function is required for E1A-induced S-phase checkpoint activation.

    PubMed

    Nemajerova, A; Talos, F; Moll, U M; Petrenko, O

    2008-09-01

    It is widely accepted that adenoviral E1A exerts its influence on recipient cells through binding to the retinoblastoma (Rb) family proteins, followed by a global release of E2F factors from pocket-protein control. Our study challenges this simple paradigm by demonstrating previously unappreciated complexity. We show that E1A-expressing primary and transformed cells are characterized by the persistence of Rb-E2F1 complexes. We provide evidence that E1A causes Rb stabilization by interfering with its proteasomal degradation. Functional experiments supported by biochemical data reveal not only a dramatic increase in Rb and E2F1 protein levels in E1A-expressing cells but also demonstrate their activation throughout the cell cycle. We further show that E1A activates an Rb- and E2F1-dependent S-phase checkpoint that attenuates the growth of cells that became hyperploid through errors in mitosis and supports the fidelity DNA replication even in the absence of E2F complexes with other Rb family proteins, thereby functionally substituting for the loss of p53. Our results support the essential role of Rb and E2F1 in the regulation of genomic stability and DNA damage checkpoints.

  1. Residues beyond the selectivity filter of the K+ channel kir2.1 regulate permeation and block by external Rb+ and Cs+.

    PubMed

    Thompson, G A; Leyland, M L; Ashmole, I; Sutcliffe, M J; Stanfield, P R

    2000-07-15

    1. Kir2.1 channels are blocked by Rb+ and Cs+ in a voltage-dependent manner, characteristic of many inward rectifier K+ channels. Mutation of Ser165 in the transmembrane domain M2 to Leu (S165L) abolished Rb+ blockage and lowered Cs+ blocking affinity. At negative voltages Rb+ carried large inward currents. 2. A model of the Kir2.1 channel, built by homology with the structure of the Streptomyces lividans K+ channel KcsA, suggested the existence of an intersubunit hydrogen bond between Ser165 and Thr141 in the channel pore-forming P-region that helps stabilise the structure of this region. However, mutations of Thr141 and Ser165 did not produce effects consistent with a hydrogen bond between these residues being essential for blockage. 3. An alternative alignment between the M2 regions of Kir2.1 and KcsA suggested that Ser165 is itself a pore-lining residue, more directly affecting blockage. We were able to replace Ser165 with a variety of polar and non-polar residues, consistent with this residue being pore lining. Some of these changes affected channel blockage. 4. We tested the hypothesis that Asp172 - a residue implicated in channel gating by polyamines - formed an additional selectivity filter by using the triple mutant T141A/S165L/D172N. Large Rb+ and Cs+ currents were measured in this mutant. 5. We propose that both Thr141 and Ser165 are likely to provide binding sites for monovalent blocking cations in wild-type channels. These residues lie beyond the carbonyl oxygen tunnel thought to form the channel selectivity filter, which the blocking cations must therefore traverse.

  2. A combined metal-halide/metal flux synthetic route towards type-I clathrates: crystal structures and thermoelectric properties of A8Al8Si38 (A = K, Rb, and Cs).

    PubMed

    Baran, Volodymyr; Senyshyn, Anatoliy; Karttunen, Antti J; Fischer, Andreas; Scherer, Wolfgang; Raudaschl-Sieber, Gabriele; Fässler, Thomas F

    2014-11-10

    Single-phase samples of the compounds K8Al8Si38 (1), Rb8Al8Si38 (2), and Cs7.9Al7.9Si38.1 (3) were obtained with high crystallinity and in good quantities by using a novel flux method with two different flux materials, such as Al and the respective alkali-metal halide salt (KBr, RbCl, and CsCl). This approach facilitates the removal of the product mixture from the container and also allows convenient extraction of the flux media due to the good solubility of the halide salts in water. The products were analyzed by means of single-crystal X-ray structure determination, powder X-ray and neutron diffraction experiments, (27)Al-MAS NMR spectroscopy measurements, quantum chemical calculations, as well as magnetic and transport measurements (thermal conductivity, electrical resistivity, and Seebeck coefficient). Due to the excellent quality of the neutron diffraction data, the difference between the nuclear scattering factors of silicon and aluminum atoms was sufficient to refine their mixed occupancy at specific sites. The role of variable-range hopping for the interpretation of the resistivity and the Seebeck coefficient is discussed. PMID:25267571

  3. Thermodynamic investigation by heat capacity measurements of ferrimagnetic A2Mn[Mn(CN)6] (A=K, Rb, Cs) Prussian blue compounds.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Yuka; Yamashita, Satoshi; Yoshimoto, Ryo; Nakazawa, Yasuhiro; DaSilva, Jack G; Kareis, Christopher M; Miller, Joel S

    2014-01-01

    Heat capacity measurements of a new series of Prussian blue analogs of A2Mn[Mn(CN)6] (A=K, Rb, Cs) composition were performed using thermal relaxation calorimetry. The Cs compound has a face-centered cubic structure with a linear Mn-C≡N-Mn linkage, while the monoclinic Rb and K compounds have nonlinear Mn-C≡N-Mn linkages. For all of the compounds, large broad thermal anomalies associated with magnetic transitions were observed in the temperature dependence of the heat capacity. The systematic changes in the heat capacity for the three compounds under magnetic fields of up to 7 T were found to be consistent with ferrimagnetic ordering with large spontaneous magnetization. Although the peak temperatures were slightly lower than reported values obtained by magnetic susceptibility measurements, the magnetic entropy was evaluated to be 22.0 ± 2.5 J K(-1) mol(-1). This value is consistent with an entropy of Rln12 corresponding to full entropy of one low-spin and one high-spin Mn(II) ion in the formula unit, though some ambiguity remains in lattice estimation. Broadening of the peak width of the magnetic heat capacity divided by the temperature was observed as the size of the alkali ions decreased from Cs to K. This behavior is consistent with an increase in the lattice distortion produced by the bending of the C≡N-Mn angles. PMID:24263378

  4. Thermodynamic investigation by heat capacity measurements of ferrimagnetic A2Mn[Mn(CN)6] (A=K, Rb, Cs) Prussian blue compounds.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Yuka; Yamashita, Satoshi; Yoshimoto, Ryo; Nakazawa, Yasuhiro; DaSilva, Jack G; Kareis, Christopher M; Miller, Joel S

    2014-01-01

    Heat capacity measurements of a new series of Prussian blue analogs of A2Mn[Mn(CN)6] (A=K, Rb, Cs) composition were performed using thermal relaxation calorimetry. The Cs compound has a face-centered cubic structure with a linear Mn-C≡N-Mn linkage, while the monoclinic Rb and K compounds have nonlinear Mn-C≡N-Mn linkages. For all of the compounds, large broad thermal anomalies associated with magnetic transitions were observed in the temperature dependence of the heat capacity. The systematic changes in the heat capacity for the three compounds under magnetic fields of up to 7 T were found to be consistent with ferrimagnetic ordering with large spontaneous magnetization. Although the peak temperatures were slightly lower than reported values obtained by magnetic susceptibility measurements, the magnetic entropy was evaluated to be 22.0 ± 2.5 J K(-1) mol(-1). This value is consistent with an entropy of Rln12 corresponding to full entropy of one low-spin and one high-spin Mn(II) ion in the formula unit, though some ambiguity remains in lattice estimation. Broadening of the peak width of the magnetic heat capacity divided by the temperature was observed as the size of the alkali ions decreased from Cs to K. This behavior is consistent with an increase in the lattice distortion produced by the bending of the C≡N-Mn angles.

  5. Evaluation of in vivo detection properties of 22Na, 65Zn, 86Rb, 109Cd and 137Cs in plant tissues using real-time radioisotope imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugita, Ryohei; Kobayashi, Natsuko I.; Hirose, Atsushi; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.

    2014-02-01

    In plant research, radioisotope imaging provides useful information about physiological activities in various tissues and elemental transport between plant organs. To expand the usage of imaging techniques, a new system was developed to visualize beta particles, x-rays and gamma-rays emitted from plant bodies. This real-time radioisotope imaging system (RRIS) visualizes radioactivity after conversion into light with a CsI(Tl) scintillator plate. Herein, the RRIS detection properties of the gamma-ray emitters 22Na, 65Zn, 86Rb, 109Cd and 137Cs were evaluated in comparison with those of radioluminography (RLG) using an imaging plate. The lower quantitative detection limit (Bq mm-2) during a 15 min period ranged from 0.1 to 4, depending on the nuclide, similar to that of RLG. When the quantitative ability to detect radiation from various Arabidopsis tissues was analyzed, the quantitative capability in silique and the thick internode tended to be low. In an EGS5 simulation, beta particles were the greatest contributors to RRIS imaging of 22Na, 86Rb and 137Cs, and low-energy x-rays contributed significantly to 65Zn and 109Cd detection. Thus, both self-absorption and air space between the sample and scintillator surface could impair quantitative RRIS imaging. Despite these issues, RRIS is suggested for quantitative time-course measurements of radionuclide motion within plants.

  6. Common Crystalline and Magnetic Structure of Superconducting A2Fe4Se5 (A=K,Rb,Cs,Tl) Single Crystals Measured Using Neutron Diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, F.; Chi, S.; Bao, Wei; Wang, X. F.; Ying, J. J.; Chen, X. H.; Wang, H. D.; Dong, C. H.; Fang, Minghu

    2011-09-01

    Single-crystal neutron diffraction studies on superconductors A2Fe4Se5, where A=Rb, Cs, (Tl, Rb), and (Tl, K) (Tc˜30K), uncover the same Fe vacancy ordered crystal structure and the same block antiferromagnetic order as in K2Fe4Se5. The Fe order-disorder transition occurs at TS=500-578K, and the antiferromagnetic transition at TN=471-559K with an ordered magnetic moment ˜3.3μB/Fe at 10 K. Thus, all recently discovered A intercalated iron selenide superconductors share the common crystalline and magnetic structure, which are very different from previous families of Fe-based superconductors, and constitute a distinct new 245 family.

  7. Cycling of Li, K, Rb, and Cs at Subduction Zones and Ridge Crests With Implications for Ocean Chemistry: Hydrothermal Experiments at 35-350° C and 600 bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, W.; Kastner, M.; Rosenbauer, R.; Weinstein, Y.; Chan, L.

    2004-12-01

    The alkali metals (Li, K, Rb, Cs) are excellent tracers of fluid-rock reactions and cycling because of strong partitioning into the fluid phase, particularly at moderate to high temperatures. As such, they can provide critical information on the process of fluid recycling at the principal plate boundary, the reaction site temperature, the nature of the reacting solid phases (i.e. the involvement of sediment in arc volcanoes), with links to seawater (SW) chemistry. Our hydrothermal experiments indicate that the reactivity of each alkali metal is distinct; each has a characteristic behavior with respect to partitioning into the fluid phase with temperature. The data thus suggest that alkali concentration ratios together with Li isotopes may be used for geothermometry. MORB-SW and smectite-SW hydrothermal experiments were conducted between 35-350° C at 25° C, 600 bars, and a water/rock mass ratio of ˜5, using the Dickson-type rocking autoclave. Run-times continued until steady-state partitioning was observed. In the MORB-SW experiments, fluid K/Cl molar ratios first increase slightly, from 35-65° C, then decrease to a minimum of 1.1 x10-2 at 275° C. At >275° C the ratio sharply increases to 6.0 x10-2 at 350° C. In contrast, Li/Cl, Rb/Cl, and Cs/Cl ratios all increase from 35-350° C, but each at a distinct slope, indicating significant fractionation between the alkali metals. The Li/Cl ratio gently increases between 35-250° C, and sharply increases to a ratio of ˜1.20 x10-3 at 350° C. Rb/Cl behaves similarly, except for a higher inflection temperature of ˜300° C, and a steeper slope between 300-350° C. Cs/Cl behaves distinctly, the ratio increasing steadily with temperature (i.e. no inflection point) to 1.8 x10-8 at 350° C. Consequently, Li/K and Cs/K ratios exhibit sharp maxima at ˜275° C, at 35 x10-3 & 10 x10-6, respectively. In the smectite-SW experiments there is no reversal in slope, thus the sediment influence on the fluid chemistry can be

  8. Structure and superconductivity of (Li1-x Fe x )OHFeSe single crystals grown using A x Fe2-y Se2 (A  =  K, Rb, and Cs) as precursors.

    PubMed

    Yu, G; Zhang, G Y; Ryu, G H; Lin, C T

    2016-01-13

    We present results on the hydrothermal growth of ([Formula: see text])OHFeSe single crystals using floating-zone-grown [Formula: see text] (A  =  K, Rb, and Cs) as precursors. The growth proceeds by the hydrothermal ion exchange of Li/Fe-O-H for K, Rb, and Cs, resulting in a stacking layer of ([Formula: see text])OH sandwiched between the FeSe layers. Optimal growth parameters are achieved using high quality A 0.80Fe1.81Se2 single crystals added to the mixtures of LiOH, H2O, Fe and C(NH2)2Se in an autoclave and subsequently heated to 120 °C for 2 d, to obtain highest quality single crystals. The obtained crystals have lateral dimensions up to centimeters, with the final size related to that of the precursor crystal used. All ([Formula: see text])OHFeSe single crystals show a superconducting transition temperature T c  >  42 K, regardless of the phase of the precursor such as superconducting K0.80Fe1.81Se2 (T c  =  29.31 K) or non-superconducting Rb0.80Fe1.81Se2 or poor-superconducting Cs0.80Fe1.81Se2 (T c  =  28.67 K). The T c and transition width ΔT vary in the obtained single crystals, due to the inhomogeneity of the ionic exchange. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates that the 245 insulating phase is absent in the ion-exchanged single crystals, while it is observed in the [Formula: see text] precursors. Comparative studies of the structure, magnetization, and superconductivity on the parent A 0.80Fe1.81Se2 and the ion-exchanged ([Formula: see text])OHFeSe crystals are discussed. A phase diagram including antiferromagnetic spin density wave and superconducting phases is also proposed.

  9. Structure and superconductivity of (Li1-x Fe x )OHFeSe single crystals grown using A x Fe2-y Se2 (A  =  K, Rb, and Cs) as precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, G.; Zhang, G. Y.; Ryu, G. H.; Lin, C. T.

    2016-01-01

    We present results on the hydrothermal growth of (\\text{L}{{\\text{i}}1-x}\\text{F}{{\\text{e}}x} )OHFeSe single crystals using floating-zone-grown {{A}x}\\text{F}{{\\text{e}}2-y}\\text{S}{{\\text{e}}2} (A  =  K, Rb, and Cs) as precursors. The growth proceeds by the hydrothermal ion exchange of Li/Fe-O-H for K, Rb, and Cs, resulting in a stacking layer of (\\text{L}{{\\text{i}}1-x}\\text{F}{{\\text{e}}x} )OH sandwiched between the FeSe layers. Optimal growth parameters are achieved using high quality A 0.80Fe1.81Se2 single crystals added to the mixtures of LiOH, H2O, Fe and C(NH2)2Se in an autoclave and subsequently heated to 120 °C for 2 d, to obtain highest quality single crystals. The obtained crystals have lateral dimensions up to centimeters, with the final size related to that of the precursor crystal used. All (\\text{L}{{\\text{i}}1-x}\\text{F}{{\\text{e}}x} )OHFeSe single crystals show a superconducting transition temperature T c  >  42 K, regardless of the phase of the precursor such as superconducting K0.80Fe1.81Se2 (T c  =  29.31 K) or non-superconducting Rb0.80Fe1.81Se2 or poor-superconducting Cs0.80Fe1.81Se2 (T c  =  28.67 K). The T c and transition width ΔT vary in the obtained single crystals, due to the inhomogeneity of the ionic exchange. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates that the 245 insulating phase is absent in the ion-exchanged single crystals, while it is observed in the {{A}x}\\text{F}{{\\text{e}}2-y}\\text{S}{{\\text{e}}2} precursors. Comparative studies of the structure, magnetization, and superconductivity on the parent A 0.80Fe1.81Se2 and the ion-exchanged (\\text{L}{{\\text{i}}1-x}\\text{F}{{\\text{e}}x} )OHFeSe crystals are discussed. A phase diagram including antiferromagnetic spin density wave and superconducting phases is also proposed.

  10. Experimental study of the (4)0- short-range electronic state of the 85Rb133Cs molecule by high resolution photoassociation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yanting; Yuan, Jinpeng; Ji, Zhonghua; Li, Chuanliang; Li, Zhonghao; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang

    2016-11-01

    We present the formation of ultracold 85Rb133Cs molecules in the (4)0- short-range electronic state and the measurement of the permanent electric dipole moment by high resolution photoassociation spectroscopy. With the rotationally resolved photoassociation spectra via resonance-enhanced two-photon ionization, spectral data have been extended to more vibrational levels compared to previous observations. Precise electric dipole moments are obtained by using the DC Stark effect of the photoassociation spectrum. These studies containing previously unobserved electronic states are important to understand the molecular structure and discover transition pathways for transferring ultracold atoms to deeply bound rovibrational levels of the electronic ground state.

  11. Simultaneous use of Cs and Rb Rydberg atoms for dipole moment assessment and RF electric field measurements via electromagnetically induced transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, Matt T.; Gordon, Joshua A.; Holloway, Christopher L.

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate simultaneous electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT) with cesium (Cs) and rubidium (Rb) Rydberg atoms in the same vapor cell with coincident (overlapping) optical fields. Each atomic system can detect radio frequency (RF) electric (E) field strengths through the modification of the EIT signal (Autler-Townes (AT) splitting), which leads to a direct International System of Unit traceable RF E-field measurement. We show that these two systems can detect the same RF E-field strength simultaneously, which provides a direct in situ comparison of Rb and Cs RF measurements in Rydberg atoms. In effect, this allows us to perform two measurements of the same E-field strength, providing a relative comparison of the dipole moments of the two atomic species. This gives two measurements that help rule out systematic effects and uncertainties in this E-field metrology approach, which are important when establishing an international measurement standard for an E-field strength, and is a necessary step for this method to be accepted as a standard calibration technique. We use this approach to measure E-fields at 9.2 GHz, 11.6 GHz, and 13.4 GHz, which correspond to three different atomic states (different principal atomic numbers and angular momentums) for the two atom species.

  12. Electronic structure in a one-Fe Brillouin zone of the iron pnictide superconductors CsFe2As2 and RbFe2As2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, S.; Liu, D. Y.; Cui, S. T.; Ju, S. L.; Wang, A. F.; Luo, X. G.; Zou, L. J.; Chen, X. H.; Zhang, G. B.; Sun, Z.

    2015-11-01

    Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we studied the electronic structures of CsFe2As2 and RbFe2As2 . Contrary to other iron-based superconductors where the band structures are usually depicted in the two-Fe Brillouin zone (BZ), we found that the distribution of electronic spectral weight in CsFe2As2 and RbFe2As2 follows the one-Fe BZ, and that the emerging band structure is qualitatively consistent with theoretical band calculations of the one-Fe BZ except for some shadow band effect. Our data suggest that the interlayer separation is an important tuning factor for the physics of FeAs layers, the increase of which can reduce the coupling between Fe and As and lead to the emergence of the electronic structure in accord with the one-Fe symmetry of the Fe square lattice. Our finding puts strong constraints on the theoretical models constructed on the basis of the one-Fe BZ.

  13. Effect of Rb2O and Cs2O on Inclusion Removal in 321 Stainless Steels Using Novel Basic Tundish Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kyunsuk; Kang, Youngjo; Sohn, Il

    2016-06-01

    Inclusion removal and modification of the 321 stainless steel using Rb2O- and Cs2O-containing novel basic tundish flux has been investigated. The average inclusion diameter was significantly lowered after reaction of the liquid metal with the flux after 45 minutes in an induction furnace set at 1823 K (1550 °C) under an Ar atmosphere. The number of inclusions was also decreased with increased reaction time and the majority of the inherent TiN inclusions were removed after reaction with the proposed novel basic tundish flux. Spinel inclusions were also observed after the reaction, which was due to the reaction of the MgO crucible and the CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO-` x'wt pct R2O flux system at fixed CaO/(Al2O3 + SiO2) of 1.45. The Rb2O and Cs2O seemed to have allowed significant removal of the TiN inclusions due to its ion compensation effect and the supplement of free oxygen ions, while increasing the viscosity of the slag to retain the absorbed inclusions.

  14. A{sub 15}Tl{sub 27} (A = Rb, Cs): A structural type containing both isolated clusters and condensed layers basedo n the Tl{sub 11} fragment. Syntheses, structure, properties, and band structure

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Z.C.; Corbett, J.D.

    1996-03-13

    The isomorphous title compounds (and the ordered substitutional Rb{sub 14}CsTl{sub 27}) are obtained directly from reactions of the elements in sealed Ta below {approximately} 330 {degrees}C. Refinements of single-crystal data for the three established a structure with alternate layers of isolated pentacapped trigonal prismatic Tl{sub 11}{sup 7{minus}} (D{sub 3h}) ions and condensed {sub {infinity}}{sup 2}[Tl{sub 16}{sup 8{minus}}] networks that are separated by cations. The condensed layer consists of Tl{sub 11} units that share prismatic edges and are interbridged through waist-capping atoms (Tl{sub 6/2}Tl{sub 3}Tl{sub 2}). (Rb{sub 15}Tl{sub 27}: P62m, Z = 1, {alpha} = 10.3248(6) {Angstrom}, c= 17.558(2) {Angstrom}.) The rubidium phase is a poor metal ({rho}{sub 293} {approximately} 34 {mu}{Omega}{center_dot}cm) and is Pauli-paramagnetic. Extended Hueckel band calculations indicate partially filled bands and a non-zero DOS at E{sub F}, consistent with the observed metallic behavior, although appropriate cation tuning or modest anion doping should provide a Zintl phase. The band structure and COOP curves are also used to rationalize the distortion of the Tl{sub 11} unit on condensation and the critical role of the interfragment bonds between waist-capping atoms in stabilizing the layer.

  15. Electrical conduction mediated by fluorine atoms in the pyrochlore fluorides RbV2F6 and CsV2F6 with mixed-valent V atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Hiroaki; Yamada, Kihiro; Yamauchi, Hirotaka; Ueda, Yutaka; Yoshimura, Kazuyoshi

    2016-05-01

    We have investigated structural, electrical, and magnetic properties of single crystals of modified pyrochlore fluorides RbV2F6 and CsV2F6 , which have mixed-valent V atoms. At room temperature, they have orthorhombic structures. With increasing temperature, each of them exhibits two structural transitions, and electrical resistivity rapidly decreases accompanied with one of these structural changes. The changes of unit cell volume and electrical resistivity at these transition temperatures indicate that the structural instability and the charge ordering cause structural transitions of RbV2F6 and CsV2F6 , respectively. At low temperatures, CsV2F6 shows antiferromagnetic ordering at 5 K , and RbV2F6 shows two-step magnetic transitions.

  16. Design and Syntheses of Three Novel Carbonate Halides: Cs3 Pb2 (CO3 )3 I, KBa2 (CO3 )2 F, and RbBa2 (CO3 )2 F.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lili; Yang, Yun; Dong, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Bingbing; Wang, Ying; Yang, Zhihua; Pan, Shilie

    2016-02-24

    Three new carbonate halides, Cs3 Pb2 (CO3 )3 I, KBa2 (CO3 )2 F and RbBa2 (CO3 )2 F have been synthesized with hydrothermal and solid-state methods. Cs3 Pb2 (CO3 )3 I is the first product in the lead carbonate iodides family; KBa2 (CO3 )2 F and RbBa2 (CO3 )2 F are the first two centrosymmetric compounds found in the alkaline-alkaline earth carbonate fluorides family. Cs3 Pb2 (CO3 )3 I crystallizes in a centrosymmetric space group C2/m, and exhibits a two- dimensional layered structure which is formed by [Cs4 Pb4 (CO3 )6 I2 ]∞ double-layers consisting of [Pb2 (CO3 )3 I]∞ single-layers bridged by the Cs atoms. KBa2 (CO3 )2 F and RbBa2 (CO3 )2 F, which are isostructural, crystallize in a trigonal crystal system with a centric space group of R3‾ featuring a honeycomb-like framework. First principle calculations indicate that Cs3 Pb2 (CO3 )3 I has a moderate birefringence and explain the difference between the band gaps of the title compounds from electron structures. The effects of cations and halogens on the structures and properties of the title compounds are also discussed. PMID:26822173

  17. Investigation of an unusual low-temperature phase transformation in RbBH{sub 4} by neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Kitchen, Brian B.; Verdal, Nina; Udovic, Terrence J.; Rush, John J.; Hartman, Michael R.; DeVries, Daniel J.

    2013-07-15

    To investigate the previously reported low-temperature phase transition in rubidium borohydride (RbBH{sub 4}) near 48.5 K, we carried out neutron powder diffraction and vibrational spectroscopy measurements both above and below this temperature on an isotopically-enriched sample of Rb{sup 11}BD{sub 4}. Our diffraction data reflected an average cubic Fm3{sup ¯}m structure with BD{sub 4}{sup −} anion orientational disorder at all temperatures, with no hint of extra Bragg peaks due to long-range orientational order below the transition temperature as reported by others. These structural results and careful analysis of torsional vibrations in RbBD{sub 4} corroborate the results of prior neutron vibrational spectroscopy measurements suggesting that the low-temperature RbBH{sub 4} structure indeed possesses some orientational ordering of the BH{sub 4}{sup −} anions, but of a shorter-ranged nature insensitive to powder diffraction methods. - The neutron powder diffraction pattern of RbBD{sub 4} below the phase transition temperature (shown here in black) is indistinguishable from that collected above the phase transition temperature. The inset depicts the cubic structure that fits the data at both temperatures. - Highlights: • We investigated the nature of the RbBD{sub 4} phase transition using NVS and NPD. • A change in shape of the RbBD{sub 4} torsion mode was observed across the transition. • The RbBD{sub 4} diffraction pattern across this phase transition was unchanged. • The phase transition in RbBD{sub 4} appears to produce only short-range ordering of BD{sub 4}{sup −}.

  18. Synthesis and structure of R{sub 2}[UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2}] (R = Rb or Cs)

    SciTech Connect

    Serezhkin, V. N.; Peresypkina, E. V.; Grigor’eva, V. A.; Virovets, A. V.; Serezhkina, L. B.

    2015-01-15

    Crystals Rb{sub 2}[UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2}] (I) and Cs{sub 2}[UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2}] (II) have been synthesized and studied by IR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Crystals I are monoclinic, with the following parameters: a = 12.2118(5) Å, b = 10.2545(3) Å, c = 11.8754(4) Å, β = 110.287(1)°, sp. gr. C2/c, Z = 4, and R = 0.0523. Crystals II are orthorhombic, with a = 13.7309(3) Å, b = 10.5749(2) Å, c = 10.1891(2) Å, sp. gr. Pnma, Z = 4, and R = 0.0411. The basic structural units of crystals I and II are one-core complexes [UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2}]{sup 2−}, which belong to the crystallochemical group cis-AB{sub 2}{sup 01}M{sub 2}{sup 1} (A = UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, B{sup 01} = NO{sub 3}{sup −}, M{sup 1} = NCS{sup −}), which are combined into a framework via electrostatic interactions with ions of alkaline metals R (R = Rb or Cs). The structural features of crystals I and II, which condition the formation of [UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2}]{sup 2−} complexes with a cis rather than a trans position of isothiocyanate ions in the coordination sphere of uranyl ions, are discussed.

  19. Incoherence-coherence crossover and low-temperature Fermi-liquid-like behavior in AFe2As2 (A  =  K, Rb, Cs): evidence from electrical transport properties.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Z J; Wang, N Z; Wang, A F; Zhao, D; Sun, Z L; Luo, X G; Wu, T; Chen, X H

    2016-10-26

    We study the normal-state transport properties of AFe2As2 (A  =  K, Rb and Cs) single crystals using Hall coefficient, resistivity and magnetoresistance (MR) measurements. In all three materials, the Hall coefficient R H shows a strong temperature dependence, which is typical for multi-band systems. In particular, R H develops an upturn below a characteristic temperature [Formula: see text], which is in agreement with the incoherence-coherence crossover reported in recent nuclear magnetic resonance studies. A Fermi-liquid-like state, characterized by T (2) behavior of the resistivity and a positive orbital MR obeying Kohler's rule, emerges below T FL  ∼0.4 [Formula: see text]. The superconducting transition temperature T c experiences a simultaneous suppression with [Formula: see text] and T FL as the alkali ion's radius increases from A  =  K to A  =  Cs, suggesting that the unconventional superconductivity in the AFe2As2 series is related to the strength of the electronic coherence. A phase diagram, similar to that in the heavy fermion Kondo lattice system, is obtained. Based on all the experimental evidence, we argue that the physical properties of this family of heavily hole-doped Fe-based superconductors are controlled by the hybridization between itinerant carriers and localized orbitals, and the Kondo scenario could be effective in such a case.

  20. Incoherence-coherence crossover and low-temperature Fermi-liquid-like behavior in AFe2As2 (A  =  K, Rb, Cs): evidence from electrical transport properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Z. J.; Wang, N. Z.; Wang, A. F.; Zhao, D.; Sun, Z. L.; Luo, X. G.; Wu, T.; Chen, X. H.

    2016-10-01

    We study the normal-state transport properties of AFe2As2 (A  =  K, Rb and Cs) single crystals using Hall coefficient, resistivity and magnetoresistance (MR) measurements. In all three materials, the Hall coefficient R H shows a strong temperature dependence, which is typical for multi-band systems. In particular, R H develops an upturn below a characteristic temperature {{T}\\ast} , which is in agreement with the incoherence-coherence crossover reported in recent nuclear magnetic resonance studies. A Fermi-liquid-like state, characterized by T 2 behavior of the resistivity and a positive orbital MR obeying Kohler’s rule, emerges below T FL  ˜0.4 ~{{T}\\ast} . The superconducting transition temperature T c experiences a simultaneous suppression with {{T}\\ast} and T FL as the alkali ion’s radius increases from A  =  K to A  =  Cs, suggesting that the unconventional superconductivity in the AFe2As2 series is related to the strength of the electronic coherence. A phase diagram, similar to that in the heavy fermion Kondo lattice system, is obtained. Based on all the experimental evidence, we argue that the physical properties of this family of heavily hole-doped Fe-based superconductors are controlled by the hybridization between itinerant carriers and localized orbitals, and the Kondo scenario could be effective in such a case.

  1. Incoherence-coherence crossover and low-temperature Fermi-liquid-like behavior in AFe2As2 (A  =  K, Rb, Cs): evidence from electrical transport properties.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Z J; Wang, N Z; Wang, A F; Zhao, D; Sun, Z L; Luo, X G; Wu, T; Chen, X H

    2016-10-26

    We study the normal-state transport properties of AFe2As2 (A  =  K, Rb and Cs) single crystals using Hall coefficient, resistivity and magnetoresistance (MR) measurements. In all three materials, the Hall coefficient R H shows a strong temperature dependence, which is typical for multi-band systems. In particular, R H develops an upturn below a characteristic temperature [Formula: see text], which is in agreement with the incoherence-coherence crossover reported in recent nuclear magnetic resonance studies. A Fermi-liquid-like state, characterized by T (2) behavior of the resistivity and a positive orbital MR obeying Kohler's rule, emerges below T FL  ∼0.4 [Formula: see text]. The superconducting transition temperature T c experiences a simultaneous suppression with [Formula: see text] and T FL as the alkali ion's radius increases from A  =  K to A  =  Cs, suggesting that the unconventional superconductivity in the AFe2As2 series is related to the strength of the electronic coherence. A phase diagram, similar to that in the heavy fermion Kondo lattice system, is obtained. Based on all the experimental evidence, we argue that the physical properties of this family of heavily hole-doped Fe-based superconductors are controlled by the hybridization between itinerant carriers and localized orbitals, and the Kondo scenario could be effective in such a case. PMID:27589485

  2. Tet1 is required for Rb phosphorylation during G1/S phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Shengsong; Zhu, Ziqi; Wang, Yiqin; Wang, Yanru; Xu, Longxia; Chen, Xuemei; Xu, Qing; Zhang, Qimin; Zhao, Xin; Yu, Yi; Wu, Denglong

    2013-05-03

    Highlights: •Tet1 was required for NIT3T3 proliferation. •Tet1 depletion inhibited G1-S entry. •Cyclin D1 accumulation and Rb phosphorylation was blocked by Tet1 knockdown. -- Abstract: DNA methylation plays an important role in many biological processes, including regulation of gene expression, maintenance of chromatin conformation and genomic stability. TET-family proteins convert 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), which indicates that these enzymes may participate in DNA demethylation. The function of TET1 has not yet been well characterized in somatic cells. Here, we show that depletion of Tet1 in NIH3T3 cells inhibits cell growth. Furthermore, Tet1 knockdown blocks cyclin D1 accumulation in G1 phase, inhibits Rb phosphorylation and consequently delays entrance to G1/S phase. Taken together, this study demonstrates that Tet1 is required for cell proliferation and that this process is mediated through the Rb pathway.

  3. A Comparitive Study of the Experimental Features of the Bose-Einstein Condensates of 7Li, 23Na, 41K, 85Rb, 87Rb and 133Cs via a Linearly Perturbed Harmonic Oscillator Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, G. P.; Varma, V. S.

    2013-05-01

    We show that the observed features of the above-named Bose-Einstein condensates can be understood via an effective confining potential of the form of: $V(r, T) = (1)/(2)mω 2[r^2+2(√ {(kT)/(mω ^2)})br ], \\quad (r = \\vertr \\vert) where T denotes the temperature, m the mass of an atom of the trapped gas, ω the geometric mean of the three frequencies used for confinement, k the Boltzmann constant and b a dimensionless perturbation parameter. Such an exercise is undertaken because Tcs calculated via earlier treatments based solely on an r2-potential lead to a mismatch with the experimental values. We fix b by substituting the density of states corresponding to V(r, T) into the equation for the number of excited atoms N} exc(T) and appealing to the experimental data at T = Tc. The values of b thus found are: 1.3426 (7Li), 1.8420 (23Na), 0.4998 (41K), 0.3486 (85Rb), 1.5332 (87Rb) and 1.2430 (133Cs). While these are used to calculate Nexc(T) for each of the condensates at T = Tc/2 and Tc/10, we also report on: (a) the variation of b for each condensate for some selected values of the pair (N} exc, Tc) and (b) the possibility of realizing the state (Nexc, pTc; p (a number) ≫1) for all of these condensates with a unique value of b, even though the parameter-sets {m, ω, Nexc, Tc} characterizing them differ widely. Attention is drawn to diverse fields where T-dependent Hamiltonians have found useful application.

  4. A low phase noise microwave source for atomic spin squeezing experiments in {sup 87}Rb

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Zilong; Bohnet, Justin G.; Weiner, Joshua M.; Thompson, James K.

    2012-04-15

    We describe and characterize a simple, low cost, low phase noise microwave source that operates near 6.800 GHz for agile, coherent manipulation of ensembles of {sup 87}Rb. Low phase noise is achieved by directly multiplying a low phase noise 100 MHz crystal to 6.8 GHz using a nonlinear transmission line and filtering the output with custom band-pass filters. The fixed frequency signal is single sideband modulated with a direct digital synthesis frequency source to provide the desired phase, amplitude, and frequency control. Before modulation, the source has a single sideband phase noise near -140 dBc/Hz in the range of 10 kHz-1 MHz offset from the carrier frequency and -130 dBc/Hz after modulation. The resulting source is estimated to contribute added spin-noise variance 16 dB below the quantum projection noise level during quantum nondemolition measurements of the clock transition in an ensemble 7 x 10{sup 5} {sup 87}Rb atoms.

  5. Competitive binding exchange between alkali metal ions (K+, Rb+, and Cs+) and Na+ ions bound to the dimeric quadruplex [d(G4T4G4)]2: a 23Na and 1H NMR study.

    PubMed

    Cesare Marincola, Flaminia; Virno, Ada; Randazzo, Antonio; Mocci, Francesca; Saba, Giuseppe; Lai, Adolfo

    2009-12-01

    A comparative study of the competitive cation exchange between the alkali metal ions K+, Rb+, and Cs+ and the Na+ ions bound to the dimeric quadruplex [d(G4T4G4)]2 was performed in aqueous solution by a combined use of the 23Na and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The titration data confirm the different binding affinities of these ions for the G-quadruplex and, in particular, major differences in the behavior of Cs+ as compared to the other ions were found. Accordingly, Cs+ competes with Na+ only for the binding sites at the quadruplex surface (primarily phosphate groups), while K+ and Rb+ are also able to replace sodium ions located inside the quadruplex. Furthermore, the 1H NMR results relative to the CsCl titration evidence a close approach of Cs+ ions to the phosphate groups in the narrow groove of [d(G4T4G4)]2. Based on a three-site exchange model, the 23Na NMR relaxation data lead to an estimate of the relative binding affinity of Cs+ versus Na+ for the quadruplex surface of 0.5 at 298 K. Comparing this value to those reported in the literature for the surface of the G-quadruplex formed by 5'-guanosinemonophosphate and for the surface of double-helical DNA suggests that topology factors may have an important influence on the cation affinity for the phosphate groups on DNA.

  6. Structural, electronic and thermodynamic properties of R{sub 3}ZnH{sub 5} (R=K, Rb, Cs): A first-principle calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jia; Zhang, Shengli; Huang, Shiping; Wang, Peng; Tian, Huiping

    2013-02-15

    R{sub 3}ZnH{sub 5} (R=K, Rb, Cs) series have been investigated with respect to the crystal structure, electronic and thermodynamic properties using first-principle methods based on density functional theory with generalized gradient approximation. The optimized structures and atomic coordinates are in good agreement with the experimental data. The strong covalent interactions are obtained between Zn and H atoms in the 18-electron [ZnH{sub 4}]{sup 2-} complex, while an ionic interaction is found between [ZnH{sub 4}]{sup 2-} and R atom. The formation enthalpies show that the formations of R{sub 3}ZnH{sub 5} hydrides are all exothermic at 298 K. The vibration free energies of R{sub 3}ZnH{sub 5} show that the thermodynamic stabilities of R{sub 3}ZnH{sub 5} hydrides decrease with the increasing diameter of R atom. Two possible decomposition reactions of R{sub 3}ZnH{sub 5} series have been suggested in our work. One (reaction one) is that R{sub 3}ZnH{sub 5} hydrides decomposes to elements directly, and the other (reaction two) is that R{sub 3}ZnH{sub 5} hydrides decomposes to RH hydride. The results show that the first decomposition reaction is more favorable one. The spontaneous decomposition reaction of K{sub 3}ZnH{sub 5} hydrides occur upon 465 K via reaction one, and 564 K via reaction two, respectively. - Graphical abstract: Total charge density of K{sub 3}ZnH{sub 5}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electronic and thermodynamic properties of R{sub 3}ZnH{sub 5} (R=K, Rb, Cs) were calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The formations of R{sub 3}ZnH{sub 5} hydrides are all exothermic at 298 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermodynamic stabilities decrease with the increasing diameter of R atom. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two possible decomposition pathways of R{sub 3}ZnH{sub 5} were investigated.

  7. Structural and electronic properties of graphite and graphite intercalation compounds MC[sub 8] (M = K, Rb, Cs) governing their scanning tunneling microscopy images

    SciTech Connect

    Whangbo, M.H.; Liang, W.; Ren, J. ); Magonov, S.N.; Wawkuschewski, A. )

    1994-08-04

    Several puzzling observations in the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and its intercalation compounds MC[sub 8] (M = K, Rb, Cs) were investigated on the basis of atom-atom potential and Coulombic interaction energy calculations. The charge or spin density wave state of a graphite monolayer is found inconsistent with an identical peak registry of the HOPG STM images obtained at plus and minus bias voltages. Simultaneous STM/AFM measurements of HOPG show the STM and AFM images to have an identical peak registry, which implies that the local hardness of the surface monolayer is larger at the B-site than at the A-site. We confirm this implication by estimating the local hardness in the surface monolayer of a graphite bilayer in terms of atom-atom potential calculations. The essential characteristics of the Moire STM images of HOPG are correctly predicted by the local hardness map obtained for the surface monolayer of a graphite bilayer in terms of atom-atom potential calculations. This supports the notion that the tip-force-induced topography change in the surface monolayer is generally responsible for Moire STM patterns in layered materials. 29 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. An unusual structural phase transition in Rb2HfF6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, C. C.

    2015-03-01

    An unusual structural phase transition in the crystalline compound Rb2HfF6 near room temperature has been observed from perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy. Our measurements in this compound produce two different crystalline configurations characterized by ωQ=74.1(1) Mrad/s, η~0, δ~0 and ωQ=24.7(2) Mrad/s, η=0.53(1), and δ=4(2)%. From PAC measurements in different samples, it is found that crystal structure corresponding to ωQ=74 Mrad/s, η~0 transforms to the other quite arbitrarily with temperature and no definite temperature corresponding to this transition has been observed. This can possibly be attributed to displacive phase transition.

  9. Isotopic evidence for the retention of Sr-90 inferred from excess Zr-90 in the Oklo natural fission reactors: Implication for geochemical behaviour of fissiogenic Rb, Sr, Cs and Ba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidaka, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Takeshi; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Holliger, Philippe

    1994-03-01

    In order to investigate the mobility of fissiogenic Sr-90 in the geological environment, the Zr isotopic compositions of seven samples from one of the newly formed Oklo natural reactor zones (i.e., reactor core and adjacent rocks (10, SF84)) in the Republic of Gabon were determined with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Zr isotopes in uraninite grains from different reactor zones were also measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Fissiogenic Zr isotopic abundances of three samples from the reactor core have excess Zr-90, which has never before been formed in previous Oklo samples. In this paper, the geochemical behaviour of Zr-90 is discussed by making use of the relative retentivity inferred from the isotopic abundance of Sr. The excess in Zr-90 suggests dependence on the degree of retention/migration of Sr-90, the precursor of Zr-90 in the fission chain. In the aqueous phase, chemical fractionation between Sr and Zr could have occurred before radioactive Sr-90 decayed. Considering the halflife of Sr-90 (t(sub 1/2) = 29.1 y), considerable amounts of the latter have been produced during criticality. Sr and Zr (including Zr-90) could have been redistributed between the reactor core and its vicinity. The retentivity of fissiogenic Zr-90 in reactor core 10 is not homogeneous. In addition, the distributions of Rb, Cs and Ba is also heterogeneous.

  10. The studies of density, apparent molar volume, and viscosity of bovine serum albumin, egg albumin, and lysozyme in aqueous and RbI, CsI, and DTAB aqueous solutions at 303.15 K.

    PubMed

    Singh, Man; Chand, Hema; Gupta, K C

    2005-06-01

    Density (rho), apparent molar volume (V(phi)), and viscosity (eta) of 0.0010 to 0.0018% (w/v) of bovine serum albumin (BSA), egg albumin, and lysozyme in 0.0002, 0.0004, and 0.0008 M aqueous RbI and CsI, and (dodecyl)(trimethyl)ammonium bromide (DTAB) solutions were obtained. The experimental data were regressed against composition, and constants are used to elucidate the conformational changes in protein molecules. With salt concentration, the density of proteins is found to decrease, and the order of the effect of additives on density is observed as CsI > RbI > DTAB. The trend of apparent molar volume of proteins is found as BSA > egg-albumin > lysozyme for three additives. In general, eta values of BSA remain higher for all compositions of RbI than that of egg-albumin for CsI and DTAB. These orders of the data indicate the strength of intermolecular forces between proteins and salts, and are helpful for understanding the denaturation of proteins.

  11. Pin1 inhibits PP2A-mediated Rb dephosphorylation in regulation of cell cycle and S-phase DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Tong, Y; Ying, H; Liu, R; Li, L; Bergholz, J; Xiao, Z-X

    2015-01-01

    Inactivation of the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) has a key role in tumorigenesis. It is well established that Rb function is largely regulated by a dynamic balance of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Although much research has been done to understand the mechanisms and function of RB phosphorylation, the regulation of Rb dephosphorylation is still not well understood. In this study, we demonstrate that Pin1 has an important role in the regulation of Rb function in cell cycle progression and S-phase checkpoint upon DNA damage. We show that the Rb C-pocket directly binds to the Pin1 WW domain in vitro and in vivo, and that the phosphorylation of Rb C-pocket by G1/S Cyclin/Cyclin-dependent kinase complexes is critical for mediating this interaction. We further show that Rb-mediated cell cycle arrest and Rb-induced premature cellular senescence are effectively inhibited by Pin1 expression. In addition, DNA damage induces Rb dephosphorylation in a PP2A-dependent manner, and this process is inhibited by Pin1. Furthermore, the overexpression of Pin1 promotes Rb hyperphosphorylation upon S-phase DNA damage. Importantly, both the Pin1 WW domain and isomerase activity are required for its effect on S-phase checkpoint. Moreover, the overexpression of Pin1 is correlated with Rb hyperphosphorylation in breast cancer biopsies. These results indicate that Pin1 has a critical role in the modulation of Rb function by the regulation of Rb dephosphorylation, which may have an important pathological role in cancer development.

  12. Pin1 inhibits PP2A-mediated Rb dephosphorylation in regulation of cell cycle and S-phase DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Y; Ying, H; Liu, R; Li, L; Bergholz, J; Xiao, Z-X

    2015-01-01

    Inactivation of the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) has a key role in tumorigenesis. It is well established that Rb function is largely regulated by a dynamic balance of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Although much research has been done to understand the mechanisms and function of RB phosphorylation, the regulation of Rb dephosphorylation is still not well understood. In this study, we demonstrate that Pin1 has an important role in the regulation of Rb function in cell cycle progression and S-phase checkpoint upon DNA damage. We show that the Rb C-pocket directly binds to the Pin1 WW domain in vitro and in vivo, and that the phosphorylation of Rb C-pocket by G1/S Cyclin/Cyclin-dependent kinase complexes is critical for mediating this interaction. We further show that Rb-mediated cell cycle arrest and Rb-induced premature cellular senescence are effectively inhibited by Pin1 expression. In addition, DNA damage induces Rb dephosphorylation in a PP2A-dependent manner, and this process is inhibited by Pin1. Furthermore, the overexpression of Pin1 promotes Rb hyperphosphorylation upon S-phase DNA damage. Importantly, both the Pin1 WW domain and isomerase activity are required for its effect on S-phase checkpoint. Moreover, the overexpression of Pin1 is correlated with Rb hyperphosphorylation in breast cancer biopsies. These results indicate that Pin1 has a critical role in the modulation of Rb function by the regulation of Rb dephosphorylation, which may have an important pathological role in cancer development. PMID:25675300

  13. Pin1 inhibits PP2A-mediated Rb dephosphorylation in regulation of cell cycle and S-phase DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Tong, Y; Ying, H; Liu, R; Li, L; Bergholz, J; Xiao, Z-X

    2015-01-01

    Inactivation of the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) has a key role in tumorigenesis. It is well established that Rb function is largely regulated by a dynamic balance of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Although much research has been done to understand the mechanisms and function of RB phosphorylation, the regulation of Rb dephosphorylation is still not well understood. In this study, we demonstrate that Pin1 has an important role in the regulation of Rb function in cell cycle progression and S-phase checkpoint upon DNA damage. We show that the Rb C-pocket directly binds to the Pin1 WW domain in vitro and in vivo, and that the phosphorylation of Rb C-pocket by G1/S Cyclin/Cyclin-dependent kinase complexes is critical for mediating this interaction. We further show that Rb-mediated cell cycle arrest and Rb-induced premature cellular senescence are effectively inhibited by Pin1 expression. In addition, DNA damage induces Rb dephosphorylation in a PP2A-dependent manner, and this process is inhibited by Pin1. Furthermore, the overexpression of Pin1 promotes Rb hyperphosphorylation upon S-phase DNA damage. Importantly, both the Pin1 WW domain and isomerase activity are required for its effect on S-phase checkpoint. Moreover, the overexpression of Pin1 is correlated with Rb hyperphosphorylation in breast cancer biopsies. These results indicate that Pin1 has a critical role in the modulation of Rb function by the regulation of Rb dephosphorylation, which may have an important pathological role in cancer development. PMID:25675300

  14. The A{sub 1-x}UNbO{sub 6-x/2} compounds (x=0, A=Li, Na, K, Cs and x=0.5, A=Rb, Cs): from layered to tunneled structure

    SciTech Connect

    Surble, S.; Obbade, S. . E-mail: said.obbade@ensc-lille.fr; Saad, S.; Yagoubi, S.; Dion, C.; Abraham, F.

    2006-10-15

    Attempts to prepare alkaline metal uranyl niobates of composition A{sub 1-x}UNbO{sub 6-x/2} by high-temperature solid-state reactions of A{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} led to pure compounds for x=0 and A=Li (1), Na (2), K (3), Cs (4) and for x=0.5 and A=Rb (5), Cs (6). Single crystals were grown for 1, 3, 4, 5, 6 and for the mixed Na{sub 0.92}Cs{sub 0.08}UNbO{sub 6} (7) compound. Crystallographic data: 1, monoclinic, P2{sub 1}/c, a=10.3091(11), b=6.4414(10), c=7.5602(5)A, {beta}=100.65(1), Z=4, R{sub 1}=0.054 (wR{sub 2}=0.107); 3, 5 and 7 orthorhombic, Pnma, Z=8, with a=10.307(2), 10.272(4) and 10.432(3)A, b=7.588(1), 7.628(3) and 7.681(2)A, c=13.403(2), 13.451(5) and 13.853(4)A, R{sub 1}=0.023, 0.046 and 0.036 (wR{sub 2}=0.058, 0.0106 and 0.088) for 3, 5 and 7, respectively; 6, orthorhombic, Cmcm, Z=8, and a=13.952(3), b=10.607(2)A, c=7.748(2)A, R{sub 1}=0.044 (wR{sub 2}=0.117). The crystal structure of 1 is characterized by {sub {approx}}{sup 2}[UNbO{sub 6}]{sup -} layers of uranophane sheet anion topology parallel to the (100) plane. These layers are formed by the association by edge-sharing of {sub {approx}}{sup 1}[UO{sub 5}]{sup 4-} chains of edge-shared UO{sub 7} pentagonal bipyramids and {sub {approx}}{sup 1}[NbO{sub 4}]{sup 3-} chains of corner-shared NbO{sub 5} square pyramids alternating along the [010] direction. The Li{sup +} ions are located between two consecutive layers and hold them together; the Li{sup +} ions and two layers constitute a neutral ''sandwich'' {l_brace}(UNbO{sub 6}){sup -}-(Li){sub 2}{sup 2+}-(UNbO{sub 6}){sup -}{r_brace}. In this unusual structure, the neutral sandwiches are stacked one above another with no formal chemical bonds between the neutral sandwiches. The homeotypic compounds 3, 5, 6, 7 have open-framework structures built from the association by edge-sharing in two directions of parallel {sub {approx}}{sup 1}[UO{sub 5}]{sup 4-} chains of edge-shared UO{sub 7} pentagonal bipyramids and {sub

  15. Proton conductivity and phase composition of mixed salts in the systems MH2PO4-CsHSO4 ( M = Cs, K)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagryantseva, I. N.; Ponomareva, V. G.

    2016-08-01

    Phase transformations, electrical transport and thermal properties of the systems K1‒ x Cs x (H2PO4)1- x (HSO4) x ( x = 0.01-0.95) and Cs(H2PO4)1- x (HSO4) x ( x = 0.01-0.30) have been studied in detail. It has been shown that the mixed compounds Cs(H2PO4)1- x (HSO4) x are characterized by an increase in the low-temperature electrical conductivity by one to five orders of magnitude depending on the composition, as well as by the disappearance of the superionic phase transition at x ≥ 0.15. The partial substitution of HSO 4 - ions for the anions in CsH2PO4 at x = 0.01-0.10 leads to the formation of Cs(H2PO4)1‒ x (HSO4) x solid solutions isostructural with the CsH2PO4 ( P21/ m) phase. For Cs(H2PO4)1- x (HSO4) x with x = 0.15-0.30 at room temperature, there is a stabilization of the high-temperature cubic phase isostructural with the CsH2PO4 (Pmoverline 3 m) phase existing in CsH2PO4 at temperatures above 230°C. The stability of the Pmoverline 3 m cubic phase at room temperature has been investigated using X-ray powder diffraction, 1H NMR spectroscopy, and impedance spectroscopy. In the K1- x Cs x (H2PO4)1- x (HSO4) system, there are two regions of compositions with x = 0.05-0.50 and 0.60-0.95, where the proton conductivity and thermal properties are determined respectively by the formation of the CsH5(PO4)2 phase, which is stoichiometrically different from the initial salts, and the potassium-containing phase, which is isostructural with the superionic salt Cs3(HSO4)2(H2PO4).

  16. Phase dependence of secondary electron emission at the Cs-Sb-Si (111) interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govind, Govind; Kumar, Praveen; Shivaprasad, S. M.

    2009-06-01

    The multi-alkali antimonides adsorption on Si (111) surface has drawn much attention of several surface science studies due to its importance in both, fundamental and technological aspects of night vision devices & photocathodes. We report the formation of alkali metal antimonide ternary interface on Si(111)- 7×7 surface and in-situ characterization by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The results show that Cs adsorption on clean Si(111) surface follows the layer-by-layer (Frank van der Merwe) growth mode at low flux rate, while Sb grows as islands (Volmer-Weber) on Cs/Si surface. The changes in the Si (2p) and Cs (3d) core level spectra show the formation of a ternary interface (Sb/Cs/Si) at room temperature, which is further confirmed by changes in the density of states in the valence band spectra. The temperature controlled desorption of ternary interface, by monitoring the chemical species remnant on the surface after annealing at different temperatures, reveal that the Sb islands desorb at <550° C while Cs monolayer desorbs at temperatures >750° C, which implies a stronger Cs-Si bond to Cs-Sb bond. The work function changes from 3.9 eV to 0.8 eV for Cs adsorption on Si, which further reduces to 0.65 eV after Sb adsorption on the Cs/Si interface. The changes in work function corresponds to the compositional and chemical nature of the interface and thus indicate that the secondary electron emission is an extremely phase dependent phenomena.

  17. Magnetic phase diagram of the coupled triangular spin tubes for CsCrF4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seki, Kouichi; Okunishi, Kouichi

    2015-06-01

    Using Monte Carlo simulations, we explore the magnetic phase diagram of triangular spin tubes coupled with a ferromagnetic intertube interaction for CsCrF4. The planar structure of the coupled tubes is topologically equivalent to the kagome-triangular lattice, which induces nontrivial frustration effects in the system. We particularly find that, depending on the intertube coupling, various ordered phases are actually realized, such as incommensurate order, ferromagnetic order, and cuboc order, which is characterized by the noncoplanar spin structure of the 12 sublattices accompanying the spin chirality breaking. We also discuss the relevance of the results to recent experiments on CsCrF4.

  18. Spectroscopic data, spin-orbit functions, and revised analysis of strong perturbative interactions for the A {sup 1{Sigma}+} and b {sup 3{Pi}} states of RbCs

    SciTech Connect

    Docenko, O.; Tamanis, M.; Ferber, R.; Bergeman, T.; Kotochigova, S.; Stolyarov, A. V.

    2010-04-15

    The current interest in producing ultracold RbCs molecules by optical excitation from weakly bound Feshbach resonances and stimulated decay to the absolute ground state requires detailed analyses of the intermediate excited states. In this study, we present two sets of experimental Fourier-transform spectroscopic data of the A {sup 1{Sigma}+}-b {sup 3{Pi}} complex. The A-b mixed vibrational levels are the most likely candidates to be intermediates in the molecular formation. The more recent and more accurate data set is from mixed A-b{yields}X transitions, while the second is derived in large part from (4) {sup 1{Sigma}+{yields}}A-b emission and extends to higher A-b energy levels. From a detailed analysis of the spectroscopic data we obtain term values which allow one to construct potentials and spin-orbit functions. Vibrational numbering of the A state has been raised by one quantum over a previous report [T. Bergeman et al., Phys. Rev. A 67, 050501 (2003)] while the numbering of the b state is established with a considerable degree of certainty with help of data on the {sup 85}Rb{sup 133}Cs and {sup 87}Rb{sup 133}Cs isotopomers. In addition, we have performed calculations of spin-orbit functions by two distinct methods. The fitted spin-orbit coupling matrix element between the two {Omega}{sup p}=0{sup +} states, A {sup 1{Sigma}+} and b {sup 3{Pi}}{sub 0+}, happens to agree rather well with the results from both of these methods, while for the diagonal b {sup 3{Pi}} state spin-orbit function, the fitted function agrees fairly well with that obtained by the other method.

  19. Syntheses and characterization of one-dimensional alkali metal antimony(III) thiostannates(IV), A{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Sn{sub 3}S{sub 10} (A=K, Rb, Cs)

    SciTech Connect

    Yohannan, Jinu P.; Vidyasagar, Kanamaluru

    2015-01-15

    Three new isostructural quaternary antimony(III) thiostannates(IV), A{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Sn{sub 3}S{sub 10} (A=K, Rb, Cs) have been synthesized by using alkali metal thiosulfate flux and structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction. Their structures contain A{sup +} ions around the [Sb{sub 2}Sn{sub 3}S{sub 10}]{sup 2−} chains, which are built from SbS{sub 3} pyramids, SnS{sub 6} octahedra and SnS{sub 4} tetrahedra. Raman and Mössbauer spectroscopic measurements corroborate the oxidation states and coordination environments of Sb(III) and Sn(IV). All three compounds are wide band gap semiconductors. Potassium compound undergoes partial exchange with strontium, cadmium and lead ions. - Graphical abstract: Syntheses, crystal structure, spectroscopic and partial ion-exchange studies of new one-dimensional alkali metal antimony(III) thiostannates(IV), A{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Sn{sub 3}S{sub 10} (A=K, Rb, Cs) are described. - Highlights: • Syntheses of new alkali metal antimony(III) thiostannates(IV), A{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Sn{sub 3}S{sub 10} (A=K, Rb, Cs). • Wide band gap semiconductors with one-dimensional structure. • Topotactic partial exchange of K{sup +} ions of K{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Sn{sub 3}S{sub 10} with Sr{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} ions.

  20. A{sub 2}TiF{sub 5}.nH{sub 2}O (A=K, Rb, or Cs; n=0 or 1): Synthesis, structure, characterization, and calculations of three new uni-dimensional titanium fluorides

    SciTech Connect

    Jo, Vinna; Woo Lee, Dong; Koo, Hyun-Joo; Ok, Kang Min

    2011-04-15

    Three new uni-dimensional alkali metal titanium fluoride materials, A{sub 2}TiF{sub 5}.nH{sub 2}O (A=K, Rb, or Cs; n=0 or 1) have been synthesized by hydrothermal reactions. The structures of A{sub 2}TiF{sub 5}.nH{sub 2}O have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The Ti{sup 4+} cations have been reduced to Ti{sup 3+} during the synthesis reactions. All three A{sub 2}TiF{sub 5}.nH{sub 2}O materials contain novel 1-D chain structures that are composed of the slightly distorted Ti{sup 3+}F{sub 6} corner-sharing octahedra attributable to the Jahn-Teller distortion. The coordination environment of the alkali metal cations plays an important role to determine the degree of turning in the chain structures. Complete structural analyses, Infrared and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra, and thermal analyses are presented, as are electronic structure calculations. -- Graphical abstract: Ball-and-stick and polyhedral representations for (a) {beta}-K{sub 2}TiF{sub 5} and (b) Rb{sub 2}TiF{sub 5}.H{sub 2}O or Cs{sub 2}TiF{sub 5}.H{sub 2}O with the K{sup +} and Rb{sup +} (or Cs{sup +}) coordination environment emphasized. Display Omitted Research highlights: > Synthesis, structure, characterization, and calculation of new titanium fluorides. > Study of reduction of starting Ti{sup 4+} cations to Ti{sup 3+} by DMF. > Novel 1-D chain structures with Jahn-Teller distorted TiF{sub 6} octahedra.

  1. Pressure-induced phase transitions of β-type pyrochlore CsTaWO6

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, F. X.; Tracy, C. L.; Shamblin, J.; Palomares, R. I.; Lang, M.; Park, S.; Park, C.; Tkachev, S.; Ewing, R. C.

    2016-09-30

    The β-type pyrochlore CsTaWO6 was studied by synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman scattering methods up to pressures of 43 GPa using a diamond anvil cell (DAC). With increasing pressure, the cubic pyrochlore in space group of Fd-3¯m with combining macron]m transforms to an orthorhombic structure (space group: Pnma) at 5.9 GPa and then to a monoclinic structure (space group: P21/c) at ~18 GPa. The structural evolution in CsTaWO6 is a continuous process and experimental results suggest that the initial cubic phase has a tetragonal distortion at ambient conditions. Both XRD and Raman measurements indicate that the pressure-induced phase transitionsmore » in CsTaWO6 are reversible. Lastly, these results may provide a structural explanation of previous experimental resistivity measurement results for the isostructural superconductor K(Cs)Os2O6 at high pressure conditions.« less

  2. Low temperature phase transition and crystal structure of CsMgPO{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Orlova, Maria; Khainakov, Sergey; Michailov, Dmitriy; Perfler, Lukas; Langes, Christoph; Kahlenberg, Volker; Orlova, Albina

    2015-01-15

    CsMgPO{sub 4} doped with radioisotopes is a promising compound for usage as a radioactive medical source. However, a low temperature phase transition at temperatures close to ambient conditions (∼−40 °C) was observed. Information about such kind of structural changes is important in order to understand whether it can cause any problem for medical use of this compound. The phase transition has been investigated in detail using synchrotron powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and DFT calculations. The structure undergoes a transformation from an orthorhombic modification, space group Pnma (RT phase) to a monoclinic polymorph, space group P2{sub 1}/n (LT phase). New LT modification adopts similar to RT but slightly distorted unit cell: a=9.58199(2) Å, b=8.95501(1) Å, c=5.50344(2) Å, β=90.68583(1)°, V=472.198(3) Å{sup 3}. CsMgPO{sub 4} belongs to the group of framework compounds and is made up of strictly alternating MgO{sub 4}- and PO{sub 4}-tetrahedra sharing vertices. The cesium counter cations are located in the resulting channel-like cavities. Upon the transformation a combined tilting of the tetrahedra is observed. A comparison with other phase transitions in ABW-type framework compounds is given. - Graphical abstract: Structural behavior of β-tridymite-type phosphate CsMgPO{sub 4}, considered as potential chemical form for radioactive Cs-source has been studied at near ambient temperatures. A phase transition at (∼−40 °C) has been found and investigated. It has been established that the known orthorhombic RT modification, space group Pnma, adopts a monoclinic cell with space group P2{sub 1}/n at low temperatures. In this paper, we present results of structural analysis of changes accompanying this phase transition and discuss its possible impact on the application properties. - Highlights: • β-Tridymite type phosphate CsMgPO{sub 4} undergoes so called translationengleiche phase transition of index 2 at −40 °C. • The structure

  3. The determination of potential energy curve and dipole moment of the (5)0{sup +} electronic state of {sup 85}Rb{sup 133}Cs molecule by high resolution photoassociation spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Jinpeng; Zhao, Yanting Ji, Zhonghua; Li, Zhonghao; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang; Kim, Jin-Tae

    2015-12-14

    We present the formation of ultracold {sup 85}Rb{sup 133}Cs molecules in the (5)0{sup +} electronic state by photoassociation and their detection via resonance-enhanced two-photon ionization. Up to v = 47 vibrational levels including the lowest v = 0 vibrational and lowest J = 0 levels are identified with rotationally resolved high resolution photoassociation spectra. Precise Dunham coefficients are determined for the (5)0{sup +} state with high accuracy, then the Rydberg-Klein-Rees potential energy curve is derived. The electric dipole moments with respect to the vibrational numbers of the (5)0{sup +} electronic state of {sup 85}Rb{sup 133}Cs molecule are also measured in the range between 1.9 and 4.8 D. These comprehensive studies on previously unobserved rovibrational levels of the (5)0{sup +} state are helpful to understand the molecular structure and discover suitable transition pathways for transferring ultracold atoms to deeply bound rovibrational levels of the electronic ground state.

  4. Decays of the Three Top Contributors to the Reactor ν¯e High-Energy Spectrum, 92Rb, Ygs96 , and 142Cs, Studied with Total Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasco, B. C.; Wolińska-Cichocka, M.; Fijałkowska, A.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Karny, M.; Grzywacz, R. K.; Goetz, K. C.; Gross, C. J.; Stracener, D. W.; Zganjar, E. F.; Batchelder, J. C.; Blackmon, J. C.; Brewer, N. T.; Go, S.; Heffron, B.; King, T.; Matta, J. T.; Miernik, K.; Nesaraja, C. D.; Paulauskas, S. V.; Rajabali, M. M.; Wang, E. H.; Winger, J. A.; Xiao, Y.; Zachary, C. J.

    2016-08-01

    We report total absorption spectroscopy measurements of 92Rb, Ygs96 , and 142Cs β decays, which are the most important contributors to the high energy ν¯e spectral shape in nuclear reactors. These three β decays contribute 43% of the ν¯e flux near 5.5 MeV emitted by nuclear reactors. This ν¯e energy is particularly interesting due to spectral features recently observed in several experiments including the Daya Bay, Double Chooz, and RENO Collaborations. Measurements were conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory by means of proton-induced fission of 238U with on-line mass separation of fission fragments and the Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer. We observe a β -decay pattern that is similar to recent measurements of 92Rb, with a ground-state to ground-state β feeding of 91(3)%. We verify the Ygs96 ground-state to ground-state β feeding of 95.5(20)%. Our measurements substantially modify the β -decay feedings of 142Cs, reducing the β feeding to 142Ba states below 2 MeV by 32% when compared with the latest evaluations. Our results increase the discrepancy between the observed and the expected reactor ν¯e flux between 5 and 7 MeV, the maximum excess increases from ˜10 % to ˜12 %.

  5. A new class of hybrid materials via salt inclusion: novel copper(II) arsenates Na(5)ACu(4)(AsO(4))(4)Cl(2) (A = Rb, Cs) composed of alternating covalent and ionic lattices.

    PubMed

    Hwu, Shiou-Jyh; Ulutagay-Kartin, Mutlu; Clayhold, Jeffrey A; Mackay, Richard; Wardojo, Tina A; O'Connor, Charles J; Krawiec, Mariusz

    2002-10-23

    Two novel copper(II) arsenates Na5ACu4(AsO4)4Cl2 (A = Rb, Cs) were synthesized by conventional solid-state methods using reactive molten salt media. These compounds are isostructural and crystallize in an orthorhombic lattice (Fmmm, No. 69; Z = 8). The cell constants are a = 14.632(3) A, b = 18.872(2) A, c = 14.445(3) A, V = 3989(1) A3, for A = Rb; a = 14.638(3) A, b = 18.990(4) A, c = 14.418(3) A, V = 4008(1) A3, for A = Cs. Single-crystal structure studies reveal a new composite framework consisting of alternating covalent and ionic lattices. The covalent lattice contains highly oriented oligomeric mu-oxo [Cu4O12]16- tetrameric units with a cyclo-S8-like Cu4O4 magnetic core that resembles the building block of layered cuprates. The ionic slab consists of a novel framework of mixed alkali metal chloride lattice and rarely seen Na6O8 clusters. Similar to organic-inorganic hybrid materials, the title compounds present a new class of host-guest chemistry via salt inclusion reactions.

  6. Decays of the Three Top Contributors to the Reactor ν[over ¯]_{e} High-Energy Spectrum, ^{92}Rb, ^{96gs}Y, and ^{142}Cs, Studied with Total Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rasco, B C; Wolińska-Cichocka, M; Fijałkowska, A; Rykaczewski, K P; Karny, M; Grzywacz, R K; Goetz, K C; Gross, C J; Stracener, D W; Zganjar, E F; Batchelder, J C; Blackmon, J C; Brewer, N T; Go, S; Heffron, B; King, T; Matta, J T; Miernik, K; Nesaraja, C D; Paulauskas, S V; Rajabali, M M; Wang, E H; Winger, J A; Xiao, Y; Zachary, C J

    2016-08-26

    We report total absorption spectroscopy measurements of ^{92}Rb, ^{96gs}Y, and ^{142}Cs β decays, which are the most important contributors to the high energy ν[over ¯]_{e} spectral shape in nuclear reactors. These three β decays contribute 43% of the ν[over ¯]_{e} flux near 5.5 MeV emitted by nuclear reactors. This ν[over ¯]_{e} energy is particularly interesting due to spectral features recently observed in several experiments including the Daya Bay, Double Chooz, and RENO Collaborations. Measurements were conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory by means of proton-induced fission of ^{238}U with on-line mass separation of fission fragments and the Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer. We observe a β-decay pattern that is similar to recent measurements of ^{92}Rb, with a ground-state to ground-state β feeding of 91(3)%. We verify the ^{96gs}Y ground-state to ground-state β feeding of 95.5(20)%. Our measurements substantially modify the β-decay feedings of ^{142}Cs, reducing the β feeding to ^{142}Ba states below 2 MeV by 32% when compared with the latest evaluations. Our results increase the discrepancy between the observed and the expected reactor ν[over ¯]_{e} flux between 5 and 7 MeV, the maximum excess increases from ∼10% to ∼12%. PMID:27610847

  7. Decays of the Three Top Contributors to the Reactor ν[over ¯]_{e} High-Energy Spectrum, ^{92}Rb, ^{96gs}Y, and ^{142}Cs, Studied with Total Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rasco, B C; Wolińska-Cichocka, M; Fijałkowska, A; Rykaczewski, K P; Karny, M; Grzywacz, R K; Goetz, K C; Gross, C J; Stracener, D W; Zganjar, E F; Batchelder, J C; Blackmon, J C; Brewer, N T; Go, S; Heffron, B; King, T; Matta, J T; Miernik, K; Nesaraja, C D; Paulauskas, S V; Rajabali, M M; Wang, E H; Winger, J A; Xiao, Y; Zachary, C J

    2016-08-26

    We report total absorption spectroscopy measurements of ^{92}Rb, ^{96gs}Y, and ^{142}Cs β decays, which are the most important contributors to the high energy ν[over ¯]_{e} spectral shape in nuclear reactors. These three β decays contribute 43% of the ν[over ¯]_{e} flux near 5.5 MeV emitted by nuclear reactors. This ν[over ¯]_{e} energy is particularly interesting due to spectral features recently observed in several experiments including the Daya Bay, Double Chooz, and RENO Collaborations. Measurements were conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory by means of proton-induced fission of ^{238}U with on-line mass separation of fission fragments and the Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer. We observe a β-decay pattern that is similar to recent measurements of ^{92}Rb, with a ground-state to ground-state β feeding of 91(3)%. We verify the ^{96gs}Y ground-state to ground-state β feeding of 95.5(20)%. Our measurements substantially modify the β-decay feedings of ^{142}Cs, reducing the β feeding to ^{142}Ba states below 2 MeV by 32% when compared with the latest evaluations. Our results increase the discrepancy between the observed and the expected reactor ν[over ¯]_{e} flux between 5 and 7 MeV, the maximum excess increases from ∼10% to ∼12%.

  8. Quantum dot–induced phase stabilization of α-CsPbI3 perovskite for high-efficiency photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swarnkar, Abhishek; Marshall, Ashley R.; Sanehira, Erin M.; Chernomordik, Boris D.; Moore, David T.; Christians, Jeffrey A.; Chakrabarti, Tamoghna; Luther, Joseph M.

    2016-10-01

    We show nanoscale phase stabilization of CsPbI3 quantum dots (QDs) to low temperatures that can be used as the active component of efficient optoelectronic devices. CsPbI3 is an all-inorganic analog to the hybrid organic cation halide perovskites, but the cubic phase of bulk CsPbI3 (α-CsPbI3)—the variant with desirable band gap—is only stable at high temperatures. We describe the formation of α-CsPbI3 QD films that are phase-stable for months in ambient air. The films exhibit long-range electronic transport and were used to fabricate colloidal perovskite QD photovoltaic cells with an open-circuit voltage of 1.23 volts and efficiency of 10.77%. These devices also function as light-emitting diodes with low turn-on voltage and tunable emission.

  9. High temperature redox reactions with uranium: Synthesis and characterization of Cs(UO{sub 2})Cl(SeO{sub 3}), Rb{sub 2}(UO{sub 2}){sub 3}O{sub 2}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 2}, and RbNa{sub 5}U{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 7}

    SciTech Connect

    Babo, Jean-Marie; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2013-10-15

    Cs(UO{sub 2})Cl(SeO{sub 3}) (1), Rb{sub 2}(UO{sub 2}){sub 3}O{sub 2}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 3} (2), and RbNa{sub 5}U{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 7} (3) single crystals were synthesized using CsCl, RbCl, and a CuCl/NaCl eutectic mixture as fluxes, respectively. Their lattice parameters and space groups are as follows: P2{sub 1}/n (a=6.548(1) Å, b=11.052(2) Å, c=10.666(2) Å and β=93.897(3)°), P1{sup ¯} (a=7.051(2) Å, b=7.198(2) Å, c=8.314(2) Å, α=107.897(3)°, β=102.687(3)° and γ=100.564(3)°) and C2/c (a=17.862(4) Å, b=6.931(1) Å, c=20.133(4) Å and β=109.737(6)°. The small anionic building units found in these compounds are SeO{sub 3}{sup 2−} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} tetrahedra, oxide, and chloride. The crystal structure of the first compound is composed of [(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}Cl{sub 2}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sup 2−} chains separated by Cs{sup +} cations. The structure of (2) is constructed from [(UO{sub 2}){sub 3}O{sub 11}]{sup 16−} chains further connected through selenite units into layers stacked perpendicularly to the [0 1 0] direction, with Rb{sup +} cations intercalating between them. The structure of compound (3) is made of uranyl sulfate layers formed by edge and vertex connections between dimeric [U{sub 2}O{sub 16}] and [SO{sub 4}] polyhedra. These layers contain unusual sulfate–metal connectivity as well as large voids. - Graphical abstract: A new family of uranyl selenites and sulfates has been prepared by high-temperature redox reactions. This compounds display new bonding motifs. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Low-dimensional Uranyl Oxoanion compounds. • Conversion of U(IV) to U(VI) at high temperatures. • Dimensional reduction by both halides and stereochemically active lone-pairs.

  10. Low temperature phase transition and crystal structure of CsMgPO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlova, Maria; Khainakov, Sergey; Michailov, Dmitriy; Perfler, Lukas; Langes, Christoph; Kahlenberg, Volker; Orlova, Albina

    2015-01-01

    CsMgPO4 doped with radioisotopes is a promising compound for usage as a radioactive medical source. However, a low temperature phase transition at temperatures close to ambient conditions (~-40 °C) was observed. Information about such kind of structural changes is important in order to understand whether it can cause any problem for medical use of this compound. The phase transition has been investigated in detail using synchrotron powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and DFT calculations. The structure undergoes a transformation from an orthorhombic modification, space group Pnma (RT phase) to a monoclinic polymorph, space group P21/n (LT phase). New LT modification adopts similar to RT but slightly distorted unit cell: a=9.58199(2) Å, b=8.95501(1) Å, c=5.50344(2) Å, β=90.68583(1)°, V=472.198(3) Å3. CsMgPO4 belongs to the group of framework compounds and is made up of strictly alternating MgO4- and PO4-tetrahedra sharing vertices. The cesium counter cations are located in the resulting channel-like cavities. Upon the transformation a combined tilting of the tetrahedra is observed. A comparison with other phase transitions in ABW-type framework compounds is given.

  11. Extended Fourier-transform spectroscopy studies and deperturbation analysis of the spin-orbit coupled A{sup 1}Σ{sup +} and b{sup 3}Π states in RbCs

    SciTech Connect

    Kruzins, A.; Alps, K.; Docenko, O.; Klincare, I.; Tamanis, M.; Ferber, R.; Pazyuk, E. A.; Stolyarov, A. V.

    2014-11-14

    The article presents a study of the strongly spin-orbit coupled singlet A{sup 1}Σ{sup +} and triplet b{sup 3}Π states of the RbCs molecule, which provide an efficient optical path to transfer ultracold molecules to their rovibrational ground state. Fourier-transform A{sup 1}Σ{sup +} − b{sup 3}Π → X{sup 1}Σ{sup +} and (4){sup 1}Σ{sup +} → A{sup 1}Σ{sup +} − b{sup 3}Π laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectra were recorded for the natural mixture of the {sup 85}Rb{sup 133}Cs and {sup 87}Rb{sup 133}Cs isotopologues produced in a heat pipe oven. Overall 8730 rovibronic term values of A{sup 1}Σ{sup +} and b{sup 3}Π states were determined with an uncertainty of 0.01 cm{sup −1} in the energy range [9012, 14087] cm{sup −1}, covering rotational quantum numbers J ∈ [6, 324]. An energy-based deperturbation analysis performed in the framework of the four A{sup 1}Σ{sup +} − b{sup 3}Π{sub Ω=0,1,2} coupled-channels approach reproduces 97% of the experimental term values of both isotopologues with a standard deviation of 0.0036 cm{sup −1}. The reliability of the deperturbed mass-invariant potentials and spin-orbit coupling functions of the interacting A{sup 1}Σ{sup +} and b{sup 3}Π states is additionally proved by a good reproduction of the A − b → X and (4){sup 1}Σ{sup +} → A − b relative intensity distributions. The achieved accuracy of the A − b complex description allowed us to use the latter to assign the observed (5){sup 1}Σ{sup +} → A − b and (3){sup 1}Π → A − b transitions. As is demonstrated, LIF to the A − b complex becomes as informative as to the ground X{sup 1}Σ{sup +} state, which is confirmed by comparing the results of (4){sup 1}Σ{sup +} state analysis based on (4){sup 1}Σ{sup +} → A − b LIF with the data from V. Zuters et al. [Phys. Rev. A 87, 022504 (2013)] based on (4){sup 1}Σ{sup +} → X LIF.

  12. Disruption of RB/E2F-1 interaction by single point mutations in E2F-1 enhances S-phase entry and apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Shan, B; Durfee, T; Lee, W H

    1996-01-01

    The retinoblastoma protein (RB) has been proposed to function as a negative regulator of cell proliferation by complexing with cellular proteins such as the transcription factor E2F. To study the biological consequences of the RB/E2F-1 interaction, point mutants of E2F-1 which fail to bind to RB were isolated by using the yeast two-hybrid system. Sequence analysis revealed that within the minimal 18-amino acid peptide of E2F-1 required for RB binding, five residues, Tyr (position 411), Glu (419), and Asp-Leu-Phe (423-425), are critical. These amino acids are conserved among the known E2F family members. While mutation of any of these five amino acids abolished binding to RB, all mutants retained their full transactivation potential. Expression of mutated E2F-1, when compared with that of wild-type, significantly accelerated entry into S phase and subsequent apoptosis. These results provide direct genetic evidence for the biological significance of the RB/E2F interaction and strongly suggest that the interplay between RB and E2F is critical for proper cell cycle progression. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8570615

  13. Binding energies of the ground triplet state a{sup 3}Σ{sub u}{sup +} of Rb{sub 2} and Cs{sub 2} in terms of the generalized Le Roy–Bernstein near-dissociation expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Sovkov, V. B.; Ivanov, V. S.

    2014-04-07

    Formulae of Le Roy–Bernstein near-dissociation theory are derived in a general isotope–invariant form, applicable to any term in the rotational expansion of a diatomic ro-vibrational term value. It is proposed to use the generalized Le Roy–Bernstein expansion to describe the binding energies (ro-vibrational term values) of the ground triplet state a{sup 3}Σ{sub u}{sup +} of alkali metal dimers. The parameters of this description are determined for Rb{sub 2} and Cs{sub 2} molecules. This approach gives a recipe to calculate the whole variety of the binding energies with characteristic accuracies from ∼1 × 10{sup −3} to 1 × 10{sup −2} cm{sup −1} using a relatively simple algebraic equation.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of new fluoride-containing manganese vanadates A2Mn2V2O7F2 (A=Rb, Cs) and Mn2VO4F

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanjeewa, Liurukara D.; McGuire, Michael A.; Smith Pellizzeri, Tiffany M.; McMillen, Colin D.; Ovidiu Garlea, V.; Willett, Daniel; Chumanov, George; Kolis, Joseph W.

    2016-09-01

    Large single crystals of A2Mn2V2O7F2 (A=Rb, Cs) and Mn2VO4F were grown using a high-temperature (~600 °C) hydrothermal technique. Single crystal X-ray diffraction and powder X-ray diffraction were utilized to characterize the structures, which both possess MnO4F2 building blocks. The A2Mn2V2O7F2 series crystallizes as a new structure type in space group Pbcn (No. 60), Z=4 (Rb2Mn2V2O7F2: a=7.4389(17) Å, b=11.574(3) Å, c=10.914(2) Å; Cs2Mn2V2O7F2: a=7.5615(15) Å, b=11.745(2) Å, c=11.127(2) Å). The structure is composed of zigzag chains of edge-sharing MnO4F2 units running along the a-axis, and interconnected through V2O7 pyrovanadate groups. Temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility measurements on this interesting one-dimensional structural feature based on Mn2+ indicated that Cs2Mn2V2O7F2 is antiferromagnetic with a Neél temperature, TN=~3 K and a Weiss constant, θ, of -11.7(1) K. Raman and infrared spectra were also analyzed to identify the fundamental V-O vibrational modes in Cs2Mn2V2O7F2. Mn2(VO4)F crystalizes in the monoclinic space group of C2/c (no. 15), Z=8 with unit cell parameters of a=13.559(2) Å, b=6.8036(7) Å, c=10.1408(13) Å and β=116.16(3)°. The structure is associated with those of triplite and wagnerite. Dynamic fluorine disorder gives rise to complex alternating chains of five-and six-coordinate Mn2+. These interpenetrating chains are additionally connected through isolated VO4 tetrahedra to form the condensed structure.

  15. Diffusion of Ag, Au and Cs implants in MAX phase Ti3SiC2

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Weilin; Henager, Charles H.; Varga, Tamas; Jung, Hee Joon; Overman, Nicole R.; Zhang, Chonghong; Gou, Jie

    2015-05-16

    MAX phases (M: early transition metal; A: elements in group 13 or 14; X: C or N), such as titanium silicon carbide (Ti3SiC2), have a unique combination of both metallic and ceramic properties, which make them attractive for potential nuclear applications. Ti3SiC2 has been considered as a possible fuel cladding material. This study reports on the diffusivities of fission product surrogates (Ag and Cs) and a noble metal Au (with diffusion behavior similar to Ag) in this ternary compound at elevated temperatures, as well as in dual-phase nanocomposite of Ti3SiC2/3C-SiC and polycrystalline CVD 3C-SiC for behavior comparisons. Samples were implanted with Ag, Au or Cs ions and characterized with various methods, including x-ray diffraction, electron backscatter diffraction, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, helium ion microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that in contrast to immobile Ag in 3C-SiC, there is a significant outward diffusion of Ag in Ti3SiC2 within the dual-phase nanocomposite during Ag ion implantation at 873 K. Similar behavior of Au in polycrystalline Ti3SiC2 was also observed. Cs out-diffusion and release from Ti3SiC2 occurred during post-implantation thermal annealing at 973 K. This study suggests caution and further studies in consideration of Ti3SiC2 as a fuel cladding material for advanced nuclear reactors operating at very high temperatures.

  16. Diffusion of Ag, Au and Cs implants in MAX phase Ti3SiC2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Weilin; Henager, Charles H.; Varga, Tamas; Jung, Hee Joon; Overman, Nicole R.; Zhang, Chonghong; Gou, Jie

    2015-07-01

    MAX phases (M: early transition metal; A: elements in group 13 or 14; X: C or N), such as titanium silicon carbide (Ti3SiC2), have a unique combination of both metallic and ceramic properties, which make them attractive for potential nuclear applications. Ti3SiC2 has been considered as a possible fuel cladding material. This study reports on the diffusivities of fission product surrogates (Ag and Cs) and a noble metal Au (with diffusion behavior similar to Ag) in this ternary compound at elevated temperatures, as well as in dual-phase nanocomposite of Ti3SiC2/3C-SiC and polycrystalline CVD 3C-SiC for behavior comparisons. Samples were implanted with Ag, Au or Cs ions and characterized with various methods, including X-ray diffraction, electron backscatter diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, helium ion microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that in contrast to immobile Ag in 3C-SiC, there is a significant outward diffusion of Ag in Ti3SiC2 within the dual-phase nanocomposite during Ag ion implantation at 873 K. Similar behavior of Au in polycrystalline Ti3SiC2 was also observed. Cs out-diffusion and release from Ti3SiC2 occurred during post-implantation thermal annealing at 973 K. This study suggests caution and further studies in consideration of Ti3SiC2 as a fuel cladding material for advanced nuclear reactors operating at very high temperatures.

  17. Distributions of Li+, Na+ K+, Rb+, and Cs+ tracer ions in erythrocytes at 38 degrees C in relation to entry rates of these ions into cells at 0 degree C.

    PubMed

    Salminen, S; Ekman, A; Rastas, J

    2000-01-01

    Forces that are able to transport Na+ and K+ into two compartments were investigated. A modified Nernst-Planck equation for coupled flows of electric current, water, and ions was integrated. The result shows that if alkali ions in the ion channel of the cell membrane are separated by their electric-current-induced inward flows against an electro-osmotic outward flow of water, the logarithms of the stationary cell/medium distributions of these ions should be proportional to the inverse of their diffusion mobilities. The relationship was tested in human erythrocytes. From inward and outward movements of tracer alkali ions, calculations were made to obtain their stationary distributions at infinite time. The cell/medium distributions determined in this way at 38 degrees C are Li+ = 0.59, 22Na+ = 0.044, 42K+ = 10.0, 86Rb+ = 11.9, and 137Cs+ = 3.07. The entry rates of ions into the cell at 0 degrees C are understood to represent their diffusion mobilities in the pump channel. The entry rates are Li+ = 1.44, 2Na+ = 1, 42K+ = 2.22, 86Rb+ = 2.39, and 137Cs+ = 1.72 relative to that of 22Na+. There is an expected negative correlation between the logarithms of the stationary cell/ medium distributions at 38 degrees C and the inverse of the entry rates into the cell at 0 degrees C for the five ions. It is suggested that the proposed physical forces cause the separation of alkali ions in the channel of Na,K-ATPase. PMID:11156287

  18. Crystal structure and phase transition mechanisms in CsFe{sub 2}F{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Molokeev, M.S.; Bogdanov, E.V.; Misyul, S.V.; Tressaud, A.; Flerov, I.N.

    2013-04-15

    For the first time, structural phase transitions induced by the temperature were found in A{sub x}M{sub x}{sup II}M{sub (1−x)}{sup III}F{sub 3} fluorides with the defect pyrochlore structure (Fd3{sup ¯}m, Z=8). The room temperature structure of CsFe{sub 2}F{sub 6} was determined using X-ray powder diffraction technique. This phase was found to be ordered with the Pnma space group. The study of the temperature stability of orthorhombic structure by differential scanning calorimeter between 100 K and 700 K has shown a succession of phase transitions. The Pnma (Z=4)→Imma (Z=4)→I4{sub 1}/amd (Z=4)→Fd3{sup ¯}m (Z=8) structural sequence was proposed to occur within a rather narrow temperature range 500–560 K. The mechanism of structural transition has been mainly associated with the rotation of (MF{sub 6}) octahedra and small displacements of some Fe atoms. This assumption is in good agreement with the low experimental entropy value, which is characteristic for displacive transformations. - Graphical abstract: Mechanism of phase transition between the HT cubic form of CsFe{sub 2}F{sub 6} at 573 K (left) and the room temperature orthorhombic form at 298 K (right). The grey rectangles are clusters of five FeF{sub 6} octahedra. Highlights: ► Structural transition found for the first time in CsFe{sub 2}F{sub 6} with defect pyrochlore type. ► Fe{sup II} and Fe{sup III} atoms are ordered in room temperature Pnma form of CsFe{sub 2}F{sub 6}. ► Pnma(Z=4)→Imma(Z=4)→I4{sub 1}/amd(Z=4)→Fd-3m(Z=8) transition sequence is proposed. ► Structural transition due to rotation of MF{sub 6} groups+small displacements of Fe atoms. ► The low value of the entropy is in agreement with a displacive-type transition.

  19. Mixed-metal uranium(VI) iodates: hydrothermal syntheses, structures, and reactivity of Rb[UO(2)(CrO(4))(IO(3))(H(2)O)], A(2)[UO(2)(CrO(4))(IO(3))(2)] (A = K, Rb, Cs), and K(2)[UO(2)(MoO(4))(IO(3))(2)].

    PubMed

    Sykora, Richard E; McDaniel, Steven M; Wells, Daniel M; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E

    2002-10-01

    The reactions of the molecular transition metal iodates A[CrO(3)(IO(3))] (A = K, Rb, Cs) with UO(3) under mild hydrothermal conditions provide access to four new, one-dimensional, uranyl chromatoiodates, Rb[UO(2)(CrO(4))(IO(3))(H(2)O)] (1) and A(2)[UO(2)(CrO(4))(IO(3))(2)] (A = K (2), Rb (3), Cs (4)). Under basic conditions, MoO(3), UO(3), and KIO(4) can be reacted to form K(2)[UO(2)(MoO(4))(IO(3))(2)] (5), which is isostructural with 2 and 3. The structure of 1 consists of one-dimensional[UO(2)(CrO(4))(IO(3))(H(2)O)](-) ribbons that contain uranyl moieties bound by bridging chromate and iodate anions as well as a terminal water molecule to create [UO(7)] pentagonal bipyramidal environments around the U(VI) centers. These ribbons are separated from one another by Rb(+) cations. When the iodate content is increased in the hydrothermal reactions, the terminal water molecule is replaced by a monodentate iodate anion to yield 2-4. These ribbons can be further modified by replacing tetrahedral chromate anions with MoO(4)(2)(-) anions to yield isostructural, one-dimensional [UO(2)(MoO(4))(IO(3))(2)](2)(-) ribbons. Crystallographic data: 1, triclinic, space group P(-)1, a = 7.3133(5) A, b = 8.0561(6) A, c = 8.4870(6) A, alpha = 88.740(1) degrees, beta = 87.075(1) degrees, gamma = 71.672(1) degrees, Z = 2; 2, monoclinic, space group P2(1)/c, a = 11.1337(5) A, b = 7.2884(4) A, c = 15.5661(7) A, beta = 107.977(1) degrees, Z = 4; 3, monoclinic, space group P2(1)/c, a = 11.3463(6) A, b = 7.3263(4) A, c = 15.9332(8) A, beta = 108.173(1) degrees, Z = 4; 4, monoclinic, space group P2(1)/n, a = 7.3929(5) A, b = 8.1346(6) A, c = 22.126(2) A, beta = 90.647(1) degrees, Z = 4; 5, monoclinic, space group P2(1)/c, a = 11.3717(6) A, b = 7.2903(4) A, c = 15.7122(8) A, beta = 108.167(1) degrees, Z = 4.

  20. Cs7Sm11[TeO3]12Cl16 and Rb7Nd11[TeO3]12Br16, the new tellurite halides of the tetragonal Rb6LiNd11[SeO3]12Cl16 structure type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charkin, Dmitri O.; Black, Cameron; Downie, Lewis J.; Sklovsky, Dmitry E.; Berdonosov, Peter S.; Olenev, Andrei V.; Zhou, Wuzong; Lightfoot, Philip; Dolgikh, Valery A.

    2015-12-01

    Two new rare-earth - alkali - tellurium oxide halides were synthesized by a salt flux technique and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The structures of the new compounds Cs7Sm11[TeO3]12Cl16 (I) and Rb7Nd11[TeO3]12Br16 (II) (both tetragonal, space group I4/mcm) correspond to the sequence of [MLn11(TeO3)12] and [M6X16] layers and bear very strong similarities to those of known selenite analogs. We discuss the trends in similarities and differences in compositions and structural details between the Se and Te compounds; more members of the family are predicted.

  1. Unstable Resonator Optical Parametric Oscillator Based on Quasi-Phase-Matched RbTiOAsO(4).

    PubMed

    Hansson, G; Karlsson, H; Laurell, F

    2001-10-20

    We demonstrate improved signal and idler-beam quality of a 3-mm-aperture quasi-phase-matched RbTiOAsO(4) optical parametric oscillator through use of a confocal unstable resonator as compared with a plane-parallel resonator. Both oscillators were singly resonant, and the periodically poled RbTiOAsO(4) crystal generated a signal at 1.56 mum and an idler at 3.33 mum when pumped at 1.064 mum. We compared the beam quality produced by the 1.2-magnification confocal unstable resonator with the beam quality produced by the plane-parallel resonator by measuring the signal and the idler beam M(2) value. We also investigated the effect of pump-beam intensity distribution by comparing the result of a Gaussian and a top-hat intensity profile pump beam. We generated a signal beam of M(2) approximately 7 and an idler beam of M(2) approximately 2.5 through use of an unstable resonator and a Gaussian intensity profile pump beam. This corresponds to an increase of a factor of approximately 2 in beam quality for the signal and a factor of 3 for the idler, compared with the beam quality of the plane-parallel resonator optical parametric oscillator. PMID:18364827

  2. Complete Genome Sequences of T4-Like Bacteriophages RB3, RB5, RB6, RB7, RB9, RB10, RB27, RB33, RB55, RB59, and RB68

    PubMed Central

    Esvelt, Kevin M.; Church, George M.

    2015-01-01

    T4-like bacteriophages have been explored for phage therapy and are model organisms for phage genomics and evolution. Here, we describe the sequencing of 11 T4-like phages. We found a high nucleotide similarity among the T4, RB55, and RB59; RB32 and RB33; and RB3, RB5, RB6, RB7, RB9, and RB10 phages. PMID:25555735

  3. Efficient biotransformation of ginsenoside Rb1 to Rd by isolated Aspergillus versicolor, excreting β-glucosidase in the spore production phase of solid culture.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fujian; Guo, Xiaoyan; Lu, Wenyu

    2015-11-01

    Ginsenosides are the major pharmacological components in ginseng. Microorganisms from a ginseng field were isolated to identify transformation of ginsenosides. Based on HPLC and LC-MS analysis, strain LFJ1403 showed strong activities to transform ginsenoside Rb1 to Rd as the sole product. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA indicated that LFJ1403 belonged to Aspergillus versicolor. Through comparing four systems of transforming Rb1 to Rd, strain LFJ1403 was found to secrete ginsenoside-converting enzymes in the spore production phase of plate culture. This result suggested that the enzyme could be directly obtained from the plate. The spore suspension, which contained the exocrine enzyme, was easy to prepare and efficient for biotransformation of ginsenoside Rb1 to Rd. Further study showed that the maximum bioconversion rate was 96% (w/w) in shake flasks when a spore suspension system was used with optimized biotransformation conditions. Scale-up of this system to 2L resulted in an 85% conversion rate. The ginsenoside Rb1 converting enzyme was separated by gradient HPLC with Q-Sepharose column, and its β-glucosidase activity and Rb1-converting ability was assayed by the 4-Nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (PNPG) method and HPLC with C18 column, respectively. We obtained 130 U ml(-1) enzymatic activity with the purified β-glucosidase. This is the first report on efficiently converting ginsenoside using extracellular enzyme directly from the fungus spore production phase of solid culture.

  4. Quantum phase transition between disordered and ordered states in the spin-1/2 kagome lattice antiferromagnet (Rb1-xCsx) 2Cu3SnF12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Kazuya; Kurita, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Hidekazu

    2015-06-01

    We have systematically investigated the variation of the exchange parameters and the ground state in the S =1/2 kagome-lattice antiferromagnet (Rb1 -xCsx )2Cu3SnF12 via magnetic measurements using single crystals. One of the parent compounds, Rb2Cu3SnF12 , which has a distorted kagome lattice accompanied by four sorts of nearest-neighbor exchange interaction, has a disordered ground state described by a pinwheel valence-bond-solid state. The other parent compound, Cs2Cu3SnF12 , which has a uniform kagome lattice at room temperature, has an ordered ground state with the q =0 spin structure. The analysis of magnetic susceptibilities shows that with increasing cesium concentration x , the exchange parameters increase with the tendency to be uniform. It was found that the ground state is disordered for x <0.53 and ordered for x >0.53 . The pseudogap observed for x <0.53 and the Néel temperature for x >0.53 approach zero at xc≃0.53 . This is indicative of the occurrence of a quantum phase transition at xc.

  5. EPR and optical spectroscopy of structural phase transition in a Rb2NaYF6 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falin, M. L.; Gerasimov, K. I.; Latypov, V. A.; Leushin, A. M.; Khaidukov, N. M.

    2013-03-01

    The structural phase transition has been observed for the first time in the Rb2NaYF6 crystal and studied by EPR and optical spectroscopy. EPR spectra of Dy3+ and Yb3+ ions present as unintentional dopants in the nominally undoped crystal and forming tetragonal paramagnetic centers have been identified. A characteristic splitting of some optical lines has been observed in the temperature dependence of the Yb3+ optical spectra. It indicates the splitting of the cubic quartet energy levels of Yb3+ ions by the tetragonal crystal field. The empirical schemes of the energy levels for cubic and tetragonal paramagnetic centers of Yb3+ ions have been established and parameters of the corresponding crystal fields have been determined. The latter have been used for analyzing the crystal lattice distortions occurring in the vicinity of the Yb3+ ion during the phase transition. It has been established using the superposition model that the nearest octahedral environment of the Yb3+ ion is distorted as follows: the fluorine ions are rotated by the angle of 2.1° around the fourfold axis; the F- ions located symmetrically in the plane perpendicular to the rotation axis approach the dopant by 0.0014 nm, whereas the F- ions located on the rotation axis move away by 0.0028 nm. It has been concluded that the studied phase transition includes the critical rotations of the octahedral F groups and noncritical displacement of atoms in the rotated fluorine octahedra.

  6. Solvent Engineering for Ambient-Air-Processed, Phase-Stable CsPbI3 in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Paifeng; Xia, Wei; Zhou, Shengwen; Sun, Lin; Cheng, Jigui; Xu, Chenxi; Lu, Yingwei

    2016-09-15

    Inorganic CsPbI3 perovskite solar cells (PSCs) owning comparable photovoltaic performance and enhanced thermal stability compared to organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have attracted enormous interest in the past year. However, it is still a challenge to stabilize the desired black α-CsPbI3 perovskites in ambient air for photovoltaic applications. Herein, sequential solvent engineering including the addition of hydroiodic acid (HI) and subsequent isopropanol (IPA) treatment for fabricating stable and working CsPbI3 PSCs is developed, and a novel low-temperature phase-transition route from new intermediate Cs4PbI6 to stable α-CsPbI3 is also released for the first time. As such, the as-prepared PSCs give a relatively high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.13% (reverse scan), and the steady-state power output of 1.88% is confirmed for the selected cell with an initial PCE of 3.13%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of fabricating CsPbI3 inorganic PSCs under fully open-air conditions. PMID:27569604

  7. Ion mobility, conductivity, structure, and phase transitions in K0.7M0.3SbF4 compounds with M=Rb, NH4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavun, V. Ya.; Gerasimenko, A. V.; Uvarov, N. F.; Polyantsev, M. M.; Zemnukhova, L. A.

    2016-09-01

    Ion mobility, phase transitions, structure, and conductivity in the K0.7M0.3SbF4 (M=Rb, NH4) compounds were studied by NMR spectroscopy, DSC, X-ray, and conductivity measurements. The predominant form in the ion motions resulting from the phase transition of high modification was diffusion of fluoride and ammonium ions above 450 K. The high-temperature phases of K0.7M0.3SbF4 (M=Rb, NH4) are superionic, while their conductivity attains the values of ~10-2-10-4 S/cm at 450-500 K. The structures of α- and β-modifications of the K0.7Rb0.3SbF4 are monoclinic (space group P21/m). The main structural units in them are statistically substituting each other K+ and Rb+ cations and complex ∞1[ SbF4]- anions linked into zigzag-like chains by bridge fluorine atoms. The nearest surrounding of each antimony atom contains five fluorine atoms, so that the antimony coordination polyhedron can be described, taking into account the lone electron pair, as a distorted SbF5E octahedron (ψ-octahedron).

  8. Ion mobility, conductivity, structure, and phase transitions in K0.7M0.3SbF4 compounds with M=Rb, NH4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavun, V. Ya.; Gerasimenko, A. V.; Uvarov, N. F.; Polyantsev, M. M.; Zemnukhova, L. A.

    2016-09-01

    Ion mobility, phase transitions, structure, and conductivity in the K0.7M0.3SbF4 (M=Rb, NH4) compounds were studied by NMR spectroscopy, DSC, X-ray, and conductivity measurements. The predominant form in the ion motions resulting from the phase transition of high modification was diffusion of fluoride and ammonium ions above 450 K. The high-temperature phases of K0.7M0.3SbF4 (M=Rb, NH4) are superionic, while their conductivity attains the values of ~10-2-10-4 S/cm at 450-500 K. The structures of α- and β-modifications of the K0.7Rb0.3SbF4 are monoclinic (space group P21/m). The main structural units in them are statistically substituting each other K+ and Rb+ cations and complex 1[ SbF4 ]- ∞ anions linked into zigzag-like chains by bridge fluorine atoms. The nearest surrounding of each antimony atom contains five fluorine atoms, so that the antimony coordination polyhedron can be described, taking into account the lone electron pair, as a distorted SbF5E octahedron (ψ-octahedron).

  9. Magnetic-field- and pressure-induced quantum phase transition in CsFeCl3 proved via magnetization measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurita, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Hidekazu

    2016-09-01

    We have performed magnetization measurements of the gapped quantum magnet CsFeCl3 at temperatures (T ) down to 0.5 K at ambient pressure and down to 1.8 K at hydrostatic pressures (P ) of up to 1.5 GPa. The lower-field (H ) phase boundary of the field-induced ordered phase at ambient pressure is found to follow the power-law behavior expressed by the formula HN(T ) -Hc∝TNϕ . The application of pressure extends the phase boundary to both a lower field and higher temperature. Above the critical pressure Pc˜0.9 GPa, the transition field HN associated with the excitation gap becomes zero, and a signature of the magnetic phase transition is found in the T dependence of magnetization in a very low applied field. This suggests that CsFeCl3 exhibits a pressure-induced magnetic phase transition at Pc.

  10. Effects of thermal and quantum fluctuations on the phase diagram of a spin-1 {sup 87}Rb Bose-Einstein condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Phuc, Nguyen Thanh; Kawaguchi, Yuki; Ueda, Masahito

    2011-10-15

    We investigate the effects of thermal and quantum fluctuations on the phase diagram of a spin-1 {sup 87}Rb Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) under the quadratic Zeeman effect. Due to the large ratio of spin-independent to spin-dependent interactions of {sup 87}Rb atoms, the effect of noncondensed atoms on the condensate is much more significant than that in scalar BECs. We find that the condensate and spontaneous magnetization emerge at different temperatures when the ground state is in the broken-axisymmetry phase. In this phase, a magnetized condensate induces spin coherence of noncondensed atoms in different magnetic sublevels, resulting in temperature-dependent magnetization of the noncondensate. We also examine the effect of quantum fluctuations on the order parameter at absolute zero and find that the ground-state phase diagram is significantly altered by quantum depletion.

  11. Crystal Structure and Ionic Conductivity of Three Polymorphic Phases of Rubidium Trefluoromethyl Sulfonate, RbSO3CF3

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrandt,L.; Dinnebier, R.; Jansen, M.

    2006-01-01

    The crystal structures of three polymorphic phases of rubidium trifluoromethyl sulfonate (RbSO{sub 3}CF{sub 3}, rubidium 'triflate') were solved from X-ray powder diffraction data. At room temperature, rubidium triflate crystallizes in the monoclinic space group Cm with lattice parameters of a = 19.9611(5) Angstroms, b = 23.4913(7) Angstroms, c = 5.1514(2) Angstroms, = 102.758(2); Z = 16. At T = 321 K, a first-order phase transition occurs toward a monoclinic phase in space group P2{sub 1} with lattice parameters at T = 344 K of a = 10.3434(5) Angstroms, b = 5.8283(3) Angstroms, c = 5.1982(3) Angstroms, = 104.278(6); Z = (2). At T = 461 K, another phase transition, this time of second order, occurs toward an orthorhombic phase in space group Cmcm with lattice parameters at T = 510 K of a = 5.3069(2) Angstroms, b = 20.2423(10) Angstroms, c = 5.9479(2) Angstroms; Z = 4. As a common feature within all three crystal structures of rubidium triflate, the triflate anions are arranged in double layers with the lipophilic CF{sub 3} groups facing each other. The rubidium ions are located between the SO{sub 3} groups. The general packing is similar to the packing in cesium triflate. Rubidium triflate can be classified as a solid electrolyte with a specific ionic conductivity of = 9.89 x 10{sup -9} S/cm at T = 384 K and = 3.84 x 10{sup -6} S/cm at T = 481 K.

  12. Optical spectroscopy studies on FeTe1-xSex and AxFe2-ySe2 (A = K, Rb, Cs): A brief overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Rui-Hua; Wang, Nan-Lin

    2013-08-01

    In this short overview, we summarize the optical spectroscopy studies on iron selenide superconducting systems FeTe1-xSex and A-xFe2-ySe2. We elaborate that optical spectroscopy measurements yield fruitful information about the band structure evolution across the AFM phase transition temperature, the electronic correlation effect, the superconducting pairing energy gap, the condensed carrier density or penetration depth, the inhomogeneity and the nanoscale phase separation between superconductivity and antiferromagnetism in those systems.

  13. Non-centrosymmetric Rb2Mn2(MoO4)3

    PubMed Central

    Bouzidi, Chahira; Zid, Mohamed Faouzi; Driss, Ahmed; Souilem, Amira

    2014-01-01

    The title compound, dirubidium dimanganese(II) tris­(tetra­oxo­molyb­date), Rb2Mn2(MoO4)3, was prepared by solid-state reactions. The structure can be described as being composed of MnO6 octa­hedra sharing corners with MoO4 tetra­hedra. The three-dimensional framework contains cavities in which the rubidium ions are located. The Rb+ cations are within distorted nine- and 12-vertex polyhedra. The pairs of different Mn2+ and Rb+ cations are each located on threefold rotation axes.. Rb2Mn2(MoO4)3 is isotypic with compounds of the Cs2 M 2Mo3O12 (M = Ni, Fe) family. A comparative structural description is provided between the structure of the title compound and those of related phases. Differences with structures such as alluaudite are discussed. PMID:25161508

  14. (ns{sub 1/2}+np{sub 1/2})0{sub g}{sup -}Rb{sub 2} and Cs{sub 2} photo-associative spectroscopy of weakly bound levels: Lu-Fano analysis coupled to an improved LeRoy-Bernstein formula

    SciTech Connect

    Jelassi, H.; De Lesegno, B. Viaris; Pruvost, L.

    2007-09-19

    We report on the study of the (ns{sub 1/2}+np{sub 1/2})0{sub g}{sup -}Rb{sub 2} and Cs{sub 2} weakly-bound-level photoassociative spectroscopy in a magneto-optical trap. For the analysis, a Lu-Fano graph is plotted for each set of data. We show that an improved LeRoy-Bernstein formula must to be used. The data is then analysed by a classical procedure using the improved LeRoy-Bernstein formula. The (ns{sub 1/2}+np{sub 1/2})0{sub g}{sup -}Rb{sub 2} and Cs{sub 2} multipolar coefficients c{sub 6} are fitted. They are found to be in good agreement with previous results.

  15. RABL6A promotes G1-S phase progression and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor cell proliferation in an Rb1-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Jussara; Muniz, Viviane P; Falls, Kelly C; Reed, Sara M; Taghiyev, Agshin F; Quelle, Frederick W; Gourronc, Francoise A; Klingelhutz, Aloysius J; Major, Heather J; Askeland, Ryan W; Sherman, Scott K; O'Dorisio, Thomas M; Bellizzi, Andrew M; Howe, James R; Darbro, Benjamin W; Quelle, Dawn E

    2014-11-15

    Mechanisms of neuroendocrine tumor (NET) proliferation are poorly understood, and therapies that effectively control NET progression and metastatic disease are limited. We found amplification of a putative oncogene, RABL6A, in primary human pancreatic NETs (PNET) that correlated with high-level RABL6A protein expression. Consistent with those results, stable silencing of RABL6A in cultured BON-1 PNET cells revealed that it is essential for their proliferation and survival. Cells lacking RABL6A predominantly arrested in G1 phase with a moderate mitotic block. Pathway analysis of microarray data suggested activation of the p53 and retinoblastoma (Rb1) tumor-suppressor pathways in the arrested cells. Loss of p53 had no effect on the RABL6A knockdown phenotype, indicating that RABL6A functions independent of p53 in this setting. By comparison, Rb1 inactivation partially restored G1 to S phase progression in RABL6A-knockdown cells, although it was insufficient to override the mitotic arrest and cell death caused by RABL6A loss. Thus, RABL6A promotes G1 progression in PNET cells by inactivating Rb1, an established suppressor of PNET proliferation and development. This work identifies RABL6A as a novel negative regulator of Rb1 that is essential for PNET proliferation and survival. We suggest RABL6A is a new potential biomarker and target for anticancer therapy in PNET patients.

  16. RABL6A promotes G1-S phase progression and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor cell proliferation in an Rb1-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Jussara; Muniz, Viviane P.; Falls, Kelly; Reed, Sara M.; Taghiyev, Agshin F.; Quelle, Frederick W.; Gourronc, Francoise; Klingelhutz, Aloysius J.; Major, Heather J.; Askeland, Ryan; Sherman, Scott K.; O'Dorisio, Thomas M.; Bellizzi, Andrew M.; Howe, James R.; Darbro, Benjamin W.; Quelle, Dawn E.

    2014-01-01

    Mechanisms of neuroendocrine tumor (NET) proliferation are poorly understood and therapies that effectively control NET progression and metastatic disease are limited. We found amplification of a putative oncogene, RABL6A, in primary human pancreatic NETs(PNETs) that correlated with high level RABL6A protein expression. Consistent with those results, stable silencing of RABL6A in cultured BON-1 PNET cells revealed that it is essential for their proliferation and survival. Cells lacking RABL6A predominantly arrested in G1 phase with a moderate mitotic block. Pathway analysis of microarray data suggested activation of the p53 and retinoblastoma (Rb1) tumor suppressor pathways in the arrested cells. Loss of p53 had no effect on the RABL6A knockdown phenotype, indicating RABL6A functions independent of p53 in this setting. By comparison, Rb1 inactivation partially restored G1 to S phase progression in RABL6A knockdown cells although it was insufficient to override the mitotic arrest and cell death caused by RABL6A loss. Thus, RABL6A promotes G1 progression in PNET cells by inactivating Rb1, an established suppressor of PNET proliferation and development. This work identifies RABL6A as a novel negative regulator of Rb1 that is essential for PNET proliferation and survival. We suggest RABL6A is a new potential biomarker and target for anticancer therapy in PNET patients. PMID:25273089

  17. Synchrotron x-ray-scattering study of the normal-incommensurate phase transition in Rb2ZnCl4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinkin, M. P.; McMorrow, D. F.; Hill, J. P.; Cowley, R. A.; Lussier, J.-G.; Gibaud, A.; Grübel, G.; Sutter, C.

    1996-08-01

    The results of high-resolution synchrotron x-ray-scattering experiments on the normal-incommensurate phase transition in Rb2ZnCl4 are reported. Measured critical exponents for the intensities of the first three harmonics of the incommensurate modulation wave below Tc agree well with theoretical predictions for the n=2, D=3 (3D-XY) universality class. The scattering observed above Tc corrresponds to critical fluctuations on two distinct length scales: the critical exponents for the short length scale component of the scattering agree with those expected for the 3D-XY universality class. The value found for the exponent of the inverse correlation length of the long length scale component is νs=0.7+/-0.2. A comparison of data taken in Laue and Bragg geometries at different photon energies suggests that the second length scale scattering originates in the near-surface region. Possible explanations of the two length scale behavior are discussed.

  18. Links between the Crystal and Electronic Structure in the New Family of Unconventional Superconductors A2Cr3As3 (A = K, Rb, Cs).

    PubMed

    Alemany, Pere; Canadell, Enric

    2015-08-17

    The electronic structure of a new family of superconductors is examined through density functional theory calculations. In contrast with other quasi-1D superconductors, these phases exhibit a relatively complex electronic structure and the Fermi surface contains both 1D and 3D components. It is shown that cations have an almost nil influence on the electronic structure. The absence of a structural Peierls modulation is discussed, and the differences with the structurally related M2Mo6Se6 (M = Tl, In, ...) superconductors are stressed. The large electron mass renormalization and the lack of clear correlation between N(EF) and Tc suggest the existence of strong electron correlations and an unconventional origin of the superconductivity. PMID:26230077

  19. Synthesis and crystal structures of the layered uranyl tellurites A{sub 2}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 3}(TeO{sub 3}){sub 2}O{sub 2}] (A=K, Rb, Cs)

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, Jonathan D.; Almond, Philip M.; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E. . E-mail: albreth@auburn.edu

    2004-11-01

    The reactions of UO{sub 3} and TeO{sub 3} with KCl, RbCl, or CsCl at 800{sup o}C for 5d yield single crystals of A{sub 2}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 3}(TeO{sub 3}){sub 2}O{sub 2}] (A=K (1), Rb (2), and Cs (3)). These compounds are isostructural with one another, and their structures consist of two-dimensional {sub {infinity}}{sup 2}[(UO2)3(TeO3)2O2]2- sheets arranged in a stair-like topology separated by alkali metal cations. These sheets are comprised of zigzagging uranium(VI) oxide chains bridged by corner-sharing trigonal pyramidal TeO{sub 3}{sup 2-} anions. The chains are composed of dimeric, edge-sharing, pentagonal bipyramidal UO{sub 7} moieties joined by edge-sharing tetragonal bipyramidal UO{sub 6} units. The lone-pair of electrons from the TeO{sub 3} groups are oriented in opposite directions with respect to one another on each side of the sheets rendering each individual sheet non-polar. The alkali metal cations form contacts with nearby tellurite oxygen atoms as well as with oxygen atoms from the uranyl moieties. Crystallographic data (193K, MoK{alpha}, {lambda}=0.7107A): 1, triclinic, space group P1-bar , a=6.7985(5)A, b=7.0123(5)A, c=7.8965(6)A, {alpha}=101.852(1){sup o}, {beta}=102.974(1){sup o}, {gamma}=100.081(1){sup o}, V=349.25(4)A3, Z=2, R(F)=2.70% for 98 parameters and 1697 reflections with I>2{sigma}(I); 2, triclinic, space group P1-bar , a=7.0101(6)A, b=7.0742(6)A, c=8.0848(7)A, {alpha}=105.590(2){sup o}, {beta}=101.760(2){sup o}, {gamma}=99.456(2){sup o}, V=367.91(5)A3, Z=2, R(F)=2.36% for 98 parameters and 1817 reflections with I>2{sigma}(I); 3, triclinic, space group P1-bar , a=7.0007(5)A, b=7.5195(6)A, c=8.4327(6)A, {alpha}=109.301(1){sup o}, {beta}=100.573(1){sup o}, {gamma}=99.504(1){sup o}, V=399.49(5)A3, Z=2, R(F)=2.61% for 98 parameters and 1965 reflections with I>2{sigma}(I)

  20. Structures of Hydrated Alkali Metal Cations, M+(H2O)nAr (m = Li, Na, K, rb and Cs, n = 3-5), Using Infrared Photodissociation Spectroscopy and Thermodynamic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Haochen; van der Linde, Christian; Lisy, James M.

    2014-06-01

    Alkali metal cations play vital roles in chemical and biochemical systems. Lithium is widely used in psychiatric treatment of manic states and bipolar disorder; Sodium and potassium are essential elements, having major biological roles as electrolytes, balancing osmotic pressure on body cells and assisting the electroneurographic signal transmission; Rubidium has seen increasing usage as a supplementation for manic depression and depression treatment; Cesium doped compounds are used as essential catalysts in chemical production and organic synthesis. Since hydrated alkali metal cations are ubiquitous and the basic form of the alkali metal cations in chemical and biochemical systems, their structural and thermodynamic properties serve as the foundation for modeling more complex chemical and biochemical processes, such as ion transport and ion size-selectivity of ionophores and protein channels. By combining mass spectrometry and infrared photodissociation spectroscopy, we have characterized the structures and thermodynamic properties of the hydrated alkali metal cations, i.e. M+(H2O)nAr, (M = Li, Na, K, Rb and Cs, n = 3-5). Ab initio calculations and RRKM-EE (evaporative ensemble) calculations were used to assist in the spectral assignments and thermodynamic analysis. Results showed that the structures of hydrated alkali metal cations were determined predominantly by the competition between non-covalent interactions, i.e. the water---water hydrogen bonding interactions and the water---cation electrostatic interactions. This balance, however, is very delicate and small changes, i.e. different cations, different levels of hydration and different effective temperatures clearly impact the balance.

  1. Structural and conductivity studies of CsKSO{sub 4}Te(OH){sub 6} and Rb{sub 1.25}K{sub 0.75}SO{sub 4}Te(OH){sub 6} materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chabchoub, N. . E-mail: nizar_chabchoub@yahoo.fr; Darriet, J.; Khemakhem, H.

    2006-07-15

    The crystal structures of the title compounds were solved using the single-crystal X-ray diffraction technique. At room temperature CsKSO{sub 4}Te(OH){sub 6} was found to crystallize in the monoclinic system with Pn space group and lattice parameters: a=12.5463(6)A; b=6.5765(2)A; c=12.6916(7)A; {beta}=106.53(2){sup o}; V=1003.914(4)A{sup 3}; Z=4 and D{sub calc.}=3.29g/cm{sup 3}. The structural refinement has led to a reliability factor of R{sub 1}=0.0284 (wR{sub 2}=0.064) for 7577 independent reflections. Rb{sub 1.25}K{sub 0.75}SO{sub 4}Te(OH){sub 6} material possesses a monoclinic structure with space group P2{sub 1}/a and cell parameters: a=11.3411(6)A; b=6.5819(2)A; c=13.5730(8)A; {beta}=106.860(10){sup o}; V=969.62(10)A{sup 3}; Z=4 and D=3.16(3)g/cm{sup 3}. The residuals are R{sub 1}=0.0297 and wR{sub 2}=0.0776 for 3336 independent reflections. The main interest of these structures is the presence of two different and independent anionic groups (TeO{sub 6}{sup 6-} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) in the same crystal. Complex impedance measurements (Z*=Z{sup '}-iZ{sup '}') have been undertaken in the frequency and temperature ranges 20-10{sup 6}Hz and 400-600K, respectively. The dielectric relaxation is studied in the complex modulus formalism M*.

  2. Phase separation in iron chalcogenide superconductor Rb0.8+xFe1.6+ySe2 as seen by Raman light scattering and band structure calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashkevich, Yu.; Gnezdilov, V.; Lemmens, P.; Shevtsova, T.; Gusev, A.; Lamonova, K.; Wulferding, D.; Gnatchenko, S.; Pomjakushina, E.; Conder, K.

    2016-06-01

    We report Raman light scattering in the phase separated superconducting single crystal Rb0.77Fe1.61Se2 with Tc = 32 K over a wide temperature region 3-500 K. The observed phonon lines from the majority vacancy ordered Rb2Fe4Se5 (245) antiferromagnetic phase with TN = 525 K demonstrate modest anomalies in the frequency, intensity and halfwidth at the superconductive phase transition. We identify phonon lines from the minority compressed RbδFe2Se2 (122) conductive phase. The superconducting gap with d x 2 - y 2 symmetry has been detected in our spectra. In the range 0-600 cm-1 we observe a weak but highly polarized B1g-type background which becomes well-structured upon cooling. A possible magnetic or multiorbital origin of this background is discussed. We argue that the phase separation in M0.8+xFe1.6+ySe2 is of pure magnetic origin. It occurs below the Néel temperature when the magnetic moment of iron reaches a critical value. We state that there is a spacer between the majority 245 and minority 122 phases. Using ab initio spin-polarized band structure calculations we demonstrate that the compressed vacancy ordered Rb2Fe4Se5 phase can be conductive and therefore may serve as a protective interface spacer between the purely metallic RbδFe2Se2 phase and the insulating Rb2Fe4Se5 phase providing percolative Josephson-junction like superconductivity all throughout of Rb0.8+xFe1.6+ySe2. Our lattice dynamics calculations show significant differences in the phonon spectra of the conductive and insulating Rb2Fe4Se5 phases.

  3. The phase diagram and physicochemical properties of the quaternary system Li+, Rb+, Mg2+//borate-H2O at 348 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huabin; Liu, Lu; Yu, Xudong; Zhang, Yujuan; Li, Zhongquan; Zeng, Ying

    2015-09-01

    Pingluo underground brine, located in the west of China, is a high-grade deposit of lithium, potassium, rubidium, and borates. To study the ways of multipurpose utilization of this resource, the phase equilibrium of the system Li+, Rb+, Mg2+//borate-H2O was investigated at 348 K by an isothermal dissolution method. The solubilities of the components and physicochemical properties of equilibrated solutions, such as density and refractive index were determined. The stable phase diagram, the water content diagram and the physicochemical properties vs. composition diagrams were constructed according to the experimental data. The stable phase diagram consists of one invariant point, three isothermal dissolution curves and three crystallization fields corresponding to single salts MgB4O5(OH)4 · 7H2O, RbB5O6(OH)4 · 2H2O, and Li2B4O7 · 3H2O. The Li2B4O7 · 3H2O salt has the smallest crystallization region, whereas RbB5O6(OH)4 · 2H2O occupies the largest part, so rubidium pentaborate can be more easily separated from solution than other coexisting salts of this system at 348 K.

  4. Synthesis of anion-deficient layered perovskites, ACa[sub 2]Nb[sub 3-x]M[sub x]O[sub 10-x] (A = Rb, Cs; M = Al, Fe), exhibiting ion-exchange and intercalation. Evidence for the formation of layered brownmillerites, ACa[sub 2]Nb[sub 2]AlO[sub 9] (A = Cs, H)

    SciTech Connect

    Uma, S.; Gopalakrishnan, J. )

    1994-07-01

    Anion-deficient layered perovskite oxides of the formula, ACa[sub 2]Nb[sub 3-x]M[sub x]O[sub 10-x] (A = Rb, Cs; M = Al, Fe) for 0 < x [le] 1.0, possessing tetragonal structures similar to the parent ACa[sub 2]Nb[sub 3]O[sub 10], have been synthesized. The interlayer A cations in these materials are readily exchanged with protons in aqueous HNO[sub 3] to give the protonated derivatives, HCa[sub 2]Nb[sub 3-x]M[sub x]O[sub 10-x]; the latter are solid Bronsted acids intercalating a number of organic amines including aniline (pK[sub a] = 4.63). The distribution of acid sites in the interlaying region of HCa[sub 2]Nb[sub 2]MO[sub 9] inferred from n-alkylamine intercalation suggests that oxygen vacancies and Nb/M atoms are disordered in the ACa[sub 2]Nb[sub 2]MO[sub 9] samples prepared at 1100-1200[degrees]C. Annealing a disordered sample of CsCa[sub 2]Nb[sub 2]AlO[sub 9] for a long time at lower temperatures tends to order the Nb/Al atoms and oxygen vacancies to produce octahedral (NbO[sub 6/2])-tetrahedral (AlO[sub 4/2])-octahedral (NbO[sub 6/2]) layer sequence reminiscent of the brownmillerite structure. 22 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Two spatially separated phases in semiconducting Rb0.8Fe1.5S2

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Meng; Tian, Wei; Valdivia, P.; Chi, Songxue; Bourret-Courchesne, E.; Dai, Pengcheng; Birgeneau, R. J.

    2014-09-26

    We report neutron scattering and transport measurements on semiconducting Rb0.8Fe1.5S2, a compound isostructural and isoelectronic to the well-studied A0.8FeySe2(A = K, Rb, Cs, Tl/K) superconducting systems. Both resistivity and DC susceptibility measurements reveal a magnetic phase transition at T = 275 K. Neutron diffraction studies show that the 275 K transition originates from a phase with rhombic iron vacancy order which exhibits an in-plane stripe antiferromagnetic ordering below 275 K. In addition, the stripe antiferromagnetic phase interdigitates mesoscopically with an ubiquitous phase with √5 x√5 iron vacancy order. This phase has a magnetic transition at TN = 425 K and an iron vacancy order-disorder transition at TS = 600 K. These two different structural phases are closely similar to those observed in the isomorphous Se materials. Based on the close similarities of the in-plane antiferromagnetic structures, moments sizes, and ordering temperatures in semiconducting Rb0.8Fe1.5S2 and K0.81Fe1.58Se2, we argue that the in-plane antiferromagnetic order arises from strong coupling between local moments. Superconductivity, previously observed in the A0.8FeySe2₋ zSz system, is absent in A0.8Fe1.5S2, which has a semiconducting ground state. We discuss the implied relationship between stripe and block antiferromagnetism and superconductivity in these materials as well as a strategy for further investigation.

  6. Rb NMR study of the electronic properties of Rb 1C 60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouet, V.; Yoshinari, Y.; Alloul, H.; Forro, L.

    1994-12-01

    87Rb (and 85Rb) NMR spectra in the orthorhombic phase ( (o) phase) of Rb 1C 60 show up broadening, with respect to the high-T cubic phase and to the quenched phase, which signals change of symmetry of the Rb site. The spin lattice relaxation rate follows a linear T dependence in the (o) phase above 100 K, suggesting that this phase is metallic. The increase of 1/T 1T at low T seems to be correlated with the transition seen by E.S.R.

  7. Guided ion beam and theoretical studies of the reaction of Ag{sup +} with CS{sub 2}: Gas-phase thermochemistry of AgS{sup +} and AgCS{sup +} and insight into spin-forbidden reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Armentrout, P. B.; Kretzschmar, Ilona

    2010-01-14

    The gas-phase reactivity of the atomic transition metal cation, Ag{sup +}, with CS{sub 2} is investigated using guided-ion beam mass spectrometry. Endothermic reactions forming AgS{sup +} and AgCS{sup +} are observed but are quite inefficient. This observation is largely attributed to the stability of the closed shell Ag{sup +}({sup 1}S,4d{sup 10}) ground state, but is also influenced by the fact that the reactions producing ground state AgS{sup +} and AgCS{sup +} products are both spin forbidden. Analysis of the kinetic energy dependence of the cross sections for formation of these two products yields the 0 K bond energies of D{sub 0}(Ag{sup +}-S)=1.40{+-}0.12 eV and D{sub 0}(Ag{sup +}-CS)=1.98{+-}0.14 eV. Quantum chemical calculations are used to investigate the electronic structure of the two product ions as well as the potential energy surfaces for reaction. The primary mechanism involves oxidative addition of a CS bond to the metal cation followed by simple Ag-S or Ag-CS bond cleavage. Crossing points between the singlet and triplet surfaces are located near the transition states for bond activation. Comparison with analogous work on other late second-row transition metal cations indicates that the location of the crossing points bears directly on the efficiency of these spin-forbidden processes.

  8. Structural study of the high-pressure antiferroelectric phase of CsH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/

    SciTech Connect

    Schuele, P.J.; Thomas, R.

    1985-01-01

    A three-dimensional neutron diffraction study has been carried out on the pressure-induced antiferroelectric phase of CsH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/. At 100.7/sup 0/K and a hydrostatic pressure of 3.6 kbar, the unit cell parameters are a = 15.625(9), b = 6.254(2), c = 4.886(1) A, ..beta.. = 108.08(3)/sup 0/ and Z = 4. Atomic parameters were determined using full-matrix least-squares methods which yield final agreement indices: R(F/sup 2/) = 0.0715, R/sub w/(F/sup 2/) = 0.0807 and S = 2.13. The structure is nearly consistent with the monoclinic space group P2/sub 1//a but refinement in P2/sub 1/ yields a slightly better fit. The structure is markedly different from those of the paraelectric and ferroelectric phases with large relative displacements (nearly 1 A) of Cs/sup +1/ and PO/sub 4//sup -3/ groups in the x-z plane. Hydrogens bonding in b-chains, which are disordered in the paraelectric phase, show antiferroelectric order.

  9. Temperature and composition phase diagram in the iron-based ladder compounds Ba 1 - x Cs x Fe 2 Se 3

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hawai, Takafumi; Nambu, Yusuke; Ohgushi, Kenya; Du, Fei; Hirata, Yasuyuki; Avdeev, Maxim; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Sekine, Yurina; Fukazawa, Hiroshi; Ma, Jie; et al

    2015-05-28

    We investigated the iron-based ladder compounds (Ba,Cs)Fe₂Se₃. Their parent compounds BaFe₂Se₃ and CsFe₂Se₃ have different space groups, formal valences of Fe, and magnetic structures. Electrical resistivity, specific heat, magnetic susceptibility, x-ray diffraction, and powder neutron diffraction measurements were conducted to obtain a temperature and composition phase diagram of this system. Block magnetism observed in BaFe₂Se₃ is drastically suppressed with Cs doping. In contrast, stripe magnetism observed in CsFe₂Se₃ is not so fragile against Ba doping. A new type of magnetic structure appears in intermediate compositions, which is similar to stripe magnetism of CsFe₂Se₃, but interladder spin configuration is different. Intermediatemore » compounds show insulating behavior, nevertheless a finite T-linear contribution in specific heat was obtained at low temperatures.« less

  10. Leucine-responsive regulatory protein Lrp and PapI homologues influence phase variation of CS31A fimbriae.

    PubMed

    Graveline, Richard; Garneau, Philippe; Martin, Christine; Mourez, Michaël; Hancock, Mark A; Lavoie, Rémi; Harel, Josée

    2014-08-15

    CS31A, a K88-related surface antigen specified by the clp operon, is a member of the type P family of adhesive factors and plays a key role in the establishment of disease caused by septicemic and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains. Its expression is under the control of methylation-dependent transcriptional regulation, for which the leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp) is essential. CS31A is preferentially in the OFF state and exhibits distinct regulatory features compared to the regulation of other P family members. In the present study, surface plasmon resonance and DNase I protection assays showed that Lrp binds to the distal moiety of the clp regulatory region with low micromolar affinity compared to its binding to the proximal moiety, which exhibits stronger, nanomolar affinity. The complex formation was also influenced by the addition of PapI or FooI, which increased the affinity of Lrp for the clp distal and proximal regions and was required to induce phase variation. The influence of PapI or FooI, however, was predominantly associated with a more complete shutdown of clp expression, in contrast to what has previously been observed with AfaF (a PapI ortholog). Taken together, these results suggest that the preferential OFF state observed in CS31A cells is mainly due to the weak interaction of the leucine-responsive regulatory protein with the clp distal region and that the PapI homolog favors the OFF phase. Within the large repertoire of fimbrial variants in the P family, our study illustrates that having a fimbrial operon that lacks its own PapI ortholog allows it to be more flexibly regulated by other orthologs in the cell. PMID:24914179

  11. Dimensional reductions from 2-D Nb 4P 2S 21 to 1-D ANb 2PS 10 ( A=Na, K, Rb, Cs, Tl) and to 0-D Tl 5[Nb 2S 4C l8]Cl using halide molten salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bang, Hyunjin; Kim, Youngmee; Kim, Seri; Kim, Sung-Jin

    2008-08-01

    We found new synthetic routes to obtain 1-D quaternary thiophosphate compounds and a 0-D molecular complex containing a Nb 2S 4 core from a 2-D ternary thiophosphate, Nb 4P 2S 21. When Nb 4P 2S 21 was reacted with alkali metal halides ( ACl; A=Na, K, Rb, Cs) or TlCl at 500-700 °C, the -S-S-S- bridges in 2-D Nb 2PS 10-S-S 10PNb 2 were excised to form a 1-D chain, and cations were inserted between the chains to form ANb 2PS 10 ( A=Na, K, Rb, Cs, Tl). We also found that thallium chloride (TlCl) is an excellent reagent for further excision, and it substitutes chloride ligands for the sulfur ligands of 2-D Nb 4P 2S 21 to form the molecular complex Tl 5[Nb 2S 4Cl 8]Cl. Crystal data for TlNb 2PS 10: monoclinic, Pn, a=6.9452(11) Å, b=7.3761(12) Å, 12.873(2) Å, β=104.472(3)°, and Z=2. Crystal data for Tl 5[Nb 2S 4Cl 8]Cl: orthorhombic, Immm, a=7.001(5) Å, b=9.509(7) Å, c=15.546(11) Å, and Z=2.

  12. Status of U.S./Japan collaborative program phase II HFIR target and RB{sup *} capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel, J.E.; Lenox, K.E.; Longest, A.W.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of the HFIR irradiations is to determine the response of various U.S. and Japanese austenitic and ferritic steels with different pretreatments and alloy compositions to the combined effects of displacement damage and helium generation. Specimen temperatures during irradiation range from 60 to 600{degrees}C and fluences range up to 60 dpa. The RB{sup *} experiments are a continuation of the ORR spectrally tailored experiments in which the spectrum is modified with a hafnium shield to simulate the expected fusion helium to damage (He/dpa) ratio. In the HFIR target capsules, many specimens have been isotopically tailored in order to achieve fusion helium generation rates.

  13. Cs vacancy ordering and properties of phase separated Csx Fe2-y Se2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmaissem, Omar; Taddei, K. M.; Rosenkranz, S.; Osborn, R.; Claus, H.; Sturza, M.; Chung, D. Y.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; Cao, H. B.

    Iron-based selenides are among the most complex and least understood superconductors. At high temperature, a '122'-type structure with random iron vacancies undergoes a complex iron vacancy ordering scheme below ~500K causing the material to phase separate into A2Fe4Se5, known as the 245 phase, and a minority A-site deficient and fully iron stoichiometric AxFe2Se2 phase (122). At slightly lower temperatures, the material undergoes another transition with the Fe spins of the main '245' phase ordering into an exotic checkerboard-type magnetic structure with a large magnetic moment. The minority 122 phase is reported to either remain nonmagnetic or to become magnetic below ~200K. At temperatures below ~30K, the magnetic material becomes superconducting and the two states appear to coexist. I will present and discuss our recent synthesis and characterization of high quality CsxFe2-ySe2 single crystals and bulk samples with various Tc's that form a relatively large superconducting dome. I will discuss our findings of a previously unseen three dimensional cesium vacancy ordering in the low temperature 122 phase in addition to hosting superconductivity. At ANL, work supported by the US DOE Office of Science, MSED.

  14. Thermoelectric properties of homogeneously and non-homogeneously doped CdTe15/16M1/16 (M=N, P, As, Sb) and Cd15/16TeM1/16 (M=Na, K, Rb, Cs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X. H.; Qin, X. Y.; Li, D.; Zhang, J.; Song, C. J.; Liu, Y. F.; Wang, L.; Xin, H. X.

    2015-11-01

    The electrical transport properties of p-doped semiconductors CdTe15/16M1/16 (M=N, P, As, Sb) and Cd15/16TeM1/16 (M=Na, K, Rb, Cs) with two configurations are investigated through first-principles calculations combined with Boltzmann transport theory under the relaxation time approximation. It is found that N and Cs atoms in the homogeneous structure induce much sharper electron densities of states (DOSs) and flatter energy bands at the valence band edges than the rest of doped elements, resulting in much larger Seebeck coefficients. The calculations reveal that most of the Seebeck coefficients and electrical conductivities are impacted unfavorably by the conglomeration of impurity atoms considered. Though the power factors for homogeneous doping of N and Cs are comparatively smaller, the electronic figures of merit are much larger at 800-1000 K than the rest ones due to much smaller electronic thermal conductivities, therefore probably enhancing the thermoelectric figures of merit. The results show that doping the elements with electronegativities distinct from the host atoms can enhance the Seebeck coefficients and the thermoelectric performances of bulk semiconductors efficiently if the energy levels of doped atoms resonate with those of host atoms and the arrangement of doped atoms is modulated appropriately to avoid deteriorating the sharpness of the DOS (or transport distribution).

  15. Phase formation in the Li{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}–Rb{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}–Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} system and crystal structure of a novel triple molybdate LiRb{sub 2}Fe(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Khal'baeva, Klara M.; Solodovnikov, Sergey F.; Khaikina, Elena G.; Kadyrova, Yuliya M.; Solodovnikova, Zoya A.; Basovich, Olga M.

    2013-07-15

    X-ray investigation of solid state interaction of the components in the Li{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}–Rb{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}–Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} system was carried out, and a subsolidus phase diagram of the said system was constructed. The subsystem Rb{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}–LiRbMoO{sub 4}–RbFe(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} was shown to be non-quasiternary. Formation of a novel triple molybdate LiRb{sub 2}Fe(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} was established, conditions of solid state synthesis and crystallization of the compound were found. Its crystal structure (orthorhombic, space group Pnma, Z=4, a=24.3956(6), b=5.8306(1), c=8.4368(2) Å) represents a new structure type and includes infinite two-row ribbons ([Fe(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3}]{sup 3−}){sub ∞} parallel to the b axis and composed of FeO{sub 6} octahedra, terminal Mo(3)O{sub 4} tetrahedra, and bridge Mo(1)O{sub 4} and Mo(2)O{sub 4} tetrahedra connecting two or three FeO{sub 6} octahedra. The ribbons are connected to form 3D framework via corner-sharing LiO{sub 4} tetrahedra. Rubidium cations are 11- and 13-coordinated and located in cavities of this heterogeneous polyhedral framework. - Graphical abstract: Exploring the Li{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}–Rb{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}–Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} system showed its partial non-quasiternarity and revealed a new compound LiRb{sub 2}Fe(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} which was structurally studied. - Highlights: • The Li{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}–Rb{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}–Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} system study revealed a new compound LiRb{sub 2}Fe(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3}. • Its structure of a new type includes ribbons of FeO{sub 6} octahedra and MoO{sub 4} tetrahedra. • The ribbons are connected into a 3D framework via corner-sharing LiO{sub 4} tetrahedra.

  16. Ultrasonic investigation of the magnetic phase diagram of the quasi-one-dimensional ferromagnet CsNiF3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lussier, Benoit; Poirier, Mario

    1993-09-01

    High-resolution ultrasonic-velocity and attenuation data are used to obtain the magnetic phase diagram of the quasi-one-dimensional ferromagnet CsNiF3. Anomalies in the elastic constant C33 and in the ultrasonic attenuation have been observed and related to the three-dimensional ordering of the spins. The phase diagram is obtained for a magnetic field in the basal plane and along the chain axis and for an angular variation of the magnetic field. In the basal plane the exponent β is consistent with the Ising universality class while along the hexagonal axis it is more consistent with the Heisenberg class. A comparison with previous neutron measurements for fields in the basal plane and mean-field predictions along the various directions studied is also provided. Finally, the frequency dependence of the elastic anomalies and the enhancement of the Ne´el temperature and critical fields will be discussed in relation to domain formation in the paramagnetic phase and to the highly nonlinear behavior of this compound.

  17. Quaternary selenostannates Na 2- xGa 2- xSn 1+ xSe 6 and AGaSnSe 4 ( A=K, Rb, and Cs) through rapid cooling of melts. Kinetics versus thermodynamics in the polymorphism of AGaSnSe 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Seong-Ju; Iyer, Ratnasabapathy G.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2004-10-01

    The quaternary alkali-metal gallium selenostannates, Na2-xGa2-xSn1+xSe6 and AGaSnSe4 (A=K, Rb, and Cs), were synthesized by reacting alkali-metal selenide, Ga, Sn, and Se with a flame melting-rapid cooling method. Na2-xGa2-xSn1+xSe6 crystallizes in the non-centrosymmetric space group C2 with cell constants a=13.308(3) Å, b=7.594(2) Å, c=13.842(3) Å, β=118.730(4)°, V=1226.7(5) Å3. α-KGaSnSe4 crystallizes in the tetragonal space group I4/mcm with a=8.186(5) Å and c=6.403(5) Å, V=429.1(5) Å3. β-KGaSnSe4 crystallizes in the space group P21/c with cell constants a=7.490(2) Å, b=12.578(3) Å, c=18.306(5) Å, β=98.653(5)°, V=1705.0(8) Å3. The unit cell of isostructural RbGaSnSe4 is a=7.567(2) Å, b=12.656(3) Å, c=18.277(4) Å, β=95.924(4)°, V=1741.1(7) Å3. CsGaSnSe4 crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pmcn with a=7.679(2) Å, b=12.655(3) Å, c=18.278(5) Å, V=1776.1(8) Å3. The structure of Na2-xGa2-xSn1+xSe6 consists of a polar three-dimensional network of trimeric (Sn,Ga)3Se9 units with Na atoms located in tunnels. The AGaSnSe4 possess layered structures. The compounds show nearly the same Raman spectral features, except for Na2-xGa2-xSn1+xSe6. Optical band gaps, determined from UV-Vis spectroscopy, range from 1.50 eV in Na2-xGa2-xSn1+xSe6 to 1.97 eV in CsGaSnSe4. Cooling of the melts of KGaSnSe4 and RbGaSnSe4 produces only kinetically stable products. The thermodynamically stable product is accessible under extended annealing, which leads to the so-called γ-form (BaGa2S4-type) of these compounds.

  18. Pressure-induced phase transitions in rubidium azide: Studied by in-situ x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dongmei; Wu, Xiaoxin; Jiang, Junru; Zhang, Jian; Cui, Qiliang; Zhu, Hongyang; Wang, Xiaoli

    2014-08-18

    We present the in-situ X-ray diffraction studies of RbN{sub 3} up to 42.0 GPa at room temperature to supplement the high pressure exploration of alkali azides. Two pressure-induced phase transitions of α-RbN{sub 3} → γ-RbN{sub 3} → δ-RbN{sub 3} were revealed at 6.5 and 16.0 GPa, respectively. During the phase transition of α-RbN{sub 3} → γ-RbN{sub 3}, lattice symmetry decreases from a fourfold to a twofold axis accompanied by a rearrangement of azide anions. The γ-RbN{sub 3} was identified to be a monoclinic structure with C2/m space group. Upon further compression, an orthogonal arrangement of azide anions becomes energetically favorable for δ-RbN{sub 3}. The compressibility of α-RbN{sub 3} is anisotropic due to the orientation of azide anions. The bulk modulus of α-RbN{sub 3} is 18.4 GPa, quite close to those of KN{sub 3} and CsN{sub 3}. By comparing the phase transition pressures of alkali azides, their ionic character is found to play a key role in pressure-induced phase transitions.

  19. Tissue distribution and identification of radioactivity components at elimination phase after oral administration of [¹⁴C]CS-1036, an α-amylase inhibitor, to rats.

    PubMed

    Honda, Tomohiro; Takakusa, Hideo; Murai, Takahiro; Izumi, Takashi

    2013-05-01

    (2R,3R,4R)-4-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl 4-O-(6-deoxy-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-α-D-glucopyranoside (CS-1036) is a potent inhibitor of pancreatic and salivary α-amylase. After oral administration of [¹⁴C]CS-1036 to rats, the radioactivity was still detectable up to 7-14 days after administration in various tissues, and its terminal phase in plasma could be explained neither by the exposure of CS-1036 nor its major metabolite M1. The slow elimination of radioactivity in various tissues was hypothesized to be caused by covalent binding to macromolecules or use for biogenic components. To assess the use for biogenic components, amino acid analysis of plasma proteins and lipid analysis of adipose tissue were conducted after repeated oral administration of [¹⁴C]CS-1036 by high-performance liquid chromatography and accelerated mass spectrometry and by thin layer chromatography and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, respectively. In amino acid analysis, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, alanine, and proline were identified as major radioactive amino acids, and radioactive nonessential amino acids occupied 76.0% of the radioactivity. In lipid analysis, a part of the radioactive lipids were identified as the fatty acids constituting the neutral lipids by lipase-hydrolysis. The radioactive fatty acids from neutral lipids were identified as palmitic acid, oleic acid, and 8,11,14-eicosatrienoic acid. Intestinal flora were involved in CS-1036 metabolism and are indicated to be involved in the production of small molecule metabolites, which are the sources for amino acids and fatty acids, from [¹⁴C]CS-1036. In conclusion, radioactivity derived from [¹⁴C]CS-1036 was incorporated as the constituents of amino acids of plasma proteins and fatty acids of neutral lipids. PMID:23454829

  20. The multiple connections between pRB and cell metabolism.

    PubMed

    Nicolay, Brandon N; Dyson, Nicholas J

    2013-12-01

    The pRB tumor suppressor is traditionally seen as an important regulator of the cell cycle. pRB represses the transcriptional activation of a diverse set of genes by the E2F transcription factors and prevents inappropriate S-phase entry. Advances in our understanding of pRB have documented roles that extend beyond the cell cycle and this review summarizes recent studies that link pRB to the control of cell metabolism. pRB has been shown to regulate glucose tolerance, mitogenesis, glutathione synthesis, and the expression of genes involved in central carbon metabolism. Several studies have demonstrated that pRB directly targets a set of genes that are crucial for nucleotide metabolism, and this seems likely to represent one of the ways by which pRB influences the G1/S-phase transition and S-phase progression.

  1. High temperature synthesis of two open-framework uranyl silicates with ten-ring channels: Cs{sub 2}(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}Si{sub 8}O{sub 19} and Rb{sub 2}(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}Si{sub 5}O{sub 13}

    SciTech Connect

    Babo, Jean-Marie; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2013-01-15

    The uranyl silicates Cs{sub 2}(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}Si{sub 8}O{sub 19} and Rb{sub 2}(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}Si{sub 5}O{sub 13} were obtained by mixing stoichiometric amounts of uranium metal, tellurium dioxide, silicon dioxide, and an excess of correspondent alkali metal halide flux. These compounds crystallize in the orthorhombic space groups Pnma and C222 with eight and two units per unit cell, respectively. Their crystal structures are dominated by zippered pentagonal bipyramidal chains of UO{sub 7} and silicates layer that are further connected into 3D frameworks. The cesium compound has silicate double layers while rubidium has a single layer. Six-ring voids and ten-ring channels are found in both compounds. - Graphical abstract: A view of the three-dimensional network structure of Cs{sub 2}(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}Si{sub 8}O{sub 19}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three-dimensional uranium silicates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analogs of natural uranyl silicate minerals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Complexity and symmetry ambiguity of uranyl silicates.

  2. Comparative study of A-site order in the lead-free bismuth titanates M{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} (M=Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Ag, Tl) from first-principles

    SciTech Connect

    Gröting, Melanie Albe, Karsten

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the possibility of enhancing chemical order in the relaxor ferroelectric Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} upon substitution of Na{sup +} by other monovalent cations M{sup +} using total energy calculations based on density functional theory. All chemically available monovalent cations M{sup +}, which are Li, Na, Ag, K, Tl, Rb and Cs, are considered and an analysis of the structurally relaxed structures in terms of symmetry-adapted distortion modes is given in order to quantify the chemically induced structural distortions. We demonstrate that the replacement of Na{sup +} by other monovalent cations can hardly alter the tendency of chemical order with respect to Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3}. Only Tl{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} and Ag{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} show enhanced tendency for chemical ordering. Both heavy metals behave similar to the light alkali metals in terms of structural relaxations and relative stabilities of the ordered configurations. Although a comparison of the Goldschmidt factors of components (M TiO{sub 3}){sup −} reveals for Tl a value above the upper stability limit for perovskites, the additional lone-pair effect of Tl{sup +} stabilizes the ordered structure. - Graphical abstract: Amplitudes of chemically induced distortion modes in different ordered perovskites M{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} and visualisation of atomic displacements associated with distortion mode X{sup +}{sub 1} in the 001-ordered compounds Li{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} and Cs{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3}. Due to a substantial size mismatch between bismuth (green) and caesium (dark blue), incorporation of the latter leads to enhanced displacements of oxygen atoms (red) and suppresses displacements of titanium (silver) as compared to lithium (light blue) or other smaller monovalent cations. - Highlights: • Lead-free A-site mixed bismuth titanates M{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} are studied by first-principles calculations. • Investigation

  3. CsSnI3: Semiconductor or metal? High electrical conductivity and strong near-infrared photoluminescence from a single material. High hole mobility and phase-transitions.

    PubMed

    Chung, In; Song, Jung-Hwan; Im, Jino; Androulakis, John; Malliakas, Christos D; Li, Hao; Freeman, Arthur J; Kenney, John T; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2012-05-23

    CsSnI(3) is an unusual perovskite that undergoes complex displacive and reconstructive phase transitions and exhibits near-infrared emission at room temperature. Experimental and theoretical studies of CsSnI(3) have been limited by the lack of detailed crystal structure characterization and chemical instability. Here we describe the synthesis of pure polymorphic crystals, the preparation of large crack-/bubble-free ingots, the refined single-crystal structures, and temperature-dependent charge transport and optical properties of CsSnI(3), coupled with ab initio first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations. In situ temperature-dependent single-crystal and synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction studies reveal the origin of polymorphous phase transitions of CsSnI(3). The black orthorhombic form of CsSnI(3) demonstrates one of the largest volumetric thermal expansion coefficients for inorganic solids. Electrical conductivity, Hall effect, and thermopower measurements on it show p-type metallic behavior with low carrier density, despite the optical band gap of 1.3 eV. Hall effect measurements of the black orthorhombic perovskite phase of CsSnI(3) indicate that it is a p-type direct band gap semiconductor with carrier concentration at room temperature of ∼ 10(17) cm(-3) and a hole mobility of ∼585 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). The hole mobility is one of the highest observed among p-type semiconductors with comparable band gaps. Its powders exhibit a strong room-temperature near-IR emission spectrum at 950 nm. Remarkably, the values of the electrical conductivity and photoluminescence intensity increase with heat treatment. The DFT calculations show that the screened-exchange local density approximation-derived band gap agrees well with the experimentally measured band gap. Calculations of the formation energy of defects strongly suggest that the electrical and light emission properties possibly result from Sn defects in the crystal structure, which arise

  4. CsSnI3: Semiconductor or metal? High electrical conductivity and strong near-infrared photoluminescence from a single material. High hole mobility and phase-transitions.

    PubMed

    Chung, In; Song, Jung-Hwan; Im, Jino; Androulakis, John; Malliakas, Christos D; Li, Hao; Freeman, Arthur J; Kenney, John T; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2012-05-23

    CsSnI(3) is an unusual perovskite that undergoes complex displacive and reconstructive phase transitions and exhibits near-infrared emission at room temperature. Experimental and theoretical studies of CsSnI(3) have been limited by the lack of detailed crystal structure characterization and chemical instability. Here we describe the synthesis of pure polymorphic crystals, the preparation of large crack-/bubble-free ingots, the refined single-crystal structures, and temperature-dependent charge transport and optical properties of CsSnI(3), coupled with ab initio first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations. In situ temperature-dependent single-crystal and synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction studies reveal the origin of polymorphous phase transitions of CsSnI(3). The black orthorhombic form of CsSnI(3) demonstrates one of the largest volumetric thermal expansion coefficients for inorganic solids. Electrical conductivity, Hall effect, and thermopower measurements on it show p-type metallic behavior with low carrier density, despite the optical band gap of 1.3 eV. Hall effect measurements of the black orthorhombic perovskite phase of CsSnI(3) indicate that it is a p-type direct band gap semiconductor with carrier concentration at room temperature of ∼ 10(17) cm(-3) and a hole mobility of ∼585 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). The hole mobility is one of the highest observed among p-type semiconductors with comparable band gaps. Its powders exhibit a strong room-temperature near-IR emission spectrum at 950 nm. Remarkably, the values of the electrical conductivity and photoluminescence intensity increase with heat treatment. The DFT calculations show that the screened-exchange local density approximation-derived band gap agrees well with the experimentally measured band gap. Calculations of the formation energy of defects strongly suggest that the electrical and light emission properties possibly result from Sn defects in the crystal structure, which arise

  5. Monovalent metal phenylphosphonates and phenylarsonates: Single crystal X-ray structures of A(HO{sub 3}PPh)(H{sub 2}O{sub 3}PPh) (A = K, Rb, Cs, Tl) and Na(HO{sub 3}AsPh)(H{sub 2}O{sub 3}AsPh) and methylamine intercalation of A(HO{sub 3}PPh)(H{sub 2}O{sub 3}PPh) (A = Li, Na, K, Tl)

    SciTech Connect

    Balkrushna Padalwar, Nitin; Pandu, Chekka; Vidyasagar, Kanamaluru

    2013-07-15

    Single crystal X-ray structures of known A(HO{sub 3}PPh)(H{sub 2}O{sub 3}PPh) (A = K, Rb, Cs, Tl) phenylphosphonates and sodium phenylarsonate, Na(HO{sub 3}AsPh)(H{sub 2}O{sub 3}AsPh) have been determined. This and previous studies together describe the four types of structures of a series of seven A(HO{sub 3}PPh)(H{sub 2}O{sub 3}PPh) (A = Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Tl, NH{sub 4}) phenylphosphonates. Sodium phenylarsonate is isostructural with its phenylphosphonate analogue. A(HO{sub 3}PPh)(H{sub 2}O{sub 3}PPh) (A = Li, Na, K and Tl) compounds undergo methylamine intercalation. - Graphical abstract: Amongst A(HO{sub 3}PPh)(H{sub 2}O{sub 3}PPh) (A = alkali metal, Tl) phenylphosphonates of four structure types, lithium, sodium, potassium and thallium compounds undergo methylamine intercalation. - Highlights: • X-ray structures of A(HO{sub 3}PPh)(H{sub 2}O{sub 3}PPh) (A = K, Rb, Cs, Tl) and Na(HO{sub 3}AsPh)(H{sub 2}O{sub 3}AsPh). • Four structure types of seven A(HO{sub 3}PPh)(H{sub 2}O{sub 3}PPh) (A = monovalent ion) compounds. • Methylamine intercalation of A(HO{sub 3}PPh)(H{sub 2}O{sub 3}PPh) (A = Li, Na, K, Tl) compounds.

  6. Characterization of the Natural Organic Matter (NOM) in groundwater contaminated with (60)Co and (137)Cs using ultrafiltration, Solid Phase Extraction and fluorescence analysis.

    PubMed

    Caron, François; Siemann, Stefan; Riopel, Rémi

    2014-12-01

    Spot samples of shallow groundwaters have been taken between the years 2004 and 2010 near a site formerly used for the dispersal of radioactive liquid wastes. Three sampling points, one clean (upstream), and two downstream of the contamination source, were processed by ultrafiltration (5000 Da cut-off) and Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) to determine the association of selected artificial radionuclides ((60)Co, (137)Cs) with Natural Organic Matter (NOM). The last two sampling episodes (2008 and 2010) also benefited from fluorescence analysis to determine the major character of the NOM. The fluorescence signals are reported as humic-like, fulvic-like and protein-like, which are used to characterize the different NOM types. The NOM from the clean site comprised mostly fine material, whereas the colloidal content (retained by ultrafiltration) was higher (e.g., 15-40% of the Total Organic Carbon - TOC). Most of the 137Cs was present in the colloidal fraction, whereas (60)Co was found in the filtered fraction. Fluorescence analysis, on the other hand, indicated a contrasting behavior between the clean and contaminated sites, with a dominance of protein-like material, a feature usually associated with human impacts. Finally, SPE removed almost quantitatively the protein-like material (>90%), whereas it removed a much smaller fraction of the (137)Cs (<28%). This finding indicates that the (137)Cs preferential binding occurs with a fraction other than the protein-like NOM, likely the fulvic-like or humic-like portion. PMID:24476752

  7. Characterization of the Natural Organic Matter (NOM) in groundwater contaminated with (60)Co and (137)Cs using ultrafiltration, Solid Phase Extraction and fluorescence analysis.

    PubMed

    Caron, François; Siemann, Stefan; Riopel, Rémi

    2014-12-01

    Spot samples of shallow groundwaters have been taken between the years 2004 and 2010 near a site formerly used for the dispersal of radioactive liquid wastes. Three sampling points, one clean (upstream), and two downstream of the contamination source, were processed by ultrafiltration (5000 Da cut-off) and Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) to determine the association of selected artificial radionuclides ((60)Co, (137)Cs) with Natural Organic Matter (NOM). The last two sampling episodes (2008 and 2010) also benefited from fluorescence analysis to determine the major character of the NOM. The fluorescence signals are reported as humic-like, fulvic-like and protein-like, which are used to characterize the different NOM types. The NOM from the clean site comprised mostly fine material, whereas the colloidal content (retained by ultrafiltration) was higher (e.g., 15-40% of the Total Organic Carbon - TOC). Most of the 137Cs was present in the colloidal fraction, whereas (60)Co was found in the filtered fraction. Fluorescence analysis, on the other hand, indicated a contrasting behavior between the clean and contaminated sites, with a dominance of protein-like material, a feature usually associated with human impacts. Finally, SPE removed almost quantitatively the protein-like material (>90%), whereas it removed a much smaller fraction of the (137)Cs (<28%). This finding indicates that the (137)Cs preferential binding occurs with a fraction other than the protein-like NOM, likely the fulvic-like or humic-like portion.

  8. The Natural Enrichment of Stable Cesium in Weathered Micaceous Materials and Its Implications for 137Cs Sorption.

    SciTech Connect

    ELLIOTT, W CRAWFORD; KAHN, BERND; ROSSON, ROBERT; WAMPLER, J MARION; ROSE, SETH E; KROGSTAD, EIRIK J; KAPLAN, DANIEL; ZAUNBRECHER, LAURA

    2011-11-14

    In this exploratory project, we are testing two interrelated hypotheses about the sorption of Cs within weathered micaceous materials in subsurface regolith materials from the Savannah River Site (SRS) located on the Atlantic Coastal Plain: 1) that stable cesium has become significantly enriched relative to potassium in subsurface micaceous particles as a result of chemical weathering processes; and 2) that the Cs so present is sufficient to be a major factor determining the ability of the subsurface materials to take up and hold 137Cs. To test these hypotheses, we collected by hand augur soil samples corresponding to soils representative at the SRS: upland regolith (Fuquay series); soils formed on Tobacco Road Sandstone; and, soils formed on Quaternary Alluvium. From our data, the quantification of the amounts of stable cesium concentrated in various sites within 2:1 phyllosilicates by natural processes is highly relevant toward understanding the future sorption of 137Cs by the mica, illite, vermiculite, and hydroxyl interstratified vermiculite (HIV) phases present in the subsurface at and in proximity to SRS. Studying sorption and fixation of Cs in these micaceous phases interlayers potentially leads to increased knowledge to the extent that stable Cs resists exchange with ion exchange cations (Mg, NH4, or even alkyl ammonium compounds) and to the extent that Cs can become fixed over the long term. Such knowledge will help in the development of 137Cs remediation strategies for the long-term, which is a critical aspect of the SBR goals. We characterized the mineralogy, K-Ar ages of the soil and soil clay fractions (before and after acid treatment), and alkali element chemistry (K, Rb, Cs) of the clay fractions of soils collected from these three different types of soils. The clay fractions of the Fuquay soils are composed of kaolinite, and hydroxy interstratified vermiculite (HIV). Kaolinite, HIV, quartz, gibbsite and illite are found in the quaternary soils

  9. Low Energy Dynamics in Spin-Liquid and Ordered Phases of S=1/2 Antiferromagnet Cs2CuCl4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, A. I.; Povarov, K. Yu; Starykh, O. A.; Shapiro, A. Ya; Petrov, S. V.

    2012-12-01

    Cs2CuCl4 realizes spin-1/2 quantum antiferromagnet on a distorted triangular lattice. It remains in a quantum spin-liquid state far below Curie-Weiss temperature 4 K and exhibits an incommensurate spin ordering at TN=0.6 K. We studied Cs2CuCl4 by means of electron spin resonance (ESR) at temperatures down to 0.05 K in the frequency range 9phase. We quantitatively describe both the shift and the splitting of the ESR line for different orientations of the applied magnetic field by accounting for the effect of a uniform Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction on spinon excitations of weakly coupled Heisenberg chains. At cooling below TN, we observe at lower frequency f<40 GHz a gradual crossover of the signal from the above spinon-type ESR toward a resonance of a spiral-AFM type. However, for higher frequency f>60 GHz, we observe that the above spinon-type ESR survives deep in the ordered phase. These novel phenomena are consequences of fractionalized spinon excitations of spin chains, which are effectively decoupled in Cs2CuCl4 due to strong geometric frustration.

  10. Improved accuracy of the NPL-CsF2 primary frequency standard: evaluation of distributed cavity phase and microwave lensing frequency shifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ruoxin; Gibble, Kurt; Szymaniec, Krzysztof

    2011-10-01

    We evaluate the distributed cavity phase (DCP) and microwave lensing frequency shifts, which were the two largest sources of uncertainty for the NPL-CsF2 caesium fountain clock. We report measurements that confirm a detailed theoretical model of the microwave cavity fields and the frequency shifts of the clock that they produce. The model and measurements significantly reduce the DCP uncertainty to 1.1 × 10-16. We derive the microwave lensing frequency shift for a cylindrical cavity with circular apertures. An analytic result with reasonable approximations is given, in addition to a full calculation that indicates a shift of 6.2 × 10-17. The measurements and theoretical models we report, along with improved evaluations of collisional and microwave leakage induced frequency shifts, reduce the frequency uncertainty of the NPL-CsF2 standard to 2.3 × 10-16, nearly a factor of two lower than its most recent complete evaluation.

  11. From {sub {infinity}}{sup 1}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}O(MoO{sub 4}){sub 4}]{sup 6-} to {sub {infinity}}{sup 1}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3}(MoO{sub 5})]{sup 6-} infinite chains in A{sub 6}U{sub 2}Mo{sub 4}O{sub 21} (A=Na, K, Rb, Cs) compounds: Synthesis and crystal structure of Cs{sub 6}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3}(MoO{sub 5})

    SciTech Connect

    Yagoubi, S.; Obbade, S.; Saad, S.; Abraham, F.

    2011-05-15

    A new caesium uranyl molybdate belonging to the M{sub 6}U{sub 2}Mo{sub 4}O{sub 21} family has been synthesized by solid-state reaction and its structure determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. Contrary to the other alkali uranyl molybdates of this family (A=Na, K, Rb) where molybdenum atoms adopt only tetrahedral coordination and which can be formulated A{sub 6}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}O(MoO{sub 4}){sub 4}], the caesium compound Cs{sub 6}U{sub 2}Mo{sub 4}O{sub 21} should be written Cs{sub 6}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3}(MoO{sub 5})] with molybdenum atoms in tetrahedral and square pyramidal environments. Cs{sub 6}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3}(MoO{sub 5})] crystallizes in the triclinic symmetry with space group P1-bar and a=10.4275(14) A, b=15.075(2) A, c=17.806(2) A, {alpha}=70.72(1){sup o}, {beta}=80.38(1){sup o} and {gamma}=86.39(1){sup o}, V=2604.7(6) A{sup 3}, Z=4, {rho}{sub mes}=5.02(2) g/cm{sup 3} and {rho}{sub cal}=5.08(3) g/cm{sup 3}. A full-matrix least-squares refinement on the basis of F{sup 2} yielded R{sub 1}=0.0464 and wR{sub 2}=0.0950 for 596 parameters with 6964 independent reflections with I{>=}2{sigma}(I) collected on a BRUKER AXS diffractometer with Mo(K{alpha}) radiation and a CCD detector. The crystal structure of Cs compound is characterized by {sub {infinity}}{sup 1}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3}(MoO{sub 5})]{sup 6-} parallels chains built from U{sub 2}O{sub 13} dimeric units, MoO{sub 4} tetrahedra and MoO{sub 5} square pyramids, whereas, Na, K and Rb compounds are characterized by {sub {infinity}}{sup 1}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}O(MoO{sub 4}){sub 4}]{sup 6-} parallel chains formulated simply of U{sub 2}O{sub 13} units and MoO{sub 4} tetrahedra. Infrared spectroscopy measurements using powdered samples synthesized by solid-state reaction, confirm the structural results. The thermal stability and the electrical conductivity are also studied. The four compounds decompose at low temperature (between 540 and 610 {sup o

  12. High pressure polymerization of the Li-intercalated fulleride Li{sub 3}CsC{sub 60}

    SciTech Connect

    Margadonna, S.; Prassides, K.; Knudsen, K.D.; Hanfland, M.; Kosaka, Mayumi; Tanigaki, Katsumi

    1999-10-01

    The structural features of the superconducting Li{sub 3}CsC{sub 60} fulleride are studied by synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction as a function of pressure and temperature. In contrast with the behavior of Li{sub 2}CsC{sub 60} shows a phase transition below room temperature from fcc (space group Fm{bar 3}m) to an orientationally ordered primitive cubic phase (space group Pa{bar 3}), isostructural with the metastable phases of Na{sub 2}A{prime}C{sub 60}. Despite the slow cooling protocols adopted, the system shows no other phase transitions even after prolonged standing at 200 K. The pressure dependence of the structure of Li{sub 3}CsC{sub 60} at ambient temperature was followed up to 8.12 GPa. A phase transition occurs at 0.72 GPa to a low symmetry fullerene bridged polymeric phase with short center-to-center interfullerene separations of {approximately}9.38 {angstrom}. This phase was found to be monoclinic (space group P2{sub 1}/a), isostructural with the low-temperature polymer phase of Na{sub 2}RbC{sub 60} and the high-pressure polymer phase of Na{sub 2}CsC{sub 60}. The pressure evolution of the monoclinic lattice constants reveals a highly incompressible, tightly packed, and strongly anisotropic polymeric structure.

  13. Deuteron NMR study of dynamics and of coexistence of paraelectric and ferroelectric phases in Rb0.90(ND4)0.10D2AsO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Nicholas J.; Howell, Francis L.; Schmidt, V. Hugo

    1993-09-01

    The deuteron glass Rb1-x(ND4)xD2AsO4 (DRADA) is a mixed crystal of RbD2AsO4 (DRDA) and ND4D2AsO4 (DADA). Deuteron nuclear magnetic resonance has been performed on the acid and ammonium deuterons. The crystal studied has an ammonium concentration (x=0.10) that puts it in the coexistence region of the phase diagram. Line-shape measurements of the ammonium deuterons show the coexistence of the ferroelectric (FE) and paraelectric (PE) phases as the temperature is lowered below the ferroelectric-phase-transition temperature Tc. The acid deuteron line shape on the other hand is found to broaden as the temperature is reduced but is unaffected by the ferroelectric transition. Spin-lattice-relaxation measurements have been performed and the activation energies for the relaxation processes have been computed. The relaxation-rate anomaly for acid deuterons in the ferroelectric-transition range indicates a short correlation length for the FE phase in the coexistence region of the phase diagram.

  14. Phase variation of the 987P-like CS18 fimbriae of human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli is regulated by site-specific recombinases.

    PubMed

    Honarvar, Shaya; Choi, Byung-Kwon; Schifferli, Dieter M

    2003-04-01

    The gene cluster of the CS18 (PCFO20) fimbriae of human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) was found to include seven genes (fotA to fotG) that are similar to each of the seven structural and export proteins of the 987P fimbriae. However, no analogous gene to the fasH regulatory gene, which is located at the 3' end of the 987P gene cluster and encodes an AraC-like activator of transcription, could be detected. Surprisingly, two novel genes (fotS and fotT) encoding proteins similar to the site-specific recombinases of the type 1 fimbriae (FimB and FimE) were identified at the 5' end of the fot gene cluster. These genes were shown to be required for the catalysis of a 312 bp-inversion just upstream of fotA. The inversion determines CS18 fimbrial phase variation. FotS participates in inverting the 312 bp-segment in both the ON and OFF orientation, whereas FotT has a bias for the OFF oriented recombination. Similar regulators of fimbriation by phase variation were described in uropathogenic and commensal Enterobacteriaceae. In contrast, only AraC-like transcriptional activators were previously described as regulators of the intestinal colonization factors of human ETEC isolates. Thus, the CS18 and 987P gene clusters encode similar components for fimbrial biogenesis but different types of regulators for fimbriation. The combination of blocks of genes encoding similar structural products but different regulatory proteins underlines how modular DNA rearrangements can evolve by serving pathogen diversification. Acquisition of a phase variation module to regulate fimbrial genes is proposed to be beneficial for the adaptation and transmission of pathogens.

  15. Low temperature structural modification in Rb2ZrF6: Investigations by perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, S. K.; Dey, C. C.; Saha, S.

    2016-06-01

    Temperature dependent perturbed angular correlation (PAC) measurements in crystalline compounds Rb2ZrF6 and Cs2HfF6 have been performed in the temperature range 298-753 K. In Rb2ZrF6, four discrete quadrupole interaction frequencies have been observed at room temperature which correspond to four minor structural modifications. From previous measurements, on the other hand, two structural modifications of this compound were known. A displacive phase transition, probably, occurs at low temperature due to rotation of the ZrF62- octahedron and produces different structural modifications. From present measurements in Rb2ZrF6, two quadrupole interaction frequencies [ωQ=26.1(3) Mrad/s, η=0.55(2), δ=5(1)% and ωQ=148.7(3) Mrad/s, η=0.538(5), δ=1.2%] have been found at room temperature which were not found from previous studies. In Cs2HfF6, these new structural modifications have not been observed.

  16. The happy marriage between electron-phonon superconductivity and Mott physics in Cs3C60: A first-principle phase diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capone, Massimo; Nomura, Yusuke; Sakai, Shiro; Giovannetti, Gianluca; Arita, Ryotaro

    The phase diagram of doped fullerides like Cs3C60 as a function of the spacing between fullerene molecules is characterized by a first-order transition between a Mott insulator and an s-wave superconductor with a dome-shaped behavior of the critical temperature. By means of an ab-initio modeling of the bandstructure, the electron-phonon interaction and the interaction parameter and a Dynamical Mean-Field Theory solution, we reproduce the phase diagram and demonstrate that phonon superconductivity benefits from strong correlations confirming earlier model predictions. The role of correlations is manifest also in infrared measurements carried out by L. Baldassarre. The superconducting phase shares many similarities with ''exotic'' superconductors with electronic pairing, suggesting that the anomalies in the ''normal'' state, rather than the pairing glue, can be the real common element unifying a wide family of strongly correlated superconductors including cuprates and iron superconductors

  17. New hypodiphosphates of the alkali metals: Synthesis, crystal structure and vibrational spectra of the hypodiphosphates(IV) M{sub 2}[(H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})(H{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})] (M=Rb and Cs)

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Peng; Wiegand, Thomas; Eckert, Hellmut

    2012-10-15

    The new hypodiphosphates(IV) Rb{sub 2}[(H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})(H{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})] (1) and Cs{sub 2}[(H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})(H{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})] (2) were synthesized by soft chemistry reactions from aqueous solutions of hypophosphoric acid and the corresponding heavy alkali-metal carbonates. Their crystal structures were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Both compounds crystallize isotypic in the triclinic space group P-1 with one formula unit in the unit cell. The structures are built up by discrete (H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6}){sup 2-} and (H{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 6}) units in staggered conformation for the P{sub 2}O{sub 6} skeleton and the corresponding alkali-metal cations. In the (H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6}){sup 2-} ion the hydrogen atoms are in a 'trans-trans' conformation. O{center_dot}H-O hydrogen bonds between the (H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6}){sup 2-} and (H{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 6}) groups consolidate the structures into a three-dimensional network. The FT-Raman and {sup 31}P and {sup 1}H and MAS NMR spectra of the title compounds have been recorded and interpreted, especially with respect to their assignment to the (H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6}){sup 2-} and (H{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 6}) groups. Thermogravimetric data of 2 have been interpreted in terms of a thermal decomposition model. - Graphical Abstract: The layered compounds Rb{sub 2}[(H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})(H{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})] and Cs{sub 2}[(H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})(H{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})] have been synthesized and investigated. Both crystallize isotypic. The structures are built up by discrete (H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6}){sup 2-} and (H{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 6}) units and the corresponding alkali-metal cations. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis and single-crystal structure of new alkali hypodiphosphates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structures are characterized by [(H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})(H{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})]{sup 2-} units and M{sup +} cations

  18. Rb-Sr age of troctolite 76535

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1976-01-01

    Rb-Sr systematics is studied for the lunar troctolite 76535 in phases covering a wide range of Rb and Sr concentrations. A line is obtained corresponding to an age of 4.61 plus or minus 0.07 AE and an initial Sr-87/Sr-86 of 0.69900 plus or minus 0.00003. The Rb-Sr age of 4.55 plus or minus 0.10 AE for the dunite (72417) and that of the troctolite are in approximate agreement and permit an interpretation that these rocks formed during a single major lunar differentiation which presumbly produced an anorthositic-gabbroic lunar crust and layered upper mantle.

  19. Phase transitions and equation of state of CsI under high pressure and the development of a focusing system for x-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yan.

    1990-11-01

    The phase transitions and equation of state of ionic solid cesium iodide were studied under high pressure and room temperature in a diamond anvil cell. The studies were carried out using both energy dispersive and angular dispersive diffraction methods on synchrotron radiation sources over the pressure range from atmospheric pressure to over 300 gigapascals (3 million atmospheres). CsI undergoes a distinct phase transition at about 40 GPa, a pressure that is much lower than the reported insulator-metal transition at 110 GPa, from the atmospheric pressure B2(CsCl) structure to an orthorhombic structure. At higher pressures, a continuous distortion in the structure was observed with a final structure similar to a hcp lattice under ultra high pressure. No volume discontinuity was observed at the insulator-metal transition. The newly found transition sequence is different from the result of previous static compression studies. The current structure has a smaller unit cell volume than the previous assignment. This has resolved a long existing controversy among the previous static compression studies, the dynamic compression studies, and the theoretical studies. The current results also explain the apparent discrepancy between the present study and the previous static studies. We also present the development of a focusing system for high energy x-rays (> 12 keV) that is particularly suited for high pressure diffraction studies. This system uses a pair of multilayer coated spherical mirrors in a Kirkpatrick-Baez geometry. A focused beam size less than 10 micron in diameter can be readily achieved with sufficient intensity to perform diffraction studies. 93 refs., 46 figs., 15 tabs.

  20. Guided-Ion-Beam and ab Initio Study of the Li+, K+, and Rb+ Association Reactions with Gas-Phase Butanone and Cyclohexanone in Their Ground Electronic States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, J. M.; de Andrés, J.; López, E.; Albertí, M.; Bofill, J. M.; Bassi, D.; Ascenzi, D.; Tosi, P.; Aguilar, A.

    2009-08-01

    The association reactions between Li+, K+, and Rb+ (M) and butanone and cyclohexanone molecules under single collision conditions have been studied using a radiofrequency-guided ion-beam apparatus, characterizing the adducts by mass spectrometry. The excitation function for the [M-(molecule)]+ adducts (in arbitrary units) has been obtained at low collision energies in the 0.10 eV up to a few eV range in the center of mass frame. The measured relative cross sections decrease when collision energy increases, showing the expected energy dependence for adduct formation. The energetics and structure of the different adducts have been calculated ab initio at the MP2(full) level, showing that the M+-molecule interaction takes place through the carbonyl oxygen atom, as an example of a nontypical covalent chemical bond. The cross-section energy dependence and the role of radiative cooling rates allowing the stabilization of the collision complexes are also discussed.

  1. Excited-state collisions of trapped 85Rb atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, D.; Feng, P.; Williamson, R. S., III; Walker, T.

    1992-08-01

    We descrbe a new method for measuring excited-state collisions between optically trapped atoms. With this method, trap-loss collision rates are deduced from the loading behavior of clouds of trapped atoms in the regime where radiation trapping limits the atom density. Our measurements indicate that 85Rb trap-loss collisions occur at significantly smaller rates than expected both from previous work on Cs and from recent models. In addition, the dependence of the trap-loss collisions on the frequency of the light used to excite the atom pairs is also different from that of Cs, suggesting that assumptions about the dynamics in these models need modification.

  2. High-pressure behaviour of Cs2V3O8 fresnoite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzechnik, Andrzej; Yeon, Jeongho; Zur Loye, Hans-Conrad; Friese, Karen

    2016-06-01

    Crystal structure of Cs2V3O8 fresnoite (P4bm, Z=2) has been studied using single-crystal X-ray diffraction in a diamond anvil cell to 8.6 GPa at room temperature. Cs2V3O8 undergoes a reversible first-order phase transition at about 4 GPa associated with anomalies in the pressure dependencies of the lattice parameters and unit-cell volume but without any symmetry change. Both structures consist of layers of corner-sharing V5+O4 tetrahedra and V4+O5 tetragonal pyramids separated by the Cs+ cations located between the layers. At low pressures, the compression has little effect on the polarity of the structure. Above 4 GPa, the pseudosymmetry with respect to the corresponding centrosymmetric space group P4/mbm abruptly increases. The effects of external pressure and of the A+ cation substitution in the vanadate fresnoites A2V3O8 (A+: K+, Rb+, NH4+, Cs+) are discussed.

  3. Etude des transitions de phases dans les systèmes K 3MO 3F 3- A3MO 3F 3( A= Na, Rb; M= Mo, W)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouad, M.; Chaminade, J. P.; Ravez, J.; Sadel, A.

    1996-06-01

    RésuméX-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, polarized light microscopy, and dielectric measurements have been used to study phase transitions and solid solutions in the K3MO3F3-A3MO3F3(A= Rb, Na;M= Mo, W) systems. K3MO3F3-Na3MO3F3(M= Mo, W) systems show two solid solutions; the first (SSI) nearx= 0 (K3-xNaxMO3F3) involves only one transition atTCwhich is practically independent of composition. The sharp transition atT1(Rb3MO3F3-K3MO3F3systems show three solid solutions. The SS1 and SS3 exist close to the rubidium and potassium extremes of the binary lines. The pure phases display transitions atT1andTC. For compositions far fromy= 0 ory= 3 (Rb3-yKyMO3F3),TCdecreases andT1decreases abruptly and for SS1 becomes indetectable. The solid solution SS2 (neary= 1) has cubic symmetry down to 80 K forM= W, and a cubic-noncubic transition at low temperature forM= Mo. In any case, the phase transitions are of first order, reversible, and improper character. The transition atTCis ferroelectric, ferroelastic-paraelectric, prototype. The extent of each solid solution depends on the ratio of alcaline cations present in the 6- and 12-fold coordination sites of the perovskite structure. Des techniques expérimentales variées ont permis d'étudier les transitions de phases au sein des différentes solutions solides obtenues dans les systèmes K3MO3F3-A3MO3F3(A= Na, Rb;M= Mo, W): diffraction des rayons X, analyse thermique différentielle, microscopie optique en lumière polarisée. Les systèmes K3MO3F3-Na3MO3F3(M= Mo, W) présentent deux solutions solides. La première (SS1) au voisinage dex= 0 (K3-xNaxMO3F3) ne présente qu'une seule transition àTCqui reste pratiquement constante lorsque la composition varie; la transition qui était franche pourx= 0 àT1

  4. High-pressure phase transitions in rubidium and caesium hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Andreas

    2016-06-28

    A computational investigation of the high-pressure phase sequence of the heaviest alkali hydroxides, RbOH and CsOH, shows that the phase diagram of both compounds is richer than hitherto thought. First-principles calculations suggest, based on energetics and comparisons to experimental diffraction and spectroscopy signatures, that the high-pressure phase RbOH-VI, stable above 6 GPa in experiment, should be assigned the KOH-VI structure type, and features localised hydrogen-bonded (OH)4 units. Meanwhile, a new high-pressure phase CsOH-VII is predicted to be stable above 10 GPa in an isosymmetric phase transition that, like RbOH-VI, marks the transition from layered to three-dimensional network structures under increased compression. Both new phases highlight an unexpected flexibility of hydrogen bond network formation in a series of compounds that seemingly only vary in the cation size, and potential consequences for similar systems, such as water-carrying minerals, are discussed briefly. PMID:27271485

  5. Communication: Evidence for dipole-bound excited states in gas-phase I(-) ⋅ MI (M = Na, K, Cs) anionic salt microclusters.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Andrew J A; Yoshikawa, Naruo; Wang, Jin-Guo; Dessent, Caroline E H

    2015-09-14

    We report the first UV laser photodissociation spectra of gas-phase I(-) ⋅ MI (M = Na, K, Cs) alkali halide anionic microclusters. The photodepletion spectra of these clusters display strong absorption bands just below the calculated vertical detachment energies, indicative of the presence of dipole-bound excited states. Photoexcitation at the peak of the transition to the dipole-bound excited state results in production of a primary [MI](-) photofragment along with a less intense I(-) ion. The photofragmentation mechanism of the excited state cluster is discussed in the context of an initial dipole-bound excited state that subsequently relaxes via a vibrational Feschbach resonance. The experiments described have been performed in an electrospray source laser-interfaced quadrupole ion-trap instrument and demonstrated for the first time that dipole-bound excited states can be identified in the relatively high-collision environment of a quadrupole ion-trap, in particular for systems with large dipole moments associated with the presence of charge separation. This indicates considerable potential for future experiments that identify dipole-bound excited states as a "low-resolution" structural probe of biomolecules and molecular charge separation using the instrumentation employed in this work.

  6. CS Informativeness Governs CS-US Associability

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Ryan D.; Gallistel, C. R.; Jensen, Greg; Richards, Vanessa L.; Fairhurst, Stephen; Balsam, Peter D

    2012-01-01

    In a conditioning protocol, the onset of the conditioned stimulus (CS) provides information about when to expect reinforcement (the US). There are two sources of information from the CS in a delay conditioning paradigm in which the CS-US interval is fixed. The first depends on the informativeness, the degree to which CS onset reduces the average expected time to onset of the next US. The second depends only on how precisely a subject can represent a fixed-duration interval (the temporal Weber fraction). In three experiments with mice, we tested the differential impact of these two sources of information on rate of acquisition of conditioned responding (CS-US associability). In Experiment 1, we show that associability (the inverse of trials to acquisition) increases in proportion to informativeness. In Experiment 2, we show that fixing the duration of the US-US interval or the CS-US interval or both has no effect on associability. In Experiment 3, we equated the increase in information produced by varying the C̅/T̅ ratio with the increase produced by fixing the duration of the CS-US interval. Associability increased with increased informativeness, but, as in Experiment 2, fixing the CS-US duration had no effect on associability. These results are consistent with the view that CS-US associability depends on the increased rate of reward signaled by CS onset. The results also provide further evidence that conditioned responding is temporally controlled when it emerges. PMID:22468633

  7. [Prognosis of dynamics and risk of exceeding permissible levels of 137Cs and 90Sr contents in fish in the Kiev Reservoir at the late phase of the Chernobyl accident].

    PubMed

    Homutinin, Iu V; Kashparov, V A; Kuz'menko, A V; Pavliuchenko, V V

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of the radionuclide specific activity measurements made on 832 samples of fish in 2009-2011 and taking into account literature data, the parameters of the stochastic model have been derived to describe the 137Cs and 90Sr contents in typical commercial fish species in the Kiev Reservoir at the late phase of the Chernobyl accident, including: statistical variability, seasonal changes and monotonous long-term trends. At any fixed moment of the year the standard deviations of logarithms of the 137Cs and 90Sr specific activities in carnivorous and benthophage fish species do not reliably differ, making up at average 0.4. The maximum vari- ation of the 137Cs specific activity (a four-fold decrease from April to November) was observed in pike. The obtained values of the ecological half-life periods for 137Cs and 90Sr (1.3-14 years) in fish of the Kiev reservoir in 2002-2012 were significantly lower than both the radioactive decay periods and the estimates of the IAEA Chernobyl Forum. Based on the obtained model parameters, the dynamics of the 137Cs and 90Sr specific ac- tivities in main commercial fish of the Kiev reservoir has been described and the risk of exceeding the permis- sible levels of these radionuclides in fish at the late phase of the Chernobyl accident has been estimated. Now the risk of catching fish with the specific activities of 137Cs and 90Sr above the permissible levels (150 Bq/kg and 35 Bq/kg, respectively) does not exceed 10% (except perch in the spring spawning period that is banned for fishing in Ukraine). Corresponding risks for roach, white bream and rudd are less than 0.1%.

  8. Developments towards detection of 135Cs at VERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachner, Johannes; Kasberger, Magdalena; Martschini, Martin; Priller, Alfred; Steier, Peter; Golser, Robin

    2015-10-01

    Radioisotopes produced in natural or anthropogenic fission are widely used for tracer studies of environmental processes, in nuclear forensics, and are important for nuclear waste disposal. Besides the well-known 137Cs, the longer-lived sister isotope 135Cs (T1/2 = 2.3 Myr) is also produced, and the combined measurement of the two isotopes would allow for assessment of contaminating sources. The insufficient suppression of the stable isobar 135Ba presently prevents AMS measurements down to expected natural levels of 135Cs/133Cs ≈ 10-11. Via the difference in electron affinities between Cs and Ba further isobar suppression should be achievable after the installation of the Ion-Laser-Interaction System (ILIAS) at VERA. We present a preparatory study on the performance of the 3 MV VERA AMS facility for 135Cs concerning ion formation, transmission and detection. Since the usual Cs sputtering would obscure the 135Cs/133Cs ratio of a sample, Rb sputtering was successfully applied and tested also for various other typical AMS elements. Partial suppression of 135Ba is possible with the extraction of Cs- and negative Cs-fluorides. Cs- currents of several 10 nA were extracted over hours from mg amounts of Cs2SO4 material. The transmission to various charge states was tested with gas (Ar, He) and foil stripping. Experiments showed that no suppression in the detection system is possible at high beam energies with the VERA facility. For this reason, gas stripping to low charge states (2+, 3+) with transmissions up to 30% is favorable to guarantee optimal beam transport to the detector. In the present setup, utilizing a simple Bragg-type detector, the blank 135Cs/133Cs ratios from chemically pure samples are determined by the 135Ba background to a value of (4.0 ± 1.3)·10-9.

  9. Rb binds c-Jun and activates transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Nead, M A; Baglia, L A; Antinore, M J; Ludlow, J W; McCance, D J

    1998-01-01

    The retinoblastoma protein (Rb) acts as a critical cell-cycle regulator and loss of Rb function is associated with a variety of human cancer types. Here we report that Rb binds to members of the AP-1 family of transcription factors, including c-Jun, and stimulates c-Jun transcriptional activity from an AP-1 consensus sequence. The interaction involves the leucine zipper region of c-Jun and the B pocket of Rb as well as a C-terminal domain. We also present evidence that the complexes are found in terminally differentiating keratinocytes and cells entering the G1 phase of the cell cycle after release from serum starvation. The human papillomavirus type 16 E7 protein, which binds to both c-Jun and Rb, inhibits the ability of Rb to activate c-Jun. The results provide evidence of a role for Rb as a transcriptional activator in early G1 and as a potential modulator of c-Jun expression during keratinocyte differentiation. PMID:9545246

  10. Synthesis of layered perovskite oxides, ACa[sub 2-x]La[sub x]Nb[sub 3-x]Ti[sub x]O[sub 10] (A = K, Rb, Cs), and characterization of new solid acids, HCa[sub 2-x]La[sub x]Nb[sub 3-x]Ti[sub x]O[sub 10] (O < x [le] 2), exhibiting variable Bronsted acidity

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalakrishnan, J.; Uma, S.; Bhat, V. )

    1993-01-01

    Layered perovskite oxides of the formula ACa[sub 2-x]La[sub x]Nb[sub 3-x]Ti[sub x]O[sub 10] (A = K, Rb, Cs and 0 , x [le] 2) have been prepared. The members adopt the structures of the parent ACa[sub 2]Nb[sub 3]O[sub 10]. Interlayer alkali cations in the niobium-titanium oxide series can be ion-exchanged with Li[sup +], Na[sup +], NG[sub 4][sup +], of H[sup +] to give new derivatives. Intercalation of the protonated derivatives with organic bases reveals that the Bronsted acidity of the solid solution series, HCa[sub 2-x]La[sub x]Nb[sub 3-x]Ti[sub x]O[sub 10], depends on the titanium content. While the x = 1 member (HCaLaNb[sub 2]TiO[sub 10]) is nearly as acidic as the parent HCa[sub 2]Nb[sub 3]O[sub 10], the x = 2 member (HLA[sub 2]NbTi[sub 2]O[sub 10]) is a weak acid hardly intercalating organic bases with pK[sub a] [approximately] 11.3. The variation of acidity is probably due to an ordering of Nb/Ti atoms in the triple octahedral perovskite slabs, [Ca[sub 2-x]La[sub x]Nb[sub 3-x]Ti[sub x]O[sub 10

  11. Cdk5-mediated inhibition of APC/C-Cdh1 switches on the cyclin D1-Cdk4-pRb pathway causing aberrant S-phase entry of postmitotic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Veas-Pérez de Tudela, Miguel; Maestre, Carolina; Delgado-Esteban, María; Bolaños, Juan P.; Almeida, Angeles

    2015-01-01

    The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates cell cycle progression in proliferating cells. To enter the S-phase, APC/C must be inactivated by phosphorylation of its cofactor, Cdh1. In post-mitotic cells such as neurons APC/C-Cdh1 complex is highly active and responsible for the continuous degradation of mitotic cyclins. However, the specific molecular pathway that determines neuronal cell cycle blockade in post-mitotic neurons is unknown. Here, we show that activation of glutamatergic receptors in rat cortical primary neurons endogenously triggers cyclin-dependent kinase-5 (Cdk5)-mediated phosphorylation of Cdh1 leading to its cytoplasmic accumulation and disassembly from the APC3 core protein, causing APC/C inactivation. Conversely, pharmacological or genetic inhibition of Cdk5 promotes Cdh1 ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Furthermore, we show that Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation and inactivation of Cdh1 leads to p27 depletion, which switches on the cyclin D1-cyclin-dependent kinase-4 (Cdk4)-retinoblastoma protein (pRb) pathway to allow the S-phase entry of neurons. However, neurons do not proceed through the cell cycle and die by apoptosis. These results indicate that APC/C-Cdh1 actively suppresses an aberrant cell cycle entry and death of neurons, highlighting its critical function in neuroprotection. PMID:26658992

  12. Integrated experimental and computational methods for structure determination and characterization of a new, highly stable cesium silicotitanate phase, Cs{sub 2}TiSi{sub 6}O{sub 15} (SNL-A)

    SciTech Connect

    NYMAN,MAY D.; BONHOMME,FRANCOIS R.; TETER,DAVID M.; MAXWELL,R.S.; GU,B.X.; WANG,L.M.; EWING,R.C.; NENOFF,TINA M.

    2000-04-24

    Exploratory hydrothermal synthesis in the system Cs{sub 2}O-SiO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O has produced a new polymorph of Cs{sub 2}TiSi{sub 6}O{sub 15} (SNL-A) whose structure was determined using a combination of experimental and theoretical techniques ({sup 29}Si and {sup 133}Cs NMR, X-ray Rietveld refinement, and Density Functional Theory). SNL-A crystallizes in the monoclinic space-group Cc with unit cell parameters: a = 12.998(2) {angstrom}, b = 7.5014(3) {angstrom}, c = 15.156(3) {angstrom}, {eta} = 105.80(3) {degree}. The SNL-A framework consists of silicon tetrahedra and titanium octahedra which are linked in 3-, 5-, 6-, 7- and 8-membered rings in three dimensions. SNL-A is distinctive from a previously reported C2/c polymorph of Cs{sub 2}TiSi{sub 6}O{sub 15} by different ring geometries. Similarities and differences between the two structures are discussed. Other characterizations of SNL-A include TGA-DTA, Cs/Si/Ti elemental analyses, and SEM/EDS. Furthermore, the chemical and radiation durability of SNL-A was studied in interest of ceramic waste form applications. These studies show that SNL-A is durable in both radioactive and rigorous chemical environments. Finally, calculated cohesive energies of the two Cs{sub 2}TiSi{sub 6}O{sub 15} polymorphs suggest that the SNL-A phase (synthesized at 200 C) is energetically more favorable than the C2/c polymorph (synthesized at 1,050 C).

  13. Theoretical study of the CS2+ dication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šedivcová, T.; Špirko, V.; Fišer, J.

    2006-10-01

    The potential energy and spin-orbit coupling functions of 11 lowest electronic states of CS2+ dication have been calculated using internally contracted multireference configuration method. Using these functions, the positions and widths of the corresponding vibronic levels have been evaluated by means of the stabilization and log-phase-amplitude methods. The states governing the second step in the sequential pathway CS23+→ S++CS2+→S++C++S+ of the overall three-body Coulomb explosion of CS23+ have been determined.

  14. RB1, development, and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chinnam, Meenalakshmi; Goodrich, David W.

    2013-01-01

    The RB1 gene is the first tumor suppressor gene identified whose mutational inactivation is the cause of a human cancer, the pediatric cancer retinoblastoma. The twenty five years of research since its discovery has not only illuminated a general role for RB1 in human cancer, but also its critical importance in normal development. Understanding the molecular function of the RB1 encoded protein, pRb, is a long-standing goal that promises to inform our understanding of cancer, its relationship to normal development, and possible therapeutic strategies to combat this disease. Achieving this goal has been difficult, complicated by the complexity of pRb and related proteins. The goal of this review is to explore the hypothesis that, at its core, the molecular function of pRb is to dynamically regulate the location specific assembly or disassembly of protein complexes on the DNA in response to the output of various signaling pathways. These protein complexes participate in a variety of molecular processes relevant to DNA including gene transcription, DNA replication, DNA repair, and mitosis. Through regulation of these processes, RB1 plays a uniquely prominent role in normal development and cancer. PMID:21295686

  15. Accumulation of potassium, rubidium and caesium (133Cs and 137Cs in various fractions of soil and fungi in a Swedish forest.

    PubMed

    Vinichuk, M; Taylor, A F S; Rosén, K; Johanson, K J

    2010-05-15

    Radiocaesium ((137)Cs) was widely deposited over large areas of forest in Sweden as a result of the Chernobyl accident in 1986 and many people in Sweden eat wild fungi and game obtained from these contaminated forests. In terms of radioisotope accumulation in the food chain, it is well known that fungal sporocarps efficiently accumulate radiocaesium ((137)Cs), as well as the alkali metals potassium (K), rubidium (Rb) and caesium (Cs). The fungi then enhance uptake of these elements into host plants. This study compared the accumulation of these three alkali metals in bulk soil, rhizosphere, soil-root interface, fungal mycelium and sporocarps of mycorrhizal fungi in a Swedish forest. The soil-root interface was found to be distinctly enriched in K and Rb compared with the bulk soil. Potassium concentrations increased in the order: bulk soilRb concentration in the order: bulk soilRb and K than Cs, so the uptake of (137)Cs could be prevented by providing additional Rb or K at contaminated sites. The levels of K, Rb, and Cs found in sporocarps were at least one order of magnitude higher than those in fungal mycelium. These results provide new insights into the use of transfer factors or concentration ratios. The final step, the transfer of alkali metals from fungal mycelium to sporocarps, raised some specific questions about possible mechanisms.

  16. Cyclin D activates the Rb tumor suppressor by mono-phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Narasimha, Anil M; Kaulich, Manuel; Shapiro, Gary S; Choi, Yoon J; Sicinski, Piotr; Dowdy, Steven F

    2014-01-01

    The widely accepted model of G1 cell cycle progression proposes that cyclin D:Cdk4/6 inactivates the Rb tumor suppressor during early G1 phase by progressive multi-phosphorylation, termed hypo-phosphorylation, to release E2F transcription factors. However, this model remains unproven biochemically and the biologically active form(s) of Rb remains unknown. In this study, we find that Rb is exclusively mono-phosphorylated in early G1 phase by cyclin D:Cdk4/6. Mono-phosphorylated Rb is composed of 14 independent isoforms that are all targeted by the E1a oncoprotein, but show preferential E2F binding patterns. At the late G1 Restriction Point, cyclin E:Cdk2 inactivates Rb by quantum hyper-phosphorylation. Cells undergoing a DNA damage response activate cyclin D:Cdk4/6 to generate mono-phosphorylated Rb that regulates global transcription, whereas cells undergoing differentiation utilize un-phosphorylated Rb. These observations fundamentally change our understanding of G1 cell cycle progression and show that mono-phosphorylated Rb, generated by cyclin D:Cdk4/6, is the only Rb isoform in early G1 phase. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02872.001 PMID:24876129

  17. A conserved arginine near the filter of Kir1.1 controls Rb/K selectivity.

    PubMed

    Sackin, Henry; Nanazashvili, Mikheil; Li, Hui; Palmer, Lawrence G; Walters, D Eric

    2010-01-01

    ROMK (Kir1.1) channels are important for K secretion and recycling in the collecting duct, connecting tubule and thick ascending limb of the mammalian nephron. We have identified a highly conserved Arg in the P loop of the channel near the selectivity filter that controls Rb/K selectivity. Mutation of this Arg to a Tyr (R128Y-Kir1.1b, R147Y-Kir1.1a) increased the macroscopic conductance ratio, G(Rb)/G(K) by 17 ± 3 fold and altered the selectivity sequence from NH(4) > K > Tl > Rb > Cs in wt-Kir1.1 to: Rb > Cs > Tl > NH(4) > K in R128Y, without significant change in the high K/Na permeability ratio of Kir1.1. R128M produced similar, but smaller, increases in Rb, Tl, NH(4) and Cs conductance relative to K. R128Y remained susceptible to block by both external Ba and the honeybee toxin, TPNQ, although R128Y had a reduced affinity for TPNQ, relative to wild-type. The effect of R128Y-Kir1.1b on the G(Rb)/G(K) ratio can be partly explained by a larger single-channel Rb conductance (12.4 ± 0.5 pS) than K conductance (<1.5 pS) in this mutant. The kinetics of R128Y gating at -120 mV with Rb as the permeant ion were similar to those of wt-Kir1.1 conducting Rb, but with a longer open time (129 ms vs. 6 ms for wt) and two closed states (13 ms, 905 ms), resulting in an open probability (Po) of 0.5, compared to a Po of 0.9 for wt-Kir1.1, which had a single closed state of 1 ms at -120 mV. Single-channel R128Y rectification was eliminated in excised, insideout patches with symmetrical Rb solutions. The large increase in the Rb/K conductance ratio, with no change in K/Na permeability or rectification, is consistent with R128Y-Kir1.1b causing a subtle change in the selectivity filter, perhaps by disruption of an intra-subunit salt bridge (R128-E118) near the filter. PMID:20458182

  18. DNA-damage-responsive acetylation of pRb regulates binding to E2F-1

    PubMed Central

    Markham, Douglas; Munro, Shonagh; Soloway, Judith; O'Connor, Darran P; La Thangue, Nicholas B

    2006-01-01

    The pRb (retinoblastoma protein) tumour suppressor protein has a crucial role in regulating the G1- to S-phase transition, and its phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinases is an established and important mechanism in controlling pRb activity. In addition, the targeted acetylation of lysine (K) residues 873/874 in the carboxy-terminal region of pRb located within a cyclin-dependent kinase-docking site hinders pRb phosphorylation and thereby retains pRb in an active state of growth suppression. Here, we report that the acetylation of pRb K873/874 occurs in response to DNA damage and that acetylation regulates the interaction between the C-terminal E2F-1-specific domain of pRb and E2F-1. These results define a new role for pRb acetylation in the DNA damage signalling pathway, and suggest that the interaction between pRb and E2F-1 is controlled by DNA-damage-dependent acetylation of pRb. PMID:16374512

  19. Magnetic dipole bands in {sup 82}Rb, {sup 83}Rb and {sup 84}Rb

    SciTech Connect

    Schwengner, R.; Schnare, H.; Frauendorf, S.; Doenau, F.; Kaeubler, L.; Prade, H.; Grosse, E.; Jungclaus, A.; Lieb, K. P.; Lingk, C.; Skoda, S.; Eberth, J.; De Angelis, G.; Gadea, A.; Farnea, E.; Napoli, D. R.; Ur, C. A.; Lo Bianco, G.

    1998-12-21

    We have studied the isotopes {sup 82}Rb{sub 45}, {sup 83}Rb{sub 46} and {sup 84}Rb{sub 47} to search for magnetic rotation which is predicted in the tilted-axis cranking model for a certain mass region around A=80. Excited states in these nuclei were populated via the reaction {sup 11}B+{sup 76}Ge with E=50 MeV at the XTU tandem accelerator of the LNL Legnaro. Based on a {gamma}-coincidence experiment using the spectrometer GASP we have found magnetic dipole bands in each studied nuclide. The regular M1 bands observed in the odd-odd nuclei {sup 82}Rb and {sup 84}Rb include B(M1)/B(E2) ratios decreasing smoothly with increasing spin in a range of 13{sup -}{<=}J{sup {pi}}{<=}16{sup -}. These bands are interpreted in the tilted-axis cranking model on the basis of four-quasiparticle configurations of the type {pi}(fp){pi}g{sub 9/2}{sup 2}{nu}g{sub 9/2}. This is the first evidence of magnetic rotation in the A{approx_equal}80 region. In contrast, the M1 sequences in the odd-even nucleus {sup 83}Rb are not regular, and the B(M1)/B(E2) ratios show a pronounced staggering.

  20. The Synthetic Plasmodium falciparum Circumsporozoite Peptide PfCS102 as a Malaria Vaccine Candidate: A Randomized Controlled Phase I Trial

    PubMed Central

    Audran, Régine; Lurati-Ruiz, Floriana; Genton, Blaise; Blythman, Hildur E.; Ofori-Anyinam, Opokua; Reymond, Christophe; Corradin, Giampietro; Spertini, François

    2009-01-01

    Background Fully efficient vaccines against malaria pre-erythrocytic stage are still lacking. The objective of this dose/adjuvant-finding study was to evaluate the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a vaccine candidate based on a peptide spanning the C-terminal region of Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCS102) in malaria naive adults. Methodology and Principal Findings Thirty-six healthy malaria-naive adults were randomly distributed into three dose blocks (10, 30 and 100 µg) and vaccinated with PfCS102 in combination with either Montanide ISA 720 or GSK proprietary Adjuvant System AS02A at days 0, 60, and 180. Primary end-point (safety and reactogenicity) was based on the frequency of adverse events (AE) and of abnormal biological safety tests; secondary-end point (immunogenicity) on P. falciparum specific cell-mediated immunity and antibody response before and after immunization. The two adjuvant formulations were well tolerated and their safety profile was good. Most AEs were local and, when systemic, involved mainly fatigue and headache. Half the volunteers in AS02A groups experienced severe AEs (mainly erythema). After the third injection, 34 of 35 volunteers developed anti-PfCS102 and anti-sporozoite antibodies, and 28 of 35 demonstrated T-cell proliferative responses and IFN-γ production. Five of 22 HLA-A2 and HLA-A3 volunteers displayed PfCS102 specific IFN-γ secreting CD8+ T cell responses. Responses were only marginally boosted after the 3rd vaccination and remained stable for 6 months. For both adjuvants, the dose of 10 µg was less immunogenic in comparison to 30 and 100 µg that induced similar responses. AS02A formulations with 30 µg or 100 µg PfCS102 induced about 10-folds higher antibody and IFN-γ responses than Montanide formulations. Conclusions/Significance PfCS102 peptide was safe and highly immunogenic, allowing the design of more advanced trials to test its potential for protection. Two or three immunizations

  1. Dynamical effects and ergodicity in the dipolar glass phase: evidence from time-domain EPR and phase memory time studies of AsO(4)(4-) in Rb(1-x)(NH(4))(x)H(2)PO(4) (x = 0,0.5,1).

    PubMed

    Sastry, M D; Gustafsson, H; Danilczuk, M; Lund, A

    2006-05-01

    Three-pulse electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM), hyperfine sublevel correlation spectroscopy (HYSCORE) investigations and two-pulse electron spin echo (ESE) measurements of phase memory time T(M), were carried out, in the 20-200 K temperature range, on an AsO(4)(4-) paramagnetic probe stabilized in RbH(2)PO(4) (RDP), NH(4)H(2)PO(4) (ADP), and dipolar glass Rb(0.5)(NH(4))(0.5)H(2)PO(4) (RADP). The results obtained on ADP revealed hyperfine interaction of the probe ion with the (14)N of the ammonium ion, the coupling constant satisfying the condition of 'cancellation' at a field of 480 mT. The ammonium ion was found to be in two different sites in ADP, which became indistinguishable on the formation of dipolar glass RADP. These results were confirmed by HYSCORE spectral measurements. The fast Fourier transform (FFT) spectra of three-pulse ESEEM decays have clearly revealed the interaction with protons in the [Formula: see text] bond both in ADP and RDP; and in RADP with an averaged coupling constant. The phase memory times in RADP exhibited strong temperature dependence and were found to be dependent on the nuclear spin quantum number m(I) of (75)As. The temperature dependence of T(M) exhibited a well-defined maximum around 90 K, coinciding with the temperature of onset of 'freezing' in Rb(0.5)(NH(4))(0.5)H(2)PO(4). This is symptomatic of dynamic fluctuations in the dipolar glass phase, with onset around 150 K, going through a maximum around 90 K and slowing down on further cooling. These results suggest that in RADP, a dynamical mechanism with progressive slowing down below 90 K is operative in the glass formation. This implies that the RADP system, with x = 0.5, exists in an ergodic relaxor (R)-state in the 20-200 K temperature range wherein every fluctuating monodomain can be viewed as statistically representative of the whole sample.

  2. The Rb pathway in neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, K L; Slack, R S

    2001-07-01

    Cell division during embryogenesis plays a crucial role in the formation of the nervous system. During this developmental process, proliferating neural precursor cells commit to a neuronal fate and, as a consequence, undergo terminal mitosis and adopt a neuronal phenotype. A key cell cycle regulator, the tumor suppressor protein, retinoblastoma (Rb), is involved in both terminal mitosis and neuronal differentiation. Neural development is a complex process involving cell proliferation, cell fate determination and differentiation, as well as programmed cell death. In this review, we will examine each of these processes in turn, focussing on the role of the Rb family proteins to examine their many influences on these events.

  3. Temperature and composition phase diagram in the iron-based ladder compounds Ba 1 - x Cs x Fe 2 Se 3

    SciTech Connect

    Hawai, Takafumi; Nambu, Yusuke; Ohgushi, Kenya; Du, Fei; Hirata, Yasuyuki; Avdeev, Maxim; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Sekine, Yurina; Fukazawa, Hiroshi; Ma, Jie; Chi, Songxue; Ueda, Yutaka; Yoshizawa, Hideki; Sato, Taku J.

    2015-05-28

    We investigated the iron-based ladder compounds (Ba,Cs)Fe₂Se₃. Their parent compounds BaFe₂Se₃ and CsFe₂Se₃ have different space groups, formal valences of Fe, and magnetic structures. Electrical resistivity, specific heat, magnetic susceptibility, x-ray diffraction, and powder neutron diffraction measurements were conducted to obtain a temperature and composition phase diagram of this system. Block magnetism observed in BaFe₂Se₃ is drastically suppressed with Cs doping. In contrast, stripe magnetism observed in CsFe₂Se₃ is not so fragile against Ba doping. A new type of magnetic structure appears in intermediate compositions, which is similar to stripe magnetism of CsFe₂Se₃, but interladder spin configuration is different. Intermediate compounds show insulating behavior, nevertheless a finite T-linear contribution in specific heat was obtained at low temperatures.

  4. Pressure-induced metathesis reaction to sequester Cs.

    PubMed

    Im, Junhyuck; Seoung, Donghoon; Lee, Seung Yeop; Blom, Douglas A; Vogt, Thomas; Kao, Chi-Chang; Lee, Yongjae

    2015-01-01

    We report here a pressure-driven metathesis reaction where Ag-exchanged natrolite (Ag16Al16Si24O80·16H2O, Ag-NAT) is pressurized in an aqueous CsI solution, resulting in the exchange of Ag(+) by Cs(+) in the natrolite framework forming Cs16Al16Si24O80·16H2O (Cs-NAT-I) and, above 0.5 GPa, its high-pressure polymorph (Cs-NAT-II). During the initial cation exchange, the precipitation of AgI occurs. Additional pressure and heat at 2 GPa and 160 °C transforms Cs-NAT-II to a pollucite-related, highly dense, and water-free triclinic phase with nominal composition CsAlSi2O6. At ambient temperature after pressure release, the Cs remains sequestered in a now monoclinic pollucite phase at close to 40 wt % and a favorably low Cs leaching rate under back-exchange conditions. This process thus efficiently combines the pressure-driven separation of Cs and I at ambient temperature with the subsequent sequestration of Cs under moderate pressures and temperatures in its preferred waste form suitable for long-term storage at ambient conditions. The zeolite pollucite CsAlSi2O6·H2O has been identified as a potential host material for nuclear waste remediation of anthropogenic (137)Cs due to its chemical and thermal stability, low leaching rate, and the large amount of Cs it can contain. The new water-free pollucite phase we characterize during our process will not display radiolysis of water during longterm storage while maintaining the Cs content and low leaching rate. PMID:25515673

  5. RB1 in cancer: different mechanisms of RB1 inactivation and alterations of pRb pathway in tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Di Fiore, Riccardo; D'Anneo, Antonella; Tesoriere, Giovanni; Vento, Renza

    2013-08-01

    Loss of RB1 gene is considered either a causal or an accelerating event in retinoblastoma. A variety of mechanisms inactivates RB1 gene, including intragenic mutations, loss of expression by methylation and chromosomal deletions, with effects which are species-and cell type-specific. RB1 deletion can even lead to aneuploidy thus greatly increasing cancer risk. The RB1gene is part of a larger gene family that includes RBL1 and RBL2, each of the three encoding structurally related proteins indicated as pRb, p107, and p130, respectively. The great interest in these genes and proteins springs from their ability to slow down neoplastic growth. pRb can associate with various proteins by which it can regulate a great number of cellular activities. In particular, its association with the E2F transcription factor family allows the control of the main pRb functions, while the loss of these interactions greatly enhances cancer development. As RB1 gene, also pRb can be functionally inactivated through disparate mechanisms which are often tissue specific and dependent on the scenario of the involved tumor suppressors and oncogenes. The critical role of the context is complicated by the different functions played by the RB proteins and the E2F family members. In this review, we want to emphasize the importance of the mechanisms of RB1/pRb inactivation in inducing cancer cell development. The review is divided in three chapters describing in succession the mechanisms of RB1 inactivation in cancer cells, the alterations of pRb pathway in tumorigenesis and the RB protein and E2F family in cancer.

  6. Lunar Rb-Sr chronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.

    1977-01-01

    It has been established with the aid of Rb-Sr studies that lunar chronology consists of five episodes, including the formation of the moon approximately 4.6 AE ago (1 AE = 1000 million years), a period of intense bombardment by planetary debris resulting in the formation of the major lunar basins, the end of this period at 3.9-4.0 AE ago, a period of mare flooding extending from 3.9 to 3.2 AE ago, and a relatively quiescent period from 3.2 AE ago to the present. In addition, Rb-Sr-studies have provided valuable constraints on the geochemical evolution of the moon through the determination of the initial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios which limit the Rb/Sr ratios of the source materials for lunar rocks. Attention is given to the characteristics of the Rb-Sr method, the analytical techniques, the ages of lunar mare basalts, the non-mare rocks, the studies conducted in connection with the various Apollo missions, the lunar cataclysm, lunar soils, and aspects of crustal contamination.

  7. Melt Processed Single Phase Hollandite Waste Forms For Nuclear Waste Immobilization: Ba{sub 1.0}Cs{sub 0.3}A{sub 2.3}Ti{sub 5.7}O{sub 16}; A = Cr, Fe, Al

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, Kyle; Marra, James; Amoroso, Jake; Conradson, Steven D.; Tang, Ming

    2013-09-23

    Cs is one of the more problematic fission product radionuclides to immobilize due to its high volatility at elevated temperatures, ability to form water soluble compounds, and its mobility in many host materials. The hollandite structure is a promising crystalline host for Cs immobilization and has been traditionally fabricated by solid state sintering methods. This study presents the structure and performance of Ba{sub 1.0}Cs{sub 0.3}A{sub 2.3}Ti{sub 5.7}O{sub 16}; A = Cr, Fe, Al hollandite fabricated by melt processing. Melt processing is considered advantageous given that melters are currently in use for High Level Waste (HLW) vitrification in several countries. This work details the impact of Cr additions that were demonstrated to i) promote the formation of a Cs containing hollandite phase and ii) maintain the stability of the hollandite phase in reducing conditions anticipated for multiphase waste form processing.

  8. Absence of pRb facilitates E2F1-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Baohua; Wingate, Hannah; Swisher, Stephen G; Keyomarsi, Khandan; Hunt, Kelly K

    2010-03-15

    The transcription factor E2F1 is known for its interaction with pRb, controlling cell proliferation; however, E2F1 also has a pivotal role in regulating apoptosis.  The relationship between pRb and E2F1 balances cell proliferation and apoptosis giving pRb tumor suppressive properties. The intricacies of the pRb/E2F1 relationship and thus the regulation of cell fate is cell context dependent. To explore the role of pRb in the E2F1-induced apoptosis of human breast cancer cells, we examined cell growth and apoptosis induction in isogenic cell systems of immortalized breast epithelial cells lacking either pRb (76NE7) or p53 (76NE6). We found that E2F1 caused accumulation of cells in G2 and S phases of the cell cycle along with apoptosis in 76NE7 but not 76NE6 cells.  Variants of 76NE6 cells with functional p53 did not rescue the apoptotic response in these cells, whereas knocking down pRb resulted in significant E2F1-induced apoptosis. We also determined that the effect of E2F1 overexpression in two breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-436 and MDA-MB-468, which lack pRb and functional p53, was accumulation of cells in G2/S phase and apoptosis. However, E2F did not cause apotosis  in MCF-7 cells which harbor a functional pRb. Therefore, we conclude that in the absence of Rb, E2F1 overexpression results in apoptosis, not proliferation, and that this effect is independent of p53.

  9. Luminescence of the elpasolite series M{sup I}{sub 2}M{sup II}MCl{sub 6} (M{sup I}=Cs, Rb; M{sup II}=Li, Na; M=Lu, Y, Sc, In) doped with europium using synchrotron radiation excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, Peter A.; Duan Changkui; Jia Guohua; Cheng, Bing-Ming

    2012-04-15

    The excitation and emission spectra of a series of cubic hexachloroelpasolites doped with europium have been investigated using synchrotron radiation at 10 K. Besides the Eu{sup 3+} emission from {sup 5}D{sub J} (J=0-3) multiplets, emission from {sup 5}H{sub 3} is also observed for Cs{sub 2}NaIn{sub 0.995}Eu{sub 0.005}Cl{sub 6}, since the gap to the next lowest level is spanned by seven phonons. The excitation spectra of samples indicate impurities due to oxygen and divalent europium. Broad band emission from Eu{sup 2+} is reported from the crystalline samples grown in vacuum by the Bridgman process, with the maximum wavelength shifting to the red with increasing lattice parameter for the series Cs{sub 2}NaMCl{sub 6}:Eu{sup 2+} (M=Lu, Y, Eu). - Graphical abstract: Luminescence of Eu{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 2+} in elpasolite hosts under synchrotron radiation is observed and assigned. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of M{sup I}{sub 2}M{sup II}MCl{sub 6}-doped with europium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 10 K spectra indicate broad bands due to Eu-O CT, Eu-Cl CT and Eu{sup 2+} transitions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ultraviolet emission from the {sup 3}H{sub 5} level of Eu{sup 3+}, not only restricted to fluorides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Correlation between Eu{sup 2+} emission maximum and host lattice parameter.

  10. EXTRAGALACTIC CS SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Bayet, E.; Viti, S.; Aladro, R.; MartIn, S.; MartIn-Pintado, J.

    2009-12-10

    We present a coherent and homogeneous multi-line study of the CS molecule in nearby (D < 10 Mpc) galaxies. We include, from the literature, all the available observations from the J = 1-0 to the J = 7-6 transitions toward NGC 253, NGC 1068, IC 342, Henize 2-10, M 82, the Antennae Galaxies, and M 83. We have, for the first time, detected the CS(7-6) line in NGC 253, M 82 (both in the northeast and southwest molecular lobes), NGC 4038, M 83 and tentatively in NGC 1068, IC 342, and Henize 2-10. We use the CS molecule as a tracer of the densest gas component of the interstellar medium in extragalactic star-forming regions, following previous theoretical and observational studies by Bayet et al. In this first paper out of a series, we analyze the CS data sample under both local thermodynamical equilibrium (LTE) and non-LTE (large velocity gradient) approximations. We show that except for M 83 and Overlap (a shifted gas-rich position from the nucleus NGC 4039 in the Antennae Galaxies), the observations in NGC 253, IC 342, M 82-NE, M 82-SW, and NGC 4038 are not well reproduced by a single set of gas component properties and that, at least, two gas components are required. For each gas component, we provide estimates of the corresponding kinetic temperature, total CS column density, and gas density.

  11. Layered polymeric nitrogen in RbN3 at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoli; Li, Jianfu; Xu, Ning; Zhu, Hongyang; Hu, Ziyu; Chen, Li

    2015-11-01

    The structural evolutionary behaviors of nitrogen in RbN3 have been studied up to 300 GPa using a particle swarm optimization structure searching method combined with density functional calculations. Three stable new phases with P-1, P6/mmm and C2/m structure at pressure of 30, 50 and 200 GPa are identified for the first time. The analysis of the crystal structures of three new predicated phases reveals that the transition of N3- ions goes from linear molecules to polymeric chains, benzene-like rings and then to polymeric layers induced by pressure. The electronic structures of three predicted phases reveal that the structural changes are accompanied and driven by the change of orbital hybridization of N atoms from sp to sp2 and finally to partial sp3. Most interestingly, the Rb atoms show obvious transition metal-like properties through the occupation of 4d orbitals in high-pressure phases. Moreover, the Rb atoms are characterized by strong hybridization between 4d orbitals of Rb and 2p orbitals of N in C2/m structure. Our studies complete the structural evolution of RbN3 under pressure and reveal for the first time that the Rb atoms in rubidium nitride possess transition element-like properties under pressure.

  12. Layered polymeric nitrogen in RbN3 at high pressures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoli; Li, Jianfu; Xu, Ning; Zhu, Hongyang; Hu, Ziyu; Chen, Li

    2015-01-01

    The structural evolutionary behaviors of nitrogen in RbN3 have been studied up to 300 GPa using a particle swarm optimization structure searching method combined with density functional calculations. Three stable new phases with P-1, P6/mmm and C2/m structure at pressure of 30, 50 and 200 GPa are identified for the first time. The analysis of the crystal structures of three new predicated phases reveals that the transition of N3- ions goes from linear molecules to polymeric chains, benzene-like rings and then to polymeric layers induced by pressure. The electronic structures of three predicted phases reveal that the structural changes are accompanied and driven by the change of orbital hybridization of N atoms from sp to sp(2) and finally to partial sp(3). Most interestingly, the Rb atoms show obvious transition metal-like properties through the occupation of 4d orbitals in high-pressure phases. Moreover, the Rb atoms are characterized by strong hybridization between 4d orbitals of Rb and 2p orbitals of N in C2/m structure. Our studies complete the structural evolution of RbN3 under pressure and reveal for the first time that the Rb atoms in rubidium nitride possess transition element-like properties under pressure. PMID:26564812

  13. Layered polymeric nitrogen in RbN3 at high pressures

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoli; Li, Jianfu; Xu, Ning; Zhu, Hongyang; Hu, Ziyu; Chen, Li

    2015-01-01

    The structural evolutionary behaviors of nitrogen in RbN3 have been studied up to 300 GPa using a particle swarm optimization structure searching method combined with density functional calculations. Three stable new phases with P-1, P6/mmm and C2/m structure at pressure of 30, 50 and 200 GPa are identified for the first time. The analysis of the crystal structures of three new predicated phases reveals that the transition of N3− ions goes from linear molecules to polymeric chains, benzene-like rings and then to polymeric layers induced by pressure. The electronic structures of three predicted phases reveal that the structural changes are accompanied and driven by the change of orbital hybridization of N atoms from sp to sp2 and finally to partial sp3. Most interestingly, the Rb atoms show obvious transition metal-like properties through the occupation of 4d orbitals in high-pressure phases. Moreover, the Rb atoms are characterized by strong hybridization between 4d orbitals of Rb and 2p orbitals of N in C2/m structure. Our studies complete the structural evolution of RbN3 under pressure and reveal for the first time that the Rb atoms in rubidium nitride possess transition element-like properties under pressure. PMID:26564812

  14. Staurosporine is chemoprotective by inducing G1 arrest in a Chk1- and pRb-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Murray, Mollianne McGahren; Bui, Tuyen; Smith, Michelle; Bagheri-Yarmand, Rozita; Wingate, Hannah; Hunt, Kelly K; Keyomarsi, Khandan

    2013-10-01

    Chemotherapeutic agents have been the mainstay of cancer therapy for years. However, their effectiveness has been limited by toxicities they impart on normal cells. Staurosporine (ST) has been shown to arrest normal, but not breast cancer, cells in G1. Therefore, ST may become a chemoprotective agent, arresting normal cells while allowing tumor cells to enter cell cycle phases where they are sensitive to chemotherapeutic agents. Understanding the mechanism of ST-mediated G1 arrest may allow for a beneficial chemoprotective treatment strategy for patients. We utilized 76NE6 (pRb+/p53-), 76NF2V (pRb+/p53+) and 76NE7 (pRb-/P53+) non-tumorigenic human mammary epithelial cell lines to understand the role of the Rb and p53 pathways in ST-directed G1 arrest. CDK4 was downregulated by ST in Rb+ cells, but its presence could not reverse the arrest, neither did its stable downregulation alter ST-mediated cellular response. ST-mediated G1 arrest required pRb, which in turn initiated a cascade of events leading to inhibition of CDK4. Further assessment of this pathway revealed that Chk1 expression and activity were required for the Rb-dependent arrest. For example, pRb+ cells with small interfering RNA to Chk1 had approximately 60% less cells in G1 phase compared with controls and pRb- cells do not arrest upon ST. Furthermore, Chk1 expression facilitates the release of the Rb+ cells from G1 arrest. Collectively, our data suggest that pRb cooperates with Chk1 to mediate a G1 arrest only in pRb+ cells. The elucidation of this pathway can help identify novel agents to protect cancer patients against the debilitating effects of chemotherapy.

  15. Cs[H2NB2(C6F5)6] Featuring an Unequivocal 16-Coordinate Cation.

    PubMed

    Pollak, David; Goddard, Richard; Pörschke, Klaus-Richard

    2016-08-01

    Cesium bis(perfluoro-triphenylborane)amide, Cs[H2NB2(C6F5)6] (1), has been prepared by the reaction of sodium salt and CsF in dichloromethane and water. The compound is exceptional for a [H2NB2(C6F5)6](-) salt in that it contains a monatomic solute-free cation. Determination of the molecular structure revealed a novel C2 symmetrical conformation of the weakly coordinating [H2NB2(C6F5)6](-) anion, which gives rise to an unprecedented 16-coordinate (CN 16) Cs(+) cation in a likewise unprecedented tetracosahedral arrangement of F atoms. The poor solubility of 1 allows nearly quantitative separation of Cs(+) from water, which suggests potential applications as an effective (134/137)Cs remover from nuclear waste solutions, administration as an antidote for (134/137)Cs poisoning, and use for (131/137)Cs radiotherapy (brachytherapy). Rb[H2NB2(C6F5)6]·CH2Cl2 (2) has also been characterized, featuring two inequivalent Rb(+) cations having CN 10, one of which involves Rb(+)(η(2)-Cl2CH2)2 coordination. PMID:27267866

  16. Quasi-one-dimensional electronic structure in orthorhombic RbC[sub 60

    SciTech Connect

    Chauvet, O.; Oszlanyi, G.; Forro, L. ); Stephens, P.W. ); Tegze, M.; Faigel, G.; Janossy, A. )

    1994-04-25

    X-ray diffraction studies show that the stable phase of the alkali fullerene RbC[sub 60] is orthorhombic ([ital o]-RbC[sub 60]) below 350 K. C[sub 60] molecules form chains along [bold a] with an unusually short spacing of 9.12 A and magnetic properties suggest that [ital o]-RbC[sub 60] is a quasi-1D metal with a transition to a spin density wave ground state at 50 K. The high temperature fcc phase of RbC[sub 60] may be stabilized below 300 K by quenching from 500 K; it is paramagnetic above 300 K and transforms into a nonmagnetic ground state beween 300 and 250 K.

  17. Ba2+-inhibitable /sup 86/Rb+ fluxes across membranes of vesicles from toad urinary bladder

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, H.; Civan, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    /sup 86/Rb+ fluxes have been measured in suspensions of vesicles prepared from the epithelium of toad urinary bladder. A readily measurable barium-sensitive, ouabain-insensitive component has been identified; the concentration of external Ba2+ required for half-maximal inhibition was 0.6 mM. The effects of externally added cations on /sup 86/Rb+ influx and efflux have established that this pathway is conductive, with a selectivity for K+, Rb+ and Cs+ over Na+ and Li+. The Rb+ uptake is inversely dependent on external pH, but not significantly affected by internal Ca2+ or external amiloride, quinine, quinidine or lidocaine. It is likely, albeit not yet certain, that the conductive Rb+ pathway is incorporated in basolateral vesicles oriented right-side-out. It is also not yet clear whether this pathway comprises the principle basolateral K+ channel in vivo, and that its properties have been unchanged during the preparative procedures. Subject to these caveats, the data suggest that the inhibition by quinidine of Na+ transport across toad bladder does not arise primarily from membrane depolarization produced by a direct blockage of the basolateral channels. It now seems more likely that the quinidine-induced elevation of intracellular Ca2+ activity directly blocks apical Na+ entry.

  18. Pulsed Optically Pumped Rb clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micalizio, S.; Levi, F.; Godone, A.; Calosso, C. E.; François, B.; Boudot, R.; Affolderbach, C.; Kang, S.; Gharavipour, M.; Gruet, F.; Mileti, G.

    2016-06-01

    INRIM demonstrated a Rb vapour cell clock based on pulsed optical pumping (POP) with unprecedented frequency stability performances, both in the short and in the medium-long term period. In the frame of a EMRP project, we are developing a new clock based on the same POP principle but adopting solutions aimed at reducing the noise sources affecting the INRIM clock. At the same time, concerning possible technological applications, particular care are devoted in the project to reduce the size and the weight of the clock, still keeping the excellent stability of the INRIM clock. The paper resumes the main results of this activity.

  19. Estimating Bounds on Collisional Relaxation Rates of Spin-Polarized 87Rb Atoms at Ultracold Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Mies, Frederick H.; Williams, Carl J.; Julienne, Paul S.; Krauss, Morris

    1996-01-01

    We present quantum scattering calculations for the collisional relaxation rate coefficient of spin-polarized 87Rb(f = 2,m = 2) atoms, which determines the loss rate of cold Rb atoms from a magnetic trap. Unlike the lighter alkali atoms, spin-polarized 87Rb atoms can undergo dipolar relaxation due to both the normal spin-spin dipole interaction and a second-order spin-orbit interaction with distant electronic states of the dimer. We present ab initio calculations for the second-order spin-orbit terms for both Rb2 and Cs2. The corrections lead to a reduction in the relaxation rate for 87Rb. Our primary concern is to analyze the sensitivity of the 87Rb trap loss to the uncertainties in the ground state molecular potentials. Since the scattering length for the a3Σ+u state is already known, the major uncertainties are associated with the X1Σ+g potential. After testing the effect of systematically modifying the short-range form of the molecular potentials over a reasonable range, and introducing our best estimate of the second-order spin-orbit interaction, we estimate that in the low temperature limit the rate coefficient for loss of Rb atoms from the f = 2,m = 2 state is between 0.4 × 10−15 cm3/s and 2.4 × 10−15 cm3/s (where this number counts two atoms lost per collision). In a pure condensate the rate coefficient would be reduced by 1/2.

  20. Microporous titanosilicate AM-2: Rb-exchange and thermal behaviour

    SciTech Connect

    Doebelin, Nicola . E-mail: nicola@doebelin.org; Armbruster, Thomas

    2007-01-18

    Rb-exchange and thermal stability of the microporous titanosilicate AM-2 were analysed by powder X-ray diffraction, thermo-gravimetric analysis, and chemical analysis of the mother liquid after exchange. The dehydration and thermal stability of the exchanged structure were monitored with in situ high temperature powder X-ray diffraction. Crystal structures were refined with Rietveld methods at 25 and 400 deg. C. The AM-2 structure was found to incorporate Rb{sup +} by replacing K{sup +}. After four exchange cycles and 166 h reaction time at 90 deg. C, the chemical composition was refined to K{sub 0.18}Rb{sub 1.82}TiSi{sub 3}O{sub 9}.H{sub 2}O. Extrapolation suggests that higher exchange ratios may be obtained after further cycles. H{sub 2}O was expelled by heating, leading to a dehydrated structure at 360 deg. C. Dehydration was associated with a change of space group symmetry from orthorhombic P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} to monoclinic P2{sub 1}, which proved to be reversible after rehydration. This change of symmetry leaves the AM-2 characteristic structural topology uninfluenced and causes only minor distortions. The monoclinic AM-2 structure breaks down above 600 deg. C to become X-ray amorphous, and at 750 deg. C a wadeite-type phase (K {sub x}Rb{sub 2-x}TiSi{sub 3}O{sub 9}) crystallises. This transformation is irreversible and leads to immobilisation of Rb{sup +}.

  1. Trace element partitioning between vapor, brine and halite under extreme phase separation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foustoukos, D. I.; Seyfried, W. E.

    2007-04-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the partitioning of Li, Br, Rb, Cs and B between vapor, brine and halite during subcritical and supercritical phase separation in the NaCl-H 2O system (388-550 °C, 250-350 bars). Results indicate that Li and Br partition preferentially into the low-salinity vapor fluids, while Rb and Cs become more enriched in the coexisting brines. Under more extreme conditions of pressure and temperature in the two-phase region, especially near the vapor-brine-halite boundary, strong salting-out effects imposed on neutral aqueous species enhance significantly partitioning of all trace elements into the low-salinity fluid. Dissolved boron is strongly affected by this and a particularly strong enrichment into vapors is observed, a trend that can be effectively correlated with changes in reduced density. Exclusion of Li, Br, Rb, Cs and B from halite, when precipitated, further increases the solubility of these species in the coexisting Cl-poor fluid. In general, the lack of distortion in the partitioning behavior of trace elements between vapor, brine and/or halite with the transition from subcritical to supercritical conditions in the NaCl-H 2O system precludes the need for special reference to the critical point of seawater when interpreting phase relations in submarine hydrothermal systems. The combination of experimentally determined trace element partitioning data with constraints imposed by mineral solubility provides a means to better understand the origin and evolution of hot spring vent fluids. For example, in Brandon hydrothermal system (21°S EPR) supercritical phase separation and subseafloor mixing appear to be the main heat and mass transport mechanisms fueled by a shallow magmatic intrusion, with boron systematics ruling out major contributions from magmatic degassing processes accompanying the near-seafloor volcanism.

  2. Near-yrast, medium-spin, excited states of {sup 91}Rb, {sup 93}Rb, and {sup 95}Rb

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, G. S.; Sieja, K.; Dare, J. A.; Orlandi, R.; Smith, A. G.; Tsekhanovich, I.; Varley, B. J.; Durell, J. L.; Smith, J. F.; Jolie, J.; Linneman, A.; Scherillo, A.; Soldner, T.; Faust, H.; Zlomaniec, A.; Rzaca-Urban, T.; Ahmad, I.; Greene, J. P.

    2010-08-15

    The medium-spin structure of the nuclei {sup 93}Rb and {sup 95}Rb is studied following the neutron-induced fission of {sup 235}U at the PF1B neutron guide, using the FIFI spectrometer, and at the Lohengrin mass spectrometer of the Institut Laue-Langevin Grenoble. These nuclei, plus {sup 91}Rb, are also studied following the spontaneous fission of {sup 248}Cm and {sup 252}Cf sources, using the EUROGAM-II and Gammasphere detector arrays, respectively. A high-spin isomeric state, with a half-life of 111(11) ns, is found in {sup 93}Rb at an excitation energy of 4422.4 keV, which most likely corresponds to the fully aligned [{pi}(g{sub 9/2}) x {nu}(g{sub 7/2}h{sub 11/2})]{sub 27/2}{sup -} configuration. An analogous configuration is proposed for the 5297.9-keV level observed in {sup 91}Rb. A new E3 decay branch of the 1133.9-keV isomer in {sup 91}Rb is found, for which the rather low transition rate of B(E3)=3.8(10) W.u. is determined. The energy of the isomeric state of {sup 95}Rb is now proposed to be at 810.6 keV, with a spin of (9/2{sup +}), and its half-life determined to be T{sub 1/2}=94(7) ns. A cascade of prompt transitions is observed on top of the 810.6-keV isomer in {sup 95}Rb. The near-yrast structures of {sup 91}Rb, {sup 93}Rb, and {sup 95}Rb are compared to the results of shell-model calculations, which support the proposed 27/2{sup -} interpretation of states in {sup 91}Rb and {sup 93}Rb. An analogous 27/2{sup -} state is expected to occur in {sup 95}Rb, as a long-lived isomer at 3.24 MeV. No such isomeric decay could be observed in a measurement using the Lohengrin spectrometer, which shows that, if it exists, its population, following the fission of {sup 235}U, is at least four times lower than that of the analogous 27/2{sup -} isomer in {sup 97}Y.

  3. Suppression of genome instability in pRB-deficient cells by enhancement of chromosome cohesion.

    PubMed

    Manning, Amity L; Yazinski, Stephanie A; Nicolay, Brandon; Bryll, Alysia; Zou, Lee; Dyson, Nicholas J

    2014-03-20

    Chromosome instability (CIN), a common feature of solid tumors, promotes tumor evolution and increases drug resistance during therapy. We previously demonstrated that loss of the retinoblastoma protein (pRB) tumor suppressor causes changes in centromere structure and generates CIN. However, the mechanism and significance of this change was unclear. Here, we show that defects in cohesion are key to the pRB loss phenotype. pRB loss alters H4K20 methylation, a prerequisite for efficient establishment of cohesion at centromeres. Changes in cohesin regulation are evident during S phase, where they compromise replication and increase DNA damage. Ultimately, such changes compromise mitotic fidelity following pRB loss. Remarkably, increasing cohesion suppressed all of these phenotypes and dramatically reduced CIN in cancer cells lacking functional pRB. These data explain how loss of pRB undermines genomic integrity. Given the frequent functional inactivation of pRB in cancer, conditions that increase cohesion may provide a general strategy to suppress CIN.

  4. The NaCl- to CsCl-type phase transition discussed on the basis of the cP to cI deformation with the symmetry Cmcm 4(c) m2m

    PubMed

    Sowa

    2000-05-01

    A structure forming a cubic primitive lattice cP may be deformed into a structure forming a cubic body-centred lattice cI in the space group Cmcm at position 4(c) m2m 0,y,1/4. If in related structures the sites are alternately occupied by unlike atoms, the NaCl and the CsCl types occur, respectively. The corresponding phase transition can be described as a deformation of a heterogeneous sphere packing in the subgroup Pmmn (a,-c,b) of Cmcm. All sphere configurations with symmetry Cmcm 4(c) m2m were derived. On the basis of this information, further possibilities for phase transitions that also correspond to sphere-packing deformations were found with this symmetry. Two of them possibly may take place in metals. The first one leads from a primitive hexagonal lattice to a hexagonal close packing, the other from a cubic body-centred lattice also to a hexagonal close packing.

  5. The extreme COOH terminus of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein pRb is required for phosphorylation on Thr-373 and activation of E2F.

    PubMed

    Gorges, Laura L; Lents, Nathan H; Baldassare, Joseph J

    2008-11-01

    The retinoblastoma protein pRb plays a pivotal role in G(1)- to S-phase cell cycle progression and is among the most frequently mutated gene products in human cancer. Although much focus has been placed on understanding how the A/B pocket and COOH-terminal domain of pRb cooperate to relieve transcriptional repression of E2F-responsive genes, comparatively little emphasis has been placed on the function of the NH(2)-terminal region of pRb and the interaction of the multiple domains of pRb in the full-length context. Using "reverse mutational analysis" of Rb(DeltaCDK) (a dominantly active repressive allele of Rb), we have previously shown that restoration of Thr-373 is sufficient to render Rb(DeltaCDK) sensitive to inactivation via cyclin-CDK phosphorylation. This suggests that the NH(2)-terminal region plays a more critical role in pRb regulation than previously thought. In the present study, we have expanded this analysis to include additional residues in the NH(2)-terminal region of pRb and further establish that the mechanism of pRb inactivation by Thr-373 phosphorylation is through the dissociation of E2F. Most surprisingly, we further have found that removal of the COOH-terminal domain of either RbDeltaCDK(+T373) or wild-type pRb yields a functional allele that cannot be inactivated by phosphorylation and is repressive of E2F activation and S-phase entry. Our data demonstrate a novel function for the NH(2)-terminal domain of pRb and the necessity for cooperation of multiple domains for proper pRb regulation.

  6. Rb-Sr Isotopic Systematics of Alkali-Rich Fragments in the Yamato-74442 LL-Chondritic Breccia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yokoyama, T.; Misawa, K.; Okano, O.; Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Simo, J. I.; Tappa, M. J.; Yoneda, S.

    2012-01-01

    Alkali-rich igneous fragments were identified in the brecciated LL-chondrites, Kr henberg (LL5)], Bhola (LL3-6) and Yamato (Y)-74442 (LL4), and show characteristic fractionation patterns of alkaline elements. The K-Rb-Cs-rich fragments in Kr henberg, Bhola, and Y-74442 are very similar in mineralogy and petrography (olivine + pyroxene + glass), suggesting that they could have come from related precursor materials. We have undertaken Rb-Sr isotopic studies on alkali-rich fragments in Y-74442 to precisely determine their crystallization ages and the isotopic signatures of their precursor material(s).

  7. [Rb(18-crown-6)][Rb([2.2.2]-cryptand)]Rb(2)Sn(9)·5NH(3).

    PubMed

    Gaertner, Stefanie; Korber, Nikolaus

    2011-05-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound, poly[[(4,7,13,16,21,24-hexa-oxa-1,10-diaza-bicyclo-[8.8.8]hexa-cosa-ne)rubidium] [[(1,4,7,10,13,16-hexa-oxacyclo-octa-deca-ne)rubidium]di-μ-rubidium-μ-nona-stannide] penta-ammonia], {[Rb(C(18)H(36)N(2)O(6))][Rb(3)Sn(9)(C(12)H(24)O(6))C(12)H(24)O(6))]·5NH(3)}(n) represents the first ammoniate of a Zintl anion together with two different chelating substances, namely 18-crown-6 and [2.2.2]-cryptand. The involvement of these large mol-ecules in the crystal structure of [Rb(18-crown-6)][Rb([2.2.2]-cryptand)]Rb(2)Sn(9)·5NH(3) leads to the formation of a new structural motif, namely one-dimensionally extended double strands running parallel to [100] and built by Sn(9) (4-) cages and Rb(+) cations. The double strands are shielded by 18-crown-6 and [2.2.2]-cryptand. The cations are additionally coordin-ated by ammonia mol-ecules. One of the four independent Rb(+) cations is disordered over two sets of sites in a 0.74 (2):0.26 (2) ratio. PMID:21754329

  8. Near-yrast structure of Cs142 and Cs144

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rząca-Urban, T.; Genevey, J.; Materna, T.; Urban, W.; Smith, A. G.; Pinston, J. A.; Simpson, G. S.; Sadowski, M. P.; Köster, U.; Faust, H.; Bail, A.; Mathieu, L.; Serot, O.; Michel-Sendis, F.; Ahmad, I.

    2009-12-01

    Excited states in Cs142 and Cs144, populated in the spontaneous fission of Cm248 and Cf252 and in thermal neutron-induced fission of U235 and Am242 were studied by means of γ spectroscopy using the EUROGAM2 and Gammasphere multidetector Ge arrays and the LOHENGRIN fission-fragment separator, respectively. In Cs142, a band and an isomer with a half-life of T1/2=11(3) ns have been identified. Spins and parities have been proposed for excited levels in this nucleus. In Cs144 excited levels have been observed. A T1/2=1.1(1) μs isomer was found with a γ cascade, which probably feeds this isomer. There is also an indication of a nanosecond isomer in Cs144. Quasiparticle-rotor model calculations done in this work allowed proton-neutron configurations to be proposed for levels in Cs142 and Cs144.

  9. Determination of low (137)Cs concentration in seawater using ammonium 12-molybdophosphate adsorption and chemical separation method.

    PubMed

    Park, J H; Chang, B U; Kim, Y J; Seo, J S; Choi, S W; Yun, J Y

    2008-12-01

    A new method has been developed for analyzing (137)Cs in a small volume of seawater. Ammonium 12-molybdophosphate (AMP) was used two times during pretreatment procedure. The first step was to adsorb (137)Cs in seawater samples into AMP in order to reduce sample volume, and the second was to remove (87)Rb, interference nuclide for beta counting. The AMP adsorbing (137)Cs was dissolved by sodium hydroxide solution, and then (137)Cs was finally formed to be cesium chloroplatinate precipitate by adding 10% hexachloroplatinic acid. The beta rays emitted from (137)Cs were measured with a low background gas-proportional alpha/beta counter. This method was applied to several seawater samples taken in the East Sea of Korea. Compared to the routinely used gamma-spectrometry method, this new AMP method was reliable and suitable for analyzing (137)Cs in deep seawater. PMID:18799246

  10. Energetics and structural stability of Cs3C60

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Susumu; Umemoto, Koichiro; Louie, Steven G.; Cohen, MarvinL.

    2003-12-15

    Using the ab initio pseudo potential total-energy method and the density-functional theory, we study the energetics of face-centered-cubic Cs3C60 which is a material of great interest as a possible high transition-temperature superconductor. At the optimized lattice constant the volume per C60 is found to be smaller than the most stable hexagon-coordination A15 phase, while the total energy of the fcc phase is about 0.9 eV higher than the A15 phase. These results indicate that a low-temperature and high-pressure synthesis method might be a possible way to produce the fcc Cs3C60 phase. In addition, it is also found that the A15 Cs3C60 should show a phase transformation from a hexagon-coordination phase to a pentagon-coordination phase under hydrostatic pressure.

  11. [Rapid determination of 137Cs in environmental samples--purification of 137Cs by ammonium molybdophosphate column separation].

    PubMed

    Nonaka, N; Sato, K; Higuchi, H; Hamaguchi, H

    1976-10-01

    A rapid method for the determination of 137Cs in environmental samples was proposed. The principal technic employed in this study is based on column separation of 137Cs using ammonium molybdophosphate mixed with glass fiber to eliminate contribution of natural radionuclides such as 40K and 87Rb. The separation of cesium from potassium and rubidium was performed by the elution with 0.5m ammonium nitrate solution. The time required for separation of cesium was five hours as compared with the conventional cation exchange separation which required thirteen hours. The chemical yield of cesium carrier was normally more than 90 percent. The results obtained were compared with that by the conventional methods using Bio-Rex cation exchange separation and the good agreement between the two methods was obtained. PMID:1037401

  12. Experiments with an ultracold mixture of ^85Rb and ^87Rb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papp, Scott B.

    2005-05-01

    Magnetic field tunable Feshbach resonances are an invaluable tool for manipulating the inter-particle interactions in a Bose Einstein condensate (BEC). The ^85Rb Feshbach resonance in collisions between two atoms in the low field seeking F = 2, mF = -2 state is particularly convenient since it occurs at a moderate magnetic field of 155 G and spans more than 10 G. However, ^85Rb is difficult to evaporatively cool due to large inelastic loss rates and a zero in the elastic cross section near 400 μK. We have designed and constructed an apparatus to overcome these challenges by making use of the favorable elastic cross section between ^85Rb and ^87Rb. We can obtain large ^87Rb condensates in either the F = 2, mF = 2 or the F = 1, mF = -1 state. The ^85Rb gas is sympathetically cooled due to thermal contact with the ^87Rb gas. We discuss our results on cooling ^85Rb to quantum degeneracy. With this system we also have the opportunity to study interspecies interactions. A Feshbach resonance is predicted to exist between ^87Rb and ^85Rb in magnetically trappable states at 270 G. We will discuss our observation of this interspecies Feshbach resonance. We acknowledge funding for this work from the NSF and ONR. One of us (S. B. P.) acknowledges the support of an NSF Graduate Research Fellowship.

  13. On the RbBr : Cu+ fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosi, L.; Bosi, F. L.; Sanipoli, C.; Zelada, M.

    2003-01-01

    The fluorescence of Cu+ in RbBr was investigated in the temperature range 20-300 K, by recording both emission and excitation spectra and by performing accurate lifetime and quantum yield measurements. The de-excitation mechanism has been interpreted in terms of the traditional Pedrini model. Nevertheless, a change of the compression conditions for Cu+ at low temperature was observed, which implies two temperature regions (above and below 40 K) for the decay parameters. This occurrence is related not only to off-centre configuration but also to a very low value for the Cu+ radius when compared to the Rb+ one in RbBr.

  14. Study of B1 (NaCl-type) to B2 (CsCl-type) pressure-induced structural phase transition in BaS, BaSe and BaTe using first-principles computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khare, Sanjay; Zhou, Xiuquan; Roehl, Jason L.; Lind, Cora

    2013-03-01

    We have studied the pressure-induced phase transitions from NaCl-type (B1) to CsCl-type (B2) structure in BaS, BaSe and BaTe by using ab initio density functional theory computations in the local density approximation. The Buerger and WTM[2] mechanisms were explored by mapping the enthalpy contours in two and four dimensional configuration space for the two mechanisms, respectively. Transition pressures for BaS, BaSe and BaTe were determined to be 5.5 GPa, 4.9 GPa and 3.4 GPa, respectively. From these configuration space landscapes, a low enthalpy barrier path was constructed for the transitions to proceed at three different pressures. We obtained barriers of 0.18, 0.16 and 0.15 eV/pair (17.4, 15.4 and 14.5 kJ/mol) for the Buerger mechanism and 0.13, 0.13 and 0.12 eV/pair (12.5, 12.5 and 11.6 kJ/mol) for the WTM mechanism at the transition pressures for BaS, BaSe and BaTe, respectively, indicating that the WTM mechanism is slightly more favorable in these compounds. We describe the difference of the two mechanisms by differences in their symmetry and atomic coordination. National Science Foundation (#DMR 1005911, #DMR 0705464, #CMMI 1234777 and CNS 0855134), Ohio Supercomputer Center (OSC).

  15. Study of B1 (NaCl-type) to B2 (CsCl-type) pressure-induced structural phase transition in BaS, BaSe and BaTe using ab initio computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X.; Roehl, J. L.; Lind, C.; Khare, S. V.

    2013-02-01

    We have studied the pressure-induced phase transitions from NaCl-type (B1) to CsCl-type (B2) structure in BaS, BaSe and BaTe by using ab initio density functional theory computations in the local density approximation. The Buerger and WTM mechanisms were explored by mapping the enthalpy contours in two- and four-dimensional configuration space for the two mechanisms, respectively. Transition pressures for BaS, BaSe and BaTe were determined to be 5.5 GPa, 4.9 GPa and 3.4 GPa, respectively. From these configuration space landscapes, a low enthalpy barrier path was constructed for the transitions to proceed at three different pressures. We obtained barriers of 0.18, 0.16 and 0.15 eV/pair (17.4, 15.4 and 14.5 kJ mol-1) for the Buerger mechanism and 0.13, 0.13 and 0.12 eV/pair (12.5, 12.5 and 11.6 kJ mol-1) for the WTM mechanism at the transition pressures for BaS, BaSe and BaTe, respectively, indicating that the WTM mechanism is slightly more favorable in these compounds. We describe the difference between the two mechanisms by differences in their symmetry and atomic coordination.

  16. Antiferromagnetism in a bosonic mixture of rubidium ({sup 87}Rb) and potassium ({sup 41}K)

    SciTech Connect

    Shrestha, Uttam

    2010-10-15

    We simulate the experimental possibility of observing antiferromagnetic (AF) order in bosonic mixtures of rubidium ({sup 87}Rb) and potassium ({sup 41}K) in a two-dimensional optical lattice in the presence of harmonic confinement. By tuning the interspecies interactions and the lattice heights, we have found the ground states, within the mean-field approximation, that interpolate from phase separation to AF order. For a moderate lattice height, the coexistence of the Mott and AF phases is possible for the Rb atoms whereas the K atoms remain in the AF-superfluid phase. This observation may provide an experimentally feasible route to hitherto unobserved AF order for {sup 87}Rb-{sup 41}K mixtures.

  17. Loss of pRB causes centromere dysfunction and chromosomal instability.

    PubMed

    Manning, Amity L; Longworth, Michelle S; Dyson, Nicholas J

    2010-07-01

    Chromosome instability (CIN) is a common feature of tumor cells. By monitoring chromosome segregation, we show that depletion of the retinoblastoma protein (pRB) causes rates of missegregation comparable with those seen in CIN tumor cells. The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor is frequently inactivated in human cancers and is best known for its regulation of the G1/S-phase transition. Recent studies have shown that pRB inactivation also slows mitotic progression and promotes aneuploidy, but reasons for these phenotypes are not well understood. Here we describe the underlying mitotic defects of pRB-deficient cells that cause chromosome missegregation. Analysis of mitotic cells reveals that pRB depletion compromises centromeric localization of CAP-D3/condensin II and chromosome cohesion, leading to an increase in intercentromeric distance and deformation of centromeric structure. These defects promote merotelic attachment, resulting in failure of chromosome congression and an increased propensity for lagging chromosomes following mitotic delay. While complete loss of centromere function or chromosome cohesion would have catastrophic consequences, these more moderate defects allow pRB-deficient cells to proliferate but undermine the fidelity of mitosis, leading to whole-chromosome gains and losses. These observations explain an important consequence of RB1 inactivation, and suggest that subtle defects in centromere function are a frequent source of merotely and CIN in cancer.

  18. Piezoelectricity enhancement in Dion-Jacobson RbBiNb2O7 via negative pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, Gaoyang; Shi, Jing

    2014-12-01

    We use first-principles calculations to study the structural, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of the recently synthesized Dion-Jacobson RbBiNb2O7, a novel layered-perovskite piezoelectrics with extremely high Curie temperature TC. We show that ferroelectric RbBiNb2O7 crystalizes in orthorhombic Pmc21 phase, exhibiting in-plane spontaneous polarization. We well reproduce the major experimental results for RbBiNb2O7. We further propose that under 5% volume-expansion-induced negative pressure, ˜3× increase of dielectric permittivity and ˜2× increase of piezoelectricity can be achieved in RbBiNb2O7. The decomposed piezoelectricity analysis reveals that the activation of piezoelectric response of cation Rb by negative pressure can lead to large piezoelectricity enhancement. Based on our calculations, we demonstrate that negative pressure is a promising way to optimize the performance of RbBiNb2O7 as high-TC piezoelectrics.

  19. Mo{sub 6}Se{sub 8}-cluster-based superconducting compounds Cs{sub 2}Mo{sub 12}Se{sub 14} and Rb{sub 4}Mo{sub 18}Se{sub 20}: Evidence for a strongly correlated and anisotropic electron system

    SciTech Connect

    Brusetti, R.; Laborde, O.; Sulpice, A.; Calemczuk, R.; Potel, M.; Gougeon, P.

    1995-08-01

    We studied the normal and superconducting states of the title compounds by measuring the conductivity and magnetization of single crystals and powder samples. From the upper and lower critical fields we deduced the characteristic lengths and thermodynamical fields. These results are borne out by our specific-heat measurements. We recognize in these compounds many features of the Chevrel-phase superconductors, including very small coherence lengths and strong-coupling-like effects. However, we show that the electron system is much more anisotropic and still less delocalized in these materials where the Mo{sub 6}Se{sub 8} clusters have condensed in Mo{sub 6{ital n}}Se{sub 6{ital n}+2} finite chains. This condensation is accompanied by an enhancement of the magnetic response whereas the lengthening of the chains leads to a counteracting reduction of the density of carriers. This indicates that superconductivity is built upon highly correlated molecular states. Reviewing the available data on the other Chevrel-cluster-based superconductors confirms this picture and suggests that the small coherence lengths reflect the local character of the electron pairing. This comparison also shows that forming finite chains of Mo{sub 6}Se{sub 8} clusters makes the electron correlations more repulsive and pushes the electron system near the borderline between superconductivity and magnetism. In this respect these compounds could provide valuable complementary information on issues which are at the center of the research upon high-{ital Y}{sub {ital c}} superconductivity.

  20. Involvement of pRB family in TGF beta-dependent epithelial cell hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Although renal hypertrophy is often associated with the progressive loss of renal function, the mechanism of hypertrophy is poorly understood. In both primary cultures of rabbit proximal tubules and NRK- 52E cells (a renal epithelial cell line), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF beta) converted epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced hyperplasia into hypertrophy. TGF beta did not affect EGF-induced increases in c-fos mRNA abundance or cyclin E protein abundance, but inhibited EGF-induced entry into S, G2, and M phases. EGF alone increased the amount of hyperphosphorylated (inactive) pRB; TGF beta blocked EGF-induced pRB phosphorylation, maintaining pRB in the active form. To determine the importance of active pRB in TGF beta-induced hypertrophy, NRK-52E cells were infected with SV40 large T antigen (which inactivates pRB and related proteins and p53), HPV16 E6 (which degrades p53), HPV16 E7 (which binds and inactivates pRB and related proteins), or both HPV16 E6 and E7. In SV40 large T antigen expressing clones, the magnitude of EGF + TGF beta-induced hypertrophy was inhibited and was inversely related to the magnitude of SV40 large T antigen expression. In the HPV16-infected cells, EGF + TGF beta-induced hypertrophy was inhibited in E7- and E6E7-expressing, but not E6- expressing cells. These results suggest a requirement for active pRB in the development of EGF + TGF beta-induced renal epithelial cell hypertrophy. We suggest a model of renal cell hypertrophy mediated by EGF-induced entry into the cell cycle with TGF beta-induced blockade at G1/S, the latter due to maintained activity of pRB or a related protein. PMID:7698989

  1. Lysine methylation regulates the pRb tumour suppressor protein.

    PubMed

    Munro, S; Khaire, N; Inche, A; Carr, S; La Thangue, N B

    2010-04-22

    The pRb tumour suppressor protein has a central role in coordinating early cell cycle progression. An important level of control imposed on pRb occurs through post-translational modification, for example, phosphorylation. We describe here a new level of regulation on pRb, mediated through the targeted methylation of lysine residues, by the methyltransferase Set7/9. Set7/9 methylates the C-terminal region of pRb, both in vitro and in cells, and methylated pRb interacts with heterochromatin protein HP1. pRb methylation is required for pRb-dependent cell cycle arrest and transcriptional repression, as well as pRb-dependent differentiation. Our results indicate that methylation can influence the properties of pRb, and raise the interesting possibility that methylation modulates pRb tumour suppressor activity.

  2. Diode laser 87Rb optical pumping in an evacuated wall-coated cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, W. K.; Robinson, H. G.; Johnson, C. E.

    1984-01-01

    The evacuated wall coated sealed cell coupled with diode laser optical pumping offers a number of attractive potential advantages for use in Rb or Cs atomic frequency standards. An investigation of systematic effects is required to explore possible limitations of the technique. The use of diode laser optical pumping of 87 Rb in an evacuated wall coated sealed cell is presented. Experimental results/discussion to be presented include the signal strength and line broadening of the 0 - 0 hyperfine resonance as a function of light intensity for the D1 optical transitions (F - F prime) - (2 1 prime) and (2 - 2 prime), shift of the 0 - 0 hyperfine frequency as a function of laser intensity and de-tuning from optical resonance, and diode laser frequency stabilization techniques.

  3. Cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation of pRb-like protein in root meristem cells of Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Polit, Justyna Teresa; Kaźmierczak, Andrzej; Walczak-Drzewiecka, Aurelia

    2012-01-01

    The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (pRb) regulates cell cycle progression by controlling the G1-to-S phase transition. As evidenced in mammals, pRb has three functionally distinct binding domains and interacts with a number of proteins including the E2F family of transcription factors, proteins with a conserved LxCxE motif (D-type cyclin), and c-Abl tyrosine kinase. CDK-mediated phosphorylation of pRb inhibits its ability to bind target proteins, thus enabling further progression of the cell cycle. As yet, the roles of pRb and pRb-binding factors have not been well characterized in plants. By using antibody which specifically recognizes phosphorylated serines (S807/811) in the c-Abl tyrosine kinase binding C-domain of human pRb, we provide evidence for the cell cycle-dependent changes in pRb-like proteins in root meristems cells of Vicia faba. An increased phosphorylation of this protein has been found correlated with the G1-to-S phase transition.

  4. Trapping of Rb Atoms by ac Electric Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Schlunk, Sophie; Marian, Adela; Geng, Peter; Meijer, Gerard; Schoellkopf, Wieland; Mosk, Allard P.

    2007-06-01

    We demonstrate trapping of an ultracold gas of neutral atoms in a macroscopic ac electric trap. Three-dimensional confinement is obtained by switching between two saddle-point configurations of the electric field. Stable trapping is observed in a narrow range of switching frequencies around 60 Hz. The dynamic confinement of the atoms is directly visualized at different phases of the ac switching cycle. We observe about 10{sup 5} Rb atoms in the 1 mm{sup 3} large and several microkelvins deep trap with a lifetime of approximately 5 s.

  5. Local structure of solid Rb at megabar pressures

    SciTech Connect

    De Panfilis, S.; Gorelli, F.; Santoro, M.; Ulivi, L.; Gregoryanz, E.; Irifune, T.; Shinmei, T.; Kantor, I.; Mathon, O.; Pascarelli, S.

    2015-06-07

    We have investigated the local and electronic structure of solid rubidium by means of x-ray absorption spectroscopy up to 101.0 GPa, thus doubling the maximum investigated experimental pressure. This study confirms the predicted stability of phase VI and was completed by the combination of two pivotal instrumental solutions. On one side, we made use of nanocrystalline diamond anvils, which, contrary to the more commonly used single crystal diamond anvils, do not generate sharp Bragg peaks (glitches) at specific energies that spoil the weak fine structure oscillations in the x-ray absorption cross section. Second, we exploited the performance of a state-of-the-art x-ray focussing device yielding a beam spot size of 5 × 5 μm{sup 2}, spatially stable over the entire energy scan. An advanced data analysis protocol was implemented to extract the pressure dependence of the structural parameters in phase VI of solid Rb from 51.2 GPa up to the highest pressure. A continuous reduction of the nearest neighbour distances was observed, reaching about 6% over the probed pressure range. We also discuss a phenomenological model based on the Einstein approximation to describe the pressure behaviour of the mean-square relative displacement. Within this simplified scheme, we estimate the Grüneisen parameter for this high pressure Rb phase to be in the 1.3–1.5 interval.

  6. Crystal structure of Rb-elpasolite Rb{sub 2}NaAlF{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Yakubovich, O. V. Kiryukhina, G. V.; Dimitrova, O. V.

    2013-05-15

    Single crystals of Rb{sub 2}NaAlF{sub 6}, the Rb analogue of the mineral elpasolite, are obtained in the NaF-Rb{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Rb{sub 3}PO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}O system under hydrothermal conditions, and their structure is determined by X-ray diffraction (R = 0.0188): a = 8.3087(1) A, space group Fm3bar m, Z = 4, and {rho}{sub calcd} = 3.88 g/cm{sup 3}. The hypothesis that Rb elpasolite exists in nature in late associations of pegmatites enriched in rubidium is proposed.

  7. Distribution and Retention of 137Cs in Sediments at the Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    McKinley, James P.; Zeissler, C. J.; Zachara, John M.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Lindstrom, Richard M.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Orr, Robert D.

    2001-07-25

    {sup 137}Cesium and other contaminants have leaked from high level waste (HLW) single-shell storage tanks (SSTs) at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. {sup 137}Cesium and other contaminants have leaked from single-shell storage tanks (SSTs) into coarse-textured, relatively unweathered unconsolidated sediments. Contaminated sediments were retrieved from beneath a leaky SST to investigate the distribution of adsorbed {sup 137}Cs{sup +} across different sediment size fractions. All fractions contained mica (biotite, muscovite, vermiculatized biotite), quartz, and plagioclase along with smectite and kaolinite in the clay-size fraction. A phosphor-plate autoradiograph method was used to identify particular sediment particles responsible for retaining {sup 137}Cs{sup +}. The Cs-bearing particles were found to be individual mica flakes or agglomerated smectite, mica, quartz, and plagioclase. Of these, only the micaceous component was capable of sorbing Cs{sup +} strongly. Sorbed {sup 137}Cs{sup +} could not be significantly removed from sediments by leaching with dithionite citrate buffer or KOH, but a fraction of the sorbed {sup 137}Cs{sup +} (5?22%) was desorbable with solutions containing an excess of Rb{sup +}. The small amount of {sup 137}Cs{sup +} that might be mobilized by migrating fluids in the future would likely sorb to nearby micaceous clasts in downgradient sediments.

  8. Electromagnetically-induced transparency in Cs and Rb in the same vapor cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, Matt; Gordon, Joshua; Holloway, Christopher

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate simultaneous electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT) in both cesium and rubidium in the same vapor cell with coincident optical fields. Each atomic system can detect radio frequency (RF) field strengths through modification of the EIT signal. We show that these two systems can detect the same RF field strength simultaneously. This allows us to perform the same measurement in two effective ``laboratories,'' providing an immediate independent reference, which will lead to an SI-traceable RF E-field measurement. We examine the impact of coincident, simultaneous EIT on RF field metrology and the EIT signal.

  9. Materials Data on RbCS(OF)3 (SG:8) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-07-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  10. Materials Data on Cs2RbFe(CN)6 (SG:14) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-07-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  11. Rb1 loss modifies but does not initiate alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (aRMS) is a myogenic childhood sarcoma frequently associated with a translocation-mediated fusion gene, Pax3:Foxo1a. Methods We investigated the complementary role of Rb1 loss in aRMS tumor initiation and progression using conditional mouse models. Results Rb1 loss was not a necessary and sufficient mutational event for rhabdomyosarcomagenesis, nor a strong cooperative initiating mutation. Instead, Rb1 loss was a modifier of progression and increased anaplasia and pleomorphism. Whereas Pax3:Foxo1a expression was unaltered, biomarkers of aRMS versus embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma were both increased, questioning whether these diagnostic markers are reliable in the context of Rb1 loss. Genome-wide gene expression in Pax3:Foxo1a,Rb1 tumors more closely approximated aRMS than embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. Intrinsic loss of pRb function in aRMS was evidenced by insensitivity to a Cdk4/6 inhibitor regardless of whether Rb1 was intact or null. This loss of function could be attributed to low baseline Rb1, pRb and phospho-pRb expression in aRMS tumors for which the Rb1 locus was intact. Pax3:Foxo1a RNA interference did not increase pRb or improve Cdk inhibitor sensitivity. Human aRMS shared the feature of low and/or heterogeneous tumor cell pRb expression. Conclusions Rb1 loss from an already low pRb baseline is a significant disease modifier, raising the possibility that some cases of pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma may in fact be Pax3:Foxo1a-expressing aRMS with Rb1 or pRb loss of function. PMID:24274149

  12. Bandhead Energies in 125Cs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ji; Hu, Xue-Yuan; Ma, Ying-Jun; Liu, Yun-Zuo; Tetsuro, Komatsubara; Kohei, Furuno; Zhang, Yu-Hu; Zhou, Wen-Ping; Wang, Shou-Yu

    Excited states in 125Cs have been studied with the fusion-evaporation-reaction 116Cd(14N,5n)125Cs at 65 MeV beam energy, using the Nordball-multidetector-system at the Niels-Bohr-Institute in Denmark. The level scheme of 125Cs was extended with the addition of more than 40 new γ-transitions. Moreover, the bandhead excitation energies of the previously known g9/2 and h11/2 bands were unambiguously corrected with plenty of hard evidence.

  13. Waste forms based on Cs-loaded silicotitanates

    SciTech Connect

    Balmer, M.L.; Bunker, B.C.

    1995-04-01

    Silicotitanate ion exchange materials are being considered for removal of radioactive Cs and Sr from tank wastes at the Hanford site. The phase evolution as a function of heat treatment temperature for several sol gel derived compositions within the Cs{sub 2}O-SiO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} system was investigated, in order to determine if an adequate waste form can be achieved by direct thermal conversion. The Cs leach rates and Cs loss during heat treatment of select materials were measured. Some compositions which contain large amounts of Ti melt to form a glass with reasonably low aqueous leach rates. A new Cs-silicotitanate material with a structure isomorphous to pollucite was discovered. This material forms at low temperatures (700--800 C) where Cs volatility is negligible. The silicotitanate-pollucite exhibits extremely low leach rates (1.42 g/m{sup 2}day ) at 90 C, and has been identified as a promising waste form for Cs containment.

  14. Transformation of Sintered CsPbBr3 Nanocrystals to Cubic CsPbI3 and Gradient CsPbBrxI3-x through Halide Exchange.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Jacob B; Schleper, A Lennart; Kamat, Prashant V

    2016-07-13

    All-inorganic cesium lead halide (CsPbX3, X = Br(-), I(-)) perovskites could potentially provide comparable photovoltaic performance with enhanced stability compared to organic-inorganic lead halide species. However, small-bandgap cubic CsPbI3 has been difficult to study due to challenges forming CsPbI3 in the cubic phase. Here, a low-temperature procedure to form cubic CsPbI3 has been developed through a halide exchange reaction using films of sintered CsPbBr3 nanocrystals. The reaction was found to be strongly dependent upon temperature, featuring an Arrhenius relationship. Additionally, film thickness played a significant role in determining internal film structure at intermediate reaction times. Thin films (50 nm) showed only a small distribution of CsPbBrxI3-x species, while thicker films (350 nm) exhibited much broader distributions. Furthermore, internal film structure was ordered, featuring a compositional gradient within film. Transient absorption spectroscopy showed the influence of halide exchange on the excited state of the material. In thicker films, charge carriers were rapidly transferred to iodide-rich regions near the film surface within the first several picoseconds after excitation. This ultrafast vectorial charge-transfer process illustrates the potential of utilizing compositional gradients to direct charge flow in perovskite-based photovoltaics. PMID:27322132

  15. Deficiency of retinoblastoma protein leads to inappropriate S-phase entry, activation of E2F-responsive genes, and apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Almasan, A; Yin, Y; Kelly, R E; Lee, E Y; Bradley, A; Li, W; Bertino, J R; Wahl, G M

    1995-01-01

    The retinoblastoma susceptibility gene (Rb) participates in controlling the G1/S-phase transition, presumably by binding and inactivating E2F transcription activator family members. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) with no, one, or two inactivated Rb genes were used to determine the specific contributions of Rb protein to cell cycle progression and gene expression. MEFs lacking both Rb alleles (Rb-/-) entered S phase in the presence of the dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor methotrexate. Two E2F target genes, dihydrofolate reductase and thymidylate synthase, displayed elevated mRNA and protein levels in Rb- MEFs. Since absence of functional Rb protein in MEFs is sufficient for S-phase entry under growth-limiting conditions, these data indicate that the E2F complexes containing Rb protein, and not the Rb-related proteins p107 and p130, may be rate limiting for the G1/S transition. Antineoplastic drugs caused accumulation of p53 in the nuclei of both Rb+/+ and Rb-/- MEFs. While p53 induction led to apoptosis in Rb-/- MEFs, Rb+/- and Rb+/+ MEFs underwent cell cycle arrest without apoptosis. These results reveal that diverse growth signals work through Rb to regulate entry into S phase, and they indicate that absence of Rb protein produces a constitutive DNA replication signal capable of activating a p53-associated apoptotic response. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7777526

  16. Inoculation of Pichia kudriavzevii RB1 degrades the organic acids present in raw compost material and accelerates composting.

    PubMed

    Nakasaki, Kiyohiko; Araya, Shogo; Mimoto, Hiroshi

    2013-09-01

    In this study, the yeast strain Pichia kudriavzevii RB1 was used as an inoculum to accelerate organic matter degradation of rabbit food with added organic acids, which was used as a model food waste for composting. The RB1 strain rapidly degraded the organic acids present in the raw compost material, leading to an increase in pH beyond the neutral level, within 2 days. Both mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria proliferated faster in the compost with RB1 inoculation than in that without inoculation. Although the yeast died with the increase in compost temperature, it affected the early stages of composting prior to the thermophilic stage and accelerated the composting process by 2 days by eliminating the initial lag phase seen in the growth of other microorganisms. Moreover, populations of Bacillus thermoamylovorans, Bacillus foraminis, and Bacillus coagulans became dominant during the thermophilic stages of both composting with and without RB1 inoculation. PMID:23886646

  17. Ras Regulates Rb via NORE1A.

    PubMed

    Barnoud, Thibaut; Donninger, Howard; Clark, Geoffrey J

    2016-02-01

    Mutations in the Ras oncogene are one of the most frequent events in human cancer. Although Ras regulates numerous growth-promoting pathways to drive transformation, it can paradoxically promote an irreversible cell cycle arrest known as oncogene-induced senescence. Although senescence has clearly been implicated as a major defense mechanism against tumorigenesis, the mechanisms by which Ras can promote such a senescent phenotype remain poorly defined. We have shown recently that the Ras death effector NORE1A plays a critical role in promoting Ras-induced senescence and connects Ras to the regulation of the p53 tumor suppressor. We now show that NORE1A also connects Ras to the regulation of a second major prosenescent tumor suppressor, the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein. We show that Ras induces the formation of a complex between NORE1A and the phosphatase PP1A, promoting the activation of the Rb tumor suppressor by dephosphorylation. Furthermore, suppression of Rb reduces NORE1A senescence activity. These results, together with our previous findings, suggest that NORE1A acts as a critical tumor suppressor node, linking Ras to both the p53 and the Rb pathways to drive senescence.

  18. Magnetic merging of ultracold atomic gases of {sup 85}Rb and {sup 87}Rb

    SciTech Connect

    Haendel, S.; Wiles, T. P.; Marchant, A. L.; Hopkins, S. A.; Adams, C. S.; Cornish, S. L.

    2011-05-15

    We report the magnetic merging of ultracold atomic gases of {sup 85}Rb and {sup 87}Rb by the controlled overlap of two initially spatially separated magnetic traps. We present a detailed analysis of the combined magnetic-field potential as the two traps are brought together that predicts a clear optimum trajectory for the merging. We verify this prediction experimentally using {sup 85}Rb and find that the final atom number in the merged trap is maximized with minimal heating by following the predicted optimum trajectory. Using the magnetic-merging approach allows us to create variable-ratio isotopic Rb mixtures with a single laser-cooling setup by simply storing one isotope in a magnetic trap before jumping the laser frequencies to the transitions necessary to laser cool the second isotope.

  19. RB1: a prototype tumor suppressor and an enigma.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Nicholas J

    2016-07-01

    The retinoblastoma susceptibility gene (RB1) was the first tumor suppressor gene to be molecularly defined. RB1 mutations occur in almost all familial and sporadic forms of retinoblastoma, and this gene is mutated at variable frequencies in a variety of other human cancers. Because of its early discovery, the recessive nature of RB1 mutations, and its frequency of inactivation, RB1 is often described as a prototype for the class of tumor suppressor genes. Its gene product (pRB) regulates transcription and is a negative regulator of cell proliferation. Although these general features are well established, a precise description of pRB's mechanism of action has remained elusive. Indeed, in many regards, pRB remains an enigma. This review summarizes some recent developments in pRB research and focuses on progress toward answers for the three fundamental questions that sit at the heart of the pRB literature: What does pRB do? How does the inactivation of RB change the cell? How can our knowledge of RB function be exploited to provide better treatment for cancer patients? PMID:27401552

  20. RB1: a prototype tumor suppressor and an enigma

    PubMed Central

    Dyson, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    The retinoblastoma susceptibility gene (RB1) was the first tumor suppressor gene to be molecularly defined. RB1 mutations occur in almost all familial and sporadic forms of retinoblastoma, and this gene is mutated at variable frequencies in a variety of other human cancers. Because of its early discovery, the recessive nature of RB1 mutations, and its frequency of inactivation, RB1 is often described as a prototype for the class of tumor suppressor genes. Its gene product (pRB) regulates transcription and is a negative regulator of cell proliferation. Although these general features are well established, a precise description of pRB's mechanism of action has remained elusive. Indeed, in many regards, pRB remains an enigma. This review summarizes some recent developments in pRB research and focuses on progress toward answers for the three fundamental questions that sit at the heart of the pRB literature: What does pRB do? How does the inactivation of RB change the cell? How can our knowledge of RB function be exploited to provide better treatment for cancer patients? PMID:27401552

  1. 133Cs and 75As NMR investigation of the normal metallic state of quasi-one-dimensional Cs2Cr3As3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhi, Haizhao; Lee, Drake; Imai, Takashi; Tang, Zhangtu; Liu, Yi; Cao, Guanghan

    2016-05-01

    We report 133Cs NMR and 75As nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) measurements on the normal metallic state above Tc of a quasi-one-dimensional superconductor Cs2Cr3As3 (Tc<1.6 K). From the 133Cs NMR Knight shift 133K measured at the Cs1 site, we show that the uniform spin susceptibility χspin increases from 295 K to ˜60 K, followed by a mild suppression; χspin then levels off below ˜10 K. In contrast, a vanishingly small magnitude of 133K indicates that Cs2 sites contribute very little to electrical conduction and the exchange interactions between 3d electrons at Cr sites. Low frequency Cr spin dynamics, reflected on 75As1 /T1T (the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate 1 /T1 divided by temperature T ), shows an analogous trend as χspin. Comparison with the results of 1 /T1T near Tc with K2Cr3As3 (Tc=6.1 K) and Rb2Cr3As3 (Tc=4.8 K) establishes a systematic trend that substitution of K+ ions with larger alkali ions progressively suppresses Cr spin fluctuations together with Tc.

  2. Infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy of cationized methionine: effects of alkali-metal cation size on gas-phase conformation.

    PubMed

    Carl, Damon R; Cooper, Theresa E; Oomens, Jos; Steill, Jeff D; Armentrout, P B

    2010-04-14

    The gas-phase structures of alkali-metal cation complexes of the amino acid methionine (Met) as well as protonated methionine are investigated using infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy utilizing light generated by a free electron laser. Spectra of Li(+)(Met) and Na(+)(Met) are similar and relatively simple, whereas the spectra of K(+)(Met), Rb(+)(Met), and Cs(+)(Met) include distinctive new bands. Measured IRMPD spectra are compared to spectra calculated at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level of theory to identify the conformations present in the experimental studies. For Li(+) and Na(+) complexes, the only conformation present is a charge-solvated, tridentate structure that binds the metal cation to the amine and carbonyl groups of the amino acid backbone and the sulfur atom of the side chain, [N,CO,S]. In addition to the [N,CO,S] conformer, bands corresponding to alkali-metal cation binding to a bidentate zwitterionic structure, [CO(2)(-)], are clearly present for the K(+), Rb(+), and Cs(+) complexes. Theoretical calculations of the lowest energy conformations of Rb(+) and Cs(+) complexes suggest that the experimental spectra could also include contributions from two additional charge-solvated structures, tridentate [COOH,S] and bidentate [COOH]. For H(+)(Met), the IRMPD action spectrum is reproduced by multiple low-energy [N,CO,S] conformers, in which the protonated amine group hydrogen bonds to the carbonyl oxygen atom and the sulfur atom of the amino acid side chain. These [N,CO,S] conformers only differ in their side-chain orientations.

  3. CS1 is a novel topoisomerase IIα inhibitor with favorable drug resistance profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Yan; Chen, Wang; Zhao, Baobing; Hao, Huilin; Li, Zhenyu; Lu, Chunhua; Shen, Yuemao

    2014-10-24

    Highlights: • CS1 is a novel nonintercalating topoisomerase IIα poison. • CS1 shows potent in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity. • CS1 shows 6–10-fold less toxicity to normal cells compared with etoposide. • CS1 is not a substrate of P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance irrelevant. - Abstract: DNA topoisomerase II (Topo II) is an essential nuclear enzyme and a validated target for anticancer agent screening. CS1, a novel 2-phenylnaphthalene, had potent cytotoxicity against nine tested tumor cell lines and showed 6–10-fold less toxicity against normal cell lines compared with etoposide. In addition, CS1 showed potential anti-multidrug resistance capabilities. kDNA decatenation, DNA relaxation and cleavage complex assays indicated that CS1 acted as a nonintercalating topoisomerase IIα (Topo IIα) inhibitor by stabilizing the DNA-Topo IIα cleavage complex. CS1 also induced DNA breaks in MDA-MB-231 cells evidenced by comet tails and the accumulation of γH2AX foci. The ability of CS1 in inducing DNA breaks mediated by Topo II resulted in G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis. Moreover, CS1 exhibited dramatic in vivo antitumor activity and lower toxicity compared with etoposide. This work supports the development of CS1 as a promising candidate for the treatment of cancer by targeting Topo IIα.

  4. miR-449a enhances radiosensitivity through modulating pRb/E2F1 in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mao, Aihong; Liu, Yang; Wang, Yali; Zhao, Qiuyue; Zhou, Xin; Sun, Chao; Di, Cuixia; Si, Jing; Gan, Lu; Zhang, Hong

    2016-04-01

    miR-449a, a novel tumor suppressor, is deregulated in various malignancies, including prostate cancer. Overexpression of miR-449a induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and senescence, but its role in response to ionizing radiation and underlying molecular mechanism are still unknown. Here, we report that miR-449a enhances radiation-induced G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis through modulating pRb/E2F1 and sensitizes prostate cancer cells to X-ray radiation. In wild-type Rb PC-3 cells, overexpression of miR-449a enhances radiation-induced G2/M arrest and apoptosis and promotes the sensitivity to X-ray radiation. While mutant Rb DU-145 cells are resistant to the X-ray radiation despite in the presence of miR-449a. The cell cycle distribution of DU-145 cells is not significantly altered by miR-449a in the response to ionizing radiation. Furthermore, elevated miR-449a downregulates cell cycle regulator CDC25A and oncogene HDAC1. By targeting genes involved in controlling pRb/E2F1 activity, miR-449a regulates cell cycle progression and apoptosis and consequently enhances the radiosensitivity of PC-3 cells. Thus, miR-449a, as a miRNA component of the Rb pathway, promotes the radiosensitivity of PC-3 cells through regulating pRb/E2F1.

  5. Host range and cell cycle activation properties of polyomavirus large T-antigen mutants defective in pRB binding

    SciTech Connect

    Freund, R.; Bauer, P.H.; Benjamin, T.L.; Crissman, H.A.; Bradbury, E.M. |

    1994-11-01

    The authors have examined the growth properties of polyomavirus large T-antigen mutants that ar unable to bind pRB, the product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. These mutants grow poorly on primary mouse cells yet grow well on NIH 3T3 and other established mouse cell lines. Preinfection of primary baby mouse kidney (BMK) epithelial cells with wild-type simian virus 40 renders these cells permissive to growth of pRB-binding polyomavirus mutants. Conversely, NIH 3T3 cells transfected by and expressing wild-type human pRB become nonpermissive. Primary fibroblasts for mouse embryos that carry a homozygous knockout of the RB gene are permissive, while those from normal littermates are nonpermissive. The host range of polyomavirus pRB-binding mutants is thus determined by expression or lack of expression of functional pRB by the host. These results demonstrate the importance of pRB binding by large T antigen for productive viral infection in primary cells. Failure of pRB-binding mutants to grow well in BMK cells correlates with their failure to induce progression from G{sub 0} or G{sub 1} through the S phase of the cell cycle. Time course studies show delayed synthesis and lower levels of accumulation of large T antigen, viral DNA, and VP1 in mutant compared with wild-type virus-infected BMK cells. These results support a model in which productive infection by polyomavirus in normal mouse cells is tightly coupled to the induction and progression of the cell cycle. 48 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. In-situ Rb-Sr geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, F. S.; Nowicki, K.; Whitaker, T.

    This paper reports on the first rubidium-strontium (Rb-Sr) radiometric dates using a Laser Desorption Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry (LDRIMS) instrument capable of being miniaturized for flight to another planet. The LDRIMS instrument produces dates in under 24 hours, requires minimal sample preparation, and avoids the interference and mass resolution issues associated with other geochronology measurements. We have begun testing the bench-top prototype on the Boulder Creek Granite (BCG), from Colorado, comprised primarily of a gneissic quartz monzonite and granodiorite; whole rock Rb-Sr TIMS measurements result in dates of 1700± 40 Ma [1]. Data reduction of the LDRIMS Rb-Sr measurements on calibrated repeat runs result in a date for the BCG of 1.727± 0.087 Ga (n=288, MSWD=1). Most geochronology applications are willing to accept an MSWD up to ~2.7; at MSWD=2, the precision improves to ± 0.062 Ga. This technology is moving from lab prototype to field deployable instrument, and provides an opportunity to directly address the science goals of Mars Sample Return (MSR) within the bounds posed by current scientific, fiscal, and political pressures on the Mars program. Additionally, LDRIMS could potentially be flown to the Moon under the Discovery or New Frontiers program. We posit that in-situ geochronology missions to Mars to triage and validate samples for Mars Sample Return (MSR) are technically feasible in the 2018-2022 time frame.

  7. Magnetic dipole sequences in {sup 83}Rb

    SciTech Connect

    Schwengner, R.; Schnare, H.; Wagner, A.; Doenau, F.; Rainovski, G.; Frauendorf, S.; Jungclaus, A.; Hausmann, M.; Lieb, K. P.; Yordanov, O.; Napoli, D. R.; De Angelis, G.; Axiotis, M.; Marginean, N.; Brandolini, F.; Alvarez, C. Rossi

    2009-10-15

    High-spin states in {sup 83}Rb were populated in the reaction {sup 11}B+{sup 76}Ge at beam energies of 45 and 50 MeV. {gamma} rays were detected with the spectrometer GASP. The level scheme of {sup 83}Rb was extended up to 13.9 MeV. Mean lifetimes of 23 levels were determined using the Doppler-shift-attenuation method. Among the bands newly established is a sequence comprising intense M1 transitions and crossover E2 transitions. This sequence turns out to be irregular and thus shows that magnetic rotation as observed in the neighboring odd-odd isotopes is not realized in this odd-even nuclide. Excited states in {sup 83}Rb were interpreted in terms of the shell model using the model space {pi}(0f{sub 5/2},1p{sub 3/2},1p{sub 1/2},0g{sub 9/2}) {nu}(1p{sub 1/2},0g{sub 9/2}). The configurations predicted for the negative-parity M1 sequence reproduce the M1 transition strengths fairly well.

  8. Mass spectrometry studies of fission product behavior: 2, Gas phase species

    SciTech Connect

    Blackburn, P.E.; Johnson, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    Revaporization of fission products from reactor system surfaces has become a complicating factor in source term definition. Critical to this phenomena is understanding the nature and behavior of the vapor phase species. This study characterizes the stability of the CsI . CsOH vapor phase complex. Vapor pressures were measured with a mass spectrometer. Thermodynamic data were obtained for CsOH(g), Cs/sub 2/(OH)/sub 2/(g), CsI(g), Cs/sub 2/I/sub 2/(g) and CsI . CsOH(g). Activity coefficients were derived for the CsI-CsOH system. The relative ionization cross section of CsOH is about ten times the cross section of CsI(g). CsI . CsOH fragments to Cs/sub 2/OH/sup +/ and an iodine atom. 17 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Single crystal X-ray diffraction study of a mixed-valence gold compound, Cs{sub 2}Au{sup I}Au{sup III}Cl{sub 6} under high pressures up to 18 GPa: Pressure-induced phase transition coupled with gold valence transition

    SciTech Connect

    Matsushita, Nobuyuki Ahsbahs, Hans; Hafner, Stefan S.; Kojima, Norimichi

    2007-04-15

    We performed the single-crystal X-ray diffraction study of a perovskite-type gold mixed-valence compound, Cs{sub 2}Au{sup I}Au{sup III}Cl{sub 6}, under high pressures up to 18 GPa by using a diamond-anvil-cell with helium gas as an ideal hydrostatic pressure-transmitting medium. The lattice parameters and the variable atomic positional parameters were obtained with reasonable accuracy at various pressures. A structural phase transition at ca. 12.5 GPa from I4/mmm to Pm3m was found. The lattice parameters a {sub 0} and c {sub 0}, denoted in the tetragonal cell setting, result in the relationship 2{sup 1/2} a {sub 0}=c {sub 0}, and the superstructure reflections h k l (l is odd), caused by the shift of the Cl ions from the midpoint of the Au ions, disappeared at pressures above the phase transition. Both elongated [Au{sup III}Cl{sub 6}] and compressed [Au{sup I}Cl{sub 6}] octahedra in the low-pressure phase smoothly approach regular octahedra with increasing pressure. Above the structural phase transition at 12.5 GPa, all the [AuCl{sub 6}] octahedra are crystallographically equivalent, which shows that the tetragonal-to-cubic phase transition accompanies the valence transition from the Au{sup I}/Au{sup III} mixed-valence state to the Au{sup II} single-valence state. - Graphical abstract: Single-crystal X-ray diffraction study under high pressures up to 18 GPa by using a diamond-anvil-cell with helium gas as an ideal hydrostatic pressure medium has revealed that a perovskite-type gold mixed-valence compound, Cs{sub 2}Au{sup I}Au{sup III}Cl{sub 6}, exhibits the structural phase transition from tetragonal to cubic at 12.5 GPa accompanying gold valence transition.

  10. Rb regulates fate choice and lineage commitment in vivo.

    PubMed

    Calo, Eliezer; Quintero-Estades, Jose A; Danielian, Paul S; Nedelcu, Simona; Berman, Seth D; Lees, Jacqueline A

    2010-08-26

    Mutation of the retinoblastoma gene (RB1) tumour suppressor occurs in one-third of all human tumours and is particularly associated with retinoblastoma and osteosarcoma. Numerous functions have been ascribed to the product of the human RB1 gene, the retinoblastoma protein (pRb). The best known is pRb's ability to promote cell-cycle exit through inhibition of the E2F transcription factors and the transcriptional repression of genes encoding cell-cycle regulators. In addition, pRb has been shown in vitro to regulate several transcription factors that are master differentiation inducers. Depending on the differentiation factor and cellular context, pRb can either suppress or promote their transcriptional activity. For example, pRb binds to Runx2 and potentiates its ability to promote osteogenic differentiation in vitro. In contrast, pRb acts with E2F to suppress peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma subunit (PPAR-gamma), the master activator of adipogenesis. Because osteoblasts and adipocytes can both arise from mesenchymal stem cells, these observations suggest that pRb might play a role in the choice between these two fates. However, so far, there is no evidence for this in vivo. Here we use mouse models to address this hypothesis in mesenchymal tissue development and tumorigenesis. Our data show that Rb status plays a key role in establishing fate choice between bone and brown adipose tissue in vivo.

  11. RB1 gene inactivation by chromothripsis in human retinoblastoma.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, Justina; Nagahawatte, Panduka; Finkelstein, David; Richards-Yutz, Jennifer; Valentine, Marcus; Ma, Jing; Mullighan, Charles; Song, Guangchun; Chen, Xiang; Wilson, Matthew; Brennan, Rachel; Pounds, Stanley; Becksfort, Jared; Huether, Robert; Lu, Charles; Fulton, Robert S; Fulton, Lucinda L; Hong, Xin; Dooling, David J; Ochoa, Kerri; Mardis, Elaine R; Wilson, Richard K; Easton, John; Zhang, Jinghui; Downing, James R; Ganguly, Arupa; Dyer, Michael A

    2014-01-30

    Retinoblastoma is a rare childhood cancer of the developing retina. Most retinoblastomas initiate with biallelic inactivation of the RB1 gene through diverse mechanisms including point mutations, nucleotide insertions, deletions, loss of heterozygosity and promoter hypermethylation. Recently, a novel mechanism of retinoblastoma initiation was proposed. Gallie and colleagues discovered that a small proportion of retinoblastomas lack RB1 mutations and had MYCN amplification [1]. In this study, we identified recurrent chromosomal, regional and focal genomic lesions in 94 primary retinoblastomas with their matched normal DNA using SNP 6.0 chips. We also analyzed the RB1 gene mutations and compared the mechanism of RB1 inactivation to the recurrent copy number variations in the retinoblastoma genome. In addition to the previously described focal amplification of MYCN and deletions in RB1 and BCOR, we also identified recurrent focal amplification of OTX2, a transcription factor required for retinal photoreceptor development. We identified 10 retinoblastomas in our cohort that lacked RB1 point mutations or indels. We performed whole genome sequencing on those 10 tumors and their corresponding germline DNA. In one of the tumors, the RB1 gene was unaltered, the MYCN gene was amplified and RB1 protein was expressed in the nuclei of the tumor cells. In addition, several tumors had complex patterns of structural variations and we identified 3 tumors with chromothripsis at the RB1 locus. This is the first report of chromothripsis as a mechanism for RB1 gene inactivation in cancer. PMID:24509483

  12. Dephosphorylation of Rb (Thr-821) in response to cell stress

    SciTech Connect

    Krucher, Nancy A. . E-mail: nkrucher@pace.edu; Rubin, Ethel; Tedesco, Vivienne C.; Roberts, Michael H.; Sherry, Tara C.; De Leon, Gabriel

    2006-09-10

    The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor Rb is regulated by reversible phosphorylation that is dependent upon cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) and protein phosphatase type 1 (PP1) activity in replicating cells. Hyperphosphorylated Rb allows cells to proliferate, whereas the hypophosphorylated isoform of Rb inhibits proliferation. Of the many phosphorylation sites of Rb, there is functional information available for a very few. In this report, we show that threonine-821 (Thr-821) of Rb is dephosphorylated earlier than other phosphorylation sites when cells are grown under hypoxic conditions which leads to Rb activation and G{sub 1} arrest. This finding is interesting because Thr-821 of Rb remains phosphorylated throughout the cell division cycle in replicating cells. We hypothesized that the phosphorylation state of Thr-821 of Rb may depend on cellular stress. We report in this study that, when nontransformed CV1 epithelial cells and Hs578T breast cancer cells are treated with the chemotherapeutic agent cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C), Thr-821 of Rb is rapidly dephosphorylated concomitant with dissociation of the PP1 regulatory subunit PNUTS (phosphatase nuclear targeting subunit) from PP1 enzyme. These data are consistent with the concept that differential regulation of Rb-directed phosphatase activity exists when cells are progressing through the cell cycle compared to that observed when cells are under stress.

  13. Reactive barriers for 137Cs retention.

    PubMed

    Krumhansl, J L; Brady, P V; Anderson, H L

    2001-02-01

    137Cs was dispersed globally by cold war activities and, more recently, by the Chernobyl accident. Engineered extraction of 137Cs from soils and groundwaters is exceedingly difficult. Because the half-life of 137Cs is only 30.2 years, remediation might be more effective (and less costly) if 137Cs bioavailability could be demonstrably limited for even a few decades by use of a reactive barrier. Essentially permanent isolation must be demonstrated in those few settings where high nuclear level wastes contaminated the environment with 135Cs (half-life 2.3 x 10(6) years) in addition to 137Cs. Clays are potentially a low-cost barrier to Cs movement, though their long-term effectiveness remains untested. To identify optimal clays for Cs retention, Cs desorption was measured for five common clays: Wyoming Montmorillonite (SWy-1), Georgia Kaolinites (KGa-1 and KGa-2), Fithian Illite (F-Ill), and K-Metabentonite (K-Mbt). Exchange sites were pre-saturated with 0.16 M CsCl for 14 days and readily exchangeable Cs was removed by a series of LiNO3 and LiCl washes. Washed clays were then placed into dialysis bags and the Cs release to the deionized water outside the bags measured. Release rates from 75 to 139 days for SWy-1, K-Mbt and F-Ill were similar; 0.017% to 0.021% sorbed Cs released per day. Both kaolinites released Cs more rapidly (0.12% to 0.05% of the sorbed Cs per day). In a second set of experiments, clays were Cs-doped for 110 days and subjected to an extreme and prolonged rinsing process. All the clays exhibited some capacity for irreversible Cs uptake. However, the residual loading was greatest on K-Mbt (approximately 0.33 wt.% Cs). Thus, this clay would be the optimal material for constructing artifical reactive barriers. PMID:11288579

  14. Reactive barriers for 137Cs retention.

    PubMed

    Krumhansl, J L; Brady, P V; Anderson, H L

    2001-02-01

    137Cs was dispersed globally by cold war activities and, more recently, by the Chernobyl accident. Engineered extraction of 137Cs from soils and groundwaters is exceedingly difficult. Because the half-life of 137Cs is only 30.2 years, remediation might be more effective (and less costly) if 137Cs bioavailability could be demonstrably limited for even a few decades by use of a reactive barrier. Essentially permanent isolation must be demonstrated in those few settings where high nuclear level wastes contaminated the environment with 135Cs (half-life 2.3 x 10(6) years) in addition to 137Cs. Clays are potentially a low-cost barrier to Cs movement, though their long-term effectiveness remains untested. To identify optimal clays for Cs retention, Cs desorption was measured for five common clays: Wyoming Montmorillonite (SWy-1), Georgia Kaolinites (KGa-1 and KGa-2), Fithian Illite (F-Ill), and K-Metabentonite (K-Mbt). Exchange sites were pre-saturated with 0.16 M CsCl for 14 days and readily exchangeable Cs was removed by a series of LiNO3 and LiCl washes. Washed clays were then placed into dialysis bags and the Cs release to the deionized water outside the bags measured. Release rates from 75 to 139 days for SWy-1, K-Mbt and F-Ill were similar; 0.017% to 0.021% sorbed Cs released per day. Both kaolinites released Cs more rapidly (0.12% to 0.05% of the sorbed Cs per day). In a second set of experiments, clays were Cs-doped for 110 days and subjected to an extreme and prolonged rinsing process. All the clays exhibited some capacity for irreversible Cs uptake. However, the residual loading was greatest on K-Mbt (approximately 0.33 wt.% Cs). Thus, this clay would be the optimal material for constructing artifical reactive barriers.

  15. Redeployment of Myc and E2f1-3 drives Rb-deficient cell cycles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huayang; Tang, Xing; Srivastava, Arunima; Pécot, Thierry; Daniel, Piotr; Hemmelgarn, Benjamin; Reyes, Stephan; Fackler, Nicholas; Bajwa, Amneet; Kladney, Raleigh; Koivisto, Christopher; Chen, Zhong; Wang, Qianben; Huang, Kun; Machiraju, Raghu; Sáenz-Robles, Maria Teresa; Cantalupo, Paul; Pipas, James M; Leone, Gustavo

    2015-08-01

    Robust mechanisms to control cell proliferation have evolved to maintain the integrity of organ architecture. Here, we investigated how two critical proliferative pathways, Myc and E2f, are integrated to control cell cycles in normal and Rb-deficient cells using a murine intestinal model. We show that Myc and E2f1-3 have little impact on normal G1-S transitions. Instead, they synergistically control an S-G2 transcriptional program required for normal cell divisions and maintaining crypt-villus integrity. Surprisingly, Rb deficiency results in the Myc-dependent accumulation of E2f3 protein and chromatin repositioning of both Myc and E2f3, leading to the 'super activation' of a G1-S transcriptional program, ectopic S phase entry and rampant cell proliferation. These findings reveal that Rb-deficient cells hijack and redeploy Myc and E2f3 from an S-G2 program essential for normal cell cycles to a G1-S program that re-engages ectopic cell cycles, exposing an unanticipated addiction of Rb-null cells on Myc. PMID:26192440

  16. 85Rb tunable-interaction Bose-Einstein condensate machine.

    PubMed

    Altin, P A; Robins, N P; Döring, D; Debs, J E; Poldy, R; Figl, C; Close, J D

    2010-06-01

    We describe our experimental setup for creating stable Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) of (85)Rb with tunable interparticle interactions. We use sympathetic cooling with (87)Rb in two stages, initially in a tight Ioffe-Pritchard magnetic trap and subsequently in a weak, large-volume, crossed optical dipole trap, using the 155 G Feshbach resonance to manipulate the elastic and inelastic scattering properties of the (85)Rb atoms. Typical (85)Rb condensates contain 4 x 10(4) atoms with a scattering length of a=+200a(0). Many aspects of the design presented here could be adapted to other dual-species BEC machines, including those involving degenerate Fermi-Bose mixtures. Our minimalist apparatus is well suited to experiments on dual-species and spinor Rb condensates, and has several simplifications over the (85)Rb BEC machine at JILA, which we discuss at the end of this article. PMID:20590221

  17. Solid-phase epitaxy of silicon amorphized by implantation of the alkali elements rubidium and cesium

    SciTech Connect

    Maier, R.; Haeublein, V.; Ryssel, H.; Voellm, H.; Feili, D.; Seidel, H.; Frey, L.

    2012-11-06

    The redistribution of implanted Rb and Cs profiles in amorphous silicon during solid-phase epitaxial recrystallization has been investigated by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy. For the implantation dose used in these experiments, the alkali atoms segregate at the a-Si/c-Si interface during annealing resulting in concentration peaks near the interface. In this way, the alkali atoms are moved towards the surface. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy in ion channeling configuration was performed to measure average recrystallization rates of the amorphous silicon layers. Preliminary studies on the influence of the alkali atoms on the solid-phase epitaxial regrowth rate reveal a strong retardation compared to the intrinsic recrystallization rate.

  18. TGF{beta}-mediated formation of pRb-E2F complexes in human myeloid leukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Xiaotang

    2008-05-02

    TGF{beta} is well known for its inhibitory effect on cell cycle G1 checkpoint kinases. However, its role in the control of pRb-E2F complexes is not well established. TGF{beta} inhibits phosphorylation of pRb at several serine and threonine residues and regulates the association of E2F transcription factors with pRb family proteins. Recent studies found that predominantly E2F-4, p130, and histone deacetylase (HDAC) are found to bind to corresponding E2F-responsive promoters in G0/G1 phase. As cells progress through mid-G1, p130-E2F4 complex are replaced by p107-E2F4 followed by activators E2F1, 2, and 3. pRb was not detectable in the promoters containing the E2F-responsive site in cycling cells but was associated with E2F4-p130 complexes or E2F4-p107 complexes during G0/G1 phase. In human myeloid leukemia cell line, MV4-11, TGF{beta} upregulated pRb-E2F-4 and p130-E2F-4, and downregulated p107-E2F-4 complexes. However, pRB-E2F1 and pRb-E2F3 complexes were found in proliferating cells but not in TGF{beta} arrested G1 cells. In addition, electrophoretic gel mobility shift assay (EMSA) could not detect pRb-E2F DNA-binding activities either in S or G1 phase but exhibited the existence of p107-E2F4 in proliferating cells and p130-E2F4 complexes in TGF{beta}-arrested G1 cells, respectively. Our data suggest that p107 and p130, but not pRb, and the repressor E2F, but not activator E2Fs, play a critical role in regulating E2F-responsive gene expression in TGF{beta}-mediated cell cycle control in human myeloid leukemia cells.

  19. TGFbeta-mediated formation of pRb-E2F complexes in human myeloid leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao Tang

    2008-05-01

    TGFbeta is well known for its inhibitory effect on cell cycle G1 checkpoint kinases. However, its role in the control of pRb-E2F complexes is not well established. TGFbeta inhibits phosphorylation of pRb at several serine and threonine residues and regulates the association of E2F transcription factors with pRb family proteins. Recent studies found that predominantly E2F-4, p130, and histone deacetylase (HDAC) are found to bind to corresponding E2F-responsive promoters in G0/G1 phase. As cells progress through mid-G1, p130-E2F4 complex are replaced by p107-E2F4 followed by activators E2F1, 2, and 3. pRb was not detectable in the promoters containing the E2F-responsive site in cycling cells but was associated with E2F4-p130 complexes or E2F4-p107 complexes during G0/G1 phase. In human myeloid leukemia cell line, MV4-11, TGFbeta upregulated pRb-E2F-4 and p130-E2F-4, and downregulated p107-E2F-4 complexes. However, pRB-E2F1 and pRb-E2F3 complexes were found in proliferating cells but not in TGFbeta arrested G1 cells. In addition, electrophoretic gel mobility shift assay (EMSA) could not detect pRb-E2F DNA-binding activities either in S or G1 phase but exhibited the existence of p107-E2F4 in proliferating cells and p130-E2F4 complexes in TGFbeta-arrested G1 cells, respectively. Our data suggest that p107 and p130, but not pRb, and the repressor E2F, but not activator E2Fs, play a critical role in regulating E2F-responsive gene expression in TGFbeta-mediated cell cycle control in human myeloid leukemia cells.

  20. Flux growth and properties of RbTiOAsO 4 (RTA) crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jianru; Liu, Yusheng; Wang, Min; Nie, Dezhen

    1993-03-01

    Flux growth of RbTiOAsO4 (RTA) crystal is reported. The unit cell parameters are determined as a = 13.2428 Å, b = 10.7624 Å and c = 6.6685 Å. The transmission spectra range is 0.38 to 5.1 μ. The refractive indices at the various wavelengths and the nonlinear optical coefficients are measured. The phase matching curve for 1.064 μ laser is calculated.

  1. Relative charge transfer cross section from Rb (4d)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, M. H.; Camp, H. A.; Trachy, M. L.; Fléchard, X.; Gearba, M. A.; Nguyen, H.; Brédy, R.; Lundeen, S. R.; Depaola, B. D.

    2005-08-01

    Relative charge transfer cross section measurements for the excited state Rb(4d) with 7keV Na+ is reported. The specific channels reported are Na++Rb(4d5/2)→Na(nl)+Rb+ , where the dominant transfer cross sections channels were nl=3d and 4s . Using a combination of a magneto-optical trap and recoil ion momentum spectroscopy (MOTRIMS methodology), the cross sections were measured relative to the previously studied Na++Rb(5s,5p) systems at the same collision energy.

  2. Relative charge transfer cross section from Rb(4d)

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, M.H.; Camp, H.A.; Trachy, M.L.; De Paola, B.D.; Flechard, X.; Gearba, M.A.; Nguyen, H.; Bredy, R.; Lundeen, S.R.

    2005-08-15

    Relative charge transfer cross section measurements for the excited state Rb(4d) with 7 keV Na{sup +} is reported. The specific channels reported are Na{sup +}+Rb(4d{sub 5/2}){yields}Na(nl)+Rb{sup +}, where the dominant transfer cross sections channels were nl=3d and 4s. Using a combination of a magneto-optical trap and recoil ion momentum spectroscopy (MOTRIMS methodology), the cross sections were measured relative to the previously studied Na{sup +}+Rb(5s,5p) systems at the same collision energy.

  3. Encapsulation of Cs/Sr contaminated clinoptilolite in geopolymers produced from metakaolin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuenzel, C.; Cisneros, J. F.; Neville, T. P.; Vandeperre, L. J.; Simons, S. J. R.; Bensted, J.; Cheeseman, C. R.

    2015-11-01

    The encapsulation of caesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) contaminated clinoptilolite in Na and K based metakaolin geopolymers is reported. When Cs or Sr loaded clinoptilolite is mixed with a metakaolin geopolymer paste, the high pH of the activating solution and the high concentration of ions in solution cause ion exchange reactions and dissolution of clinoptilolite with release of Cs and Sr into the geopolymer matrix. The leaching of Cs and Sr from metakaolin-based geopolymer has therefore been investigated. It was found that Na-based geopolymers reduce leaching of Cs compared to K-based geopolymers and the results are in agreement with the hard and soft acids and bases (HSAB) theory. Cs ions are weak Lewis acids and aluminates are a weak Lewis base. During the formation of the geopolymer matrix Cs ions are preferentially bound to aluminate phases and replace Na in the geopolymer structure. Sr uptake by Na-geopolymers is limited to 0.4 mol Sr per mole of Al and any additional Sr is immobilised by the high pH which causes precipitation of Sr as low solubility hydroxide and carbonate phases. There was no evidence of any other phases being formed when Sr or Cs are added to metakaolin geopolymers.

  4. CS2SAT Desktop Tool

    2006-03-15

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed a Control System Cyber Security Self-Assessment Tool (CS2SAT) desktop tool that provides a repeatable and systematic approach for control system users to assess the cyber security posture of their control system networks. The tool assists users in identifying the cyber security parameters of their systems and then offers security objectives, in the form of requirements, for improving the security of their specific network. Each requirement is linked tomore » a series of associated recommendations for compliance dependent upon the desired level of security protection. Each requirement is supported by links to the original standards document and recommendations are supported by links to whitepapers and other help documents. Package also includes two back-end supporting codes: CS2SAT Requirements Matrix and Control System Security Information System.« less

  5. Cs diffusion in cubic silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrader, David; Szlufarska, Izabela; Morgan, Dane

    2012-02-01

    Undesired release of Cs through a silicon carbide coating of nuclear fuel is a significant concern for the design of the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). However, mechanisms of Cs transport are currently unclear. To better understand the possible mechanisms of Cs release here we use density functional theory to study diffusion of Cs in crystalline bulk SiC. Cs point defects and Cs - vacancy clusters have been investigated for stability and structure. The most stable state for the Cs impurity in SiC, under n-type doping conditions, is found to be a negatively charged Cs atom substituting for a C atom and bound to two Si vacancies ( Cs-2VSi3-). Bulk diffusion coefficients are estimated for several Cs impurity states. The Cs-2VSi3- defect structure is found to have the lowest overall activation energy for diffusion with a value of approximately 5.14 eV. This activation energy agrees well with diffusion activation energies estimated for Cs in SiC based on high temperature integral release experiments.

  6. Identification of the genomic mutation in Epha4(rb-2J/rb-2J) mice.

    PubMed

    Mohd-Zin, Siti W; Abdullah, Nor-Linda; Abdullah, Aminah; Greene, Nicholas D E; Cheah, Pike-See; Ling, King-Hwa; Yusof, Hadri; Marwan, Ahmed I; Williams, Sarah M; York, Kerri T; Ahmad-Annuar, Azlina; Abdul-Aziz, Noraishah M

    2016-07-01

    The EphA4 receptor tyrosine kinase is involved in numerous cell-signalling activities during embryonic development. EphA4 has the ability to bind to both types of ephrin ligands, the ephrinAs and ephrinBs. The C57BL/6J-Epha4rb-2J/GrsrJ strain, denoted Epha4(rb-2J/rb-2J), is a spontaneous mouse mutant that arose at The Jackson Laboratory. These mutants exhibited a synchronous hind limb locomotion defect or "hopping gait" phenotype, which is also characteristic of EphA4 null mice. Genetic complementation experiments suggested that Epha4(rb-2J) corresponds to an allele of EphA4, but details of the genomic defect in this mouse mutant are currently unavailable. We found a single base-pair deletion in exon 9 resulting in a frame shift mutation that subsequently resulted in a premature stop codon. Analysis of the predicted structure of the truncated protein suggests that both the kinase and sterile α motif (SAM) domains are absent. Definitive determination of genotype is needed for experimental studies of mice carrying the Epha4(rb-2J) allele, and we have also developed a method to ease detection of the mutation through RFLP. Eph-ephrin family members are reportedly expressed as numerous isoforms. Hence, delineation of the specific mutation in EphA4 in this strain is important for further functional studies, such as protein-protein interactions, immunostaining and gene compensatory studies, investigating the mechanism underlying the effects of altered function of Eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases on phenotype. PMID:27373307

  7. Upper Cenozoic basalts with high Sr-87/Sr-86 and Sr/Rb ratios, southern Great Basin, western United States.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedge, C. E.; Noble, D. C.

    1971-01-01

    The initial strontium isotopic composition of 15 mafic volcanic rocks from the southern Great Basin has been determined. Results indicate that the basalts must have been derived from unusual mantle material in which an originally high Rb/Sr ratio was markedly lowered during an earlier phase of magmatic activity.

  8. Topologically identical, but geometrically isomeric layers in hydrous α-, β-Rb[UO{sub 2}(AsO{sub 3}OH)(AsO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2})]·H{sub 2}O and anhydrous Rb[UO{sub 2}(AsO{sub 3}OH)(AsO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2})

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Na; Klepov, Vladislav V.; Villa, Eric M.; Bosbach, Dirk; Suleimanov, Evgeny V.; Depmeier, Wulf; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.; Alekseev, Evgeny V.

    2014-07-01

    The hydrothermal reaction of uranyl nitrate with rubidium nitrate and arsenic (III) oxide results in the formation of polymorphic α- and β-Rb[UO{sub 2}(AsO{sub 3}OH)(AsO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2})]·H{sub 2}O (α-, β-RbUAs) and the anhydrous phase Rb[UO{sub 2}(AsO{sub 3}OH)(AsO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2})] (RbUAs). These phases were structurally, chemically and spectroscopically characterized. The structures of all three compounds are based upon topologically identical, but geometrically isomeric layers. The layers are linked with each other by means of the Rb cations and hydrogen bonding. Dehydration experiments demonstrate that water deintercalation from hydrous α- and β-RbUAs yields anhydrous RbUAs via topotactic reactions. - Graphical abstract: Three different layer geometries observed in the structures of Rb[UO{sub 2}(AsO{sub 3}OH)(AsO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2})] and α- and β- Rb[UO{sub 2}(AsO{sub 3}OH)(AsO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2})]·H{sub 2}O. Two different coordination environments of uranium polyhedra (types I and II) are shown schematically on the top of the figure. - Highlights: • Three new uranyl arsenates were synthesized from the hydrothermal reactions. • The phases consist of the topologically identical but geometrically different layers. • Topotactic transitions were observed in the processes of mono-hyrates dehydration.

  9. Evidence for Distinct Polymer Chain Orientations in KC{sub 60} and RbC{sub 60 }

    SciTech Connect

    Launois, P.; Moret, R.; Hone, J.; Zettl, A. |

    1998-11-01

    The KC{sub 60} and RbC{sub 60} polymer phases exhibit contrasting electronic properties while powder diffraction studies have revealed no definite structural difference. We have performed single crystal x-ray diffraction and diffuse scattering studies of these compounds. It is found that KC{sub 60} and RbC{sub 60} possess different chain orientations about their axes, which are described by distinct space groups Pmnn and I2/m , respectively. Such a structural difference will be of great importance to a complete understanding of the physical properties. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  10. Antiferromagnetic resonance in the Mott insulator fcc-Cs3C60.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yuta; Shibasaki, Seiji; Kubozono, Yoshihiro; Kambe, Takashi

    2013-09-11

    The magnetic ground state of the fcc phase of the Mott insulator Cs3C60 was studied using a low-temperature electron spin resonance technique, and antiferromagnetic resonance (AFMR) below 1.57 K was directly observed at ambient pressure. The AFMR modes for the fcc phase of Cs3C60 were investigated using a conventional two-sublattice model with uniaxial anisotropy, and the spin-flop field was determined to be 4.7 kOe at 1.57 K. The static magnetic exchange interactions and anisotropy field for fcc-Cs3C60 were also estimated.

  11. ^3He Polarization by Rb Spin Exchange in a Multistage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulter, K. P.; Chupp, T. E.; Smith, T. B.; Welsh, R. C.; Zerger, J. N.

    1999-10-01

    Polarization of ^3He by spin exchange with optically pumped Rb has benefited greatly from the use of high powered laser diode arrays. Efficient use of these lasers requires operation of cells with high ^3He densities to match better the pressure broadened Rb absorption line to the wide laser spectral profile. However, lower delivery pressures are often required. For example, for low energy neutron spin filters the optimum ^3He thickness (for practical polarizations) would produce impractically thin cells. A multistage system is practical for applications requiring high ^3He polarization delivered at variable pressure because the optical pumping stage can be separated from the delivery/refilling stages. Additionally, operation can be improved by choosing the appropriate glass for each stage. We have constructed a multistage system that consists of a 70 cc pump cell (Corning 7056 glass), a transition region (Pyrex Glass), and a 350 cc receiving cell (Cs-coated Fused Silica). The cells are connected using commercial Viton-rubber o-ring sealed Pyrex glass valves and ball and socket joints. The transition region is connected to a vacuum pump and gas fill system so that cells may be refilled in situ. Both pump cells and receiving cells have exhibited intrinsic ^3He relaxation times of >35 hours. We will report on tests of this prototype system.

  12. Rietveld refinement of the crystal structures of Rb2 XSi5O12 (X = Ni, Mn)

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Anthony M. T.; Henderson, C. Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    The synthetic leucite silicate framework mineral analogues Rb2 XSi5O12 {X = Ni [dirubidium nickel(II) penta­silicate] and Mn [dirubidium manganese(II) penta­silicate]} have been prepared by high-temperature solid-state synthesis. The results of Rietveld refinements, using X-ray powder diffraction data collected using Cu Kα X-rays, show that the title compounds crystallize in the space group Pbca and adopt the cation-ordered structure of Cs2CdSi5O12 and other leucites. The structures consist of tetra­hedral SiO4 and XO4 units sharing corners to form a partially substituted silicate framework. Extraframework Rb+ cations sit in channels in the framework. All atoms occupy the 8c general position for this space group. In these refined structures, silicon and X atoms are ordered onto separate tetra­hedrally coordinated sites (T-sites). However, the Ni displacement parameter and the Ni—O bond lengths suggest that for the X = Ni sample, there may actually be some T-site cation disorder. PMID:26958399

  13. Rietveld refinement of the crystal structures of Rb2 XSi5O12 (X = Ni, Mn).

    PubMed

    Bell, Anthony M T; Henderson, C Michael B

    2016-02-01

    The synthetic leucite silicate framework mineral analogues Rb2 XSi5O12 {X = Ni [dirubidium nickel(II) penta-silicate] and Mn [dirubidium manganese(II) penta-silicate]} have been prepared by high-temperature solid-state synthesis. The results of Rietveld refinements, using X-ray powder diffraction data collected using Cu Kα X-rays, show that the title compounds crystallize in the space group Pbca and adopt the cation-ordered structure of Cs2CdSi5O12 and other leucites. The structures consist of tetra-hedral SiO4 and XO4 units sharing corners to form a partially substituted silicate framework. Extraframework Rb(+) cations sit in channels in the framework. All atoms occupy the 8c general position for this space group. In these refined structures, silicon and X atoms are ordered onto separate tetra-hedrally coordinated sites (T-sites). However, the Ni displacement parameter and the Ni-O bond lengths suggest that for the X = Ni sample, there may actually be some T-site cation disorder. PMID:26958399

  14. Examination of the pRb-dependent and pRb-independent functions of E7 in vivo.

    PubMed

    Balsitis, Scott; Dick, Fred; Lee, Denis; Farrell, Linda; Hyde, R Katherine; Griep, Anne E; Dyson, Nicholas; Lambert, Paul F

    2005-09-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses encode two oncogenes, E6 and E7, expressed in nearly all cervical cancers. Although E7 protein is best known for its ability to inactivate the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein, pRb, many other activities for E7 have been proposed in in vitro studies. Herein, we describe studies that allowed us to define unambiguously the pRb-dependent and -independent activities of E7 for the first time in vivo. In these studies, we crossed mice transgenic for human papillomavirus 16 E7 to knock-in mice genetically engineered to express a mutant form of pRb (pRb(DeltaLXCXE)) that is selectively defective for binding E7. pRb inactivation was necessary for E7 to induce DNA synthesis and to overcome differentiation-dependent cell cycle withdrawal and DNA damage-induced cell cycle arrest. While most of E7's effects on epidermal differentiation were found to require pRb inactivation, a modest delay in terminal differentiation with resulting hyperplasia was observed in E7 mice on the Rb(DeltaLXCXE) mutant background. E7-induced p21 upregulation was also pRb dependent, and genetic Rb inactivation was sufficient to reproduce this effect. While E7-mediated p21 induction was partially p53 dependent, neither p53 nor p21 induction by E7 required p19(ARF). These data show that E7 upregulates the expression of p53 and p21 via pRb-dependent mechanisms distinct from the proposed p19-Mdm2 pathway. These results extend our appreciation of the importance of pRb as a relevant target for high-risk E7 oncoproteins. PMID:16103190

  15. Cs based photocathodes for gaseous detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Borovick-Romanov, A.; Peskov, V.

    1993-08-01

    We demonstrated that some standard photocathodes SbCs, GaAs(Cs), Au(Cs) can easily be manufactured for use inside gaseous detectors. When filed with clean quenched gases such detectors have a quantum efficiency of a few percent in the visible region of the spectra and can operate at a gain >10{sup 3}. We tried to make these photocathodes more air stable by protecting their surfaces with a thin layer of CsI or liquid TMAE. The most air stable were photocathodes with a CsI protective layer. A wavelengths {le}185 nm such photocathodes have the highest quantum efficiency among all known air stable photocathodes, including CsI. Gaseous detectors with such photocathodes can operate at a gain of 10{sup 5}. Results of first tests of doped CsI photocathode are also presented. Possible fields of application of new photocathodes are discussed.

  16. Bandwidth and Electron Correlation-Tuned Superconductivity in Rb0.8Fe2(Se1 -zSz)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, M.; Wang, Meng; Kemper, A. F.; Mo, S.-K.; Hussain, Z.; Bourret-Courchesne, E.; Lanzara, A.; Hashimoto, M.; Lu, D. H.; Shen, Z.-X.; Birgeneau, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    We present a systematic angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy study of the substitution dependence of the electronic structure of Rb0.8 Fe2 (Se1 -zSz )2 (z =0 , 0.5, 1), where superconductivity is continuously suppressed into a metallic phase. Going from the nonsuperconducting Rb0.8 Fe2 S2 to superconducting Rb0.8 Fe2 Se2 , we observe little change of the Fermi surface topology, but a reduction of the overall bandwidth by a factor of 2. Hence, for these heavily electron-doped iron chalcogenides, we have identified electron correlation as explicitly manifested in the quasiparticle bandwidth to be the important tuning parameter for superconductivity, and that moderate correlation is essential to achieving high TC.

  17. Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis: Characterization Rb Promoted Iron Catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar,A.; Jacobs, G.; Ji, Y.; Hamdeh, H.; Davis, B.

    2008-01-01

    Rubidium promoted iron Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) catalysts were prepared with two Rb/Fe atomic ratios (1.44/100 and 5/100) using rubidium nitrate and rubidium carbonate as rubidium precursors. Results of catalytic activity and deactivation studies in a CSTR revealed that rubidium promoted catalysts result in a steady conversion with a lower deactivation rate than that of the corresponding unpromoted catalyst although the initial activity of the promoted catalyst was almost half that of the unpromoted catalyst. Rubidium promotion results in lower methane production, and higher CO2, alkene and 1-alkene fraction in FTS products. M{umlt o}ssbauer spectroscopic measurements of CO activated and working catalyst samples indicated that the composition of the iron carbide phase formed after carbidization was -Fe5 C2 for both promoted and unpromoted catalysts. However, in the case of the rubidium promoted catalyst, '-Fe2.2C became the predominant carbidic phase as FTS continued and the overall catalyst composition remained carbidic in nature. In contrast, the carbide content of the unpromoted catalyst was found to decline very quickly as a function of synthesis time. Results of XANES and EXAFS measurements suggested that rubidium was present in the oxidized state and that the compound most prevalent in the active catalyst samples closely resembled that of rubidium carbonate.

  18. [Interaction of two tumor suppressors: Phosphatase CTDSPL and Rb protein].

    PubMed

    Beniaminov, A D; Krasnov, G S; Dmitriev, A A; Puzanov, G A; Snopok, B A; Senchenko, V N; Kashuba, V I

    2016-01-01

    Earlier we established that CTDSPL gene encoding small carboxy-terminal domain serine phosphatase can be considered a classical tumor suppressor gene. Besides, transfection of tumor cell line MCF-7 with CTDSPL led to the content decrease of inactive phosphorylated form of another tumor suppressor, retinoblastoma protein (Rb), and subsequently to cell cycle arrest at the G1/S boundary. This result implied that small phosphatase CTDSPL is able to specifically dephosphorylate and activate Rb protein. In order to add some fuel to this hypothesis, in the present work we studied the interaction of two tumor suppressors CTDSPL and Rb in vitro. GST pool-down assay revealed that CTDSPL is able to precipitate Rb protein from MCF-7 cell extracts, while surface plasmon resonance technique showed that interaction of the two proteins is direct. Results of this study reassert that phosphatase CTDSPL and Rb could be involved in the common mechanism of cell cycle regulation. PMID:27414789

  19. Superconductivity and ferromagnetism in hole-doped RbEuFe4As4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi; Liu, Ya-Bin; Tang, Zhang-Tu; Jiang, Hao; Wang, Zhi-Cheng; Ablimit, Abduweli; Jiao, Wen-He; Tao, Qian; Feng, Chun-Mu; Xu, Zhu-An; Cao, Guang-Han

    2016-06-01

    We discover a robust coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism in an iron arsenide RbEuFe4As4 . The new material crystallizes in an intergrowth structure of RbFe2As2 and EuFe2As2 , such that the Eu sublattice turns out to be primitive instead of being body-centered in EuFe2As2 . The FeAs layers, featured by asymmetric As coordinations, are hole doped due to charge homogenization. Our combined measurements of electrical transport, magnetization, and heat capacity unambiguously and consistently indicate bulk superconductivity at 36.5 K in the FeAs layers and ferromagnetism at 15 K in the Eu sublattice. Interestingly, the Eu-spin ferromagnetic ordering belongs to a rare third-order transition, according to the Ehrenfest classification of phase transitions. We also identify an additional anomaly at ˜5 K, which is possibly associated with the interplay between superconductivity and ferromagnetism.

  20. Crystal structure of Rb{sub 2}[Ti(VO{sub 2}){sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Yakubovich, O. V. Yakovleva, E. V.; Dimitrova, O. V.

    2010-03-15

    The crystal structure of the new compound Rb{sub 2}[Ti(VO{sub 2}){sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}] obtained by hydrothermal synthesis in the RbCl-TiPO{sub 4}-V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O system (a = 13.604(2) A, c = 9.386(2) A, sp. gr. P6cc, Z = 4, {rho}{sub calcd} = 3.32 g/cm{sup 3}) has been studied by X-ray diffraction (Xcalibur-S-CCD diffractometer, R = 0.038). It is shown that the isotypism of Rb{sub 2}[Ti(VO{sub 2}){sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}] and Cs{sub 2}[Ti(VO{sub 2}){sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}] is caused by the flexibility of a mixed anionic framework composed of phosphorus tetrahedra, vanadium five-vertex polyhedra, and titanium octahedra (bases of the crystal structures of these compounds). The topological correlations between the structures of titanium-vanadyl phosphates and benitoite and beryl silicates are analyzed.

  1. The decay constant of 87Rb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotenberg, E.; Davis, D. W.; Amelin, Y.

    2009-05-01

    Despite dozens of measurements of the decay constant of 87Rb (λ87), uncertainty surrounding the value remains. Mounting evidence [e.g. 1,2,3] suggests that the actual value is 1-2% lower than the conventional value of 1.42 × 10-11a-1 [4]. Increased precision and accuracy are crucial if meaningful comparisons are to be made between Rb-Sr and U-Pb ages. We have been working on measuring the decay constant by the accumulation of radiogenic 87Sr (87Sr*) in a RbClO4 salt. Our original measurements by this method had large errors [5,6] and tended to agree with the conventional value. Because the samples contained very little common Sr, it was impossible to properly correct for instrumental fractionation, with the result that both precision and accuracy were compromised. Furthermore, the concentration of the 84Sr spike was not determined reliably, which likely affected the accuracy. In order to overcome this, a new 84-86Sr double-spike was prepared, and the experiment was repeated. The spike was calibrated against three different Sr reference solutions. Two were prepared from Sr metal and the third from SrCl2. The isotopic abundance ratios of the 84-86Sr double-spike are: 84/86 = 0.93252, 87/86 = 0.01033, and 88/86 = 0.02240. The concentration was determined to be 832.95 ± 0.26 ng Sr/g solution (MSWD = 2.5). Seventeen measurements of the decay-constant were made by measuring 87Sr* ingrowth in a RbClO4 salt over approximately 32 years. 87Sr* ranges from 125 - 616 pg. The two highest points are eliminated: one due to high procedure blank and the second due to abnormal fractionation behaviour. A weighted average of the remaining fifteen measurements yields a decay constant of 1.3981 × 10-11a-11 ± 0.0009 (0.062%; and a high MSWD = 106. The 2σ standard deviation is 0.004). The data scatter outside of their analytical errors. Recent geological calibrations [1,2] and a carefully controlled decay counting measurement [3] yield λ87 values from 1.395 ± 0.006 to 1.398 ± 0

  2. Reactive barriers for {sup 137}Cs retention

    SciTech Connect

    KRUMHANSL,JAMES L.; BRADY,PATRICK V.; ANDERSON,HOWARD L.

    2000-05-19

    {sup 137}Cs was dispersed globally by cold war activities and, more recently, by the Chernobyl accident. Engineered extraction of {sup 137}Cs from soils and groundwaters is exceedingly difficult. Because the half life of {sup 137}Cs is only 30.2 years, remediation might be more effective (and less costly) if {sup 137}Cs bioavailability could be demonstrably limited for even a few decades by use of a reactive barrier. Essentially permanent isolation must be demonstrated in those few settings where high nuclear level wastes contaminated the environment with {sup 135}Cs (half life 2.3x10{sup 6} years) in addition to {sup 137}Cs. Clays are potentially a low-cost barrier to Cs movement, though their long-term effectiveness remains untested. To identify optimal clays for Cs retention Cs resorption was measured for five common clays: Wyoming Montmorillonite (SWy-1), Georgia Kaolinites (KGa-1 and KGa-2), Fithian Illite (F-Ill), and K-Metabentonite (K-Mbt). Exchange sites were pre-saturated with 0.16 M CsCl for 14 days and readily exchangeable Cs was removed by a series of LiNO{sub 3} and LiCl washes. Washed clay were then placed into dialysis bags and the Cs release to the deionized water outside the bags measured. Release rates from 75 to 139 days for SWy-1, K-Mbt and F- 111 were similar; 0.017 to 0.021% sorbed Cs released per day. Both kaolinites released Cs more rapidly (0.12 to 0.05% of the sorbed Cs per day). In a second set of experiments, clays were doped for 110 days and subjected to an extreme and prolonged rinsing process. All the clays exhibited some capacity for irreversible Cs uptake so most soils have some limited ability to act as a natural barrier to Cs migration. However, the residual loading was greatest on K-Mbt ({approximately} 0.33 wt% Cs). Thus, this clay would be the optimal material for constructing artificial reactive barriers.

  3. Leaching behaviour of and Cs disposition in a UMo powellite glass-ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, E. R.; Davis, J.; Olufson, K.; Gregg, D. J.; Blackford, M. G.; Griffiths, G. R.; Farnan, I.; Sullivan, J.; Sprouster, D.; Campbell, C.; Hughes, J.

    2014-05-01

    A UMo powellite glass-ceramic designed by French workers to immobilise Mo-rich intermediate-level waste was found to be quite leach resistant in water at 90 °C with the dissolution of Cs, Mo, Na, B and Ca not exceeding 2 g/L in normalised PCT tests. 133Cs solid state nuclear magnetic resonance and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the Cs to inhabit the glass phase. The microstructures were not greatly affected by cooling rates between 1 and 5 °C/min or by introducing 10 times as much Cs and Sr. Protracted leach tests at 90 °C showed surface alteration as evidenced by SEM and particularly transmission electron microscopy; the main alteration phase was a Zn aluminosilicate but several other alteration phases were evident. Voidage in the alteration layers was indicated from enhanced lifetimes in positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy.

  4. Characterization of Recombinant B. abortus Strain RB51SOD Toward Understanding the Uncorrelated Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses Induced by RB51SOD Compared to Its Parent Vaccine Strain RB51

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jianguo; Larson, Charles B.; Ramaker, Megan Ann; Quandt, Kimberly; Wendte, Jered M.; Ku, Kimberly P.; Chen, Fang; Jourdian, George W.; Vemulapalli, Ramesh; Schurig, Gerhardt G.; He, Yongqun

    2011-01-01

    Brucella abortus is a Gram-negative, facultative intracellular pathogen for several mammals, including humans. Live attenuated B. abortus strain RB51 is currently the official vaccine used against bovine brucellosis in the United States and several other countries. Overexpression of protective B. abortus antigen Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) in a recombinant strain of RB51 (strain RB51SOD) significantly increases its vaccine efficacy against virulent B. abortus challenge in a mouse model. An attempt has been made to better understand the mechanism of the enhanced protective immunity of RB51SOD compared to its parent strain RB51. We previously reported that RB51SOD stimulated enhanced Th1 immune response. In this study, we further found that T effector cells derived from RB51SOD-immunized mice exhibited significantly higher cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity than T effector cells derived from RB51-immunized mice against virulent B. abortus-infected target cells. Meanwhile, the macrophage responses to these two strains were also studied. Compared to RB51, RB51SOD cells had a lower survival rate in macrophages and induced lower levels of macrophage apoptosis and necrosis. The decreased survival of RB51SOD cells correlates with the higher sensitivity of RB51SOD, compared to RB51, to the bactericidal action of either Polymyxin B or sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Furthermore, a physical damage to the outer membrane of RB51SOD was observed by electron microscopy. Possibly due to the physical damage, overexpressed Cu/Zn SOD in RB51SOD was found to be released into the bacterial cell culture medium. Therefore, the stronger adaptive immunity induced by RB51SOD did not correlate with the low level of innate immunity induced by RB51SOD compared to RB51. This unique and apparently contradictory profile is likely associated with the differences in outer membrane integrity and Cu/Zn SOD release. PMID:22919576

  5. Characterization of recombinant B. abortus strain RB51SOD toward understanding the uncorrelated innate and adaptive immune responses induced by RB51SOD compared to its parent vaccine strain RB51.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jianguo; Larson, Charles B; Ramaker, Megan Ann; Quandt, Kimberly; Wendte, Jered M; Ku, Kimberly P; Chen, Fang; Jourdian, George W; Vemulapalli, Ramesh; Schurig, Gerhardt G; He, Yongqun

    2011-01-01

    Brucella abortus is a Gram-negative, facultative intracellular pathogen for several mammals, including humans. Live attenuated B. abortus strain RB51 is currently the official vaccine used against bovine brucellosis in the United States and several other countries. Overexpression of protective B. abortus antigen Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) in a recombinant strain of RB51 (strain RB51SOD) significantly increases its vaccine efficacy against virulent B. abortus challenge in a mouse model. An attempt has been made to better understand the mechanism of the enhanced protective immunity of RB51SOD compared to its parent strain RB51. We previously reported that RB51SOD stimulated enhanced Th1 immune response. In this study, we further found that T effector cells derived from RB51SOD-immunized mice exhibited significantly higher cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity than T effector cells derived from RB51-immunized mice against virulent B. abortus-infected target cells. Meanwhile, the macrophage responses to these two strains were also studied. Compared to RB51, RB51SOD cells had a lower survival rate in macrophages and induced lower levels of macrophage apoptosis and necrosis. The decreased survival of RB51SOD cells correlates with the higher sensitivity of RB51SOD, compared to RB51, to the bactericidal action of either Polymyxin B or sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Furthermore, a physical damage to the outer membrane of RB51SOD was observed by electron microscopy. Possibly due to the physical damage, overexpressed Cu/Zn SOD in RB51SOD was found to be released into the bacterial cell culture medium. Therefore, the stronger adaptive immunity induced by RB51SOD did not correlate with the low level of innate immunity induced by RB51SOD compared to RB51. This unique and apparently contradictory profile is likely associated with the differences in outer membrane integrity and Cu/Zn SOD release.

  6. Formation of Stoichiometric CsFn Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qiang; Oganov, Artem R.; Zeng, Qingfeng

    2015-01-01

    Alkali halides MX, have been viewed as typical ionic compounds, characterized by 1:1 ratio necessary for charge balance between M+ and X-. It was proposed that group I elements like Cs can be oxidized further under high pressure. Here we perform a comprehensive study for the CsF-F system at pressures up to 100 GPa, and find extremely versatile chemistry. A series of CsFn (n >= 1) compounds are predicted to be stable already at ambient pressure. Under pressure, 5p electrons of Cs atoms become active, with growing tendency to form Cs (III) and (V) valence states at fluorine-rich conditions. Although Cs (II) and (IV) are not energetically favoured, the interplay between two mechanisms (polyfluoride anions and polyvalent Cs cations) allows CsF2 and CsF4 compounds to be stable under pressure. The estimated defluorination temperatures of CsFn (n = 2,3,5) compounds at atmospheric pressure (218°C, 150°C, -15°C, respectively), are attractive for fluorine storage applications.

  7. Optical pumping in a microfabricated Rb vapor cell using a microfabricated Rb discharge light source

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatraman, V.; Kang, S.; Affolderbach, C.; Mileti, G.; Shea, H.

    2014-02-03

    Miniature (Rb discharge lamp light source, as well as (2) a conventional glass-blown Rb discharge lamp. The microfabricated Rb lamp cell is a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) light source, having the same inner cell volume of around 40 mm{sup 3} as that of the resonance cell, both filled with suitable buffer gases. A miniature (∼2 cm{sup 3} volume) test setup based on the M{sub z} magnetometer interrogation technique was used for observation of optical-radiofrequency double-resonance signals, proving the suitability of the microfabricated discharge lamp to introduce efficient optical pumping. The pumping ability of this light source was found to be comparable to or even better than that of a conventional glass-blown lamp. The reported results indicate that the micro-fabricated DBD discharge lamp has a high potential for the development of a new class of miniature atomic clocks, magnetometers, and quantum sensors.

  8. Growth suppression by an E2F-binding-defective retinoblastoma protein (RB): contribution from the RB C pocket.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, L L; Su, H; Baskaran, R; Knudsen, E S; Wang, J Y

    1998-07-01

    Growth suppression by the retinoblastoma protein (RB) is dependent on its ability to form complexes with transcription regulators. At least three distinct protein-binding activities have been identified in RB: the large A/B pocket binds E2F, the A/B pocket binds the LXCXE peptide motif, and the C pocket binds the nuclear c-Abl tyrosine kinase. Substitution of Trp for Arg 661 in the B region of RB (mutant 661) inactivates both E2F and LXCXE binding. The tumor suppression function of mutant 661 is not abolished, because this allele predisposes its carriers to retinoblastoma development with a low penetrance. In cell-based assays, 661 is shown to inhibit G1/S progression. This low-penetrance mutant also induces terminal growth arrest with reduced but detectable activity. We have constructed mutations that disrupt C pocket activity. When overproduced, the RB C-terminal fragment did not induce terminal growth arrest but could inhibit G1/S progression, and this activity was abolished by the C-pocket mutations. In full-length RB, the C-pocket mutations reduced but did not abolish RB function. Interestingly, combination of the C-pocket and 661 mutations completely abolished RB's ability to cause an increase in the percentage of cells in G1 and to induce terminal growth arrest. These results suggest that the A/B or C region can induce a prolongation of G1 through mechanisms that are independent of each other. In contrast, long-term growth arrest requires combined activities from both regions of RB. In addition, E2F and LXCXE binding are not the only mechanisms through which RB inhibits cell growth. The C pocket also contributes to RB-mediated growth suppression. PMID:9632788

  9. Magnetic properties of the RbMnPO4 zeolite-ABW-type material: a frustrated zigzag spin chain.

    PubMed

    Nénert, Gwilherm; Bettis, Jerry; Kremer, Reinhard; Ben Yahia, Hamdi; Ritter, Clemens; Gaudin, Etienne; Isnard, Olivier; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan

    2013-08-19

    The crystal structure and magnetic properties of the RbMnPO4 zeolite-ABW-type material have been studied by temperature-dependent neutron powder diffraction, low-temperature magnetometry, and heat capacity measurements. RbMnPO4 represents a rare example of a weak ferromagnetic polar material, containing Mn(2+) ions with TN = 4.7 K. The neutron powder diffraction pattern recorded at T = 10 K shows that the compound crystallizes in the chiral and polar monoclinic space group P2(1) (No. 4) with the unit cell parameters: a = 8.94635(9), b = 5.43415(5), and c = 9.10250(8) Å and β = 90.4209(6)°. A close inspection of the crystal structure of RbMnPO4 shows that this material presents two different types of zigzag chains running along the b axis. This is a unique feature among the zeolite-ABW-type materials exhibiting the P2(1) symmetry. At low temperature, RbMnPO4 exhibits a canted antiferromagnetic structure characterized by the propagation vector k1 = 0, resulting in the magnetic symmetry P2(1)'. The magnetic moments lie mostly along the b axis with the ferromagnetic component being in the ac plane. Due to the geometrical frustration present in this system, an intermediate phase appears within the temperature range 4.7-5.1 K characterized by the propagation vector k2 = (kx, 0, kz) with kx/kz ≈ 2. This ratio is reminiscent of the multiferroic phase of the orthorhombic RMnO3 phases (R = rare earth), suggesting that RbMnPO4 could present some multiferroic properties at low temperature. Our density functional calculations confirm the presence of magnetic frustration, which explains this intermediate incommensurate phase. Taking into account the strongest magnetic interactions, we are able to reproduce the magnetic structure observed experimentally at low temperature. PMID:23901880

  10. P-wave [cs][cs] tetraquark state: Y(4260) or Y(4660)?

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jianrong; Huang Mingqiu

    2011-02-01

    The mass of a P-wave cs-scalar-diquark cs-scalar-antidiquark state is computed in the framework of QCD sum rules. The result 4.69{+-}0.36 GeV is in good agreement with the experimental value of Y(4660) but higher than Y(4260)'s, which supports the P-wave [cs][cs] configuration for Y(4660) while disfavors the interpretation of Y(4260) as the P-wave [cs][cs] state. In the same picture, the mass of P-wave [bs][bs] is predicted to be 11.19{+-}0.49 GeV.

  11. Proteomic analysis of pRb loss highlights a signature of decreased mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Nicolay, Brandon N; Danielian, Paul S; Kottakis, Filippos; Lapek, John D; Sanidas, Ioannis; Miles, Wayne O; Dehnad, Mantre; Tschöp, Katrin; Gierut, Jessica J; Manning, Amity L; Morris, Robert; Haigis, Kevin; Bardeesy, Nabeel; Lees, Jacqueline A; Haas, Wilhelm; Dyson, Nicholas J

    2015-09-01

    The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (pRb) protein associates with chromatin and regulates gene expression. Numerous studies have identified Rb-dependent RNA signatures, but the proteomic effects of Rb loss are largely unexplored. We acutely ablated Rb in adult mice and conducted a quantitative analysis of RNA and proteomic changes in the colon and lungs, where Rb(KO) was sufficient or insufficient to induce ectopic proliferation, respectively. As expected, Rb(KO) caused similar increases in classic pRb/E2F-regulated transcripts in both tissues, but, unexpectedly, their protein products increased only in the colon, consistent with its increased proliferative index. Thus, these protein changes induced by Rb loss are coupled with proliferation but uncoupled from transcription. The proteomic changes in common between Rb(KO) tissues showed a striking decrease in proteins with mitochondrial functions. Accordingly, RB1 inactivation in human cells decreased both mitochondrial mass and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) function. RB(KO) cells showed decreased mitochondrial respiratory capacity and the accumulation of hypopolarized mitochondria. Additionally, RB/Rb loss altered mitochondrial pyruvate oxidation from (13)C-glucose through the TCA cycle in mouse tissues and cultured cells. Consequently, RB(KO) cells have an enhanced sensitivity to mitochondrial stress conditions. In summary, proteomic analyses provide a new perspective on Rb/RB1 mutation, highlighting the importance of pRb for mitochondrial function and suggesting vulnerabilities for treatment.

  12. Microstructure of Cs-implanted zirconia: Role of temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, L.; Thome, L.; Garrido, F.; Kaitasov, O.; Houdelier, F.

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify experimentally the phase which includes cesium in yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ). The solubility and retention of cesium in YSZ were studied at high temperature (HT). Cesium was ion implanted (at 300 keV) into YSZ at room temperature (RT), 750 deg. C, or 900 deg. C at fluences up to 5x10{sup 16} cm{sup -2}. The temperature dependence of the radiation-induced damage and of the cesium distribution in YSZ single crystals was investigated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and ion channeling. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies were performed in order to determine the damage nature and search for a predicted ternary phase of cesium zirconate. Whatever the implantation temperature, the thickness of the damaged layer increases inwards with ion fluence. At RT, amorphization occurs, caused by the high Cs concentration (7 at. %). In situ TEM during postannealing shows recrystallization of cubic zirconia after release of cesium. A high implantation temperature has a significant influence on the nature of radiation defects and on the retained Cs concentration. At HT, dislocation loops and voids are formed but no amorphization is observed whereas polygonization occurs at high fluence. The implanted cesium concentration reaches a saturation value of 1.5 at. % above which Cs can no longer be retained in the matrix and is then released at the surface. At that concentration, cesium forms a solid solution in YSZ; no other phase is formed, neither during irradiation nor after thermal annealing.

  13. Ginsenoside Rb1 directly scavenges hydroxyl radical and hypochlorous acid.

    PubMed

    Lü, Jian-Ming; Weakley, Sarah M; Yang, Zhen; Hu, Ming; Yao, Qizhi; Chen, Changyi

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in a variety of inflammatory diseases including cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, autism, cataracts and aging. When endogenous mechanisms for the maintenance of redox homeostasis are overwhelmed, dietary intake of antioxidants contributes substantially to balancing the body's oxidant/antioxidant status. Ginsenosides are thought to be primarily responsible for the pharmacological effect of P. ginseng root extracts on oxidative stress and inflammation. However, little is known about the underlying antioxidant mechanisms of individual ginsenoside; specifically, the reactivity of ginsenoside Rb1 with ROS has not been well studied. We found that Rb1 can significantly and selectively reduce hydroxyl radical (●OH) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl), two of the strongest ROS, with unique molecular mechanisms in a cell-free system. Rb1 directly scavenges the ●OH and protects plasmid DNA from damage induced by ●OH. ●OH likely attacks the double bond on the side chain of Rb1 as well as hydrogen atoms adjacent to the -OH groups, including those of sugar moieties. Rb1 also shows a high reactivity to HOCl and effectively inhibits HOCl-induced tyrosine chlorination in a cell free system. HOCl is added to the double bond of Rb1; the -Cl group and -OH group of HOCl possibly bond at C-24 and C-25 of Rb1 based on the regioselectivity of Markovnikov's Rule. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that ginsenoside Rb1 scavenges HOCl and protects tyrosine from HOCl-induced chlorination. Thus, this study reveals unique antioxidant mechanisms of individual ginsenoside Rb1, which may contribute to the pharmacological effect of P. ginseng and to the development of effective strategies for clinical applications of ginsenosides.

  14. Structure and optical properties of a noncentrosymmetric borate RbSr{sub 4}(BO{sub 3}){sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, M.J.; Li, R.K.

    2013-01-15

    A new noncentrosymmetric borate, RbSr{sub 4}(BO{sub 3}){sub 3} (abbreviated as RSBO), has been grown from Rb{sub 2}O--B{sub 2}O{sub 3}--RbF flux and its crystal structure was determined by single crystal x-ray diffraction. It crystallizes in space group Ama2 with cell parameters of a=11.128(10) A, b=12.155(15) A, c=6.952(7) A, Z=4. The basic structural units are isolated planar BO{sub 3} groups. Second harmonic generation (SHG) test of the title compound by the Kurtz-Perry method shows that RSBO can be phase matchable with an effective SHG coefficient about two-thirds as large as that of KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} (KDP). Finally, based on the anionic group approximation, the optical properties of the title compound are compared with those of the structure-related apatite-like compounds with the formula 'A{sub 5}(TO{sub n}){sub 3}X'. - Graphical abstract: RbSr{sub 4}(BO{sub 3}){sub 3} and some other borate NLO compounds, namely Ca{sub 5}(BO{sub 3}){sub 3}F RCa{sub 4}(BO{sub 3}){sub 3}O (R=Y or Gd) and Na{sub 3}La{sub 2}(BO{sub 3}){sub 3} can be viewed as the derivatives of apatite. They have similar formula composed of five cations and three anion groups (we call them 5/3 structures). The detailed SHG coefficients and optical properties of the apatite-like NLO crystals were compared and summarized. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new noncentrosymmetric borate RbSr{sub 4}(BO{sub 3}){sub 3} was grown from flux. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The RbSr{sub 4}(BO{sub 3}){sub 3} can be viewed as a derivative of the apatite-like structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structure and its relationship to the optical properties of RbSr{sub 4}(BO{sub 3}){sub 3} are compared with other NLO crystals with apatite-like structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The basic structural units are the planar BO{sub 3} groups in the structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Second harmonic generation (SHG) test shows that RbSr{sub 4}(BO{sub 3}){sub 3} can be phase matchable with an

  15. Microdistributions of Rb and Sr in ALH84001 carbonates: Chronological implications for secondary alteration on Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Wadhwa, M.; Sutton, S.R.; Flynn, G.J.

    2005-04-22

    Concentrations of Rb and Sr were analyzed on the micron-scale in various compositional zones of the ALH84001 carbonates. Implications of the measured Rb/Sr ratios for the chronology of these carbonates are discussed. ALH84001 is unique among the Martian meteorites in that it has an ancient crystallization age of {approx}4.5 Ga defined by Sm-Nd isotope systematics. Another aspect that differentiates this Martian meteorite from the others is the presence of Ca-Fe-Mg carbonates (modal abundance {approx}1%) that are thought to have been precipitated during alteration in a near-surface environment. Precise age dating of these carbonates is important since it could provide constraints on the timing of surficial secondary alteration processes on Mars. However, this has been a challenging problem owing to the relatively small abundance of the carbonates in ALH84001 and because these carbonates are difficult to separate from the other minerals in the rock by physical and chemical means. Previous investigations have attempted to separate the carbonates by leaching of carbonate-rich mineral fractions. The single 'bulk carbonate' fraction analyzed by Wadhwa and Lugmair was characterized by a low {sup 87}Rb/{sup 86}Sr ratio of {approx}0.05, the lowest of any mineral in ALH84001, and the corresponding Rb-Sr age estimate ({approx}1.39 Ga) was dependent on the assumption of isotopic equilibrium between the carbonates and plagioclase. As pointed out by Borg et al., such an assumption may not be assured and, therefore, they obtained multiple carbonate-rich leachates with a range of {sup 87}Rb/{sup 86}Sr ratios (0.12-2.62) from which they estimated an age of {approx}3.9 Ga. Although these authors performed painstaking chemical characterization to determine contributions in the leachates from minerals such as phosphates and silicates, it is nevertheless difficult to positively rule out contributions from other as yet unidentified phases. Therefore, the goal of the present

  16. Ternary chalcogenides Cs2Zn3Se4 and Cs2Zn3Te4 : Potential p -type transparent conducting materials

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Shi, Hongliang; Saparov, Bayrammurad; Singh, David J.; Sefat, Athena S.; Du, Mao-Hua

    2014-11-11

    Here we report prediction of two new ternary chalcogenides that can potentially be used as p-type transparent conductors along with experimental synthesis and initial characterization of these previously unknown compounds, Cs2Zn3Ch4 (Ch = Se, Te). In particular, the structures are predicted based on density functional calculations and confirmed by experiments. Phase diagrams, electronic structure, optical properties, and defect properties of Cs2Zn3Se4 and Cs2Zn3Te4 are calculated to assess the viability of these materials as p-type TCMs. Cs2Zn3Se4 and Cs2Zn3Te4, which are stable under ambient air, display large optical band gaps (calculated to be 3.61 and 2.83 eV, respectively) and have smallmore » hole effective masses (0.5-0.77 me) that compare favorably with other proposed p-type TCMs. Defect calculations show that undoped Cs2Zn3Se4 and Cs2Zn3Te4 are p-type materials. However, the free hole concentration may be limited by low-energy native donor defects, e.g., Zn interstitials. Lastly, non-equilibrium growth techniques should be useful for suppressing the formation of native donor defects, thereby increasing the hole concentration.« less

  17. Chloride-dependent acceleration of cell cycle via modulation of Rb and cdc2 in osteoblastic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Maki, Masahiro; Miyazaki, Hiroaki; Nakajima, Ken-ichi; Yamane, Junko; Niisato, Naomi; Morihara, Toru; Kubo, Toshikazu; Marunaka, Yoshinori

    2007-10-05

    In the present study, we investigated if Cl{sup -} regulates the proliferation of the MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. The proliferation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells was diminished by lowering the extracellular Cl{sup -} concentration ([Cl{sup -}]{sub o}) in the culture medium. The lowered in [Cl{sup -}]{sub o} increased the periods of the G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} and the G{sub 2}/M phases in cell cycle. We further studied the effects of [Cl{sup -}]{sub o} on the key enzymes, Rb and cdc2, playing key roles in checking points of the G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} and the G{sub 2}/M phases in cell cycle. The lowered in [Cl{sup -}]{sub o} diminished the active forms of enzymes, Rb and cdc2. We further found that the action of lowered [Cl{sup -}]{sub o} on the cell proliferation, the cell cycle, Rb and cdc2 was abolished by the presence of 2 mM glutamine, but not by that of pyruvate as another Krebs cycle substrate. Taken together, these observations indicate here for the first time that Cl{sup -} modulates Rb and cdc2, enhancing the proliferation of the MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells.

  18. Multiphoton dissociative ionization of CS+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajput, Jyoti; Jochim, Bethany; Zohrabi, M.; Betsch, K. J.; Ablikim, U.; Berry, Ben; Severt, T.; Summers, A. M.; Armstrong, G. S. J.; Esry, B. D.; Carnes, K. D.; Ben-Itzhak, I.

    2015-05-01

    We have studied the dissociative photoionization of a CS+ molecular ion beam in the strong-field regime using <50 fs IR laser pulses (λ ~ 790 nm) from a 10 kHz, ~2 mJ (per pulse) Ti:Sapphire laser system. A coincidence three-dimensional momentum imaging method was used to measure all ions and neutrals formed during this multiphoton process. Two prominent channels were observed: charge-symmetric dissociation, yielding C+ + S+, and charge-asymmetric dissociation, yielding C + S2+. The differences between these two channels with reference to their relative production probability, energetics, and angular distributions is the focus of this work. This work was supported by the Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy. BJ is also supported by DOE-SCGF (DE-AC05-06OR23100).

  19. [Experimental investigation of mechanisms of forming RbH by irradiating a Rb+H2 mixture with laser light].

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Jing; Dai, Kang; Shen, Yi-Fan

    2008-11-01

    The radiation of a laser photoexcited Rb atoms from the ground state to the 5P3/2 level in a mixture of Rb vapor and hydrogen. The energy-pooling collision 5P3/2 + 5P3/2 --> 5S1/2 + 5D producted 5D state. The Rb (5P3/2) density and spatial distribution were mapped by monitoring the absorption of a counter-propagating laser beam, tuned to the 5P3/2 --> 7S1/2 transition, which could be translated parallel to the pump beam. In the presence of radiation trapping, the spontaneous radiation rate is multiplied by the transmission factor T5P3/2 --> 5S1/2, which describes the average probability that photons emitted within the fluorescence detection region can pass through the optically thick vapor without being absorbed. The T5P3/2 --> 5S1/2 is related to the frequency dependent absorption cross section and the density and spatial distribution of atoms in the level of the transition. The effective radiative rates of the Rb D2 line as a function of the H2 pressure were obtained. These quantities were combined with the measured excited atom density and fluorescence ratio to yield absolute energy-pooling rate coefficient. The quenching collision Rb (5P3/2) + H2 (v = 0) --> Rb(5S) + H2 (v = 2) producted state H2 (v= 2). This process is at least 16 times faster than the Rb (5P3/2) radiative decay rate. The reverse process of this process is relatively unlikely due to their large translational energy defect. The cross section for the process H2 (v = 2) + H2 (v = 0) --> H2 (vn = 1) + H2 (v = 0) + 3 920.2 cm(-1) is 7.7 x 10(-19) cm2. Hence the relaxation rate of this vibrational level is relatively slow and the nuclear spin statistics is conserved. The H2 (v = 2) density was determined by using the cross section for Rb (5P3/2)-H2 quenching. RbH was fromed by the Rb(5D) + H2 and Rb (5P3/2) + H2 (v = 2) reactions and observed by laser absorption. The ratio of 5D --> 5P3/2 to 5P3/2 --> 5S1/2 fluorescence was measured as a function of the H2 density. The absorption of the laser beam

  20. Silencing of RB1 and RB2/P130 during adipogenesis of bone marrow stromal cells results in dysregulated differentiation.

    PubMed

    Capasso, Stefania; Alessio, Nicola; Di Bernardo, Giovanni; Cipollaro, Marilena; Melone, Mariarosa Ab; Peluso, Gianfranco; Giordano, Antonio; Galderisi, Umberto

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) is different from fat found elsewhere in the body, and only recently have some of its functions been investigated. BMAT may regulate bone marrow stem cell niche and plays a role in energy storage and thermogenesis. BMAT may be involved also in obesity and osteoporosis onset. Given the paramount functions of BMAT, we decided to better clarify the human bone marrow adipogenesis by analyzing the role of the retinoblastoma gene family, which are key players in cell cycle regulation. Our data provide evidence that the inactivation of RB1 or RB2/P130 in uncommitted bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) facilitates the first steps of adipogenesis. In cultures with silenced RB1 or RB2/P130, we observed an increase of clones with adipogenic potential and a higher percentage of cells accumulating lipid droplets. Nevertheless, the absence of RB1 or RB2/P130 impaired the terminal adipocyte differentiation and gave rise to dysregulated adipose cells, with alteration in lipid uptake and release. For the first time, we evidenced that RB2/P130 plays a role in bone marrow adipogenesis. Our data suggest that while the inactivation of retinoblastoma proteins may delay the onset of last cell division and allow more BMSC to be committed to adipocyte, it did not allow a permanent cell cycle exit, which is a prerequisite for adipocyte terminal maturation.

  1. Silencing of RB1 and RB2/P130 during adipogenesis of bone marrow stromal cells results in dysregulated differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Capasso, Stefania; Alessio, Nicola; Di Bernardo, Giovanni; Cipollaro, Marilena; Melone, Mariarosa AB; Peluso, Gianfranco; Giordano, Antonio; Galderisi, Umberto

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) is different from fat found elsewhere in the body, and only recently have some of its functions been investigated. BMAT may regulate bone marrow stem cell niche and plays a role in energy storage and thermogenesis. BMAT may be involved also in obesity and osteoporosis onset. Given the paramount functions of BMAT, we decided to better clarify the human bone marrow adipogenesis by analyzing the role of the retinoblastoma gene family, which are key players in cell cycle regulation. Our data provide evidence that the inactivation of RB1 or RB2/P130 in uncommitted bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) facilitates the first steps of adipogenesis. In cultures with silenced RB1 or RB2/P130, we observed an increase of clones with adipogenic potential and a higher percentage of cells accumulating lipid droplets. Nevertheless, the absence of RB1 or RB2/P130 impaired the terminal adipocyte differentiation and gave rise to dysregulated adipose cells, with alteration in lipid uptake and release. For the first time, we evidenced that RB2/P130 plays a role in bone marrow adipogenesis. Our data suggest that while the inactivation of retinoblastoma proteins may delay the onset of last cell division and allow more BMSC to be committed to adipocyte, it did not allow a permanent cell cycle exit, which is a prerequisite for adipocyte terminal maturation. PMID:24281253

  2. Interpretation of whole-rock Rb-Sr geochronology in the high grade rocks of the Adirondack Mountains, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y.; Grant, N.K. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Published and new Rb-Sr whole-rock isochrons for high grade metaigneous, gneissic and mylonitic rocks from the Adirondack Mountains have been evaluated in two ways. In the first, the Rb-Sr ages are compared to the published U-Pb zircon ages for metaigneous rocks. In the second, the ages are compared with forward modeling that employs Monte Carlo simulation and solid diffusion calculations to determine the probabilities of Rb-Sr resetting under various conditions of channelized and homogeneous fluid flow. The first comparison shows that the Rb-Sr isochrons fall into three groups. The first comprises isochrons of ca. 1050 Ma for mylonitic and metaigneous rocks from the Carthage-Colton Mylonite Zone that separates the Highlands from the Lowlands, and the zone of Trans-Adirondack Structural Discontinuities that separate the southern from the northern Highlands. These ages can be interpreted to the result of complete resetting during the Ottawan phase of the Grenville orogeny. The second group comprises isochrons that are concordant or consistent with the U-Pb zircon ages, and the third group isochrons with ages intermediate between the U-Pb zircon ages and that for high grade metamorphism at 1150 Ma and 1050 Ma in the Lowlands and Highlands respectively. The forward modeling suggests that complete resetting of Rb-Sr isochrons was associated with high fluid/rock ratios (>2) under conditions of homogeneous flow, and that fluid/rock ratios were low (<0.25) in cases where no resetting has occurred. Partial resetting, as can be demonstrated in the Lowlands, requires conditions intermediate between the first two cases or extremely heterogeneous fluid flow. These results show that whole-rock Rb-Sr age determination can recover useful information from high grade rocks, providing the samples are collected from clearly documented tectonic domains.

  3. Enhanced efficacy of recombinant Brucella abortus RB51 vaccines against B. melitensis infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Vemulapalli, Ramesh; Contreras, Andrea; Sanakkayala, Neelima; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Boyle, Stephen M; Schurig, Gerhardt G

    2004-09-01

    Brucella abortus strain RB51 is an attenuated rough strain, currently being used as the official live vaccine for bovine brucellosis in the USA and several other countries. In strain RB51, the wboA gene, encoding a glycosyltransferase required for the O-side chain synthesis, is disrupted by an IS711 element. Recently, we have demonstrated that strain RB51WboA, RB51 complemented with a functional wboA gene, remains rough but expresses low quantities of O-side chain in the cytoplasm. Mice vaccinated with strain RB51WboA develop greatly enhanced resistance against challenge with B. abortus virulent strain 2308. We have also demonstrated that overexpression of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) in strain RB51 (RB51SOD) significantly increases its vaccine efficacy against strain 2308 challenge. In this study, we constructed a new recombinant strain, RB51SOD/WboA, that over expresses SOD with simultaneous expression of O-side chain in the cytoplasm. We tested the vaccine potential of strains RB51SOD, RB51WboA, RB51SOD/WboA against challenge with virulent Brucella melitensis 16M and B. abortus 2308 in mice. In comparison with strain RB51, strain RB51SOD induced better protection against strain 2308, but not strain 16M, challenge. Similar to strain RB51WboA, vaccination with strain RB51SOD/WboA resulted in complete protection of the mice from infection with strain 2308. When challenged with strain 16M, mice vaccinated with either strain RB51WboA or strain RB51SOD/WboA were significantly better protected than those vaccinated with strain RB51 or RB51SOD. These results suggest that strains RB51WboA and RB51SOD/WboA are good vaccine candidates for inducing enhanced protection against B. melitensis infection.

  4. 134Cs: 137Cs and 106Ru: 137Cs ratios in intertidal sediments from the Cumbria and Lancashire coasts England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanners, D. A.; Aston, S. R.

    1981-10-01

    The distributions of 134Cs, 137Cs and 106Ru in intertidal surface sediments from the coasts of Cumbria and Lancashire, north-west England, are reported. The ratios of 134Cs: 137Cs and 106Ru: 137Cs activities have been used together with the isotopic composition of the Windscale radioactive effluents to examine the contamination history of sediments. Distinct differences between the activities and time of contamination of muds, silts and sands are found, and the apparent lag times of transport of radioactive wastes to different sediment localities are estimated. The relatively high activities in fine sediments reflect recent discharges indicating a rapid response to discharge, while the sands contain low levels of older contamination. Apparent lag times of up to 6 years are estimated for the study area; the transport to the south is generally more rapid than to the north. These results have consequences for the operation and interpretation of radiological monitoring in coastal areas.

  5. Crystal structure and superconductivity of rubidium tungsten bronzes Rb{sub x}WO{sub 3} prepared by a hybrid microwave method

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Juan Dong Cheng; Yang Lihong; Chen Hong

    2008-04-01

    The rubidium tungsten bronzes Rb{sub x}WO{sub 3} have been prepared from Rb{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, WO{sub 3} and W powders using hybrid microwave method. The single hexagonal phase samples can be obtained as actual rubidium content x in the range of 0.21-0.33, and their lattice parameters a and c linearly drop and rise with the increase of rubidium content respectively. For samples with x = 0.14, 0.16, 0.18, the superconducting transition temperature T{sub c} from resistivity measurements does not change with the rubidium content, while T{sub c} from susceptibility measurements shows a decrease from 5.3 K for x = 0.14 to 4.8 K for x = 0.18. The charge density wave (CDW) transition appears in Rb{sub 0.21}WO{sub 3}, Rb{sub 0.23}WO{sub 3} and Rb{sub 0.25}WO{sub 3} at about 200-260 K. The CDW transition is most obvious in Rb{sub 0.23}WO{sub 3} which shows the lowest degree of crystallization among the samples.

  6. Unit 3, STA. 158+ 40 RB, Hinckson Run culvertdetail ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 3, STA. 158+ 40 RB, Hinckson Run culvert-detail - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  7. Rb and Zr abundances in massive Galactic AGB stars revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Mesa, V.; Zamora, O.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Plez, B.; Manchado, A.; Karakas, A. I.; Lugaro, M.

    2016-07-01

    We report new abundances of Rb and Zr in a sample of massive Galactic asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars that were previously studied with hydrostatic models by using more realistic dynamical model atmospheres. We use a modified version of the spectral synthesis code Turbospectrum, and consider the presence of a circumstellar envelope and a radial wind in the modelling of these Galactic AGB stars. The Rb and Zr are determined from the 7800 Å Rb I resonant line and the 6474 Å ZrO bandhead, respectively, and they are compared with the AGB nucleosynthesis theoretical predictions. The derived Rb abundances are much lower (∼⃒1-2 dex) with the new dynamical models, while the Zr abundances, however, are closer to the hydrostatic values. The new model atmospheres can help to resolve the problem of the mismatch between the observations and the nucleosynthesis theoretical predictions of massive AGB stars.

  8. .sup.82 Sr-.sup.82 Rb Radioisotope generator

    DOEpatents

    Grant, Patrick M.; Erdal, Bruce R.; O'Brien, Harold A.

    1976-01-01

    An improved .sup.82 Sr-.sup.82 Rb radioisotope generator system, based upon the complexing ion exchange resin Chelex-100, has been developed. Columns of this material can be easily and rapidly milked, and the Rb-Sr separation factor for a fresh generator was found to be > 10.sup.7. Approximately 80 percent of the .sup.82 Rb present was delivered in a 15-ml volume of aqueous 0.2 M NH.sub.4 Cl solution. After more than 6 liters of eluant had been put through the generator, the Rb-Sr separation factor was still observed to be > 10.sup.5, and no unusual strontium breakthrough behavior was seen in the system over nearly three .sup.82 Sr half lives.

  9. Alkali-promoted oxidation of Al(111): {Rb}/{O} and {K}/{O} coadsorption and the role of surface structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driver, S. M.; Lüdecke, J.; Dixon, R. J.; Thompson, P. B. J.; Scragg, G.; Woodruff, D. P.; Cowie, B. C. C.

    1997-11-01

    Synchrotron radiation core-level photoemission from the Al 2p, K 3p and Rb 4p states has been used to characterise the role of preadsorbed Rb and K on the interaction of oxygen with an Al(111) surface. Specific precoverages have been used corresponding to two different (√3 × √3)R30° surface structures, a metastable low temperature phase involving alkali atoms in atop sites, and a stable higher temperature phase with substitutional alkali atoms. In all cases a significant promotion of both dissociation and oxidation is seen relative to the activity of the clean Al(111) surface. In comparison with earlier results for {Na}/{O} coadsorption Rb is found to promote oxidation most strongly and Na least strongly with K being intermediate; the Rb room temperature substitutional phase, in particular, shows oxidation at the lowest oxygen exposures and no indication for the RbO chemisorption precursor comparable with the NaO one identified on the Na-covered surface. By contrast the Rb-atop and K-atop geometry surfaces do show evidence of some discrete chemisorption states in the Al 2p spectra of the type seen on alkali-free Al(111), but only in the presence of other spectral structure assigned to mixed-coordination geometries. At low temperatures the effect of both Rb and K on oxidation, but not on initial oxygen adsorption, is generally suppressed, an effect ascribed to the role of bulk diffusion. Measurements of normal incidence X-ray standing wavefield absorption for the {Rb}/{O} coadsorption structures at very low oxygen exposure also indicate that no simple single sites are occupied, particularly in the case of the more reactive Rb-substitutional phase at room temperature, although there appears to be a relatively well-defined OAl layer spacing attributed to small but laterally incommensurate oxide islands. Measured work function changes at low oxygen exposure in the {Rb}/{O} and {Na}/{O} systems can be reconciled with oxygen penetration of the alkali layer

  10. [Study on the Effects of Ginsenoside Rb1 on DPPC Bilayers by Using Thermo-Raman Spectrum and DSC].

    PubMed

    Hui, Ge; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jing-zhou; Zhou, Tie-li; Wang, Si-ming; Zhao, Yu; Zhao, Bing

    2015-08-01

    The research on the interactions between Ginsenosides and biomembranes plays a crucial role in thorough understanding the pharmacological activity and biologyical effect of Chinese medicine Panax ginseng. With the bilayer structure, DPPC often serves as an simulation model of the cell membrane to study the role of drug molecules and cell membranes. Ginsenoside Rb1, one of the most important components of Panaxginseng, playing the significant roles of pharmacological effects and biological properties. Raman and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) are respectively a powerful tool for discussing the molecular interaction, and a kind of general technology by which researching the bilayer monomer structures and its interactions with drug molecules. However, rarely research reports on the interactions between drug molecules and biomembranes by means of both technologies above. In this paper, the influence of ginsenoside monomer Rb1 on DPPC membrane bilayers was investigated by thermo-Raman and DSC. In Raman spectra, the changes of DPPC molecule have been observed before and after interacted with ginsenoside Rb1, the data analysis indicates three aspects: the O-C-C-N+ polar head group skeleton, C-C stretching vibration area, and the C-H bond stretching vibrarion in terminated methyl group of alkyl chains. The results showed that ginsenoside Rb1 molecule with certain concentration has not changed the gauche conformation of the polar head backbone group in DPPC bilayers, the order of the internal molecular chain and the lateral chain-chain packing have been decreased as the temperature increased, the lateral disposed disorder has been increased. The changes of some thermodynamic constants obtained by DSC experiment such as phase transition temperature (Tm), the temperature at which the transition is half completed (ΔT1/2), and the transition enthalpy normalized per mol of DPPC (AH) have been showed further results of the thermo Raman experiments, with increasing the

  11. [Study on the Effects of Ginsenoside Rb1 on DPPC Bilayers by Using Thermo-Raman Spectrum and DSC].

    PubMed

    Hui, Ge; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jing-zhou; Zhou, Tie-li; Wang, Si-ming; Zhao, Yu; Zhao, Bing

    2015-08-01

    The research on the interactions between Ginsenosides and biomembranes plays a crucial role in thorough understanding the pharmacological activity and biologyical effect of Chinese medicine Panax ginseng. With the bilayer structure, DPPC often serves as an simulation model of the cell membrane to study the role of drug molecules and cell membranes. Ginsenoside Rb1, one of the most important components of Panaxginseng, playing the significant roles of pharmacological effects and biological properties. Raman and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) are respectively a powerful tool for discussing the molecular interaction, and a kind of general technology by which researching the bilayer monomer structures and its interactions with drug molecules. However, rarely research reports on the interactions between drug molecules and biomembranes by means of both technologies above. In this paper, the influence of ginsenoside monomer Rb1 on DPPC membrane bilayers was investigated by thermo-Raman and DSC. In Raman spectra, the changes of DPPC molecule have been observed before and after interacted with ginsenoside Rb1, the data analysis indicates three aspects: the O-C-C-N+ polar head group skeleton, C-C stretching vibration area, and the C-H bond stretching vibrarion in terminated methyl group of alkyl chains. The results showed that ginsenoside Rb1 molecule with certain concentration has not changed the gauche conformation of the polar head backbone group in DPPC bilayers, the order of the internal molecular chain and the lateral chain-chain packing have been decreased as the temperature increased, the lateral disposed disorder has been increased. The changes of some thermodynamic constants obtained by DSC experiment such as phase transition temperature (Tm), the temperature at which the transition is half completed (ΔT1/2), and the transition enthalpy normalized per mol of DPPC (AH) have been showed further results of the thermo Raman experiments, with increasing the

  12. Towards ultracold RbCa molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinert, Michaela

    2011-10-01

    Ultracold heteronuclear molecules have received much attention lately because of their potential applications in high-precision spectroscopy, studies of fundamental symmetries and quantum information processing. So far the focus has been on alkaline/alkaline dimers since their constituent atoms have been studied extensively. Recently, several groups have begun work on more challenging alkaline/alkaline-earth or alkaline/rare-earth combinations. In addition to a permanent electric dipole moment, which makes the alkaline/alkaline dimers such an intriguing system, alkaline/alkaline-earth molecules also possess a permanent magnetic dipole moment, thus allowing the manipulation with electric and magnetic fields. In addition, the molecular ground state of an alkaline/alkaline-earth dimer has a non-vanishing spin. Interesting collision dynamics, for example the suppression of collisions in carefully tailored external fields, have been predicted. At Willamette University, we will trap ultracold gases of rubidium and calcium together to form the molecular dimer RbCa via photoassociation of the constituent atoms. In this talk we will discuss the current state of the experiment and our future plans.[4pt] In collaboration with Hayley Whitson, Garrett Potter, and Kristen Norton, Willamette University.

  13. Vertical profile of 137Cs in soil.

    PubMed

    Krstić, D; Nikezić, D; Stevanović, N; Jelić, M

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, a vertical distribution of 137Cs in undisturbed soil was investigated experimentally and theoretically. Soil samples were taken from the surroundings of the city of Kragujevac in central Serbia during spring-summer of 2001. The sampling locations were chosen in such a way that the influence of soil characteristics on depth distribution of 137Cs in soil could be investigated. Activity of 137Cs in soil samples was measured using a HpGe detector and multi-channel analyzer. Based on vertical distribution of 137Cs in soil which was measured for each of 10 locations, the diffusion coefficient of 137Cs in soil was determined. In the next half-century, 137Cs will remain as the source of the exposure. Fifteen years after the Chernobyl accident, and more than 30 years after nuclear probes, the largest activity of 137Cs is still within 10 cm of the upper layer of the soil. This result confirms that the penetration of 137Cs in soil is a very slow process. Experimental results were compared with two different Green functions and no major differences were found between them. While both functions fit experimental data well in the upper layer of soil, the fitting is not so good in deeper layers. Although the curves obtained by these two functions are very close to each other, there are some differences in the values of parameters acquired by them. PMID:15388151

  14. Lightcurve and Rotation Period Determination for (31450) 1999 CU9 and (9152) CS49

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvaggio, Fabio; Marchini, Alessandro; Papini, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Photometric observations of the main-belt asteroids (31450) 1999 CU9 and (91252) 1999 CS49 were conducted in 2015 September. Analysis of the data for 1999 CU9 found a bimodal lightcurve phased to a synodic period of P = 3.413 ± 0.002 hours while the data for 1999 CS49 lead to a bimodal lightcurve with a synodic period of P = 3.357 ± 0.001 hours.

  15. Cs(2)UPd(3)Se(6).

    PubMed

    Oh, George N; Ibers, James A

    2011-01-12

    Dicaesium uranium(IV) tripalladium(II) hexa-selenide, Cs(2)UPd(3)Se(6), crystallizes in the space group Fmmm in the Ba(2)NaCu(3)O(6) structure type. The asymmetric unit comprises the following atoms with site symmetries as shown: U1 (mm2), Cs1 (222), Cs2 (m2m), Pd1 (.m.), Pd2 (2mm), Se1 (m..), and Se2 (1). This layered structure contains six edge-sharing square-planar [PdSe(4)] units that form a hexa-gon. These, in turn, edge-share with [USe(6)] trigonal-prismatic units, forming an extended layer parallel to (010). The layers are stacked along [010]. They are staggered, and are separated by the Cs atoms. The Cs atoms are either coordinated in a square anti-prism of Se atoms or are ten-coordinate, with one square face and the opposite face hexa-gonal.

  16. Immune Response of Calves Vaccinated with Brucella abortus S19 or RB51 and Revaccinated with RB51

    PubMed Central

    Dorneles, Elaine M. S.; Lima, Graciela K.; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Araújo, Márcio S. S.; Martins-Filho, Olindo A.; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Al Qublan, Hamzeh; Heinemann, Marcos B.; Lage, Andrey P.

    2015-01-01

    Brucella abortus S19 and RB51 strains have been successfully used to control bovine brucellosis worldwide; however, currently, most of our understanding of the protective immune response induced by vaccination comes from studies in mice. The aim of this study was to characterize and compare the immune responses induced in cattle prime-immunized with B. abortus S19 or RB51 and revaccinated with RB51. Female calves, aged 4 to 8 months, were vaccinated with either vaccine S19 (0.6–1.2 x 1011 CFU) or RB51 (1.3 x 1010 CFU) on day 0, and revaccinated with RB51 (1.3 x 1010 CFU) on day 365 of the experiment. Characterization of the immune response was performed using serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 28, 210, 365, 393 and 575 post-immunization. Results showed that S19 and RB51 vaccination induced an immune response characterized by proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells; IFN-ɣ and IL-17A production by CD4+ T-cells; cytotoxic CD8+ T-cells; IL-6 secretion; CD4+ and CD8+ memory cells; antibodies of IgG1 class; and expression of the phenotypes of activation in T-cells. However, the immune response stimulated by S19 compared to RB51 showed higher persistency of IFN-ɣ and CD4+ memory cells, induction of CD21+ memory cells and higher secretion of IL-6. After RB51 revaccination, the immune response was chiefly characterized by increase in IFN-ɣ expression, proliferation of antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, cytotoxic CD8+ T-cells and decrease of IL-6 production in both groups. Nevertheless, a different polarization of the immune response, CD4+- or CD8+-dominant, was observed after the booster with RB51 for S19 and RB51 prime-vaccinated animals, respectively. Our results indicate that after prime vaccination both vaccine strains induce a strong and complex Th1 immune response, although after RB51 revaccination the differences between immune profiles induced by prime-vaccination become accentuated. PMID:26352261

  17. Immune Response of Calves Vaccinated with Brucella abortus S19 or RB51 and Revaccinated with RB51.

    PubMed

    Dorneles, Elaine M S; Lima, Graciela K; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Araújo, Márcio S S; Martins-Filho, Olindo A; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Al Qublan, Hamzeh; Heinemann, Marcos B; Lage, Andrey P

    2015-01-01

    Brucella abortus S19 and RB51 strains have been successfully used to control bovine brucellosis worldwide; however, currently, most of our understanding of the protective immune response induced by vaccination comes from studies in mice. The aim of this study was to characterize and compare the immune responses induced in cattle prime-immunized with B. abortus S19 or RB51 and revaccinated with RB51. Female calves, aged 4 to 8 months, were vaccinated with either vaccine S19 (0.6-1.2 x 1011 CFU) or RB51 (1.3 x 1010 CFU) on day 0, and revaccinated with RB51 (1.3 x 1010 CFU) on day 365 of the experiment. Characterization of the immune response was performed using serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 28, 210, 365, 393 and 575 post-immunization. Results showed that S19 and RB51 vaccination induced an immune response characterized by proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells; IFN-ɣ and IL-17A production by CD4+ T-cells; cytotoxic CD8+ T-cells; IL-6 secretion; CD4+ and CD8+ memory cells; antibodies of IgG1 class; and expression of the phenotypes of activation in T-cells. However, the immune response stimulated by S19 compared to RB51 showed higher persistency of IFN-ɣ and CD4+ memory cells, induction of CD21+ memory cells and higher secretion of IL-6. After RB51 revaccination, the immune response was chiefly characterized by increase in IFN-ɣ expression, proliferation of antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, cytotoxic CD8+ T-cells and decrease of IL-6 production in both groups. Nevertheless, a different polarization of the immune response, CD4+- or CD8+-dominant, was observed after the booster with RB51 for S19 and RB51 prime-vaccinated animals, respectively. Our results indicate that after prime vaccination both vaccine strains induce a strong and complex Th1 immune response, although after RB51 revaccination the differences between immune profiles induced by prime-vaccination become accentuated.

  18. Cyclin-dependent kinase-mediated phosphorylation of RBP1 and pRb promotes their dissociation to mediate release of the SAP30·mSin3·HDAC transcriptional repressor complex.

    PubMed

    Suryadinata, Randy; Sadowski, Martin; Steel, Rohan; Sarcevic, Boris

    2011-02-18

    Eukaryotic cell cycle progression is mediated by phosphorylation of protein substrates by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). A critical substrate of CDKs is the product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene, pRb, which inhibits G(1)-S phase cell cycle progression by binding and repressing E2F transcription factors. CDK-mediated phosphorylation of pRb alleviates this inhibitory effect to promote G(1)-S phase cell cycle progression. pRb represses transcription by binding to the E2F transactivation domain and recruiting the mSin3·histone deacetylase (HDAC) transcriptional repressor complex via the retinoblastoma-binding protein 1 (RBP1). RBP1 binds to the pocket region of pRb via an LXCXE motif and to the SAP30 subunit of the mSin3·HDAC complex and, thus, acts as a bridging protein in this multisubunit complex. In the present study we identified RBP1 as a novel CDK substrate. RBP1 is phosphorylated by CDK2 on serines 864 and 1007, which are N- and C-terminal to the LXCXE motif, respectively. CDK2-mediated phosphorylation of RBP1 or pRb destabilizes their interaction in vitro, with concurrent phosphorylation of both proteins leading to their dissociation. Consistent with these findings, RBP1 phosphorylation is increased during progression from G(1) into S-phase, with a concurrent decrease in its association with pRb in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. These studies provide new mechanistic insights into CDK-mediated regulation of the pRb tumor suppressor during cell cycle progression, demonstrating that CDK-mediated phosphorylation of both RBP1 and pRb induces their dissociation to mediate release of the mSin3·HDAC transcriptional repressor complex from pRb to alleviate transcriptional repression of E2F.

  19. Le nitrate double NaRb2(NO3)3, composé intermédiaire du système binaire isobare NaNO3 + RbNO3: études thermiques et cristallographiques

    PubMed Central

    Ksiksi, Nesrine; Driss, Mohamed; Hellali, Dalila; Guesmi, Abderrahmen; Zamali, Hmida

    2015-01-01

    Crystallographic and thermodynamic investigations of the binary (NaNO3 + RbNO3) phase diagram at atmospheric pressure reveal the existence of an inter­mediate compound NaRb2(NO3)3 (sodium dirubidium trinitrate) previously predicted and now reported experimentally for the first time. According to a DSC analysis, the compound exhibits three allotropic forms. In its low-temperature allotropic form (α form, ortho­rhom­bic) there are two Rb (m.. site symmetry) and one Na (m..) independent crystallographic positions and three planar nitrate groups. The bond-valence-sum calculations for all atoms agree well with their oxidation states. The Rb cations are located in the (100) plane at x = ½ with 11 oxygen coordination. The Na ones are in the same plane at x = 0 and are coordinated to eight O atoms from six nitrate groups. The charge-distribution method has been used to evaluate the degree of distortion of the alkali polyhedra. PMID:25995854

  20. Altered expression of cell cycle regulators Cyclin D1, p14, p16, CDK4 and Rb in nodular melanomas.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Ingeborg M; Straume, Oddbjørn; Akslen, Lars A

    2004-12-01

    Cell cycle regulating proteins are important in tumour development. To investigate whether alterations in Cyclin D1, p14, CDK4 and Rb are associated with tumour cell proliferation, tumour progression and patient survival in malignant melanoma, we examined 202 vertical growth phase tumours and 68 corresponding metastases for expression of Cyclin D1, p14, CDK4 and Rb, and compared the results with Ki-67 expression, p16 and p53 expression, clinico-pathological variables, and survival data. Nuclear staining of Cyclin D1 was strong in 35% of cases, and correlated with high levels of Rb (p=0.05), but not with survival or other markers tested. Strong staining of p14 was found in 63% of nodular melanomas and was associated with strong p53 expression (p=0.014), and with high levels of CDK4 (p<0.0001). Low p14 expression was associated with increased tumour thickness (p=0.008) and increasing level of invasion (p=0.020). Strong nuclear staining for CDK4 was found in 81% of cases and was associated with tumour thickness below the median value of 3.7 mm and improved survival (log-rank test, p=0.024). Further, 56% of the tumours showed strong nuclear staining for Rb, and these cases were significantly associated with absent/low levels of p16 staining (p=0.030), high levels of p14 (p=0.010), as well as high Ki-67 expression (p=0.005). Our results seem to confirm that the p16-Rb pathway plays an important role in tumour progression and prognosis in vertical growth phase melanomas, whereas alterations in the p14-p53 pathway might be less important.

  1. Repression by RB1 characterizes genes involved in the penultimate stage of erythroid development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji; Loyd, Melanie R; Randall, Mindy S; Morris, John J; Shah, Jayesh G; Ney, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    Retinoblastoma-1 (RB1), and the RB1-related proteins p107 and p130, are key regulators of the cell cycle. Although RB1 is required for normal erythroid development in vitro, it is largely dispensable for erythropoiesis in vivo. The modest phenotype caused by RB1 deficiency in mice raises questions about redundancy within the RB1 family, and the role of RB1 in erythroid differentiation. Here we show that RB1 is the major pocket protein that regulates terminal erythroid differentiation. Erythroid cells lacking all pocket proteins exhibit the same cell cycle defects as those deficient for RB1 alone. RB1 has broad repressive effects on gene transcription in erythroid cells. As a group, RB1-repressed genes are generally well expressed but downregulated at the final stage of erythroid development. Repression correlates with E2F binding, implicating E2Fs in the recruitment of RB1 to repressed genes. Merging differential and time-dependent changes in expression, we define a group of approximately 800 RB1-repressed genes. Bioinformatics analysis shows that this list is enriched for terms related to the cell cycle, but also for terms related to terminal differentiation. Some of these have not been previously linked to RB1. These results expand the range of processes potentially regulated by RB1, and suggest that a principal role of RB1 in development is coordinating the events required for terminal differentiation. PMID:26397180

  2. Proteomic analysis of pRb loss highlights a signature of decreased mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Nicolay, Brandon N.; Danielian, Paul S.; Kottakis, Filippos; Lapek, John D.; Sanidas, Ioannis; Miles, Wayne O.; Dehnad, Mantre; Tschöp, Katrin; Gierut, Jessica J.; Manning, Amity L.; Morris, Robert; Haigis, Kevin; Bardeesy, Nabeel; Lees, Jacqueline A.; Haas, Wilhelm; Dyson, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (pRb) protein associates with chromatin and regulates gene expression. Numerous studies have identified Rb-dependent RNA signatures, but the proteomic effects of Rb loss are largely unexplored. We acutely ablated Rb in adult mice and conducted a quantitative analysis of RNA and proteomic changes in the colon and lungs, where RbKO was sufficient or insufficient to induce ectopic proliferation, respectively. As expected, RbKO caused similar increases in classic pRb/E2F-regulated transcripts in both tissues, but, unexpectedly, their protein products increased only in the colon, consistent with its increased proliferative index. Thus, these protein changes induced by Rb loss are coupled with proliferation but uncoupled from transcription. The proteomic changes in common between RbKO tissues showed a striking decrease in proteins with mitochondrial functions. Accordingly, RB1 inactivation in human cells decreased both mitochondrial mass and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) function. RBKO cells showed decreased mitochondrial respiratory capacity and the accumulation of hypopolarized mitochondria. Additionally, RB/Rb loss altered mitochondrial pyruvate oxidation from 13C-glucose through the TCA cycle in mouse tissues and cultured cells. Consequently, RBKO cells have an enhanced sensitivity to mitochondrial stress conditions. In summary, proteomic analyses provide a new perspective on Rb/RB1 mutation, highlighting the importance of pRb for mitochondrial function and suggesting vulnerabilities for treatment. PMID:26314710

  3. Development of Composite Adsorbents for LLW Treatment and Their Adsorption Properties for Cs and Sr - 13127

    SciTech Connect

    Susa, Shunsuke; Mimura, Hitoshi; Ito, Yoshiyuki; Saito, Yasuo

    2013-07-01

    In this study, the composite adsorbents (KCoFC-NM (NM: natural mordenite), KCoFC-SG (SG: porous silica gel), AMP-SG and so on) were prepared by impregnation-precipitation methods. As for the distribution properties, the largest K{sub d,Cs} value of 3.8 x 10{sup 4} cm{sup 3}/g was obtained for KCoFC-SG (Davi.) composite. KCoFC-SG (NH, MB5D) and T-KCFC also had relatively large K{sub d,Cs} values above 1.0 x 10{sup 4} cm{sup 3}/g. The uptake rate of Cs{sup +} ions was examined by batch method. KCoFC-SG (NH, MB5D) and AMP-SG (Davi.) had relatively large uptake rate of Cs{sup +}, and the uptake attained equilibrium within 1 h. The maximum uptake capacity of Cs{sup +} ions was estimated to be above 0.5 mmol/g for KCoFC-NM and KCoFC-CP composites. KCoFC-X composite had a relatively large uptake capacity of Cs{sup +} ions (0.23 mmol/g > 0.17 mmol/g (T-KCFC)) and this composite also had a selectivity towards Sr{sup 2+} ions; KCoFC-X is effective adsorbent for both Cs{sup +} and Sr{sup 2+} ions. The largest value of K{sub d,Sr} was estimated to be 218 cm{sup 3}/g for titanic acid-PAN. Titanic acid-PAN had the largest uptake rate of Sr{sup 2+} ions, and the uptake attained equilibrium within 8 h. Adsorbability of other nuclides was further examined by batch method. All adsorbents had adsorbability for Rb{sup +} and RuNO{sup 3+} ions. KCoFC-SG (NH), KCoFC-CP and T-KCFC had higher selectivity towards Cs{sup +} than other adsorbents; these adsorbents had adsorbability to Cs{sup +} ions even in the presence of Ba{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} ions. The separation factor of K{sub d,Sr}/K{sub d,Ba} for titanic acid-PAN was about 1, indicating that the K{sub d,Sr} for titanic acid-PAN tends to decrease with Ba{sup 2+} concentration. As for the breakthrough properties, the largest 5 % breakpoint and 5 % breakthrough capacity of Cs{sup +} ions were estimated to be 47.1 cm{sup 3} and 0.07 mmol/g for the column of KCoFC-SG (NH), respectively. The order of 5 % breakthrough capacity

  4. Rb selectively inhibits innate IFN-β production by enhancing deacetylation of IFN-β promoter through HDAC1 and HDAC8.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jun; Liu, Xingguang; Zhang, Peng; Li, Dong; Xu, Sheng; Zhou, Qingqing; Guo, Meng; Huai, Wanwan; Chen, Xiang; Wang, Quanxing; Li, Nan; Cao, Xuetao

    2016-09-01

    Type I IFN production is tightly controlled by host to generate efficient viral clearance without harmful immunopathology or induction of autoimmune disorders. Epigenetic regulation of type I IFN production in innate immunity and inflammatory disorders remains to be fully understood. Several tumor suppressors have been shown to regulate immune response and inflammation. However, the non-classical functions of tumor suppressors in innate immunity and inflammatory diseases need further identification. Here we report retinoblastoma protein (Rb) deficiency selectively enhanced TLR- and virus-triggered production of IFN-β which thus induced more IFN-α generation in the later phase of innate stimuli, but had no effect on the production of TNF, IL-6 and early phase IFN-α in macrophages. Rb1(fl/fl)Lyz2cre(+) Rb-deficient mice exhibited more resistant to lethal virus infection and more effective clearance of influenza virus. Rb selectively bound Ifnb1 enhancer region, but not the promoter of Ifna4, Tnf and Il6, by interacting with c-Jun, the component of IFN-β enhanceosome. Then Rb recruited HDAC1 and HDAC8 to attenuate acetylation of Histone H3/H4 in Ifnb1 promoter, resulting in suppression of Ifnb1 transcription. Therefore, Rb selectively inhibits innate IFN-β production by enhancing deacetylation of Ifnb1 promoter, exhibiting a previous unknown non-classical role in innate immunity, which also suggests a role of Rb in the regulation of type I IFN production in inflammatory or autoimmune diseases. PMID:27267461

  5. Coherent and collimated blue light generated by four-wave mixing in Rb vapour.

    PubMed

    Akulshin, Alexander M; McLean, Russell J; Sidorov, Andrei I; Hannaford, Peter

    2009-12-01

    We investigate frequency up-conversion of low power cw resonant radiation in Rb vapour as a function of various experimental parameters. We present evidence that the process of four wave mixing is responsible for unidirectional blue light generation and that the phase matching conditions along a light-induced waveguide determine the direction and divergence of the blue light. Velocity-selective excitation to the 5D level via step-wise and two-photon processes results in a Doppler-free dependence on the frequency detuning of the applied laser fields from the respective dipole-allowed transitions. Possible schemes for ultraviolet generation are discussed.

  6. RbCa2Nb3O10 from X-ray powder data

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zhen-Hua; Tang, Kai-Bin; Chen, Qian-Wang; Zheng, Hua-Gui

    2009-01-01

    Rubidium dicalcium triniobate(V), RbCa2Nb3O10, has been synthesized by solid-state reaction and its crystal structure refined from X-ray powder diffraction data using Rietveld analysis. The compound is a three-layer perovskite Dion–Jacobson phase with the perovskite-like slabs derived by termination of the three-dimensional CaNbO3 perovskite structure along the ab plane. The rubidium ions (4/mmm symmetry) are located in the inter­stitial space. PMID:21582979

  7. Memory Is Not Extinguished along with CS Presentation but within a Few Seconds after CS-Offset

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Cuesta, Luis Maria; Hepp, Yanil; Pedreira, Maria Eugenia; Maldonado, Hector

    2007-01-01

    Prior work with the crab's contextual memory model showed that CS-US conditioned animals undergoing an unreinforced CS presentation would either reconsolidate or extinguish the CS-US memory, depending on the length of the reexposure to the CS. Either memory process is only triggered once the CS is terminated. Based on these results, the following…

  8. Overlapping and distinct pRb pathways in the mammalian auditory and vestibular organs.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mingqian; Sage, Cyrille; Tang, Yong; Lee, Sang Goo; Petrillo, Marco; Hinds, Philip W; Chen, Zheng-Yi

    2011-01-15

    Retinoblastoma gene (Rb1) is required for proper cell cycle exit in the developing mouse inner ear and its deletion in the embryo leads to proliferation of sensory progenitor cells that differentiate into hair cells and supporting cells. In a conditional hair cell Rb1 knockout mouse, Pou4f3-Cre-pRb(-/-), pRb(-/-) utricular hair cells differentiate and survive into adulthood whereas differentiation and survival of pRb(-/-) cochlear hair cells are impaired. To comprehensively survey the pRb pathway in the mammalian inner ear, we performed microarray analysis of (pRb(-/-) cochlea and utricle. The comparative analysis shows that the core pathway shared between pRb(-/-) cochlea and utricle is centered on E2F, the key pathway that mediates pRb function. A majority of differentially expressed genes and enriched pathways are not shared but uniquely associated with pRb(-/-) cochlea or utricle. In pRb(-/-) cochlea, pathways involved in early inner ear development such as Wnt/β-catenin and Notch were enriched, whereas pathways involving in proliferation and survival are enriched in pRb(-/-) utricle. Clustering analysis showed that the pRb(-/-) inner ear has characteristics of a younger control inner ear, an indication of delayed differentiation. We created a transgenic mouse model (ER-Cre-pRb(flox/flox)) in which Rb1 can be acutely deleted postnatally. Acute Rb1 deletion in the adult mouse fails to induce proliferation or cell death in inner ear, strongly indicating that Rb1 loss in these postmitotic tissues can be effectively compensated for, or that pRb-mediated changes in the postmitotic compartment result in events that are functionally irreversible once enacted. This study thus supports the concept that pRb-regulated pathways relevant to hair cell development, encompassing proliferation, differentiation and survival, act predominantly during early development.

  9. Potential value of Cs-137 capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomster, C.H.; Brown, D.R.; Bruno, G.A.; Hazelton, R.F.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Lezberg, A.J.; Tingey, G.L.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1985-04-01

    We determined the value of Cs-137 compared to Co-60 as a source for the irradiation of fruit (apples and cherries), pork and medical supplies. Cs-137, in the WESF capsule form, had a value of approximately $0.40/Ci as a substitute for Co-60 priced at approximately $1.00/Ci. The comparison was based on the available curies emitted from the surface of each capsule. We developed preliminary designs for fourteen irradiation facilities; seven were based on Co-60 and seven were based on Cs-137. These designs provided the basis for estimating capital and operating costs which, in turn, provided the basis for determining the value of Cs-137 relative to Co-60 in these applications. We evaluated the effect of the size of the irradiation facility on the value of Cs-137. The cost of irradiation is low compared to the value of the product. Irradiation of apples for disinfestation costs $.01 to .02 per pound. Irradiation for trichina-safe pork costs $.02 per pound. Irradiation of medical supplies for sterilization costs $.07 to .12 per pound. The cost of the irradiation source, either Co-60 or Cs-137, contributed only a minor amount to the total cost of irradiation, about 5% for the fruit and hog cases and about 20% for the medical supply cases. We analyzed the sensitivity of the irradiation costs and Cs-137 value to several key assumptions.

  10. Ion-modulated nonlinear electronic transport in carbon nanotube bundle/RbAg4I5 thin film composite nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jia-Lin; Zhang, Wei; Wei, Jinquan; Gu, Bingfu

    2014-01-01

    We have explored the ion-modulated electronic transport properties of mixed ionic-electronic conductor (MIEC) composite nanostructures made of superionic conductor RbAg4I5 films and carbon nanotube (CNT) bundle spiderwebs. Our experimental and theoretical studies indicate that the formation of ion-electron bound states (IEBSs) leads to strong ion-electron interference effect and interesting electronic transport of CNT, such as nonlinear current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and novel temperature dependence of the current. With increasing temperature, the hybrid nanostructures show rich phases with different dependence of current on temperature, which is related to the structural phase transition of RbAg4I5 and the transition of dissociation of IEBSs. The ion-modulation of the electric conductivity in such MIEC composite nanostructures with great tunability has been used to design new ionic-electronic composite nano-devices with function like field effect transistor.

  11. Superionic behavior in the xAgI-(1-x)CsAg2I3 polycrystalline system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, L. A.; Zapata, J.; Vargas, R. A.; Peña Lara, D.; Diosa, J. E.

    2016-06-01

    A superionic phase behavior (with DC ionic conductivities higher than 0.01 S/cm) has been observed in xAgI-(1-x)CsAg2I3 (x≈0.67) polycrystalline system grown by slow evaporation using AgI and CsI powders (molar ratio Cs/Ag=0.25) as starting salts and an aqueous solution of HI as solvent. The transition from the normal-to- the superionic state is first-order with a hysteretic behavior in temperature centered at about 116 °C as reflected by thermal (DSC) and electrical conductivity measurements. This mixture is composed of CsAg2I3 and AgI crystalline phases and an additional amorphous AgI phase that explains the glassy-type behavior observed in the superionic phase transition.

  12. Phase 2, multicenter, open-label study of tigatuzumab (CS-1008), a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting death receptor 5, in combination with gemcitabine in chemotherapy-naive patients with unresectable or metastatic pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Forero-Torres, Andres; Infante, Jeffrey R; Waterhouse, David; Wong, Lucas; Vickers, Selwyn; Arrowsmith, Edward; He, Aiwu Ruth; Hart, Lowell; Trent, David; Wade, James; Jin, Xiaoping; Wang, Qiang; Austin, TaShara; Rosen, Michael; Beckman, Robert; von Roemeling, Reinhard; Greenberg, Jonathan; Saleh, Mansoor

    2013-01-01

    Tigatuzumab is the humanized version of the agonistic murine monoclonal antibody TRA-8 that binds to the death receptor 5 and induces apoptosis of human cancer cell lines via the caspase cascade. The combination of tigatuzumab and gemcitabine inhibits tumor growth in murine pancreatic xenografts. This phase 2 trial evaluated the efficacy of tigatuzumab combined with gemcitabine in 62 chemotherapy-naive patients with histologically or cytologically confirmed unresectable or metastatic pancreatic cancer. Patients received intravenous tigatuzumab (8 mg/kg loading dose followed by 3 mg/kg weekly) and gemcitabine (1000 mg/m2 once weekly for 3 weeks followed by 1 week of rest) until progressive disease (PD) or unacceptable toxicity occurred. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS) at 16 weeks. Secondary end points included objective response rate (ORR) (complete responses plus partial responses), duration of response, and overall survival (OS). Safety of the combination was also evaluated. Mean duration of treatment was 18.48 weeks for tigatuzumab and 17.73 weeks for gemcitabine. The PFS rate at 16 weeks was 52.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 39.3–64.1%). The ORR was 13.1%; 28 (45.9%) patients had stable disease and 14 (23%) patients had PD. Median PFS was 3.9 months (95% CI, 2.2–5.4 months). Median OS was 8.2 months (95% CI, 5.1–9.6 months). The most common adverse events related to tigatuzumab were nausea (35.5%), fatigue (32.3%), and peripheral edema (19.4%). Tigatuzumab combined with gemcitabine was well tolerated and may be clinically active for the treatment of chemotherapy-naive patients with unresectable or metastatic pancreatic cancer. PMID:24403266

  13. Infrequent genomic rearrangement and normal expression of the putative RB1 gene in retinoblastoma tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Goddard, A.D.; Balakier, H.; Canton, M.; Dunn, J.; Squire, J.; Reyes, E.; Becker, A.; Phillips, R.A.; Gallie, B.L.

    1988-05-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB) tumors develop when both alleles of a gene (RB1) are mutated and unable to function normally. Recently, others reported the cloning of a gene, 4.7R, with some properties expected for the RB1 gene, namely, a high frequency (30%) of genomic rearrangements in tumors and absence of message in all RB tumors examined. To extend the characterization of this gene, the authors used 4.7R probes to search for genomic rearrangements of DNA and to study the expression of the 4.7R gene in RB tumors, osteosarcoma (OS) tumors arising in RB patients, and other normal and malignant tissues. In 34 previously unreported RB and OS tumors arising in RB patients, the authors observed only four (12%) with genomic abnormalities. Transcripts of 4.7R were present in 12 of 17 RB tumors, 2 of 2 OS tumors, and all non-RB tumors and normal tissues tested. They were unable to confirm the high frequency of truncated messages of 4.7R in RB tumors reported by others, but did not confirm the presence of a truncated transcription in the RB cell line Y79. Of the RB and RB-related OS tumors which appeared normal on Southern blots, 2 of 16 or 12% had abnormal transcripts, giving a combined frequency of 22% abnormalities in the 4.7R gene detectable by Southern and Northern (RNA) blot analyses.

  14. In-flight proton breakup of 73Rb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, A. M.; Anderson, C.; Barney, J.; Estee, J.; Lynch, W. G.; Manfredi, J.; Setiawan, H.; Showalter, R. H.; Sweany, S.; Tangwancharoen, S.; Tsang, M. B.; Winkelbauer, J. R.; Brown, K. W.; Elson, J. M.; Pruitt, C.; Sobotka, L. G.; Chajecki, Z.; Lee, J.

    2015-10-01

    Properties of nuclei beyond the proton drip-line are important for mass models, astrophysics, and nuclear structure. Weakly-bound or proton-unbound nuclei near the rp process waiting-points, in particular, play a critical role in constraining calculations and observations of type I x-ray bursts. The relatively slow β-decay of 72Kr, for instance, may be bypassed significantly by 2p-capture reactions through 73Rb. This process, however, depends sensitively on the 73Rb proton separation energy, Sp. While recent measurements of 65As and 69Br have reduced uncertainties in the reaction sequence, the 72Kr waiting point still remains largely unconstrained. We have performed an experiment at NSCL to measure, using invariant-mass spectroscopy, the decay of 73Rb --> p+72Kr in an attempt to determine Sp (73Rb) . Preliminary results from our recent 73Rb decay experiment will be presented. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE Office of Nuclear Physics, Contract No. DE-FG02-94ER40848.

  15. SUSY effects in Rb: Revisited under current experimental constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Wei; Yang, Jin Min

    2016-06-01

    In this note we revisit the SUSY effects in Rb under current experimental constraints including the LHC Higgs data, the B-physics measurements, the dark matter relic density and direct detection limits, as well as the precision electroweak data. We first perform a scan to figure out the currently allowed parameter space and then display the SUSY effects in Rb. We find that although the SUSY parameter space has been severely restrained by current experimental data, both the general MSSM and the natural-SUSY scenario can still alter Rb with a magnitude sizable enough to be observed at future Z-factories (ILC, CEPC, FCC-ee, Super Z-factory) which produce 109-1012Z-bosons. To be specific, assuming a precise measurement δRb = 2.0 ×10-5 at FCC-ee, we can probe a right-handed stop up to 530 GeV through chargino-stop loops, probe a sbottom to 850 GeV through neutralino-sbottom loops and a charged Higgs to 770 GeV through the Higgs-top quark loops for a large tan ⁡ β. The full one-loop SUSY correction to Rb can reach 1 ×10-4 in natural SUSY and 2 ×10-4 in the general MSSM.

  16. Coulomb excitation of a {sup 78}Rb radioactive beam.

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, J.

    1998-11-18

    In order to test the feasibility of Coulomb excitation of radioactive projectiles with low beam energies and intensities, they have produced a secondary radioactive beam of {sup 78}Rb and Coulomb re-excited it. The beam was produced in the fusion evaporation reaction {sup 24}Mg({sup 58}Ni,3pn){sup 78}Rb at a beam energy of 260 MeV, using the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS accelerator. The residues of interest were separated from other reaction products and non-interacting beam using the Fragment Mass Analyzer (FMA). The beam leaving the FMA was {sup 78}Kr and {sup 78}Rb{sup gs,m1,m2}, which was refocused onto a {sup 58}Ni secondary target. They have extracted a spectrum of {gamma}-rays associated with re-excitation of A = 78 isobars. The re-excitation of stable {sup 78}Kr was observed, which serves as a reference. Gamma-rays associated with excitation of {sup 78}Rb{sup gs,m1,m2} were also seen. The measured yields indicate that all the {sup 78}Rb states are highly deformed.

  17. Aneuploidy in spermatids of Robertsonian (Rb) chromosome heterozygous mice.

    PubMed

    Manieu, Catalina; González, Marisel; López-Fenner, Julio; Page, Jesús; Ayarza, Eliana; Fernández-Donoso, Raúl; Berríos, Soledad

    2014-12-01

    Rb translocations are chromosomal rearrangements frequently found in natural populations of the house mouse Mus musculus domesticus. The standard diploid karyotype of the house mouse consisting of 40 telocentric chromosomes may be reduced by the emergence of metacentric Rb chromosomes. Multiple simple Rb heterozygotes form trivalents exhibiting higher anaphase nondisjunction frequency and consequently higher number of unbalanced gametes than in normal males. This work will attempt to establish whether frequencies of aneuploidy observed in heterozygote spermatids of the house mouse M. musculus domesticus show differences in chromosomes derived from different trivalents. Towards this goal, the number and distribution frequency of aneuploidy was assessed via FISH staining of specific chromosomes of spermatids derived from 2n = 32 individuals. Our results showed that for a given set of target chromosomes, 90% of the gametes were balanced, resulting from alternate segregation, and that there were no differences (approx. 10%) in aneuploidy frequencies in chromosomes derived from different trivalents. These observations suggest that segregation effectiveness does not depend on the type of chromosomes involved in trivalents. As a consequence of the trivalent's configuration, joint segregation of the telocentric chromosomes occurs thus favoring their appearance together in early spermatids. Our data suggest that Rb chromosomes and their telocentric homologs are subject to architectural constraints placing them close to each other. This proximity may ultimately facilitate fusion between them, hence contributing to a prevalence of Rb metacentric chromosomes. PMID:25385393

  18. Silver diffusion and isotope effect in silver rubidium iodide. [RbAg/sub 4/I/sub 5/

    SciTech Connect

    Arzigian, James Simon

    1980-01-01

    The diffusion coefficient of silver in RbAg/sub 4/I/sub 5/ was measured in both superionic phases using radiotracer Ag-110m and serial sectioning with a low temperature sectioning apparatus. The activation energies for diffusion in alpha-RbAg/sub 4/I/sub 5/ and beta-RbAg/sub 4/I/sub 5/, respectively, are 0.11 +- 0.01 eV and 0.20 +- 0.04 eV. An isotope effect for diffusion was also measured in both superionic phases. Ag-105 and Ag-110m radioisotopes were used with gamma spectroscopy and energy discrimination. The effect is small, with no significant temperature variation, with the value at 333/sup 0/K being 0.12 +- 0.01. The second-order phase transition at 208/sup 0/K has a small effect, if any, on the magnitude of the effect. The data suggest that a highly cooperative transport mechanism is responsible for the unusually high values of both the conductivity and diffusion coefficient. Although it is not possible to deduce the particular mechanism involved, theories inolving ionic polarons, or cooperative motion, such as crowdions or solitons, seem consistent with the observed results.

  19. The "Seven Cs" for Employee Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taguchi, Sherrie Gong

    2001-01-01

    Defines the "Seven Cs," traditional yet effective business fundamentals used to engage employees. Discusses how many companies are leveraging the basics of good employee relations in order to inspire staff productivity and loyalty. (GCP)

  20. 135Cs activity and 135Cs/137Cs atom ratio in environmental samples before and after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guosheng; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2016-04-01

    135Cs/137Cs is a potential tracer for radiocesium source identification. However, due to the challenge to measure 135Cs, there were no 135Cs data available for Japanese environmental samples before the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. It was only 3 years after the accident that limited 135Cs values could be measured in heavily contaminated environmental samples. In the present study, activities of 134Cs, 135Cs, and 137Cs, along with their ratios in 67 soil and plant samples heavily and lightly contaminated by the FDNPP accident were measured by combining γ spectrometry with ICP-MS/MS. The arithmetic means of the 134Cs/137Cs activity ratio (1.033 ± 0.006) and 135Cs/137Cs atom ratio (0.334 ± 0.005) (decay corrected to March 11, 2011), from old leaves of plants collected immediately after the FDNPP accident, were confirmed to represent the FDNPP derived radiocesium signature. Subsequently, for the first time, trace 135Cs amounts before the FDNPP accident were deduced according to the contribution of global and FDNPP accident-derived fallout. Apart from two soil samples with a tiny global fallout contribution, contributions of global fallout radiocesium in other soil samples were observed to be 0.338%–52.6%. The obtained 135Cs/137Cs database will be useful for its application as a geochemical tracer in the future.

  1. 135Cs activity and 135Cs/137Cs atom ratio in environmental samples before and after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guosheng; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2016-04-07

    (135)Cs/(137)Cs is a potential tracer for radiocesium source identification. However, due to the challenge to measure (135)Cs, there were no (135)Cs data available for Japanese environmental samples before the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. It was only 3 years after the accident that limited (135)Cs values could be measured in heavily contaminated environmental samples. In the present study, activities of (134)Cs, (135)Cs, and (137)Cs, along with their ratios in 67 soil and plant samples heavily and lightly contaminated by the FDNPP accident were measured by combining γ spectrometry with ICP-MS/MS. The arithmetic means of the (134)Cs/(137)Cs activity ratio (1.033 ± 0.006) and (135)Cs/(137)Cs atom ratio (0.334 ± 0.005) (decay corrected to March 11, 2011), from old leaves of plants collected immediately after the FDNPP accident, were confirmed to represent the FDNPP derived radiocesium signature. Subsequently, for the first time, trace (135)Cs amounts before the FDNPP accident were deduced according to the contribution of global and FDNPP accident-derived fallout. Apart from two soil samples with a tiny global fallout contribution, contributions of global fallout radiocesium in other soil samples were observed to be 0.338%-52.6%. The obtained (135)Cs/(137)Cs database will be useful for its application as a geochemical tracer in the future.

  2. 135Cs activity and 135Cs/137Cs atom ratio in environmental samples before and after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guosheng; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    135Cs/137Cs is a potential tracer for radiocesium source identification. However, due to the challenge to measure 135Cs, there were no 135Cs data available for Japanese environmental samples before the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. It was only 3 years after the accident that limited 135Cs values could be measured in heavily contaminated environmental samples. In the present study, activities of 134Cs, 135Cs, and 137Cs, along with their ratios in 67 soil and plant samples heavily and lightly contaminated by the FDNPP accident were measured by combining γ spectrometry with ICP-MS/MS. The arithmetic means of the 134Cs/137Cs activity ratio (1.033 ± 0.006) and 135Cs/137Cs atom ratio (0.334 ± 0.005) (decay corrected to March 11, 2011), from old leaves of plants collected immediately after the FDNPP accident, were confirmed to represent the FDNPP derived radiocesium signature. Subsequently, for the first time, trace 135Cs amounts before the FDNPP accident were deduced according to the contribution of global and FDNPP accident-derived fallout. Apart from two soil samples with a tiny global fallout contribution, contributions of global fallout radiocesium in other soil samples were observed to be 0.338%–52.6%. The obtained 135Cs/137Cs database will be useful for its application as a geochemical tracer in the future. PMID:27052481

  3. 135Cs activity and 135Cs/137Cs atom ratio in environmental samples before and after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guosheng; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    (135)Cs/(137)Cs is a potential tracer for radiocesium source identification. However, due to the challenge to measure (135)Cs, there were no (135)Cs data available for Japanese environmental samples before the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. It was only 3 years after the accident that limited (135)Cs values could be measured in heavily contaminated environmental samples. In the present study, activities of (134)Cs, (135)Cs, and (137)Cs, along with their ratios in 67 soil and plant samples heavily and lightly contaminated by the FDNPP accident were measured by combining γ spectrometry with ICP-MS/MS. The arithmetic means of the (134)Cs/(137)Cs activity ratio (1.033 ± 0.006) and (135)Cs/(137)Cs atom ratio (0.334 ± 0.005) (decay corrected to March 11, 2011), from old leaves of plants collected immediately after the FDNPP accident, were confirmed to represent the FDNPP derived radiocesium signature. Subsequently, for the first time, trace (135)Cs amounts before the FDNPP accident were deduced according to the contribution of global and FDNPP accident-derived fallout. Apart from two soil samples with a tiny global fallout contribution, contributions of global fallout radiocesium in other soil samples were observed to be 0.338%-52.6%. The obtained (135)Cs/(137)Cs database will be useful for its application as a geochemical tracer in the future. PMID:27052481

  4. The Estherville mesosiderite: U-Pb, Rb-Sr, and Sm-Nd isotopic study of a polymict breccia

    SciTech Connect

    Brouxel, M.; Tatsumoto, M. )

    1991-04-01

    A systematic U-Pb, Sm-Nd, and Rb-Sr isotopic study shows that the Estherville mesosiderite was formed between 4.56 and 4.43 Ga. Observed isotopic heterogeneity is in agreement with multiple generations of meteoritic impacts described in other mesosiderites. At least part of the Estherville silicate fraction was formed early in solar system history as indicated by the Pb-Pb (4555 {plus minus} 35 Ma), U-Pb (4560 {plus minus} 31 Ma), Rb-Sr (4542 {plus minus} 203 Ma), and Sm-Nd (4533 {plus minus} 94 Ma) ages. Mesosiderites therefore present not only petrological but also geochronological similarities with eucrites. The Pb isotopic composition of the metal phase plots on the same isochron as the silicates, indicating formation and subsequent mixing with silicates early in the history of the solar system. This is consistent with previous observations indicating that iron was reduced during the silicate-magmatic stage, most likely a consequence of mixing with metal. In addition to these more-ancient portions of the Estherville breccia, other parts were formed later as suggested by the Pb-Pb (4422 {plus minus} 50 Ma) and U-Pb (4437 {plus minus} 11 Ma) ages observed in a second group of leaches and residues. This age is similar to some cumulate eucrite ages and may represent the formation of a second mesosiderite component. The Sm-Nd and the Rb-Sr ages obtained on Estherville show large errors that may be a consequence of the mixing between the 4.56 and 4.43 Ga endmembers. Estherville, like most mesosiderites, was affected by a major heating event around 3.5-3.7 Ga as shown by the Ar-Ar ages. This heating event partially disturbed the Rb-Sr isotopic system (Rb-Sr metamorphic ages range between 3.81 and 4.08 Ga).

  5. The Estherville mesosiderite: UPb, RbSr, and SmNd isotopic study of a polymict breccia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brouxel, M.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1991-01-01

    A systematic UPb, SmNd, and RbSr isotopic study shows that the Estherville mesosiderite was formed between 4.56 and 4.43 Ga. Observed isotopic heterogeneity is in agreement with multiple generations of meteoritic impacts described in other mesosiderites. At least part of the Estherville silicate fraction was formed early in solar system history as indicated by the Pb-Pb (4555 ?? 35 Ma), UPb (4560 ?? 31 Ma), RbSr (4542 ?? 203 Ma), and SmNd (4533 ?? 94 Ma) ages. Mesosiderites therefore present not only petrological but also geochronological similarities with eucrites. The Pb isotopic composition of the metal phase plots on the same isochron as the silicates, indicating formation and subsequent mixing with silicates early in the history of the solar system. This is consistent with previous observations indicating that iron was reduced during the silicate-magmatic stage, most likely a consequence of mixing with metal. In addition to these more-ancient portions of the Estherville breccia, other parts were formed later as suggested by the Pb-Pb (4422 ?? 50 Ma) and UPb (4437 ?? 11 Ma) ages observed in a second group of leaches and residues. This age is similar to some cumulate eucrite ages and may represent the formation of a second mesosiderite component. The SmNd and the RbSr ages obtained on Estherville show large errors that may be a consequence of the mixing between the 4.56 and 4.43 Ga endmembers. Estherville, like most mesosiderites, was affected by a major heating event around 3.5-3.7 Ga as shown by the Ar-Ar ages (Bogard et al., 1990). This heating event partially disturbed the RbSr isotopic system (RbSr metamorphic ages range between 3.81 and 4.08 Ga). ?? 1991.

  6. Holocene moisture change revealed by the Rb/Sr ratio of aeolian deposits in the southeastern Mu Us Desert, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bing; Jin, Heling; Sun, Liangying; Sun, Zhong; Niu, Qinghe; Xie, Shengbo; Li, Guanhua

    2014-06-01

    Systematic analysis of the Rb and Sr contents and Rb/Sr ratios in different lithological units of the palaeosol-aeolian sequence in the southeastern Mu Us Desert revealed that the Rb/Sr ratio is an accurate proxy for past East Asian summer monsoonal strength and moisture change. A lower Sr content and a higher Rb/Sr ratio, chemical index of alteration (CIA), and clay and organic matter (OM) content in the palaeosol are coincident with stronger Asian summer monsoons and increased precipitation, whereas a higher Sr content and a lower Rb/Sr ratio, CIA, and clay and OM content correspond to a dry climate with weaker summer monsoonal strength. Based on these results, the history of Holocene moisture changes was reconstructed as follows: the moisture was lower before 7.5 ka and approached an optimal climate between 7.5 ka and 4.6 ka, afterwards, the climate tended to be dry. Additionally, six millennial-scale dry events were recorded at the times of ∼7.5 ka, 7.0-6.8 ka, 6.6-5.7 ka, 4.6-4.1 ka, 3.7-3.5 ka, and 3.3-2.5 ka, which were very accordant with cold phases evidenced by ice cores and deep-sea deposits in the low and high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. These were also coincident with weaker Asian summer monsoonal intervals revealed by stalagmites within the dating uncertainties, probably implying a prominent synchronism of Holocene millennial-scale climate changes in the Mu Us Desert and global climate changes.

  7. Fast CsI-phoswich detector

    DOEpatents

    Langenbrunner, James R.

    1996-01-01

    An improved phoswich radiation detector used pure CsI crystal and a fast plastic scintillator and a single photomultiplier tube. The plastic is arranged to receive incident radiation, and that which passed through then strikes the CsI crystal. Scintillation light from both the plastic and CsI crystal are applied to the photomultiplier tube, with the light from the plastic passing through the crystal without absorption therein. Electronics are provided for analyzing the output of the photomultiplier tube to discriminate responses due to the plastic and the CsI crystal, through short gate and long gate integration, to produce results which are indicative of the characteristics of the different types of incident radiation, even in the presence of large amounts of radiation. The phoswich detector has excellent timing resolution. The scintillators of the CsI- phoswich were chosen for their fast risetimes, of about 3 ns for NE102A, and 30 ns for the pure CsI.

  8. Fast CsI-phoswich detector

    DOEpatents

    Langenbrunner, J.R.

    1996-05-07

    An improved phoswich radiation detector used pure CsI crystal and a fast plastic scintillator and a single photomultiplier tube. The plastic is arranged to receive incident radiation, and that which passed through then strikes the CsI crystal. Scintillation light from both the plastic and CsI crystal are applied to the photomultiplier tube, with the light from the plastic passing through the crystal without absorption therein. Electronics are provided for analyzing the output of the photomultiplier tube to discriminate responses due to the plastic and the CsI crystal, through short gate and long gate integration, to produce results which are indicative of the characteristics of the different types of incident radiation, even in the presence of large amounts of radiation. The phoswich detector has excellent timing resolution. The scintillators of the CsI- phoswich were chosen for their fast risetimes, of about 3 ns for NE102A, and 30 ns for the pure CsI. 5 figs.

  9. Plant uptake of cations under nutrient limitation: An environmental tracer study using Ca/Sr and K/Rb ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Z.; Keller, C. K.; Stacks, D.; Grant, M.; Harsh, J. B.; Letourneau, M.; Gill, R. A.; Balogh-Brunstad, Z.; Thomashow, L.; Dohnalkova, A.

    2012-12-01

    Vascular plant growth builds soils and ecosystem nutrient capital by sequestering and partitioning atmospheric CO2 into organic matter and continental runoff and driving terrestrial water and energy balances. Plant root-system functions, e.g. nutrient mobilization and uptake, are altered by environmental stress. However, the stress-response relationships are poorly understood. Chemical tracers have potential for assessing contributions of nutrients from various nutrient pools. Our objective is to quantitatively study how varying degrees of nutrient limitation (and corresponding needs to extract base cations from mineral sources) influence Ca and K uptake functions in a plant-root-mineral system. We are studying plant-driven mineral weathering in column experiments with red pine (Pinus resinosa) seedlings. The columns contain quartz sand amended with anorthite and biotite that constitute the sole mineral sources of Ca and K. These minerals also contain known amounts of Sr and Rb, which exhibit chemical behavior similar to Ca and K, respectively. The solution source of Ca and K was varied by adding 0% (no dissolved Ca and K), 10%, 30%, or 100% of a full strength Ca and K nutrient solution through irrigation water in which both Sr and Rb concentrations were negligible. Selected columns were destructively sampled at 3, 6 and 9 months to harvest biomass and measure plant uptake of cations. We used Ca/Sr and K/Rb ratio results to estimate the contributions of Ca and K from mineral and solution sources. For the 0% nutrient treatment, the Ca/Sr and K/Rb ratios in total biomass at 3 months, compared with those in the mineral phases, suggested preferential uptake of Ca and K over Sr and Rb, respectively, and allowed us to determine uptake discrimination factors for both cations. The K/Rb ratios in total biomass increased with greater K availability in the solution source, as expected, but Ca/Sr ratios did not show any dependence on Ca availability in the solution source

  10. Ab initio study of reactive collisions between Rb((2)S) or Rb((2)P) and OH(-)((1)Σ(+)).

    PubMed

    Kas, Milaim; Loreau, Jérôme; Liévin, Jacques; Vaeck, Nathalie

    2016-05-28

    A theoretical rate constant for the associative detachment reaction Rb((2)S) + OH(-)((1)Σ(+)) → RbOH((1)Σ(+)) + e(-) of 4 × 10(-10) cm(3) s(-1) at 300 K has been calculated. This result agrees with the experimental rate constant of 2-1 (+2)×10(-10)cm(3)s(-1) obtained by Deiglmayr et al. [Phys. Rev. A 86, 043438 (2012)] for a temperature between 200 K and 600 K. A Langevin-based dynamics which depends on the crossing point between the anion (RbOH(-)) and neutral (RbOH) potential energy surfaces has been used. The calculations were performed using the ECP28MDF effective core potential to describe the rubidium atom at the CCSD(T) level of theory and extended basis sets. The effect of ECPs and basis set on the height of the crossing point, and hence the rate constant, has been investigated. The temperature dependence of the latter is also discussed. Preliminary work on the potential energy surface for the excited reaction channel Rb((2)P) + OH(-)((1)Σ(+)) calculated at the CASSCF-icMRCI level of theory is presented. We qualitatively discuss the charge transfer and associative detachment reactions arising from this excited entrance channel.

  11. Dynamics of Rb and 21Ne spin ensembles interacting by spin exchange with a high Rb magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jiancheng; Chen, Yao; Lu, Yan; Quan, Wei; Zou, Sheng

    2016-07-01

    We report on the dynamics of spin-polarized Rb and 21Ne ensembles in which the 21Ne spin ensemble in a glass vapor cell experiences a high magnetic field produced by a Rb electron-spin ensemble. The coupled spin ensembles are modeled and the response of the transverse-step magnetic field excitation is solved and studied experimentally. Moreover, we analyze the frequency response of the ensembles to a transverse-oscillating magnetic field. We demonstrate the strong transverse damping and large frequency shift of the 21Ne spin ensemble as the precession frequencies of 21Ne spin and Rb spin match and the magnetic resonance spectroscopies of the two ensembles merge into one. We also demonstrate the operation of the spin ensembles as a self-compensating co-magnetometer that is insensitive to low-frequency magnetic fields that would be useful for rotation rate sensing. For such sensing applications, a large Rb density is achieved to polarize the 21Ne spins. This density leads to a high Rb electron spin magnetic field and we demonstrate its effect on the dynamics of the co-magnetometer.

  12. Ab initio study of reactive collisions between Rb(2S) or Rb(2P) and OH-(1Σ+)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kas, Milaim; Loreau, Jérôme; Liévin, Jacques; Vaeck, Nathalie

    2016-05-01

    A theoretical rate constant for the associative detachment reaction Rb(2S) + OH-(1Σ+) → RbOH(1Σ+) + e- of 4 × 10-10 cm3 s-1 at 300 K has been calculated. This result agrees with the experimental rate constant of 2- 1 + 2 × 1 0 - 10 cm 3 s - 1 obtained by Deiglmayr et al. [Phys. Rev. A 86, 043438 (2012)] for a temperature between 200 K and 600 K. A Langevin-based dynamics which depends on the crossing point between the anion (RbOH-) and neutral (RbOH) potential energy surfaces has been used. The calculations were performed using the ECP28MDF effective core potential to describe the rubidium atom at the CCSD(T) level of theory and extended basis sets. The effect of ECPs and basis set on the height of the crossing point, and hence the rate constant, has been investigated. The temperature dependence of the latter is also discussed. Preliminary work on the potential energy surface for the excited reaction channel Rb(2P) + OH-(1Σ+) calculated at the CASSCF-icMRCI level of theory is presented. We qualitatively discuss the charge transfer and associative detachment reactions arising from this excited entrance channel.

  13. Ab initio study of reactive collisions between Rb((2)S) or Rb((2)P) and OH(-)((1)Σ(+)).

    PubMed

    Kas, Milaim; Loreau, Jérôme; Liévin, Jacques; Vaeck, Nathalie

    2016-05-28

    A theoretical rate constant for the associative detachment reaction Rb((2)S) + OH(-)((1)Σ(+)) → RbOH((1)Σ(+)) + e(-) of 4 × 10(-10) cm(3) s(-1) at 300 K has been calculated. This result agrees with the experimental rate constant of 2-1 (+2)×10(-10)cm(3)s(-1) obtained by Deiglmayr et al. [Phys. Rev. A 86, 043438 (2012)] for a temperature between 200 K and 600 K. A Langevin-based dynamics which depends on the crossing point between the anion (RbOH(-)) and neutral (RbOH) potential energy surfaces has been used. The calculations were performed using the ECP28MDF effective core potential to describe the rubidium atom at the CCSD(T) level of theory and extended basis sets. The effect of ECPs and basis set on the height of the crossing point, and hence the rate constant, has been investigated. The temperature dependence of the latter is also discussed. Preliminary work on the potential energy surface for the excited reaction channel Rb((2)P) + OH(-)((1)Σ(+)) calculated at the CASSCF-icMRCI level of theory is presented. We qualitatively discuss the charge transfer and associative detachment reactions arising from this excited entrance channel. PMID:27250305

  14. Use of detergent extracts of Brucella abortus RB51 to detect serologic responses in RB51-vaccinated cattle.

    PubMed

    Halling, S M; Koster, N A

    2001-09-01

    Serologic responses to the newly introduced rough Brucella abortus vaccine strain RB51 have been determined in a dot-blot format using gamma-irradiated RB51 cells as the antigen. Because gamma-irradiated cells are not easily prepared and the signal from cells was not always reliable, an alternative antigen was sought. Detergent extracts of B. abortus RB51 were prepared using zwittergent 3-14, Triton X-100, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and examined in a dot-blot format. Zwittergent 3-14 extracts and gamma-irradiated RB51 cells gave the same titers. Unlike gamma-irradiated RB51 cells, zwittergent 3-14 extracts produced signals consistently, and the signals were easily interpreted. Triton X-100 extracts interfered with signal development, and SDS extracts resulted in a high background signal. Western blot analyses revealed several outer membrane proteins in the zwittergent 3-14 extract. The major antigens in the extract had apparent molecular weights of <20,000.

  15. Sp-1 binds promoter elements regulated by the RB protein and Sp-1-mediated transcription is stimulated by RB coexpression.

    PubMed Central

    Udvadia, A J; Rogers, K T; Higgins, P D; Murata, Y; Martin, K H; Humphrey, P A; Horowitz, J M

    1993-01-01

    The retinoblastoma (RB) protein is implicated in transcriptional regulation of at least five cellular genes, including c-fos, c-myc, and transforming growth factor beta 1. Cotransfection of RB and truncated promoter constructs has defined a discrete element (retinoblastoma control element; RCE) within the promoters of each of these genes as being necessary for RB-mediated transcription control. Previously, we have shown that RCEs form protein-DNA complexes in vitro with three heretofore unidentified nuclear proteins and mutation of their DNA-binding site within the c-fos RCE results in an abrogation of RCE-dependent transcription in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that one of the nuclear proteins that binds the c-fos, c-myc, and transforming growth factor beta 1 RCEs in vitro is Sp-1 and that Sp-1 stimulates RCE-dependent transcription in vivo. Moreover, we show that Sp-1-mediated transcription is stimulated by the transient coexpression of RB protein. We conclude from these observations that RB may regulate transcription in part by virtue of its ability to functionally interact with Sp-1. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8475068

  16. Distribution of radioactive cesium ((134)Cs plus (137)Cs) in rice fractions during polishing and cooking.

    PubMed

    Hachinohe, Mayumi; Okunishi, Tomoya; Hagiwara, Shoji; Todoriki, Setsuko; Kawamoto, Shinichi; Hamamatsu, Shioka

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the distribution of cesium-134 ((134)Cs) and cesium-137 ((137)Cs) during polishing and cooking of rice to obtain their processing factors (Pf) and food processing retention factors (Fr) to make the information available for an adequate understanding of radioactive Cs dynamics. Polishing brown rice resulted in a decreased radioactive Cs concentration of the polished rice, but the bran and germ (outer layers) exhibited higher concentrations than brown rice. The Pf values for 100% polished rice and outer layers ranged from 0.47 to 0.48 and 6.5 to 7.8, respectively. The Fr values for 100% polished rice and outer layers were 0.43 and 0.58 to 0.60, respectively. The distribution of radioactive Cs in polished rice and outer layers was estimated at approximately 40 and 60%, respectively. On the other hand, cooked rice showed significantly lower levels of radioactive Cs than polished rice, and transfer of radioactive Cs into wash water was observed. The Pf and Fr values for cooked rice were 0.28 and 0.65 to 0.66, respectively. From these results, we can calculate that if the radioactive Cs concentration in brown rice is 100 Bq/kg, the concentrations of Cs in polished rice and cooked rice will be 47 to 48 Bq/kg and 13 Bq/kg, respectively. PMID:25719881

  17. Distribution of radioactive cesium ((134)Cs plus (137)Cs) in rice fractions during polishing and cooking.

    PubMed

    Hachinohe, Mayumi; Okunishi, Tomoya; Hagiwara, Shoji; Todoriki, Setsuko; Kawamoto, Shinichi; Hamamatsu, Shioka

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the distribution of cesium-134 ((134)Cs) and cesium-137 ((137)Cs) during polishing and cooking of rice to obtain their processing factors (Pf) and food processing retention factors (Fr) to make the information available for an adequate understanding of radioactive Cs dynamics. Polishing brown rice resulted in a decreased radioactive Cs concentration of the polished rice, but the bran and germ (outer layers) exhibited higher concentrations than brown rice. The Pf values for 100% polished rice and outer layers ranged from 0.47 to 0.48 and 6.5 to 7.8, respectively. The Fr values for 100% polished rice and outer layers were 0.43 and 0.58 to 0.60, respectively. The distribution of radioactive Cs in polished rice and outer layers was estimated at approximately 40 and 60%, respectively. On the other hand, cooked rice showed significantly lower levels of radioactive Cs than polished rice, and transfer of radioactive Cs into wash water was observed. The Pf and Fr values for cooked rice were 0.28 and 0.65 to 0.66, respectively. From these results, we can calculate that if the radioactive Cs concentration in brown rice is 100 Bq/kg, the concentrations of Cs in polished rice and cooked rice will be 47 to 48 Bq/kg and 13 Bq/kg, respectively.

  18. Near-Earth Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at CS3-Palmer Divide Station: 2015 June-September

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Brian D.

    2016-01-01

    Lightcurves for 46 near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) were obtained at the Center for Solar System Studies-Palmer Divide Station (CS3-PDS) from 2015 June-September. Four of the asteroids showed indications of non-principal axis rotation (NPAR), or tumbling, (9400) 1994 TW1, (86666) 2000 FL10, (154807) 2004 PP97, and (206378) 2003 RB, but there were insufficient data for full analysis. On the other hand, 2015 JY1 is a confirmed tumbler with a dominate period of 6.442 h and a likely second period of 11.42 h. Evidence of the satellite for the known binary system (385186) 1994 AW1 was found. The estimated size ratio of Ds/Dp >= 0.25 is in good agreement with earlier results. A third period was also found but its origin is not confirmed.

  19. Retinoblastoma protein (RB) interacts with E2F3 to control terminal differentiation of Sertoli cells

    PubMed Central

    Rotgers, E; Rivero-Müller, A; Nurmio, M; Parvinen, M; Guillou, F; Huhtaniemi, I; Kotaja, N; Bourguiba-Hachemi, S; Toppari, J

    2014-01-01

    The retinoblastoma protein (RB) is essential for normal cell cycle control. RB function depends, at least in part, on interactions with the E2F family of DNA-binding transcription factors (E2Fs). To study the role of RB in the adult testis, a Sertoli cell (SC)-specific Rb knockout mouse line (SC-RbKO) was generated using the Cre/loxP recombination system. SC-RbKO mice exhibited an age-dependent testicular atrophy, impaired fertility, severe SC dysfunction, and spermatogenic defects. Removal of Rb in SC induced aberrant SC cycling, dedifferentiation, and apoptosis. Here we show that E2F3 is the only E2F expressed in mouse SCs and that RB interacts with E2F3 during mouse testicular development. In the absence of RB, the other retinoblastoma family members p107 and p130 began interacting with E2F3 in the adult testes. In vivo silencing of E2F3 partially restored the SC maturation and survival as well as spermatogenesis in the SC-RbKO mice. These results point to RB as a key regulator of SC function in adult mice and that the RB/E2F3 pathway directs SC maturation, cell cycle quiescence, and RB protects SC from apoptosis. PMID:24901045

  20. Cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of melanoma cells by docosahexaenoic acid: association with decreased pRb phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Albino, A P; Juan, G; Traganos, F; Reinhart, L; Connolly, J; Rose, D P; Darzynkiewicz, Z

    2000-08-01

    inhibited by DHA with the cells accumulating either in G1 or S phase: 0% in SK-Mel-29 versus 13.3 or 41.2% in SK-Mel-110 in the absence or presence of FBS, respectively. In the absence of serum, considerable death occurred by apoptosis. In addition, DHA treatment resulted in increasing numbers of SK-Mel-110 cells (from 12 to >40%) expressing hypophosphorylated pRb, whereas the levels of cyclin D1 and p21 changed little. Expression of p27 in these cells increased >2.5 times when grown in the absence of FBS but not in the presence of 1% FBS. Thus, we show for the first time that DHA inhibits the growth of cultured metastatic melanoma cells. Furthermore, growth inhibition correlates with a quantitative increase in hypophosphorylated pRb in the representative sensitive melanoma cell line SK-Mel-110. Although multiple factors influence pRb phosphorylation, it appears that both cyclin D1 and p21 expression do not change in the presence of DHA, although p27 was strikingly increased in SK-Mel-110 cells in the absence of FBS. The fact that pRb became hypophosphorylated after exposure to DHA suggests a cross-talk mechanism between fatty acid metabolism and the pRb pathway. Determining the mechanism by which PUFAs can inhibit melanoma growth will be an important first step in the rational use of PUFAs as antitumor agents.

  1. Bandwidth and Electron Correlation-Tuned Superconductivity in Rb_{0.8}Fe_{2}(Se_{1-z}S_{z})_{2}.

    PubMed

    Yi, M; Wang, Meng; Kemper, A F; Mo, S-K; Hussain, Z; Bourret-Courchesne, E; Lanzara, A; Hashimoto, M; Lu, D H; Shen, Z-X; Birgeneau, R J

    2015-12-18

    We present a systematic angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy study of the substitution dependence of the electronic structure of Rb_{0.8}Fe_{2}(Se_{1-z}S_{z})_{2} (z=0, 0.5, 1), where superconductivity is continuously suppressed into a metallic phase. Going from the nonsuperconducting Rb_{0.8}Fe_{2}S_{2} to superconducting Rb_{0.8}Fe_{2}Se_{2}, we observe little change of the Fermi surface topology, but a reduction of the overall bandwidth by a factor of 2. Hence, for these heavily electron-doped iron chalcogenides, we have identified electron correlation as explicitly manifested in the quasiparticle bandwidth to be the important tuning parameter for superconductivity, and that moderate correlation is essential to achieving high T_{C}.

  2. Potential role of CS2 photooxidation in tropospheric sulfur chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wine, P. H.; Chameides, W. L.; Ravishankara, A. R.

    1981-01-01

    Absorption cross section measurements and model calculations indicate that CS2 photooxidation may be an important tropospheric sink for the CS2, giving a lifetime on the order of a week or two. If background CS2 levels are 10-20 pptv, then CS2 photooxidation may be an important global source of OCS as well.

  3. A Novel Retinoblastoma Protein (RB) E3 Ubiquitin Ligase (NRBE3) Promotes RB Degradation and Is Transcriptionally Regulated by E2F1 Transcription Factor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingshuang; Zheng, Zongfang; Zhang, Jingyi; Wang, You; Kong, Ruirui; Liu, Jiangying; Zhang, Ying; Deng, Hongkui; Du, Xiaojuan; Ke, Yang

    2015-11-20

    Retinoblastoma protein (RB) plays critical roles in tumor suppression and is degraded through the proteasomal pathway. However, E3 ubiquitin ligases responsible for proteasome-mediated degradation of RB are largely unknown. Here we characterize a novel RB E3 ubiquitin ligase (NRBE3) that binds RB and promotes RB degradation. NRBE3 contains an LXCXE motif and bound RB in vitro. NRBE3 interacted with RB in cells when proteasome activity was inhibited. NRBE3 promoted RB ubiquitination and degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Importantly, purified NRBE3 ubiquitinated recombinant RB in vitro, and a U-box was identified as essential for its E3 activity. Surprisingly, NRBE3 was transcriptionally activated by E2F1/DP1. Consequently, NRBE3 affected the cell cycle by promoting G1/S transition. Moreover, NRBE3 was up-regulated in breast cancer tissues. Taken together, we identified NRBE3 as a novel ubiquitin E3 ligase for RB that might play a role as a potential oncoprotein in human cancers.

  4. Brucella abortus RB51 and hot saline extract from Brucella ovis as antigens in a complement fixation test used To detect sheep vaccinated with Brucella abortus RB51.

    PubMed

    Adone, R; Ciuchini, F

    2001-01-01

    The efficacy of Brucella abortus RB51 and hot saline extract (HSE) from Brucella ovis as antigens in complement fixation (CF) tests was comparatively evaluated in detecting immune responses of sheep vaccinated with B. abortus strain RB51. For this study, four 5-month-old sheep were vaccinated subcutaneously with 5 x 10(9) CFU of RB51, and two sheep received saline. Serum samples collected at different times after vaccination were tested for the presence of antibodies to RB51 by a CF test with RB51 as antigen, previously deprived of anticomplementary activity, and with HSE antigen, which already used as the official antigen to detect B. ovis-infected sheep. The results showed that vaccinated sheep developed antibodies which reacted weakly against HSE antigen and these antibodies were detectable for 30 days after vaccination. However, antibodies to RB51 could be detected for a longer period after vaccination by using homologous RB51 antigen in CF tests. In fact, high titers were still present at 110 days postvaccination with RB51 antigen. Sera from sheep naturally infected with B. ovis also reacted to RB51 but gave lower titers than those detected by HSE antigen. As expected, all sera from RB51-vaccinated sheep remained negative when tested with standard S-type Brucella standard antigens.

  5. Field validation of the use of RB51 as antigen in a complement fixation test to identify calves vaccinated with Brucella abortus RB51.

    PubMed

    Adone, R; Ciuchini, F; Olsen, S

    2001-03-01

    In order to confirm the efficiency of an experimental RB51-based complement fixation (CF) test in identifying cattle vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain RB51, 831 sera from 110 vaccinated and 48 unvaccinated Hereford heifers of Iowa, collected for studies conducted in different years, were sent to Italy without coding to be tested in a CF test using RB51 as antigen. Most of the calves, aged from 3 to 10 months, were vaccinated subcutaneously with the recommended dosage of 10(10) CFU of RB51 commercial vaccine, while only six calves received 10(9) CFU of the same vaccine. Serum samples for serologic testing, collected until 16 postinoculation weeks (PIW), were also tested by routine surveillance tests for brucellosis such as rose bengal plate and CF tests performed with B. abortus smooth strain 99 as control antigen. RB51 CF test results obtained by testing sera from cattle vaccinated in 1999 indicate that the sensitivity of the reaction is 97% at 2 to 3 PIW and 90% until 8 PIW and decreases to 65% at 12 PIW, the specificity remaining at 100%. Collectively, the results of this study confirm that serologic standard tests fail to detect antibodies to RB51 while the RB51-based CF test is able to monitor antibody responses to RB51 until 15 to 16 PIW with a specificity of 100%. In addition, unlike the RB51-based dot blot assay, which is the only test currently used to monitor antibody responses to RB51, the CF test also detected specific responses following vaccination with 10(9) CFU of RB51, although seroconversion was only 50% at 8 PIW. In conclusion, because of high specificity and sensitivity, the CF test described here can be used to efficaciously monitor serologic responses following RB51 vaccination in cattle and could also be employed to detect RB51 infection in humans exposed to this strain.

  6. Neutron scattering studies of spin excitations in superconducting Rb0.82Fe1.68Se2

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Miaoyin; Li, Chunhong; Abernathy, Douglas L; Song, Yu; Carr, Scott V.; Lu, Xiangye; Li, Shiliang; Yamari, Zahra; Hu, Jiangping; Xiang, Tao; Dai, Pengcheng

    2012-01-01

    We use inelastic neutron scattering to show that superconducting (SC) rubidium iron selenide Rb0.82Fe1.68Se2 exhibits antiferromagnetic (AF) spin excitations near the in-plane wave vector Q = ( ,0) identical to that for iron arsenide superconductors. Moreover, we find that these excitations change from incommensurate to commensurate with increasing energy and occur at the expense of spin waves associated with the coexisting 5 5 block AF phase. Since these spin excitations cannot come from Fermi surface nesting based on angle resolved photoemission experiments, our results indicate the presence of local moments in SC Rb0.82Fe1.68Se2 that may have a similar origin as the hourglass-like spin excitations in copper oxide superconductors.

  7. A biokinetic model for {sup 137}Cs

    SciTech Connect

    Melo, D.R.; Lipsztein, J.L.; Oliveira, C.A.N.; Lundgren, D.L.

    1997-08-01

    An improved biokinetic model for {sup 137}Cs in humans was developed based on an analysis of data obtained from individuals internally contaminated during an accident in Goiania, Brazil, and other data. Seventeen children (ten girls and seven boys 1-10 y old), ten adolescents (four females and six males), and thirty adults, (fifteen females and fifteen males) contaminated in the accident in Goiania contributed to this study. {sup 137}Cs retention was determined through periodic measurements in a whole-body counter. In addition to the data on {sup 137}Cs retention from these individuals, data from a study on the metabolism of {sup 137}Cs in immature, adult, and aged Beagle dogs and data from the literature were used in the formulation of the {sup 137}Cs biokinetic model presented. Mathematically, the retention of cesium is described by three exponential terms, and the retention model is based on a step function of body weight. When the ICRP Publication 56 model for cesium was compared to the model suggested in this paper, it was determined that the ICRP model predicts lower effective doses in 5-y-old children and higher effective doses in infants, adolescents, and adults.

  8. CS Unplugged and Middle-School Students' Views, Attitudes, and Intentions regarding CS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Rivka; Armoni, Michal; Ben-Ari, Mordechai

    2012-01-01

    Many students hold incorrect ideas and negative attitudes about computer science (CS). In order to address these difficulties, a series of learning activities called Computer Science Unplugged was developed by Tim Bell and his colleagues. These activities expose young people to central concepts in CS in an entertaining way without requiring a…

  9. Evidence for a late thermal event of unequilibrated enstatite chondrites: a Rb-Sr study of Qingzhen and Yamato 6901 (EH3) and Khairpur (EL6)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torigoye, N.; Shima, M.

    1993-01-01

    The Rb-Sr whole rock and internal systematics of two EH3 chondrites, Qingzhen and Yamato 6901, and of one EL6 chondrite, Khairpur, were determined. The internal Rb-Sr systematics of the EH3 chondrites are highly disturbed. Fractions corresponding to sulfide phases show excess 87Sr, while other fractions corresponding to silicate phases produce a linear trend on a Rb-Sr evolution diagram. If these linear relations are interpreted as isochrons, the ages of the silicate phases are 2.12?? 0.23 Ga and 2.05 ??0.33 Ga with the initial Sr isotopic ratios of 0.7112 ?? 0.0018 and 0.7089 ?? 0.0032, for Qingzhen and Yamato 6901, respectively. The Rb-Sr results are interpeted as indicative of a late thermal event about 2Ga ago on the parent bodies of these EH3 chondrites. These ages agree well with previously published K-Ar ages. An older isochron age of 4.481 ?? 0.036 Ga with a low initial Sr isotopic ratio of 0.69866 ?? 0.00038 was obtained for the data from silicate fractions of Khairpur, indicating early petrological equilibrium on the parent body of EL6 chondrites. -from Authors

  10. Synthesis and characterization of a Mo/Ag/Rb heterotrimetallic cluster with double-cage architecture.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ping; Clegg, William; Harrington, Ross W; Henderson, Richard A

    2005-07-21

    The first Mo/Ag/Rb heterotrimetallic cluster has been synthesised by a self-assembly reaction involving [Mo2O2S2edt2]2-, Ag+, Rb+, S2- and dibenzo-18-crown-6 (DB18C6); the structure consists of two [{Mo6Ag6O6S7edt6}2{Rb(DB18C6)}]3- units linked by Rb-C contacts. PMID:15995741

  11. Mass measurements of neutron-rich Rb and Sr isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klawitter, R.; Bader, A.; Brodeur, M.; Chowdhury, U.; Chaudhuri, A.; Fallis, J.; Gallant, A. T.; Grossheim, A.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Lascar, D.; Leach, K. G.; Lennarz, A.; Macdonald, T. D.; Pearkes, J.; Seeraji, S.; Simon, M. C.; Simon, V. V.; Schultz, B. E.; Dilling, J.

    2016-04-01

    We report on the mass measurements of several neutron-rich Rb and Sr isotopes in the A ≈100 region with the TITAN Penning-trap mass spectrometer. By using highly charged ions in the charge state q =10 + , the masses of Rb,9998 and Sr-10098 have been determined with a precision of 6-12 keV, making their uncertainty negligible for r -process nucleosynthesis network calculations. The mass of 101Sr has been determined directly for the first time with a precision eight times higher than the previous indirect measurement and a deviation of 3 σ when compared to the Atomic Mass Evaluation. We also confirm the mass of 100Rb from a previous measurement. Furthermore, our data indicate the existence of a low-lying isomer with 80 keV excitation energy in 98Rb. We show that our updated mass values lead to minor changes in the r process by calculating fractional abundances in the A ≈100 region of the nuclear chart.

  12. Dissecting Pin1 and phospho-pRb regulation.

    PubMed

    Rizzolio, Flavio; Caligiuri, Isabella; Lucchetti, Chiara; Fratamico, Robert; Tomei, Valentina; Gallo, Gaia; Agelan, Alexis; Ferrari, Giovanni; Toffoli, Giuseppe; Klein-Szanto, Andres J; Giordano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The activity of the Retinoblastoma protein, the master regulator of the cell cycle, is finely regulated by phosphorylation. CDKs and cyclins are major players in phosphorylation and it has been recently discovered that the prolyl isomerase Pin1 is an essential protein that orchestrates this process. In this article, we report new findings regarding the role of Pin1 in the pRb pathway. Our data suggest that PI3K, CDKs, and the Pin1 axis have a critical role in sustaining the complete phosphorylation of pRb. Furthermore, we analyze the correlation between Pin1 and pRb phosphorylation in vivo. We show that, in human malignant glioma tissue microarrays (TMA) and in Pin1 knockout (KO) mice, there is a positive correlation between Pin1 and pRb phosphorylation. Prospectively, our findings suggest that the synergism between CDKs, Pin1, and PI3K inhibitors hold great promise for targeted pharmacological treatment of cancer patients, with the possibility of reaching high effectiveness at tolerated doses.

  13. Sexually dimorphic RB inactivation underlies mesenchymal glioblastoma prevalence in males

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Tao; Warrington, Nicole M.; Luo, Jingqin; Brooks, Michael D.; Dahiya, Sonika; Snyder, Steven C.; Sengupta, Rajarshi; Rubin, Joshua B.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of brain tumors in males is common but unexplained. While sex differences in disease are typically mediated through acute sex hormone actions, sex-specific differences in brain tumor rates are comparable at all ages, suggesting that factors other than sex hormones underlie this discrepancy. We found that mesenchymal glioblastoma (Mes-GBM) affects more males as the result of cell-intrinsic sexual dimorphism in astrocyte transformation. We used astrocytes from neurofibromin-deficient (Nf1–/–) mice expressing a dominant-negative form of the tumor suppressor p53 (DNp53) and treated them with EGF as a Mes-GBM model. Male Mes-GBM astrocytes exhibited greater growth and colony formation compared with female Mes-GBM astrocytes. Moreover, male Mes-GBM astrocytes underwent greater tumorigenesis in vivo, regardless of recipient mouse sex. Male Mes-GBM astrocytes exhibited greater inactivation of the tumor suppressor RB, higher proliferation rates, and greater induction of a clonogenic, stem-like cell population compared with female Mes-GBM astrocytes. Furthermore, complete inactivation of RB and p53 in Mes-GBM astrocytes resulted in equivalent male and female tumorigenic transformation, indicating that intrinsic differences in RB activation are responsible for the predominance of tumorigenic transformation in male astrocytes. Together, these results indicate that cell-intrinsic sex differences in RB regulation and stem-like cell function may underlie the predominance of GBM in males. PMID:25083989

  14. Treating cancer when pRb and p53 cannot be reactivated.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Activation of oncoproteins and inactivation of tumor suppressors induces tumorigenesis. When these events happen upstream of pRb and p53, cancer therapies may initially succeed and then fail when pRb and p53 are activated and then re-inactivated. Therapies might succeed if they remain effective when pRb and p53 are genetically inactivated.

  15. Immune responses of bison and efficacy after booster vaccination with Brucella abortus strain RB51

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty-one bison heifers were randomly assigned to saline (control; n=7) or single vaccination (n=24) with 1010 CFU of B. abortus strain RB51 (RB51). Some vaccinated bison were randomly selected for booster vaccination with 10**10 CFU of RB51 at 11 months after initial vaccination (n=16). When comp...

  16. Baicalein induces G1 arrest in oral cancer cells by enhancing the degradation of cyclin D1 and activating AhR to decrease Rb phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Ya-Hsin; Li, Lih-Ann; Lin, Pinpin; Cheng, Li-Chuan; Hung, Chein-Hui; Chang, Nai Wen; Lin, Chingju

    2012-09-15

    Baicalein is a flavonoid, known to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. As an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand, baicalein at high concentrations blocks AhR-mediated dioxin toxicity. Because AhR had been reported to play a role in regulating the cell cycle, we suspected that the anti-cancer effect of baicalein is associated with AhR. This study investigated the molecular mechanism involved in the anti-cancer effect of baicalein in oral cancer cells HSC-3, including whether such effect would be AhR-mediated. Results revealed that baicalein inhibited cell proliferation and increased AhR activity in a dose-dependent manner. Cell cycle was arrested at the G1 phase and the expression of CDK4, cyclin D1, and phosphorylated retinoblastoma (pRb) was decreased. When the AhR was suppressed by siRNA, the reduction of pRb was partially reversed, accompanied by a decrease of cell population at G1 phase and an increase at S phase, while the reduction of cyclin D1 and CDK4 did not change. This finding suggests that the baicalein activation of AhR is indeed associated with the reduction of pRb, but is independent of the reduction of cyclin D1 and CDK4. When cells were pre-treated with LiCl, the inhibitor of GSK-3β, the decrease of cyclin D1 was blocked and the reduction of pRb was recovered. The data indicates that in HSC-3 the reduction of pRb is both mediated by baicalein through activation of AhR and facilitation of cyclin D1 degradation, which causes cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase, and results in the inhibition of cell proliferation. -- Highlights: ► Baicalein causes the G1 phase arrest by decreasing Rb phosphorylation. ► Baicalein modulates AhR-mediated cell proliferation. ► Both AhR activation and cyclin D1 degradation results in hypophosphorylation of Rb. ► Baicalein facilitates cyclin D1 degradation by signalling the GSK-3β pathway.

  17. RB69 DNA Polymerase Structure, Kinetics, and Fidelity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This review will summarize our structural and kinetic studies of RB69 DNA polymerase (RB69pol) as well as selected variants of the wild-type enzyme that were undertaken to obtain a deeper understanding of the exquisitely high fidelity of B family replicative DNA polymerases. We discuss how the structures of the various RB69pol ternary complexes can be used to rationalize the results obtained from pre-steady-state kinetic assays. Our main findings can be summarized as follows. (i) Interbase hydrogen bond interactions can increase catalytic efficiency by 5000-fold; meanwhile, base selectivity is not solely determined by the number of hydrogen bonds between the incoming dNTP and the templating base. (ii) Minor-groove hydrogen bond interactions at positions n – 1 and n – 2 of the primer strand and position n – 1 of the template strand in RB69pol ternary complexes are essential for efficient primer extension and base selectivity. (iii) Partial charge interactions among the incoming dNTP, the penultimate base pair, and the hydration shell surrounding the incoming dNTP modulate nucleotide insertion efficiency and base selectivity. (iv) Steric clashes between mismatched incoming dNTPs and templating bases with amino acid side chains in the nascent base pair binding pocket (NBP) as well as weak interactions and large gaps between the incoming dNTPs and the templating base are some of the reasons that incorrect dNTPs are incorporated so inefficiently by wild-type RB69pol. In addition, we developed a tC°–tCnitro Förster resonance energy transfer assay to monitor partitioning of the primer terminus between the polymerase and exonuclease subdomains. PMID:24720884

  18. First-principles calculations of two cubic fluoropervskite compounds: RbFeF3 and RbNiF3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mubarak, A. A.; Al-Omari, Saleh

    2015-05-01

    We present first-principles calculations of the structural, elastic, electronic, magnetic and optical properties for RbFeF3 and RbNiF3. The full-potential linear augmented plan wave (FP-LAPW) method within the density functional theory was utilized to perform the present calculations. We employed the generalized gradient approximation as exchange-correlation potential. It was found that the calculated analytical lattice parameters agree with previous studies. The analysis of elastic constants showed that the present compounds are elastically stable and anisotropic. Moreover, both compounds are classified as a ductile compound. The calculations of the band structure and density functional theory revealed that the RbFeF3 compound has a half-metallic behavior while the RbNiF3 compound has a semiconductor behavior with indirect (M-Γ) band gap. The ferromagnetic behavior was studied for both compounds. The optical properties were calculated for the radiation of up to 40 eV. A beneficial optics technology is predicted as revealed from the optical spectra.

  19. Bovine IFNGR2, IL12RB1, IL12RB2, and IL23R polymorphisms and MAP infection status.

    PubMed

    Pant, Sameer D; Verschoor, Chris P; Skelding, Alicia M; Schenkel, Flavio S; You, Qiumei; Biggar, Graham A; Kelton, David F; Karrow, Niel A

    2011-10-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection causes a chronic granulomatous inflammatory condition of the bovine gut that is characterized by diarrhea, progressive weight loss, and emaciation, and ultimately leads to loss in productivity and profitability of dairy operations. The host cytokine machinery is known to play an important role in protecting against MAP infection. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to assess whether polymorphisms in candidate genes encoding important cytokines and cytokine receptors are associated with MAP infection status of dairy cattle. MAP infection status was evaluated based on serum and milk enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for MAP-specific antibodies. Twenty previously reported polymorphisms in genes encoding bovine interferon gamma (IFNG), IFNGR1, IFNGR2, IL22, IL22RA1, IL12RB1, IL12RB2, and IL23R were genotyped in a resource population of 446 dairy Holsteins with known MAP infection status, and logistic regression was used to assess the statistical association with a binomial MAP infection status phenotype. Four SNPs in IFNGR2, IL12RB1, IL12RB2, and IL23R were found to be associated with the MAP infection status of the resource population. These results underscore the importance of cytokines and their receptors in conferring protection against MAP infection and warrant further functional characterization of these associations. PMID:21597988

  20. Structure and stability of the low-temperature modification compounds Cs[sub 3]LnCl[sub 6] (Ln = La-Gd)

    SciTech Connect

    Seifert, H.J.; Fink, H. ); Baumgartner, B. )

    1993-11-01

    The crystal structure of the low-temperature modification of Cs[sub 3]LaCl[sub 6] has been determined from X-ray powder diffraction data by the Rietveld method. The monoclinic lattice with a = 27.286(5) [angstrom]; b = 8.291(1) [angstrom]; c = 13.305(2) [angstrom]; [beta] = 99.64(1)[degrees] belongs to the Cs[sub 3]BiCl[sub 6]-type (space group C2/c). All other compounds Cs[sub 3]LnCl[sub 6] (Ln = Gd) and the analogous Rb-compounds are isotypic. Emf measurements in a galvanic cell for solid electrolytes for the reactions CsCl + Cs[sub 2]LnCl[sub 5] = Cs[sub 3]LnCl[sub 6] reveal that the compounds with Ln = La,Ce,Pr,Nd are formed with a loss of lattice enthalpy, compensated by a considerable gain in entropy; they therefore are stable only at temperatures higher than O K. The compounds with Ln = Sm,Eu,Dg are formed with a gain in lattice enthalpy and are stable at T = OK, too. This difference is attributed to the different crystal structures of the neighboring compounds Cs[sub 2]LnCl[sub 5]: they crystallize with the K[sub 2]PrCl[sub 5]-structure (CN = 7 for Ln[sup 3+]) for the compounds with Ln = La-Nd, while the other compounds belong to the Cs[sub 2]DyCl[sub 5]-type with octahedral surroundings for the Ln[sup 3+] ions.

  1. Deletion of Rb1 induces both hyperproliferation and cell death in murine germinal center B cells.

    PubMed

    He, Zhiwen; O'Neal, Julie; Wilson, William C; Mahajan, Nitin; Luo, Jun; Wang, Yinan; Su, Mack Y; Lu, Lan; Skeath, James B; Bhattacharya, Deepta; Tomasson, Michael H

    2016-03-01

    The retinoblastoma gene (RB1) has been implicated as a tumor suppressor in multiple myeloma (MM), yet its role remains unclear because in the majority of cases with 13q14 deletions, un-mutated RB1 remains expressed from the retained allele. To explore the role of Rb1 in MM, we examined the functional consequences of single- and double-copy Rb1 loss in germinal center B cells, the cells of origin of MM. We generated mice without Rb1 function in germinal center B cells by crossing Rb1(Flox/Flox) with C-γ-1-Cre (Cγ1) mice expressing the Cre recombinase in class-switched B cells in a p107(-/-) background to prevent p107 from compensating for Rb1 loss (Cγ1-Rb1(F/F)-p107(-/-)). All mice developed normally, but B cells with two copies of Rb1 deleted (Cγ1-Rb1(F/F)-p107(-/-)) exhibited increased proliferation and cell death compared with Cγ1-Rb1(+/+)-p107(-/-) controls ex vivo. In vivo, Cγ1-Rb1(F/F)-p107(-/-) mice had a lower percentage of splenic B220+ cells and reduced numbers of bone marrow antigen-specific secreting cells compared with control mice. Our data indicate that Rb1 loss induces both cell proliferation and death in germinal center B cells. Because no B-cell malignancies developed after 1 year of observation, our data also suggest that Rb1 loss is not sufficient to transform post-germinal center B cells and that additional, specific mutations are likely required to cooperate with Rb1 loss to induce malignant transformation.

  2. Electronic and magnetic phase diagram in KxFe2-ySe2 superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Y. J.; Zhang, M.; Wang, A. F.; Ying, J. J.; Li, Z. Y.; Qin, W.; Luo, X. G.; Li, J. Q.; Hu, Jiangping; Chen, X. H.

    2012-01-01

    The correlation and competition between antiferromagnetism and superconductivity are one of the most fundamental issues in high temperature superconductors. Superconductivity in high temperature cuprate superconductors arises from suppressing an antiferromagnetic (AFM) Mott insulator1 while in iron-pnictide superconductors arises from AFM semimetals and can coexist with AFM orders23456789. This difference raises many intriguing debates on the relation between the two classes of high temperature superconductors. Recently, superconductivity at 32 K has been reported in iron-chalcogenide superconductors AxFe2−ySe2 (A = K, Rb, and Cs)101112. They have the same structure as that of iron-pnictide 122-system131415. Here, we report electronic and magnetic phase diagram of KxFe2−ySe2 system as a function of Fe valence. We find a superconducting phase sandwiched between two AFM insulating phases. The two insulating phases are characterized by two distinct superstructures caused by Fe vacancy orders with modulation wave vectors of q1 = (1/5, 3/5, 0) and q2 = (1/4, 3/4, 0), respectively. PMID:22355726

  3. 135Cs/137Cs isotopic composition of environmental samples across Europe: Environmental transport and source term emission applications

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Snow, Mathew S.; Snyder, Darin C.

    2015-11-02

    135Cs/137Cs isotopic analyses represent an important tool for studying the fate and transport of radiocesium in the environment; in this work the 135Cs/137Cs isotopic composition in environmental samples taken from across Europe is reported. Surface soil and vegetation samples from western Russia, Ukraine, Austria, and Hungary show consistent aged thermal fission product 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios of 0.58 ± 0.01 (age corrected to 1/1/15), with the exception of one sample of soil-moss from Hungary which shows an elevated 135Cs/137Cs ratio of 1.78 ± 0.12. With the exception of the outlier sample from Hungary, surface soil/vegetation data are in quantitative agreement withmore » values previously reported for soils within the Chernobyl exclusion zone, suggesting that radiocesium at these locations is primarily composed of homogenous airborne deposition from Chernobyl. Seawater samples taken from the Irish Sea show 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios of 1.22 ± 0.11 (age corrected to 1/1/15), suggesting aged thermal fission product Cs discharged from Sellafield. Furthermore, the differences in 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios between Sellafield, Chernobyl, and global nuclear weapons testing fallout indicate that 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios can be utilized to discriminate between and track radiocesium transport from different nuclear production source terms, including major emission sources in Europe.« less

  4. (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotopic composition of environmental samples across Europe: Environmental transport and source term emission applications.

    PubMed

    Snow, Mathew S; Snyder, Darin C

    2016-01-01

    (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotopic analyses represent an important tool for studying the fate and transport of radiocesium in the environment; in this work the (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotopic composition in environmental samples taken from across Europe is reported. Surface soil and vegetation samples from western Russia, Ukraine, Austria, and Hungary show consistent aged thermal fission product (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotope ratios of 0.58 ± 0.01 (age corrected to 1/1/15), with the exception of one sample of soil-moss from Hungary which shows an elevated (135)Cs/(137)Cs ratio of 1.78 ± 0.12. With the exception of the outlier sample from Hungary, surface soil/vegetation data are in quantitative agreement with values previously reported for soils within the Chernobyl exclusion zone, suggesting that radiocesium at these locations is primarily composed of homogenous airborne deposition from Chernobyl. Seawater samples taken from the Irish Sea show (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotope ratios of 1.22 ± 0.11 (age corrected to 1/1/15), suggesting aged thermal fission product Cs discharged from Sellafield. The differences in (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotope ratios between Sellafield, Chernobyl, and global nuclear weapons testing fallout indicate that (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotope ratios can be utilized to discriminate between and track radiocesium transport from different nuclear production source terms, including major emission sources in Europe.

  5. (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotopic composition of environmental samples across Europe: Environmental transport and source term emission applications.

    PubMed

    Snow, Mathew S; Snyder, Darin C

    2016-01-01

    (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotopic analyses represent an important tool for studying the fate and transport of radiocesium in the environment; in this work the (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotopic composition in environmental samples taken from across Europe is reported. Surface soil and vegetation samples from western Russia, Ukraine, Austria, and Hungary show consistent aged thermal fission product (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotope ratios of 0.58 ± 0.01 (age corrected to 1/1/15), with the exception of one sample of soil-moss from Hungary which shows an elevated (135)Cs/(137)Cs ratio of 1.78 ± 0.12. With the exception of the outlier sample from Hungary, surface soil/vegetation data are in quantitative agreement with values previously reported for soils within the Chernobyl exclusion zone, suggesting that radiocesium at these locations is primarily composed of homogenous airborne deposition from Chernobyl. Seawater samples taken from the Irish Sea show (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotope ratios of 1.22 ± 0.11 (age corrected to 1/1/15), suggesting aged thermal fission product Cs discharged from Sellafield. The differences in (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotope ratios between Sellafield, Chernobyl, and global nuclear weapons testing fallout indicate that (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotope ratios can be utilized to discriminate between and track radiocesium transport from different nuclear production source terms, including major emission sources in Europe. PMID:26540258

  6. Electric Field Cancellation on Quartz by Rb Adsorbate-Induced Negative Electron Affinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedlacek, J. A.; Kim, E.; Rittenhouse, S. T.; Weck, P. F.; Sadeghpour, H. R.; Shaffer, J. P.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the (0001) surface of single crystal quartz with a submonolayer of Rb adsorbates. Using Rydberg atom electromagnetically induced transparency, we investigate the electric fields resulting from Rb adsorbed on the quartz surface, and measure the activation energy of the Rb adsorbates. We show that the adsorbed Rb induces negative electron affinity (NEA) on the quartz surface. The NEA surface allows low energy electrons to bind to the surface and cancel the electric field from the Rb adsorbates. Our results will be important for integrating Rydberg atoms into hybrid quantum systems, as fundamental probes of atom-surface interactions, and for studies of 2D electron gases bound to surfaces.

  7. Electric Field Cancellation on Quartz by Rb Adsorbate-Induced Negative Electron Affinity.

    PubMed

    Sedlacek, J A; Kim, E; Rittenhouse, S T; Weck, P F; Sadeghpour, H R; Shaffer, J P

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the (0001) surface of single crystal quartz with a submonolayer of Rb adsorbates. Using Rydberg atom electromagnetically induced transparency, we investigate the electric fields resulting from Rb adsorbed on the quartz surface, and measure the activation energy of the Rb adsorbates. We show that the adsorbed Rb induces negative electron affinity (NEA) on the quartz surface. The NEA surface allows low energy electrons to bind to the surface and cancel the electric field from the Rb adsorbates. Our results will be important for integrating Rydberg atoms into hybrid quantum systems, as fundamental probes of atom-surface interactions, and for studies of 2D electron gases bound to surfaces. PMID:27081976

  8. Properties of CsI and CsI-TMAE photocathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.F.; Kwan, S.; Peskov, V.; Hoeneisen, B.

    1992-06-01

    The importance of heating the CsI or CsI-TMAE photocathodes during preparation, as well as the importance of the gas environment on the quantum efficiency is presented. The dependence of the aging characteristics of these photocathodes on the operating temperature, on the presence of gas, and on the charge amplification of the chamber is also discussed. For CsI photocathodes charges in excess of 2{times}10{sup 14} e{sup {minus}}/mm{sup 2} can be collected with little degradation of performance. A timing resolution of 0.55 ns is also achieved for single photoelectrons suggesting a possible time-of-flight detector.

  9. Pressure induced tetragonal to monoclinic transition in RbN{sub 3} studied from first principles theory

    SciTech Connect

    Vaitheeswaran, G. Babu, K. Ramesh

    2014-04-24

    Alkali metal azides are well known for their application as explosives and gas generators. They are used as precursors in synthesis of polymeric nitrogen, an ultimate green high energy density material. Among the alkali metal azides, rubidium azide RbN{sub 3} crystallizes in tetragonal structure with linear azide ions arranged in layers and binds through weak dispersive interactions. In this present work, we have studied the structural stability, electronic structure and optical properties of solid RbN{sub 3} by using van der Waals corrected density functional theory. We find that the ambient tetragonal structure undergoes a structural transition to monoclinic structure at 0.72 GPa, which is in good agreement with the experimental transition pressure of less than 1 GPa. The phonon frequencies at the gamma point are calculated and found that the lattice mode Eg softens under pressure which may supports the structural phase transition. The electronic band structure and optical properties are calculated by using Tran Blaha-modified Becke Johnson (TB-mBJ) functional and found that solid RbN{sub 3} is an insulator with a gap of 5.976 eV and the optical absorption starts with the UV light of wave length 207.5 nm.

  10. A subset of malignant phyllodes tumors harbors alterations in the Rb/p16 pathway.

    PubMed

    Cimino-Mathews, Ashley; Hicks, Jessica L; Sharma, Rajni; Vang, Russell; Illei, Peter B; De Marzo, Angelo; Emens, Leisha A; Argani, Pedram

    2013-11-01

    Breast phyllodes tumors are fibroepithelial neoplasms with variable risk of aggressive local recurrence and distant metastasis, and the molecular pathogenesis is unclear. Here, we systematically study p16 and Rb expression in 34 phyllodes tumors in relation to proliferation. Tissue microarrays were constructed from 10 benign, 10 borderline, and 14 malignant phyllodes (5 cores/tumor) and from 10 fibroadenomas (2 cores/tumor). Tissue microarrays were labeled by immunohistochemistry for p16, Rb, and Ki-67 and by in situ hybridization for high-risk human papillomavirus. Cytoplasmic and nuclear p16 were scored by percentage labeling (0%-100%, diffuse >95%) and intensity. Nuclear Rb was scored by percentage labeling (0%-100%, diffuse >75%) and intensity. p16 and Rb labeling were repeated on whole sections of cases with Rb loss on the tissue microarray. Twenty-nine percent (4/14) malignant phyllodes showed diffuse strong p16 labeling with Rb loss in malignant cells (diffuse p16+/Rb-), whereas 21% (3/14) malignant phyllodes showed the reverse pattern of p16 loss with diffuse strong Rb (p16-/diffuse Rb+). Results were consistent between tissue microarrays and whole sections. No borderline phyllodes, benign phyllodes, or fibroadenoma showed diffuse p16+/Rb- or p16-/diffuse Rb+ phenotypes. No cases contained high-risk human papillomavirus. Average Ki-67 proliferation indices were 15% in malignant phyllodes, 1.7% in borderline phyllodes, 0.5% in benign phyllodes, and 0% in fibroadenoma. Ki-67 was highest in malignant phyllodes with diffuse p16+/Rb- labeling. In summary, 50% malignant phyllodes display evidence of Rb/p16 pathway alterations, likely reflecting p16 or Rb inactivation. These and other mechanisms may contribute to the increased proliferation in malignant phyllodes relative to other fibroepithelial neoplasms.

  11. Low level detection of Cs-135 and Cs-137 in environmental samples by ICP-MS

    SciTech Connect

    Liezers, Martin; Farmer, Orville T.; Thomas, Linda MP

    2009-10-01

    The measurement of the fission product cesium isotopes 135Cs and 137Cs at low femtogram (fg) 10-15 levels in ground water by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry ICP-MS is reported. To eliminate the potential natural barium isobaric interference on the cesium isotopes, in-line chromatographic separation of the cesium from barium was performed followed by high sensitivity ICP-MS analysis. A high efficiency desolvating nebulizer system was employed to maximize ICP-MS sensitivity ~10cps/femtogram. The three sigma detection limit measured for 135Cs was 2fg/ml (0.1uBq/ml) and for 137Cs 0.9fg/ml (0.0027Bq/ml) with analysis time of less than 30 minutes/sample. Cesium detection and 135/137 isotope ratio measurement at very low femtogram levels using this method in a ground water matrix is also demonstrated.

  12. High-temperature dehydration behavior and protonic conductivity of RbH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} in humid atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zikun; Tang, Tongbor

    2010-12-15

    The high-temperature (HT) properties of RbH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} have been investigated here by several methods. Two anomalies at T{sub p} ({approx}109 {sup o}C) and T{sup '}{sub p} ({approx}276 {sup o}C) in differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurement are due to structural transition from tetragonal (phase III) to monoclinic (phase II) and monoclinic to an unidentified phase I, respectively. The initial dehydration event in RbH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} occurs at {approx}250 {sup o}C, leading to the formation of dimer crust (Rb{sub 2}H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}) on the external surface of crystal particles which decelerates the further dehydration process. The conductivity measurement was performed under a highly humidified N{sub 2} condition P{sub H{sub 2O}}{approx}0.56atm to suppress its dehydration. It revealed two reversible superprotonic phase transition at T{sub p} and T{sup '}{sub p}. For the one at T{sup '}{sub p}, the conductivity increases sharply by {approx}2 orders of magnitude and the high-conductivity phase I was stable till melting. However, the other one at T{sub p} shows a relatively small jump in conductivity.

  13. Determination of ¹³⁵Cs and ¹³⁷Cs in environmental samples: A review.

    PubMed

    Russell, B C; Croudace, Ian W; Warwick, Phil E

    2015-08-26

    Radionuclides of caesium are environmentally important since they are formed as significant high yield fission products ((135)Cs and (137)Cs) and activation products ((134)Cs and (136)Cs) during nuclear fission. They originate from a range of nuclear activities such as weapons testing, nuclear reprocessing and nuclear fuel cycle discharges and nuclear accidents. Whilst (137)Cs, (134)Cs and (136)Cs are routinely measurable at high sensitivity by gamma spectrometry, routine detection of long-lived (135)Cs by radiometric methods is challenging. This measurement is, however, important given its significance in long-term nuclear waste storage and disposal. Furthermore, the (135)Cs/(137)Cs ratio varies with reactor, weapon and fuel type, and accurate measurement of this ratio can therefore be used as a forensic tool in identifying the source(s) of nuclear contamination. The shorter-lived activation products (134)Cs and (136)Cs have a limited application but provide useful early information on fuel irradiation history and have importance in health physics. Detection of (135)Cs (and (137)Cs) is achievable by mass spectrometric techniques; most commonly inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), as well as thermal ionisation (TIMS), accelerator (AMS) and resonance ionisation (RIMS) techniques. The critical issues affecting the accuracy and detection limits achievable by this technique are effective removal of barium to eliminate isobaric interferences arising from (135)Ba and (137)Ba, and elimination of peak tailing of stable (133)Cs on (135)Cs. Isobaric interferences can be removed by chemical separation, most commonly ion exchange chromatography, and/or instrumental separation using an ICP-MS equipped with a reaction cell. The removal of the peak tailing interference is dependent on the instrument used for final measurement. This review summarizes and compares the analytical procedures developed for determination of (135)Cs/(137)Cs, with particular focus on

  14. Determination of ¹³⁵Cs and ¹³⁷Cs in environmental samples: A review.

    PubMed

    Russell, B C; Croudace, Ian W; Warwick, Phil E

    2015-08-26

    Radionuclides of caesium are environmentally important since they are formed as significant high yield fission products ((135)Cs and (137)Cs) and activation products ((134)Cs and (136)Cs) during nuclear fission. They originate from a range of nuclear activities such as weapons testing, nuclear reprocessing and nuclear fuel cycle discharges and nuclear accidents. Whilst (137)Cs, (134)Cs and (136)Cs are routinely measurable at high sensitivity by gamma spectrometry, routine detection of long-lived (135)Cs by radiometric methods is challenging. This measurement is, however, important given its significance in long-term nuclear waste storage and disposal. Furthermore, the (135)Cs/(137)Cs ratio varies with reactor, weapon and fuel type, and accurate measurement of this ratio can therefore be used as a forensic tool in identifying the source(s) of nuclear contamination. The shorter-lived activation products (134)Cs and (136)Cs have a limited application but provide useful early information on fuel irradiation history and have importance in health physics. Detection of (135)Cs (and (137)Cs) is achievable by mass spectrometric techniques; most commonly inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), as well as thermal ionisation (TIMS), accelerator (AMS) and resonance ionisation (RIMS) techniques. The critical issues affecting the accuracy and detection limits achievable by this technique are effective removal of barium to eliminate isobaric interferences arising from (135)Ba and (137)Ba, and elimination of peak tailing of stable (133)Cs on (135)Cs. Isobaric interferences can be removed by chemical separation, most commonly ion exchange chromatography, and/or instrumental separation using an ICP-MS equipped with a reaction cell. The removal of the peak tailing interference is dependent on the instrument used for final measurement. This review summarizes and compares the analytical procedures developed for determination of (135)Cs/(137)Cs, with particular focus on

  15. Rb-Sr studies of CI and CM chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Wetherill, G. W.

    1979-01-01

    Rb-Sr whole rock analyses have been performed on 2 CI and 3 CM chondrites. Four of these stones (Ivuna, Orgueil, Cold Bokkeveld and Erakot) were previously studied in this laboratory and were shown to be discordant from a 4.6 Gyr isochron. The fifth, Murchison, was not previously studied. The new data support the discordance of the first four stones, and indicate that Murchison is also discordant. Studies of Sr isotope ratios in unspiked Orgueil show that the discordance is not due to inhomogeneities in the Sr-84/Sr-86 ratio caused by incomplete mixing of nucleosynthesis products. In order to gauge the effects of weathering, two leaching experiments were performed on fresh, interior samples of Murchison; one for a period of 1.5 hr and the other for 117 hr. The results indicate that the relative solubility of nonradiogenic Sr is approximately twice that of Rb and radiogenic Sr is more soluble than the nonradiogenic Sr.

  16. Optimization of buffer gas pressure for Rb atomic magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chang; Liu, Xiaohu; Qu, Tianliang; Yang, Kaiyong

    2015-08-01

    The optimization of buffer gas pressure is very important to improve the performance of the rubidium (Rb) atomic magnetometer. In this paper we briefly introduce the basic principle and the experimental method of the rubidium magnetometer based on Faraday rotation effect, and describe the factors affecting the magnetometer sensitivity, then analyze and summarize the mechanism of the influence of spin-exchange, spin-destruction collisions, radiation trapping and the spin diffusion on spin relaxation of Rb atoms. Based on this, the relationship between the rubidium magnetometer sensitivity, the spin relaxation rate and the gas chamber conditions (buffer gas pressure, the bubble radius, measuring temperature) is established. Doing calculations by the simulation software, how the magnetometer sensitivity and the relaxation rate vary with the gas chamber conditions can be seen; finally, the optimal values of the buffer gas pressure under certain gas chamber conditions are obtained. The work is significant for the engineering development of rubidium magnetometer.

  17. Spinor condensate of {sup 87}Rb as a dipolar gas

    SciTech Connect

    Swislocki, Tomasz; Gajda, Mariusz; RzaPzewski, Kazimierz

    2010-03-15

    We consider a spinor condensate of {sup 87}Rb atoms in the F=1 hyperfine state confined in an optical dipole trap. Putting initially all atoms in the m{sub F}=0 component, we find that the system evolves toward a state of thermal equilibrium with kinetic energy equally distributed among all magnetic components. We show that this process is dominated by the dipolar interaction of magnetic spins rather than spin-mixing contact potential. Our results show that because of a dynamical separation of magnetic components, the spin-mixing dynamics in the {sup 87}Rb condensate is governed by the dipolar interaction which plays no role in a single-component rubidium system in a magnetic trap.

  18. Dielectric investigation of electrically oriented ferroelectric smectic mixture CS-1013.

    PubMed

    Kundu, S K; Okabe, E; Haase, W; Chaudhuri, B K

    2001-11-01

    From dielectric spectroscopic study, a first-order ferroelectric phase transition has been observed in ferroelectric smectic mixture CS-1013 having the phase sequence Cr-SmC*-SmA-N*-Iso. Frequency (100 Hz-10 MHz) and temperature-dependent dielectric measurements have been performed on an electrically aligned sample (thickness 15+/-1 microm) gold coated on glass plates. In the unidirectionally aligned sample, two dielectric relaxation modes (Goldstone mode and soft mode) have been clearly observed in the ferroelectric SmC* phase while only one relaxation mode (soft mode) is visualized in the paraelectric SmA phase. Low-frequency molecular relaxation was also observed in the smectic phases. The experimental results have also been analyzed at different temperatures and biasing voltages for an understanding of the dynamics of dielectric processes in the ferroelectric phase. Finally, we proposed the "pseudospin" model for understanding the ferroelectric-antiferroelectric transition in liquid crystals. We associate the tilt angle straight theta and the pitch of the helix, respectively, with biaxial (b) and uniaxial (u) anisotropy parameters as fluctuating parameters around their stability limit (corresponding to the crystalline values). Here, the director acts as the pseudospin variable. This gives rise to a transverse Ising type (or anisotropic Heisenberg model under the mean-field approximation). It is then shown that such a model with fluctuations of (b) and (u) would explain the ferroelectric and antiferroelectric phase transitions in such liquid crystals. Using Landau theory and the stability conditions, we have also shown, in brief, the feasibility of different types of phase transitions in the ferroelectric liquid crystal system.

  19. Crystal Structure and Thermodynamic Stability of Ba/Ti-Substituted Pollucites for Radioactive Cs/Ba Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Hongwu; Chavez, Manuel E.; Mitchell, Jeremy N.; Garino, Terry J.; Schwarz, Haiqing L.; Rodriguez, Mark A.; Rademacher, David X.; Nenoff, Tina Maria

    2015-04-23

    An analogue of the mineral pollucite (CsAlSi2O6), CsTiSi2O6.5 has a potential host phase for radioactive Cs. However, as 137Cs and 135Cs transmute to 137Ba and 135Ba, respectively, through the beta decay, it is essential to study the structure and stability of this phase upon Cs → Ba substitution. In this work, two series of Ba/Ti-substituted samples, CsxBa(1-x)/2TiSi2O6.5 and CsxBa1-xTiSi2O7-0.5x, (x = 0.9 and 0.7), were synthesized by high-temperature crystallization from their respective precursors. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Rietveld analysis reveal that while CsxBa(1-x)/2TiSi2O6.5 samples are phase-pure, CsxBa1-xTiSi2O7-0.5x samples contain Cs3x/(2+x)Ba(1-x)/(2+x)TiSi2O6.5 pollucites (i.e., also two-Cs-to-one-Ba substitution) and a secondary phase, fresnoite (Ba2TiSi2O8). Thus, the CsxBa1-xTiSi2O7-0.5x series is energetically less favorable than CsxBa(1-x)/2TiSi2O6.5. To study the stability systematics of CsxBa(1-x)/2TiSi2O6.5 pollucites, high-temperature calorimetric experiments were performed at 973 K with or without the lead borate solvent. Enthalpies of formation from the constituent oxides (and elements) have thus been derived. Our results show that with increasing Ba/(Cs + Ba) ratio, the thermodynamic stability of these phases decreases with respect to their component oxides. Hence, from the energetic viewpoint, continued Cs → Ba transmutation tends to destabilize the parent silicotitanate pollucite structure. However, the Ba-substituted pollucite co-forms with fresnoite (which incorporates the excess Ba

  20. Na+ and Rb+ tracer diffusion in alkali halides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beniere, F.; Sen, S. K.

    1991-11-01

    We have undertaken a fundamental study of heterodiffusion of foreign ions in pure single crystals. The present work describes the measurements of the diffusion coefficient of monovalent cations in some alkali halides, namely Na+ and Rb+ into KCl, KBr, NaI and KI. The priority is given to the super-accuracy of the experimental data. The target is to test the validity of the existing theories for calculating the enthalpy and entropy of migration.

  1. Monitoring 137Cs and 134Cs at marine coasts in Indonesia between 2011 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Suseno, Heny; Prihatiningsih, Wahyu Retno

    2014-11-15

    Environmental samples (seawater, sediments and biota) were collected along the eastern and western Indonesian coasts between 2011 and 2013 to anticipate the possible impacts of the Fukushima radioactive releases in Indonesia. On the eastern coasts (south and north Sulawesi), the (137)Cs concentrations in the seawater and sediments were 0.12-0.32 Bq m(-3) and 0.10-1.03 Bq kg(-1), respectively. On the western coasts (West Sumatra, Bangka Island, North Java, South Java and Madura island), the (137)Cs concentrations in the seawater and sediments were 0.12-0.66 Bq m(-3) and 0.19-1.64 Bq kg(-1), respectively. In general, the (137)Cs concentrations in the fish from several Indonesian coasts were Cs concentrations in mollusk, crab and prawn were 10.65-38.78, 4.02 and 6.16 mBq kg(-1), respectively. (134)Cs was not detected in the seawater, sediments or biota. Thus, it was concluded that (137)Cs on the eastern and western Indonesian coasts originated from global fallout.

  2. Cs and Ag co-incorporation in cubic silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Londono-Hurtado, Alejandro; Heim, Andrew J.; Kim, Sungtae; Szlufarska, Izabela; Morgan, Dane

    2013-08-01

    those calculated for simple Cs and Ag defect clusters in SiC and to identify the most stable Cs/Ag-O-V defect clusters in SiC. Although some error will be associated with the formation energies due the limitations discussed above, these do not undermine the qualitative objectives of this work.Oxygen and Iodine chemical potential: In order to calculate the formation energies for Cs/Ag-O defect clusters, it is necessary to define the reference states that will be used in Eq. (1). We make the approximation that the reference for Cs and Ag is their pure metal form. The reference cancels from all comparisons between direct and co-incorporation and therefore only plays a role when considering formation energies for estimating solubility. These reference states can be justified as a bounding case for solubility calculations since it can be argued that if Ag and Cs are not in metal form in the TRISO particle, it is because they are in a more stable state. Therefore, by choosing the metal form of Cs and Ag as the reference, formation energies can be viewed as an upper bound of their chemical potential. As a consequence, formation energies calculated using this reference provide the lower bound for the true formation energy (i.e., the true formation energy would be more positive, leading to lower solubility) [11]. For the anions O and I we use the gas phase O2 and I2 molecules as the reference states, which are calculated as follows:The chemical potential of O is calculated as proposed by Lee et al. [32]: μ={1}/{2}EOVASP+ΔhO0+[H(T,P0)-H(T0,P0)]-TS(T,P0)+kTln(P/P0) where EOVASP is the T = 0 K energy as obtained from the DFT calculations, ΔhO0 is the correction for errors of the oxygen energy in O2 molecules vs. a solid, H is the O2 gas enthalpy, S is the O2 gas entropy, P is the oxygen partial pressure (P0 = 1 atm), T is the temperature (T0 = 298.15 K), and k is the Boltzman constant. The term [H(T,P0)-H(T0,P0)]-TS(T,P0) constitutes the free energy per O of O2 gas relative to

  3. Measurement of the tensor differential polarizability between Rb clock states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallal, Yehonatan; Ozeri, Roee

    2014-05-01

    Atoms subjected to intense electric fields experience a shift in their energy levels. This shift, due to the polarizability of atomic states, enables the trapping of atoms in the focus an intense laser beam. Due to the hyperfine interaction the polarizabilities of the two hyperfine levels of 87Rb differ on the 10-5 level. In general the atomic polarizability can be decomposed into a scalar and a traceless symmetric tensor parts, the latter being 10-2 that of the former. Any anisotropy of the polarizability is due to its tensor part and the shift depends on the relative angle between the electric field and the quantizing magnetic field. In our experiment we trapped 87Rb atoms in an intense quasi-electrostatic field of a, linearly polarized, focused CO2 laser beam and measured the shift in the microwave clock transition frequency using Ramsey spectroscopy. By changing the angle between the electric field of the laser and the magnetic field providing a quantization axis, we were able to isolate the 1 Hz fractional shift caused by the, previously unmeasured, tensor polarizability. The exact knowledge of the scalar and tensor parts of the polarizability are important in order to determine the black body shift of Rb clocks; an important secondary time standard; and can be compared with state-of-the-art atomic structure calculations.

  4. Investigation of the RbCa molecule: Experiment and theory

    PubMed Central

    Pototschnig, Johann V.; Krois, Günter; Lackner, Florian; Ernst, Wolfgang E.

    2015-01-01

    We present a thorough theoretical and experimental study of the electronic structure of RbCa. The mixed alkali–alkaline earth molecule RbCa was formed on superfluid helium nanodroplets. Excited states of the molecule in the range of 13 000–23 000 cm−1 were recorded by resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization time-of-flight spectroscopy. The experiment is accompanied by high level ab initio calculations of ground and excited state properties, utilizing a multireference configuration interaction method based on multiconfigurational self consistent field calculations. With this approach the potential energy curves and permanent electric dipole moments of 24 electronic states were calculated. In addition we computed the transition dipole moments for transitions from the ground into excited states. The combination of experiment and theory allowed the assignment of features in the recorded spectrum to the excited 32Σ+, 42Σ+, 32Π, 52Σ+, 42Π, 62Σ+, 62Π, and 72Π states, where the experiment allowed to benchmark the calculation. This is the first experimental work giving insight into the previously unknown RbCa molecule, which offers great prospects in ultracold molecular physics due to its magnetic and electronic dipole moment in the 2Σ+ ground state. PMID:25922550

  5. Modelling the petrogenesis of high Rb/Sr silicic magmas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halliday, A.N.; Davidson, J.P.; Hildreth, W.; Holden, P.

    1991-01-01

    Rhyolites can be highly evolved with Sr contents as low as 0.1 ppm and Rb Sr > 2,000. In contrast, granite batholiths are commonly comprised of rocks with Rb Sr 100. Mass-balance modelling of source compositions, differentiation and contamination using the trace-element geochemistry of granites are therefore commonly in error because of the failure to account for evolved differentiates that may have been erupted from the system. Rhyolitic magmas with very low Sr concentrations (???1 ppm) cannot be explained by any partial melting models involving typical crustal source compositions. The only plausible mechanism for the production of such rhyolites is Rayleigh fractional crystallization involving substantial volumes of cumulates. A variety of methods for modelling the differentiation of magmas with extremely high Rb/Sr is discussed. In each case it is concluded that the bulk partition coefficients for Sr have to be large. In the simplest models, the bulk DSr of the most evolved types is modelled as > 50. Evidence from phenocryst/glass/whole-rock concentrations supports high Sr partition coefficients in feldspars from high silica rhyolites. However, the low modal abundance of plagioclase commonly observed in such rocks is difficult to reconcile with such simple fractionation models of the observed trace-element trends. In certain cases, this may be because the apparent trace-element trend defined by the suite of cognetic rhyolites is the product of different batches of magma with separate differentiation histories accumulating in the magma chamber roof zone. ?? 1991.

  6. Brucella abortus RB51 in milk of vaccinated adult cattle.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Karina Leite; Poester, Fernando Padilla; Dorneles, Elaine Maria Seles; Resende, Thiago Magalhães; Vaz, Adil Knackfuss; Ferraz, Sandra Maria; Lage, Andrey Pereira

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the shedding of Brucella abortus in the milk of cows vaccinated with a full dose of RB51 during lactation. Eighteen cows, nine previously vaccinated with S19 as calves and nine non-vaccinated, were immunized subcutaneously with 1.3×10(10)CFU of B. abortus RB51, 30-60days after parturition. Milk samples from all animals were collected daily until day 7, and at weekly interval for the next 9 weeks after vaccination. To evaluate the shedding of B. abortus, milk samples were submitted for culture and PCR. No B. abortus was isolated from any sample tested. Only one sample, collected on first day after vaccination from a cow previously vaccinated, was faintly positive in the PCR. In conclusion, the public health hazard associated with milk consumption from cows vaccinated with RB51 in post-partum is very low, despite vaccination with the full dose and regardless of previous S19 vaccination.

  7. Towards a ^87Rb BEC apparatus with reconfigurable arbitrary optical potentials and artificial gauge fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niffenegger, Robert; Olson, Abraham; Chen, Yong P.

    2012-06-01

    We have constructed an all-optical ^87Rb BEC apparatus, which is currently creating condensates in a 1550nm cross beam optical dipole trap every 30s. We present experimental progress toward implementing reconfigurable arbitrary optical potentials and artificial gauge fields in our apparatus. Time-averaged, dynamically-reconfigurable, arbitrary-shaped optical potentials are generated using a dual-axis AOM controlled by a two-channel high-bandwidth arbitrary RF waveform generator. Using a blue-detuned 532nm laser, we have demonstrated various optical potential geometries such as a tilting wedge, checkerboard and elliptical barriers. Such arbitrary, reconfigurable optical potentials will be used to explore quantum phase transitions in superfluids. Our excellent optical access also allows the addition of Raman beams of various arrangements. Raman dressed states can be used to induce spin dependent artificial gauge fields for studying physics such as the spin Hall effect.

  8. Interferometric determination of the s and d-wave scattering amplitudes in 87Rb.

    PubMed

    Buggle, Ch; Léonard, J; von Klitzing, W; Walraven, J T M

    2004-10-22

    We demonstrate an interference method to determine the low-energy elastic scattering amplitudes of a quantum gas. We linearly accelerate two ultracold atomic clouds up to energies of 1.2 mK and observe the collision halo by direct imaging in free space. From the interference between s- and d- partial waves in the differential scattering pattern we extract the corresponding phase shifts. The method does not require knowledge of the atomic density. This allows us to infer accurate values for the s- and d-wave scattering amplitudes from the zero-energy limit up to the first Ramsauer minimum using only the van der Waals C6 coefficient as theoretical input. For the 87Rb triplet potential, the method reproduces the scattering length with an accuracy of 6%.

  9. Microscopic properties of the pinwheel kagome compound Rb(2)Cu(3)SnF(12).

    PubMed

    Grbić, M S; Krämer, S; Berthier, C; Trousselet, F; Cépas, O; Tanaka, H; Horvatić, M

    2013-06-14

    Using (63,65)Cu nuclear magnetic resonance in magnetic fields up to 30 T, we study the microscopic properties of the 12-site valence-bond-solid ground state in the "pinwheel" kagome compound Rb(2)Cu(3)SnF(12). We find that the ground state is characterized by a strong transverse staggered spin polarization whose temperature and field dependence points to a mixing of the singlet and triplet states. This is further corroborated by the field dependence of the gap Δ(H), which has a level anticrossing with a large minimum gap value of ≈ Δ(0)/2, with no evidence of a phase transition down to 1.5 K. By the exact diagonalization of small clusters, we show that the observed anticrossing is mainly due to staggered tilts of the g tensors defined by the crystal structure and reveal symmetry properties of the low-energy excitation spectrum compatible with the absence of level crossing.

  10. Mixing unmixables: Unexpected formation of Li-Cs alloys at low pressure

    PubMed Central

    Desgreniers, Serge; Tse, John S.; Matsuoka, Takahiro; Ohishi, Yasuo; Tse, Justin J.

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to the empirical Miedema and Hume-Rothery rules and a recent theoretical prediction, we report experimental evidence on the formation of Li-Cs alloys at very low pressure (>0.1 GPa). We also succeeded in synthesizing a pure nonstoichiometric and ordered crystalline phase from an approximately equimolar mixture and resolved its structure using the maximum entropy method. The new alloy has a primitive cubic cell with the Li atom situated in the center and the Cs at the corners. This structure is stable to at least 10 GPa and has an anomalously high coefficient of thermal expansion at low pressure. Analysis of the valence charge density shows that electrons are donated from Cs to the Li “p”-orbitals, resulting in a rare formal oxidation state of −1 for Li. The observation indicates the diversity in the bonding of the seeming simple group I Li element. PMID:26601304

  11. The RB-related gene Rb2/p130 in neuroblastoma differentiation and in B-myb promoter down-regulation.

    PubMed

    Raschellà, G; Tanno, B; Bonetto, F; Negroni, A; Claudio, P P; Baldi, A; Amendola, R; Calabretta, B; Giordano, A; Paggi, M G

    1998-05-01

    The retinoblastoma family of nuclear factors is composed of RB, the prototype of the tumour suppressor genes and of the strictly related genes p107 and Rb2/p130. The three genes code for proteins, namely pRb, p107 and pRb2/p130, that share similar structures and functions. These proteins are expressed, often simultaneously, in many cell types and are involved in the regulation of proliferation and differentiation. We determined the expression and the phosphorylation of the RB family gene products during the DMSO-induced differentiation of the N1E-115 murine neuroblastoma cells. In this system, pRb2/p130 was strongly up-regulated during mid-late differentiation stages, while, on the contrary, pRb and p107 resulted markedly decreased at late stages. Differentiating N1E-115 cells also showed a progressive decrease in B-myb levels, a proliferation-related protein whose constitutive expression inhibits neuronal differentiation. Transfection of each of the RB family genes in these cells was able, at different degrees, to induce neuronal differentiation, to inhibit [3H]thymidine incorporation and to down-regulate the activity of the B-myb promoter.

  12. Exploring the structural and functional effect of pRB by significant nsSNP in the coding region of RB1 gene causing retinoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, R; Sethumadhavan, Rao

    2010-02-01

    In this study, we identified the most deleterious nsSNP in RB1 gene through structural and functional properties of its protein (pRB) and investigated its binding affinity with E2F-2. Out of 956 SNPs, we investigated 12 nsSNPs in coding region in which three of them (SNPids rs3092895, rs3092903 and rs3092905) are commonly found to be damaged by I-Mutant 2.0, SIFT and PolyPhen programs. With this effort, we modeled the mutant pRB proteins based on these deleterious nsSNPs. From a comparison of total energy, stabilizing residues and RMSD of these three mutant proteins with native pRB protein, we identified that the major mutation is from Glutamic acid to Glycine at the residue position of 746 of pRB. Further, we compared the binding efficiency of both native and mutant pRB (E746G) with E2F-2. We found that mutant pRB has less binding affinity with E2F-2 as compared to native type. This is due to sixteen hydrogen bonding and two salt bridges that exist between native type and E2F-2, whereas mutant type makes only thirteen hydrogen bonds and one salt bridge with E2F-2. Based on our investigation, we propose that the SNP with an id rs3092905 could be the most deleterious nsSNP in RB1 gene causing retinoblastoma.

  13. Synthesis and phase transitions of oxide-ion conducting compound La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9} doped with alkaline metals

    SciTech Connect

    Kolesnikova, D. S.; Kharitonova, E. P.; Voronkova, V. I.

    2011-03-15

    The specific features of synthesis, polymorthism, and electric conductivity of oxide-ion conducting compounds La{sub 2-x}Me{sub x}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9-y}, where Me = Na, K, Rb, or Cs, have been studied. Ceramic samples were obtained by solid-state synthesis in the temperature range of 960-1100 Degree-Sign C. The regions where solid solutions exist have been found to depend on the temperature of the sample firing. According to the calorimetric and electrophysical data, the phase transition from the monoclinic phase ({alpha}) to the cubic phase ({beta}) in samples doped with potassium and rubidium disappears at x = 0.02 and 0.04, respectively. In these cases the only transition from the cubic {beta}{sub ms} phase to the high-temperature cubic {beta} phase is observed near 450 Degree-Sign C. Doping with sodium and cesium does not suppress the {alpha} {yields} {beta} phase transition.

  14. New insights on pressure, temperature, and chemical stability of CsAlSi5O12, a potential host for nuclear waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatta, G. D.; Brundu, A.; Cappelletti, P.; Cerri, G.; de'Gennaro, B.; Farina, M.; Fumagalli, P.; Guaschino, L.; Lotti, P.; Mercurio, M.

    2016-10-01

    A Cs-bearing polyphase aggregate with composition (in wt%): 76(1)CsAlSi5O12 + 7(1)CsAlSi2O6 + 17(1)amorphous, was obtained from a clinoptilolite-rich epiclastic rock after a beneficiation process of the starting material (aimed to increase the fraction of zeolite to 90 wt%), cation exchange and then thermal treatment. CsAlSi5O12 is an open-framework compound with CAS topology; CsAlSi2O6 is a pollucite-like material with ANA topology. The thermal stability of this polyphase material was investigated by in situ high- T X-ray powder diffraction, the combined P- T effects by a series of runs with a single-stage piston cylinder apparatus, and its chemical stability following the "availability test" ("AVA test") protocol. A series of additional investigations were performed by WDS-electron microprobe analysis in order to describe the P- T-induced modification of the material texture, and to chemically characterize the starting material and the run products. The "AVA tests" of the polyphase aggregate show an extremely modest release of Cs+: 0.05 mg/g. In response to applied temperature and at room P, CsAlSi5O12 experiences an unquenchable and displacive Ama2-to- Amam phase transition at about 770 K, and the Amam polymorph is stable in its crystalline form up to 1600 K; a crystalline-to-amorphous phase transition occurs between 1600 and 1650 K. In response to the applied P = 0.5 GPa, the crystalline-to-amorphous transition of CsAlSi5O12 occurs between 1670 and 1770 K. This leads to a positive Clapeyron slope (i.e., d P/d T > 0) of the crystalline-to-amorphous transition. When the polyphase aggregate is subjected at P = 0.5 GPa and T > 1770 K, CsAlSi5O12 melts and only CsAlSi2O6 (pollucite-like; dominant) and Cs-rich glass (subordinate) are observed in the quenched sample. Based on its thermo-elastic behavior, P- T phase stability fields, and Cs+ retention capacity, CsAlSi5O12 is a possible candidate for use in the immobilization of radioactive isotopes of Cs, or as

  15. New insights on pressure, temperature, and chemical stability of CsAlSi5O12, a potential host for nuclear waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatta, G. D.; Brundu, A.; Cappelletti, P.; Cerri, G.; de'Gennaro, B.; Farina, M.; Fumagalli, P.; Guaschino, L.; Lotti, P.; Mercurio, M.

    2016-06-01

    A Cs-bearing polyphase aggregate with composition (in wt%): 76(1)CsAlSi5O12 + 7(1)CsAlSi2O6 + 17(1)amorphous, was obtained from a clinoptilolite-rich epiclastic rock after a beneficiation process of the starting material (aimed to increase the fraction of zeolite to 90 wt%), cation exchange and then thermal treatment. CsAlSi5O12 is an open-framework compound with CAS topology; CsAlSi2O6 is a pollucite-like material with ANA topology. The thermal stability of this polyphase material was investigated by in situ high-T X-ray powder diffraction, the combined P-T effects by a series of runs with a single-stage piston cylinder apparatus, and its chemical stability following the "availability test" ("AVA test") protocol. A series of additional investigations were performed by WDS-electron microprobe analysis in order to describe the P-T-induced modification of the material texture, and to chemically characterize the starting material and the run products. The "AVA tests" of the polyphase aggregate show an extremely modest release of Cs+: 0.05 mg/g. In response to applied temperature and at room P, CsAlSi5O12 experiences an unquenchable and displacive Ama2-to-Amam phase transition at about 770 K, and the Amam polymorph is stable in its crystalline form up to 1600 K; a crystalline-to-amorphous phase transition occurs between 1600 and 1650 K. In response to the applied P = 0.5 GPa, the crystalline-to-amorphous transition of CsAlSi5O12 occurs between 1670 and 1770 K. This leads to a positive Clapeyron slope (i.e., dP/dT > 0) of the crystalline-to-amorphous transition. When the polyphase aggregate is subjected at P = 0.5 GPa and T > 1770 K, CsAlSi5O12 melts and only CsAlSi2O6 (pollucite-like; dominant) and Cs-rich glass (subordinate) are observed in the quenched sample. Based on its thermo-elastic behavior, P-T phase stability fields, and Cs+ retention capacity, CsAlSi5O12 is a possible candidate for use in the immobilization of radioactive isotopes of Cs, or as potential

  16. Dynamical interferences to probe short-pulse photoassociation of Rb atoms and stabilization of Rb{sub 2} dimers

    SciTech Connect

    Mur-Petit, Jordi; Luc-Koenig, Eliane; Masnou-Seeuws, Francoise

    2007-06-15

    We analyze the formation of Rb{sub 2} molecules with short photoassociation pulses applied to a cold {sup 85}Rb sample. A pump laser pulse couples a continuum level of the ground electronic state X {sup 1}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +} with bound levels in the 0{sub u}{sup +}(5S+5P{sub 1/2}) and 0{sub u}{sup +}(5S+5P{sub 3/2}) vibrational series. The nonadiabatic coupling between the two excited channels induces time-dependent beatings in the populations. We propose to take advantage of these oscillations to design further laser pulses that probe the photoassociation process via photoionization or that optimize the stabilization in deep levels of the ground state.

  17. Role of the RB-Interacting Proteins in Stem Cell Biology.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, M; Gaza, H Viñas; Kashuba, E V

    2016-01-01

    Human retinoblastoma gene RB1 is the first tumor suppressor gene (TSG) isolated by positional cloning in 1986. RB is extensively studied for its ability to regulate cell cycle by binding to E2F1 and inhibiting the transcriptional activity of the latter. In human embryonic stem cells (ESCs), only a minute trace of RB is found in complex with E2F1. Increased activity of RB triggers differentiation, cell cycle arrest, and cell death. On the other hand, inactivation of the entire RB family (RB1, RBL1, and RBL2) in human ESC induces G2/M arrest and cell death. These observations indicate that both loss and overactivity of RB could be lethal for the stemness of cells. A question arises why inactive RB is required for the survival and stemness of cells? To shed some light on this question, we analyzed the RB-binding proteins. In this review we have focused on 27 RB-binding partners that may have potential roles in different aspects of stem cell biology. PMID:27451126

  18. A 3 He-129 Xe co-magnetometer with 87 Rb magnetometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limes, Mark; Sheng, Dong; Romalis, Mike

    2016-05-01

    We report progress on a 3 He-129 Xe co-magnetometer detected with a 87 Rb magnetometer. The noble-gas co-magnetometer is insensitive to any long-term bias field drifts, but the presence of hot Rb can cause instability in the ratio of 3 He-129 Xe precession frequencies. We use a sequence of Rb π pulses to suppress the instability due to Rb-noble gas interactions by a factor of 104 along all three spatial axes. For detection, our 87 Rb magnetometer operates using single-axis 87 Rb π pulses with σ+ /σ- pumping-this technique decouples the 87 Rb magnetometer from bias fields, and allows for SERF operation. We are presently investigating systematic effects due to combinations of several imperfections, such as longitudinal noble gas polarization, imperfect 87 Rb π pulses, and 87 Rb pump light shifts. Thus far, our 87 Rb magnetometer has a sensitivity of 40 fT/√{Hz}, and our 3 He-129 Xe co-magnetometer has achieved a single-shot precession frequency ratio error of 20 nHz and a long-term bias drift of 8 nHz at 7 h. We are developing the co-magnetometer for use as an NMR gyro, and to search for possible spin-gravity interactions. Supported by DARPA and NSF.

  19. Intermediate-range chemical ordering of cations in molten RbCl-AgCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahara, S.; Kawakita, Y.; Shimakura, H.; Ohara, K.; Fukami, T.; Takeda, S.

    2015-07-01

    A first sharp diffraction peak (FSDP) is observed in the X-ray total structure factor of a molten mixture of RbCl-AgCl, while both pure melts of RbCl and AgCl do not exhibit FSDP individually. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the origin of the FSDP with the polarizable ion model (PIM). Coexistence of covalent Ag-Cl and ionic Rb-Cl bonds leads the system to evolve intermediate range ordering, which is simulated by introducing the induced polarization in different ways between Ag-Cl with fully polarizable treatment based on Vashishta-Raman potential and Rb-Cl with suppression over-polarization in the nearest neighbor contribution based on Born-Meyer potential. The partial structure factors for both the Ag-Ag and Rb-Rb correlations, SAgAg(Q) and SRbRb(Q), show a positive contribution to the FSDP, while SAgRb(Q) for the Ag-Rb correlation exhibits a negative contribution, indicating that Ag and Rb ions are distributed in an alternating manner within the intermediate-range length scale. The origin of the intermediate-range chemical ordering of cations can be ascribed to the preferred direction of the dipole moments of anions in the PIM.

  20. Intermediate-range chemical ordering of cations in molten RbCl-AgCl.

    PubMed

    Tahara, S; Kawakita, Y; Shimakura, H; Ohara, K; Fukami, T; Takeda, S

    2015-07-28

    A first sharp diffraction peak (FSDP) is observed in the X-ray total structure factor of a molten mixture of RbCl-AgCl, while both pure melts of RbCl and AgCl do not exhibit FSDP individually. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the origin of the FSDP with the polarizable ion model (PIM). Coexistence of covalent Ag-Cl and ionic Rb-Cl bonds leads the system to evolve intermediate range ordering, which is simulated by introducing the induced polarization in different ways between Ag-Cl with fully polarizable treatment based on Vashishta-Raman potential and Rb-Cl with suppression over-polarization in the nearest neighbor contribution based on Born-Meyer potential. The partial structure factors for both the Ag-Ag and Rb-Rb correlations, SAgAg(Q) and SRbRb(Q), show a positive contribution to the FSDP, while SAgRb(Q) for the Ag-Rb correlation exhibits a negative contribution, indicating that Ag and Rb ions are distributed in an alternating manner within the intermediate-range length scale. The origin of the intermediate-range chemical ordering of cations can be ascribed to the preferred direction of the dipole moments of anions in the PIM.

  1. Reduced expression of PNUTS leads to activation of Rb-phosphatase and caspase-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    De Leon, Gabriel; Sherry, Tara C; Krucher, Nancy A

    2008-06-01

    There is abundant evidence that Retinoblastoma (Rb) activity is important in the control of cell proliferation and apoptosis. Reversible phosphorylation of the Rb protein that is carried out by cyclin dependent kinases and Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) regulates its functions. A PP1 interacting protein, PNUTS (Phosphatase Nuclear Targeting Subunit) is proposed to be a regulator of Rb phosphorylation. In this study, PNUTS knockdown in MCF7, SKA and HCT116 cancer cells causes a reduction in viability due to increased apoptosis. However, normal cells (MCF10A breast and CCD-18Co colon) do not exhibit reduced viability when PNUTS expression is diminished. PNUTS knockdown has no effect in Rb-null Saos-2 cells. However, when Rb is stably expressed in Saos-2 cells, PNUTS knockdown reduces cell number. Knockdown of PNUTS in p53-/- HCT116 cells indicates that p53 is dispensable for the induction of apoptosis. Loss of PNUTS expression results in increased Rb-phosphatase activity and Rb dephosphorylation. E2F1 dissociates from Rb in cells depleted of PNUTS and the resulting apoptosis is dependent on caspase-8. These results indicate that Rb phosphorylation state can be manipulated by targeting Rb phosphatase activity and suggest that PNUTS may be a potential target for therapeutic pro-apoptotic strategies. PMID:18360108

  2. Biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani Damping-Off of Tomato with Bacillus subtilis RB14.

    PubMed

    Asaka, O; Shoda, M

    1996-11-01

    Bacillus subtilis RB14, which showed antibiotic activities against several phytopathogens in vitro by producing the antibiotics iturin A and surfactin, was subjected to a pot test to investigate its ability to suppress damping-off of tomato seedlings caused by Rhizoctonia solani. To facilitate recovery from soil, B. subtilis RB14-C, a spontaneous streptomycin-resistant mutant of RB14, was used. Damping-off was suppressed when the culture broth, cell suspension, or cell-free culture broth of RB14-C was inoculated into soil. Iturin A and surfactin were recovered from the soils inoculated with the cell suspension of RB14-C, confirming that RB14-C produced them in soil. The gene lpa-14, which was cloned from RB14 and required for the production of both antibiotics, was mutated in RB14-C, and a mutant, R(Delta)1, was constructed. The level of disease suppressibility of R(Delta)1 was low, but R(Delta)1(pC115), a transformant of R(Delta)1 with the plasmid pC115 carrying lpa-14, was restored in suppressibility. These results show that the antibiotics iturin A and surfactin produced by RB14 play a major role in the suppression of damping-off caused by R. solani. RB14-C, R(Delta)1, and R(Delta)1(pC115) persisted in soil during the experimental period and were recovered from the soil, mostly as spores.

  3. MicroRNA-21 Down-regulates Rb1 Expression by Targeting PDCD4 in Retinoblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Fengmei; Mo, Meng-Hsuan; Chen, Liang; An, Shejuan; Tan, Xiaohui; Fu, Yebo; Rezaei, Katayoon; Wang, Zuoren; Zhang, Lin; Fu, Sidney W.

    2014-01-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB) is a children's ocular cancer caused by mutated retinoblastoma 1 (Rb1) gene on both alleles. Rb1 and other related genes could be regulated by microRNAs (miRNA) via complementarily pairing with their target sites. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) possesses the oncogenic potential to target several tumor suppressor genes, including PDCD4, and regulates tumor progression and metastasis. However, the mechanism of how miR-21 regulates PDCD4 is poorly understood in RB. We investigated the expression of miRNAs in RB cell lines and identified that miR-21 is one of the most deregulated miRNAs in RB. Using qRT-PCR, we verified the expression level of several miRNAs identified by independent microarray assays, and analyzed miRNA expression patterns in three RB cell lines, including Weri-Rb1, Y79 and RB355. We found that miR-19b, -21, -26a, -195 and -222 were highly expressed in all three cell lines, suggesting their potential role in RB tumorigenesis. Using the TargetScan program, we identified a list of potential target genes of these miRNAs, of which PDCD4 is one the targets of miR-21. In this study, we focused on the regulatory mechanism of miR-21 on PDCD4 in RB. We demonstrated an inverse correlation between miR-21 and PDCD4 expression in Weri-Rb1 and Y79 cells. These data suggest that miR-21 down-regulates Rb1 by targeting PDCD4 tumor suppressor. Therefore, miR-21 could serve as a therapeutic target for retinoblastoma. PMID:25520758

  4. Equilibrium-disequilibrium relations in the Monte Rosa Granite, Western Alps: Petrological, Rb-Sr and stable isotope data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frey, M.; Hunziker, J.C.; O'Neil, J.R.; Schwander, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    between quartz-muscovite and quartz-biotite 'Permian temperatures' implies oxygen isotope equilibrium in Permian time which was undisturbed during Alpine metamorphism. Arguments for equilibrium during the mid-Tertiary metamorphism are as follows: (i) Mid-Tertiary Rb-Sr mineral isochrons of up to six minerals exist, (ii) Oxygen isotope temperatures of coexisting Alpine phengites and biotites are concordant. The major factor for the adjustment of the Permian assemblages to Alpine conditions was the degree of Alpine tectonic overprinting rather than the maximum temperatures reached during the mid-Tertiary Alpine metamorphism. The lack of exchange with externally introduced fluid phases in the samples least affected by tectonism indicates that the Monte Rosa Granite 'stewed in its own juices'. This seems to be the major cause for the persistence of Permian ages and corresponding temperatures. ?? 1976 Springer-Verlag.

  5. IR-Improved DGLAP-CS Theory

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ward, B. F. L.

    2008-01-01

    We show that it is possible to improve the infrared aspects of the standard treatment of the DGLAP-CS evolution theory to take into account a large class of higher-order corrections that significantly improve the precision of the theory for any given level of fixed-order calculation of its respective kernels. We illustrate the size of the effects we resum using the moments of the parton distributions.

  6. Communications satellite no. 2 (CS-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of the Japanese CS-2 satellite is to provide national communications and industrial communications, such as special emergency and remote communications, and to contribute to the development of technology pertaining to communications satellites. Description and operating parameters of the following satellite components are presented: structure, communications system, telemetry/command system, electric power system, attitude and antenna control system, secondary propulsion system, apogee motor, framework, and heat control system.

  7. A GWAS follow-up study reveals the association of the IL12RB2 gene with systemic sclerosis in Caucasian populations

    PubMed Central

    Bossini-Castillo, Lara; Martin, Jose-Ezequiel; Broen, Jasper; Gorlova, Olga; Simeón, Carmen P.; Beretta, Lorenzo; Vonk, Madelon C.; Luis Callejas, Jose; Castellví, Ivan; Carreira, Patricia; José García-Hernández, Francisco; Fernández Castro, Mónica; Coenen, Marieke J.H.; Riemekasten, Gabriela; Witte, Torsten; Hunzelmann, Nicolas; Kreuter, Alexander; Distler, Jörg H.W.; Koeleman, Bobby P.; Voskuyl, Alexandre E.; Schuerwegh, Annemie J.; Palm, Øyvind; Hesselstrand, Roger; Nordin, Annika; Airó, Paolo; Lunardi, Claudio; Scorza, Raffaella; Shiels, Paul; van Laar, Jacob M.; Herrick, Ariane; Worthington, Jane; Denton, Christopher; Tan, Filemon K.; Arnett, Frank C.; Agarwal, Sandeep K.; Assassi, Shervin; Fonseca, Carmen; Mayes, Maureen D.; Radstake, Timothy R.D.J.; Martin, Javier

    2012-01-01

    A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at the IL12RB2 locus showed a suggestive association signal in a previously published genome-wide association study (GWAS) in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Aiming to reveal the possible implication of the IL12RB2 gene in SSc, we conducted a follow-up study of this locus in different Caucasian cohorts. We analyzed 10 GWAS-genotyped SNPs in the IL12RB2 region (2309 SSc patients and 5161 controls). We then selected three SNPs (rs3790567, rs3790566 and rs924080) based on their significance level in the GWAS, for follow-up in an independent European cohort comprising 3344 SSc and 3848 controls. The most-associated SNP (rs3790567) was further tested in an independent cohort comprising 597 SSc patients and 1139 controls from the USA. After conditional logistic regression analysis of the GWAS data, we selected rs3790567 [PMH= 1.92 × 10−5 odds ratio (OR) = 1.19] as the genetic variant with the firmest independent association observed in the analyzed GWAS peak of association. After the first follow-up phase, only the association of rs3790567 was consistent (PMH= 4.84 × 10−3 OR = 1.12). The second follow-up phase confirmed this finding (Pχ2 = 2.82 × 10−4 OR = 1.34). After performing overall pooled-analysis of all the cohorts included in the present study, the association found for the rs3790567 SNP in the IL12RB2 gene region reached GWAS-level significant association (PMH= 2.82 × 10−9 OR = 1.17). Our data clearly support the IL12RB2 genetic association with SSc, and suggest a relevant role of the interleukin 12 signaling pathway in SSc pathogenesis. PMID:22076442

  8. Fiscal year 1995 laboratory scale studies of Cs elution in Tank 8D-1 and sludge dissolution in tank 8D-2

    SciTech Connect

    Sills, J.A.; Patello, G.K.; Roberts, J.S.; Wiemers, K.D.; Elmore, M.R.; Richmond, W.G.; Russell, R.L.

    1996-04-01

    During Phase I of West Valley Demonstration project waste remediation, an estimated 95% of the zeolite currently in tank 8D-1 will be transferred to tank 8D-2, leaving behind residual Cs-loaded zeolite which will require treatment to remove the Cs. After phase I vitrification, tank 8D-2 will contain residual waste from PUREX and THOREX and spent Cs-loaded zeolite. The residual waste will require treatment. Oxalic acid has been proposed for eluting Cs from zeolite in tank 8D-1 and dissolving radionuclides in tank 8D-2. Laboratory tests were performed to determine optimum Cs elution and sludge dissolution conditions and to evaluate effects of multiple contacts, long-term contacts, presence of corrosion products, lack of agitation, temperature of tank contents, and oxalic acid concentration. Mild steel corrosion tests were also conducted.

  9. Teaching Algorithm Efficiency at CS1 Level: A Different Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gal-Ezer, Judith; Vilner, Tamar; Zur, Ela

    2004-01-01

    Realizing the importance of teaching efficiency at early stages of the program of study in computer science (CS) on one hand, and the difficulties encountered when introducing this concept on the other, we advocate a different didactic approach in the introductory CS course (CS1). This paper describes the approach as it is used at the Open…

  10. Lymphocyte proliferation in response to Brucella abortus 2308 or RB51 antigens in mice infected with strain 2308, RB51, or 19.

    PubMed

    Stevens, M G; Olsen, S C; Pugh, G W

    1994-10-01

    Lymphocyte proliferation to 22 protein fractions (106 to 18 kDa) of Brucella abortus 2308 or the lipopolysaccharide O-antigen-deficient mutant of 2308, strain RB51, was measured for 20 weeks after infection of mice with strain 2308, RB51, or 19. Throughout the 20-week study, the 22 protein fractions of 2308 and RB51 induced a similar pattern of proliferation when they were incubated with lymphocytes from the infected mice. In addition, during the 20 weeks, lymphocytes from all groups of infected mice exhibited the highest proliferation when the lymphocytes were incubated with 18-kDa or smaller proteins from either 2308 or RB51. Lymphocytes obtained from mice at 6 weeks after infection with strain RB51 or 19 exhibited similar proliferation to the 18-kDa proteins of S2308 or SRB51. Lymphocytes from strain 2308-infected mice did not proliferate to these proteins until 10 weeks after infection, and the responses were similar to those in strain RB51-infected mice but lower than those in strain 19-infected mice. Lymphocytes obtained from mice at 20 weeks after infection with strain 19 or 2308 proliferated to most of the 22 fractions of 2308 or RB51, which contained 106- to 18-kDa proteins. However, lymphocytes obtained from strain RB51-infected mice at 20 weeks did not proliferate to any of these fractions. These results indicate that mice infected with RB51 have less-persistent lymphocyte proliferative responses to 2308 proteins than do mice infected with 2308 or 19. In addition, all 2308 proteins that stimulate lymphocyte proliferation appear to be present in RB51.

  11. Chemical thermodynamics of Cs and Te fission product interactions in irradiated LMFBR mixed-oxide fuel pins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamson, M. G.; Aitken, E. A.; Lindemer, T. B.

    1985-02-01

    A combination of fuel chemistry modelling and equilibrium thermodynamic calculations has been used to predict the atom ratios of Cs and Te fission products (Cs:Te) that find their way into the fuel-cladding interface region of irradiated stainless steel-clad mixed-oxide fast breeder reactor fuel pins. It has been concluded that the ratio of condensed, chemically-associated Cs and Te in the interface region,Čs:Te, which in turn determines the Te activity, is controlled by an equilibrium reaction between Cs 2Te and the oxide fuel, and that the value of Čs:Te is, depending on fuel 0:M, either equal to or slightly less than 2:1. Since Cs and Te fission products are both implicated as causative agents in FCCI (fission product-assisted inner surface attack of stainless steel cladding) and in FPLME (fission product-assisted liquid metal embrittlement of AISI-Type 316), the observed out-of-pile Cs:Te thresholds for FCCI (4˜:1) and FPLME (2˜:1) have been rationalized in terms of Cs:Te thermochemistry and phase equilibria. Also described in the paper is an updated chemical evolution model for reactive/volatile fission product behavior in irradiated oxide pins.

  12. Spin waves and magnetic exchange interactions in the spin-ladder compound RbFe2Se3

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Meng; Yi, Ming; Jin, Shangjian; Jiang, Hongchen; Song, Yu; Luo, Huiqian; Christianson, Andrew D.; de la Cruz, Clarina; Bourret-Courchesne, E.; Yao, Dao-Xin; et al

    2016-07-20

    In this paper, we report an inelastic neutron scattering study of the spin waves of the one-dimensional antiferromagnetic spin ladder compound RbFe2Se3. The results reveal that the products, SJ's, of the spin S and the magnetic exchange interaction J along the antiferromagnetic (leg) direction and the ferromagnetic (rung) direction are comparable with those for the stripe ordered phase of the parent compounds of the iron-based superconductors. Also, the universality of the SJ's implies nearly universal spin wave dynamics and the irrelevance of the fermiology for the existence of the stripe antiferromagnetic order among various Fe-based materials.

  13. Crystal Structure and Thermodynamic Stability of Ba/Ti-Substituted Pollucites for Radioactive Cs/Ba Immobilization

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xu, Hongwu; Chavez, Manuel E.; Mitchell, Jeremy N.; Garino, Terry J.; Schwarz, Haiqing L.; Rodriguez, Mark A.; Rademacher, David X.; Nenoff, Tina Maria

    2015-04-23

    An analogue of the mineral pollucite (CsAlSi2O6), CsTiSi2O6.5 has a potential host phase for radioactive Cs. However, as 137Cs and 135Cs transmute to 137Ba and 135Ba, respectively, through the beta decay, it is essential to study the structure and stability of this phase upon Cs → Ba substitution. In this work, two series of Ba/Ti-substituted samples, CsxBa(1-x)/2TiSi2O6.5 and CsxBa1-xTiSi2O7-0.5x, (x = 0.9 and 0.7), were synthesized by high-temperature crystallization from their respective precursors. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Rietveld analysis reveal that while CsxBa(1-x)/2TiSi2O6.5 samples are phase-pure, CsxBa1-xTiSi2O7-0.5x samples contain Cs3x/(2+x)Ba(1-x)/(2+x)TiSi2O6.5 pollucites (i.e., also two-Cs-to-one-Ba substitution) and a secondary phase, fresnoitemore » (Ba2TiSi2O8). Thus, the CsxBa1-xTiSi2O7-0.5x series is energetically less favorable than CsxBa(1-x)/2TiSi2O6.5. To study the stability systematics of CsxBa(1-x)/2TiSi2O6.5 pollucites, high-temperature calorimetric experiments were performed at 973 K with or without the lead borate solvent. Enthalpies of formation from the constituent oxides (and elements) have thus been derived. Our results show that with increasing Ba/(Cs + Ba) ratio, the thermodynamic stability of these phases decreases with respect to their component oxides. Hence, from the energetic viewpoint, continued Cs → Ba transmutation tends to destabilize the parent silicotitanate pollucite structure. However, the Ba-substituted pollucite co-forms with fresnoite (which incorporates the excess Ba), thereby providing viable ceramic waste forms for all the Ba decay products.« less

  14. Free energy of formation of Cs 3PuCl 6 and CsPu 2Cl 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, M. A.; Kleinschmidt, P. D.

    The free energy, enthalpy and entropy of formation of the compounds Cs 3PuCl 6 and CsPu 2Cl 7 have been determined by measuring the sublimation pressures for the reactions CsCl( s) / aiCsCl( g), {2}/{5}Cs 3PuCl 6(s) /ai {1}/{5}CsPu 2Cl 7(s) + CsCl(g) , and CsPu2Cl7( s) / ai 2 PuCl3( s) + CsCl( g). The pressures are measured using Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry over the temperature range 600 to 850 K. For the formation of Cs 3PuCl 6 from CsCl and PuCl 3, ΔG0298 = -77.3 ± 8.5 kJ/ mol, ΔH0298 = -82.1 ± 7.8 kJ/ mol, and ΔS0298 = -16.2 ± 10.9 J/ Kmol. For CsPu 2Cl 7, ΔG0298 = -39.4 ± 3.5 kJ/ mol, ΔH0298 = -40.8 ± 3.2 kJ/ mol, and ΔS0298 = -4.6 ± 4.2 J/ Kmol.

  15. The RB/E2F pathway and regulation of RNA processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlander, Joseph; Bosco, Giovanni

    2009-07-03

    The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (RB) is inactivated in a majority of cancers. RB restricts cell proliferation by inhibiting the E2F family of transcription factors. The current model for RB/E2F function describes its role in regulating transcription at gene promoters. Whether the RB or E2F proteins might play a role in gene expression beyond transcription initiation is not well known. This review describes evidence that points to a novel role for the RB/E2F network in the regulation of RNA processing, and we propose a model as a framework for future research. The elucidation of a novel role of RB in RNA processing will have a profound impact on our understanding of the role of this tumor suppressor family in cell and developmental biology.

  16. Melanin Biosynthesis Inhibition Effects of Ginsenoside Rb2 Isolated from Panax ginseng Berry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae Young; Jeong, Yong Tae; Jeong, Sang Chul; Lee, Mi Kyoung; Min, Jin Woo; Lee, Jae Won; Kim, Geum Soog; Lee, Seung Eun; Ahn, Young Sup; Kang, Hee Cheol; Kim, Jin Hee

    2015-12-28

    Ginsenoside Rb2 (Gin-Rb2) was purified from the fruit extract of Panax ginseng. Its chemical structure was measured by spectroscopic analysis, including HR-FAB-MS, (1)H-NMR, and IR spectroscopy. Gin-Rb2 decreased potent melanogenesis in melan-a cells, with 23.4% at 80 μM without cytotoxicity. Gin-Rb2 also decreased tyrosinase and MITF protein expression in melan-a cells. Furthermore, Gin-Rb2 presented inhibition of the body pigmentation in the zebrafish in vivo system and reduced melanin contents and tyrosinase activity. These results show that Gin-Rb2 isolated from P. ginseng may be an effective skin-whitening agent via the in vitro and in vivo systems. PMID:26437949

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation on the conversion of ginsenoside Rb1 to Rg3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae-Hun; Kwon, Sun-Kyu; Sung, Nak-Yun; Jung, Pil-Mun; Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Sharma, Arun K.; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-08-01

    Ginsenosides, the most important secondary metabolites in ginseng, have various biological activities. Many studies have focused on the conversion of one of the major ginsenosides, Rb1, to the more active minor ginsenoside, Rg3. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the conversion of Rb1 to Rg3. Rb1 solutions were gamma-irradiated at doses of 10 and 30 kGy and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). HPLC chromatograms showed a decreased content of Rb1 with increasing irradiation dose, but the content of Rg3 was increased. The highest content of Rg3 was present in the 30 kGy-irradiated Rb1 sample. The cytotoxic effects tested in cancer cell lines were increased in the gamma-irradiated group. Therefore, these results suggest that gamma irradiation can be an effective method for the conversion of the ginsenoside Rb1 to Rg3.

  18. Melanin Biosynthesis Inhibition Effects of Ginsenoside Rb2 Isolated from Panax ginseng Berry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae Young; Jeong, Yong Tae; Jeong, Sang Chul; Lee, Mi Kyoung; Min, Jin Woo; Lee, Jae Won; Kim, Geum Soog; Lee, Seung Eun; Ahn, Young Sup; Kang, Hee Cheol; Kim, Jin Hee

    2015-12-28

    Ginsenoside Rb2 (Gin-Rb2) was purified from the fruit extract of Panax ginseng. Its chemical structure was measured by spectroscopic analysis, including HR-FAB-MS, (1)H-NMR, and IR spectroscopy. Gin-Rb2 decreased potent melanogenesis in melan-a cells, with 23.4% at 80 μM without cytotoxicity. Gin-Rb2 also decreased tyrosinase and MITF protein expression in melan-a cells. Furthermore, Gin-Rb2 presented inhibition of the body pigmentation in the zebrafish in vivo system and reduced melanin contents and tyrosinase activity. These results show that Gin-Rb2 isolated from P. ginseng may be an effective skin-whitening agent via the in vitro and in vivo systems.

  19. {sup 85}Rb tunable-interaction Bose-Einstein condensate machine

    SciTech Connect

    Altin, P. A.; Robins, N. P.; Doering, D.; Debs, J. E.; Poldy, R.; Figl, C.; Close, J. D.

    2010-06-15

    We describe our experimental setup for creating stable Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) of {sup 85}Rb with tunable interparticle interactions. We use sympathetic cooling with {sup 87}Rb in two stages, initially in a tight Ioffe-Pritchard magnetic trap and subsequently in a weak, large-volume, crossed optical dipole trap, using the 155 G Feshbach resonance to manipulate the elastic and inelastic scattering properties of the {sup 85}Rb atoms. Typical {sup 85}Rb condensates contain 4x10{sup 4} atoms with a scattering length of a=+200a{sub 0}. Many aspects of the design presented here could be adapted to other dual-species BEC machines, including those involving degenerate Fermi-Bose mixtures. Our minimalist apparatus is well suited to experiments on dual-species and spinor Rb condensates, and has several simplifications over the {sup 85}Rb BEC machine at JILA, which we discuss at the end of this article.

  20. Ion-modulated nonlinear electronic transport in carbon nanotube bundle/RbAg{sub 4}I{sub 5} thin film composite nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Jia-Lin; Zhang, Wei; Wei, Jinquan; Gu, Bingfu

    2014-01-28

    We have explored the ion-modulated electronic transport properties of mixed ionic-electronic conductor (MIEC) composite nanostructures made of superionic conductor RbAg{sub 4}I{sub 5} films and carbon nanotube (CNT) bundle spiderwebs. Our experimental and theoretical studies indicate that the formation of ion-electron bound states (IEBSs) leads to strong ion-electron interference effect and interesting electronic transport of CNT, such as nonlinear current-voltage (I–V) characteristics and novel temperature dependence of the current. With increasing temperature, the hybrid nanostructures show rich phases with different dependence of current on temperature, which is related to the structural phase transition of RbAg{sub 4}I{sub 5} and the transition of dissociation of IEBSs. The ion-modulation of the electric conductivity in such MIEC composite nanostructures with great tunability has been used to design new ionic-electronic composite nano-devices with function like field effect transistor.

  1. Penetration depth measurements of K2Cr3As3 and Rb2Cr3As3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, G. M.; Smidman, M.; Jiang, W. B.; Shi, Y. G.; Bao, J. K.; Tang, Z. T.; Weng, Z. F.; Wang, Y. F.; Jiao, L.; Zhang, J. L.; Luo, J. L.; Cao, G. H.; Yuan, H. Q.

    2016-02-01

    The newly discovered superconductors A2Cr3As3 (A=K, Rb, Cs), with a quasi-one-dimensional crystal structure have attracted considerable interest. The crystal structure consists of double-walled tubes of [Cr3As3]2- that extend along the c-axis. Previously we reported measurements of the change in London penetration depth of polycrystalline samples of K2Cr3As3 using a tunnel diode oscillator based technique, which show a linear temperature dependence at low temperatures, giving evidence for line nodes in the superconducting gap. Here we report similar measurements of the penetration depth for polycrystalline Rb2Cr3As3 and several single crystals of K2Cr3As3, prepared by two different research groups. The single crystal measurements show similar behavior to polycrystalline samples down to 0.9-1.2 K, where a downturn is observed in the frequency shift for all single crystal samples. These results give further evidence for nodal superconductivity in K2Cr3As3, which indicates that the superconducting pairing state is unconventional. The different low temperature behavior, observed in samples which have deteriorated after being exposed to air, emphasizes that it is necessary to properly handle the samples prior to being measured because the A2Cr3As3 compounds are extremely air sensitive and evidence for nodal superconductivity from penetration depth measurements is only observed in the samples which display a sharp superconducting transition. Therefore further work is required to improve the quality of single crystals and to identify the origin of the downturn.

  2. Rb/Sr isotopic and compositional retentivity of muscovite during deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberlei, T.; Habler, G.; Wegner, W.; Schuster, R.; Körner, W.; Thöni, M.; Abart, R.

    2015-06-01

    Permian metapegmatite muscovite from the Upper-Austroalpine Matsch Unit in Southern Tyrol (Italy) was investigated regarding its Rb/Sr and compositional retentivity during Cretaceous Upper-greenschist facies deformation. The data imply that microstructurally relic Permian magmatic muscovite largely maintained its major and trace element compositions during deformation, whereas the Rb/Sr geochronometer is strongly affected by a net loss of Sr. Lower Sr concentrations of muscovite correlate with higher 87Rb/86Sr and 87Sr/86Sr ratios. In most samples, the muscovite grain size- and magnetic-fractions with the lowest 87Rb/86Sr and 87Sr/86Sr ratios preserve a Permo-Triassic muscovite-whole rock Rb/Sr apparent age interpreted as to reflect formation during or cooling after pegmatite emplacement. Contrastingly, muscovite fractions with higher 87Rb/86Sr and 87Sr/86Sr ratios are arranged along a roughly linear array with a positive correlation of the 87Rb/86Sr and 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the 87Rb/86Sr vs 87Sr/86Sr space. They yield successively lower muscovite-whole rock Rb/Sr apparent ages. We explain the variations in the Rb/Sr isotopic character of microstructurally relic muscovite by a, presumably deformation-related, loss of Sr during the Cretaceous event. Contemporaneously, only very limited amounts of isotopically different Sr from the matrix reservoir might possibly have entered the muscovite. Consequently, the Rb/Sr of the relic muscovite is affected by a net loss of Sr. The results imply that at temperatures of < 500 °C, deformation is supposed to be the predominant factor in controlling the Rb/Sr geochronometer of relic muscovite, by significantly reducing the characteristic length scale for volume diffusion. However, variations of the major and trace element compositions within Permian relic muscovite are interpreted to rather reflect primary compositional instead of deformation-related variations.

  3. A kinase shRNA screen links LATS2 and the pRB tumor suppressor.

    PubMed

    Tschöp, Katrin; Conery, Andrew R; Litovchick, Larisa; Decaprio, James A; Settleman, Jeffrey; Harlow, Ed; Dyson, Nicholas

    2011-04-15

    pRB-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation is a complex process that depends on the action of many proteins. However, little is known about the specific pathways that cooperate with the Retinoblastoma protein (pRB) and the variables that influence pRB's ability to arrest tumor cells. Here we describe two shRNA screens that identify kinases that are important for pRB to suppress cell proliferation and pRB-mediated induction of senescence markers. The results reveal an unexpected effect of LATS2, a component of the Hippo pathway, on pRB-induced phenotypes. Partial knockdown of LATS2 strongly suppresses some pRB-induced senescence markers. Further analysis shows that LATS2 cooperates with pRB to promote the silencing of E2F target genes, and that reduced levels of LATS2 lead to defects in the assembly of DREAM (DP, RB [retinoblastoma], E2F, and MuvB) repressor complexes at E2F-regulated promoters. Kinase assays show that LATS2 can phosphorylate DYRK1A, and that it enhances the ability of DYRK1A to phosphorylate the DREAM subunit LIN52. Intriguingly, the LATS2 locus is physically linked with RB1 on 13q, and this region frequently displays loss of heterozygosity in human cancers. Our results reveal a functional connection between the pRB and Hippo tumor suppressor pathways, and suggest that low levels of LATS2 may undermine the ability of pRB to induce a permanent cell cycle arrest in tumor cells.

  4. Composite-type Rb-87 optical-pumping light source for the rubidium frequency standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oura, N.; Kuramochi, N.; Naritsuka, S.; Hayashi, T.

    1982-01-01

    The light source is composed of a cylindrical Rb-87 lamp 10 mm diameter and a Rb-85 filter cell 3-7 mm long attached to the front flat face of the lamp. This composite type device is operated in an oven at about 100 C. Thus a light source for Rb-87 hyperfine optical pumping less than 4 cm long by 3 cm diameter was constructed.

  5. Integrin-linked kinase regulates senescence in an Rb-dependent manner in cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Duminuco, Rose; Noble, Jake W; Goody, Joseph; Sharma, Manju; Ksander, Bruce R; Roskelley, Calvin D; Cox, Michael E; Mills, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Anti-integrin-linked kinase (ILK) therapies result in aberrant mitosis including altered mitotic spindle organization, centrosome declustering and mitotic arrest. In contrast to cells that expressed the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein Rb, we have shown that in retinoblastoma cell lines that do not express Rb, anti-ILK therapies induced aberrant mitosis that led to the accumulation of temporarily viable multinucleated cells. The present work was undertaken to: 1) determine the ultimate fate of cells that had survived anti-ILK therapies and 2) determine whether or not Rb expression altered the outcome of these cells. Our data indicate that ILK, a chemotherapy drug target is expressed in both well-differentiated, Rb-negative and relatively undifferentiated, Rb-positive retinoblastoma tissue. We show that small molecule targeting of ILK in Rb-positive and Rb-deficient cancer cells results in increased centrosomal declustering, aberrant mitotic spindle formation and multinucleation. However, anti-ILK therapies in vitro have different outcomes in retinoblastoma and glioblastoma cell lines that depend on Rb expression. TUNEL labeling and propidium iodide FACS analysis indicate that Rb-positive cells exposed to anti-ILK therapies are more susceptible to apoptosis and senescence than their Rb-deficient counterparts wherein aberrant mitosis induced by anti-ILK therapies exhibit mitotic arrest instead. These studies are the first to show a role for ILK in chemotherapy-induced senescence in Rb-positive cancer lines. Taken together these results indicate that the oncosuppressive outcomes for anti-ILK therapies in vitro, depend on the expression of the tumor suppressor Rb, a known G1 checkpoint and senescence regulator. PMID:26176204

  6. Electrochemical immobilization of Cs in single-crystalline SYNROC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Hideki; Satoh, Akira; Nishida, Kenji; Abe, Eiji; Naka, Takashi; Imai, Motoharu; Kitazawa, Hideaki

    2006-05-01

    The development of a disposal technique for the radiotoxic 137Cs in nuclear wastes is one of the most urgent issues in nuclear fuel technology. An effective disposal method of 137Cs is to immobilize it in a synthetic rock (SYNROC) material: cesium titanate hollandite, 137Cs xTi 8O 16 ( I4/ m, a=10.2866(3) Å, c=2.9669(1) Å). Practical applications of 137Cs xTi 8O 16 have been restricted so far because the conventional synthetic method requires strong chemical reducers and reaction temperatures higher than 1250 °C. In this report, we present a milder preparation method of Cs xTi 8O 16 by electrolysis of a mixture of Cs 2MoO 4 and TiO 2 in ambient atmosphere at 900 °C. The Cs content in the resultant single-crystalline Cs 1.35Ti 8O 16 is competitive with the highest value in polycrystalline Cs 1.36±0.03Ti 8O 16 prepared by the conventional synthetic method. The electrochemical preparation of Cs 1.35Ti 8O 16 is a promising way to immobilize a high quantity of 137Cs ions in a stable form of single-crystalline SYNROC.

  7. Bacterial CS2 hydrolases from Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans strains are homologous to the archaeal catenane CS2 hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Smeulders, Marjan J; Pol, Arjan; Venselaar, Hanka; Barends, Thomas R M; Hermans, John; Jetten, Mike S M; Op den Camp, Huub J M

    2013-09-01

    Carbon disulfide (CS(2)) and carbonyl sulfide (COS) are important in the global sulfur cycle, and CS(2) is used as a solvent in the viscose industry. These compounds can be converted by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, such as Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans species, to carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a property used in industrial biofiltration of CS(2)-polluted airstreams. We report on the mechanism of bacterial CS(2) conversion in the extremely acidophilic A. thiooxidans strains S1p and G8. The bacterial CS(2) hydrolases were highly abundant. They were purified and found to be homologous to the only other described (archaeal) CS(2) hydrolase from Acidianus strain A1-3, which forms a catenane of two interlocked rings. The enzymes cluster in a group of β-carbonic anhydrase (β-CA) homologues that may comprise a subclass of CS(2) hydrolases within the β-CA family. Unlike CAs, the CS(2) hydrolases did not hydrate CO(2) but converted CS(2) and COS with H(2)O to H(2)S and CO(2). The CS(2) hydrolases of A. thiooxidans strains G8, 2Bp, Sts 4-3, and BBW1, like the CS(2) hydrolase of Acidianus strain A1-3, exist as both octamers and hexadecamers in solution. The CS(2) hydrolase of A. thiooxidans strain S1p forms only octamers. Structure models of the A. thiooxidans CS(2) hydrolases based on the structure of Acidianus strain A1-3 CS(2) hydrolase suggest that the A. thiooxidans strain G8 CS(2) hydrolase may also form a catenane. In the A. thiooxidans strain S1p enzyme, two insertions (positions 26 and 27 [PD] and positions 56 to 61 [TPAGGG]) and a nine-amino-acid-longer C-terminal tail may prevent catenane formation.

  8. pRb is an obesity suppressor in hypothalamus and high-fat diet inhibits pRb in this location.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhonglei; Marcelin, Genevieve; Bauzon, Frederick; Wang, Hongbo; Fu, Hao; Dun, Siok Le; Zhao, Hongling; Li, Xiaosong; Jo, Young-Hwan; Wardlaw, Sharon; Dun, Nae; Chua, Streamson; Zhu, Liang

    2013-03-20

    pRb is frequently inactivated in tumours by mutations or phosphorylation. Here, we investigated whether pRb plays a role in obesity. The Arcuate nucleus (ARC) in hypothalamus contains antagonizing POMC and AGRP/NPY neurons for negative and positive energy balance, respectively. Various aspects of ARC neurons are affected in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity mouse model. Using this model, we show that HFD, as well as pharmacological activation of AMPK, induces pRb phosphorylation and E2F target gene de-repression in ARC neurons. Some affected neurons express POMC; and deleting Rb1 in POMC neurons induces E2F target gene de-repression, cell-cycle re-entry, apoptosis, and a hyperphagia-obesity-diabetes syndrome. These defects can be corrected by combined deletion of E2f1. In contrast, deleting Rb1 in the antagonizing AGRP/NPY neurons shows no effects. Thus, pRb-E2F1 is an obesity suppression mechanism in ARC POMC neurons and HFD-AMPK inhibits this mechanism by phosphorylating pRb in this location.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of phosphates in molten systems Cs 2O-P 2O 5-CaO- MIII2O 3 ( MIII—Al, Fe, Cr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zatovsky, Igor V.; Strutynska, Nataliya Yu.; Baumer, Vyacheslav N.; Slobodyanik, Nikolay S.; Ogorodnyk, Ivan V.; Shishkin, Oleg V.

    2011-03-01

    The crystallization of complex phosphates from the melts of Cs 2O-P 2O 5-CaO- MIII2O 3 ( MIII—Al, Fe, Cr) systems have been investigated at fixed value Cs/P molar ratios equal to 0.7, 1.0 and 1.3 and Са/Р=0.2 and Ca/ МIII=1. The fields of crystallization of CsCaP 3O 9, β-Ca 2P 2O 7, Cs 2CaP 2O 7, Cs 3CaFe(P 2O 7) 2, Ca 9MIII(PO 4) 7 ( MIII—Fe, Cr), Cs 0.63Ca 9.63Fe 0.37(PO 4) 7 and CsCa 10(PO 4) 7 were determined. Obtained phosphates were investigated using powder X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectroscopy. Novel whitlockite-related phases CsCa 10(PO 4) 7 and Cs 0.63Ca 9.63Fe 0.37(PO 4) 7 have been characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction: space group R3c, a=10.5536(5) and 10.5221(4) Å, с=37.2283(19) and 37.2405(17) Å, respectively.

  10. p21 suppresses inflammation and tumorigenesis on pRB-deficient stratified epithelia.

    PubMed

    Saiz-Ladera, C; Lara, M F; Garín, M; Ruiz, S; Santos, M; Lorz, C; García-Escudero, R; Martínez-Fernández, M; Bravo, A; Fernández-Capetillo, O; Segrelles, C; Paramio, J M

    2014-09-11

    The retinoblastoma gene product (pRb) controls proliferation and differentiation processes in stratified epithelia. Importantly, and in contrast to other tissues, Rb deficiency does not lead to spontaneous skin tumor formation. As the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 regulates proliferation and differentiation in the absence of pRb, we analyzed the consequences of deleting p21 in pRb-ablated stratified epithelia (hereafter pRb(ΔEpi);p21-/-). These mice display an enhancement of the phenotypic abnormalities observed in pRb(ΔEpi) animals, indicating that p21 partially compensates pRb absence. Remarkably, pRb(ΔEpi);p21-/- mice show an acute skin inflammatory phenotype and develop spontaneous epithelial tumors, particularly affecting tongue and oral tissues. Biochemical analyses and transcriptome studies reveal changes affecting multiple pathways, including DNA damage and p53-dependent signaling responses. Comparative metagenomic analyses, together with the histopathological profiles, indicate that these mice constitute a faithful model for human head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that p21, in conjunction with pRb, has a central role in regulating multiple epithelial processes and orchestrating specific tumor suppressor functions.

  11. Protein phosphatase 2A subunit PR70 interacts with pRb and mediates its dephosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Magenta, Alessandra; Fasanaro, Pasquale; Romani, Sveva; Di Stefano, Valeria; Capogrossi, Maurizio C; Martelli, Fabio

    2008-01-01

    The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (pRb) regulates cell proliferation and differentiation via phosphorylation-sensitive interactions with specific targets. While the role of cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase complexes in the modulation of pRb phosphorylation has been extensively studied, relatively little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating phosphate removal by phosphatases. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is constituted by a core dimer bearing catalytic activity and one variable B regulatory subunit conferring target specificity and subcellular localization. We previously demonstrated that PP2A core dimer binds pRb and dephosphorylates pRb upon oxidative stress. In the present study, we identified a specific PP2A-B subunit, PR70, that was associated with pRb both in vitro and in vivo. PR70 overexpression caused pRb dephosphorylation; conversely, PR70 knockdown prevented both pRb dephosphorylation and DNA synthesis inhibition induced by oxidative stress. Moreover, we found that intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization was necessary and sufficient to trigger pRb dephosphorylation and PP2A phosphatase activity of PR70 was Ca(2+) induced. These data underline the importance of PR70-Ca(2+) interaction in the signal transduction mechanisms triggered by redox imbalance and leading to pRb dephosphorylation.

  12. [Prognostic value of the immunohistochemical expresion of protein Rb in epidermoid carcinoma of the larynx].

    PubMed

    García Lozano, M C; Orradre Romero, J L; Sánchez Carrión, S; Menéndez Loras, L M; Jiménez Antolín, J; Piris Pinilla, M A

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we carried out an immunohistochemical study of protein Rb (G3-245) expression in a series of 195 patients with laryngeal carcinoma that were diagnosticated, treated and followed at the Department of Otolaryngology at "Virgen de la Salud" Hospital (Toledo, Spain) for a time of 5 years. In the cases with lymph node metastasis we also studied Rb expression at this level. Furthermore we have analysed the value of Rb expression as a prognostic factor (tumor recurrence, deads due to cancer and survival) and we evaluate the relationship between Rb expression and other clinic and pathologic parameters.

  13. Nuclear reactions in Rb, Sr, Y, and Zr targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regnier, S.; Lavielle, B.; Simonoff, M.; Simonoff, G. N.

    1982-09-01

    Excitation functions of all stable or long-lived krypton isotopes were measured or estimated for incident protons and neutrons in Rb, Sr, Y, and Zr targets. Experimental data concern mostly Y and Zr targets bombarded with 0.059 to 24 GeV protons. The products 78-86Kr, 74As, 75Se, 83,84,86Rb, 85Sr, 88Y, 88,95Zr, and 92Nbm were measured using high-sensitivity mass spectrometry and nondestructive γ counting. Lighter products such as 38,39,42Ar and 12 radioactive isotopes from 7Be to 65Zn were also measured in some cases and their cross sections are given in an appendix. Most excitation functions pass through a maximum between 0.4 and 0.8 GeV, and the peak energy could depend on the ΔA value. The results, combined with a general survey of nuclear reactions in Ga to Nb targets, permitted the development of new systematics leading to the calculation of spallation-produced Kr isotopes in the moon bombarded with galactic and solar cosmic rays. Compared to cosmogenic krypton measured in nine well-documented lunar samples, 83Kr is predicted with a precision better than 33% (1σ) and the production ratios iKr/83Kr are predicted to better than 25%. It is concluded that the cosmogenic ratios 86Kr/83Kr and 81Kr/83Kr are dependent on the main target element concentrations. This should be taken into account in strontium-rich samples when calculating exposure ages of extraterrestrial materials. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 89Y and Zr, (p, spallation) E=0.059-24 GeV; measured σ(E) for 78-86Kr and 12 radioactive products. Systematics of p- and n-induced reactions in Rb, Sr, Y, and Zr. Cosmogenic krypton.

  14. On the 57-us isomer in 93Rb

    SciTech Connect

    Miernik, Krzysztof A; Gross, Carl J; Grzywacz, Robert Kazimierz; Madurga, M; Mendez, II, Anthony J; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr; Stracener, Daniel W; Zganjar, E. F.

    2014-01-01

    The 253.3 keV isomeric state located in 93Rb was studied at the HRIBF in Oak Ridge. The state in question was populated in the decay of 93Kr produced by proton induced fission of 238U and separated using the isotope separation on line technique. We report that the 253.3 keV level does not reveal isomerism and the upper limit of the half life from our measurement is 4 ns. Our findings are supported by previously reported results that were not taken into account in the latest nuclear databases.

  15. Rotation sensing using a K-Rb-21Ne comagnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rujie; Fan, Wenfeng; Jiang, Liwei; Duan, Lihong; Quan, Wei; Fang, Jiancheng

    2016-09-01

    We report on the Earth's rotation measurement using a K-Rb-21Ne comagnetometer. The steady-state responses of the nuclear- and electronic-spin polarizations therein have been shown. The light shift arising from the circularly polarized pump laser beam enables the comagnetometer to sense dual-axis rotations. This feasibility has been emphasized and verified by numerical simulation. We believe that this sensor could be used in any application requiring compact size, low cost, and high-precision inertial navigation.

  16. The crystal structure of cesium biuranyl trisulphate, Cs2(UO2)2(SO4)3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, M.; Evans, H.T.

    1960-01-01

    The crystal structure of the new compound Cs(UO2)2(SO4)3 has been determined by X-ray diffraction methods. The compound is tetragonal, space group P421m (D2d3), with a = 9??62 ?? 0??02, c = 8??13 ?? 0??01 A ??, and Z = 2; s.g. (calc.) = 4??80 ?? 0??03, s.g. (obs.) = 4??74 ?? 0??05. The compound forms plates parallel to (001) bounded by the form (110). Intensity data were obtained from Buerger precession photographs of the (hk0) and (0kl) reciprocal lattice nets. No corrections for absorption were made. The co-ordinates of the U and Cs atoms were obtained by interpretation of the Patterson projections normal to (001) and (100) and a plausible structure was derived from electron density projections. The final parameters of the structure were determined from subtraction electron density maps, least squares analysis of the structure factors, and spatial considerations. The compound has a layer structure consisting of (UO2)2(SO4)3]n2n- sheets paralle to (001), tied together by cesium ions. The UO22+ group is co-ordinated by five sulphate oxygens which form a nearly plane pentagon approximately normal to the uranyl axis. The Cs2 atom is co-ordinated by twelve oxygen atoms and the Cs1 atom by eight oxygen atoms. X-ray and optical data are also given for the compound Rb2UO2(SO4)2??2H2O. ?? 1960.

  17. Size-induced effect on cathode luminescence spectra of CsI(Na) and CsI(Tl) crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fang; Ouyang, XiaoPing; Liu, Bin; Liu, JinLiang; Chen, Liang; Zhang, ZhongBing; Zhang, XueBin; Feng, Yi

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the cathode luminescence characteristics of CsI(Na) and CsI(Tl) crystals by the spectrum and structure properties at room temperature. We fabricated three different sizes of CsI(Na) and CsI(Tl) crystals and measured their luminescence spectra under cathode rays. We found that CsI(Na) cathode luminescence peaks appear at 420 and 305 nm, and CsI(Tl) cathode luminescence peaks are 540 and 410 nm, the grain size affects CsI(Na) luminescence significantly, and the Na-related 420 nm luminescence intensified relatively when the average grain size reaches ˜20 μm, which becomes weak when the grain size is down to nano-scale. But the cathode luminescence spectra of CsI(Tl) crystals with different size have no obvious changes. Our explanations for these phenomena are that the different impurities in the same host material CsI lead to different luminescence mechanisms. These cathode luminescence characteristics indicate the suitability of CsI(Na) and CsI(Tl) crystals to match photomultiplier tube for large area crystal detector development.

  18. (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotopic ratio as a new tracer of radiocesium released from the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jian; Tagami, Keiko; Bu, Wenting; Uchida, Shigeo; Watanabe, Yoshito; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Fuma, Shoichi; Ihara, Sadao

    2014-05-20

    Since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident in 2011, intensive studies of the distribution of released fission products, in particular (134)Cs and (137)Cs, in the environment have been conducted. However, the release sources, that is, the damaged reactors or the spent fuel pools, have not been identified, which resulted in great variation in the estimated amounts of (137)Cs released. Here, we investigated heavily contaminated environmental samples (litter, lichen, and soil) collected from Fukushima forests for the long-lived (135)Cs (half-life of 2 × 10(6) years), which is usually difficult to measure using decay-counting techniques. Using a newly developed triple-quadrupole inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometry method, we analyzed the (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotopic ratio of the FDNPP-released radiocesium in environmental samples. We demonstrated that radiocesium was mainly released from the Unit 2 reactor. Considering the fact that the widely used tracer for the released Fukushima accident-sourced radiocesium in the environment, the (134)Cs/(137)Cs activity ratio, will become unavailable in the near future because of the short half-life of (134)Cs (2.06 years), the (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotopic ratio can be considered as a new tracer for source identification and long-term estimation of the mobility of released radiocesium in the environment.

  19. Phosphorylation of pRB at Ser612 by Chk1/2 leads to a complex between pRB and E2F-1 after DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yasumichi; Kitagawa, Masatoshi; Taya, Yoichi

    2007-04-18

    The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (pRB) plays a critical role in the control of cell proliferation and in the DNA damage checkpoints. pRB inhibits cell cycle progression through interactions with the E2F family of transcription factors. Here, we report that DNA damage induced not only the dephosphorylation of pRB at Cdk phosphorylation sites and the binding of pRB to E2F-1, but also the phosphorylation of pRB at Ser612. Phosphorylation of pRB at Ser612 enhanced the formation of a complex between pRB and E2F-1. Substitution of Ser612 with Ala decreased pRB-E2F-1 binding and the transcriptional repression activity. Until now, Ser612 of pRB has been thought to be phosphorylated by Cdk2. However, the phosphorylation of pRB at Ser612 was conducted by Chk1/2 after DNA damage, and inhibition of ATM-Chk1/2 activity suppressed the phosphorylation of Ser612 and the binding of p<