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Sample records for readera medical decision

  1. Medical decisions under uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Carmi, A

    1993-01-01

    The court applies the criteria of the reasonable doctor and common practice in order to consider the behaviour of a defendant physician. The meaning of our demand that the doctor expects that his or her acts or omissions will bring about certain implications is that, according to the present circumstances and subject to the limited knowledge of the common practice, the course of certain events or situations in the future may be assumed in spite of the fog of uncertainty which surrounds us. The miracles and wonders of creation are concealed from us, and we are not aware of the way and the nature of our bodily functioning. Therefore, there seems to be no way to avoid mistakes, because in several cases the correct diagnosis cannot be determined even with the most advanced application of all information available. Doctors find it difficult to admit that they grope in the dark. They wish to form clear and accurate diagnoses for their patients. The fact that their profession is faced with innumerable and unavoidable risks and mistakes is hard to swallow, and many of them claim that in their everyday work this does not happen. They should not content themselves by changing their style. A radical metamorphosis is needed. They should not be tempted to formulate their diagnoses in 'neutral' statements in order to be on the safe side. Uncertainty should be accepted and acknowledged by the profession and by the public at large as a human phenomenon, as an integral part of any human decision, and as a clear characteristic of any legal or medical diagnosis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Influence of framing on medical decision making

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jingjing; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Jun; Huang, Yonghua; Wei, Yazhou; Zhang, Weiwei

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the robustness of the framing effect in a variety of contexts, especially in medical decision making. Unfortunately, research is still inconsistent as to how so many variables impact framing effects in medical decision making. Additionally, much attention should be paid to the framing effect not only in hypothetical scenarios but also in clinical experience. PMID:27034630

  3. Medical Decision-Making by Psychiatry Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Mallakh, Rif; Zinner, Jill; Mackey, Amanda; Tamas, Rebecca L.; Martin, Chanley M.; Dalton, Jerad; Dhaliwal, Nitu; Luddington, Nicole; Numan, Farhad U.; Nunes, Ross; Taylor, Stephen; Ye, Lu

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Several conspiring factors have resulted in an increase in the level of medical burden in psychiatric patients. Psychiatry residents require increasing levels of medical sophistication. To assess the medical decision-making of psychiatry residents, the authors examined the outcome in subjects initially seen in the emergency psychiatric…

  4. Medical Decision-Making by Psychiatry Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Mallakh, Rif; Zinner, Jill; Mackey, Amanda; Tamas, Rebecca L.; Martin, Chanley M.; Dalton, Jerad; Dhaliwal, Nitu; Luddington, Nicole; Numan, Farhad U.; Nunes, Ross; Taylor, Stephen; Ye, Lu

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Several conspiring factors have resulted in an increase in the level of medical burden in psychiatric patients. Psychiatry residents require increasing levels of medical sophistication. To assess the medical decision-making of psychiatry residents, the authors examined the outcome in subjects initially seen in the emergency psychiatric…

  5. Family interests and medical decisions for children.

    PubMed

    Baines, Paul

    2017-10-01

    Medical decisions for children are usually justified by the claim that they are in a child's best interests. More recently, following criticisms of the best interests standard, some advocate that the family's interests should influence medical decisions for children, although what is meant by family interests is often not made clear. I argue that at least two senses of family interests may be discerned. There is a 'weak' sense (as the amalgamated interests of family members) of family interests and a 'strong' sense (that the family itself has interests over and above the interests of individuals). I contend that there are problems with both approaches in making medical decisions for children but that the weak sense is more plausible. Despite this, I argue that claims for family interests are not helpful in making medical decisions for children. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Parental rights and medical decisions.

    PubMed

    Dare, Tim

    2009-10-01

    Most countries grant parents rebuttable legal rights to make treatment decisions on behalf of their young children, creating a presumption in favor of parental rights. This article identifies and provides a preliminary assessment of a perhaps surprising variety of arguments for the presumption in favor of this parental right. The arguments considered include those flowing from ideas that parents are motivated by their child's best interests; that they have privileged insight into their child's preferences and capacities; that parental support has clinical significance and may be contingent upon respect for the presumption; that parents and families typically bear the burden of treatment decisions; that parents' views often have a religious basis; that it would be improper to override parents' wishes other than in conditions of complete certainty; and that parents have 'natural authority' over their children. It is unlikely that this is an exhaustive list of the arguments that could be offered in favor of the presumption, and the treatment in the paper is brief. Nevertheless, it is hoped that enough is said to suggest that it is harder to defend the presumption than we might have supposed.

  7. [Kairos. Decision-making in medical ethics].

    PubMed

    Jousset, David

    2014-06-01

    This paper assesses the decision making patterns in medical ethics: the formalized pattern of decision science, the meditative pattern of an art of judgement and lastly the still-to-be-elaborated pattern of kairology or sense of the right time. The ethical decision is to be thought out in the conditions of medical action while resorting to the philosophical concepts that shed light on the issue. And it is precisely where medicine and philosophy of human action meet that the Greek notion of kairos, or "propitious moment", evokes the critical point where decision has to do with what is vital. Reflection shows that this kairos can be thought out outside the sacrificial pattern (deciding comes down to killing a possibility) by understanding the opportune moment as a sign of ethical action, as the condition for the formation of the subject (making a decision) and finally as a new relationship to time, including in the context of medical urgency. Thus with an approach to clinical ethics centred on the relation to the individual, the focus is less on the probabilistic knowledge of the decidable than on the meaning of the decision, and the undecidable comes to be accepted as an infinite dimension going beyond the limits of our acts, which makes the contingency and the grandeur of human responsibility.

  8. Automated critiquing of medical decision trees.

    PubMed

    Wellman, M P; Eckman, M H; Fleming, C; Marshall, S L; Sonnenberg, F A; Pauker, S G

    1989-01-01

    The authors developed a decision tree-critiquing program (called BUNYAN) that identifies potential modeling errors in medical decision trees. The program's critiques are based on the structure of a decision problem, obtained from an abstract description specifying only the basic semantic categories of the model's components. A taxonomy of node and branch types supplies the primitive building blocks for representing decision trees. Bunyan detects potential problems in a model by matching general pattern expressions that refer to these primitives. A small set of general principles justifies critiquing rules that detect four categories of potential structural problems: impossible strategies, dominated strategies, unaccountable violations of symmetry, and omission of apparently reasonable strategies. Although critiquing based on structure alone has clear limitations, principled structural analysis constitutes the core of a methodology for reasoning about decision models.

  9. Medical Question Answering for Clinical Decision Support.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Travis R; Harabagiu, Sanda M

    2016-10-01

    The goal of modern Clinical Decision Support (CDS) systems is to provide physicians with information relevant to their management of patient care. When faced with a medical case, a physician asks questions about the diagnosis, the tests, or treatments that should be administered. Recently, the TREC-CDS track has addressed this challenge by evaluating results of retrieving relevant scientific articles where the answers of medical questions in support of CDS can be found. Although retrieving relevant medical articles instead of identifying the answers was believed to be an easier task, state-of-the-art results are not yet sufficiently promising. In this paper, we present a novel framework for answering medical questions in the spirit of TREC-CDS by first discovering the answer and then selecting and ranking scientific articles that contain the answer. Answer discovery is the result of probabilistic inference which operates on a probabilistic knowledge graph, automatically generated by processing the medical language of large collections of electronic medical records (EMRs). The probabilistic inference of answers combines knowledge from medical practice (EMRs) with knowledge from medical research (scientific articles). It also takes into account the medical knowledge automatically discerned from the medical case description. We show that this novel form of medical question answering (Q/A) produces very promising results in (a) identifying accurately the answers and (b) it improves medical article ranking by 40%.

  10. Medical Question Answering for Clinical Decision Support

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Travis R.; Harabagiu, Sanda M.

    2017-01-01

    The goal of modern Clinical Decision Support (CDS) systems is to provide physicians with information relevant to their management of patient care. When faced with a medical case, a physician asks questions about the diagnosis, the tests, or treatments that should be administered. Recently, the TREC-CDS track has addressed this challenge by evaluating results of retrieving relevant scientific articles where the answers of medical questions in support of CDS can be found. Although retrieving relevant medical articles instead of identifying the answers was believed to be an easier task, state-of-the-art results are not yet sufficiently promising. In this paper, we present a novel framework for answering medical questions in the spirit of TREC-CDS by first discovering the answer and then selecting and ranking scientific articles that contain the answer. Answer discovery is the result of probabilistic inference which operates on a probabilistic knowledge graph, automatically generated by processing the medical language of large collections of electronic medical records (EMRs). The probabilistic inference of answers combines knowledge from medical practice (EMRs) with knowledge from medical research (scientific articles). It also takes into account the medical knowledge automatically discerned from the medical case description. We show that this novel form of medical question answering (Q/A) produces very promising results in (a) identifying accurately the answers and (b) it improves medical article ranking by 40%. PMID:28758046

  11. Artificial intelligence for medical decision making.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A A; Vasudevan, C

    1990-07-01

    Artificial intelligence techniques find extensive applications in medical decision making and other aspects of health care. A number of successful expert systems have been developed in various disciplines of medicine. This paper gives an overview of expert system techniques, describes some practical systems, and discusses the relevance of such systems in clinical diagnosis and management of diseases.

  12. Stochastic dominance and medical decision making.

    PubMed

    Leshno, Moshe; Levy, Haim

    2004-08-01

    Stochastic Dominance (SD) criteria are decision making tools which allow us to choose among various strategies with only partial information on the decision makers' preferences. The notion of Stochastic Dominance has been extensively employed and developed in the area of economics, finance, agriculture, statistics, marketing and operation research since the late 1960s. For example, it may tell us which of two medical treatments with uncertain outcomes is preferred in the absence of full information on the patients' preferences. This paper presents a short review of the SD paradigm and demonstrates how the SD criteria may be employed in medical decision making, using the case of small abdominal aortic aneurysms as an illustration. Thus, for instance by assuming risk aversion one can employ second-degree stochastic dominance to divide the set of all possible treatments into the efficient set, from which the decision makers should always choose, and the inefficient (inferior) set. By employing Prospect Stochastic Dominance (PSD) a similar division can be conducted corresponding to all S-shaped utility functions.

  13. Anomalies in medical decision making: the preception of risk

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, C.; Tonn, B.

    1985-03-28

    This paper discusses risk perception in medical decision making. Biases in risk perception by physicians and patients could result in undue loss of life and unwarranted medical expenses. Possible biases include availability of information, framing of choices, and the fundamental attribution error. An example of an anomaly in medical decision making possibly related to biased decision making is elective hysterectomy. 25 refs.

  14. Emerging paradigms of cognition in medical decision-making.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vimla L; Kaufman, David R; Arocha, Jose F

    2002-02-01

    The limitations of the classical or traditional paradigm of decision research are increasingly apparent, even though there has been a substantial body of empirical research on medical decision-making over the past 40 years. As decision-support technology continues to proliferate in medical settings, it is imperative that "basic science" decision research develop a broader-based and more valid foundation for the study of medical decision-making as it occurs in the natural setting. This paper critically reviews both traditional and recent approaches to medical decision making, considering the integration of problem-solving and decision-making research paradigms, the role of conceptual knowledge in decision-making, and the emerging paradigm of naturalistic decision-making. We also provide an examination of technology-mediated decision-making. Expanding the scope of decision research will better enable us to understand optimal decision processes, suitable coping mechanisms under suboptimal conditions, the development of expertise in decision-making, and ways in which decision-support technology can successfully mediate decision processes.

  15. Liberal rationalism and medical decision-making.

    PubMed

    Savulescu, Julian

    1997-04-01

    I contrast Robert Veatch's recent liberal vision of medical decision-making with a more rationalist liberal model. According to Veatch, physicians are biased in their determination of what is in their patient's overall interests in favour of their medical interests. Because of the extent of this bias, we should abandon the practice of physicians offering what they guess to be the best treatment option. Patients should buddy up with physicians who share the same values -- 'deep value pairing'. The goal of choice is maximal promotion of patient values. I argue that if subjectivism about value and valuing is true, this move is plausible. However, if objectivism about value is true -- that there really are states which are good for people regardless of whether they desire to be in them -- then we should accept a more rationalist liberal alternative. According to this alternative, what is required to decide which course is best is rational dialogue between physicians and patients, both about the patient's circumstances and her values, and not the seeking out of people, physicians or others, who share the same values. Rational discussion requires that physicians be reasonable and empathic. I describe one possible account of a reasonable physician.

  16. The DECISIONS study: a nationwide survey of United States adults regarding 9 common medical decisions.

    PubMed

    Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J; Couper, Mick P; Singer, Eleanor; Levin, Carrie A; Fowler, Floyd J; Ziniel, Sonja; Ubel, Peter A; Fagerlin, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Patient involvement is required before patients' preferences can be reflected in the medical care they receive. Furthermore, patients are a vital link between physicians' assessments of patients' needs and actual implementation of appropriate care. Yet no study has specifically examined how and when a representative sample of patients considered, discussed, and made medical decisions. To identify decision prevalence and decision-making processes regarding 1) initiation of prescription medications for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, or depression; 2) screening tests for colorectal, breast, or prostate cancer; and 3) surgeries for knee or hip replacement, cataracts, or lower back pain. Computer-assisted telephone interview survey. Nationally representative sample of US adults in households with telephones. 3010 English-speaking adults age 40 and older identified using a stratified random sample of telephone numbers. Estimated prevalence of medical decisions, defined as the patient having initiated medications, been screened, or had surgery within the past 2 years or having discussed these actions with a health care provider during the same interval, as well as decision-specific data regarding patient knowledge, attitudes and patient-provider interactions. 82.2% of the target population reported making at least 1 medical decision in the preceding 2 years. The proportion of decisions resulting in patient action varied dramatically both across decision type (medications [61%] v. screening [83%] v. surgery [44%]; P < 0.001), and within each category (e.g., blood pressure medications [76%] v. cholesterol medications [55%] vs. depression medications [48%]; P < 0.001). Respondents reported making more decisions if they had a primary care provider or poorer health status and fewer decisions if they had lower education, were male, or were under age 50. Limitations. Retrospective self-reports may incorporate recall biases. Medical decisions with significant life

  17. Extracting clinical information to support medical decision based on standards.

    PubMed

    Gomoi, Valentin; Vida, Mihaela; Stoicu-Tivadar, Lăcrămioara; Stoicu-Tivadar, Vasile

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a method connecting medical databases to a medical decision system, and describes a service created to extract the necessary information that is transferred based on standards. The medical decision can be improved based on many inputs from different medical locations. The developed solution is described for a concrete case concerning the management for chronic pelvic pain, based on the information retrieved from diverse healthcare databases.

  18. Medical Specialty Decision Model: Utilizing Social Cognitive Career Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Denise D.; Borges, Nicole J.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to develop a working model to explain medical specialty decision-making. Using Social Cognitive Career Theory, we examined personality, medical specialty preferences, job satisfaction, and expectations about specialty choice to create a conceptual framework to guide specialty choice decision-making.…

  19. The emergency patient's participation in medical decision-making.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Hsiang; Goopy, Suzanne; Lin, Chun-Chih; Barnard, Alan; Han, Chin-Yen; Liu, Hsueh-Erh

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the medical decision-making processes of patients in emergency departments. Studies indicate that patients should be given enough time to acquire relevant information and receive adequate support when they need to make medical decisions. It is difficult to satisfy these requirements in emergency situations. Limited research has addressed the topic of decision-making among emergency patients. This qualitative study used a broadly defined grounded theory approach to explore decision-making in an emergency department in Taiwan. Thirty emergency patients were recruited between June and December 2011 for semi-structured interviews that were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. The study identified three stages in medical decision-making by emergency patients: predecision (interpreting the problem); decision (a balancing act) and postdecision (reclaiming the self). Transference was identified as the core category and pattern of behaviour through which patients resolved their main concerns. This transference around decision-making represents a type of bricolage. The findings fill a gap in knowledge about the decision-making process among emergency patients. The results inform emergency professionals seeking to support patients faced with complex medical decision-making and suggest an emphasis on informed patient decision-making, advocacy, patient-centred care and in-service education of health staff. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Portrayal of medical decision making around medical interventions life-saving encounters on three medical television shows

    PubMed Central

    Schwei, Rebecca J; Jacobs, Elizabeth A.; Wingert, Katherine; Montague, Enid

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Previous literature has shown that patients obtain information about the medical system from television shows. Additionally, shared decision making is regularly cited as the ideal way to make decisions during a medical encounter. Little information exists surrounding the characteristics of medical decision-making, such as who makes the decision, on medical television shows. We evaluate the characteristics of medical decisions in lifesaving encounters on medical television shows and evaluate if these characteristics were different on staged and reality television shows. Methods We coded type of medical intervention, patient’s ability to participate in decision, presence of patient advocate during decision, final decision maker, decision to use intervention, and controversy surrounding decision on three television shows. Frequencies by show were calculated and differences across the three television shows and between staged (ER) and reality (BostonMed and Hopkins) television shows were assessed with chi-square tests. Results The final data set included 37 episodes, 137 patients and 593 interventions. On ER, providers were significantly more likely to make the decision about the medical intervention without informing the patient when a patient was capable of making a decision compared to BostonMed or Hopkins (p<0.001). Across all shows, 99% of all decisions on whether to use a medical intervention resulted in the use of that intervention. Discussion Medical interventions are widely portrayed in the medical television shows we analyzed. It is possible that what patients see on television influences their expectations surrounding the decision making process and the use of medical interventions in everyday healthcare encounters. PMID:26478829

  1. Heuristics: foundations for a novel approach to medical decision making.

    PubMed

    Bodemer, Nicolai; Hanoch, Yaniv; Katsikopoulos, Konstantinos V

    2015-03-01

    Medical decision-making is a complex process that often takes place during uncertainty, that is, when knowledge, time, and resources are limited. How can we ensure good decisions? We present research on heuristics-simple rules of thumb-and discuss how medical decision-making can benefit from these tools. We challenge the common view that heuristics are only second-best solutions by showing that they can be more accurate, faster, and easier to apply in comparison to more complex strategies. Using the example of fast-and-frugal decision trees, we illustrate how heuristics can be studied and implemented in the medical context. Finally, we suggest how a heuristic-friendly culture supports the study and application of heuristics as complementary strategies to existing decision rules.

  2. The precautionary principle and medical decision making.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2004-06-01

    The precautionary principle is a useful strategy for decision-making when physicians and patients lack evidence relating to the potential outcomes associated with various choices. According to a version of the principle defended here, one should take reasonable measures to avoid threats that are serious and plausible. The reasonableness of a response to a threat depends on several factors, including benefit vs. harm, realism, proportionality, and consistency. Since a concept of reasonableness plays an essential role in applying the precautionary principle, this principle gives physicians and patients a decision-making strategy that encourages the careful weighing and balancing of different values that one finds in humanistic approaches to clinical reasoning. Properly understood, the principle presents a worthwhile alternative to approaches to clinical reasoning that apply expected utility theory to decision problems.

  3. Group Decision Support System applied to the medical pluri-disciplinary decision group: usability and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Degardin-Capon, Nathalie; Bricon-Souf, Nathalie; Beuscart-Zephir, Marie-Catherine; Beuscart, Régis

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to study whether the application of a Group Decision Support System to medical collective decision committees is possible and to determine which GDSS specifications are convenient. We introduce the common knowledge about GDSS and define the process of the collective medical decision. An experimental GDSS has been tested in an actual medical collective decision committee. A usability analysis has been performed to precise usability and acceptability of the system and to highlight pro and cons of the various functionalities of the GDSS. Information sharing was conveniently supported by the GDSS. All the documents were available for the support of the discussion. But, the introduction of a GDSS in the decision committee added new constraints such as the necessity of an excellent preparation phase. Limits of the system have been revealed: lack of feedback on decision actors, lack of support to obtain the consensus and lack of memorisation. According to these results, we have proposed new GDSS features to improve the decision. Using a GDSS supporting the medical collective decision is realistic and may support the process of the consensual decision.

  4. Navigating the Decision Space: Shared Medical Decision Making as Distributed Cognition.

    PubMed

    Lippa, Katherine D; Feufel, Markus A; Robinson, F Eric; Shalin, Valerie L

    2017-06-01

    Despite increasing prominence, little is known about the cognitive processes underlying shared decision making. To investigate these processes, we conceptualize shared decision making as a form of distributed cognition. We introduce a Decision Space Model to identify physical and social influences on decision making. Using field observations and interviews, we demonstrate that patients and physicians in both acute and chronic care consider these influences when identifying the need for a decision, searching for decision parameters, making actionable decisions Based on the distribution of access to information and actions, we then identify four related patterns: physician dominated; physician-defined, patient-made; patient-defined, physician-made; and patient-dominated decisions. Results suggests that (a) decision making is necessarily distributed between physicians and patients, (b) differential access to information and action over time requires participants to transform a distributed task into a shared decision, and (c) adverse outcomes may result from failures to integrate physician and patient reasoning. Our analysis unifies disparate findings in the medical decision-making literature and has implications for improving care and medical training.

  5. Exploring Factors Affecting Emergency Medical Services Staffs' Decision about Transporting Medical Patients to Medical Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Seyedin, Hesam; Jamshidi-Orak, Roohangiz

    2014-01-01

    Transfer of patients in medical emergency situations is one of the most important missions of emergency medical service (EMS) staffs. So this study was performed to explore affecting factors in EMS staffs' decision during transporting of patients in medical situations to medical facilities. The participants in this qualitative study consisted of 18 EMS staffs working in prehospital care facilities in Tehran, Iran. Data were gathered through semistructured interviews. The data were analyzed using a content analysis approach. The data analysis revealed the following theme: “degree of perceived risk in EMS staffs and their patients.” This theme consisted of two main categories: (1) patient's condition' and (2) the context of the EMS mission'. The patent's condition category emerged from “physical health statuses,” “socioeconomic statuses,” and “cultural background” subcategories. The context of the EMS mission also emerged from two subcategories of “characteristics of the mission” and EMS staffs characteristics'. EMS system managers can consider adequate technical, informational, financial, educational, and emotional supports to facilitate the decision making of their staffs. Also, development of an effective and user-friendly checklist and scoring system was recommended for quick and easy recognition of patients' needs for transportation in a prehospital situation. PMID:24891953

  6. Exploring Factors Affecting Emergency Medical Services Staffs' Decision about Transporting Medical Patients to Medical Facilities.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimian, Abbasali; Seyedin, Hesam; Jamshidi-Orak, Roohangiz; Masoumi, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    Transfer of patients in medical emergency situations is one of the most important missions of emergency medical service (EMS) staffs. So this study was performed to explore affecting factors in EMS staffs' decision during transporting of patients in medical situations to medical facilities. The participants in this qualitative study consisted of 18 EMS staffs working in prehospital care facilities in Tehran, Iran. Data were gathered through semistructured interviews. The data were analyzed using a content analysis approach. The data analysis revealed the following theme: "degree of perceived risk in EMS staffs and their patients." This theme consisted of two main categories: (1) patient's condition' and (2) the context of the EMS mission'. The patent's condition category emerged from "physical health statuses," "socioeconomic statuses," and "cultural background" subcategories. The context of the EMS mission also emerged from two subcategories of "characteristics of the mission" and EMS staffs characteristics'. EMS system managers can consider adequate technical, informational, financial, educational, and emotional supports to facilitate the decision making of their staffs. Also, development of an effective and user-friendly checklist and scoring system was recommended for quick and easy recognition of patients' needs for transportation in a prehospital situation.

  7. Medical decision support systems and therapeutics: The role of autopilots.

    PubMed

    Woosley, R L; Whyte, J; Mohamadi, A; Romero, K

    2016-02-01

    For decades, medical practice has increasingly relied on prescription medicines to treat, cure, or prevent illness but their net benefit is reduced by prescribing errors that result in adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and tens of thousands of deaths each year. Optimal prescribing requires effective management of massive amounts of data. Clinical decision support systems (CDSS) can help manage information and support optimal therapeutic decisions before errors are made by operating as the prescribers' "autopilot."

  8. Decision-support and intelligent tutoring systems in medical education.

    PubMed

    Frize, M; Frasson, C

    2000-08-01

    One of the challenges in medical education is to teach the decision-making process. This learning process varies according to the experience of the student and can be supported by various tools. In this paper we present several approaches that can strengthen this mechanism, from decision-support tools, such as scoring systems, Bayesian models, neural networks, to cognitive models that can reproduce how the students progressively build their knowledge into memory and foster pedagogic methods.

  9. Women's experience of decision-making with medication abortion.

    PubMed

    Cappiello, Joyce; Merrell, Joy; Rentschler, Dorothy

    2014-01-01

    Medication abortion received regulatory approval in 2001 in the United States with healthcare providers increasingly offering this method. However, most studies in the United States have only explored acceptability and decision-making with women who participated in clinical trials. Overall, the literature on women's experience with a method that it is now widely available is under research in the United States. To describe and analyze the women's experience as they choose the option of and experienced the process of medication abortion. A constructivist grounded theory study. Outpatient clinical offices in a three-state area in the northeast region of the United States. A purposive sample of 22 women aged 16 to 45 who experienced a medication abortion. Data were collected by in-depth, open-ended, face-to-face interviews. The constant comparative method was used for analysis. Five interwoven categories emerged regarding women's initial decision to have a medication abortion: choosing a natural process, avoiding "surgery," respecting the "baby," scheduling to meet needs, and appreciating the home setting. The enhanced sense of personal control associated with the medication abortion option was the overriding reason given for choosing this method. This study contributes to the paucity of literature on the reasons why women choose medication abortion. It is important for nurses to understand the complexity of medication abortion decision-making so that they can effectively support women through this process.

  10. Resuscitation decision making by New Mexico emergency medical technicians.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D R; Maggiore, W A

    1993-03-01

    The extent to which Emergency Medical Service personnel are placed in situations in which difficult cardiopulmonary resuscitation decisions must be made has been poorly explored. Further, it is not known whether this kind of decision making is troubling to emergency medical technicians. Although it is likely that emergency medical service systems handle withholding cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a variety of ways, the authors chose to examine a cross-section of New Mexico emergency medical technicians. Using a survey instrument, emergency medical technicians of all training levels, representing several emergency medical service systems around the state were asked how many times in their career they had been in a situation in which cardiopulmonary resuscitation had been withheld without a direct physician order. Of 310 individuals surveyed, 211 (66.8%) responded that this had occurred at least once. When asked whether they had been troubled by one of these situations, 86 of 211 (41%) individuals responded "yes." When a variety of demographic factors were evaluated, only training to the paramedic level was identified as being an independent predictor of those who were troubled (P = .019). Emergency medical technician training, protocols, and do not resuscitate programs may need to be expanded to give further guidance to prehospital personnel when making difficult resuscitation decisions.

  11. Disruptive medical patients. Forensically informed decision making.

    PubMed Central

    Sparr, L. F.; Rogers, J. L.; Beahrs, J. O.; Mazur, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    Patients who disrupt medical care create problems for physicians. The risks are not entirely clinical. Although these patients may compromise sound clinical judgment, some are also litigious and express their dissatisfaction in legal or other forums. It then becomes necessary for treating physicians to be aware of the legal and ethical boundaries of their patient care responsibilities. Some disruptive patients are treated by setting limits, which is usually affirmed by health care agreements. A hospital review board may advise clinicians on these agreements and on the management of disruptive patients. If termination of the physician-patient relationship is considered, physicians must follow proper protocol. We examine these forensic considerations and place them in the context of malpractice. Communication, consultation, and documentation are the key elements in reducing liability. PMID:1595274

  12. Assessment of unconscious decision aids applied to complex patient-centered medical decisions.

    PubMed

    Manigault, Andrew Wilhelm; Handley, Ian Michael; Whillock, Summer Rain

    2015-02-05

    To improve patient health, recent research urges for medical decision aids that are designed to enhance the effectiveness of specific medically related decisions. Many such decisions involve complex information, and decision aids that independently use deliberative (analytical and slower) or intuitive (more affective and automatic) cognitive processes for such decisions result in suboptimal decisions. Unconscious thought can arguably use both intuitive and deliberative (slow and analytic) processes, and this combination may further benefit complex patient (or practitioner) decisions as medical decision aids. Indeed, mounting research demonstrates that individuals render better decisions generally if they are distracted from thinking consciously about complex information after it is presented (but can think unconsciously), relative to thinking about that information consciously or not at all. The current research tested whether the benefits of unconscious thought processes can be replicated using an Internet platform for a patient medical decision involving complex information. This research also explored the possibility that judgments reported after a period of unconscious thought are actually the result of a short period of conscious deliberation occurring during the decision report phase. A total of 173 participants in a Web-based experiment received information about four medical treatments, the best (worst) associated with mostly positive (negative) side-effects/attributes and the others with equal positive-negative ratios. Next, participants were either distracted for 3 minutes (unconscious thought), instructed to think about the information for 3 minutes (conscious thought), or moved directly to the decision task (immediate decision). Finally, participants reported their choice of, and attitudes toward, the treatments while experiencing high, low, or no cognitive load, which varied their ability to think consciously while reporting judgments. Cognitive load

  13. Factors influencing US medical students' decision to pursue surgery.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Lauren E; Cooper, Clairice A; Guo, Weidun Alan

    2016-06-01

    Interest and applications to surgery have steadily decreased over recent years in the United States. The goal of this review is to collect the current literature regarding US medical students' experience in surgery and factors influencing their intention to pursue surgery as a career. We hypothesize that multiple factors influence US medical students' career choice in surgery. Six electronic databases (PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science, Education Resources Information Center, Embase, and PsycINFO) were searched. The inclusion criteria were studies published after the new century related to factors influencing surgical career choice among US medical students. Factors influencing US medical student surgical career decision-making were recorded. A quality index score was given to each article selected to minimize risk of bias. We identified 38 relevant articles of more than 1000 nonduplicated titles. The factors influencing medical student decision for a surgical career were categorized into five domains: mentorship and role model (n = 12), experience (clerkship n = 9, stereotype n = 4), timing of exposure (n = 9), personal (lifestyle n = 8, gender n = 6, finance n = 3), and others (n = 2). This comprehensive systemic review identifies mentorship, experience in surgery, stereotypes, timing of exposure, and personal factors to be major determinants in medical students' decisions to pursue surgery. These represent areas that can be improved to attract applicants to general surgery residencies. Surgical faculty and residents can have a positive influence on medical students' decisions to pursue surgery as a career. Early introduction to the field of surgery, as well as recruitment strategies during the preclinical and clinical years of medical school can increase students' interest in a surgical career. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Patient decision making in the face of conflicting medication information

    PubMed Central

    Elstad, Emily; Carpenter, Delesha M.; Devellis, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    When patients consult more than one source of information about their medications, they may encounter conflicting information. Although conflicting information has been associated with negative outcomes, including worse medication adherence, little is known about how patients make health decisions when they receive conflicting information. The objective of this study was to explore the decision making strategies that individuals with arthritis use when they receive conflicting medication information. Qualitative telephone interviews were conducted with 20 men and women with arthritis. Interview vignettes posed scenarios involving conflicting information from different sources (e.g., doctor, pharmacist, and relative), and respondents were asked how they would respond to the situation. Data analysis involved inductive coding to identify emergent themes and deductive contextualization to make meaning from the emergent themes. In response to conflicting medication information, patients used rules of thumb, trial and error, weighed benefits and risks, and sought more information, especially from a doctor. Patients relied heavily on trial and error when there was no conflicting information involved in the vignette. In contrast, patients used rules of thumb as a unique response to conflicting information. These findings increase our understanding of what patients do when they receive conflicting medication information. Given that patient exposure to conflicting information is likely to increase alongside the proliferation of medication information on the Internet, patients may benefit from assistance in identifying the most appropriate decision strategies for dealing with conflicting information, including information about best information sources. PMID:22943889

  15. General practitioners' decisions about discontinuation of medication: an explorative study.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Michael Simon; Vendelø, Morten Thanning

    2016-06-20

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate how general practitioners' (GPs) decisions about discontinuation of medication are influenced by their institutional context. Design/methodology/approach - In total, 24 GPs were interviewed, three practices were observed and documents were collected. The Gioia methodology was used to analyse data, drawing on a theoretical framework that integrate the sensemaking perspective and institutional theory. Findings - Most GPs, who actively consider discontinuation, are reluctant to discontinue medication, because the safest course of action for GPs is to continue prescriptions, rather than discontinue them. The authors conclude that this is in part due to the ambiguity about the appropriateness of discontinuing medication, experienced by the GPs, and in part because the clinical guidelines do not encourage discontinuation of medication, as they offer GPs a weak frame for discontinuation. Three reasons for this are identified: the guidelines provide dominating triggers for prescribing, they provide weak priming for discontinuation as an option, and they underscore a cognitive constraint against discontinuation. Originality/value - The analysis offers new insights about decision making when discontinuing medication. It also offers one of the first examinations of how the institutional context embedding GPs influences their decisions about discontinuation. For policymakers interested in the discontinuation of medication, the findings suggest that de-stigmatising discontinuation on an institutional level may be beneficial, allowing GPs to better justify discontinuation in light of the ambiguity they experience.

  16. The Integrated Medical Model: A Risk Assessment and Decision Support Tool for Space Flight Medical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerstman, Eric; Minard, Charles; Saile, Lynn; deCarvalho, Mary Freire; Myers, Jerry; Walton, Marlei; Butler, Douglas; Iyengar, Sriram; Johnson-Throop, Kathy; Baumann, David

    2009-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) is a decision support tool that is useful to mission planners and medical system designers in assessing risks and designing medical systems for space flight missions. The IMM provides an evidence based approach for optimizing medical resources and minimizing risks within space flight operational constraints. The mathematical relationships among mission and crew profiles, medical condition incidence data, in-flight medical resources, potential crew functional impairments, and clinical end-states are established to determine probable mission outcomes. Stochastic computational methods are used to forecast probability distributions of crew health and medical resource utilization, as well as estimates of medical evacuation and loss of crew life. The IMM has been used in support of the International Space Station (ISS) medical kit redesign, the medical component of the ISS Probabilistic Risk Assessment, and the development of the Constellation Medical Conditions List. The IMM also will be used to refine medical requirements for the Constellation program. The IMM outputs for ISS and Constellation design reference missions will be presented to demonstrate the potential of the IMM in assessing risks, planning missions, and designing medical systems. The implementation of the IMM verification and validation plan will be reviewed. Additional planned capabilities of the IMM, including optimization techniques and the inclusion of a mission timeline, will be discussed. Given the space flight constraints of mass, volume, and crew medical training, the IMM is a valuable risk assessment and decision support tool for medical system design and mission planning.

  17. Affective Forecasting and Medication Decision Making in Breast Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Hoerger, Michael; Scherer, Laura D.; Fagerlin, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Over two million American women at elevated risk of breast cancer are eligible to take chemoprevention medications such as Tamoxifen and Raloxifene, which can cut in half the risk of developing breast cancer but also have a number of side effects. Historically, very few at-risk women have opted to use chemoprevention medications. Affective forecasting theory suggests that people may avoid these medications if they expect taking them to increase their health-related stress. Methods After receiving an individually tailored decision aid that provided personalized information about the risks and benefits of these medications, 661 women at elevated risk of breast cancer were asked to make three affective forecasts, predicting what their level of health-related stress would be if taking Tamoxifen, Raloxifene, or neither medication. They also completed measures of decisional preferences and intentions, and at a three-month follow-up reported on whether or not they had decided to use either medication. Results On the affective forecasting items, very few women (< 10%) expected the medications to reduce their health-related stress, relative to no medication at all. Participants with more negative affective forecasts about taking a chemoprevention medication expressed lower preferences and intentions for using the medications (Cohen’s ds from 0.74 to 0.79) and were more likely to have opted against using medication at follow-up (odds ratios from 1.34 to 2.66). Conclusions These findings suggest that affective forecasting may explain avoidance of breast cancer chemoprevention medications. They also highlight the need for more research aimed at integrating emotional content into decision aids. PMID:26867042

  18. Dispositional optimism, self-framing and medical decision-making.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xu; Huang, Chunlei; Li, Xuesong; Zhao, Xin; Peng, Jiaxi

    2015-03-01

    Self-framing is an important but underinvestigated area in risk communication and behavioural decision-making, especially in medical settings. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship among dispositional optimism, self-frame and decision-making. Participants (N = 500) responded to the Life Orientation Test-Revised and self-framing test of medical decision-making problem. The participants whose scores were higher than the middle value were regarded as highly optimistic individuals. The rest were regarded as low optimistic individuals. The results showed that compared to the high dispositional optimism group, participants from the low dispositional optimism group showed a greater tendency to use negative vocabulary to construct their self-frame, and tended to choose the radiation therapy with high treatment survival rate, but low 5-year survival rate. Based on the current findings, it can be concluded that self-framing effect still exists in medical situation and individual differences in dispositional optimism can influence the processing of information in a framed decision task, as well as risky decision-making.

  19. Decision-theoretic refinement planning in medical decision making: management of acute deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Haddawy, P; Doan, A; Kahn, C E

    1996-01-01

    Decision-theoretic refinement planning is a new technique for finding optimal courses of action. The authors sought to determine whether this technique could identify optimal strategies for medical diagnosis and therapy. An existing model of acute deep venous thrombosis of the lower extremities was encoded for analysis by the decision-theoretic refinement planning system (DRIPS). The encoding represented 6,206 possible plans. The DRIPS planner used artificial intelligence techniques to eliminate 5,150 plans (83%) from consideration without examining them explicitly. The DRIPS system identified the five strategies that minimized cost and mortality. The authors conclude that decision-theoretic planning is useful for examining large medical-decision problems.

  20. Shared decision making: skill acquisition for year III medical students.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Cathleen E; Reed, Virginia A; Eliassen, M Scottie; Imset, Inger

    2011-01-01

    A foundation of care within a Patient-centered Medical Home (PCMH) is respect for patients' values and preferences. Shared decision making (SDM) involves a set of principles and approaches to working with patients that integrates medical information and data with the preferences, values, and support systems of individual patients facing medical decisions. The value of SDM is increasingly evidenced by the incorporation of principles of SDM into the definitions of patient-centered care and PCMHs, accountable care organizations, and the language of the Health Reform Act of 2010. We developed and integrated a curriculum on SDM in the third-year Family Medicine Clerkship at Dartmouth Medical School. The curriculum consisted of a mix of experiential, classroom, and online experiences designed to provide students with opportunities to learn content, practice skills, and share observations from their preceptorships. Student feedback was an important component of evaluating the SDM curriculum. Themes identified from students' reflections on their own behavior in a Simulated Patient Encounter included an increase in confidence and competence in their ability to use SDM, while noting the disconnect that may exist between what is taught in the clerkship and what they experience in their preceptorships. As this curriculum has developed, we have acquired a deep appreciation of the benefits and challenges of attempting to teach sophisticated communication and decision-making precepts to medical students who are working to master fundamentals of clinical work and who may or may not see such precepts reinforced in practice.

  1. How Numeracy Influences Risk Comprehension and Medical Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Reyna, Valerie F.; Nelson, Wendy L.; Han, Paul K.; Dieckmann, Nathan F.

    2009-01-01

    We review the growing literature on health numeracy, the ability to understand and use numerical information, and its relation to cognition, health behaviors, and medical outcomes. Despite the surfeit of health information from commercial and noncommercial sources, national and international surveys show that many people lack basic numerical skills that are essential to maintain their health and make informed medical decisions. Low numeracy distorts perceptions of risks and benefits of screening, reduces medication compliance, impedes access to treatments, impairs risk communication (limiting prevention efforts among the most vulnerable), and, based on the scant research conducted on outcomes, appears to adversely affect medical outcomes. Low numeracy is also associated with greater susceptibility to extraneous factors (i.e., factors that do not change the objective numerical information). That is, low numeracy increases susceptibility to effects of mood or how information is presented (e.g., as frequencies vs. percentages) and to biases in judgment and decision making (e.g., framing and ratio bias effects). Much of this research is not grounded in empirically supported theories of numeracy or mathematical cognition, which are crucial for designing evidence-based policies and interventions that are effective in reducing risk and improving medical decision making. To address this gap, we outline four theoretical approaches (psychophysical, computational, standard dual-process, and fuzzy trace theory), review their implications for numeracy, and point to avenues for future research. PMID:19883143

  2. On the heuristic nature of medical decision-support systems.

    PubMed

    Aliferis, C F; Miller, R A

    1995-03-01

    In the realm of medical decision-support systems, the term "heuristic systems" is often considered to be synonymous with "medical artificial intelligence systems" or with "systems employing informal model(s) of problem solving". Such a view may be inaccurate and possibly impede the conceptual development of future systems. This article examines the nature of heuristics and the levels at which heuristic solutions are introduced during system design and implementation. The authors discuss why heuristics are ubiquitous in all medical decision-support systems operating at non-trivial domains, and propose a unifying definition of heuristics that encompasses formal and ad hoc systems. System developers should be aware of the heuristic nature of all problem solving done in complex real world domains, and characterize their own use of heuristics in describing system development and implementation.

  3. Dual processing model of medical decision-making

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dual processing theory of human cognition postulates that reasoning and decision-making can be described as a function of both an intuitive, experiential, affective system (system I) and/or an analytical, deliberative (system II) processing system. To date no formal descriptive model of medical decision-making based on dual processing theory has been developed. Here we postulate such a model and apply it to a common clinical situation: whether treatment should be administered to the patient who may or may not have a disease. Methods We developed a mathematical model in which we linked a recently proposed descriptive psychological model of cognition with the threshold model of medical decision-making and show how this approach can be used to better understand decision-making at the bedside and explain the widespread variation in treatments observed in clinical practice. Results We show that physician’s beliefs about whether to treat at higher (lower) probability levels compared to the prescriptive therapeutic thresholds obtained via system II processing is moderated by system I and the ratio of benefit and harms as evaluated by both system I and II. Under some conditions, the system I decision maker’s threshold may dramatically drop below the expected utility threshold derived by system II. This can explain the overtreatment often seen in the contemporary practice. The opposite can also occur as in the situations where empirical evidence is considered unreliable, or when cognitive processes of decision-makers are biased through recent experience: the threshold will increase relative to the normative threshold value derived via system II using expected utility threshold. This inclination for the higher diagnostic certainty may, in turn, explain undertreatment that is also documented in the current medical practice. Conclusions We have developed the first dual processing model of medical decision-making that has potential to enrich the current medical

  4. Medical and nursing clinical decision making: a comparative epistemological analysis.

    PubMed

    Rashotte, Judy; Carnevale, F A

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this article is to explore the complex forms of knowledge involved in diagnostic and interventional decision making by comparing the processes in medicine and nursing, including nurse practitioners. Many authors assert that the practice of clinical decision making involves the application of theoretical knowledge (acquired in the classroom and textbooks) as well as research evidence, upon concrete particular cases. This approach draws on various universal principles and algorithms to facilitate the task. On the other hand, others argue that this involves an intuitive form of judgement that is difficult to teach, one that is acquired principally through experience. In an exploration of these issues, this article consists of three sections. A clarification of terms commonly used when discussing decision making is provided in the first section. In the second section, an epistemological analysis of decision making is presented by examining several perspectives and comparing them for their use in the nursing and medical literature. Bunge's epistemological framework for decision making (based on scientific realism) is explored for its fit with the aims of medicine and nursing. The final section presents a discussion of knowledge utilization and decision making as it relates to the implications for the education and ongoing development of nurse practitioners. It is concluded that Donald Schön's conception of reflective practice best characterizes the skillful conduct of clinical decision making.

  5. Decision conflict and regret among surrogate decision makers in the medical intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jesse J; Morris, Peter; Files, D Clark; Gower, Emily; Young, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Family members of critically ill patients in the intensive care unit face significant morbidity. It may be the decision-making process that plays a significant role in the psychological morbidity associated with being a surrogate in the ICU. We hypothesize that family members facing end-of-life decisions will have more decisional conflict and decisional regret than those facing non-end-of-life decisions. We enrolled a sample of adult patients and their surrogates in a tertiary care, academic medical intensive care unit. We queried the surrogates regarding decisions they had made on behalf of the patient and assessed decision conflict. We then contacted the family member again to assess decision regret. Forty (95%) of 42 surrogates were able to identify at least 1 decision they had made on behalf of the patient. End-of-life decisions (defined as do not resuscitate [DNR]/do not intubate [DNI] or continuation of life support) accounted for 19 of 40 decisions (47.5%). Overall, the average Decision Conflict Scale (DCS) score was 21.9 of 100 (range 0-100, with 0 being little decisional conflict and 100 being great decisional conflict). The average DCS score for families facing end-of-life decisions was 25.5 compared with 18.7 for all other decisions. Those facing end-of-life decisions scored higher on the uncertainty subscale (subset of DCS questions that indicates level of certainty regarding decision) with a mean score of 43.4 compared with all other decisions with a mean score of 27.0. Overall, very few surrogates experienced decisional regret with an average DRS score of 13.4 of 100. Nearly all surrogates enrolled were faced with decision-making responsibilities on behalf of his or her critically ill family member. In our small pilot study, we found more decisional conflict in those surrogates facing end-of-life decisions, specifically on the subset of questions dealing with uncertainty. Surrogates report low levels of decisional regret. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  6. Human-Computer Interaction with Medical Decisions Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adolf, Jurine A.; Holden, Kritina L.

    1994-01-01

    Decision Support Systems (DSSs) have been available to medical diagnosticians for some time, yet their acceptance and use have not increased with advances in technology and availability of DSS tools. Medical DSSs will be necessary on future long duration space missions, because access to medical resources and personnel will be limited. Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) experts at NASA's Human Factors and Ergonomics Laboratory (HFEL) have been working toward understanding how humans use DSSs, with the goal of being able to identify and solve the problems associated with these systems. Work to date consists of identification of HCI research areas, development of a decision making model, and completion of two experiments dealing with 'anchoring'. Anchoring is a phenomenon in which the decision maker latches on to a starting point and does not make sufficient adjustments when new data are presented. HFEL personnel have replicated a well-known anchoring experiment and have investigated the effects of user level of knowledge. Future work includes further experimentation on level of knowledge, confidence in the source of information and sequential decision making.

  7. Human-Computer Interaction with Medical Decisions Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adolf, Jurine A.; Holden, Kritina L.

    1994-01-01

    Decision Support Systems (DSSs) have been available to medical diagnosticians for some time, yet their acceptance and use have not increased with advances in technology and availability of DSS tools. Medical DSSs will be necessary on future long duration space missions, because access to medical resources and personnel will be limited. Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) experts at NASA's Human Factors and Ergonomics Laboratory (HFEL) have been working toward understanding how humans use DSSs, with the goal of being able to identify and solve the problems associated with these systems. Work to date consists of identification of HCI research areas, development of a decision making model, and completion of two experiments dealing with 'anchoring'. Anchoring is a phenomenon in which the decision maker latches on to a starting point and does not make sufficient adjustments when new data are presented. HFEL personnel have replicated a well-known anchoring experiment and have investigated the effects of user level of knowledge. Future work includes further experimentation on level of knowledge, confidence in the source of information and sequential decision making.

  8. Decision making in acquiring medical technologies in Israeli medical centers: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Dan; Pliskin, Joseph S; Peterburg, Yitzhak

    2003-01-01

    This preliminary study had two objectives: a) charting the considerations relevant to decisions about acquisition of new medical technology at the hospital level; and b) creating a basis for the development of a research tool that will examine the function of the Israeli health system in assessment of new medical technologies. A comprehensive literature review and in-depth interviews with decision makers at different levels allowed formulation of criteria considered by decision makers when they decide to purchase and use (or disallow the use) of new medical technology. The resulting questionnaire was sent to medical center directors, along with a letter explaining the goals of the study. The questionnaire included 31 possible considerations for decision making concerning the acquisition of new medical technology by medical centers. The interviewees were asked to indicate the relevance of each consideration in the decision-making process. The most relevant criteria for the adoption of new technologies related to the need for a large capital investment, clinical efficacy of the technology as well as its influence on side effects and complication rates, and a formal approval by the Ministry of Health. Most interviewees stated that pressures exerted by the industry, by patients, or by senior physicians in the hospital are less relevant to decision making. Very small and usually not statistically significant differences in the ranking of hospital directors were found according to the hospitals' ownership, size, or location. The present study is a basis for a future study that will map and describe the function of hospital decision makers within the area of new technology assessment and the decision-making process in the adoption of new healthcare technologies.

  9. Virtual medical record implementation for enhancing clinical decision support.

    PubMed

    Gomoi, Valentin-Sergiu; Dragu, Daniel; Stoicu-Tivadar, Vasile

    2012-01-01

    Development of clinical decision support systems (CDS) is a process which highly depends on the local databases, this resulting in low interoperability. To increase the interoperability of CDS a standard representation of clinical information is needed. The paper suggests a CDS architecture which integrates several HL7 standards and the new vMR (virtual Medical Record). The clinical information for the CDS systems (the vMR) is represented with Topic Maps technology. Beside the implementation of the vMR, the architecture integrates: a Data Manager, an interface, a decision making system (based on Egadss), a retrieving data module. Conclusions are issued.

  10. The limitations of decision trees and automatic learning in real world medical decision making.

    PubMed

    Kokol, P; Zorman, M; Stiglic, M M; Malèiae, I

    1998-01-01

    The decision tree approach is one of the most common approaches in automatic learning and decision making. It is popular for its simplicity in constructing, efficient use in decision making and for simple representation, which is easily understood by humans. The automatic learning of decision trees and their use usually show very good results in various "theoretical" environments. The training sets are usually large enough for learning algorithm to construct a hypothesis consistent with the underlying concept. But in real life it is often impossible to find the desired number of training objects for various reasons. The lack of possibilities to measure attribute values, high cost and complexity of such measurements, unavailability of all attributes at the same time are the typical representatives. There are different ways to deal with some of these problems, but in a delicate field of medical decision making, we cannot allow ourselves to make any inaccurate decisions. We have measured the values of 24 attributes before and after the 82 operations of children in age between 2 and 10 years. The aim was to find the dependencies between attribute values and a child's predisposition to acidemia--the decrease of blood's pH. Our main interest was in discovering predisposition to two forms of acidosis, the metabolic acidosis and the respiratory acidosis, which can both have serious effects on child's health. We decided to construct different decision trees from a set of training objects, which was complete (there were no missing attribute values), but on the other hand not large enough to avoid the effect of overfitting. A common approach to evaluation of a decision tree is the use of a test set. In our case we decided that instead of using a test set, we ask medical experts to take a closer look at the generated trees. They examined and evaluated the decision trees branch by branch. Their comments on the generated trees can be found in this paper. The comments show, that

  11. Racial-ethnic biases, time pressure, and medical decisions.

    PubMed

    Stepanikova, Irena

    2012-09-01

    This study examined two types of potential sources of racial-ethnic disparities in medical care: implicit biases and time pressure. Eighty-one family physicians and general internists responded to a case vignette describing a patient with chest pain. Time pressure was manipulated experimentally. Under high time pressure, but not under low time pressure, implicit biases regarding blacks and Hispanics led to a less serious diagnosis. In addition, implicit biases regarding blacks led to a lower likelihood of a referral to specialist when physicians were under high time pressure. The results suggest that when physicians face stress, their implicit biases may shape medical decisions in ways that disadvantage minority patients.

  12. Patient decision-making: medical ethics and mediation.

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Y J

    1996-01-01

    A review of medical ethics literature relating to the importance of the participation of patients in decision-making introduces the role of rights-based mediation as a voluntary process now being developed innovatively in America. This is discussed in relation to the theory of communicative ethics and moral personhood. References are then made to the work of medical ethics committees and the role of mediation within these. Finally it is suggested that mediation is part of an eirenic ethic already being used informally in good patient care, and that there is a case for developing it further. PMID:8798939

  13. Exploring Patient Values in Medical Decision Making: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yew Kong; Low, Wah Yun; Ng, Chirk Jenn

    2013-01-01

    Background Patient decisions are influenced by their personal values. However, there is a lack of clarity and attention on the concept of patient values in the clinical context despite clear emphasis on patient values in evidence-based medicine and shared decision making. The aim of the study was to explore the concept of patient values in the context of making decisions about insulin initiation among people with type 2 diabetes. Methods and Findings We conducted individual in-depth interviews with people with type 2 diabetes who were making decisions about insulin treatment. Participants were selected purposively to achieve maximum variation. A semi-structured topic guide was used to guide the interviews which were audio-recorded and analysed using a thematic approach. We interviewed 21 participants between January 2011 and March 2012. The age range of participants was 28–67 years old. Our sample comprised 9 women and 12 men. Three main themes, ‘treatment-specific values’, ‘life goals and philosophies’, and ‘personal and social background’, emerged from the analysis. The patients reported a variety of insulin-specific values, which were negative and/or positive beliefs about insulin. They framed insulin according to their priorities and philosophies in life. Patients’ decisions were influenced by sociocultural (e.g. religious background) and personal backgrounds (e.g. family situations). Conclusions This study highlighted the need for expanding the current concept of patient values in medical decision making. Clinicians should address more than just values related to treatment options. Patient values should include patients’ priorities, life philosophy and their background. Current decision support tools, such as patient decision aids, should consider these new dimensions when clarifying patient values. PMID:24282518

  14. Supporting registration decisions during 3D medical volume reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajcsy, Peter; Lee, Sang-Chul; Clutter, David

    2006-03-01

    We propose a methodology for making optimal registration decisions during 3D volume reconstruction in terms of (a) anticipated accuracy of aligned images, (b) uncertainty of obtained results during the registration process, (c) algorithmic repeatability of alignment procedure, and (d) computational requirements. We researched and developed a web-enabled, web services based, data-driven, registration decision support system. The registration decisions include (1) image spatial size (image sub-area or entire image), (2) transformation model (e.g., rigid, affine or elastic), (3) invariant registration feature (intensity, morphology or a sequential combination of the two), (4) automation level (manual, semi-automated, or fully-automated), (5) evaluations of registration results (multiple metrics and methods for establishing ground truth), and (6) assessment of resources (computational resources and human expertise, geographically local or distributed). Our goal is to provide mechanisms for evaluating the tradeoffs of each registration decision in terms of the aforementioned impacts. First, we present a medical registration methodology for making registration decisions that lead to registration results with well-understood accuracy, uncertainty, consistency and computational complexity characteristics. Second, we have built software tools that enable geographically distributed researchers to optimize their data-driven registration decisions by using web services and supercomputing resources. The support developed for registration decisions about 3D volume reconstruction is available to the general community with the access to the NCSA supercomputing resources. We illustrate performance by considering 3D volume reconstruction of blood vessels in histological sections of uveal melanoma from serial fluorescent labeled paraffin sections labeled with antibodies to CD34 and laminin. The specimens are studied by fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images.

  15. Why decision support systems are important for medical education

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    During the last decades, the inclusion of digital tools in health education has rapidly lead to a continuously enlarging digital era. All the online interactions between learners and tutors, the description, creation, reuse and sharing of educational digital resources and the interlinkage between them in conjunction with cheap storage technology has led to an enormous amount of educational data. Medical education is a unique type of education due to accuracy of information needed, continuous changing competences required and alternative methods of education used. Nowadays medical education standards provide the ground for organising the educational data and the paradata. Analysis of such education data through education data mining techniques is in its infancy, but decision support systems (DSSs) for medical education need further research. To the best of our knowledge, there is a gap and a clear need for identifying the challenges for DSSs in medical education in the era of medical education standards. Thus, in this Letter the role and the attributes of such a DSS for medical education are delineated and the challenges and vision for future actions are identified. PMID:27222734

  16. Why decision support systems are important for medical education.

    PubMed

    Konstantinidis, Stathis Th; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2016-03-01

    During the last decades, the inclusion of digital tools in health education has rapidly lead to a continuously enlarging digital era. All the online interactions between learners and tutors, the description, creation, reuse and sharing of educational digital resources and the interlinkage between them in conjunction with cheap storage technology has led to an enormous amount of educational data. Medical education is a unique type of education due to accuracy of information needed, continuous changing competences required and alternative methods of education used. Nowadays medical education standards provide the ground for organising the educational data and the paradata. Analysis of such education data through education data mining techniques is in its infancy, but decision support systems (DSSs) for medical education need further research. To the best of our knowledge, there is a gap and a clear need for identifying the challenges for DSSs in medical education in the era of medical education standards. Thus, in this Letter the role and the attributes of such a DSS for medical education are delineated and the challenges and vision for future actions are identified.

  17. MIDAS intelligent platform for medical services, support for decision optimization in virtual medical communities.

    PubMed

    Arotăriţei, D; Toma, C M; Turnea, M; Toma, Vasilica

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes the implementation of a open multifunctional platform--MIDAS--for heterogeneous medical data management--support for optimization of clinical decision in virtual medical communities. The objectives of this intelligent environment are: diagnostic easier by access to heterogeneous medical data, a virtual support for medical personal in order to reduce medical errors, fast access to resources for education and improvement of medical education for physicians and students. The structure of the platform is based on a core module and a number of dedicated modules that give an important advantage as re-configurable platform depending on necessities. The core module tries to be as general is possible in order to be used in the future as core model in a platform focused on dentistry cases.

  18. Medical decision-making: an argument for narrative and metaphor.

    PubMed

    Hall, Katherine

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the processes of decision-making used by intensive care (critical care) specialists. Ninety-nine specialists completed a questionnaire involving three clinical cases, using a novel methodology investigating the role of uncertainty and temporal-related factors, and exploring a range of ethical issues. Validation and triangulation of the results was done via a comparison study with a medically lay, but highly informed group of 37 law students. For both study groups, constructing reasons for a decision was largely an interpretative and imaginative exercise that went beyond the data (as presented), commonly resulting in different reasons supporting the same conclusions and similar reasons supporting opposite conclusions. The skills of ethical imagination and interpretation were related to an individual's prior lived experience, construed in the broadest sense. Application of these skills of ethical imagination and interpretation always occurred, to some degree, in a state of uncertainty and almost always involved temporal relationships. Using these results, a theory of ethical decision-making is proffered. Three levels or types of reasoning processes may be present. Type I decision-making involves the application of rules, usually in a deductive fashion. Type II decision-making is characterised by a process where a plurality of reasons are balanced, weighed and sifted with each other. Type III decision-making is intimately linked with respondents lived experiences and 'crafts' the content of type I and II reasoning processes, via the application of ethical imagination and interpretation. Relationships between these three types of reasoning processes, and with narrative ethics, are also discussed.

  19. Decision support in medical practice: a physician's perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shieh, Yao-Yang; Roberson, Glenn H.

    1998-03-01

    A physician's decision support system consists of three components: (1) a comprehensive patient record and medical knowledge database, (2) information infrastructure for data storage, transfer, and (3) an analytical inference engine, accompanied by business operation database. Medical knowledge database provides the guideline for the selection of powerful clinical features or tests to be observed so that an accurate diagnosis as well as effective treatment can be quickly reached. With a tremendous amount of information stored in multiple data centers, it takes an effective information infrastructure to provide streamlined flow of information to the physician in a timely fashion. A real-time analytical inference engine mimics the physician's reasoning process. However due to incomplete, imperfect data and medical knowledge, a realistic output from this engine will be a list of options with associated confidence level, expected risk, so that the physician can make a well-informed final decision. Physicians are challenged to pursue the objective of ensuring an acceptable quality of care in an economically restrained environment. Therefore, business operation data have to be factored into the calculation of overall loss. Follow-up of diagnosis and treatment provides retrospective assessment of the accuracy and effectiveness of the existing inference engine.

  20. A study to enhance medical students’ professional decision-making, using teaching interventions on common medications

    PubMed Central

    Wilcock, Jane; Strivens, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Aim To create sustained improvements in medical students’ critical thinking skills through short teaching interventions in pharmacology. Method The ability to make professional decisions was assessed by providing year-4 medical students at a UK medical school with a novel medical scenario (antenatal pertussis vaccination). Forty-seven students in the 2012 cohort acted as a pretest group, answering a questionnaire on this novel scenario. To improve professional decision-making skills, 48 students from the 2013 cohort were introduced to three commonly used medications, through tutor-led 40-min teaching interventions, among six small groups using a structured presentation of evidence-based medicine and ethical considerations. Student members then volunteered to peer-teach on a further three medications. After a gap of 8 weeks, this cohort (post-test group) was assessed for professional decision-making skills using the pretest questionnaire, and differences in the 2-year groups analysed. Results Students enjoyed presenting on medications to their peers but had difficulty interpreting studies and discussing ethical dimensions; this was improved by contextualising information via patient scenarios. After 8 weeks, most students did not show enhanced clinical curiosity, a desire to understand evidence, or ethical questioning when presented with a novel medical scenario compared to the previous year group who had not had the intervention. Students expressed a high degree of trust in guidelines and expert tutors and felt that responsibility for their own actions lay with these bodies. Conclusion Short teaching interventions in pharmacology did not lead to sustained improvements in their critical thinking skills in enhancing professional practice. It appears that students require earlier and more frequent exposure to these skills in their medical training. PMID:26051556

  1. Medical decision making and the Human Rights Act 1998.

    PubMed

    Loughrey, J

    2001-01-01

    At present in the UK, when there is conflict of opinion between relatives and health care professionals regarding the treatment of incompetent patients, the courts generally support the latter over the former. This article examines the potential impact of the Human Rights Act 1998, which incorporates the European Convention on Human Rights into UK law, on this position. The possibility of challenges by relatives to disputed decisions on the grounds of Articles 2,3,8 and 14 is examined in the light of relevant Convention jurisprudence. It concludes that the Act will not necessarily result in relatives' views taking priority over doctors', given that the domestic test of the patient's best interests may not infringe the Convention. However, more account will have to be taken of relatives' views given the requirement for the courts to adopt a rights based analysis and to take a more pro-active role in scrutinising medical decision making.

  2. Why winners win: decision making in medical malpractice cases.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Linda S

    2007-01-01

    A high percentage of physicians will, at some time in their careers, face a lawsuit, possibly finding themselves in the courtroom even when they have not made a medical mistake. Despite the presumption that juries are biased in favor of injured plaintiffs, physicians win most of their trials. Why this occurs and how juries make their decisions are topics of ongoing interest. Research has been done on jury decision making, including what, if any, the roles of race and sex play in the process. It is essential that those who enter the courtroom understand both the power they have to influence the outcome of their own trials and why it is that issues of character continue to be so important to juries.

  3. "Making My Own Decisions Sometimes": A Pilot Study of Young Adult Cancer Survivors' Perspectives on Medical Decision-Making.

    PubMed

    Shay, L Aubree; Schmidt, Susanne; Cornell, Stephanie D; Parsons, Helen M

    2017-07-27

    This study aimed to provide a better understanding of the medical decision-making preferences and experiences of young adult survivors of pediatric, adolescent, and young adult cancers. We conducted key informant interviews and a cross-sectional mailed survey with young adult survivors (currently aged 18-39 years) of pediatric, adolescent, and young adult cancers in South Texas. Of the responding survivors, almost all wanted to be actively involved in medical decision-making, but preferences regarding family and doctor involvement varied. In open-ended responses, the most commonly reported concerns related to medical decision-making were feelings of uncertainty and fear of receiving bad news. Survivors reported that they desired more information in order to feel better about medical decision-making. Due to the variety of preferences regarding decision-making and who to include in the process, physicians should be prepared to ask and accommodate patients regarding their decision-making preferences.

  4. Decision support environment for medical product safety surveillance.

    PubMed

    Botsis, Taxiarchis; Jankosky, Christopher; Arya, Deepa; Kreimeyer, Kory; Foster, Matthew; Pandey, Abhishek; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Guangfan; Forshee, Richard; Goud, Ravi; Menschik, David; Walderhaug, Mark; Woo, Emily Jane; Scott, John

    2016-12-01

    We have developed a Decision Support Environment (DSE) for medical experts at the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The DSE contains two integrated systems: The Event-based Text-mining of Health Electronic Records (ETHER) and the Pattern-based and Advanced Network Analyzer for Clinical Evaluation and Assessment (PANACEA). These systems assist medical experts in reviewing reports submitted to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) and the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). In this manuscript, we describe the DSE architecture and key functionalities, and examine its potential contributions to the signal management process by focusing on four use cases: the identification of missing cases from a case series, the identification of duplicate case reports, retrieving cases for a case series analysis, and community detection for signal identification and characterization.

  5. Do continuing medical education articles foster shared decision making?

    PubMed

    Labrecque, Michel; Lafortune, Valérie; Lajeunesse, Judith; Lambert-Perrault, Anne-Marie; Manrique, Hermes; Blais, Johanne; Légaré, France

    2010-01-01

    Defined as reviews of clinical aspects of a specific health problem published in peer-reviewed and non-peer-reviewed medical journals, offered without charge, continuing medical education (CME) articles form a key strategy for translating knowledge into practice. This study assessed CME articles for mention of evidence-based information on benefits and harms of available treatment and/or preventive options that are deemed essential for shared decision making (SDM) to occur in clinical practice. Articles were selected from 5 medical journals that publish CME articles and are provided free of charge to primary-care physicians of the Province of Quebec, Canada. Two individuals independently scored each article with the use of a 10-item checklist based on the International Patient Decision Aid Standards. In case of discrepancy, the item score was established by team consensus. Scores were added to produce a total article score ranging from 0 (no item present) to 10 (all items present). Thirty articles (6 articles per journal) were selected. Total article scores ranged from 1 to 9, with a mean (+/- SD) of 3.1 +/- 2.0 (95% confidence interval 2.8-4.3). Health conditions and treatment options were the items most frequently discussed in the articles; next came treatment benefits. Possible harms, the use of the same denominators for benefits and harms, and methods to facilitate the communication of benefits and harms to patients were almost never described. No significant differences between journals were observed. The CME articles evaluated did not include the evidence-based information necessary to foster SDM in clinical practice. Peer-reviewed and non-peer-reviewed medical journals should require CME articles to include this type of information.

  6. What is a good medical decision? A research agenda guided by perspectives from multiple stakeholders.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Jada G; Lillie, Sarah E; Alden, Dana L; Scherer, Laura; Oser, Megan; Rini, Christine; Tanaka, Miho; Baleix, John; Brewster, Mikki; Craddock Lee, Simon; Goldstein, Mary K; Jacobson, Robert M; Myers, Ronald E; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J; Waters, Erika A

    2017-02-01

    Informed and shared decision making are critical aspects of patient-centered care, which has contributed to an emphasis on decision support interventions to promote good medical decision making. However, researchers and healthcare providers have not reached a consensus on what defines a good decision, nor how to evaluate it. This position paper, informed by conference sessions featuring diverse stakeholders held at the 2015 Society of Behavioral Medicine and Society for Medical Decision Making annual meetings, describes key concepts that influence the decision making process itself and that may change what it means to make a good decision: interpersonal factors, structural constraints, affective influences, and values clarification methods. This paper also proposes specific research questions within each of these priority areas, with the goal of moving medical decision making research to a more comprehensive definition of a good medical decision, and enhancing the ability to measure and improve the decision making process.

  7. Minorities with lupus nephritis and medications: a study of facilitators to medication decision-making.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jasvinder A; Qu, Haiyan; Yazdany, Jinoos; Chatham, Winn; Shewchuk, Richard

    2015-12-17

    Medication decision-making poses a challenge for a significant proportion of patients. This is an even more challenging for patients who have complex, rare, immune conditions that affect them at a young age and are associated with the use of life-long treatment, perceived by some as having significant risk of side effects and toxicity. The aim of our study was to examine the perspectives of women with lupus nephritis on facilitators to medication decision-making. We used the nominal group technique (NGT), a structured formative process to elicit patient perspectives. An NGT expert moderated eight patient group meetings. Participants (n = 52) responded to the question "What sorts of things make it easier for people to decide to take the medicines that doctors prescribe for treating their lupus kidney disease?" Patients nominated, discussed, and prioritized facilitators to medication decisional processes. Fifty-two women with lupus nephritis participated in eight NGT meetings (27 African-American, 13 Hispanic, and 12 Caucasian). Average age was 40.6 years (standard deviation (SD) = 13.3), and disease duration was 11.8 years (SD = 8.3); 36.5 % obtained at least a college education, and 55.8 % had difficulty in reading health materials. Patients generated 280 decision-making facilitators (range of 26 to 42 per panel). Of these, 102 (36 %) facilitators were perceived by patients as having relatively more influence in decision-making processes than others. Prioritized facilitators included effective patient-physician communication regarding benefits/harms, patient desire to live a normal life and improve quality of life, concern for their dependents, experiencing benefits and few/infrequent/no harms with lupus medications, and their affordability. Relative to African-Americans, Caucasian and Hispanic patients endorsed a smaller percentage of facilitators as influential. Level of agreement with which patients within panels independently agreed in their

  8. Promoting the Medical University's Governance: Content Analysis of Decisions Made by the Medical University's Governing Bodies.

    PubMed

    Sajadi, Haniye Sadat; Hadi, Mohammad

    2016-12-01

    Decisions made by the governing body of a university would overshadow university governance. This study aimed to analyze the quantity and quality of decisions made by the three governing bodies (Board of trustees, Board of Chancellors and University council) of a medical university in Isfahan, Iran. A mixed qualitative and quantitative approach was employed, with the quantitative part in cross-sectional format and the qualitative part in content analysis format. In the quantitative part, the number of meetings and resolutions of the governing bodies were collected through Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. In the qualitative part, the content of 3121 resolutions that were selected using stratified sampling method was analyzed. The results indicated the defensible numbers of meetings and resolutions of the boards of trustees and chancellors. The governing bodies' resolutions were mostly operational in domain, administrative (boards of trustees and chancellors) and educational (university council) in nature, financing (board of trustees) and providing services (board of chancellors and university council) in function with the aim of responsiveness. The share of specific and single-department resolutions was greater compared to others. Better monitoring and evaluation of the activity of governing bodies, redirecting the decisions made by governing bodies, reminding the position of the governing bodies and revising their duties and responsibilities are recommended for better governance of the medical university.

  9. Evaluation of RxNorm for Medication Clinical Decision Support.

    PubMed

    Freimuth, Robert R; Wix, Kelly; Zhu, Qian; Siska, Mark; Chute, Christopher G

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the potential use of RxNorm to provide standardized representations of generic drug name and route of administration to facilitate management of drug lists for clinical decision support (CDS) rules. We found a clear representation of generic drug name but not route of administration. We identified several issues related to data quality, including erroneous or missing defined relationships, and the use of different concept hierarchies to represent the same drug. More importantly, we found extensive semantic precoordination of orthogonal concepts related to route and dose form, which would complicate the use of RxNorm for drug-based CDS. This study demonstrated that while RxNorm is a valuable resource for the standardization of medications used in clinical practice, additional work is required to enhance the terminology so that it can support expanded use cases, such as managing drug lists for CDS.

  10. Evaluation of RxNorm for Medication Clinical Decision Support

    PubMed Central

    Freimuth, Robert R.; Wix, Kelly; Zhu, Qian; Siska, Mark; Chute, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the potential use of RxNorm to provide standardized representations of generic drug name and route of administration to facilitate management of drug lists for clinical decision support (CDS) rules. We found a clear representation of generic drug name but not route of administration. We identified several issues related to data quality, including erroneous or missing defined relationships, and the use of different concept hierarchies to represent the same drug. More importantly, we found extensive semantic precoordination of orthogonal concepts related to route and dose form, which would complicate the use of RxNorm for drug-based CDS. This study demonstrated that while RxNorm is a valuable resource for the standardization of medications used in clinical practice, additional work is required to enhance the terminology so that it can support expanded use cases, such as managing drug lists for CDS. PMID:25954360

  11. Putting Patient Autonomy in its Proper Place; Professional Norm-Guided Medical Decision-Making.

    PubMed

    Huddle, Thomas

    The recommended model for patient participation in medical decision-making is the shared decision-making model (SDM). That model is ambiguous as to how much physician influence on patient decision-making is desirable or permissible. Most discussants suggest that physician influence on medical decisions, while allowable, should be limited. Empirical studies of medical decision-making have shown that much medical practice does not conform to the SDM. The author recommends a different model for medical decision-making, "professional norm-guided medical decision-making," which, he suggests, much medical practice actually follows. This model does not defer to patient autonomy to the extent usually recommended by the SDM and permits a greater degree of physician influence on patient medical decisions than usual versions of that model. Having described the working of the the professional norm-guided decision-making model, the author specifies the form of patient autonomy respected by it and offers a case for preferring this model of medical decision-making to the SDM.

  12. Hospital Information System Support for the Medical Decision Maker

    PubMed Central

    Mishelevich, David J.; Atkinson, Jack B.; Noland, Robert L.; Eisenberg, Jerry R.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the early stages in migration toward a comprehensive, on-line Hospital Information System with emphasis placed on the needs of the physician and other Medical Decision Makers. Such systems will properly put the computing power where it belongs: in the hands of the user, to the decision being made, to enhance health professional productivity and cost effectiveness. Thus we are evolving to such feedback to the physician in multiple dimensions, whether previous orders and/or results, patient profiles, cost of item ordered, potential drug-drug and drug-laboratory test interactions, potential duplicate examinations, or other information are involved. Considerations for systems which can potentially meet these needs are outlined. Specific examples of characteristics of the IBM Patient Care System {PCS} are presented as a prototypical model. Critical components are the presence of relevant data and the human-engineered, user-cordial access to that data. Coverage is given to multiple existing and potential sources of clinically-significant data whether manual or automated instrument input are involved.

  13. DYNAMICALLY EVOLVING CLINICAL PRACTICES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PREDICTING MEDICAL DECISIONS

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, JONATHAN H; GOLDSTEIN, MARY K; ASCH, STEVEN M; ALTMAN, RUSS B

    2015-01-01

    Automatically data-mining clinical practice patterns from electronic health records (EHR) can enable prediction of future practices as a form of clinical decision support (CDS). Our objective is to determine the stability of learned clinical practice patterns over time and what implication this has when using varying longitudinal historical data sources towards predicting future decisions. We trained an association rule engine for clinical orders (e.g., labs, imaging, medications) using structured inpatient data from a tertiary academic hospital. Comparing top order associations per admission diagnosis from training data in 2009 vs. 2012, we find practice variability from unstable diagnoses with rank biased overlap (RBO)<0.35 (e.g., pneumonia) to stable admissions for planned procedures (e.g., chemotherapy, surgery) with comparatively high RBO>0.6. Predicting admission orders for future (2013) patients with associations trained on recent (2012) vs. older (2009) data improved accuracy evaluated by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC-AUC) 0.89 to 0.92, precision at ten (positive predictive value of the top ten predictions against actual orders) 30% to 37%, and weighted recall (sensitivity) at ten 2.4% to 13%, (P<10−10). Training with more longitudinal data (2009-2012) was no better than only using recent (2012) data. Secular trends in practice patterns likely explain why smaller but more recent training data is more accurate at predicting future practices. PMID:26776186

  14. Medical decision support: experience with implementing the Arden Syntax at the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center.

    PubMed Central

    Jenders, R. A.; Hripcsak, G.; Sideli, R. V.; DuMouchel, W.; Zhang, H.; Cimino, J. J.; Johnson, S. B.; Sherman, E. H.; Clayton, P. D.

    1995-01-01

    We began implementation of a medical decision support system (MDSS) at the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center (CPMC) using the Arden Syntax in 1992. The Clinical Event Monitor which executes the Medical Logic Modules (MLMs) runs on a mainframe computer. Data are stored in a relational database and accessed via PL/I programs known as Data Access Modules (DAMs). Currently we have 18 clinical, 12 research and 10 administrative MLMs. On average, the clinical MLMs generate 50357 simple interpretations of laboratory data and 1080 alerts each month. The number of alerts actually read varies by subject of the MLM from 32.4% to 73.5%. Most simple interpretations are not read at all. A significant problem of MLMs is maintenance, and changes in laboratory testing and message output can impair MLM execution significantly. We are now using relational database technology and coded MLM output to study the process outcome of our MDSS. PMID:8563259

  15. [Medical end-of-life decisions and assisted suicide].

    PubMed

    Bosshard, Georg

    2008-07-01

    Medical end-of-life decisions that potentially shorten life (Sterbehilfe) are normally divided into four categories: Passive Sterbehilfe refers to withholding or withdrawing life-prolonging measures, indirect Sterbehilfe refers to the use of agents such as opioids or sedatives to alleviate symptoms of a terminally ill patient, assisted suicide (Suizidbeihilfe or Beihilfe zum Suizid) refers to prescribing and/or supplying a lethal drug in order to help someone to end his own life, and active euthanasia - which is illegal in any circumstances - means a doctor actively ending a patients life. In passive and indirect euthanasia, the will of a competent patient, or the presumed will of an incompetent patient respectively, is crucial. Assisted suicide is not illegal according to the Swiss Penal Code as long as there are no motives of self-interest of the individual assisting, and the individual assisted has decisional capacity. However, for doctors participating in assisted suicide, specific requirements of medical due care have to be met. What this means in the context of assisted suicide has recently been elaborated by the Swiss Federal Court of Justice.

  16. The professional medical ethics model of decision making under conditions of clinical uncertainty.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Laurence B

    2013-02-01

    The professional medical ethics model of decision making may be applied to decisions clinicians and patients make under the conditions of clinical uncertainty that exist when evidence is low or very low. This model uses the ethical concepts of medicine as a profession, the professional virtues of integrity and candor and the patient's virtue of prudence, the moral management of medical uncertainty, and trial of intervention. These features combine to justifiably constrain clinicians' and patients' autonomy with the goal of preventing nondeliberative decisions of patients and clinicians. To prevent biased recommendations by the clinician that promote such nondeliberative decisions, medically reasonable alternatives supported by low or very low evidence should be offered but not recommended. The professional medical ethics model of decision making aims to improve the quality of decisions by reducing the unacceptable variation that can result from nondeliberative decision making by patients and clinicians when evidence is low or very low.

  17. Exploration Clinical Decision Support System: Medical Data Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, Tony; Shetye, Sandeep; Shaw, Tianna (Editor)

    2016-01-01

    The Exploration Clinical Decision Support (ECDS) System project is intended to enhance the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Element for extended duration, deep-space mission planning in HRP. A major development guideline is the Risk of "Adverse Health Outcomes & Decrements in Performance due to Limitations of In-flight Medical Conditions". ECDS attempts to mitigate that Risk by providing crew-specific health information, actionable insight, crew guidance and advice based on computational algorithmic analysis. The availability of inflight health diagnostic computational methods has been identified as an essential capability for human exploration missions. Inflight electronic health data sources are often heterogeneous, and thus may be isolated or not examined as an aggregate whole. The ECDS System objective provides both a data architecture that collects and manages disparate health data, and an active knowledge system that analyzes health evidence to deliver case-specific advice. A single, cohesive space-ready decision support capability that considers all exploration clinical measurements is not commercially available at present. Hence, this Task is a newly coordinated development effort by which ECDS and its supporting data infrastructure will demonstrate the feasibility of intelligent data mining and predictive modeling as a biomedical diagnostic support mechanism on manned exploration missions. The initial step towards ground and flight demonstrations has been the research and development of both image and clinical text-based computer-aided patient diagnosis. Human anatomical images displaying abnormal/pathological features have been annotated using controlled terminology templates, marked-up, and then stored in compliance with the AIM standard. These images have been filtered and disease characterized based on machine learning of semantic and quantitative feature vectors. The next phase will evaluate disease treatment response via quantitative linear

  18. Exploring differences in the use of the statin choice decision aid and diabetes medication choice decision aid in primary care.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Aimee Yu; Kessler, Maya; Scheitel, Marianne; Montori, Victor M; Chaudhry, Rajeev

    2017-08-10

    Shared decision making is essential to patient centered care, but can be difficult for busy clinicians to implement into practice. Tools have been developed to aid in shared decision making and embedded in electronic medical records (EMRs) to facilitate use. This study was undertaken to explore the patterns of use and barriers and facilitators to use of two decision aids, the Statin Choice Decision Aid (SCDA) and the Diabetes Medication Choice Decision Aid (DMCDA), in primary care practices where the decision aids are embedded in the EMR. A survey exploring factors that influenced use of each decision aid was sent to eligible primary care clinicians affiliated with the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN. Survey data was collected and clinician use of each decision aid via links from the EMR was tracked. The survey response rate was 40% (105/262). Log file data indicated 51% of clinicians used the SCDA and 9% of clinicians used the DMCDA. Reasons for lack of use included lack of knowledge of the EMR link, not finding the decision aids helpful, and time constraints. Survey responses indicated that use of the tool as intended was low, with many clinicians only discussing decision aid topics that they found relevant. Although guidelines for both the treatment of blood cholesterol with a statin and for the treatment of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes recommend shared decision making, tools that facilitate shared decision making are not routinely used even when embedded in the EMR. Even when decision aids are used, their use may not reflect patient centered care.

  19. Fuzzy Naive Bayesian model for medical diagnostic decision support.

    PubMed

    Wagholikar, Kavishwar B; Vijayraghavan, Sundararajan; Deshpande, Ashok W

    2009-01-01

    This work relates to the development of computational algorithms to provide decision support to physicians. The authors propose a Fuzzy Naive Bayesian (FNB) model for medical diagnosis, which extends the Fuzzy Bayesian approach proposed by Okuda. A physician's interview based method is described to define a orthogonal fuzzy symptom information system, required to apply the model. For the purpose of elaboration and elicitation of characteristics, the algorithm is applied to a simple simulated dataset, and compared with conventional Naive Bayes (NB) approach. As a preliminary evaluation of FNB in real world scenario, the comparison is repeated on a real fuzzy dataset of 81 patients diagnosed with infectious diseases. The case study on simulated dataset elucidates that FNB can be optimal over NB for diagnosing patients with imprecise-fuzzy information, on account of the following characteristics - 1) it can model the information that, values of some attributes are semantically closer than values of other attributes, and 2) it offers a mechanism to temper exaggerations in patient information. Although the algorithm requires precise training data, its utility for fuzzy training data is argued for. This is supported by the case study on infectious disease dataset, which indicates optimality of FNB over NB for the infectious disease domain. Further case studies on large datasets are required to establish utility of FNB.

  20. An acetaminophen icon helps reduce medication decision errors in an experimental setting.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, Saul; Cotton, Helene; Jessurun, Christina; Rohay, Jeffrey M; Sembower, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effect of adding an acetaminophen ingredient icon to acetaminophen medication labels on consumer decision making about concomitant use of acetaminophen medications to avoid overdose, which is associated with liver injury. Parallel-group randomized study. Consumer research facilities in Indianapolis, Baltimore, and Los Angeles. A total of 517 adults (30% with limited health literacy) recruited at 3 consumer research sites. Participants were randomized to a non-icon condition in which medications carried current labeling or an icon condition in which all acetaminophen medications were additionally marked with an icon. Participants were presented with a medicine cabinet containing 12 diverse prescription and non-prescription medications, one-half containing acetaminophen, and made decisions about which medications were appropriate to take after an acetaminophen medication had already been taken. Outcome measures were errors in medication decisions and response time. The icon reduced the odds of participants making medication-decision errors by 53% (CI 31%-68%), with effects evident across medication categories. The icon eliminated a trend for those with lower health literacy or less education to have a greater likelihood of making errors. The icon also reduced response times, indicating reduced cognitive load for decisions. An icon can improve decision making regarding acetaminophen-containing medications, particularly among individuals with limited health literacy or education. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Role of a Medical Education Center in Location Decisions of Practicing Physicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buesching, Don; Glasser, Michael

    1983-01-01

    The factors involved in the decisions of physicians to locate in Rockford, IL were examined. Questions were asked concerning faculty status, factors influencing practice location decisions, and perceived advantages of association with a medical education center. The medical education center was an important secondary factor. (Author/MLW)

  2. Mapping Perceptions of Lupus Medication Decision-Making Facilitators: The Importance of Patient Context.

    PubMed

    Qu, Haiyan; Shewchuk, Richard M; Alarcón, Graciela; Fraenkel, Liana; Leong, Amye; Dall'Era, Maria; Yazdany, Jinoos; Singh, Jasvinder A

    2016-12-01

    Numerous factors can impede or facilitate patients' medication decision-making and adherence to physicians' recommendations. Little is known about how patients and physicians jointly view issues that affect the decision-making process. Our objective was to derive an empirical framework of patient-identified facilitators to lupus medication decision-making from key stakeholders (including 15 physicians, 5 patients/patient advocates, and 8 medical professionals) using a patient-centered cognitive mapping approach. We used nominal group patient panels to identify facilitators to lupus treatment decision-making. Stakeholders independently sorted the identified facilitators (n = 98) based on their similarities and rated the importance of each facilitator in patient decision-making. Data were analyzed using multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis. A cognitive map was derived that represents an empirical framework of facilitators for lupus treatment decisions from multiple stakeholders' perspectives. The facilitator clusters were 1) hope for a normal/healthy life, 2) understand benefits and effectiveness of taking medications, 3) desire to minimize side effects, 4) medication-related data, 5) medication effectiveness for "me," 6) family focus, 7) confidence in physician, 8) medication research, 9) reassurance about medication, and 10) medication economics. Consideration of how different stakeholders perceive the relative importance of lupus medication decision-making clusters is an important step toward improving patient-physician communication and effective shared decision-making. The empirically derived framework of medication decision-making facilitators can be used as a guide to develop a lupus decision aid that focuses on improving physician-patient communication. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  3. Experience and Medical Decision-Making in Outdoor Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Shayne

    2007-01-01

    Outdoor leaders function in naturalistic decision-making contexts and may be influenced by personal, social, and environmental factors in making critical decisions in the field. The experience level of the outdoor instructor is posited as a critical variable in the development of his/her decision-making and overall judgment. This research measures…

  4. Medical factors influencing decision making regarding radiation therapy for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Dilaveri, Christina A; Sandhu, Nicole P; Neal, Lonzetta; Neben-Wittich, Michelle A; Hieken, Tina J; Mac Bride, Maire Brid; Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L; Ghosh, Karthik

    2014-01-01

    Radiation therapy is an important and effective adjuvant therapy for breast cancer. Numerous health conditions may affect medical decisions regarding tolerance of breast radiation therapy. These factors must be considered during the decision-making process after breast-conserving surgery or mastectomy for breast cancer. Here, we review currently available evidence focusing on medical conditions that may affect the patient-provider decision-making process regarding the use of radiation therapy.

  5. Medical factors influencing decision making regarding radiation therapy for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dilaveri, Christina A; Sandhu, Nicole P; Neal, Lonzetta; Neben-Wittich, Michelle A; Hieken, Tina J; Mac Bride, Maire Brid; Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L; Ghosh, Karthik

    2014-01-01

    Radiation therapy is an important and effective adjuvant therapy for breast cancer. Numerous health conditions may affect medical decisions regarding tolerance of breast radiation therapy. These factors must be considered during the decision-making process after breast-conserving surgery or mastectomy for breast cancer. Here, we review currently available evidence focusing on medical conditions that may affect the patient–provider decision-making process regarding the use of radiation therapy. PMID:25429241

  6. Culture and medical decision making: Healthcare consumer perspectives in Japan and the United States.

    PubMed

    Alden, Dana L; Friend, John M; Lee, Angela Y; de Vries, Marieke; Osawa, Ryosuke; Chen, Qimei

    2015-12-01

    Two studies identified core value influences on medical decision-making processes across and within cultures. In Study 1, Japanese and American adults reported desired levels of medical decision-making influence across conditions that varied in seriousness. Cultural antecedents (interdependence, independence, and power distance) were also measured. In Study 2, American adults reviewed a colorectal cancer screening decision aid. Decision preparedness was measured along with interdependence, independence, and desire for medical information. In Study 1, higher interdependence predicted stronger desire for decision-making information in both countries, but was significantly stronger in Japan. The path from information desire to decision-making influence desire was significant only in Japan. The independence path to desire for decision-making influence was significant only in the United States. Power distance effects negatively predicted desire for decision-making influence only in the United States. For Study 2, high (low) interdependents and women (men) in the United States felt that a colorectal cancer screening decision aid helped prepare them more (less) for a medical consultation. Low interdependent men were at significantly higher risk for low decision preparedness. Study 1 suggests that Japanese participants may tend to view medical decision-making influence as an interdependent, information sharing exchange, whereas American respondents may be more interested in power sharing that emphasizes greater independence. Study 2 demonstrates the need to assess value influences on medical decision-making processes within and across cultures and suggests that individually tailored versions of decision aids may optimize decision preparedness. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Medical Student Decision Making Regarding Pursuit of a Public Health Degree.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Sarah L; Meyers, Peter; Sautter, Robin; Honsvall, Amanda; Prunuske, Jacob

    2016-03-01

    Few US medical school graduates receive a public health degree. We sought to identify factors involved in medical students' decisions to pursue dual medical and public health degrees and describe the decision-making process. We conducted focus group discussions and telephone interviews with medical students considering, or enrolled in, a public health degree program. Participants described early exposures to public health, perspectives on physician public health roles, advantages and disadvantages of a public health degree, and the relative importance of factors influencing their decision to pursue a public health degree. Data were coded using open codes, and thematic analysis was performed. Medical students' decisions about pursuing a public health degree are based on consideration of advantages and disadvantages of academic, personal, and financial factors. Students place weights on various factors and value guidance. Access to training and information about public health programs and career opportunities may facilitate decision-making. Knowledge of factors involved in students' decisions and the decision-making process will allow mentors, advisors, faculty, and staff working to recruit students into MPH programs to support students interested in earning dual medical and public health degrees. Future research should explore avenues for supporting medical student decision-making and further reducing barriers to public health training.

  8. Foundations of medical decision-making for older adults with cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Lipman, Hannah I; Kalra, Ankur; Kirkpatrick, James N

    2015-07-01

    In order to help older adults with cardiovascular disease navigate complex decisions, clinicians must know tenets of medical ethics and have good communication skills. The elements of decision making capacity and informed consent are reviewed, using relevant clinical examples to illustrate the basic concepts. The shared decision making model, by which clinician and patient work together to determine the plan of care, is described. Useful communication techniques to implement shared decision making are suggested.

  9. Military Medical Decision Support for Homeland Defense During Emergency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    Integrated Decision Support ( MERMAIDS ) developed for training of emergency response teams using heterogeneous resources under a unified command and control...The MERMAIDS has been designed to contain a decision-centric interface, which is not only useful for emergency information management, but has...decision models to support response planning during emergency conditions. An expert heuristic evaluation of the MERMAIDS is encouraging. The expert

  10. Not a Humbug: the evolution of patient-centred medical decision-making.

    PubMed

    Trump, Benjamin D; Linkov, Faina; Edwards, Robert P; Linkov, Igor

    2015-12-01

    This 'Christmas Issue'-type paper uses the framework of 'A Christmas Carol' to tell about the evolution of decision-making in evidence-based medicine (EBM). The Ghost of the Past represents paternalistic medicine, the Ghost of the Present symbolises EBM, while the Ghost of the Future serves as a patient-centred system where research data and tools of decision science are jointly used to make optimal medical decisions for individual patients. We argue that this shift towards a patient-centred approach to EBM and medical care is the next step in the evolution of medical decision-making, which would help to empower patients with the capability to make educated decisions throughout the course of their medical treatment.

  11. Individual Differences in Decision-Making and Confidence: Capturing Decision Tendencies in a Fictitious Medical Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Simon A.; Kleitman, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    Decision-making is a complex process that is largely studied from an experimental perspective or in specific organizational contexts. As such, no generalizable framework exists with which to study decision-making from an individual differences perspective for predictive/selection purposes. By generalising a context-specific decision model proposed…

  12. Individual Differences in Decision-Making and Confidence: Capturing Decision Tendencies in a Fictitious Medical Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Simon A.; Kleitman, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    Decision-making is a complex process that is largely studied from an experimental perspective or in specific organizational contexts. As such, no generalizable framework exists with which to study decision-making from an individual differences perspective for predictive/selection purposes. By generalising a context-specific decision model proposed…

  13. Medication-related Clinical Decision Support in Computerized Provider Order Entry Systems: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kuperman, Gilad J.; Bobb, Anne; Payne, Thomas H.; Avery, Anthony J.; Gandhi, Tejal K.; Burns, Gerard; Classen, David C.; Bates, David W.

    2007-01-01

    While medications can improve patients’ health, the process of prescribing them is complex and error prone, and medication errors cause many preventable injuries. Computer provider order entry (CPOE) with clinical decision support (CDS), can improve patient safety and lower medication-related costs. To realize the medication-related benefits of CDS within CPOE, one must overcome significant challenges. Healthcare organizations implementing CPOE must understand what classes of CDS their CPOE systems can support, assure that clinical knowledge underlying their CDS systems is reasonable, and appropriately represent electronic patient data. These issues often influence to what extent an institution will succeed with its CPOE implementation and achieve its desired goals. Medication-related decision support is probably best introduced into healthcare organizations in two stages, basic and advanced. Basic decision support includes drug-allergy checking, basic dosing guidance, formulary decision support, duplicate therapy checking, and drug–drug interaction checking. Advanced decision support includes dosing support for renal insufficiency and geriatric patients, guidance for medication-related laboratory testing, drug-pregnancy checking, and drug–disease contraindication checking. In this paper, the authors outline some of the challenges associated with both basic and advanced decision support and discuss how those challenges might be addressed. The authors conclude with summary recommendations for delivering effective medication-related clinical decision support addressed to healthcare organizations, application and knowledge base vendors, policy makers, and researchers. PMID:17068355

  14. The Integrated Medical Model - A Risk Assessment and Decision Support Tool for Human Space Flight Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerstman, Eric; Minard, Charles G.; Saile, Lynn; FreiredeCarvalho, Mary; Myers, Jerry; Walton, Marlei; Butler, Douglas; Lopez, Vilma

    2010-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) is a decision support tool that is useful to space flight mission planners and medical system designers in assessing risks and optimizing medical systems. The IMM employs an evidence-based, probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) approach within the operational constraints of space flight.

  15. Justification of automated decision-making: medical explanations as medical arguments.

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, R. D.; Musen, M. A.

    1999-01-01

    People use arguments to justify their claims. Computer systems use explanations to justify their conclusions. We are developing WOZ, an explanation framework that justifies the conclusions of a clinical decision-support system. WOZ's central component is the explanation strategy that decides what information justifies a claim. The strategy uses Toulmin's argument structure to define pieces of information and to orchestrate their presentation. WOZ uses explicit models that abstract the core aspects of the framework such as the explanation strategy. In this paper, we present the use of arguments, the modeling of explanations, and the explanation process used in WOZ. WOZ exploits the wealth of naturally occurring arguments, and thus can generate convincing medical explanations. Images Figure 5 PMID:10566388

  16. Lifetime risks of kidney donation: a medical decision analysis.

    PubMed

    Kiberd, Bryce A; Tennankore, Karthik K

    2017-09-01

    This study estimated the potential loss of life and the lifetime cumulative risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) from live kidney donation. Markov medical decision analysis. USA. 40-year-old live kidney donors of both sexes and black/white race. Live donor nephrectomy. Potential remaining life years lost, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) lost and added lifetime cumulative risk of ESRD from donation. Overall 0.532-0.884 remaining life years were lost from donating a kidney. This was equivalent to 1.20%-2.34% of remaining life years (or 0.76%-1.51% remaining QALYs). The risk was higher in male and black individuals. The study showed that 1%-5% of average-age current live kidney donors might develop ESRD as a result of nephrectomy. The added risk of ESRD resulted in a loss of only 0.126-0.344 remaining life years. Most of the loss of life was predicted to be associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) not ESRD. Most events occurred 25 or more years after donation. Reducing the increased risk of death associated with CKD had a modest overall effect on the per cent loss of remaining life years (0.72%-1.9%) and QALYs (0.58%-1.33%). Smoking and obesity reduced life expectancy and increased overall lifetime risks of ESRD in non-donors. However the percentage loss of remaining life years from donation was not very different in those with or without these risk factors. Live kidney donation may reduce life expectancy by 0.5-1 year in most donors. The development of ESRD in donors may not be the only measure of risk as most of the predicted loss of life predates ESRD. The study identifies the potential importance of following donors and treating risk factors aggressively to prevent ESRD and to improve donor survival. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Cognitive biases and heuristics in medical decision making: a critical review using a systematic search strategy.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal-Barby, J S; Krieger, Heather

    2015-05-01

    The role of cognitive biases and heuristics in medical decision making is of growing interest. The purpose of this study was to determine whether studies on cognitive biases and heuristics in medical decision making are based on actual or hypothetical decisions and are conducted with populations that are representative of those who typically make the medical decision; to categorize the types of cognitive biases and heuristics found and whether they are found in patients or in medical personnel; and to critically review the studies based on standard methodological quality criteria. Data sources were original, peer-reviewed, empirical studies on cognitive biases and heuristics in medical decision making found in Ovid Medline, PsycINFO, and the CINAHL databases published in 1980-2013. Predefined exclusion criteria were used to identify 213 studies. During data extraction, information was collected on type of bias or heuristic studied, respondent population, decision type, study type (actual or hypothetical), study method, and study conclusion. Of the 213 studies analyzed, 164 (77%) were based on hypothetical vignettes, and 175 (82%) were conducted with representative populations. Nineteen types of cognitive biases and heuristics were found. Only 34% of studies (n = 73) investigated medical personnel, and 68% (n = 145) confirmed the presence of a bias or heuristic. Each methodological quality criterion was satisfied by more than 50% of the studies, except for sample size and validated instruments/questions. Limitations are that existing terms were used to inform search terms, and study inclusion criteria focused strictly on decision making. Most of the studies on biases and heuristics in medical decision making are based on hypothetical vignettes, raising concerns about applicability of these findings to actual decision making. Biases and heuristics have been underinvestigated in medical personnel compared with patients. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Living Wills and Advance Directives for Medical Decisions

    MedlinePlus

    ... decision-making burdens during moments of crisis or grief. You also help reduce confusion or disagreement about ... Comfort care (palliative care) includes any number of interventions that may be used to keep you comfortable ...

  19. Medical and pharmacy coverage decision making at the population level.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Penny E; Tunis, Sean R

    2014-06-01

    Medicare is one of the largest health care payers in the United States. As a result, its decisions about coverage have profound implications for patient access to care. In this commentary, the authors describe how Medicare used evidence on heterogeneity of treatment effects to make population-based decisions on health care coverage for implantable cardiac defibrillators. This case is discussed in the context of the rapidly expanding availability of comparative effectiveness research. While there is a potential tension between population-based and patient-centered decision making, the expanded diversity of populations and settings included in comparative effectiveness research can provide useful information for making more discerning and informed policy and clinical decisions.

  20. In search of tools to aid logical thinking and communicating about medical decision making.

    PubMed

    Hunink, M G

    2001-01-01

    To have real-time impact on medical decision making, decision analysts need a wide variety of tools to aid logical thinking and communication. Decision models provide a formal framework to integrate evidence and values, but they are commonly perceived as complex and difficult to understand by those unfamiliar with the methods, especially in the context of clinical decision making. The theory of constraints, introduced by Eliyahu Goldratt in the business world, provides a set of tools for logical thinking and communication that could potentially be useful in medical decision making. The author used the concept of a conflict resolution diagram to analyze the decision to perform carotid endarterectomy prior to coronary artery bypass grafting in a patient with both symptomatic coronary and asymptomatic carotid artery disease. The method enabled clinicians to visualize and analyze the issues, identify and discuss the underlying assumptions, search for the best available evidence, and use the evidence to make a well-founded decision. The method also facilitated communication among those involved in the care of the patient. Techniques from fields other than decision analysis can potentially expand the repertoire of tools available to support medical decision making and to facilitate communication in decision consults.

  1. Embodying medical expertise in decision support systems for health care management: techniques and benefits.

    PubMed

    Frank, M S

    1998-11-01

    Health care providers and payers are faced with ever-increasing pressures to lower costs, improve quality, and maximize profits. As medical information technology evolves, more medically related data are being collected, stored electronically within a data warehouse, and made available for decision support in the pursuit of lower costs and higher quality in health care. The article describes how medical expertise can be captured and integrated into decision support systems to improve awareness and predictability of disease and disease-associated financial risk within a population of patients, ultimately providing patient-centric and provider-centric opportunities to improve health and decrease costs. The concept of medical logic engineering is introduced.

  2. The Integrated Medical Model: A Decision Support Tool for In-flight Crew Health Care

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Doug

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the development of an Integrated Medical Model (IMM) decision support tool for in-flight crew health care safety. Clinical methods, resources, and case scenarios are also addressed.

  3. Fuzzy Cognitive Map scenario-based medical decision support systems for education.

    PubMed

    Georgopoulos, Voula C; Chouliara, Spyridoula; Stylios, Chrysostomos D

    2014-01-01

    Soft Computing (SC) techniques are based on exploiting human knowledge and experience and they are extremely useful to model any complex decision making procedure. Thus, they have a key role in the development of Medical Decision Support Systems (MDSS). The soft computing methodology of Fuzzy Cognitive Maps has successfully been used to represent human reasoning and to infer conclusions and decisions in a human-like way and thus, FCM-MDSSs have been developed. Such systems are able to assist in critical decision-making, support diagnosis procedures and consult medical professionals. Here a new methodology is introduced to expand the utilization of FCM-MDSS for learning and educational purposes using a scenario-based learning (SBL) approach. This is particularly important in medical education since it allows future medical professionals to safely explore extensive "what-if" scenarios in case studies and prepare for dealing with critical adverse events.

  4. Reliability analysis framework for computer-assisted medical decision systems

    SciTech Connect

    Habas, Piotr A.; Zurada, Jacek M.; Elmaghraby, Adel S.; Tourassi, Georgia D.

    2007-02-15

    We present a technique that enhances computer-assisted decision (CAD) systems with the ability to assess the reliability of each individual decision they make. Reliability assessment is achieved by measuring the accuracy of a CAD system with known cases similar to the one in question. The proposed technique analyzes the feature space neighborhood of the query case to dynamically select an input-dependent set of known cases relevant to the query. This set is used to assess the local (query-specific) accuracy of the CAD system. The estimated local accuracy is utilized as a reliability measure of the CAD response to the query case. The underlying hypothesis of the study is that CAD decisions with higher reliability are more accurate. The above hypothesis was tested using a mammographic database of 1337 regions of interest (ROIs) with biopsy-proven ground truth (681 with masses, 656 with normal parenchyma). Three types of decision models, (i) a back-propagation neural network (BPNN), (ii) a generalized regression neural network (GRNN), and (iii) a support vector machine (SVM), were developed to detect masses based on eight morphological features automatically extracted from each ROI. The performance of all decision models was evaluated using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. The study showed that the proposed reliability measure is a strong predictor of the CAD system's case-specific accuracy. Specifically, the ROC area index for CAD predictions with high reliability was significantly better than for those with low reliability values. This result was consistent across all decision models investigated in the study. The proposed case-specific reliability analysis technique could be used to alert the CAD user when an opinion that is unlikely to be reliable is offered. The technique can be easily deployed in the clinical environment because it is applicable with a wide range of classifiers regardless of their structure and it requires neither additional

  5. Reliability analysis framework for computer-assisted medical decision systems.

    PubMed

    Habas, Piotr A; Zurada, Jacek M; Elmaghraby, Adel S; Tourassi, Georgia D

    2007-02-01

    We present a technique that enhances computer-assisted decision (CAD) systems with the ability to assess the reliability of each individual decision they make. Reliability assessment is achieved by measuring the accuracy of a CAD system with known cases similar to the one in question. The proposed technique analyzes the feature space neighborhood of the query case to dynamically select an input-dependent set of known cases relevant to the query. This set is used to assess the local (query-specific) accuracy of the CAD system. The estimated local accuracy is utilized as a reliability measure of the CAD response to the query case. The underlying hypothesis of the study is that CAD decisions with higher reliability are more accurate. The above hypothesis was tested using a mammographic database of 1337 regions of interest (ROIs) with biopsy-proven ground truth (681 with masses, 656 with normal parenchyma). Three types of decision models, (i) a back-propagation neural network (BPNN), (ii) a generalized regression neural network (GRNN), and (iii) a support vector machine (SVM), were developed to detect masses based on eight morphological features automatically extracted from each ROI. The performance of all decision models was evaluated using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. The study showed that the proposed reliability measure is a strong predictor of the CAD system's case-specific accuracy. Specifically, the ROC area index for CAD predictions with high reliability was significantly better than for those with low reliability values. This result was consistent across all decision models investigated in the study. The proposed case-specific reliability analysis technique could be used to alert the CAD user when an opinion that is unlikely to be reliable is offered. The technique can be easily deployed in the clinical environment because it is applicable with a wide range of classifiers regardless of their structure and it requires neither additional

  6. Making Decisions About Medication Use During Pregnancy: Implications for Communication Strategies.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Molly M; Squiers, Linda B; Kosa, Katherine M; Dolina, Suzanne; Read, Jennifer Gard; Broussard, Cheryl S; Frey, Meghan T; Polen, Kara N; Lind, Jennifer N; Gilboa, Suzanne M; Biermann, Janis

    2017-09-12

    Objective To explore women's perceptions of the risks and benefits associated with medication use during pregnancy and to better understand how women make decisions related to medication use in pregnancy. Methods We conducted online focus groups with 48 women who used medication during pregnancy or while planning a pregnancy, and 12 in-depth follow-up interviews with a subset of these women. Results We found that women were aware of general risks associated with medication use but were often unable to articulate specific negative outcomes. Women were concerned most about medications' impact on fetal development but were also concerned about how either continuing or discontinuing medication during pregnancy could affect their own health. Women indicated that if the risk of a given medication were unknown, they would not take that medication during pregnancy. Conclusion This formative research found that women face difficult decisions about medication use during pregnancy and need specific information to help them make decisions. Enhanced communication between patients and their providers regarding medication use would help address this need. We suggest that public health practitioners develop messages to (1) encourage, remind, and prompt women to proactively talk with their healthcare providers about the risks of taking, not taking, stopping, or altering the dosage of a medication while trying to become pregnant and/or while pregnant; and (2) encourage all women of childbearing age to ask their healthcare providers about medication use.

  7. Shared decision-making in medication management: development of a training intervention.

    PubMed

    Stead, Ute; Morant, Nicola; Ramon, Shulamit

    2017-08-01

    Shared decision-making is a collaborative process in which clinicians and patients make treatment decisions together. Although it is considered essential to patient-centred care, the adoption of shared decision-making into routine clinical practice has been slow, and there is a need to increase implementation. This paper describes the development and delivery of a training intervention to promote shared decision-making in medication management in mental health as part of the Shared Involvement in Medication Management Education (ShIMME) project. Three stakeholder groups (service users, care coordinators and psychiatrists) received training in shared decision-making, and their feedback was evaluated. The programme was mostly well received, with all groups rating interaction with peers as the best aspect of the training. This small-scale pilot shows that it is feasible to deliver training in shared decision-making to several key stakeholders. Larger studies will be required to assess the effectiveness of such training.

  8. Interdisciplinary medication decision making by pharmacists in pediatric hospital settings: An ethnographic study.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Ellie; Kinney, Sharon; Weiner, Carlye; Newall, Fiona; Williams, Allison; Cranswick, Noel; Wong, Ian; Borrott, Narelle; Manias, Elizabeth

    2017-03-22

    Children are particularly vulnerable to experiencing medication incidents in hospitals. Making sound medication decisions is therefore of paramount importance. Prior research has principally described pharmacists' role in reducing medication errors. There is a dearth of information about pharmacists' interactions with pediatric hospital staff across disciplines in resolving medication issues. The aim of this study was to examine interdisciplinary medication decision making by pharmacists in pediatric hospital settings. An ethnographic design was undertaken comprising observations, semi-structured interviews and focus groups. Audio-recorded data were analyzed thematically. The study was conducted in three wards of an Australian pediatric tertiary teaching hospital, comprising general surgical, gastroenterology, endocrinology, neurology, adolescent and rehabilitation settings. Pharmacists, registered nurses and doctors were recruited from diverse clinical wards following information sessions. Pharmacists were central to complex pediatric medication decision making, intervening about dosage, administration, drug interactions and authorities. Pharmacists proactively contacted doctors and nurses about prescribing issues; conversely, staff routinely approached pharmacists for medication advice. Pharmacists were perceived as medication experts, their extensive knowledge valued in resolving complex issues: when off-label medications were prescribed, when protocols were absent or ambiguous, where tension existed between protocol adherence and patient safety, and where patients on multiple medications were at risk of medication error. Pharmacists had strong relationships with doctors and nurses, which had a bearing on pharmacists' input in interventions. Furthermore, pharmacists identified prescribing errors through strategies, such as case note review and medication reconciliation, although the lack of emergency department pharmacists and limited after-hours staffing posed

  9. Do Continuing Medical Education Articles Foster Shared Decision Making?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labrecque, Michel; Lafortune, Valerie; Lajeunesse, Judith; Lambert-Perrault, Anne-Marie; Manrique, Hermes; Blais, Johanne; Legare, France

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Defined as reviews of clinical aspects of a specific health problem published in peer-reviewed and non-peer-reviewed medical journals, offered without charge, continuing medical education (CME) articles form a key strategy for translating knowledge into practice. This study assessed CME articles for mention of evidence-based…

  10. Family involvement in medical decision-making: Perceptions of nursing and psychology students.

    PubMed

    Itzhaki, Michal; Hildesheimer, Galya; Barnoy, Sivia; Katz, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Family members often rely on health care professionals to guide and support them through the decision-making process. Although family involvement in medical decisions should be included in the preservice curriculum for the health care professions, perceptions of students in caring professions on family involvement in medical decision-making have not yet been examined. To examine the perceptions of nursing and psychology students on family involvement in medical decision-making for seriously ill patients. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used. First year undergraduate nursing and psychology students studying for their Bachelor of Arts degree were recruited. Perceptions were assessed with a questionnaire constructed based on the Multi-Attribute Utility Theory (MAUT), which examines decision-maker preferences. The questionnaire consisted of two parts referring to the respondent once as the patient and then as the family caregiver. Questionnaires were completed by 116 nursing students and 156 psychology students. Most were of the opinion that family involvement in decision-making is appropriate, especially when the patient is incapable of making decisions. Nursing students were more inclined than psychology students to think that financial, emotional, and value-based considerations should be part of the family's involvement in decision-making. Both groups of students perceived the emotional consideration as most acceptable, whereas the financial consideration was considered the least acceptable. Nursing and psychology students perceive family involvement in medical decision-making as appropriate. In order to train students to support families in the process of decision-making, further research should examine Shared Decision-Making (SDM) programs, which involve patient and clinician collaboration in health care decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Shared decision making in senior medical students: results from a national survey.

    PubMed

    Zeballos-Palacios, Claudia; Quispe, Renato; Mongilardi, Nicole; Diaz-Arocutipa, Carlos; Mendez-Davalos, Carlos; Lizarraga, Natalia; Paz, Aldo; Montori, Victor M; Malaga, German

    2015-05-01

    To explore perceptions and experiences of Peruvian medical students about observed, preferred, and feasible decision-making approaches. We surveyed senior medical students from 19 teaching hospitals in 4 major cities in Peru. The self-administered questionnaire collected demographic information, current approach, exposure to role models for and training in shared decision making, and perceptions of the pertinence and feasibility of the different decision-making approaches in general as well as in challenging scenarios. A total of 327 senior medical students (51% female) were included. The mean age was 25 years. Among all respondents, 2% reported receiving both theoretical and practical training in shared decision making. While 46% of students identified their current decision-making approach as clinician-as-perfect-agent, 50% of students identified their teachers with the paternalistic approach. Remarkably, 53% of students thought shared decision making should be the preferred approach and 50% considered it feasible in Peru. Among the 10 challenging scenarios, shared decision making reached a plurality (40%) in only one scenario (terminally ill patients). Despite limited exposure and training, Peruvian medical students aspire to practice shared decision making but their current attitude reflects the less participatory approaches they see role modeled by their teachers. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Targeting Continuing Medical Education on Decision Makers: Who Decides to Transfuse Blood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodnough, Lawrence T.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Staff communication patterns were observed during 13 open-heart surgeries to identify the transfusion decision makers. It was determined that targeting decision makers for continuing medical education would improve the quality of transfusion practice and increase the efficiency of continuing education. (SK)

  13. Doc, What Would You Do If You Were Me? On Self-Other Discrepancies in Medical Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Galesic, Mirta

    2012-01-01

    Doctors often make decisions for their patients and predict their patients' preferences and decisions to customize advice to their particular situation. We investigated how doctors make decisions about medical treatments for their patients and themselves and how they predict their patients' decisions. We also studied whether these decisions and…

  14. Doc, What Would You Do If You Were Me? On Self-Other Discrepancies in Medical Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Galesic, Mirta

    2012-01-01

    Doctors often make decisions for their patients and predict their patients' preferences and decisions to customize advice to their particular situation. We investigated how doctors make decisions about medical treatments for their patients and themselves and how they predict their patients' decisions. We also studied whether these decisions and…

  15. A Medical Decision Support System for the Space Station Health Maintenance Facility

    PubMed Central

    Ostler, David V.; Gardner, Reed M.; Logan, James S.

    1988-01-01

    NASA is developing a Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) to provide the equipment and supplies necessary to deliver medical care in the Space Station. An essential part of the Health Maintenance Facility is a computerized Medical Decision Support System (MDSS) that will enhance the ability of the medical officer (“paramedic” or “physician”) to maintain the crew's health, and to provide emergency medical care. The computer system has four major functions: 1) collect and integrate medical information into an electronic medical record from Space Station medical officers, HMF instrumentation, and exercise equipment; 2) provide an integrated medical record and medical reference information management system; 3) manage inventory for logistical support of supplies and secure pharmaceuticals; 4) supply audio and electronic mail communications between the medical officer and ground based flight surgeons. ImagesFigure 1

  16. Sources of variability in uncertain medical decisions in the ICU: a process tracing study

    PubMed Central

    Kostopoulou, O; Wildman, M

    2004-01-01

    Background: Consistency of medical decision making (equity) is an important component of quality of care. When patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) present with an exacerbation needing respiratory support they may die if it is not provided. However, if the disease has reached its terminal stage, ventilation will prolong the process of dying. The ventilation outcome is uncertain and there is evidence of variability when this decision is made, the sources of which are not well understood. Objectives: To identify sources of variability and propose ways of tackling them in order to promote equity in this type of medical decision. Methods: Six case histories were selected from hospital records of COPD patients. Fourteen senior doctors from seven hospitals in the West Midlands participated. A process tracing approach was used which consisted of (1) withholding case information until specifically requested by the doctors, (2) estimating survival during the decision making process, and (3) concurrent questioning regarding information interpretation and its impact on survival estimates and decisions. Results: The observed decision variability was attributed to doctors attaching importance to different information, gathering different information, and interpreting information differently. There were significant differences between doctors in the amount of information requested. Conclusions: Differences in information gathering and interpretation by clinicians can result in different decisions being made about the same patient. This variation may exist for other uncertain medical decisions and may be tackled by providing clinicians with prognostic models in the form of usable decision aids. PMID:15289630

  17. Altruism and self interest in medical decision making.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Paul H

    2009-01-01

    We seem to prefer that medicine and medical care be provided through altruistic motives. Even the pharmaceutical industry justifies its behavior in terms of altruistic purposes. But economists have known since Adam Smith that self-interested behavior can create large and growing social benefits. This is true for medical care as well as for other goods. First, I consider specifically the case of pharmaceutical promotion, both to physicians and to consumers. I argue that such promotion is highly beneficial to patients and leads to health improvements. I consider some criticisms of promotion, and show that they are misguided. I then provide some evolutionary explanations for our erroneous beliefs about medical care.

  18. A sequential decision-theoretic model for medical diagnostic system.

    PubMed

    Li, Aiping; Jin, Songchang; Zhang, Lumin; Jia, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Although diagnostic expert systems using a knowledge base which models decision-making of traditional experts can provide important information to non-experts, they tend to duplicate the errors made by experts. Decision-Theoretic Model (DTM) is therefore very useful in expert system since they prevent experts from incorrect reasoning under uncertainty. For the diagnostic expert system, corresponding DTM and arithmetic are studied and a sequential diagnostic decision-theoretic model based on Bayesian Network is given. In the model, the alternative features are categorized into two classes (including diseases features and test features), then an arithmetic for prior of test is provided. The different features affect other features weights are also discussed. Bayesian Network is adopted to solve uncertainty presentation and propagation. The model can help knowledge engineers model the knowledge involved in sequential diagnosis and decide evidence alternative priority. A practical example of the models is also presented: at any time of the diagnostic process the expert is provided with a dynamically updated list of suggested tests in order to support him in the decision-making problem about which test to execute next. The results show it is better than the traditional diagnostic model which is based on experience.

  19. Developing a framework to support shared decision making for youth mental health medication treatment.

    PubMed

    Crickard, Elizabeth L; O'Brien, Megan S; Rapp, Charles A; Holmes, Cheryl L

    2010-10-01

    Medical shared decision making has demonstrated success in increasing collaboration between clients and practitioners for various health decisions. As the importance of a shared decision making approach becomes increasingly valued in the adult mental health arena, transfer of these ideals to youth and families of youth in the mental health system is a logical next step. A review of the literature and preliminary, formative feedback from families and staff at a Midwestern urban community mental health center guided the development of a framework for youth shared decision making. The framework includes three functional areas (1) setting the stage for youth shared decision making, (2) facilitating youth shared decision making, and (3) supporting youth shared decision making. While still in the formative stages, the value of a specific framework for a youth model in support of moving from a client-practitioner value system to a systematic, intentional process is evident.

  20. Instruments for evaluating shared medical decision making: a structured literature review.

    PubMed

    Dy, Sydney Morss

    2007-12-01

    The author conducted a structured literature review of instruments for evaluating shared medical decision making. She included relevant instruments that were generalizable beyond specific situations and had been formally evaluated and organized them by domains of values or preferences, information and communication in decision making, and other aspects of decision making. For values or preferences, the author identified 11 instruments, mostly on preferences for roles and information. For information and communication, she found a systematic review of instruments for observational assessment of decision making, 3 additional observational instruments, and 3 questionnaires. For other aspects of decision making, the author identified 3 instruments in domains such as decision self-efficacy and 4 multidimensional instruments. Although instrument development tended to cluster in several areas and there were clear gaps in the literature, the diversity of instruments demonstrates the broad range of constructs involved in assessing shared decision making.

  1. Decision-making during initiation of medication therapy.

    PubMed

    Schommer, Jon C; Worley, Marcia M; Kjos, Andrea L

    2014-01-01

    Individuals' frequent and consistent interaction with medications can serve as a unifying element to help coordinate individuals' health care services. Despite its potential to improve coordination of heath care, initiation of medication therapy from the perspective of individuals' experiences remains largely unexamined. The objectives for this study were to describe the viewpoints of consumers, physicians, pharmacists, and social workers regarding initiation of medication therapy in terms of: (1) activation and engagement, (2) information processing, and (3) economic factors. Data were collected via mailed survey methodology from random samples of 400 adults, 400 physicians, 400 pharmacists, and 400 social workers residing in Minnesota. Responses to open-ended questions were coded using content analysis and summarized with descriptive statistics. The findings showed that consumer views of (1) activation and engagement, (2) information processing, and (3) economic factors differed from the views of physicians, pharmacists, and social workers. Consumers typically view initiation of medication therapy within the context of their overall lives. Physicians view it as a biomedical puzzle in which diagnosis, drug product selection, and risk assessment are main concerns. Pharmacists view it as a health care systems puzzle in which insurance coverage, cost, and risk management are main concerns. Social workers view it as a social systems puzzle in which access to care, cost, and social support are main concerns. Initiation of medication therapy is a disjointed experience for many consumers. The best timing for providing information about prescription drugs to individuals depends largely on what kinds of thoughts and impressions they have about a new therapy at various stages of the medication use process. The findings from this study can be useful for (1) developing consumer-centered approaches for medication use and (2) coordinating health care through the integration of

  2. Patients' Non-Medical Characteristics Contribute to Collective Medical Decision-Making at Multidisciplinary Oncological Team Meetings.

    PubMed

    Restivo, Léa; Apostolidis, Thémis; Bouhnik, Anne-Déborah; Garciaz, Sylvain; Aurran, Thérèse; Julian-Reynier, Claire

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of patients' non-medical characteristics to individual physicians' decision-making has attracted considerable attention, but little information is available on this topic in the context of collective decision-making. Medical decision-making at cancer centres is currently carried out using a collective approach, at MultiDisciplinary Team (MDT) meetings. The aim of this study was to determine how patients' non-medical characteristics are presented at MDT meetings and how this information may affect the team's final medical decisions. Observations were conducted at a French Cancer Centre during MDT meetings at which non-standard cases involving some uncertainty were discussed from March to May 2014. Physicians' verbal statements and predefined contextual parameters were collected with a non-participant observational approach. Non numerical data collected in the form of open notes were then coded for quantitative analysis. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed. In the final sample of patients' records included and discussed (N = 290), non-medical characteristics were mentioned in 32.8% (n = 95) of the cases. These characteristics corresponded to demographics in 22.8% (n = 66) of the cases, psychological data in 11.7% (n = 34), and relational data in 6.2% (n = 18). The patient's age and his/her "likeability" were the most frequently mentioned characteristics. In 17.9% of the cases discussed, the final decision was deferred: this outcome was positively associated with the patients' non-medical characteristics and with uncertainty about the outcome of the therapeutic options available. The design of the study made it difficult to draw definite cause-and-effect conclusions. The Social Representations approach suggests that patients' non-medical characteristics constitute a kind of tacit professional knowledge that may be frequently mobilised in physicians' everyday professional practice. The links observed between patients

  3. Patients’ Non-Medical Characteristics Contribute to Collective Medical Decision-Making at Multidisciplinary Oncological Team Meetings

    PubMed Central

    Restivo, Léa; Apostolidis, Thémis; Bouhnik, Anne-Déborah; Garciaz, Sylvain; Aurran, Thérèse; Julian-Reynier, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Background The contribution of patients’ non-medical characteristics to individual physicians’ decision-making has attracted considerable attention, but little information is available on this topic in the context of collective decision-making. Medical decision-making at cancer centres is currently carried out using a collective approach, at MultiDisciplinary Team (MDT) meetings. The aim of this study was to determine how patients’ non-medical characteristics are presented at MDT meetings and how this information may affect the team’s final medical decisions. Design Observations were conducted at a French Cancer Centre during MDT meetings at which non-standard cases involving some uncertainty were discussed from March to May 2014. Physicians’ verbal statements and predefined contextual parameters were collected with a non-participant observational approach. Non numerical data collected in the form of open notes were then coded for quantitative analysis. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed. Results In the final sample of patients’ records included and discussed (N = 290), non-medical characteristics were mentioned in 32.8% (n = 95) of the cases. These characteristics corresponded to demographics in 22.8% (n = 66) of the cases, psychological data in 11.7% (n = 34), and relational data in 6.2% (n = 18). The patient’s age and his/her “likeability” were the most frequently mentioned characteristics. In 17.9% of the cases discussed, the final decision was deferred: this outcome was positively associated with the patients’ non-medical characteristics and with uncertainty about the outcome of the therapeutic options available. Limitations The design of the study made it difficult to draw definite cause-and-effect conclusions. Conclusion The Social Representations approach suggests that patients’ non-medical characteristics constitute a kind of tacit professional knowledge that may be frequently mobilised in physicians

  4. Complexity of medical decision-making in care provided by surgeons through patient portals.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jamie R; Valentine, Alissa; Carney, Cathy; Fabbri, Daniel; Jackson, Gretchen P

    2017-06-15

    Patient portals are online applications that allow patients to interact with healthcare organizations and view information. Portal messages exchanged between patients and providers contain diverse types of communications, including delivery of medical care. The types of communications and complexity of medical decision-making in portal messages sent to surgeons have not been studied. We obtained all message threads initiated by patients and exchanged with surgical providers through the Vanderbilt University Medical Center patient portal from June 1 to December 31, 2014. Five hundred randomly selected messages were manually analyzed by two research team members to determine the types of communication (i.e., informational, medical, logistical, or social), whether medical care was delivered, and complexity of medical decision-making as defined for outpatient billing in each message thread. A total of 9408 message threads were sent to 401 surgical providers during the study period. In the 500 threads selected for detailed analysis, 1293 distinct issues were communicated, with an average of 2.6 issues per thread. Medical needs were communicated in 453 message threads (90.6%). Further, 339 message threads (67.8%) contained medical decision-making. Overall complexity of medical decision-making was straightforward in 210 messages (62%), low in 102 messages (30%), and moderate in 27 messages (8%). No highly complex decisions were made over portal messaging. Through patient portal messages, surgeons deliver substantial medical care with varied levels of medical complexity. Models for compensation of online care must be developed as consumer and surgeon adoption of these technologies increases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Context of Medical Decision-Making: An Analysis of Practitioner/Patient Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Sue

    This paper examines how the exchange of information in medical interviews is organized, and how that organization produces and constrains the negotiation of treatment decisions. The analysis is drawn from the verbatim transcripts of audio-taped practitioner/patient communications, information gathered from medical files, and other ethnographic…

  6. Medical decision and patient's preference: 'much ethics' and more trust always needed.

    PubMed

    Anyfantakis, Dimitrios; Symvoulakis, Emmanouil K

    2011-01-01

    There is much discussion on medical ethics literature regarding the importance of the patients' right for self-determination. We discuss some of the limitations of patient's autonomy with the aim to draw attention to the ethical complexity of medical decision making in the everyday clinical practice.

  7. The effects of dopaminergic medication on dynamic decision making in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Osman, Magda; Ryterska, Agata; Karimi, Kash; Tu, LingLing; Obeso, Ignacio; Speekenbrink, Maarten; Jahanshahi, Marjan

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we address the following questions: (1) How is performance affected when patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD) perform a dynamic decision making task? (2) Does dopaminergic medication differentially affect dynamic decision making? To address these questions participants were trained with different goals during learning: either they made intervention-based decisions or prediction-based decisions during learning. The findings show that overall there is an advantage for those trained to intervene over those trained to predict. In addition, the results are the first demonstration that PD patients 'ON' (N=20) compared to 'OFF' L-Dopa (N=15) medication and also relative to healthy age matched controls (N=16) showed lower levels of relative improvement in the accuracy of their decisions in a dynamic decision making task, and tended to use sub-optimal strategies. These findings provide support for the 'Dopamine Overdose' hypothesis using a novel decision making task, and suggest that executive functions such as decision making can be adversely affected by dopaminergic medication in PD.

  8. Factors constraining patient engagement in implantable medical device discussions and decisions: interviews with physicians.

    PubMed

    Gagliardi, Anna R; Lehoux, Pascale; Ducey, Ariel; Easty, Anthony; Ross, Sue; Bell, Chaim M; Trbovich, Patricia; Takata, Julie; Urbach, David R

    2017-04-01

    Patient engagement (PE) is warranted when treatment risks and outcomes are uncertain, as is the case for higher risk medical devices. Previous research found that patients were not engaged in discussions or decisions about implantable medical devices. This study explored physician views about engaging patients in such discussions. Qualitative interviews using a basic descriptive approach. Canada. Practicing cardiovascular and orthopaedic physicians. Level, processes and determinants of PE in medical device discussions and decisions. Views were largely similar among 10 cardiovascular and 12 orthopaedic physicians interviewed. Most said that it was feasible to inform and sometimes involve patients in discussions, but not to partner with them in medical device decision-making. PE was constrained by patient (comfort with PE, technical understanding, physiologic/demographic characteristics, prognosis), physician (device preferences, time), health system (purchasing contracts) and device factors (number of devices on market, comparative advantage). A framework was generated to help physicians engage patients in discussions about medical devices, even when decisions may not be preference sensitive due to multiple constraints on choice. This study identified that patients are not engaged in discussions or decisions about implantable medical devices. This may be due to multiple constraints. Further research should establish the legitimacy, prevalence and impact of constraining factors, and examine whether and how different levels and forms of PE are needed and feasible.

  9. Evaluating clinical decision support tools for medication administration safety in a simulated environment.

    PubMed

    Moss, Jacqueline; Berner, Eta S

    2015-05-01

    The specific aims of this study were to develop a methodology and tools for the design of clinical decision support systems to decrease the incidence of medication administration errors. A mixed-methods design was utilized in this study. First, observations of medication administration practice were used to inform the design of a simulated information system with a variety of decision support tools. Then, nurses were observed administering medications in a simulated environment using the simulated system. Finally, the nurses participated in focus groups to provide input into system tools design. Observations of nurses' use of the decision support tools as well as semi-structured focus groups were used to evaluate nurses' use and perceptions of the utility of the system decision support tools. Nurses' evaluation of the medication administration decision support tools as well as their actual performance revealed a tendency to underestimate their need for support. Their preferences were for decision support that was short, color coded, and easily accessed. Observations of medication administration showed that nurses exhibit a variety of work processes to prepare and administer medications to patients and access system decision support tools at a variety of points in this process. System design should allow flexibility of multiple points and types of information delivery to accommodate variations in workflow to minimize the tendency for system workarounds. This study was performed in one hospital and results may not generalize beyond this setting. However, this method used to design and test decision support could be transferred to other settings. Using simulation in this study provided a method for testing new information system design, related to a potentially dangerous procedure, in a manner that eliminated the hazards of potential unintended consequences for patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Role of Medical Expenditure Risk in Portfolio Allocation Decisions.

    PubMed

    Ayyagari, Padmaja; He, Daifeng

    2016-10-09

    Economic theory suggests that medical spending risk affects the extent to which households are willing to accept financial risk, and consequently their investment portfolios. In this study, we focus on the elderly for whom medical spending represents a substantial risk. We exploit the exogenous reduction in prescription drug spending risk because of the introduction of Medicare Part D in the U.S. in 2006 to identify the causal effect of medical spending risk on portfolio choice. Consistent with theory, we find that Medicare-eligible persons increased risky investment after the introduction of prescription drug coverage, relative to a younger, ineligible cohort. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Effect of electronic prescribing with formulary decision support on medication tier, copayments, and adherence

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Medication non-adherence is prevalent. We assessed the effect of electronic prescribing (e-prescribing) with formulary decision support on preferred formulary tier usage, copayment, and concomitant adherence. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 14,682 initial pharmaceutical claims for angiotensin receptor blocker and inhaled steroid medications among 14,410 patients of 2189 primary care physicians (PCPs) who were offered e-prescribing with formulary decision support, including 297 PCPs who adopted it. Formulary decision support was initially non-interruptive, such that formulary tier symbols were displayed adjacent to medication names. Subsequently, interruptive formulary decision support alerts also interrupted e-prescribing when preferred-tier alternatives were available. A difference in differences design was used to compare the pre-post differences in medication tier for each new prescription attributed to non-adopters, low user (<30% usage rate), and high user PCPs (>30% usage rate). Second, we modeled the effect of formulary tier on prescription copayment. Last, we modeled the effect of copayment on adherence (proportion of days covered) to each new medication. Results Compared with non-adopters, high users of e-prescribing were more likely to prescribe preferred-tier medications (vs. non-preferred tier) when both non-interruptive and interruptive formulary decision support were in place (OR 1.9 [95% CI 1.0-3.4], p = 0.04), but no more likely to prescribe preferred-tier when only non-interruptive formulary decision support was in place (p = 0.90). Preferred-tier claims had only slightly lower mean monthly copayments than non-preferred tier claims (angiotensin receptor blocker: $10.60 versus $11.81, inhaled steroid: $14.86 versus $16.42, p < 0.0001). Medication possession ratio was 8% lower for each $1.00 increase in monthly copayment to the one quarter power (p < 0.0001). However, we detected no significant direct association

  12. Views of older adults on patient participation in medication-related decision making.

    PubMed

    Belcher, Vernee N; Fried, Terri R; Agostini, Joseph V; Tinetti, Mary E

    2006-04-01

    Medication decision making is complex, particularly for older patients with multiple conditions for whom benefits may be uncertain and health priorities may be variable. While patient input would seem important in the face of this uncertainty and variability, little is known about older patients' views of involvement in medication decision making. To explore the views of older adults regarding participation in medication decision making. Qualitative study. Fifty-one persons at least 65 years old who consumed at least one medication were recruited from 3 senior centers and 4 physicians' offices. One-on-one interviews were conducted to uncover participants' perceptions of medication-related decision making through semistructured, open-ended questions. Themes were compared according to the constant comparative method of analysis. The predominant theme that emerged was the variability in perceptions concerning whether it was possible or desirable for patients to participate in prescribing decisions. For some participants, involvement was limited to sharing information. Physician and system factors that were felt to facilitate or impede patient participation included communication skills, the expanding number of medications available, multiple physicians prescribing for the same patient, and a focus on treating numbers. Perceived lack of knowledge, low self-efficacy, and fear were the patient factors mentioned. Both the presence and absence of trust in the prescribing physician were seen as alternatively impeding and enhancing patient participation. Only 1 participant explicitly mentioned patient preference, a cornerstone of shared decision making. While evolution to greater patient involvement in medication decision making may be possible, and desirable to some older patients, findings suggest that the transition will be challenging.

  13. Views of Older Adults on Patient Participation in Medication-related Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Belcher, Vernee N; Fried, Terri R; Agostini, Joseph V; Tinetti, Mary E

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Medication decision making is complex, particularly for older patients with multiple conditions for whom benefits may be uncertain and health priorities may be variable. While patient input would seem important in the face of this uncertainty and variability, little is known about older patients' views of involvement in medication decision making. OBJECTIVE To explore the views of older adults regarding participation in medication decision making. DESIGN Qualitative study. PARTICIPANTS Fifty-one persons at least 65 years old who consumed at least one medication were recruited from 3 senior centers and 4 physicians' offices. APPROACH One-on-one interviews were conducted to uncover participants' perceptions of medication-related decision making through semistructured, open-ended questions. Themes were compared according to the constant comparative method of analysis. RESULTS The predominant theme that emerged was the variability in perceptions concerning whether it was possible or desirable for patients to participate in prescribing decisions. For some participants, involvement was limited to sharing information. Physician and system factors that were felt to facilitate or impede patient participation included communication skills, the expanding number of medications available, multiple physicians prescribing for the same patient, and a focus on treating numbers. Perceived lack of knowledge, low self-efficacy, and fear were the patient factors mentioned. Both the presence and absence of trust in the prescribing physician were seen as alternatively impeding and enhancing patient participation. Only 1 participant explicitly mentioned patient preference, a cornerstone of shared decision making. CONCLUSIONS While evolution to greater patient involvement in medication decision making may be possible, and desirable to some older patients, findings suggest that the transition will be challenging. PMID:16686804

  14. The philosophical moment of the medical decision: revisiting emotions felt, to improve ethics of future decisions

    PubMed Central

    Coz, Pierre Le; Tassy, Sebastien

    2007-01-01

    The present investigation looks for a solution to the problem of the influence of feelings and emotions on our ethical decisions. This problem can be formulated in the following way. On the one hand, emotions (fear, pity and so on) can alter our sense of discrimination and lead us to make our wrong decisions. On the other hand, it is known that lack of sensitivity can alter our judgment and lead us to sacrifice basic ethical principles such as autonomy, beneficence, non‐maleficence and justice. Only emotions can turn a decision into an ethical one, but they can also turn it into an unreasonable one. To avoid this contradiction, suggest integrating emotions with the decisional factors of the process of “retrospective thinking”. During this thinking, doctors usually try to identify the nature and impact of feelings on the decision they have just made. In this retrospective moment of analysis of the decision, doctors also question themselves on the feelings they did not experience. They do this to estimate the consequences of this lack of feeling on the way they behaved with the patient. PMID:17664307

  15. Racial-Ethnic Biases, Time Pressure, and Medical Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stepanikova, Irena

    2012-01-01

    This study examined two types of potential sources of racial-ethnic disparities in medical care: implicit biases and time pressure. Eighty-one family physicians and general internists responded to a case vignette describing a patient with chest pain. Time pressure was manipulated experimentally. Under high time pressure, but not under low time…

  16. How Numeracy Influences Risk Comprehension and Medical Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyna, Valerie F.; Nelson, Wendy L.; Han, Paul K.; Dieckmann, Nathan F.

    2009-01-01

    We review the growing literature on health numeracy, the ability to understand and use numerical information, and its relation to cognition, health behaviors, and medical outcomes. Despite the surfeit of health information from commercial and noncommercial sources, national and international surveys show that many people lack basic numerical…

  17. Decisions about Confidentiality in Medical Student Mental Health Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindenthal, Jacob Jay; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examined responses of psychologists and psychiatrists in medical schools (N=59) to vignettes representing student problems. Results suggested practitioners were generally unwilling to break confidentiality in response to problems involving suicidal tendencies, sexual coercion/seduction, social transgressions, or falsifying data. Only suggestions…

  18. Racial-Ethnic Biases, Time Pressure, and Medical Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stepanikova, Irena

    2012-01-01

    This study examined two types of potential sources of racial-ethnic disparities in medical care: implicit biases and time pressure. Eighty-one family physicians and general internists responded to a case vignette describing a patient with chest pain. Time pressure was manipulated experimentally. Under high time pressure, but not under low time…

  19. The ethical dilemma of population-based medical decision making.

    PubMed

    Kirsner, R S; Federman, D G

    1998-11-01

    Over the past several years, there has been a growing interest in population-based medicine. Some elements in healthcare have used population-based medicine as a technique to decrease healthcare expenditures. However, in their daily practice of medicine, physicians must grapple with the question of whether they incorporate population-based medicine when making decisions for an individual patient. They therefore may encounter an ethical dilemma. Physicians must remember that the physician-patient relationship is of paramount importance and that even well-conducted research may not be applicable to an individual patient.

  20. A novel medical information management and decision model for uncertain demand optimization.

    PubMed

    Bi, Ya

    2015-01-01

    Accurately planning the procurement volume is an effective measure for controlling the medicine inventory cost. Due to uncertain demand it is difficult to make accurate decision on procurement volume. As to the biomedicine sensitive to time and season demand, the uncertain demand fitted by the fuzzy mathematics method is obviously better than general random distribution functions. To establish a novel medical information management and decision model for uncertain demand optimization. A novel optimal management and decision model under uncertain demand has been presented based on fuzzy mathematics and a new comprehensive improved particle swarm algorithm. The optimal management and decision model can effectively reduce the medicine inventory cost. The proposed improved particle swarm optimization is a simple and effective algorithm to improve the Fuzzy interference and hence effectively reduce the calculation complexity of the optimal management and decision model. Therefore the new model can be used for accurate decision on procurement volume under uncertain demand.

  1. The Appleton Consensus: suggested international guidelines for decisions to forego medical treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, J M

    1989-01-01

    Thirty-three physicians, bioethicists, and medical economists from ten different countries met at Lawrence University, Appleton, Wisconsin, to create The Appleton Consensus: International Guidelines for Decisions to Forego Medical Treatment. The guidelines deal with four specific decision-making circumstances: 1. Five guidelines were created for decisions involving competent patients or patients who have executed an advance directive before becoming incompetent, and those guidelines fell into three categories. 2. Thirteen guidelines were created for decisions involving patients who were once competent, but are not now competent, who have not executed an advance directive. 3. Seven guidelines were created for decisions involving patients who are not now and never have been competent, for whom 'no substituted judgement' can be rendered. 4. Eleven guidelines were created for decisions involving the scarcity of medical resources, which exists in all communities. Five concepts were identified as being critical in the establishment of priorities, given the reality of scarce health resources (1). The term 'physician' is used in the American sense, synonymous with 'medical practitioner'. PMID:2677379

  2. Teaching Advance Care Planning to Medical Students with a Computer-Based Decision Aid

    PubMed Central

    Levi, Benjamin H.

    2013-01-01

    Discussing end-of-life decisions with cancer patients is a crucial skill for physicians. This article reports findings from a pilot study evaluating the effectiveness of a computer-based decision aid for teaching medical students about advance care planning. Second-year medical students at a single medical school were randomized to use a standard advance directive or a computer-based decision aid to help patients with advance care planning. Students' knowledge, skills, and satisfaction were measured by self-report; their performance was rated by patients. 121/133 (91%) of students participated. The Decision-Aid Group (n=60) outperformed the Standard Group (n=61) in terms of students´ knowledge (p<0.01), confidence in helping patients with advance care planning (p<0.01), knowledge of what matters to patients (p=0.05), and satisfaction with their learning experience (p<0.01). Likewise, patients in the Decision Aid Group were more satisfied with the advance care planning method (p<0.01) and with several aspects of student performance. Use of a computer-based decision aid may be an effective way to teach medical students how to discuss advance care planning with cancer patients. PMID:20632222

  3. Preferences of acutely ill patients for participation in medical decision-making.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, C; Khanji, M; Cotter, P E; Dunne, O; O'Keeffe, S T

    2008-04-01

    To determine patient preferences for information and for participation in decision-making, and the determinants of these preferences in patients recently admitted to an acute hospital. Prospective questionnaire-based study. Medical wards of an acute teaching hospital. One hundred and fifty-two consecutive acute medical inpatients, median age 74 years. Standardised assessment included abbreviated mental test and subjective measure of severity of illness. Patients' desire for information was assessed using a 5-point Likert scale, and their desire for a role in medical decision-making using the Degner Control of Preferences Scale. Of the 152 patients, 93 (61%) favoured a passive approach to decision-making (either "leave all decisions to the doctor" or "doctor makes final decision but seriously considers my opinion." In contrast, 101 (66%) patients sought "very extensive" or "a lot" of information about their condition. No significant effects of age, sex, socio-economic group or severity of acute illness on desire for information or the Degner scale result were found. There was no agreement between patients' preferences on the Degner scale and their doctors' predictions of those preferences. Acute medical inpatients want to receive a lot of information about their illness, but most prefer a relatively passive role in decision-making. The only way to determine individual patient preferences is to ask them; preferences cannot be predicted from clinical or sociodemographic data.

  4. [Passive euthanasia in clinical practice--the medical decision reflected in the legal position].

    PubMed

    Möller, T; Grabensee, B; Frister, H

    2008-05-01

    Doctors are often confronted with end-of-life decisions. When deciding on the withdrawal of medical treatment physicians have to consider the legal position. This study was done to evaluated how far doctors at the university medical center in Düsseldorf had acted in conformity with the established case law in Germany. Between April and August 2006 doctors at the university medical center in Düsseldorf filled in a standardized questionnaire about the decisions they had taken to withdraw life-support treatment. 128 of a total of 512 doctors questioned replied (25 %; 32,8 % females and 67,2 % males) . The survey showed that the judicial decision (that it is not necessary to provide treatment if life-support measures are not indicated) is largely determined by non-medical criteria. The clinical decision by doctors depended mainly on his personal opinion. Furthermore the survey showed that only a few doctors made use of the - lawful - option to withdraw medical treatment when this was not indicated. Finally the survey revealed that, in case of conflict between indication and perceived patients' wishes, the vast majority of doctors behaved in contravention of the decisions established by case law. There is the need to discuss what non-medical issues should be taken into account when determining the indication of withdrawal of life-support measures. The results also highlighted the uncertainties that exist regarding a doctor's decisions about it. Not only should legislation clarify whether "passive euthanasia" is allowed, but it would also be useful to delegate end-of-life decisions to a review board.

  5. Examining influential factors in providers' chronic pain treatment decisions: a comparison of physicians and medical students.

    PubMed

    Hollingshead, Nicole A; Meints, Samantha; Middleton, Stephanie K; Free, Charnelle A; Hirsh, Adam T

    2015-10-01

    Chronic pain treatment guidelines are unclear and conflicting, which contributes to inconsistent pain care. In order to improve pain care, it is important to understand the various factors that providers rely on to make treatment decisions. The purpose of this study was to examine factors that reportedly influence providers' chronic pain treatment decisions. A secondary aim was to examine differences across participant training level. Eighty-five participants (35 medical students, 50 physicians) made treatment decisions for 16 computer-simulated patients with chronic pain. Participants then selected from provided lists the information they used and the information they would have used (had it been available) to make their chronic pain treatment decisions for the patient vignettes. Frequency analyses indicated that most participants reported using patients' pain histories (97.6 %) and pain description (95.3 %) when making treatment decisions, and they would have used information about patients' previous treatments (97.6 %) and average and current pain ratings (96.5 %) had this information been available. Compared to physicians, medical students endorsed more frequently that they would have used patients' employment and/or disability status (p < 0.05). A greater proportion of medical students wanted information on patients' use of illicit drugs and alcohol to make treatment decisions; while a greater proportion of physicians reported using personal experience to inform their decisions. This study found providers use patients' information and their own experiences and intuition to make chronic pain treatment decisions. Also, participants of different training levels report using different patient and personal factors to guide their treatment decisions. These results highlight the complexity of chronic pain care and suggest a need for more chronic pain education aimed at medical students and practicing providers.

  6. Understanding behavioral intent to participate in shared decision-making in medically uncertain situations.

    PubMed

    Maffei, Roxana M; Dunn, K; Zhang, J; Hsu, C E; Holmes, J H

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the process undertaken to identify and validate behavioral and normative beliefs and behavioral intent based on the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and applied to men between the ages of 45 and 70 in the context of their participation in shared decision-making (SDM) in medically uncertain situations. This article also discusses the preliminary results of the aforementioned processes and explores potential future uses of this information that may facilitate greater understanding, efficiency and effectiveness of clinician-patient consultations. Twenty-five male subjects from the Philadelphia community participated in this study. Individual semi-structure patient interviews were conducted until data saturation was reached. Based on their review of the patient interview transcripts, researchers conducted a qualitative content analysis to identify prevalent themes and, subsequently, create a category framework. Qualitative indicators were used to evaluate respondents' experiences, beliefs, and behavioral intent relative to participation in shared decision-making during medical uncertainty. Based on the themes uncovered through the content analysis, a category framework was developed to facilitate understanding and increase the accuracy of predictions related to an individual's behavioral intent to participate in shared decision-making in medical uncertainty. The emerged themes included past experience with medical uncertainty, individual personality, and the relationship between the patient and his physician. The resulting three main framework categories include 1) an individual's Foundation for the concept of medical uncertainty, 2) how the individual Copes with medical uncertainty, and 3) the individual's Behavioral Intent to seek information and participate in shared decision-making during times of medically uncertain situations. The theme of Coping (with uncertainty) emerged as a particularly critical behavior/characteristic amongst the

  7. How the elderly and young adults differ in the decision making process of nonprescription medication purchases.

    PubMed

    Sansgiry, S S; Cady, P S

    1996-01-01

    The study compared elderly and young adults in their behavior and involvement in the decision making process of over-the-counter (OTC) medication purchases. Elderly subjects were more involved in the decision making process to purchase OTC medications compared to young adults. The elderly not only purchase and spend more money on medications but also read OTC labels completely. They requested help from the pharmacist more frequently than young adults. Needs of the elderly in making an OTC medication purchase were different compared to young adults. The two age groups differed on importance rating for several attributes regarding OTC medications, such as; ease of opening the package, child resistant package, side effects of medicine, manufacturer of medicine, print size on package labels, and greater choice of medicine.

  8. A psychiatric medication decision support guide for social work practice with pregnant and postpartum women.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Kia J; Price, Sarah Kye; Cummings, Cory R

    2014-10-01

    In their work in human services organizations and community agencies across service sectors, social workers encounter pregnant and postpartum women experiencing mental health challenges. This article offers an evidence-informed Decision Support Guide designed for use by social workers working with pregnant and postpartum women who are struggling with complicated decisions about psychiatric medication use. The guide is built on contemporary notions of health literacy and shared decision making and is informed by three areas: (1) research into the lived experiences of pregnant and postpartum women and health care providers around psychiatric medication decision making, (2) a critical review of existing decision aids, and (3) feedback on the strategy from social work practitioners who work with pregnant and postpartum women. Emphasizing the relational nature of social work in supporting effective health-related decision making, the guide relies on maintaining a collaborative practice milieu and using a decision aid that engages clients in discussions about mental health during and around the time of pregnancy. The guide offers social workers a practice tool to support responsive and compassionate care by embracing their roles in problem solving and decision making, providing emotional and psychosocial support, and making appropriate referrals to prescribers.

  9. Shared decision making for psychiatric medication management: beyond the micro-social.

    PubMed

    Morant, Nicola; Kaminskiy, Emma; Ramon, Shulamit

    2016-10-01

    Mental health care has lagged behind other health-care domains in developing and applying shared decision making (SDM) for treatment decisions. This is despite compatibilities with ideals of modern mental health care such as self-management and recovery-oriented practice, and growing policy-level interest. Psychiatric medication is a mainstay of mental health treatment, but there are known problems with prescribing practices, and service users report feeling uninvolved in medication decisions and concerned about adverse effects. SDM has potential to produce better tailoring of psychiatric medication to individuals' needs. This conceptual review argues that several aspects of mental health care that differ from other health-care contexts (e.g. forms of coercion, questions about service users' insight and disempowerment) may impact on processes and possibilities for SDM. It is therefore problematic to uncritically import models of SDM developed in other health-care contexts. We argue that decision making for psychiatric medication is better understood in a broader way that moves beyond the micro-social focus of a medical consultation. Contextualizing specific medication-related consultations within longer term relationships, and broader service systems enables recognition of the multiple processes, actors and agendas that shape how psychiatric medication is prescribed, managed and used, and which may facilitate or impede SDM. A broad conceptualization of decision making for psychiatric medication that moves beyond the micro-social can account for why SDM in this domain remains a rarity. It has both conceptual and practical utility for evaluating research evidence, identifying future research priorities and highlighting fruitful ways of developing and implementing SDM in mental health care. © 2015 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. [Medical education and quality of decision-making: Is there an evidence-based relationship?].

    PubMed

    Nendaz, M

    2011-07-01

    A medical decision when facing a clinical problem is the result of a complex process involving clinical reasoning and decision-making components. Several biases and external factors may influence this process. Educational interventions may be helpful to modify some of those factors and enhance the quality of decision-making, such as the training of clinical reasoning, making physicians aware of potential biases, or training them to use some tools brought by the evidence-based medicine movement. However, the impact of such interventions remains difficult to quantify because high-quality data are lacking and few studies really assess patient outcomes. This article reviews the available evidence of interventions aiming at improving the quality of decision-making and stresses the importance of involving clinician teachers in medical education research. Copyright © 2010 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Decision support for evidence-based pharmacotherapy detects adherence problems but does not impact medication use.

    PubMed

    Willis, Janese M; Edwards, Rex; Anstrom, Kevin J; Johnson, Fred S; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Kawamoto, Kensaku; Lapointe, Nancy M Allen; Eisenstein, Eric L; Lobach, David F

    2013-01-01

    Although evidence-based pharmacotherapies are a principal component of patient care, 30-50% of patients do not take their medications as prescribed. We conducted a randomized trial of two clinical decision support (CDS) interventions in 2219 patients: patient adherence reports to providers (n=744), patient adherence reports to providers + email notices to care managers (n=736), and controls (739). At 18-month follow-up, there were no treatment-related differences in patient medication adherence (overall, by medication class, and by medical condition). There also were no treatment-related differences in patient clinical and economic outcomes. Thus, while this study's CDS information interventions were successfully delivered to providers and care managers, and were effective in identifying medication adherence deficits and in increasing care manager responses to medication adherences issues, these interventions were not able to alter patient medication behavior.

  12. Medical end-of-life decisions: experiences and attitudes of Belgian pediatric intensive care nurses.

    PubMed

    Inghelbrecht, Els; Bilsen, Johan; Pereth, Heidi; Ramet, José; Deliens, Luc

    2009-03-01

    To investigate Belgian pediatric intensive care nurses' involvement in and attitudes toward medical end-of-life decisions with a possible or certain life-shortening effect. Questionnaires were distributed to 141 nurses working in 5 of the 7 pediatric intensive care units in Belgium. Nurses were asked to recall the last child in their care whose treatment involved an end-of-life decision and to describe anonymously their involvement in the decision. Attitudes were ascertained by means of statements and a Likert scale. Questionnaires were completed by 89 nurses (63%). During the preceding 2 years, 76 (85%) had cared for at least 1 child for whom a medical end-of-life decision had been made. Nurses were involved in initiating the decision in 17% of cases, participated in decision making in 50%, and played a role in carrying out the decision in 90%. Only 6% of nurses found it always ethically wrong to hasten the death of a child by administering lethal drugs; most nurses (78%) reported they were prepared to cooperate in administering life-ending drugs in some cases. Most (89%) favored adapting the law, making life termination of children legally possible in certain cases. Belgian pediatric intensive care nurses are often involved in carrying out medical end-of-life decisions, including administration of life-ending drugs, whereas their participation in decision making is more limited. Most think that the current euthanasia law should be extended to minors so that administering life-ending drugs would be possible for terminally ill children in specific circumstances.

  13. The framing effect in medical decision-making: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jingjing; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Zheng; Huang, Yonghua; Feng, Jun; Zhang, Weiwei

    2013-01-01

    The framing effect, identified by Tversky and Kahneman, is one of the most striking cognitive biases, in which people react differently to a particular choice depending whether it is presented as a loss or as a gain. Numerous studies have subsequently demonstrated the robustness of the framing effect in a variety of contexts, especially in medical decision-making. Compared to daily decisions, medical decisions are of low frequency but of paramount importance. The framing effect is a well-documented bias in a variety of studies, but research is inconsistent regarding whether and how variables influence framing effects in medical decision-making. To clarify the discrepancy in the previous literature, published literature in the English language concerning the framing effect was retrieved using electronic and bibliographic searches. Two reviewers examined each article for inclusion and evaluated the articles' methodological quality. The framing effect in medical decision-making was reviewed in these papers. No studies identified an influence of framing information upon compliance with health recommendations, and different studies demonstrate different orientations of the framing effect. Because so many variables influence the presence or absence of the framing effect, the unexplained heterogeneity between studies suggests the possibility of a framing effect under specific conditions. Further research is needed to determine why the framing effect is induced and how it can be precluded.

  14. Factors predicting desired autonomy in medical decisions: Risk-taking and gambling behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Fortune, Erica E; Shotwell, Jessica J; Buccellato, Kiara; Moran, Erin

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated factors that influence patients’ desired level of autonomy in medical decisions. Analyses included previously supported demographic variables in addition to risk-taking and gambling behaviors, which exhibit a strong relationship with overall health and decision-making, but have not been investigated in conjunction with medical autonomy. Participants (N = 203) completed measures on Amazon’s Mechanical Turk, including two measures of autonomy. Two hierarchical regressions revealed that the predictors explained a significant amount of variance for both measures, but the contribution of predictor variables was incongruent between models. Possible causes for this incongruence and implications for patient–physician interactions are discussed. PMID:28070406

  15. Factors predicting desired autonomy in medical decisions: Risk-taking and gambling behaviors.

    PubMed

    Fortune, Erica E; Shotwell, Jessica J; Buccellato, Kiara; Moran, Erin

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated factors that influence patients' desired level of autonomy in medical decisions. Analyses included previously supported demographic variables in addition to risk-taking and gambling behaviors, which exhibit a strong relationship with overall health and decision-making, but have not been investigated in conjunction with medical autonomy. Participants (N = 203) completed measures on Amazon's Mechanical Turk, including two measures of autonomy. Two hierarchical regressions revealed that the predictors explained a significant amount of variance for both measures, but the contribution of predictor variables was incongruent between models. Possible causes for this incongruence and implications for patient-physician interactions are discussed.

  16. Avoiding bias in medical ethical decision-making. Lessons to be learnt from psychology research.

    PubMed

    Albisser Schleger, Heidi; Oehninger, Nicole R; Reiter-Theil, Stella

    2011-05-01

    When ethical decisions have to be taken in critical, complex medical situations, they often involve decisions that set the course for or against life-sustaining treatments. Therefore the decisions have far-reaching consequences for the patients, their relatives, and often for the clinical staff. Although the rich psychology literature provides evidence that reasoning may be affected by undesired influences that may undermine the quality of the decision outcome, not much attention has been given to this phenomenon in health care or ethics consultation. In this paper, we aim to contribute to the sensitization of the problem of systematic reasoning biases by showing how exemplary individual and group biases can affect the quality of decision-making on an individual and group level. We are addressing clinical ethicists as well as clinicians who guide complex decision-making processes of ethical significance. Knowledge regarding exemplary group psychological biases (e.g. conformity bias), and individual biases (e.g. stereotypes), will be taken from the disciplines of social psychology and cognitive decision science and considered in the field of ethical decision-making. Finally we discuss the influence of intuitive versus analytical (systematical) reasoning on the validity of ethical decision-making.

  17. Application of probabilistic and fuzzy cognitive approaches in semantic web framework for medical decision support.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, Elpiniki I; Huszka, Csaba; De Roo, Jos; Douali, Nassim; Jaulent, Marie-Christine; Colaert, Dirk

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to focus on medical knowledge representation and reasoning using the probabilistic and fuzzy influence processes, implemented in the semantic web, for decision support tasks. Bayesian belief networks (BBNs) and fuzzy cognitive maps (FCMs), as dynamic influence graphs, were applied to handle the task of medical knowledge formalization for decision support. In order to perform reasoning on these knowledge models, a general purpose reasoning engine, EYE, with the necessary plug-ins was developed in the semantic web. The two formal approaches constitute the proposed decision support system (DSS) aiming to recognize the appropriate guidelines of a medical problem, and to propose easily understandable course of actions to guide the practitioners. The urinary tract infection (UTI) problem was selected as the proof-of-concept example to examine the proposed formalization techniques implemented in the semantic web. The medical guidelines for UTI treatment were formalized into BBN and FCM knowledge models. To assess the formal models' performance, 55 patient cases were extracted from a database and analyzed. The results showed that the suggested approaches formalized medical knowledge efficiently in the semantic web, and gave a front-end decision on antibiotics' suggestion for UTI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Adolescent and parental perceptions of medical decision-making in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Hui, Edwin

    2011-11-01

    To investigate whether Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong share similar perceptions with their Western counterparts regarding their capacity for autonomous decision-making, and secondarily whether Chinese parents underestimate their adolescent children's desire and capacity for autonomous decision-making. 'Healthy Adolescents' and their parents were recruited from four local secondary schools, and 'Sick Adolescents' and their parents from the pediatric wards and outpatient clinics. Their perceptions of adolescents' understanding of illnesses and treatments, maturity in judgment, risk-taking, openness to divergent opinions, pressure from parents and doctors, submission to parental authority and preference for autonomy in medical decision-making are surveyed by a 50-item questionnaire on a five-point Likert scale. Findings indicate that Chinese adolescents aged 14-16 perceive themselves to possess the necessary cognitive abilities and maturity in judgment to be autonomous decision-makers like their Western counterparts. Paradoxically, although they hesitate to assert their autonomy, they are also unwilling to surrender that autonomy to their parents even under coercion or intimidation. Parents tend to underestimate their adolescents' preferences for making autonomous decisions and overestimate the importance of parental authority in decision-making. '14-and-above' Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong perceive themselves as capable of autonomous decision-making in medically-related matters, but hesitate to assert their autonomy, probably because of the Confucian values of parental authority and filial piety that are deeply embedded in the local culture. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Effect of Health Literacy on Decision-Making Preferences among Medically Underserved Patients.

    PubMed

    Seo, Joann; Goodman, Melody S; Politi, Mary; Blanchard, Melvin; Kaphingst, Kimberly A

    2016-05-01

    Participation in the decision-making process and health literacy may both affect health outcomes; data on how these factors are related among diverse groups are limited. This study examined the relationship between health literacy and decision-making preferences in a medically underserved population. We analyzed a sample of 576 primary care patients. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the independent association of health literacy (measured by the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine-Revised) and patients' decision-making preferences (physician directed or patient involved), controlling for age, race/ethnicity, and gender. We tested whether having a regular doctor modified this association. Adequate health literacy (odds ratio [OR] = 1.7;P= 0.009) was significantly associated with preferring patient-involved decision making, controlling for age, race/ethnicity, and gender. Having a regular doctor did not modify this relationship. Males were significantly less likely to prefer patient-involved decision making (OR = 0.65;P= 0.024). Findings suggest health literacy affects decision-making preferences in medically underserved patients. More research is needed on how factors, such as patient knowledge or confidence, may influence decision-making preferences, particularly for those with limited health literacy. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Difficult decisions: are intellectually disabled patients given enough information to consent to medical treatment?

    PubMed

    Huneke, Nathan T M; Gupta, Rupa; Halder, Neel; Chaudhry, Nasim

    2012-12-01

    Patients with learning disabilities are not always involved in decision-making about their medications. This may mean that some patients are unfairly denied of their autonomy. We carried out an audit of current practice concerning consent to treatment in patients with learning disabilities against best practice guidelines. Data were collected via a questionnaire given to a sample of 70 patients with learning disabilities within the Salford catchment area. This questionnaire assessed whether patients were involved in decision-making regarding their medications and whether they were being given enough information to give informed consent. A total of 45 patients completed questionnaires. Overall, the patients' knowledge of their medications was poor, particularly of the proposed duration, possible disadvantages and name of the treatment. It appears that doctors are engaging these patients during consultations and discussing their medications. However, the delivery of this information needs to be improved, and patients' understanding and recall need to be checked more thoroughly.

  1. ONE SIZE FITS ALL? ON PATIENT AUTONOMY, MEDICAL DECISION-MAKING, AND THE IMPACT OF CULTURE.

    PubMed

    Gilbar, Roy; Miola, José

    2015-01-01

    While both medical law and medical ethics have developed in a way that has sought to prioritise patient autonomy, it is less clear whether it has done so in a way that enhances the self-determination of patients from non-western backgrounds. In this article, we consider the desire of some patients from non-western backgrounds for family involvement in decision-making and argue that this desire is not catered for effectively in either medical law or medical ethics. We examine an alternative approach based on relational autonomy that might serve both to allow such patients to exercise their self-determination while still allowing them to include family members in the decision-making process. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. [Law and freedom in medical decisions from the viewpoint of the law].

    PubMed

    Eser, A

    1984-01-01

    Modern medicine has given doctors more and more possibilities for "manipulative" intervention in natural processes. However, even in the context of daily medical routine of beginning, continuing or terminating treatment, the doctor is repeatedly faced with the dilemma of whether to make use of the opportunities open to him. Contrary to the widely-held view that such decisions are of a purely empirico-medical nature, it becomes apparent with reference, for example, to the definition of death and the discontinuation of treatment that these decisions also have a normative-evaluative character. In relation to the postulate of the widest possible "medical discretion" emphasis is attached to the necessity for a legal framework for four functions of the law as regards the relationship between doctor and patient: protection--avoidance of abuse--presentation of guidelines--stabilisation of confidence. In conclusion the question of medical freedom in relation to active euthanasia is considered.

  3. What role does health literacy play in patients' involvement in medical decision-making?

    PubMed Central

    Brabers, Anne E. M.; Rademakers, Jany J. D. J. M.; Groenewegen, Peter P.; van Dijk, Liset; de Jong, Judith D.

    2017-01-01

    Patients vary in their preferences towards involvement in medical decision-making. Previous research, however, gives no clear explanation for this observed variation in their involvement. One possible explanation might be health literacy. Health literacy refers to personal characteristics and social resources needed for people to access, understand and use information to make decisions about their health. This study aimed to examine the relationship between health literacy and self-reported patient involvement. With respect to health literacy, we focused on those competences relevant for medical decision-making. We hypothesized that people with higher health literacy report that they are more involved in medical decision-making. A structured questionnaire was sent to members of the Dutch Health Care Consumer Panel in May 2015 (response 46%, N = 974). Health literacy was measured using five scales of the Health Literacy Questionnaire. A regression model was used to estimate the relationship between health literacy and self-reported involvement. In general, our results did not show a relationship between health literacy and self-reported involvement. We did find a positive significant association between the health literacy scale appraisal of health information and self-reported involvement. Our hypothesis was partly confirmed. The results from this study suggest that higher order competences, that is to say critical health literacy, in particular, are important in reporting involvement in medical decision-making. Future research is recommended to unravel further the relationship between health literacy and patient involvement in order to gain insight into whether health literacy might be an asset to enhance patient participation in medical decision-making. PMID:28257472

  4. What role does health literacy play in patients' involvement in medical decision-making?

    PubMed

    Brabers, Anne E M; Rademakers, Jany J D J M; Groenewegen, Peter P; van Dijk, Liset; de Jong, Judith D

    2017-01-01

    Patients vary in their preferences towards involvement in medical decision-making. Previous research, however, gives no clear explanation for this observed variation in their involvement. One possible explanation might be health literacy. Health literacy refers to personal characteristics and social resources needed for people to access, understand and use information to make decisions about their health. This study aimed to examine the relationship between health literacy and self-reported patient involvement. With respect to health literacy, we focused on those competences relevant for medical decision-making. We hypothesized that people with higher health literacy report that they are more involved in medical decision-making. A structured questionnaire was sent to members of the Dutch Health Care Consumer Panel in May 2015 (response 46%, N = 974). Health literacy was measured using five scales of the Health Literacy Questionnaire. A regression model was used to estimate the relationship between health literacy and self-reported involvement. In general, our results did not show a relationship between health literacy and self-reported involvement. We did find a positive significant association between the health literacy scale appraisal of health information and self-reported involvement. Our hypothesis was partly confirmed. The results from this study suggest that higher order competences, that is to say critical health literacy, in particular, are important in reporting involvement in medical decision-making. Future research is recommended to unravel further the relationship between health literacy and patient involvement in order to gain insight into whether health literacy might be an asset to enhance patient participation in medical decision-making.

  5. Doc, what would you do if you were me? On self-other discrepancies in medical decision making.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Galesic, Mirta

    2012-03-01

    Doctors often make decisions for their patients and predict their patients' preferences and decisions to customize advice to their particular situation. We investigated how doctors make decisions about medical treatments for their patients and themselves and how they predict their patients' decisions. We also studied whether these decisions and predictions coincide with the decisions that the patients make for themselves. We document 3 important findings. First, doctors made more conservative decisions for their patients than for themselves (i.e., they more often selected a safer medical treatment). Second, doctors did so even if they accurately predicted that their patients would want a riskier treatment than the one they selected. Doctors, therefore, showed substantial self-other discrepancies in medical decision making and did not make decisions that accurately reflected their patients' preferences. Finally, patients were not aware of these discrepancies and thought that the decisions their doctors made for themselves would be similar to the decisions they made for their patients. We explain these results in light of 2 current theories of self-other discrepancies in judgment and decision making: the risk-as-feelings hypothesis and the cognitive hypothesis. Our results have important implications for research on expert decision making and for medical practice, and shed some light on the process underlying self-other discrepancies in decision making.

  6. [Subjectivity, decision and neurodegenerative diseases: reflexions on the role of the clinical psychologist in medical decision making].

    PubMed

    Brocq, H; Liarte, A; Soriani, M-H; Desnuelle, C

    2013-01-01

    Should a patient be forced to accept a treatment, especially when suffering from a neurodegenerative disease? We argue that physicians, nurses and care givers should instead accept his or her choice in accordance with the principle that every patient is an autonomous person able to make a choice, even in case of declined cognition. Beside the legal obligation, we suggest a theoretical approach and focus on the practical impacts of the patient's decision. Our objective is to promote the value of ethical doubt and attentive listening to individual opinions, so as to improve the quality of the medical staff's work and reduce patients' distress when affected by fatal diseases.

  7. Does electronic clinical microbiology results reporting influence medical decision making: a pre- and post-interview study of medical specialists

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Clinicians view the accuracy of test results and the turnaround time as the two most important service aspects of the clinical microbiology laboratory. Because of the time needed for the culturing of infectious agents, final hardcopy culture results will often be available too late to have a significant impact on early antimicrobial therapy decisions, vital in infectious disease management. The clinical microbiologist therefore reports to the clinician clinically relevant preliminary results at any moment during the diagnostic process, mostly by telephone. Telephone reporting is error prone, however. Electronic reporting of culture results instead of reporting on paper may shorten the turnaround time and may ensure correct communication of results. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of the implementation of electronic reporting of final microbiology results on medical decision making. Methods In a pre- and post-interview study using a semi-structured design we asked medical specialists in our hospital about their use and appreciation of clinical microbiology results reporting before and after the implementation of an electronic reporting system. Results Electronic reporting was highly appreciated by all interviewed clinicians. Major advantages were reduction of hardcopy handling and the possibility to review results in relation to other patient data. Use and meaning of microbiology reports differ significantly between medical specialties. Most clinicians need preliminary results for therapy decisions quickly. Therefore, after the implementation of electronic reporting, telephone consultation between clinician and microbiologist remained the key means of communication. Conclusions Overall, electronic reporting increased the workflow efficiency of the medical specialists, but did not have an impact on their decision-making. PMID:21447199

  8. Medical decision-making in children and adolescents: developmental and neuroscientific aspects.

    PubMed

    Grootens-Wiegers, Petronella; Hein, Irma M; van den Broek, Jos M; de Vries, Martine C

    2017-05-08

    Various international laws and guidelines stress the importance of respecting the developing autonomy of children and involving minors in decision-making regarding treatment and research participation. However, no universal agreement exists as to at what age minors should be deemed decision-making competent. Minors of the same age may show different levels of maturity. In addition, patients deemed rational conversation-partners as a child can suddenly become noncompliant as an adolescent. Age, context and development all play a role in decision-making competence. In this article we adopt a perspective on competence that specifically focuses on the impact of brain development on the child's decision-making process. We believe that the discussion on decision-making competence of minors can greatly benefit from a multidisciplinary approach. We adopted such an approach in order to contribute to the understanding on how to deal with children in decision-making situations. Evidence emerging from neuroscience research concerning the developing brain structures in minors is combined with insights from various other fields, such as psychology, decision-making science and ethics. Four capacities have been described that are required for (medical) decision-making: (1) communicating a choice; (2) understanding; (3) reasoning; and (4) appreciation. Each capacity is related to a number of specific skills and abilities that need to be sufficiently developed to support the capacity. Based on this approach it can be concluded that at the age of 12 children can have the capacity to be decision-making competent. However, this age coincides with the onset of adolescence. Early development of the brain's reward system combined with late development of the control system diminishes decision-making competence in adolescents in specific contexts. We conclude that even adolescents possessing capacities required for decision-making, may need support of facilitating environmental factors

  9. Affective forecasting and medication decision making in breast-cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Hoerger, Michael; Scherer, Laura D; Fagerlin, Angela

    2016-06-01

    Over 2 million American women at elevated risk for breast cancer are eligible to take chemoprevention medications such as tamoxifen and raloxifene, which can cut in half the risk of developing breast cancer, but which also have a number of side effects. Historically, very few at-risk women have opted to use chemoprevention medications. Affective forecasting theory suggests that people may avoid these medications if they expect taking them to increase their health-related stress. After receiving an individually tailored decision aid that provided personalized information about the risks and benefits of these medications, 661 women at elevated risk of breast cancer were asked to make 3 affective forecasts, predicting what their level of health-related stress would be if they took tamoxifen, raloxifene, or neither medication. They also completed measures of decisional preferences and intentions, and at a 3-month follow-up, reported on whether or not they had decided to use either medication. On the affective forecasting items, very few women (<10%) expected the medications to reduce their health-related stress, relative to no medication at all. Participants with more negative affective forecasts about taking a chemoprevention medication expressed lower preferences and intentions for using the medications (Cohen's ds from 0.74 to 0.79) and were more likely to have opted against using medication at follow-up (OR range = 1.34-2.66). These findings suggest that affective forecasting may explain avoidance of breast-cancer chemoprevention medications. They also highlight the need for more research aimed at integrating emotional content into decision aids. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Evaluation of field triage decision scheme educational resources: audience research with emergency medical service personnel.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento, Kelly; Eckstein, Daniel; Zambon, Allison

    2013-03-01

    In an effort to encourage appropriate field triage procedures, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in collaboration with the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and the American College of Surgeons-Committee on Trauma, convened the National Expert Panel on Field Triage to update the Field Triage Decision Scheme: The National Trauma Triage Protocol (Decision Scheme). In support of the Decision Scheme, CDC developed educational resources for emergency medical service (EMS) professionals, one of CDC's first efforts to develop and broadly disseminate educational information for the EMS community. CDC wanted to systematically collect information from the EMS community on what worked and what did not with respect to these educational materials and which materials were of most use. An evaluation was conducted to obtain feedback from EMS professionals about the Decision Scheme and use of Decision Scheme educational materials. The evaluation included a survey and a series of focus groups. Findings indicate that a segment of the Decision Scheme's intended audience is using the materials and learning from them, and they have had a positive influence on their triage practices. However, many of the individuals who participated in this research are not using the Decision Scheme and indicated that the materials have not affected their triage practices. Findings presented in this article can be used to inform development and distribution of additional Decision Scheme educational resources to ensure they reach a greater proportion of EMS professionals and to inform other education and dissemination efforts with the EMS community.

  11. Disrupted latent decision processes in medication-free pediatric OCD patients.

    PubMed

    Erhan, Ceyla; Bulut, Gresa Çarkaxhiu; Gökçe, Sebla; Ozbas, Duru; Turkakin, Esin; Dursun, Onur Burak; Yazgan, Yanki; Balcı, Fuat

    2017-01-01

    Decision-making in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder has typically been investigated in the adult population. Computational approaches have recently started to get integrated into these studies. However, decision-making research in pediatric OCD populations is scarce. We investigated latent decision processes in 21 medication-free pediatric OCD patients and 23 healthy control participants. We hypothesized that OCD patients would be more cautious and less efficient in evidence accumulation than controls in a two alternative forced choice (2AFC) task. Pediatric OCD patients were less efficient than controls in accumulating perceptual evidence and showed a tendency to be more cautious. In comparison to post-correct decisions, OCD patients increased decision thresholds after erroneous decisions, whereas healthy controls decreased decision thresholds. These changes were coupled with weaker evidence accumulation after errors in both groups. The small sample size limited the power of the study. Our results demonstrate poorer decision-making performance in pediatric OCD patients at the level of latent processes, specifically in terms of evidence accumulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Development and validation of a musculoskeletal physical examination decision-making test for medical students.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Julie Y; Awan, Hisham M; Rowley, David M; Nagel, Rollin W

    2013-01-01

    Despite a renewed emphasis among educators, musculoskeletal education is still lacking in medical school and residency training programs. We created a musculoskeletal multiple-choice physical examination decision-making test to assess competency and physical examination knowledge of our trainees. We developed a 20-question test in musculoskeletal physical examination decision-making test with content that most medical students and orthopedic residents should know. All questions were reviewed by ratings of US orthopedic chairmen. It was administered to postgraduate year 2 to 5 orthopedic residents and 2 groups of medical students: 1 group immediately after their 3-week musculoskeletal course and the other 1 year after the musculoskeletal course completion. We hypothesized that residents would score highest, medical students 1 year post-musculoskeletal training lowest, and students immediately post-musculoskeletal training midrange. We administered an established cognitive knowledge test to compare student knowledge base as we expected the scores to correlate. Academic medical center in the Midwestern United States. Orthopedic residents, chairmen, and medical students. Fifty-four orthopedic chairmen (54 of 110 or 49%) responded to our survey, rating a mean overall question importance of 7.12 (0 = Not Important; 5 = Important; 10 = Very Important). Mean physical examination decision-making scores were 89% for residents, 77% for immediate post-musculoskeletal trained medical students, and 59% 1 year post-musculoskeletal trained medical students (F = 42.07, p<0.001). The physical examination decision-making test was found to be internally consistent (Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 = 0.69). The musculoskeletal cognitive knowledge test was 78% for immediate post-musculoskeletal trained students and 71% for the 1 year post-musculoskeletal trained students. The student physical examination and cognitive knowledge scores were correlated (r = 0.54, p<0.001), but were not

  13. Clinical-decision support based on medical literature: A complex network approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jingchi; Zheng, Jichuan; Zhao, Chao; Su, Jia; Guan, Yi; Yu, Qiubin

    2016-10-01

    In making clinical decisions, clinicians often review medical literature to ensure the reliability of diagnosis, test, and treatment because the medical literature can answer clinical questions and assist clinicians making clinical decisions. Therefore, finding the appropriate literature is a critical problem for clinical-decision support (CDS). First, the present study employs search engines to retrieve relevant literature about patient records. However, the result of the traditional method is usually unsatisfactory. To improve the relevance of the retrieval result, a medical literature network (MLN) based on these retrieved papers is constructed. Then, we show that this MLN has small-world and scale-free properties of a complex network. According to the structural characteristics of the MLN, we adopt two methods to further identify the potential relevant literature in addition to the retrieved literature. By integrating these potential papers into the MLN, a more comprehensive MLN is built to answer the question of actual patient records. Furthermore, we propose a re-ranking model to sort all papers by relevance. We experimentally find that the re-ranking model can improve the normalized discounted cumulative gain of the results. As participants of the Text Retrieval Conference 2015, our clinical-decision method based on the MLN also yields higher scores than the medians in most topics and achieves the best scores for topics: #11 and #12. These research results indicate that our study can be used to effectively assist clinicians in making clinical decisions, and the MLN can facilitate the investigation of CDS.

  14. [Medical decision making in symptoms of type 2 diabetes mellitus in general practice].

    PubMed

    de Cruppé, W; von dem Knesebeck, O; Gerstenberger, E; Link, C; Marceau, L; Siegrist, J; Geraedts, M; McKinlay, J

    2011-02-01

    Patient and physician attributes influence medical decisions as non-medical factors. The current study examines the influence of patient age and gender and physicians' gender and years of clinical experience on medical decision making in patients with undiagnosed diabetes type 2. A factorial experiment was conducted to estimate the influence of patient and physician attributes. An identical physician patient encounter with a patient presenting with diabetes symptoms was videotaped with varying patient attributes. Professional actors played the "patients". A sample of 64 randomly chosen and stratified (gender and years of experience) primary care physicians was interviewed about the presented videos. Results show few significant differences in diagnostic decisions: Younger patients were asked more frequently about psychosocial problems while with older patients a cancer diagnosis was more often taken into consideration. Female physicians made an earlier second appointment date compared to male physicians. Physicians with more years of professional experience considered more often diabetes as the diagnosis than physicians with less experience. Medical decision making in patients with diabetes type 2 is only marginally influenced by patients' and physicians' characteristics under study. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. The Allied Health Care Professional's Role in Assisting Medical Decision Making at the End of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Heather

    2012-01-01

    As a patient approaches the end of life, he or she faces a number of very difficult medical decisions. Allied health care professionals, including speech-language pathologists (SLPs) and occupational therapists (OTs), can be instrumental in assisting their patients to make advance care plans, although their traditional job descriptions do not…

  16. Family Matters: Dyadic Agreement in End-of-Life Medical Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Bettina; Allen, Rebecca S.; Haley, Philip P.; DeCoster, Jamie

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: We examined race/ethnicity and cultural context within hypothetical end-of-life medical decision scenarios and its influence on patient-proxy agreement. Design and Methods: Family dyads consisting of an older adult and 1 family member, typically an adult child, responded to questions regarding the older adult's preferences for…

  17. Partnered Decisions? U.S. Couples and Medical Help-Seeking for Infertility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Katherine M.; Johnson, David R.

    2009-01-01

    We examined male partners' influence on the decision to seek medical help for infertility using the National Study of Fertility Barriers. Building upon an existing help-seeking framework, we incorporated characteristics of both partners from 219 heterosexual couples who had ever perceived a fertility problem. In logistic regression analyses, we…

  18. Micromanaging Death: Process Preferences, Values, and Goals in End-of-Life Medical Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Nikki Ayers; Ditto, Peter H.; Danks, Joseph H.; Smucker, William D.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined patients' and surrogates' attitudes about using advance directives to manage end-of-life medical care. It also explored process preferences, or how patients want decisions to be made. Design and Methods: Data come from the third wave of the Advance Directives, Values Assessment, and Communication Enhancement project, a…

  19. Partnered Decisions? U.S. Couples and Medical Help-Seeking for Infertility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Katherine M.; Johnson, David R.

    2009-01-01

    We examined male partners' influence on the decision to seek medical help for infertility using the National Study of Fertility Barriers. Building upon an existing help-seeking framework, we incorporated characteristics of both partners from 219 heterosexual couples who had ever perceived a fertility problem. In logistic regression analyses, we…

  20. Family Matters: Dyadic Agreement in End-of-Life Medical Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Bettina; Allen, Rebecca S.; Haley, Philip P.; DeCoster, Jamie

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: We examined race/ethnicity and cultural context within hypothetical end-of-life medical decision scenarios and its influence on patient-proxy agreement. Design and Methods: Family dyads consisting of an older adult and 1 family member, typically an adult child, responded to questions regarding the older adult's preferences for…

  1. Medical decision making in symptoms of type 2 diabetes mellitus in general practice

    PubMed Central

    de Cruppé, W.; von dem Knesebeck, O.; Gerstenberger, E.; Link, C.; Marceau, L.; Siegrist, J.; Geraedts, M.; McKinlay, J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Patient and physician attributes influence medical decisions as non-medical factors. The current study examines the influence of patient age and gender and physicians' gender and years of clinical experience on medical decision making in patients with undiagnosed diabetes type 2. Method A factorial experiment was conducted to estimate the influence of patient and physician attributes. An identical physician patient encounter with a patient presenting with diabetes symptoms was videotaped with varying patient attributes. Professional actors played the “patients”. A sample of 64 randomly chosen and stratified (gender and years of experience) primary care physicians was interviewed about the presented videos. Results Results show few significant differences in diagnostic decisions: Younger patients were asked more frequently about psychosocial problems while with older patients a cancer diagnosis was more often taken into consideration. Female physicians made an earlier second appointment date compared to male physicians. Physicians with more years of professional experience considered more often diabetes as the diagnosis than physicians with less experience. Conclusion Medical decision making in patients with diabetes type 2 is only marginally influenced by patients' and physicians' characteristics under study. PMID:21332034

  2. A Case Study of Career Emegency Medical Technicians: Factors That Influenced Their Decision to Stay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Denine V.

    2013-01-01

    This case study (Stake, 1995) examined the perceptions of long-term Emergency Medical Technicians (EMTs) to identify factors influencing their decision to remain employed as EMTs for the duration of a career. EMT retention plans frequently utilize data from either employee exit interviews or workers with intent to leave, and since privacy law…

  3. A Case Study of Career Emegency Medical Technicians: Factors That Influenced Their Decision to Stay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Denine V.

    2013-01-01

    This case study (Stake, 1995) examined the perceptions of long-term Emergency Medical Technicians (EMTs) to identify factors influencing their decision to remain employed as EMTs for the duration of a career. EMT retention plans frequently utilize data from either employee exit interviews or workers with intent to leave, and since privacy law…

  4. Medical Decision-Making and Minors: Issues of Consent and Assent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuther, Tara L.

    2003-01-01

    After a brief discussion of legal perspectives on informed consent, the present review examines the developmental literature on children and adolescents' capacities to make medical decisions that are informed, voluntary, and rational. The purposes and benefits of assent are identified. Remaining questions of how to evaluate capacity and balance…

  5. The Allied Health Care Professional's Role in Assisting Medical Decision Making at the End of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Heather

    2012-01-01

    As a patient approaches the end of life, he or she faces a number of very difficult medical decisions. Allied health care professionals, including speech-language pathologists (SLPs) and occupational therapists (OTs), can be instrumental in assisting their patients to make advance care plans, although their traditional job descriptions do not…

  6. Reasoning in the capacity to make medical decisions: the consideration of values.

    PubMed

    Karel, Michele J; Gurrera, Ronald J; Hicken, Bret; Moye, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    To examine the contribution of "values-based reasoning" in evaluating older adults' capacity to make medical decisions. Older men with schizophrenia (n=20) or dementia (n=20), and a primary care comparison group (n=19), completed cognitive and psychiatric screening and an interview to determine their capacity to make medical decisions, which included a component on values. All of the participants were receiving treatment at Veterans Administration (VA) outpatient clinics. Participants varied widely in the activities and relationships they most valued, the extent to which religious beliefs would influence healthcare decisions, and in ratings of the importance of preserving quality versus length of life. Most participants preferred shared decision making with doctor, family, or both. Individuals with schizophrenia or dementia performed worse than a primary care comparison group in reasoning measured by the ability to list risks and benefits and compare choices. Individuals with dementia performed comparably to the primary care group in reasoning measured by the ability to justify choices in terms of valued abilities or activities, whereas individuals with schizophrenia performed relatively worse compared to the other two groups. Compared to primary care patients, participants with schizophrenia and with dementia were impaired on the ability to explain treatment choices in terms of valued relationships. Medical decision making may be influenced by strongly held values and beliefs, emotions, and long life experience. To date, these issues have not been explicitly included in structured evaluations of medical decision-making capacity. This study demonstrated that it is possible to inquire of and elicit a range of healthcare related values and preferences from older adults with dementia or schizophrenia, and individuals with mild to moderate dementia may be able to discuss healthcare options in relation to their values. However, how best to incorporate a values

  7. Patient participation in the medical decision-making process in haemato-oncology--a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Ernst, J; Berger, S; Weißflog, G; Schröder, C; Körner, A; Niederwieser, D; Brähler, E; Singer, S

    2013-09-01

    Cancer patients are showing increased interest in shared decision-making. Patients with haematological illnesses, however, express considerably less desire for shared decision-making as compared with other oncological patient groups. The goal of the current project was to identify the reasons for the lower desire for shared decision-making among patients with haematological illness. We conducted qualitative, semi-structured interviews with 11 haematological patients (39-70 years old) after the beginning of therapy concerning the course and evaluation of medical shared decision-making. The patients were often overwhelmed by the complexity of the illness and the therapy and did not want to assume any responsibility in medical decision-making. They reported a great deal of distress and very traditional paternalistic role expectations with regards to their health care providers, which limited the patients' ability to partake in the decision-making process. In contrast to the socio-cultural support for many other oncological diseases, haematological diseases are not as well supported, e.g. there is a lack of self-help materials, systematic provision of information and support groups for patients, which may be related to a lower empowerment of this patient population. Results show the limits of patient participation in the context of highly complicated medical conditions. In addition to already researched preferences of the physicians and patients for shared decision-making, future research should pay greater attention to the process and other variables relevant to this aspect of the doctor-patient relationship. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Emergency medical service provider decision-making in out of hospital cardiac arrest: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Brandling, J; Kirby, K; Black, S; Voss, S; Benger, J

    2017-07-25

    There are approximately 60,000 out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) in the United Kingdom (UK) each year. Within the UK there are well-established clinical practice guidelines that define when resuscitation should be commenced in OHCA, and when resuscitation should cease. Background literature indicates that decision-making in the commencement and cessation of resuscitation efforts in OHCA is complex, and not comprehensively understood. No relevant research from the UK has been published to date and this research study seeks to explore the influences on UK Emergency Medical Service (EMS) provider decision-making when commencing and ceasing resuscitation attempts in OHCA. The aim of this research to explore the influences on UK Emergency Medical Services provider decision-making when commencing and ceasing resuscitation attempts in OHCA. Four focus groups were convened with 16 clinically active EMS providers. Four case vignettes were discussed to explore decision-making within the focus groups. Thematic analysis was used to analyse transcripts. This research found that there are three stages in the decision-making process when EMS providers consider whether to commence or cease resuscitation attempts in OHCA. These stages are: the call; arrival on scene; the protocol. Influential factors present at each of the three stages can lead to different decisions and variability in practice. These influences are: factual information available to the EMS provider; structural factors such as protocol, guidance and research; cultural beliefs and values; interpersonal factors; risk factors; personal values and beliefs. An improved understanding of the circumstantial, individual and interpersonal factors that mediate the decision-making process in clinical practice could inform the development of more effective clinical guidelines, education and clinical decision support in OHCA. These changes have the potential to lead to greater consistency. and EMS provider confidence, with

  9. Guided medication dosing for elderly emergency patients using real-time, computerized decision support

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Helen G; Burdick, Elisabeth; Keohane, Carol; Bates, David W

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of a real-time computerized decision support tool in the emergency department that guides medication dosing for the elderly on physician ordering behavior and on adverse drug events (ADEs). Design A prospective controlled trial was conducted over 26 weeks. The status of the decision support tool alternated OFF (7/17/06–8/29/06), ON (8/29/06–10/10/06), OFF (10/10/06–11/28/06), and ON (11/28/06–1/16/07) in consecutive blocks during the study period. In patients ≥65 who were ordered certain benzodiazepines, opiates, non-steroidals, or sedative-hypnotics, the computer application either adjusted the dosing or suggested a different medication. Physicians could accept or reject recommendations. Measurements The primary outcome compared medication ordering consistent with recommendations during ON versus OFF periods. Secondary outcomes included the admission rate, emergency department length of stay for discharged patients, 10-fold dosing orders, use of a second drug to reverse the original medication, and rate of ADEs using previously validated explicit chart review. Results 2398 orders were placed for 1407 patients over 1548 visits. The majority (49/53; 92.5%) of recommendations for alternate medications were declined. More orders were consistent with dosing recommendations during ON (403/1283; 31.4%) than OFF (256/1115; 23%) periods (p≤0.0001). 673 (43%) visits were reviewed for ADEs. The rate of ADEs was lower during ON (8/237; 3.4%) compared with OFF (31/436; 7.1%) periods (p=0.02). The remaining secondary outcomes showed no difference. Limitations Single institution study, retrospective chart review for ADEs. Conclusion Though overall agreement with recommendations was low, real-time computerized decision support resulted in greater acceptance of medication recommendations. Fewer ADEs were observed when computerized decision support was active. PMID:22052899

  10. Parental Concerns Influencing Decisions to Seek Medical Care for a Child’s Short Stature

    PubMed Central

    Grimberg, Adda; Cousounis, Pamela; Cucchiara, Andrew J.; Lipman, Terri H.; Ginsburg, Kenneth R.

    2017-01-01

    Aims To examine parental concerns about child growth and factors that drive parents’ decisions whether to intervene medically with their child’s height. Methods Parents of 9- to 14-year-old pediatric primary care patients of various heights, oversampled for those with short stature, participated in exploratory focus groups and nominal group technique sessions. Growth concerns expressed by the groups were incorporated into a survey, completed by 1,820 parents, and rated for their degree of impact on medical decision-making. Ordinal logistic regression modeled concern scores against parent traits. Explanatory focus groups clarified the survey results. Results Research team consensus and factor analysis organized the 22 distinct concerns expressed by the parent groups into 7 categories. Categories rated as having the greatest influence on parental decision-making involved: treatment efficacy and side effects, child health and psychosocial function. Level of concern was highly associated with parental education and parenting style. Conclusion Psychosocial issues are influential, but parental decision-making is most impacted by concerns about treatment and child health. By discussing the real risks and benefits of hormone treatment and addressing parents’ perceptions of what is needed for physical and psychosocial health, clinicians can be highly effective educators to assure that treatment is used only as medically indicated. PMID:26448482

  11. Best practices: a program to support shared decision making in an outpatient psychiatric medication clinic.

    PubMed

    Deegan, Patricia E; Rapp, Charles; Holter, Mark; Riefer, Melody

    2008-06-01

    This column presents preliminary findings of an intervention to support shared decision making in psychopharmacology consultation. The waiting area in an urban psychiatric medication clinic was transformed into a peer-run Decision Support Center featuring a user-friendly, Internet-based software program with which clients could create a one-page computer-generated report for use in the medication consultation. The Decision Support Center was used 662 times by 189 unique users from a young-adult and general adult case management team from October 2006 to September 2007. All clients had severe mental disorders. Only ten clients refused to use the intervention at some point during the pilot study. Focus groups with medical staff (N=4), clients (N=16), case managers (N=14), and peer-specialist staff (N=3) reported that the intervention helped to create efficiencies in the consultation and empower clients to become more involved in treatment-related decision making. A randomized controlled trial is currently in process.

  12. Decision Support Alerts for Medication Ordering in a Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) System

    PubMed Central

    Beccaro, M. A. Del; Villanueva, R.; Knudson, K. M.; Harvey, E. M.; Langle, J. M.; Paul, W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective We sought to determine the frequency and type of decision support alerts by location and ordering provider role during Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) medication ordering. Using these data we adjusted the decision support tools to reduce the number of alerts. Design Retrospective analyses were performed of dose range checks (DRC), drug-drug interaction and drug-allergy alerts from our electronic medical record. During seven sampling periods (each two weeks long) between April 2006 and October 2008 all alerts in these categories were analyzed. Another audit was performed of all DRC alerts by ordering provider role from November 2008 through January 2009. Medication ordering error counts were obtained from a voluntary error reporting system. Measurement/Results Between April 2006 and October 2008 the percent of medication orders that triggered a dose range alert decreased from 23.9% to 7.4%. The relative risk (RR) for getting an alert was higher at the start of the interventions versus later (RR= 2.40, 95% CI 2.28-2.52; p< 0.0001). The percentage of medication orders that triggered alerts for drug-drug interactions also decreased from 13.5% to 4.8%. The RR for getting a drug interaction alert at the start was 1.63, 95% CI 1.60-1.66; p< 0.0001. Alerts decreased in all clinical areas without an increase in reported medication errors. Conclusion We reduced the quantity of decision support alerts in CPOE using a systematic approach without an increase in reported medication errors PMID:23616845

  13. Fundoplication and the pediatric surgeon: implications for shared decision-making and the medical home.

    PubMed

    Fox, David; Barnard, Juliana; Campagna, Elizabeth J; Dickinson, L Miriam; Bruny, Jennifer; Kempe, Allison

    2012-01-01

    Almost one-half of all pediatric gastrostomy tube insertions are accompanied by a fundoplication, yet little is understood about the surgical decision-making for these procedures. The objective of this study was to examine the decision-making process of surgeons about whether to perform a fundoplication in children already scheduled to have a gastrostomy tube placed. A written questionnaire of all pediatric surgeons at a major children's hospital was completed for each planned gastrostomy procedure over the course of 1 year; the questionnaire asked about various influences on the fundoplication decision: primary care and subspecialty physicians' opinions, patient characteristics, and parent opinions. Patient demographics and clinical characteristics from the medical record, as well as questionnaire responses, were summarized for each gastrostomy occurrence. We modeled the association of questionnaire responses and patient characteristics with the outcome of having a fundoplication. We received questionnaires on 161 of 169 eligible patients (95%). A total of 52% of patients had fundoplication. Primary care physicians were involved in 44% of decisions, and when involved had "a lot" of influence on the fundoplication decision only 28% of time, compared with neonatologists (61%), hospitalists (44%), pediatric pulmonologists (42%), and pediatric gastroenterologists (40%). A total of 86% of patients had a subspecialist involved, and 28% had >1 subspecialist. A pH probe was performed in 7.5% of cases, and failed pharmacotherapy was noted by the surgeons in only 26.5% of the fundoplications performed. The decision to do a fundoplication was rarely based on definitive testing or failed medical treatment. From the surgeon's perspective, subspecialists were more influential than primary care physicians, which is at odds with current concepts of the medical home. Copyright © 2012 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Feminist ethics and menopause: autonomy and decision-making in primary medical care.

    PubMed

    Murtagh, Madeleine J; Hepworth, Julie

    2003-04-01

    The construction of menopause as a long-term risk to health and the adoption of discourses of prevention has made necessary a decision by women about medical treatment; specifically regarding the use of hormone replacement therapy. In a study of general practitioners' accounts of menopause and treatment in Australia, women's 'choice', 'informed decision-making' and 'empowerment' were key themes through which primary medical care for women at menopause was presented. These accounts create a position for women defined by the concept of individual choice and an ethic of autonomy. These data are a basis for theorising more generally in this paper. We critically examine the construct of 'informed decision-making' in relation to several approaches to ethics including bioethics and a range of feminist ethics. We identify the intensification of power relations produced by an ethic of autonomy and discuss the ways these considerations inform a feminist ethics of decision-making by women. We argue that an 'ethic of autonomy' and an 'offer of choice' in relation to health care for women at menopause, far from being emancipatory, serves to intensify power relations. The dichotomy of choice, to take or not to take hormone replacement therapy, is required to be a choice and is embedded in relations of power and bioethical discourse that construct meanings about what constitutes decision-making at menopause. The deployment of the principle of autonomy in medical practice limits decision-making by women precisely because it is detached from the construction of meaning and the self and makes invisible the relations of power of which it is a part.

  15. Web-based medical facilitators in medical tourism: the third party in decision-making.

    PubMed

    Wagle, Suchitra

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of web-based medical tourism facilitators (MTFs) has added a new dimension to the phenomenon of cross-border travel. These facilitators are crucial connectors between foreign patients and host countries. They help patients navigate countries, doctors and specialties. However, little attention has been paid to the authenticity of information displayed on the facilitators' web portals, and whether they follow ethical guidelines and standards. This paper analyses the available information on MTF portals from an ethics perspective. It compares 208 facilitators across 47 countries for the services offered. Data were collected from the databases of the Medical Tourism Association and World Medical Resources. India was the most common destination country linked to 81 facilitators. The five countries with the maximum number of facilitators were the USA, the UK, India, Canada and Poland. This paper identifies concerns regarding the information displayed about patients' safety, and the maintenance of confidentiality. There is a need to develop ethical standards for this field.

  16. Dual Processing Model for Medical Decision-Making: An Extension to Diagnostic Testing.

    PubMed

    Tsalatsanis, Athanasios; Hozo, Iztok; Kumar, Ambuj; Djulbegovic, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Dual Processing Theories (DPT) assume that human cognition is governed by two distinct types of processes typically referred to as type 1 (intuitive) and type 2 (deliberative). Based on DPT we have derived a Dual Processing Model (DPM) to describe and explain therapeutic medical decision-making. The DPM model indicates that doctors decide to treat when treatment benefits outweigh its harms, which occurs when the probability of the disease is greater than the so called "threshold probability" at which treatment benefits are equal to treatment harms. Here we extend our work to include a wider class of decision problems that involve diagnostic testing. We illustrate applicability of the proposed model in a typical clinical scenario considering the management of a patient with prostate cancer. To that end, we calculate and compare two types of decision-thresholds: one that adheres to expected utility theory (EUT) and the second according to DPM. Our results showed that the decisions to administer a diagnostic test could be better explained using the DPM threshold. This is because such decisions depend on objective evidence of test/treatment benefits and harms as well as type 1 cognition of benefits and harms, which are not considered under EUT. Given that type 1 processes are unique to each decision-maker, this means that the DPM threshold will vary among different individuals. We also showed that when type 1 processes exclusively dominate decisions, ordering a diagnostic test does not affect a decision; the decision is based on the assessment of benefits and harms of treatment. These findings could explain variations in the treatment and diagnostic patterns documented in today's clinical practice.

  17. Justifying medication decisions in mental health care: Psychiatrists’ accounts for treatment recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Angell, Beth; Bolden, Galina B.

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric practitioners are currently encouraged to adopt a patient centered approach that emphasizes the sharing of decisions with their clients, yet recent research suggests that fully collaborative decision making is rarely actualized in practice. This paper uses the methodology of Conversation Analysis to examine how psychiatrists justify their psychiatric treatment recommendations to clients. The analysis is based on audio-recordings of interactions between clients with severe mental illnesses (such as, schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, etc.) in a long-term, outpatient intensive community treatment program and their psychiatrist. Our focus is on how practitioners design their accounts (or rationales) for recommending for or against changes in medication type and dosage and the interactional deployment of these accounts. We find that psychiatrists use two different types of accounts: they tailor their recommendations to the clients’ concerns and needs (client-attentive accounts) and ground their recommendations in their professional expertise (authority-based accounts). Even though psychiatrists have the institutional mandate to prescribe medications, we show how the use of accounts displays psychiatrists’ orientation to building consensus with clients in achieving medical decisions by balancing medical authority with the sensitivity to the treatment relationship. PMID:26046726

  18. Pediatric obstetrical ethics: Medical decision-making by, with, and for pregnant early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Mark R

    2016-06-01

    Pregnancy in an early adolescent carries with it specific ethical considerations, in some ways different from pregnancy in an adult and from medical care of a non-pregnant adolescent. Obstetrical ethics emphasizes the right of the patient to autonomy and bodily integrity, including the right to refuse medical intervention. Pediatric ethics recognizes the right of parents, within limits, to make medical decisions for their children, and the right of a child to receive medical or surgical interventions likely to be of benefit to her, sometimes over her own objections. As the child gets older, and particularly during the years of adolescence, there is also a recognition of the right to an increasingly prominent role in decisions about her own healthcare. Pediatric obstetrical ethics, referring to ethical decisions made by, with, and for pregnant early adolescents, represents the intersection of these different cultures. Principles and approaches from both obstetrical and pediatric ethics, as well as a unified understanding of rights, obligations, and practical considerations, will be needed.

  19. The potential for intelligent decision support systems to improve the quality and consistency of medication reviews.

    PubMed

    Bindoff, I; Stafford, A; Peterson, G; Kang, B H; Tenni, P

    2012-08-01

    Drug-related problems (DRPs) are of serious concern worldwide, particularly for the elderly who often take many medications simultaneously. Medication reviews have been demonstrated to improve medication usage, leading to reductions in DRPs and potential savings in healthcare costs. However, medication reviews are not always of a consistently high standard, and there is often room for improvement in the quality of their findings. Our aim was to produce computerized intelligent decision support software that can improve the consistency and quality of medication review reports, by helping to ensure that DRPs relevant to a patient are overlooked less frequently. A system that largely achieved this goal was previously published, but refinements have been made. This paper examines the results of both the earlier and newer systems. Two prototype multiple-classification ripple-down rules medication review systems were built, the second being a refinement of the first. Each of the systems was trained incrementally using a human medication review expert. The resultant knowledge bases were analysed and compared, showing factors such as accuracy, time taken to train, and potential errors avoided. The two systems performed well, achieving accuracies of approximately 80% and 90%, after being trained on only a small number of cases (126 and 244 cases, respectively). Through analysis of the available data, it was estimated that without the system intervening, the expert training the first prototype would have missed approximately 36% of potentially relevant DRPs, and the second 43%. However, the system appeared to prevent the majority of these potential expert errors by correctly identifying the DRPs for them, leaving only an estimated 8% error rate for the first expert and 4% for the second. These intelligent decision support systems have shown a clear potential to substantially improve the quality and consistency of medication reviews, which should in turn translate into

  20. Forward, Gillick: Are competent children autonomous medical decision makers? New developments in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Lennings, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Another chapter has opened in the tortured history of the status of Gillick competence. Never before has Gillick been extended to permit a mature child to make autonomous medical decisions over and above the curial ‘parens patriae’ power. In 2013, two judicial decisions promulgated from different Australian courts are in conflict over this most fundamental of questions. This Article situates the law of the ‘parens patriae’ power in Australia and, drawing on overseas conceptualizations of analogous doctrine, explores the bases for and potential consequences of this conflict. PMID:27774207

  1. From adverse drug event detection to prevention. A novel clinical decision support framework for medication safety.

    PubMed

    Koutkias, V G; McNair, P; Kilintzis, V; Skovhus Andersen, K; Niès, J; Sarfati, J-C; Ammenwerth, E; Chazard, E; Jensen, S; Beuscart, R; Maglaveras, N

    2014-01-01

    Errors related to medication seriously affect patient safety and the quality of healthcare. It has been widely argued that various types of such errors may be prevented by introducing Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSSs) at the point of care. Although significant research has been conducted in the field, still medication safety is a crucial issue, while few research outcomes are mature enough to be considered for use in actual clinical settings. In this paper, we present a clinical decision support framework targeting medication safety with major focus on adverse drug event (ADE) prevention. The novelty of the framework lies in its design that approaches the problem holistically, i.e., starting from knowledge discovery to provide reliable numbers about ADEs per hospital or medical unit to describe their consequences and probable causes, and next employing the acquired knowledge for decision support services development and deployment. Major design features of the framework's services are: a) their adaptation to the context of care (i.e. patient characteristics, place of care, and significance of ADEs), and b) their straightforward integration in the healthcare information technologies (IT) infrastructure thanks to the adoption of a service-oriented architecture (SOA) and relevant standards. Our results illustrate the successful interoperability of the framework with two commercially available IT products, i.e., a Computerized Physician Order Entry (CPOE) and an Electronic Health Record (EHR) system, respectively, along with a Web prototype that is independent of existing healthcare IT products. The conducted clinical validation with domain experts and test cases illustrates that the impact of the framework is expected to be major, with respect to patient safety, and towards introducing the CDSS functionality in practical use. This study illustrates an important potential for the applicability of the presented framework in delivering contextualized decision

  2. Physicians’ Anxiety Due to Uncertainty and Use of Race in Medical Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Brooke A.; Bonham, Vence L.; Sellers, Sherrill L.; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Cooper, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The explicit use of race in medical decision-making is contested. Researchers have hypothesized that physicians use race in care when they are uncertain. Objectives To investigate whether physician anxiety due to uncertainty is associated with a higher propensity to use race in medical decision-making. Research Design A national cross-sectional survey of general internists Subjects A national sample of 1738 clinically active general internists drawn from the SK&A physician database Measures Anxiety Due to Uncertainty (ADU) is a 5-item measure of emotional reactions to clinical uncertainty. Bonham and Sellers Racial Attributes in Clinical Evaluation (RACE) scale includes 7 items that measure self-reported use of race in medical decision-making. We used bivariate regression to test for associations between physician characteristics, ADU and RACE. Multivariate linear regression was performed to test for associations between ADU and RACE while adjusting for potential confounders. Results The mean score on ADU was 19.9 (SD=5.6). Mean score on RACE was 13.5 (SD=5.6). After adjusting for physician demographics, physicians with higher levels of ADU scored higher on RACE (+β=0.08 in RACE, p=0.04, for each 1-point increase in ADU), as did physicians who understand “race” to mean biological or genetic ancestral, rather than sociocultural, group. Physicians who graduated from a US medical school, completed fellowship, and had more white patients, scored lower on RACE. Conclusions This study demonstrates positive associations between physicians’ anxiety due to uncertainty, meanings attributed to race, and self-reported use of race in medical decision-making. Future research should examine the potential impact of these associations on patient outcomes and healthcare disparities. PMID:25025871

  3. Physicians' anxiety due to uncertainty and use of race in medical decision making.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Brooke A; Bonham, Vence L; Sellers, Sherrill L; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Cooper, Lisa A

    2014-08-01

    The explicit use of race in medical decision making is contested. Researchers have hypothesized that physicians use race in care when they are uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether physician anxiety due to uncertainty (ADU) is associated with a higher propensity to use race in medical decision making. This study included a national cross-sectional survey of general internists. A national sample of 1738 clinically active general internists drawn from the SK&A physician database were included in the study. ADU is a 5-item measure of emotional reactions to clinical uncertainty. Bonham and Sellers Racial Attributes in Clinical Evaluation (RACE) scale includes 7 items that measure self-reported use of race in medical decision making. We used bivariate regression to test for associations between physician characteristics, ADU, and RACE. Multivariate linear regression was performed to test for associations between ADU and RACE while adjusting for potential confounders. The mean score on ADU was 19.9 (SD=5.6). Mean score on RACE was 13.5 (SD=5.6). After adjusting for physician demographics, physicians with higher levels of ADU scored higher on RACE (+β=0.08 in RACE, P=0.04, for each 1-point increase in ADU), as did physicians who understood "race" to mean biological or genetic ancestral, rather than sociocultural, group. Physicians who graduated from a US medical school, completed fellowship, and had more white patients scored lower on RACE. This study demonstrates positive associations between physicians' ADU, meanings attributed to race, and self-reported use of race in medical decision making. Future research should examine the potential impact of these associations on patient outcomes and health care disparities.

  4. What are the Essential Elements to Enable Patient Participation in Medical Decision Making?

    PubMed Central

    McGraw, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND Patient participation in shared decision making (SDM) results in increased patient knowledge, adherence, and improved outcomes. Despite the benefits of the SDM model, many patients do not attain the level of participation they desire. OBJECTIVE To gain a more complete understanding of the essential elements, or the prerequisites, critical to active patient participation in medical decision making from the patient’s perspective. DESIGN Qualitative study. SETTING Individual, in-depth patient interviews were conducted until thematic saturation was reached. Two analysts independently read the transcripts and jointly developed a list of codes. PATIENTS Twenty-six consecutive subjects drawn from community dwelling subjects undergoing bone density measurements. MEASUREMENTS Respondents’ experiences and beliefs related to patient participation in SDM. RESULTS Five elements were repeatedly described by respondents as being essential to enable patient participation in medical decision making: (1) patient knowledge, (2) explicit encouragement of patient participation by physicians, (3) appreciation of the patient’s responsibility/rights to play an active role in decision making, (4) awareness of choice, and (5) time. LIMITATIONS The generalizability of the results is limited by the homogeneity of the study sample. CONCLUSIONS Our findings have important clinical implications and suggest that several needs must be met before patients can become active participants in decisions related to their health care. These needs include ensuring that patients (1) appreciate that there is uncertainty in medicine and “buy in” to the importance of active patient participation in decisions related to their health care, (2) understand the trade-offs related to available options, and (3) have the opportunity to discuss these options with their physician to arrive at a decision concordant with their values. PMID:17443368

  5. Older Adults’ Preferences for Independent or Delegated End-of-Life Medical Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Moorman, Sara M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study assesses the proportions of participants who prefer independent or delegated medical decision-making at end-of-life, and examines the relationships of personal beliefs, affiliative beliefs, and end-of-life planning behaviors to decision-making preference. Methods Data are drawn from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, a sample of nearly 4,500 healthy white Midwestern high school graduates in their mid-60s. Results Four-fifths of participants wanted to make decisions independently. Valuing independence, being less avoidant of thoughts of death, and valuing quality of life over length of life had strong associations with a preference for independent decision-making. Those concerned about burdening a caregiver wanted to make independent decisions. Persons who both executed a living will and appointed a durable power of attorney for health care preferred independent decision-making. Discussion Older adults cite personal and affiliative beliefs, not lack of autonomy, as reasons for their choice to decide independently or delegate. PMID:20947875

  6. Exploring medical student decisions regarding attending live lectures and using recorded lectures.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Anmol; Saks, Norma Susswein

    2013-09-01

    Student decisions about lecture attendance are based on anticipated effect on learning. Factors involved in decision-making, the use of recorded lectures and their effect on lecture attendance, all warrant investigation. This study was designed to identify factors in student decisions to attend live lectures, ways in which students use recorded lectures, and if their use affects live lecture attendance. A total of 213 first (M1) and second year (M2) medical students completed a survey about lecture attendance, and rated factors related to decisions to attend live lectures and to utilize recorded lectures. Responses were analyzed overall and by class year and gender. M1 attended a higher percentage of live lectures than M2, while both classes used the same percentage of recorded lectures. Females attended more live lectures, and used a smaller percentage of recorded lectures. The lecturer was a key in attendance decisions. Also considered were the subject and availability of other learning materials. Students use recorded lectures as replacement for live lectures and as supplement to them. Lectures, both live and recorded, are important for student learning. Decisions about lecture placement in the curriculum need to be based on course content and lecturer quality.

  7. Shared decision-making in medical encounters regarding breast cancer treatment: the contribution of methodological triangulation.

    PubMed

    Durif-Bruckert, C; Roux, P; Morelle, M; Mignotte, H; Faure, C; Moumjid-Ferdjaoui, N

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study on shared decision-making in the doctor-patient encounter about surgical treatment for early-stage breast cancer, conducted in a regional cancer centre in France, was to further the understanding of patient perceptions on shared decision-making. The study used methodological triangulation to collect data (both quantitative and qualitative) about patient preferences in the context of a clinical consultation in which surgeons followed a shared decision-making protocol. Data were analysed from a multi-disciplinary research perspective (social psychology and health economics). The triangulated data collection methods were questionnaires (n = 132), longitudinal interviews (n = 47) and observations of consultations (n = 26). Methodological triangulation revealed levels of divergence and complementarity between qualitative and quantitative results that suggest new perspectives on the three inter-related notions of decision-making, participation and information. Patients' responses revealed important differences between shared decision-making and participation per se. The authors note that subjecting patients to a normative behavioural model of shared decision-making in an era when paradigms of medical authority are shifting may undermine the patient's quest for what he or she believes is a more important right: a guarantee of the best care available.

  8. [Cost-conscious medical decisions. Normative guidance within the conflicting demands of ethics and economics].

    PubMed

    Marckmann, G; In der Schmitten, J

    2014-05-01

    Under the current conditions in the health care system, physicians inevitably have to take responsibility for the cost dimension of their decisions on the level of single cases. This article, therefore, discusses the question how physicians can integrate cost considerations into their clinical decisions at the microlevel in a medically rational and ethically justified way. We propose a four-step model for "ethical cost-consciousness": (1) forego ineffective interventions as required by good evidence-based medicine, (2) respect individual patient preferences, (3) minimize the diagnostic and therapeutic effort to achieve a certain treatment goal, and (4) forego expensive interventions that have only a small or unlikely (net) benefit for the patient. Steps 1-3 are ethically justified by the principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and respect for autonomy, step 4 by the principles of justice. For decisions on step 4, explicit cost-conscious guidelines should be developed locally or regionally. Following the four-step model can contribute to ethically defensible, cost-conscious decision-making at the microlevel. In addition, physicians' rationing decisions should meet basic standards of procedural fairness. Regular cost-case discussions and clinical ethics consultation should be available as decision support. Implementing step 4, however, requires first of all a clear political legitimation with the corresponding legal framework.

  9. Medical error and decision making: Learning from the past and present in intensive care.

    PubMed

    Bucknall, Tracey K

    2010-08-01

    Human error occurs in every occupation. Medical errors may result in a near miss or an actual injury to a patient that has nothing to do with the underlying medical condition. Intensive care has one of the highest incidences of medical error and patient injury in any specialty medical area; thought to be related to the rapidly changing patient status and complex diagnoses and treatments. The aims of this paper are to: (1) outline the definition, classifications and aetiology of medical error; (2) summarise key findings from the literature with a specific focus on errors arising from intensive care areas; and (3) conclude with an outline of approaches for analysing clinical information to determine adverse events and inform practice change in intensive care. Database searches of articles and textbooks using keywords: medical error, patient safety, decision making and intensive care. Sociology and psychology literature cited therein. Critically ill patients require numerous medications, multiple infusions and procedures. Although medical errors are often detected by clinicians at the bedside, organisational processes and systems may contribute to the problem. A systems approach is thought to provide greater insight into the contributory factors and potential solutions to avoid preventable adverse events. It is recommended that a variety of clinical information and research techniques are used as a priority to prevent hospital acquired injuries and address patient safety concerns in intensive care. 2010 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Application of visually based, computerised diagnostic decision support system in dermatological medical education: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Chou, Wan-Yi; Tien, Peng-Tai; Lin, Fang-Yu; Chiu, Pin-Chi

    2017-05-01

    Medical education has shifted from memory-based practice to evidence-based decisions. The question arises: how can we ensure that all students get correct and systematic information? Visually based, computerised diagnostic decision support system (VCDDSS, VisualDx) may just fit our needs. A pilot study was conducted to investigate its role in medical education and clinical practice. This was a prospective study, including one consultant dermatologist, 51 medical students and 13 dermatology residents, conducted in the dermatology teaching clinic at China Medical University Hospital from 30 December 2014 to 21 April 2015. Clinical diagnoses of 13 patients were made before and after using VCDDSS. Questionnaires were filled out at the end. The consultant dermatologist's diagnosis was defined as the standard answer; the Sign test was used to analyse diagnostic accuracy and the Fisher exact test to analyse questionnaires. There was an 18.75% increase in diagnostic accuracy after use of VCDDSS (62.5-81.25%; p value <0.01). Significant associations were found in diagnostic assistance in terms of user factors such as accessibility, interface satisfaction, quality of imaging, textual description, and a Chinese language interface option (p value<0.01). This study demonstrated that VCDDSS increases diagnostic accuracy by 18.75%, which means we can avoid possible misdiagnosis, provide better treatment, and avoid waste of medical resources. The user satisfaction is high. We expect wider application of this kind of decision support system in clinical practice, medical education, residency training, and patient education in the future. Further large-scale studies should be planned to confirm its application. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Mother, Daughter, Doctor: Medical Professionals and Mothers' Decision Making About Female Genital Cutting in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Modrek, Sepideh; Sieverding, Maia

    2016-06-01

    Although female genital cutting (FGC) is illegal in Egypt and rates are declining, medicalization of the practice has increased. However, little is known about why some mothers prefer that FGC be performed by medical professionals or the degree to which such professionals may influence decisions about the practice. Data collected in 2014 from a survey of 410 women with young daughters, and from in-depth interviews with 29 of those women, were used to examine the role of consultations with medical professionals in mothers' decisions about FGC. Women were asked about their experiences, perceptions, knowledge and intentions regarding FGC and their interactions with medical personnel. An open coding approach was used to analyze qualitative data, while multivariate regression was used to identify correlates of intending to consult a doctor and knowing that FGC is illegal. Medical professionals were the main providers of FGC to study participants. Mothers wanted FGC performed by doctors to mitigate the perceived risks of the procedure. About one-third of mothers planned to consult a doctor in deciding whether to have their daughters cut. Women reported that doctors performed physical examinations and subsequently recommended that daughters either be cut, not be cut or be re-examined in the future. Most respondents expressed high levels of trust in doctors. Since mothers appear to value their opinions, doctors could contribute to the abandonment of FGC if they consistently recommend against the practice. The ban on FGC is unlikely to be effective in the absence of broader social change.

  12. Partnered Decisions? U.S. Couples and Medical Help-seeking for Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Katherine M.; Johnson, David R.

    2009-01-01

    We examined male partners’ influence on the decision to seek medical help for infertility using from the National Survey of Fertility Barriers. Building upon an existing help-seeking framework, we incorporated characteristics of both partners from 219 heterosexual couples who had ever perceived a fertility problem. In logistic regression analyses, we found an association between couple-level attitudes and medical help-seeking even when other predisposing and enabling conditions existed. Overall, the findings highlight that both partners contribute to the infertility help-seeking process, and that different factors may play a role in different stages of help-seeking. Studies of infertility help-seeking need to be more inclusive of the context that these decisions are embedded within to better understand service use. PMID:20160961

  13. Human factors engineering: a tool for medical device evaluation in hospital procurement decision-making.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, Gill

    2005-06-01

    A human factors evaluation was conducted to inform hospital procurement decision-making in selecting a general-purpose infusion pump to be used hospital-wide. Three infusion pumps from different vendors were involved in the evaluation, which consisted of two phases: a human factors heuristic assessment of the pumps according to several criteria, and user testing in five clinical areas. The clinical areas were: Oncology, Medical/Surgical, Pediatric, ICU, and Anaesthesiology. Fourteen nurses and three anaesthetists participated in the user testing. Reasonable agreement was observed between results of both phases of the evaluation, and overall results clearly favoured one of the infusion pumps over the others. It is recommended that a human factors evaluation should be performed to influence all hospital procurement decisions when purchasing medical devices, to ensure the best devices are selected for the end users and to ultimately enhance patient safety.

  14. Evaluation of the "make or buy" decision for oral solid unit-dose medications.

    PubMed

    Yeoman, A E

    1979-01-01

    Changing from one drug distribution system to another requires analysis of many standard operating procedures. Analysis of the "make or buy" decision, a form of break-even analysis, is necessary. A mathematical model is developed that considers the relevant costs and allows one to compare directly the commercially available unit-dose medication with your own repackaging process. The mathematical model is intended to aid in the decision of whether to make or buy a unit-dose form of medication. The relevant range of the model and the results are approximate but they give a good estimation of the costs involved. The information necessary to decide what form of unit-dose packaging suits your needs best and the ability to analyze the alternatives is implicit.

  15. Primary care specialty career choice among Canadian medical students: Understanding the factors that influence their decisions.

    PubMed

    Osborn, Heather Ann; Glicksman, Jordan T; Brandt, Michael G; Doyle, Philip C; Fung, Kevin

    2017-02-01

    To identify which factors influence medical students' decision to choose a career in family medicine and pediatrics, and which factors influence their decision to choose careers in non-front-line specialties. Survey that was created based on a comprehensive literature review to determine which factors are considered important when choosing practice specialty. Ontario medical school. An open cohort of medical students in the graduating classes of 2008 to 2011 (inclusive). The main factors that influenced participants' decision to choose a career in primary care or pediatrics, and the main factors that influenced participants' decision to choose a career in a non-front-line specialty. A total of 323 participants were included in this study. Factors that significantly influenced participants' career choice in family medicine or pediatrics involved work-life balance (acceptable hours of practice [P = .005], acceptable on-call demands [P = .012], and lifestyle flexibility [P = .006]); a robust physician-patient relationship (ability to promote individual health promotion [P = .014] and the opportunity to form long-term relationships [P < .001], provide comprehensive care [P = .001], and treat patients and their families [P = .006]); and duration of residency program (P = .001). The career-related factors that significantly influenced participants' decision to choose a non-front-line specialty were as follows: becoming an expert (P < .001), maintaining a focused scope of practice (P < .001), having a procedure-focused practice (P = .001), seeing immediate results from one's actions (P < .001), potentially earning a high income (P < .001), and having a perceived status among colleagues (P < .001). In this study, 8 factors were found to positively influence medical students' career choice in family medicine and pediatrics, and 6 factors influenced the decision to choose a career in a non-front-line specialty. Medical students can be encouraged to explore a

  16. An expert-guided decision tree construction strategy: an application in knowledge discovery with medical databases.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Y. S.; King, P. H.; Higgins, M. S.; Pierce, D.; Patel, N. P.

    1997-01-01

    With the steady growth in electronic patient records and clinical medical informatics systems, the data collected for routine clinical use have been accumulating at a dramatic rate. Inter-disciplinary research provides a new generation of computation tools in knowledge discovery and data management is in great demand. In this study, an expert-guided decision tree construction strategy is proposed to offer an user-oriented knowledge discovery environment. The strategy allows experts, based on their expertise and/or preference, to override inductive decision tree construction process. Moreover, by reviewing decision paths, experts could focus on subsets of data that may be clues to new findings, or simply contaminated cases. PMID:9357618

  17. A history of evidence in medical decisions: from the diagnostic sign to Bayesian inference.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Dennis J

    2012-01-01

    Bayesian inference in medical decision making is a concept that has a long history with 3 essential developments: 1) the recognition of the need for data (demonstrable scientific evidence), 2) the development of probability, and 3) the development of inverse probability. Beginning with the demonstrative evidence of the physician's sign, continuing through the development of probability theory based on considerations of games of chance, and ending with the work of Jakob Bernoulli, Laplace, and others, we will examine how Bayesian inference developed.

  18. Agreement of medical decisions in occupational health as a quality requirement.

    PubMed

    Franco, Giuliano

    2006-08-01

    Workers' medical examination by the occupational physician (OPs) is a decision-making process whose output consists of a variety of evaluations, including assessment of fitness for work. The medical literature reports that there is no complete agreement among OPs assessing the same workers, evidencing a critical aspect of professional performance. This study aims at evaluating the inter-individual variability of medical decisions by different occupational physicians. Four specialists in occupational medicine participated in the study. Each specialist examined 100 records of subjects with different medical conditions selected from about 2,500 health care workers. Each physician completed a form including the following items: assessment of fitness for work, advice to workers, need of further investigations, report of occupational disease, recommendation for the general practitioner. To assess the inter-individual variability the percent agreement and the agreement strength or Cohen's kappa were measured. The study shows a variable agreement in the assessment of fitness for work among different professionals, with percent agreement ranging from 58% for the whole group to an average of 77% for physicians' pairs. By taking into account the variability expected by chance, the agreement ranged from fair to substantial. The agreement of other decisions (workers' advice, referral to other specialists, request of further investigation, report of occupational disease, recommendation for the general practitioner) was more variable. The study shows that an inter-individual variability exists for some decisions taken by OPs. According to the need to continuously improve professional practice, in the absence of qualitative standards based on the outcome, reduction of inter-individual variability that should be considered as a quality requirement of the performance of the occupational physician.

  19. A mobile decision support system for red eye diseases diagnosis: experience with medical students.

    PubMed

    López, Marta Manovel; López, Miguel Maldonado; de la Torre Díez, Isabel; Jimeno, José Carlos Pastor; López-Coronado, Miguel

    2016-06-01

    A good primary health care is the base for a better healthcare system. Taking a good decision on time by the primary health care physician could have a huge repercussion. In order to ease the diagnosis task arise the Decision Support Systems (DSS), which offer counselling instead of refresh the medical knowledge, in a profession where it is still learning every day. The implementation of these systems in diseases which are a frequent cause of visit to the doctor like ophthalmologic pathologies are, which affect directly to our quality of life, takes more importance. This paper aims to develop OphthalDSS, a totally new mobile DSS for red eye diseases diagnosis. The main utilities that OphthalDSS offers will be a study guide for medical students and a clinical decision support system for primary care professionals. Other important goal of this paper is to show the user experience results after OphthalDSS being used by medical students of the University of Valladolid. For achieving the main purpose of this research work, a decision algorithm will be developed and implemented by an Android mobile application. Moreover, the Quality of Experience (QoE) has been evaluated by the students through the questions of a short inquiry. The app developed which implements the algorithm OphthalDSS is capable of diagnose more than 30 eye's anterior segment diseases. A total of 67 medical students have evaluated the QoE. The students find the diseases' information presented very valuable, the appearance is adequate, it is always available and they have ever found what they were looking for. Furthermore, the students think that their quality of life has not been improved using the app and they can do the same without using the OphthalDSS app. OphthalDSS is easy to use, which is capable of diagnose more than 30 ocular diseases in addition to be used as a DSS tool as an educational tool at the same time.

  20. Prioritization of Medical Combat Deficiencies: Application of the Iterative Decision Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    Carrol & Finstuen, Note 2). The ranking procedure described in this paper is a special application of the IDM and consists of several steps as shown in...Casualty Care and Treatment and Casualty Prevention) are contained in Appendix IV. 55 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS The results of this reseach provide...iterative decision method for selecting medical tasks for traini!n. Paper presented at the 24th Annual Conference of the Military Testing Association, San

  1. Evaluation of EMERGE, a Medical Decision Making Aid for Analysis of Chest Pain

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Donna L.; Cohen, Moses E.; Deedwania, Prakash C.; Watson, Patricia E.

    1983-01-01

    EMERGE, a rule-based medical decision making aid for analysis of chest pain in the emergency room, was evaluated using retrospective patient data. The analysis consisted of two phases. In the initial phase, patient cases were run in order to make minor modifications and adjustments in the criteria used for determination of admission. In the second phase, patient cases were analyzed to determine the effectiveness of the EMERGE system in arriving at the proper conclusion.

  2. Making decisions about medications in critically ill children: a survey of Canadian pediatric critical care clinicians.

    PubMed

    Duffett, Mark; Choong, Karen; Vanniyasingam, Thuva; Thabane, Lehana; Cook, Deborah J

    2015-01-01

    Changing clinician practice in pediatric critical care is often difficult. Tailored knowledge translation interventions may be more effective than other types of interventions. To inform the design of tailored interventions, the primary objective of this survey was to describe the importance of specific factors that influence physicians and pharmacists when they make decisions about medications in critically ill children. In this postal survey, respondents used 7-point scales to rate the importance of specific factors that influence their decisions in the following scenarios: corticosteroids for shock, intensive insulin therapy, stress ulcer prophylaxis, surfactant for acute respiratory distress syndrome, and sedation interruption. We used generalized estimating equations to examine the association between the importance of specific factors influencing decision making and the scenario and respondents' practice, views, and demographics. Canadian PICUs. One hundred and seventeen physicians and pharmacists practicing in 18 PICUs. None. The response rate was 61%. The three factors reported to most strongly influence clinician decision making overall were: severity of illness (mean [SD] 5.8 [1.8]), physiologic rationale (5.2 [1.3]), and adverse effects (5.1 [1.9]). Factors least likely to influence decision making were drug costs (2.0 [1.5]), unit policies (2.9 [1.9]), and non-critical care randomized controlled trials (3.1 [1.9]). The relative importance of 8 of the 10 factors varied significantly among the five scenarios: only randomized controlled trials in critically ill children and other clinical research did not vary. Clinician characteristics associated with the greatest difference in importance ratings were: frequent use of the intervention in that scenario (seven factors), profession (five factors), and respondents' assessment of the quality of evidence (five factors). The relative importance of many factors that clinicians consider when making decisions about

  3. Radiation exposure and cost influence physician medical image decision making: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gimbel, Ronald W; Fontelo, Paul; Stephens, Mark B; Olsen, Cara H; Bunt, Christopher; Ledford, Christy J W; Loveland Cook, Cynthia A; Liu, Fang; Burke, Harry B

    2013-07-01

    It is estimated that 20%-40% of advanced medical imaging in the United States is unnecessary, resulting in patient overexposure to radiation and increasing the cost of care. Previous imaging utilization studies have focused on clinical appropriateness. An important contributor to excessive use of advanced imaging may be a physician "knowledge gap" regarding the safety and cost of the tests. To determine whether safety and cost information will change physician medical image decision making. Double-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Following standardized case presentation, physicians made an initial imaging choice. This was followed by the presentation of guidelines, radiation exposure and health risk, and cost information. Approximately half (57 of 112, 50.9%) of participants initially selected computed tomography (CT). When presented with guideline recommendations, participants did not modify their initial imaging choice (P=0.197). A significant reduction (56.3%, P<0.001) in CT ordering occurred after presentation of radiation exposure/health risk information; ordering changed to magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasound (US). A significant reduction (48.3%, P<0.001) in CT and magnetic resonance imaging ordering occurred after presentation of Medicare reimbursement information; ordering changed to US. The majority of physicians (31 of 40, 77.5%) selecting US never modified their ordering. No significant relationship between physician demographics and decision making was observed. This study suggests that physician decision making can be influenced by safety and cost information and the order in which information is provided to physicians can affect their decisions.

  4. A focus group study investigating medical decision making in octogenarians of high socioeconomic status with successful outcomes following cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Oldroyd, John C; Levinson, Michele R; Stephenson, Gemma; Rouse, Alice; Leeuwrik, Tina

    2014-09-01

    To explore medical decision making in octogenarians having cardiac surgery. Five focus groups conducted in a private hospital setting with octogenarians of high socioeconomic status who had successful cardiac surgery in the previous 3-13 months. Octogenarian's motivations for having cardiac surgery include survival, relief of symptoms, convenience and improving quality of life. The decision to have surgery involved clinical advice by doctors that the time had come to take up a surgical option. Patient's decisions did not take into account alternative treatment options either because these had not been presented by doctors or because medical management had failed. The final decision was made by patients. Decisions to have cardiac surgery in octogenarians are made by patients after discussions with family based on their risks as communicated by their doctors. This underlines the importance of effective risk communication by doctors to help patients make appropriate medical decisions. © 2013 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2013 ACOTA.

  5. The law and its interaction with medical ethics in end-of-life decision making.

    PubMed

    Cerminara, Kathy L

    2011-09-01

    The previous two articles in this series explored the historical and theoretical development of medical decision making from initial reliance on medical beneficence to a more recent emphasis on patient autonomy. The law of withholding and withdrawal of treatment has much in common with medical ethics. It is based on concerns about patient autonomy expressed by courts, legislatures, and the executive branch of the government. Legally, the patient's right of self-determination has been based on a variety of sources ranging from state and federal constitutions to the common law of torts and from cases to statutes and regulations. Understanding the various sources of the law, the distinctions among those sources, and the interaction of the branches of government in this context assists in understanding the law itself. In our federalist system of government, significant legal variations can exist among the states, but although technically valid, excessive concern about compliance with the precise contours of each state's statute when surrogate decision makers are engaging in bedside deliberations is unnecessary. Regardless of source or precise legal contours, the overall goal, which neither the physician nor the patient's surrogate or proxy decision makers should forget, is to honor what the patient would want to have done. Physicians and attorneys will agree on that as a matter of both ethics and the law.

  6. Medical decision making for patients with Parkinson disease under Average Cost Criterion.

    PubMed

    Goulionis, John E; Vozikis, Athanassios

    2009-06-24

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common disabling neurological disorders and results in substantial burden for patients, their families and the as a whole society in terms of increased health resource use and poor quality of life. For all stages of PD, medication therapy is the preferred medical treatment. The failure of medical regimes to prevent disease progression and to prevent long-term side effects has led to a resurgence of interest in surgical procedures. Partially observable Markov decision models (POMDPs) are a powerful and appropriate technique for decision making. In this paper we applied the model of POMDP's as a supportive tool to clinical decisions for the treatment of patients with Parkinson's disease. The aim of the model was to determine the critical threshold level to perform the surgery in order to minimize the total lifetime costs over a patient's lifetime (where the costs incorporate duration of life, quality of life, and monetary units). Under some reasonable conditions reflecting the practical meaning of the deterioration and based on the various diagnostic observations we find an optimal average cost policy for patients with PD with three deterioration levels.

  7. An experimental comparison of fuzzy logic and analytic hierarchy process for medical decision support systems.

    PubMed

    Uzoka, Faith-Michael Emeka; Obot, Okure; Barker, Ken; Osuji, J

    2011-07-01

    The task of medical diagnosis is a complex one, considering the level vagueness and uncertainty management, especially when the disease has multiple symptoms. A number of researchers have utilized the fuzzy-analytic hierarchy process (fuzzy-AHP) methodology in handling imprecise data in medical diagnosis and therapy. The fuzzy logic is able to handle vagueness and unstructuredness in decision making, while the AHP has the ability to carry out pairwise comparison of decision elements in order to determine their importance in the decision process. This study attempts to do a case comparison of the fuzzy and AHP methods in the development of medical diagnosis system, which involves basic symptoms elicitation and analysis. The results of the study indicate a non-statistically significant relative superiority of the fuzzy technology over the AHP technology. Data collected from 30 malaria patients were used to diagnose using AHP and fuzzy logic independent of one another. The results were compared and found to covary strongly. It was also discovered from the results of fuzzy logic diagnosis covary a little bit more strongly to the conventional diagnosis results than that of AHP. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Learning to improve medical decision making from imbalanced data without a priori cost.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiang; Liu, Jiming; Cheung, William K; Tong, Tiejun

    2014-12-05

    In a medical data set, data are commonly composed of a minority (positive or abnormal) group and a majority (negative or normal) group and the cost of misclassifying a minority sample as a majority sample is highly expensive. This is the so-called imbalanced classification problem. The traditional classification functions can be seriously affected by the skewed class distribution in the data. To deal with this problem, people often use a priori cost to adjust the learning process in the pursuit of optimal classification function. However, this priori cost is often unknown and hard to estimate in medical decision making. In this paper, we propose a new learning method, named RankCost, to classify imbalanced medical data without using a priori cost. Instead of focusing on improving the class-prediction accuracy, RankCost is to maximize the difference between the minority class and the majority class by using a scoring function, which translates the imbalanced classification problem into a partial ranking problem. The scoring function is learned via a non-parametric boosting algorithm. We compare RankCost to several representative approaches on four medical data sets varying in size, imbalanced ratio, and dimension. The experimental results demonstrate that unlike the currently available methods that often perform unevenly with different priori costs, RankCost shows comparable performance in a consistent manner. It is a challenging task to learn an effective classification model based on imbalanced data in medical data analysis. The traditional approaches often use a priori cost to adjust the learning of the classification function. This work presents a novel approach, namely RankCost, for learning from medical imbalanced data sets without using a priori cost. The experimental results indicate that RankCost performs very well in imbalanced data classification and can be a useful method in real-world applications of medical decision making.

  9. Development of a decision support system for the practice of responsible self-medication.

    PubMed

    da Rocha, Chiara E; Lessa, Felipe A S; Venceslau, Daniel O; Sakuraba, Celso S; Barros, Izadora M C; de Lyra, Divaldo P

    2016-02-01

    Responsible self-medication is an integral part of the health system that consists of community pharmacists counseling patients on treating minor illness using non-prescription medications. Systems for properly managing information can assist disease identification and clinical decision-making. To develop a software program to assist community pharmacists in clinical decision-making regarding selfmedication. The study was conducted in northeastern Brazil. The study was conducted from February 2012 to January 2014. System development included identifying minor illnesses commonly treated by community pharmacists and creating simulations of community pharmacies using a simulated patient methodology. Clinical pharmacists, production engineering students, professors, and a pharmacist researcher comprised the development group. Five meetings were held to develop the software, and the system was completed in December 2013. Minor illnesses commonly treated by community pharmacists, and simulated patient methodology. In the first meeting the final list of topics for inclusion in the algorithm indicated the exact questions to be addressed by the community pharmacist to properly manage the complaint. In the second meeting, the discussions in the focus group indicated consensus among pharmacists as to the medications on the list of Groups and Specified Therapeutic Indications of Brazilian Legislation. In the third meeting were defined the parameters to refer patients to the doctor. In the fourth meeting the algorithm was tested using a simulated patient, to observe whether the question order ensures an effective, efficient, and safe decision process for the patient. In the fifth meeting, the algorithm was tested again using a simulated patient with the flu, and all group members agreed upon its final incarnation after refinements to the situations that determined referral to the doctor. The software may contribute to identifying health risk situations (potentially unsafe

  10. What Do Physicians Believe About the Way Decisions Are Made? A Pilot Study on Metacognitive Knowledge in the Medical Context

    PubMed Central

    Iannello, Paola; Perucca, Valeria; Riva, Silvia; Antonietti, Alessandro; Pravettoni, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Metacognition relative to medical decision making has been poorly investigated to date. However, beliefs about methods of decision making (metacognition) play a fundamental role in determining the efficiency of the decision itself. In the present study, we investigated a set of beliefs that physicians develop in relation to the modes of making decisions in a professional environment. The Solomon Questionnaire, designed to assess metacognitive knowledge about behaviors and mental processes involved in decision making, was administered to a sample of 18 emergency physicians, 18 surgeons, and 18 internists. Significant differences in metacognitive knowledge emerged among these three medical areas. Physicians’ self-reports about the decision process mirrored the peculiarities of the context in which they operate. Their metacognitive knowledge demonstrated a reflective attitude that is an effective tool during the decision making process. PMID:27247686

  11. Medical diagnostic decision support systems--past, present, and future: a threaded bibliography and brief commentary.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, R A

    1994-01-01

    Articles about medical diagnostic decision support (MDDS) systems often begin with a disclaimer such as, "despite many years of research and millions of dollars of expenditures on medical diagnostic systems, none is in widespread use at the present time." While this statement remains true in the sense that no single diagnostic system is in widespread use, it is misleading with regard to the state of the art of these systems. Diagnostic systems, many simple and some complex, are now ubiquitous, and research on MDDS systems is growing. The nature of MDDS systems has diversified over time. The prospects for adoption of large-scale diagnostic systems are better now than ever before, due to enthusiasm for implementation of the electronic medical record in academic, commercial, and primary care settings. Diagnostic decision support systems have become an established component of medical technology. This paper provides a review and a threaded bibliography for some of the important work on MDDS systems over the years from 1954 to 1993. PMID:7719792

  12. Parental decision-making for medically complex infants and children: An integrated literature review

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Kimberly A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Many children with life-threatening conditions who would have died at birth are now surviving months to years longer than previously expected. Understanding how parents make decisions is necessary to prevent parental regret about decision-making, which can lead to psychological distress, decreased physical health, and decreased quality of life for the parents. Objective The aim of this integrated literature review was to describe possible factors that affect parental decision-making for medically complex children. The critical decisions included continuation or termination of a high-risk pregnancy, initiation of life-sustaining treatments such as resuscitation, complex cardiothoracic surgery, use of experimental treatments, end-of-life care, and limitation of care or withdrawal of support. Design PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and PsycINFO were searched using the combined key terms ‘parents and decision-making’ to obtain English language publications from 2000 to June 2013. Results The findings from each of the 31 articles retained were recorded. The strengths of the empirical research reviewed are that decisions about initiating life support and withdrawing life support have received significant attention. Researchers have explored how many different factors impact decision-making and have used multiple different research designs and data collection methods to explore the decision-making process. These initial studies lay the foundation for future research and have provided insight into parental decision-making during times of crisis. Conclusions Studies must begin to include both parents and providers so that researchers can evaluate how decisions are made for individual children with complex chronic conditions to understand the dynamics between parents and parent–provider relationships. The majority of studies focused on one homogenous diagnostic group of premature infants and children with complex congenital

  13. Hypermedia or Hyperchaos: Using HyperCard to Teach Medical Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Smith, W.R.; Hahn, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    HyperCard presents an uncoventional instructional environment for educators and students, in that it is nonlinear, nonsequential, and it provides innumerable choices of learning paths to learners. The danger of this environment is that it may frustrate learners whose cognitive and learning styles do not match this environment. Leaners who prefer guided learning rather than independent exploration may become distracted or disoriented by this environment, lost in “hyperspace.” In the context of medical education, these ill-matched styles may produce some physicians who have not mastered skills essential to the practice of medicine. The authors have sought to develop a HyperCard learning environment consisting of related programs that teach medical decision making. The environment allows total learner control until the learner demonstrates a need for guidance in order to achieve the essential objectives of the program. A discussion follows of the implications of hypermedia for instructional design and medical education.

  14. The Variables That Lead to Severe Action Decisions by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Dan; Migdal, Michael; Waechter, Donna M; Barzansky, Barbara; Sabalis, Robert F

    2016-01-01

    To identify the variables associated with severe action decisions (SADs) (unspecified accreditation term, warning status, probation status) by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME) regarding the accreditation status of established MD-granting medical education programs in the United States and Canada. The authors reviewed all LCME decisions made on full survey reports between October 2004 and June 2012 to test whether SADs were associated with an insufficient response in the data collection instrument/self-study, chronic noncompliance with one or more accreditation standards, noncompliance with specific standards, and noncompliance with a large number of standards. The LCME issued 103 nonsevere action decisions and 40 SADs. SADs were significantly associated with an insufficient response in the data collection instrument/self-study (odds ratio [OR] = 7.30; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.38-22.46); chronic noncompliance with one or more standards (OR = 12.18; 95% CI = 1.91-77.55); noncompliance with standards related to the educational program for the MD degree (ED): ED-8 (OR = 6.73; 95% CI = 2.32-19.47) and ED-33 (OR = 5.40; 95% CI = 1.98-14.76); and noncompliance with a large number of standards (rpb = 0.62; P < .001). These findings provide insight into the LCME's pattern of decision making. Noncompliance with two standards was strongly associated with SADs: lack of evidence of comparability across instructional sites (ED-8) and the absence of strong central management of the curriculum (ED-33). These results can help medical school staff as they prepare for an LCME full survey visit.

  15. Investigating medical decision-making capacity in patients with cognitive impairment using a protocol based on linguistic features.

    PubMed

    Tallberg, Ing-Mari; Stormoen, Sara; Almkvist, Ove; Eriksdotter, Maria; Sundström, Erik

    2013-10-01

    A critical question is whether cognitively impaired patients have the competence for autonomous decisions regarding participation in clinical trials. The present study aimed to investigate medical decision-making capacity by use of a Swedish linguistic instrument for medical decision-making (LIMD) in hypothetical clinical trials in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Three comparable groups (age, education) participated in the study: AD (n = 20; MMSE: 24.1 ± 3.3) and MCI (n = 22; MMSE: 26.7 ± 2.4) patients and healthy controls (n = 37; MMSE: 29.1 ± 1.0). Medical decision-making capacity was operationalized as answers to questions regarding participation in three hypothetical clinical trials. Answers were scored regarding comprehension, evaluation and intelligibility of decisions, and a total LIMD score was used as the measure of medical decision-making ability. Groups differed significantly in LIMD with AD patients performing worst and MCI poorer than the control group. A strong association was found between all LIMD scores and diagnosis which supported the assertion that LIMD as it is designed is a one-dimensional instrument of medical decision-making capacity (MDMC). The results indicate that a fundamental communicative ability has an impact on the competence for autonomous decisions in cognitive impairment.

  16. Relational autonomy or undue pressure? Family's role in medical decision-making.

    PubMed

    Ho, Anita

    2008-03-01

    The intertwining ideas of self-determination and well-being have received tremendous support in western bioethics. They have been used to reject medical paternalism and to justify patients' rights to give informed consent (or refusal) and execute advanced directives. It is frequently argued that everyone is thoroughly unique, and as patients are most knowledgeable of and invested in their own interests, they should be the ones to make voluntary decisions regarding their care. Two results of the strong focus on autonomy are the rejection of the image of patients as passive care recipients and the suspicion against paternalistic influence anyone may have on patients' decision-making process. Although the initial focus in western bioethics was on minimizing professional coercion, there has been a steady concern of family's involvement in adult patients' medical decision-making. Many worry that family members may have divergent values and priorities from those of the patients, such that their involvement could counter patients' autonomy. Those who are heavily involved in competent patients' decision-making are often met with suspicion. Patients who defer to their families are sometimes presumed to be acting out of undue pressure. This essay argues for a re-examination of the notions of autonomy and undue pressure in the contexts of patienthood and relational identity. In particular, it examines the characteristics of families and their role in adult patients' decision-making. Building on the feminist conception of the relational self and examining the context of contemporary institutional medicine, this paper argues that family involvement and consideration of family interests can be integral in promoting patients' overall agency. It argues that, in the absence of abuse and neglect, respect for autonomy and agency requires clinicians to abide by patients' expressed wishes.

  17. Epilepsy and social security: general aspects of the insured claimants and medical decisions.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Lisiane Seguti; Palhares, Dario; Gava, Marília; Seguti, Vladimir Ferreira; Marasciulo, Antônio Carlos Estima

    2013-01-01

    Epilepsy affects adults at productive age and interferes with their ability to work. However, the granting of social security benefits to these patients has not received sufficient attention. This article aims to provide a profile of individuals with a previous diagnosis of epilepsy that file claims for social security benefits and a profile of the medical advisory decisions that support the concession of these benefits. A sample of thirty individuals with illness-related problems due to epilepsy was selected from the claimants that receive Social Security Incapacity/Sickness benefits. An exploratory data analysis of the 188 Social Security medical files of the thirty claimants was performed using the clinical and epidemiological information and the medical advisory criteria. The mean age of the claimants was 39 years and most of them were males in jobs that do not require a lot of schooling. The first claim was filed within an average of four years of employment. On average, each worker files a claim every three months, which entitles him/her to receive incapacity/sickness benefits for seventeen months. The frequency of seizures and the medications used by the claimants were registered in 60% of the medical files. In addition, the description of the physical and neurological exam was incomplete in 50% of the files. Furthermore, 60% of the files did not include the argument or the clinical evidence that was used to justify the concession of a benefit. The medical advisory decisions on epileptic workers tend to be inconsistent, overly lenient and generally lacking in clinical evidence. The disparities among the granted benefits indicate the need for the National Social Security System to review and draft specific guidelines for epilepsy.

  18. Practical trials in medical education: linking theory, practice and decision making.

    PubMed

    Tolsgaard, Martin G; Kulasegaram, Kulamakan M; Ringsted, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Concerns have been raised over the gap between education theory and practice and how research can contribute to inform decision makers on their choices and priorities. Little is known about how educational theories and research outcomes produced under optimal conditions in highly controlled settings generalise to the real-life education context. One way of bridging this gap is applying the concept of practical trials in medical education. In this paper we elaborate on characteristics of practical trials and based on examples from medical education we discuss the challenges, limitations and future directions for this kind of research. Practical trials have the overall aim of informing decision makers. They are carried out in real-life settings and are characterised by (i) comparison of viable alternative education strategies, (ii) broad inclusion criteria regarding participants across several settings and (iii) multiple outcome measures with long-term follow-up to evaluate both benefits and risks. Questions posed by practical trials may be proactive in applying theory in the development of educational innovations or reactive to educational reforms and innovations. Non-inferiority or equivalence designs are recommended when comparing viable alternatives and the use of crossover designs, cluster randomisation or stepped wedge trial designs are feasible when studying implementations across several settings. Outcome measures may include variables related to learners, teachers, educational administration, quality of care, patient outcomes and cost. Practical trials in medical education may contribute to bridge the gap between education theory and practice and aid decision makers in making evidence-based choices and priorities. Conducting practical trials is not without challenges and rigorous design and methods must be applied. Of concern is that the practical focus may lead to failure to include a sound theoretical basis in the research questions and the interventions

  19. Memory accessibility and medical decision-making for significant others: the role of socially shared retrieval-induced forgetting.

    PubMed

    Coman, Dora; Coman, Alin; Hirst, William

    2013-01-01

    Medical decisions will often entail a broad search for relevant information. No sources alone may offer a complete picture, and many may be selective in their presentation. This selectivity may induce forgetting for previously learned material, thereby adversely affecting medical decision-making. In the study phase of two experiments, participants learned information about a fictitious disease and advantages and disadvantages of four treatment options. In the subsequent practice phase, they read a pamphlet selectively presenting either relevant (Experiment 1) or irrelevant (Experiment 2) advantages or disadvantages. A final cued recall followed and, in Experiment 2, a decision as to the best treatment for a patient. Not only did reading the pamphlet induce forgetting for related and unmentioned information, the induced forgetting adversely affected decision-making. The research provides a cautionary note about the risks of searching through selectively presented information when making a medical decision.

  20. Memory Accessibility and Medical Decision-Making for Significant Others: The Role of Socially Shared Retrieval-Induced Forgetting

    PubMed Central

    Coman, Dora; Coman, Alin; Hirst, William

    2013-01-01

    Medical decisions will often entail a broad search for relevant information. No sources alone may offer a complete picture, and many may be selective in their presentation. This selectivity may induce forgetting for previously learned material, thereby adversely affecting medical decision-making. In the study phase of two experiments, participants learned information about a fictitious disease and advantages and disadvantages of four treatment options. In the subsequent practice phase, they read a pamphlet selectively presenting either relevant (Experiment 1) or irrelevant (Experiment 2) advantages or disadvantages. A final cued recall followed and, in Experiment 2, a decision as to the best treatment for a patient. Not only did reading the pamphlet induce forgetting for related and unmentioned information, the induced forgetting adversely affected decision-making. The research provides a cautionary note about the risks of searching through selectively presented information when making a medical decision. PMID:23785320

  1. Attitudes to infant feeding decision-making--a mixed-methods study of Australian medical students and GP registrars.

    PubMed

    Brodribb, Wendy; Fallon, Tony; Jackson, Claire; Hegney, Desley

    2010-03-01

    Breastfeeding is an important public health issue. While medical practitioners can have a significant impact on breastfeeding initiation and duration, there are few studies investigating their views regarding women's infant feeding decisions. This mixed-methods study employed qualitative (focus groups and interviews) and quantitative (questionnaire) data collection techniques to investigate the attitudes and views of Australian medical students and GP registrars about infant feeding decision-making. Three approaches to infant feeding decisions were evident: 'the moral choice' (women were expected to breastfeed); 'the free choice' (doctors should not influence a woman's decision); and 'the equal choice' (the outcome of the decision was unimportant). Participants were uncertain about differences between artificial-feeding and breastfeeding outcomes, and there was some concern that advising a mother to breastfeed may lead to maternal feelings of guilt and failure. These findings, the first in an Australian setting, provide a foundation on which to base further educational interventions for medical practitioners.

  2. Medical Waste Disposal Method Selection Based on a Hierarchical Decision Model with Intuitionistic Fuzzy Relations

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Wuyong; Wang, Zhou-Jing; Li, Kevin W.

    2016-01-01

    Although medical waste usually accounts for a small fraction of urban municipal waste, its proper disposal has been a challenging issue as it often contains infectious, radioactive, or hazardous waste. This article proposes a two-level hierarchical multicriteria decision model to address medical waste disposal method selection (MWDMS), where disposal methods are assessed against different criteria as intuitionistic fuzzy preference relations and criteria weights are furnished as real values. This paper first introduces new operations for a special class of intuitionistic fuzzy values, whose membership and non-membership information is cross ratio based ]0, 1[-values. New score and accuracy functions are defined in order to develop a comparison approach for ]0, 1[-valued intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. A weighted geometric operator is then put forward to aggregate a collection of ]0, 1[-valued intuitionistic fuzzy values. Similar to Saaty’s 1–9 scale, this paper proposes a cross-ratio-based bipolar 0.1–0.9 scale to characterize pairwise comparison results. Subsequently, a two-level hierarchical structure is formulated to handle multicriteria decision problems with intuitionistic preference relations. Finally, the proposed decision framework is applied to MWDMS to illustrate its feasibility and effectiveness. PMID:27618082

  3. Medical Waste Disposal Method Selection Based on a Hierarchical Decision Model with Intuitionistic Fuzzy Relations.

    PubMed

    Qian, Wuyong; Wang, Zhou-Jing; Li, Kevin W

    2016-09-09

    Although medical waste usually accounts for a small fraction of urban municipal waste, its proper disposal has been a challenging issue as it often contains infectious, radioactive, or hazardous waste. This article proposes a two-level hierarchical multicriteria decision model to address medical waste disposal method selection (MWDMS), where disposal methods are assessed against different criteria as intuitionistic fuzzy preference relations and criteria weights are furnished as real values. This paper first introduces new operations for a special class of intuitionistic fuzzy values, whose membership and non-membership information is cross ratio based ]0, 1[-values. New score and accuracy functions are defined in order to develop a comparison approach for ]0, 1[-valued intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. A weighted geometric operator is then put forward to aggregate a collection of ]0, 1[-valued intuitionistic fuzzy values. Similar to Saaty's 1-9 scale, this paper proposes a cross-ratio-based bipolar 0.1-0.9 scale to characterize pairwise comparison results. Subsequently, a two-level hierarchical structure is formulated to handle multicriteria decision problems with intuitionistic preference relations. Finally, the proposed decision framework is applied to MWDMS to illustrate its feasibility and effectiveness.

  4. 77 FR 46033 - Medical University of South Carolina, et al.; Notice of Consolidated Decision on Applications for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... Electron Microscope This is a decision consolidated pursuant to Section 6(c) of the Educational, Scientific...: Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29403. Instrument: Electron Microscope. Manufacturer.... Applicant: University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071. Instrument: Electron Microscope. Manufacturer:...

  5. Understanding and improving medical student specialty choice: a synthesis of the literature using decision theory as a referent.

    PubMed

    Reed, V A; Jernstedt, G C; Reber, E S

    2001-01-01

    As emphasis in medicine has shifted to increasing the number of physicians who choose primary care specialties, many studies of medical specialty choice have been conducted. Although researchers have approached the topic in a number of ways, most approaches have tended to focus on narrow elements of the choice, such as the effect of programs or curricula. A more comprehensive approach is possible by fitting the process to a preexisting broad theoretical framework. This synthesis of the literature examines specialty choice from the perspective of decision theory--with its aims of understanding how decisions are made, providing information about the quality of decisions, and improving the decision-making process. This approach has the potential to not only help deconstruct the process of decision making regarding specialty choice but also uncover information about the best ways to help medical students learn to make wise decisions.

  6. Participation of Children in Medical Decision-Making: Challenges and Potential Solutions.

    PubMed

    Jeremic, Vida; Sénécal, Karine; Borry, Pascal; Chokoshvili, Davit; Vears, Danya F

    2016-12-01

    Participation in healthcare decision-making is considered to be an important right of minors, and is highlighted in both international legislation and public policies. However, despite the legal recognition of children's rights to participation, and also the benefits that children experience by their involvement, there is evidence that legislation is not always translated into healthcare practice. There are a number of factors that may impact on the ability of the child to be involved in decisions regarding their medical care. Some of these factors relate to the child, including their capacity to be actively involved in these decisions. Others relate to the family situation, sociocultural context, or the underlying beliefs and practices of the healthcare provider involved. In spite of these challenges to including children in decisions regarding their clinical care, we argue that it is an important factor in their treatment. The extent to which children should participate in this process should be determined on a case-by-case basis, taking all of the potential barriers into account.

  7. To Medicate or Not to Medicate?: The Decision-Making Process of Western Australian Parents Following Their Child's Diagnosis with an Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Myra; O'Donoghue, Tom; Houghton, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the decision-making processes that Western Australian parents utilise when deciding whether to medicate or not to medicate their child diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Thirty-three parents (five fathers and 28 mothers) from a wide range of socio-economic status suburbs in Perth, Western Australia were…

  8. To Medicate or Not to Medicate?: The Decision-Making Process of Western Australian Parents Following Their Child's Diagnosis with an Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Myra; O'Donoghue, Tom; Houghton, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the decision-making processes that Western Australian parents utilise when deciding whether to medicate or not to medicate their child diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Thirty-three parents (five fathers and 28 mothers) from a wide range of socio-economic status suburbs in Perth, Western Australia were…

  9. Collection of Medical Original Data with Search Engine for Decision Support.

    PubMed

    Orthuber, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Medicine is becoming more and more complex and humans can capture total medical knowledge only partially. For specific access a high resolution search engine is demonstrated, which allows besides conventional text search also search of precise quantitative data of medical findings, therapies and results. Users can define metric spaces ("Domain Spaces", DSs) with all searchable quantitative data ("Domain Vectors", DSs). An implementation of the search engine is online in http://numericsearch.com. In future medicine the doctor could make first a rough diagnosis and check which fine diagnostics (quantitative data) colleagues had collected in such a case. Then the doctor decides about fine diagnostics and results are sent (half automatically) to the search engine which filters a group of patients which best fits to these data. In this specific group variable therapies can be checked with associated therapeutic results, like in an individual scientific study for the current patient. The statistical (anonymous) results could be used for specific decision support. Reversely the therapeutic decision (in the best case with later results) could be used to enhance the collection of precise pseudonymous medical original data which is used for better and better statistical (anonymous) search results.

  10. The Integrated Medical Model: A Risk Assessment and Decision Support Tool for Human Space Flight Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerstman, Eric L.; Minard, Charles; FreiredeCarvalho, Mary H.; Walton, Marlei E.; Myers, Jerry G., Jr.; Saile, Lynn G.; Lopez, Vilma; Butler, Douglas J.; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Integrated Medical Model (IMM) and its use as a risk assessment and decision support tool for human space flight missions. The IMM is an integrated, quantified, evidence-based decision support tool useful to NASA crew health and mission planners. It is intended to assist in optimizing crew health, safety and mission success within the constraints of the space flight environment for in-flight operations. It uses ISS data to assist in planning for the Exploration Program and it is not intended to assist in post flight research. The IMM was used to update Probability Risk Assessment (PRA) for the purpose of updating forecasts for the conditions requiring evacuation (EVAC) or Loss of Crew Life (LOC) for the ISS. The IMM validation approach includes comparison with actual events and involves both qualitative and quantitaive approaches. The results of these comparisons are reviewed. Another use of the IMM is to optimize the medical kits taking into consideration the specific mission and the crew profile. An example of the use of the IMM to optimize the medical kits is reviewed.

  11. Performance evaluation of the machine learning algorithms used in inference mechanism of a medical decision support system.

    PubMed

    Bal, Mert; Amasyali, M Fatih; Sever, Hayri; Kose, Guven; Demirhan, Ayse

    2014-01-01

    The importance of the decision support systems is increasingly supporting the decision making process in cases of uncertainty and the lack of information and they are widely used in various fields like engineering, finance, medicine, and so forth, Medical decision support systems help the healthcare personnel to select optimal method during the treatment of the patients. Decision support systems are intelligent software systems that support decision makers on their decisions. The design of decision support systems consists of four main subjects called inference mechanism, knowledge-base, explanation module, and active memory. Inference mechanism constitutes the basis of decision support systems. There are various methods that can be used in these mechanisms approaches. Some of these methods are decision trees, artificial neural networks, statistical methods, rule-based methods, and so forth. In decision support systems, those methods can be used separately or a hybrid system, and also combination of those methods. In this study, synthetic data with 10, 100, 1000, and 2000 records have been produced to reflect the probabilities on the ALARM network. The accuracy of 11 machine learning methods for the inference mechanism of medical decision support system is compared on various data sets.

  12. Complementarity of Clinician Judgment and Evidence Based Models in Medical Decision Making: Antecedents, Prospects, and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Asante Antwi, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Early accounts of the development of modern medicine suggest that the clinical skills, scientific competence, and doctors' judgment were the main impetus for treatment decision, diagnosis, prognosis, therapy assessment, and medical progress. Yet, clinician judgment has its own critics and is sometimes harshly described as notoriously fallacious and an irrational and unfathomable black box with little transparency. With the rise of contemporary medical research, the reputation of clinician judgment has undergone significant reformation in the last century as its fallacious aspects are increasingly emphasized relative to the evidence based options. Within the last decade, however, medical forecasting literature has seen tremendous change and new understanding is emerging on best ways of sharing medical information to complement the evidence based medicine practices. This review revisits and highlights the core debate on clinical judgments and its interrelations with evidence based medicine. It outlines the key empirical results of clinician judgments relative to evidence based models and identifies its key strengths and prospects, the key limitations and conditions for the effective use of clinician judgment, and the extent to which it can be optimized and professionalized for medical use. PMID:27642588

  13. Complementarity of Clinician Judgment and Evidence Based Models in Medical Decision Making: Antecedents, Prospects, and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Lulin, Zhou; Yiranbon, Ethel; Asante Antwi, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Early accounts of the development of modern medicine suggest that the clinical skills, scientific competence, and doctors' judgment were the main impetus for treatment decision, diagnosis, prognosis, therapy assessment, and medical progress. Yet, clinician judgment has its own critics and is sometimes harshly described as notoriously fallacious and an irrational and unfathomable black box with little transparency. With the rise of contemporary medical research, the reputation of clinician judgment has undergone significant reformation in the last century as its fallacious aspects are increasingly emphasized relative to the evidence based options. Within the last decade, however, medical forecasting literature has seen tremendous change and new understanding is emerging on best ways of sharing medical information to complement the evidence based medicine practices. This review revisits and highlights the core debate on clinical judgments and its interrelations with evidence based medicine. It outlines the key empirical results of clinician judgments relative to evidence based models and identifies its key strengths and prospects, the key limitations and conditions for the effective use of clinician judgment, and the extent to which it can be optimized and professionalized for medical use.

  14. Combining multi-criteria decision analysis and mini-health technology assessment: A funding decision-support tool for medical devices in a university hospital setting.

    PubMed

    Martelli, Nicolas; Hansen, Paul; van den Brink, Hélène; Boudard, Aurélie; Cordonnier, Anne-Laure; Devaux, Capucine; Pineau, Judith; Prognon, Patrice; Borget, Isabelle

    2016-02-01

    At the hospital level, decisions about purchasing new and oftentimes expensive medical devices must take into account multiple criteria simultaneously. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is increasingly used for health technology assessment (HTA). One of the most successful hospital-based HTA approaches is mini-HTA, of which a notable example is the Matrix4value model. To develop a funding decision-support tool combining MCDA and mini-HTA, based on Matrix4value, suitable for medical devices for individual patient use in French university hospitals - known as the IDA tool, short for 'innovative device assessment'. Criteria for assessing medical devices were identified from a literature review and a survey of 18 French university hospitals. Weights for the criteria, representing their relative importance, were derived from a survey of 25 members of a medical devices committee using an elicitation technique involving pairwise comparisons. As a test of its usefulness, the IDA tool was applied to two new drug-eluting beads (DEBs) for transcatheter arterial chemoembolization. The IDA tool comprises five criteria and weights for each of two over-arching categories: risk and value. The tool revealed that the two new DEBs conferred no additional value relative to DEBs currently available. Feedback from participating decision-makers about the IDA tool was very positive. The tool could help to promote a more structured and transparent approach to HTA decision-making in French university hospitals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Expert Medical Decision-Making: How the Data-Frame Theory Can Explain Physician Sense-Making.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Darren; Singh, Gurmeet

    2017-01-01

    The major task of physicians is decision making. This is often done in time pressured situations. The traditional theory of decision making does not reflect this reality and naturalistic decision making is a more appropriate model. The first step is to make sense of the patient or the problem and the Data-Frame Theory of Klein seems to be the best model. This model has significant implications in the way we view clinical information systems, communication and medical education.

  16. Analysis of medical-decision making and the use of standards of care in oncology.

    PubMed Central

    Holzer, S.; Fremgen, A. M.; Hundahl, S. A.; Dudeck, J.

    2000-01-01

    Guidelines in medicine have been proposed as a way to assist physicians in the clinical decision-making process. Increasingly, they form the basis for assessing accountability in the delivery of healthcare services. However, experiences with their evaluation, as the most important step in the continuous guidelines process, are rare. Patient Care Evaluation Studies have been developed by the Commission on Cancer in the United States. As they reflect the "real-world" medical practice they are helpful in evaluating the quality of diagnosis, therapy and follow-up of tumor diseases in hospitals and cancer center and the compliance with current standards of care. In this context, they can provide an infrastructure for the analysis of the decision-making process. PMID:11079906

  17. Service-oriented medical system for supporting decisions with missing and imbalanced data.

    PubMed

    Zieba, Maciej

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a service-oriented support decision system (SOSDS) for diagnostic problems that is insensitive to the problems of the imbalanced data and missing values of the attributes, which are widely observed in the medical domain. The system is composed of distributed Web services, which implement machine-learning solutions dedicated to constructing the decision models directly from the datasets impaired by the high percentage of missing values of the attributes and imbalanced class distribution. The issue of the imbalanced data is solved by the application of a cost-sensitive support vector machine and the problem of missing values of attributes is handled by proposing the novel ensemble-based approach that splits the incomplete data space into complete subspaces that are further used to construct base learners. We evaluate the quality of the SOSDS components using three ontological datasets.

  18. Are clinicians correct when they believe they are correct? Implications for medical decision support.

    PubMed

    Friedman, C; Gatti, G; Elstein, A; Franz, T; Murphy, G; Wolf, F

    2001-01-01

    The process of clinical decision support is linked to the validity of clinicians' confidence in their judgments. Clinicians who are appropriately confident-highly confident when they are correct and less confident when they are incorrect-will access computer-based and other information resources only when they are needed. Clinicians who are consistently underconfident will rely on external resources when they are not needed. Those who are overconfident, who believe they are correct when in fact they are not, will be prone to medical errors. An extensive literature indicates a general tendency toward overconfidence in human judgment. This study explores the relationship between confidence and "correctness", across three levels of clinical experience, in the task domain of diagnosis in internal medicine. We created detailed synopses of 36 diagnostically challenging cases and divided them into four equivalent sets of nine cases each. We asked 216 subjects at three experience levels (72 senior medical students, 72 senior medical residents, and 72 faculty attendings) to generate a differential diagnosis for each of the nine cases in one randomly-assigned set, and simultaneously to indicate their level of confidence in each of their diagnoses. We then examined the relationship between the correctness of these diagnoses (the appearance of the correct diagnosis anywhere in the hypothesis list) and these confidence judgments, for all subjects and separately for subjects at each experience level. Results indicate a small but statistically significant relationship associating correctness with higher confidence for all subjects (Kendall's tau b =.-106;p <.0001). This statistical relationship is strongest for the students ( tau b =.-121;p <.001), somewhat lesser but still significant for the faculty-level attendings ( tau b =.-103;p <.005), and non-significant ( tau b =.-041 ) for the residents. (The negative correlations are a coding artifact.) Subjects in this study showed a

  19. Parent Perspectives on the Decision to Initiate Medication Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Pappadopulos, Elizabeth; Katsiotas, Nikki J.; Berest, Alison; Jensen, Peter S.; Kafantaris, Vivian

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Despite substantial evidence supporting the efficacy of stimulant medication for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), adherence to stimulant treatment is often suboptimal. Applying social/cognitive theories to understanding and assessing parent attitudes toward initiating medication may provide insight into factors influencing parent decisions to follow ADHD treatment recommendations. This report describes results from formative research that used focus groups to obtain parent input to guide development of a provider-delivered intervention to improve adherence to stimulants. Methods Participants were caregivers of children with ADHD who were given a stimulant treatment recommendation. Focus groups were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed by inductive, grounded theory methods as well as a deductive analytic strategy using an adapted version of the Unified Theory of Behavior Change to organize and understand parent accounts. Results Five groups were conducted with 27 parents (mean child age=9.35 years; standard deviation [SD]=2.00), mean time since diagnosis=3.33 years (SD=2.47). Most parents (81.5%) had pursued stimulant treatment. Inductive analysis revealed 17 attitudes facilitating adherence and 25 barriers. Facilitators included parent beliefs that medication treatment resulted in multiple functional gains and that treatment was imperative for their children's safety. Barriers included fears of personality changes and medication side effects. Complex patterns of parent adherence to medication regimens were also identified, as well as preferences for psychiatrists who were diagnostically expert, gave psychoeducation using multiple modalities, and used a chronic illness metaphor to explain ADHD. Theory-based analyses revealed conflicting expectancies about treatment risks and benefits, significant family pressures to avoid medication, guilt and concern that their children required medication, and

  20. Impact of Discharge Planning Decision Support on Time to Readmission Among Older Adult Medical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bowles, Kathryn H.; Hanlon, Alexandra; Holland, Diane; Potashnik, Sheryl L.; Topaz, Maxim

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the Study Hospital clinicians are overwhelmed with the volume of patients churning through the health care systems. The study purpose was to determine whether alerting case managers about high-risk patients by supplying decision support results in better discharge plans as evidenced by time to first hospital readmission. Primary Practice Setting Four medical units at one urban, university medical center. Methodology and Sample A quasi-experimental study including a usual care and experimental phase with hospitalized English-speaking patients aged 55 years and older. The intervention included using an evidence-based screening tool, the Discharge Decision Support System (D2S2), that supports Clinicians′ discharge referral decision making by identifying high-risk patients upon admission who need a referral for post-acute care. The usual care phase included collection of the D2S2 information, but not sharing the Information with case managers. The experimental phase Included data collection and then sharing the results with the case managers. The study compared time to readmission between index discharge date and 30 and 60 days in patients in both groups (usual care vs. experimental). Results After sharing the D2S2 results, the percentage of referral or high-risk patients readmitted by 30 and 60 days decreased by 6% and 9%, respectively, representing a 26% relative reduction in readmissions for both periods. Implications for Case Management Practice Supplying decision support to identify high-risk patients recommended for postacute referral is associated with better discharge plans as evidenced by an increase in time to first hospital readmission. The tool supplies standardized information upon admission allowing more . time to work with high-risk admissions. PMID:24300427

  1. A JAVA implementation of a medical knowledge base for decision support.

    PubMed

    Ambrosiadou, V; Goulis, D; Shankararaman, V; Shamtani, G

    1999-01-01

    Distributed decision support is a challenging issue requiring the implementation of advanced computer science techniques together with tools of development which offer ease of communication and efficiency of searching and control performance. This paper presents a JAVA implementation of a knowledge base model called ARISTOTELES which may be used in order to support the development of the medical knowledge base by clinicians in diverse specialised areas of interest. The advantages that are evident by the application of such a cognitive model are ease of knowledge acquisition, modular construction of the knowledge base and greater acceptance from clinicians.

  2. Performance of online drug information databases as clinical decision support tools in infectious disease medication management.

    PubMed

    Polen, Hyla H; Zapantis, Antonia; Clauson, Kevin A; Clauson, Kevin Alan; Jebrock, Jennifer; Paris, Mark

    2008-11-06

    Infectious disease (ID) medication management is complex and clinical decision support tools (CDSTs) can provide valuable assistance. This study evaluated scope and completeness of ID drug information found in online databases by evaluating their ability to answer 147 question/answer pairs. Scope scores produced highest rankings (%) for: Micromedex (82.3), Lexi-Comp/American Hospital Formulary Service (81.0), and Medscape Drug Reference (81.0); lowest includes: Epocrates Online Premium (47.0), Johns Hopkins ABX Guide (45.6), and PEPID PDC (40.8).

  3. Continuing education in ethical decision making using case studies from medical social work.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Andrew J; Stowell-Weiss, Patti; Carson, Jennifer; Tebo, Gerald; Hanson, Inga; Quesada, Bianca

    2014-01-01

    Medical social workers have needs for training in ethics that is specific to dilemmas that arise while providing service to patients who are very ill, mentally compromised, or in a terminal condition. A social work department developed a continuing education training to educate social workers in bioethics related to determining decisional capacity and understanding standards of ethical decision making. Case studies are used to illustrate ethical conflicts and the role of social workers in resolving them. The benefits of case study training are discussed.

  4. Acting or letting go: medical decision making in neonatology in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Van Leeuwen, E; Kimsma, G K

    1993-01-01

    Recent legal and ethical developments in Dutch neonatology are summarized. In 1988, a surgeon published an account of the death of a newborn [Baby Ross] with Down syndrome when he, the surgeon, concurred with the parents' refusal of surgery to correct atresia of the duodenum and small intestine. When the story became public, the physician was prosecuted, though his petition against this action was upheld by the courts. In November 1992, the Dutch Pediatrics Society [Dutch Union of Paediatrics] issued its final report, "Acting or Deciding to Forgo: Limits of Medical Treatment in Neonatology," which discussed the ethical, legal, and policy issues involved in treatment decisions concerning seriously ill, handicapped, or premature infants.

  5. Directive counsel and morally controversial medical decision-making: findings from two national surveys of primary care physicians.

    PubMed

    Putman, Michael S; Yoon, John D; Rasinski, Kenneth A; Curlin, Farr A

    2014-02-01

    Because of the potential to unduly influence patients' decisions, some ethicists counsel physicians to be nondirective when negotiating morally controversial medical decisions. To determine whether primary care providers (PCPs) are less likely to endorse directive counsel for morally controversial medical decisions than for typical ones and to identify predictors of endorsing directive counsel in such situations. Surveys were mailed to two separate national samples of practicing primary care physicians. Survey 1 was conducted from 2009 to 2010 on 1,504 PCPs; Survey 2 was conducted from 2010 to 2011 on 1,058 PCPs. Survey 1: After randomization, half of the PCPs were asked if physicians should encourage patients to make the decision that the physician believes is best (directive counsel) with respect to "typical" medical decisions and half were asked the same question with respect to "morally controversial" medical decisions. Survey 2: After reading a vignette in which a patient asked for palliative sedation to unconsciousness, PCPs were asked whether it would be appropriate for the patient's physician to encourage the patient to make the decision the physician believes is best. Of 1,427 eligible physicians, 896 responded to Survey 1 (63 %). Physicians asked about morally controversial decisions were half as likely (35 % vs. 65 % for typical decisions, p < 0.001) to endorse directive counsel. Of 986 eligible physicians, 600 responded to Survey 2 (61 %). Two in five physicians (41 %) endorsed directive counsel after reading a vignette describing a patient requesting palliative sedation to unconsciousness; these physicians tended to be male and more religious. PCPs are less likely to endorse directive counsel when negotiating morally controversial medical decisions. Male physicians and those who are more religious are more likely to endorse directive counsel in these situations.

  6. Decision making preferences in the medical encounter – a factorial survey design

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Engelmann, Meike; Krones, Tanja; Keller, Heidi; Donner-Banzhoff, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    Background Up to now it has not been systematically investigated in which kind of clinical situations a consultation style based on shared decision making (SDM) is preferred by patients and physicians. We suggest the factorial survey design to address this problem. This method, which so far has hardly been used in health service research, allows to vary relevant factors describing clinical situations as variables systematically in an experimental random design and to investigate their importance in large samples. Methods/Design To identify situational factors for the survey we first performed a literature search which was followed by a qualitative interview study with patients, physicians and health care experts. As a result, 7 factors (e.g. "Reason for consultation" and "Number of therapeutic options") with 2 to 3 levels (e.g. "One therapeutic option" and "More than one therapeutic option") will be included in the study. For the survey the factor levels will be randomly combined to short stories describing different treatment situations. A randomized sample of all possible short stories will be given to at least 300 subjects (100 GPs, 100 patients and 100 members of self-help groups) who will be asked to rate how the decision should be made. Main outcome measure is the preference for participation in the decision making process in the given clinical situation. Data analysis will estimate the effects of the factors on the rating and also examine differences between groups. Discussion The results will reveal the effects of situational variations on participation preferences. Thus, our findings will contribute to the understanding of normative values in the medical decision making process and will improve future implementation of SDM and decision aids. PMID:19091091

  7. Decision making preferences in the medical encounter--a factorial survey design.

    PubMed

    Müller-Engelmann, Meike; Krones, Tanja; Keller, Heidi; Donner-Banzhoff, Norbert

    2008-12-17

    Up to now it has not been systematically investigated in which kind of clinical situations a consultation style based on shared decision making (SDM) is preferred by patients and physicians. We suggest the factorial survey design to address this problem.This method, which so far has hardly been used in health service research, allows to vary relevant factors describing clinical situations as variables systematically in an experimental random design and to investigate their importance in large samples. To identify situational factors for the survey we first performed a literature search which was followed by a qualitative interview study with patients, physicians and health care experts. As a result, 7 factors (e.g. "Reason for consultation" and "Number of therapeutic options") with 2 to 3 levels (e.g. "One therapeutic option" and "More than one therapeutic option") will be included in the study. For the survey the factor levels will be randomly combined to short stories describing different treatment situations.A randomized sample of all possible short stories will be given to at least 300 subjects (100 GPs, 100 patients and 100 members of self-help groups) who will be asked to rate how the decision should be made. Main outcome measure is the preference for participation in the decision making process in the given clinical situation.Data analysis will estimate the effects of the factors on the rating and also examine differences between groups. The results will reveal the effects of situational variations on participation preferences. Thus, our findings will contribute to the understanding of normative values in the medical decision making process and will improve future implementation of SDM and decision aids.

  8. Using PICO to align medical evidence with MDs decision making models.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Dympna; Wilk, Szymon; Michalowski, Wojtek; Farion, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Modern medicine is characterized by an "explosion" in clinical research information making practical application of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM), problematic for many clinicians. We have developed a PICO-(evidence based search strategy focusing on Patient/Population, Intervention, Comparison and Outcome)-based framework for (indexing and retrieving medical evidence and we posit that the use of PICO allows for organizing evidence that is aligned with an MD's decision making model. We describe a study where medical students evaluated our PICO-based approach and results show that students are eager to apply EBM but are hindered by a lack of specialist skills. Students reported that the PICO-based framework for organizing evidence provided an intuitive way of accessing and evaluating evidence and would be useful for their clinical tasks.

  9. The family and harmonious medical decision making: cherishing an appropriate Confucian moral balance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoyang; Fan, Ruiping

    2010-10-01

    This essay illustrates what the Chinese family-based and harmony-oriented model of medical decision making is like as well as how it differs from the modern Western individual-based and autonomy-oriented model in health care practice. The essay discloses the roots of the Chinese model in the Confucian account of the family and the Confucian view of harmony. By responding to a series of questions posed to the Chinese model by modern Western scholars in terms of the basic individualist concerns and values embedded in the modern Western model, we conclude that the Chinese people have justifiable reasons to continue to apply the Chinese model to their contemporary health care and medical practice.

  10. Medical equipment classification: method and decision-making support based on paraconsistent annotated logic.

    PubMed

    Oshiyama, Natália F; Bassani, Rosana A; D'Ottaviano, Itala M L; Bassani, José W M

    2012-04-01

    As technology evolves, the role of medical equipment in the healthcare system, as well as technology management, becomes more important. Although the existence of large databases containing management information is currently common, extracting useful information from them is still difficult. A useful tool for identification of frequently failing equipment, which increases maintenance cost and downtime, would be the classification according to the corrective maintenance data. Nevertheless, establishment of classes may create inconsistencies, since an item may be close to two classes by the same extent. Paraconsistent logic might help solve this problem, as it allows the existence of inconsistent (contradictory) information without trivialization. In this paper, a methodology for medical equipment classification based on the ABC analysis of corrective maintenance data is presented, and complemented with a paraconsistent annotated logic analysis, which may enable the decision maker to take into consideration alerts created by the identification of inconsistencies and indeterminacies in the classification.

  11. Critical decision points in the management of impaired doctors: the New South Wales Medical Board program.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Kay A; Reid, Alison M

    2004-10-04

    The New South Wales Medical Board has developed the Impaired Registrants Program to deal with impaired registrants (doctors and medical students) in a constructive and non-disciplinary manner; the program is now well established. The Program enables the Board to protect the public, while maintaining doctors in practice whenever possible. Disorders that commonly lead to referral of impaired doctors include alcohol and drug misuse, major depression, bipolar disorder, cognitive impairment and, less commonly, psychotic and personality disorders and anorexia nervosa. Pathways in the program are individualised according to the impact of the specific disorder, the registrant's career stage, stage of involvement in the program, insight and motivation. Critical points in the program include entry, easing of conditions, breach of conditions, return to work after suspension, and exit from the program. Decision-making at these points takes into account the nature of the impairment, compliance, professional and personal support available and the registrant's insight and motivation.

  12. Evaluation of inherent performance of intelligent medical decision support systems: utilising neural networks as an example.

    PubMed

    Smith, A E; Nugent, C D; McClean, S I

    2003-01-01

    Researchers who design intelligent systems for medical decision support, are aware of the need for response to real clinical issues, in particular the need to address the specific ethical problems that the medical domain has in using black boxes. This means such intelligent systems have to be thoroughly evaluated, for acceptability. Attempts at compliance, however, are hampered by lack of guidelines. This paper addresses the issue of inherent performance evaluation, which researchers have addressed in part, but a Medline search, using neural networks as an example of intelligent systems, indicated that only about 12.5% evaluated inherent performance adequately. This paper aims to address this issue by concentrating on the possible evaluation methodology, giving a framework and specific suggestions for each type of classification problem. This should allow the developers of intelligent systems to produce evidence of a sufficiency of output performance evaluation.

  13. Medical Decision-Making Processes and Online Behaviors Among Cannabis Dispensary Staff.

    PubMed

    Peiper, Nicholas C; Gourdet, Camille; Meinhofer, Angélica; Reiman, Amanda; Reggente, Nicco

    2017-01-01

    Most cannabis patients engage with dispensary staff, like budtenders, for medical advice on cannabis. Yet, little is known about these interactions and how the characteristics of budtenders affect these interactions. This study investigated demographics, workplace characteristics, medical decision-making, and online behaviors among a sample of budtenders. Between June and September 2016, a cross-sectional Internet survey was administered to budtenders in the San Francisco Bay Area and Greater Los Angeles. A total of 158 budtenders fully responded to the survey. A series of comparisons were conducted to determine differences between trained and untrained budtenders. Among the 158 budtenders, 56% had received formal training to become a budtender. Several demographic differences were found between trained and untrained budtenders. For workplace characteristics, trained budtenders were more likely to report budtender as their primary job (74% vs 53%), practice more than 5 years (34% vs 11%), and receive sales commission (57% vs 16%). Trained budtenders were significantly less likely to perceive medical decision-making as very important (47% vs 68%) and have a patient-centered philosophy (77% vs 89%). Although trained budtenders had significantly lower Internet usage, they were significantly more likely to exchange information with patients through e-mail (58% vs 39%), text message (46% vs 30%), mobile app (33% vs 11%), video call (26% vs 3%), and social media (51% vs 23%). Budtenders who are formally trained exhibit significantly different patterns of interaction with medical cannabis patients. Future studies will use multivariate methods to better determine which factors independently influence interactions and how budtenders operate after the introduction of regulations under the newly passed Proposition 64 that permits recreational cannabis use in California.

  14. A randomized controlled trial on teaching geriatric medical decision making and cost consciousness with the serious game GeriatriX.

    PubMed

    Lagro, Joep; van de Pol, Marjolein H J; Laan, Annalies; Huijbregts-Verheyden, Fanny J; Fluit, Lia C R; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M

    2014-12-01

    Medical students often lack training in complex geriatric medical decision making. We therefore developed the serious game, GeriatriX, for training medical decision making with weighing patient preferences, and appropriateness and costs of medical care. We hypothesized that education with GeriatriX would improve the ability to deal with geriatric decision making and also increase cost consciousness. A randomized, controlled pre-post measurement design. Fifth-year medical students. Playing the serious game GeriatriX as an additive to usual geriatric education. We evaluated the effects of playing GeriatriX on self-perceived knowledge of geriatric themes and the self-perceived competence of weighing patient preferences, appropriateness, and costs of medical care in geriatric decision making. Cost consciousness was evaluated with a postmeasurement to estimate costs of different diagnostic tests. There was a large positive increase in the self-perceived competence of weighing patient preferences, appropriateness, and costs of medical care in the intervention group (n = 71) (effect sizes of 0.7, 1.0, and 1.2, respectively), which was significantly better for the last 2 aspects than in the control group (n = 63). The intervention group performed better on cost consciousness. Although the self-perceived knowledge increased substantially on some geriatric topics, this improvement was not different between the intervention and control groups. After playing the serious game, GeriatriX, medical students have a higher self-perceived competence in weighing patient preferences, appropriateness, and costs of medical care in complex geriatric medical decision making. Playing GeriatriX also resulted in better cost consciousness. We therefore encourage wider use of GeriatriX to teach geriatrics in medical curricula and its further research on educational and health care outcomes. Copyright © 2014 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier

  15. Medical practitioners' competence and confidentiality decisions with a minor: An anorexia nervosa case study.

    PubMed

    Bartholomew, Terence; Carvalho, Tatiana

    2007-08-01

    Minors (i.e., those under 18 years of age) hold a tenuous legal position in medical settings. While recent legal authority in numerous jurisdictions affords competent minors the right to consent to medical treatment, the guidelines for assessing competence are often vague or non-existent. In addition, these changes have not adequately addressed the issue of confidentiality, and it is unclear whether general practitioners (GPs) owe a duty of confidentiality to competent minors. As medical practitioners are the first point of contact in medical settings, the present study explored GPs' competence and confidentiality determinations regarding a 16-year-old female patient who presented with symptoms of an eating disorder. Questionnaires and hypothetical scenarios were sent to a sample of 1000 GPs, of which 305 responded. Results indicated that 62% of respondents would have found the patient competent, while 82% would have maintained her confidentiality. However, analysis of the rationales provided for these decisions revealed a wide discrepancy in GPs' understanding and implementation of current legal principles. This research highlights the necessity of providing GPs with clear guidelines regarding competence and confidentiality determinations when dealing with minors.

  16. Translating comparative effectiveness of depression medications into practice by comparing the depression medication choice decision aid to usual care: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Comparative effectiveness research (CER) documents important differences in antidepressants in terms of efficacy, safety, cost, and burden to the patient. Decision aids can adapt this evidence to help patients participate in making informed choices. In turn, antidepressant therapy will more likely reflect patients’ values and context, leading to improved adherence and mood outcomes. Methods/Design The objective of this study is to develop the Depression Medication Choice decision aid for use during primary care encounters, and to test its efficacy by conducting a clustered practical randomized trial comparing the decision aid to usual depression care in primary care practices. We will use a novel practice-based, patient-centered approach based on participatory action research that involves a multidisciplinary team of designers, investigators, clinicians, patient representatives, and other stakeholders for the development of the decision aid. We will then conduct a clustered practical randomized trial enrolling clinicians and their patients (n = 300) with moderate to severe depression from rural, suburban and inner city primary care practices (n = 10). The intervention will consist of the use of the depression medication choice decision aid during the clinical encounter. This trial will generate preliminary evidence of the relative impact of the decision aid on patient involvement in decision making, decision making quality, patient knowledge, and 6-month measures of medication adherence and mental health compared to usual depression care. Discussion Upon completion of the proposed research, we will have developed and evaluated the efficacy of the decision aid depression medication choice as a novel translational tool for CER in depression treatment, engaged patients with depression in their care, and refined the process by which we conduct practice-based trials with limited research footprint. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov: NCT01502891 PMID

  17. Effect of training problem-solving skill on decision-making and critical thinking of personnel at medical emergencies.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Mohammad; Shahbazi, Sara

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of problem-solving training on decision-making skill and critical thinking in emergency medical personnel. This study is an experimental study that performed in 95 emergency medical personnel in two groups of control (48) and experimental (47). Then, a short problem-solving course based on 8 sessions of 2 h during the term, was performed for the experimental group. Of data gathering was used demographic and researcher made decision-making and California critical thinking skills questionnaires. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. The finding revealed that decision-making and critical thinking score in emergency medical personnel are low and problem-solving course, positively affected the personnel' decision-making skill and critical thinking after the educational program (P < 0.05). Therefore, this kind of education on problem-solving in various emergency medicine domains such as education, research, and management, is recommended.

  18. The Re-contextualization of the Patient: What Home Health Care Can Teach Us About Medical Decision-Making.

    PubMed

    Salter, Erica K

    2015-06-01

    This article examines the role of context in the development and deployment of standards of medical decision-making. First, it demonstrates that bioethics, and our dominant standards of medical decision-making, developed out of a specific historical and philosophical environment that prioritized technology over the person, standardization over particularity, individuality over relationship and rationality over other forms of knowing. These forces de-contextualize the patient and encourage decision-making that conforms to the unnatural and contrived environment of the hospital. The article then explores several important differences between the home health care and acute care settings. Finally, it argues that the personalized, embedded, relational and idiosyncratic nature of the home is actually a much more accurate reflection of the context in which real people make real decisions. Thus, we should work to "re-contextualize" patients, in order that they might be better equipped to make decisions that harmonize with their real lives.

  19. Participatory decision making, asthma action plans, and use of asthma medication: a population survey.

    PubMed

    Adams, Robert J; Appleton, Sarah; Wilson, David H; Ruffin, Richard E

    2005-10-01

    Use of controller asthma medication and possession of asthma action plans remains suboptimal. Our aim was to investigate the association of the propensity of physicians to involve patients in their care (participatory decision-making style) and their asthma management in a representative population sample of 3015 adults. Current doctor-diagnosed asthma was reported by 393 (13.0%). People who rated their doctors as more participatory were significantly more likely to report more regular use of controller medications and possession of a written asthma action plan, but not less asthma morbidity. Possession of a written action plan was associated with more participatory interactions (OR 2.3; 95% CI 1.1-4.7, for upper tertile scores compared to lowest tertile); more severe symptoms (OR 4.8; 95% CI 1.7-13.0), being female (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.2-4.3), those with higher education, and residence outside the metropolitan area (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.1-4.0). Increasing patient participation in their own care is associated with better asthma management, independent of asthma symptoms. Longitudinal studies are needed to examine if increasing participation in decisions can also improve asthma outcomes.

  20. Factors influencing the decision to practise obstetrics among Québec medical students: a survey.

    PubMed

    Bédard, Marie-Josée; Berthiaume, Sylvie; Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; Leclerc, Céline

    2006-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to track changes in medical students' interest in obstetrics from the beginning of their studies in medicine to the end of their pre-clinical clerkships and to identify factors that influenced this interest. This was a cohort study of all Québec medical students who, in 2003, were about to begin their clerkships (n = 500). A questionnaire was administered at this time (T1) and at the end of the clerkship (T2). The main outcome variables were an intention to provide prenatal care without deliveries and an intention to deliver infants in future practice. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess relationships between the various determinants and the decision to practise obstetrics. A total of 353 students, or 70.6% of the cohort, completed both questionnaires. At the end of their clerkships, 32 students (9.1%) were definitely planning to include complete obstetrical care in their future practices, and 45 (12.7%) said that they probably would. Between the beginning and the end of their clerkships, only 8% of students had changed their minds in favour of an obstetrical career, and 20% had decided against it. An intention to deliver infants is associated with the following factors: considering the practice of obstetrics gratifying (odds ratio [OR] 6.73; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 3.30-13.70); having been exposed to obstetrical care outside the clerkship in obstetrics and gynaecology (OR 4.4; 95% CI 1.6-10.26); having completed university studies before studying medicine (OR 4.08; 95% CI 1.11-15.3); and having had a decisive, positive experience with obstetrics (OR 2.86; 95% CI 0.96-8.50). Students who believed that specialists had played a key role in their decision and that obstetrics is a demanding practice were less likely to plan a career that included delivering infants (OR 0.43; 95% CI 0.23-0.69 and OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.21-0.59, respectively). This study shows that an interest in practising obstetrics emerges very early in

  1. Triggering the decision to undergo medical male circumcision: a qualitative study of adult men in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Kathleen E; Semo, Bazghina-Werq; Ntsuape, Conrad; Ramabu, Nankie M; Otlhomile, Boyce; Plank, Rebeca M; Barnhart, Scott; Ledikwe, Jenny H

    2016-08-01

    In 2007, the World Health Organization endorsed voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) as part of comprehensive HIV-prevention strategies. A major challenge facing VMMC programs in sub-Saharan Africa remains demand creation; there is urgent need for data on key elements needed to trigger the decision among eligible men to seek VMMC. Using qualitative methods, we sought to better understand the circumcision decision-making process in Botswana related to VMMC. From July to November 2013, we conducted 27 focus group discussions in four purposively selected communities in Botswana with men (stratified by circumcision status and age), women (stratified by age) and community leaders. All discussions were facilitated by a trained same-sex interviewer, audio recorded, transcribed and translated to English, and analyzed for key themes using an inductive content analytic approach. Improved hygiene was frequently cited as a major benefit of circumcision and many participants believed that cleanliness was directly responsible for the protective effect of VMMC on HIV infection. While protection against HIV was frequently noted as a benefit of VMMC, the data indicate that increased sexual pleasure and perceived attractiveness, not fear of HIV infection, was an underlying reason why men sought VMMC. Data from this qualitative study suggest that more immediate benefits of VMMC, such as improved hygiene and sexual pleasure, play a larger role in the circumcision decision compared with protection from potential HIV infection. These findings have immediate implications for targeted demand creation and mobilization activities for increasing uptake of VMMC among adult men in Botswana.

  2. Use of the Diabetes Medication Choice Decision Aid in patients with type 2 diabetes in Greece: a cluster randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Karagiannis, Thomas; Liakos, Aris; Branda, Megan E; Athanasiadou, Eleni; Mainou, Maria; Boura, Panagiota; Goulis, Dimitrios G; LeBlanc, Annie; Montori, Victor M

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy of the Diabetes Medication Choice Decision Aid among patients with type 2 diabetes in Greece. Design Open-label cluster randomised controlled trial. Setting Primary and secondary care practices across Greece. Participants 5 sites allocated to the decision aid (n=101 patients) and 4 sites to control (n=103 patients). Intervention Clinicians and patients in the intervention arm used a decision aid, based on outcomes that both consider important when choosing among antihyperglycaemic medications. Patients in the control arm received usual care. Outcome measures The primary outcome was patient's level of decisional comfort after the initial clinical encounter. Secondary outcomes included patient's knowledge about type 2 diabetes and medications, and patient's and clinician's satisfaction. Adherence to prescribed antihyperglycaemic medication and change in glycated haemoglobin were assessed at 24 weeks. Results Patients in both arms had similar scores in overall decisional comfort (mean difference between the usual care and decision aid arms −6.9, 95% CI −21.5 to 7.7) and its subscales. Patients' knowledge was high in both arms (mean difference 2.3%, 95% CI −15.7% to 20.4%). Patients and clinicians in both groups were equally satisfied with the decision-making. No significant difference in medication adherence and glycaemic control was found across arms. Clinicians found the decision aid useful and reported that its integration in their daily routine was easy. Conclusions The decision aid was implemented and positively received in the clinical setting in Greece, in line with the patient-centred approach endorsed by current guidelines. However, this trial yielded imprecise results in terms of patient outcomes. Further research is needed to investigate the interaction between the patient and the clinician in order to clarify the association between the use of decision aids and implementation of shared decision-making. Trial

  3. What is a medical decision? A taxonomy based on physician statements in hospital encounters: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Ofstad, Eirik H; Frich, Jan C; Schei, Edvin; Frankel, Richard M; Gulbrandsen, Pål

    2016-02-11

    The medical literature lacks a comprehensive taxonomy of decisions made by physicians in medical encounters. Such a taxonomy might be useful in understanding the physician-centred, patient-centred and shared decision-making in clinical settings. We aimed to identify and classify all decisions emerging in conversations between patients and physicians. Qualitative study of video recorded patient-physician encounters. 380 patients in consultations with 59 physicians from 17 clinical specialties and three different settings (emergency room, ward round, outpatient clinic) in a Norwegian teaching hospital. A randomised sample of 30 encounters from internal medicine was used to identify and classify decisions, a maximum variation sample of 20 encounters was used for reliability assessments, and the remaining encounters were analysed to test for applicability across specialties. On the basis of physician statements in our material, we developed a taxonomy of clinical decisions--the Decision Identification and Classification Taxonomy for Use in Medicine (DICTUM). We categorised decisions into 10 mutually exclusive categories: gathering additional information, evaluating test results, defining problem, drug-related, therapeutic procedure-related, legal and insurance-related, contact-related, advice and precaution, treatment goal, and deferment. Four-coder inter-rater reliability using Krippendorff's α was 0.79. DICTUM represents a precise, detailed and comprehensive taxonomy of medical decisions communicated within patient-physician encounters. Compared to previous normative frameworks, the taxonomy is descriptive, substantially broader and offers new categories to the variety of clinical decisions. The taxonomy could prove helpful in studies on the quality of medical work, use of time and resources, and understanding of why, when and how patients are or are not involved in decisions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already

  4. RTI v medical ethics: some questions arising from the recent decision of the Chief Information Commissioner under the RTI Act.

    PubMed

    Nair, M R Hariharan

    2015-01-01

    Medical ethics attaches the utmost priority to the confidentiality of medical records. Hence, the decision of the Chief Information Commissioner (CIC) rendered on April 10, 2015 in Case No: CIC/KY/A/2014/001348SA Ms Jyoti Jeena v. PIO, Institute of Human Behaviour & Allied Science (hereinafter referred to as Jyoti Jeena), that the wife-applicant is entitled to get copies of the medical records of her estranged husband has raised many eyebrows.

  5. "It Was the Best Decision of My Life": a thematic content analysis of former medical tourists' patient testimonials.

    PubMed

    Hohm, Carly; Snyder, Jeremy

    2015-01-22

    Medical tourism is international travel with the intention of receiving medical care. Medical tourists travel for many reasons, including cost savings, limited domestic access to specific treatments, and interest in accessing unproven interventions. Medical tourism poses new health and safety risks to patients, including dangers associated with travel following surgery, difficulty assessing the quality of care abroad, and complications in continuity of care. Online resources are important to the decision-making of potential medical tourists and the websites of medical tourism facilitation companies (companies that may or may not be affiliated with a clinic abroad and help patients plan their travel) are an important source of online information for these individuals. These websites fail to address the risks associated with medical tourism, which can undermine the informed decision-making of potential medical tourists. Less is known about patient testimonials on these websites, which can be a particularly powerful influence on decision-making. A thematic content analysis was conducted of patient testimonials hosted on the YouTube channels of four medical tourism facilitation companies. Five videos per company were viewed. The content of these videos was analyzed and themes identified and counted for each video. Ten main themes were identified. These themes were then grouped into three main categories: facilitator characteristics (e.g., mentions of the facilitator by name, reference to the price of the treatment or to cost savings); service characteristics (e.g., the quality and availability of the surgeon, the quality and friendliness of the support staff); and referrals (e.g., referrals to other potential medical tourists). These testimonials were found either not to mention risks associated with medical tourism or to claim that these risks can be effectively managed through the use of the facilitation company. The failure fully to address the risks of medical

  6. Medical expertise and patient involvement: a multiperspective qualitative observation study of the patient's role in oncological decision making.

    PubMed

    Salloch, Sabine; Ritter, Peter; Wäscher, Sebastian; Vollmann, Jochen; Schildmann, Jan

    2014-06-01

    Decision making in oncology poses intricate ethical questions because treatment decisions should account not only for evidence-based standards but also for the patient's individual values and preferences. However, there is a scarcity of empirical knowledge about patient involvement in oncological decision making. Direct, nonparticipant observation was used as a qualitative research method to gain an understanding of the interplay between medical expertise and patient participation in oncological decision making. Based on a multiperspective approach, observations were performed in three settings (tumor conference, ward round, and outpatient clinic) in the oncology department of a German university hospital. The observation transcripts were analyzed using central features of qualitative data analysis. Major differences were identified regarding the decision-making processes in the three settings related to the patient's presence or absence. When the patient was absent, his or her wishes were cited only irregularly; however, patients actively advanced their wishes when present. Preselection of treatments by physicians was observed, narrowing the scope of options that were finally discussed with the patient. Dealing with decisions about risky treatments was especially regarded as part of the physician's professional expertise. The study reveals aspects of decision making for cancer patients that have been underexposed in the empirical and theoretical literature so far. Among these are the relevance of structural aspects for the decisions made and the practice of preselection of treatment options. It should be further discussed how far medical expertise reaches and whether therapeutic decisions can be made without consulting the patient. ©AlphaMed Press.

  7. How pressure is applied in shared decisions about antipsychotic medication: a conversation analytic study of psychiatric outpatient consultations.

    PubMed

    Quirk, Alan; Chaplin, Rob; Lelliott, Paul; Seale, Clive

    2012-01-01

    The professional identity of psychiatry depends on it being regarded as one amongst many medical specialties and sharing ideals of good practice with other specialties, an important marker of which is the achievement of shared decision-making and avoiding a reputation for being purely agents of social control. Yet the interactions involved in trying to achieve shared decision-making are relatively unexplored in psychiatry. This study analyses audiotapes of 92 outpatient consultations involving nine consultant psychiatrists focusing on how pressure is applied in shared decisions about antipsychotic medication. Detailed conversation analysis reveals that some shared decisions are considerably more pressured than others. At one end of a spectrum of pressure are pressured shared decisions, characterised by an escalating cycle of pressure and resistance from which it is difficult to exit without someone losing face. In the middle are directed decisions, where the patient cooperates with being diplomatically steered by the psychiatrist. At the other extreme are open decisions where the patient is allowed to decide, with the psychiatrist exerting little or no pressure. Directed and open decisions occurred most frequently; pressured decisions were rarer. Patient risk did not appear to influence the degree of pressure applied in these outpatient consultations. © 2011 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2011 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. From complex questionnaire and interviewing data to intelligent Bayesian Network models for medical decision support

    PubMed Central

    Constantinou, Anthony Costa; Fenton, Norman; Marsh, William; Radlinski, Lukasz

    2016-01-01

    Objectives 1) To develop a rigorous and repeatable method for building effective Bayesian network (BN) models for medical decision support from complex, unstructured and incomplete patient questionnaires and interviews that inevitably contain examples of repetitive, redundant and contradictory responses; 2) To exploit expert knowledge in the BN development since further data acquisition is usually not possible; 3) To ensure the BN model can be used for interventional analysis; 4) To demonstrate why using data alone to learn the model structure and parameters is often unsatisfactory even when extensive data is available. Method The method is based on applying a range of recent BN developments targeted at helping experts build BNs given limited data. While most of the components of the method are based on established work, its novelty is that it provides a rigorous consolidated and generalised framework that addresses the whole life-cycle of BN model development. The method is based on two original and recent validated BN models in forensic psychiatry, known as DSVM-MSS and DSVM-P. Results When employed with the same datasets, the DSVM-MSS demonstrated competitive to superior predictive performance (AUC scores 0.708 and 0.797) against the state-of-the-art (AUC scores ranging from 0.527 to 0.705), and the DSVM-P demonstrated superior predictive performance (cross-validated AUC score of 0.78) against the state-of-the-art (AUC scores ranging from 0.665 to 0.717). More importantly, the resulting models go beyond improving predictive accuracy and into usefulness for risk management purposes through intervention, and enhanced decision support in terms of answering complex clinical questions that are based on unobserved evidence. Conclusions This development process is applicable to any application domain which involves large-scale decision analysis based on such complex information, rather than based on data with hard facts, and in conjunction with the incorporation of

  9. From complex questionnaire and interviewing data to intelligent Bayesian network models for medical decision support.

    PubMed

    Constantinou, Anthony Costa; Fenton, Norman; Marsh, William; Radlinski, Lukasz

    2016-02-01

    (1) To develop a rigorous and repeatable method for building effective Bayesian network (BN) models for medical decision support from complex, unstructured and incomplete patient questionnaires and interviews that inevitably contain examples of repetitive, redundant and contradictory responses; (2) To exploit expert knowledge in the BN development since further data acquisition is usually not possible; (3) To ensure the BN model can be used for interventional analysis; (4) To demonstrate why using data alone to learn the model structure and parameters is often unsatisfactory even when extensive data is available. The method is based on applying a range of recent BN developments targeted at helping experts build BNs given limited data. While most of the components of the method are based on established work, its novelty is that it provides a rigorous consolidated and generalised framework that addresses the whole life-cycle of BN model development. The method is based on two original and recent validated BN models in forensic psychiatry, known as DSVM-MSS and DSVM-P. When employed with the same datasets, the DSVM-MSS demonstrated competitive to superior predictive performance (AUC scores 0.708 and 0.797) against the state-of-the-art (AUC scores ranging from 0.527 to 0.705), and the DSVM-P demonstrated superior predictive performance (cross-validated AUC score of 0.78) against the state-of-the-art (AUC scores ranging from 0.665 to 0.717). More importantly, the resulting models go beyond improving predictive accuracy and into usefulness for risk management purposes through intervention, and enhanced decision support in terms of answering complex clinical questions that are based on unobserved evidence. This development process is applicable to any application domain which involves large-scale decision analysis based on such complex information, rather than based on data with hard facts, and in conjunction with the incorporation of expert knowledge for decision support

  10. Developing a decision rule to optimise clinical pharmacist resources for medication reconciliation in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    De Winter, Sabrina; Vanbrabant, Peter; Laeremans, Pieter; Foulon, Veerle; Willems, Ludo; Verelst, Sandra; Spriet, Isabel

    2017-08-01

    The process of obtaining a complete medication history for patients admitted to the hospital from the ED at hospital admission, without discrepancies, is error prone and time consuming. The goal of this study was the development of a clinical decision rule (CDR) with a high positive predictive value in detecting ED patients admitted to hospital at risk of at least one discrepancy during regular medication history acquisition, along with favourable feasibility considering time and budget constraints. Data were based on a previous prospective study conducted at the ED in Belgium, describing discrepancies in 3592 medication histories. Data were split into a training and a validation set. A model predicting the number of discrepancies was derived from the training set with negative binomial regression and was validated on the validation set. The performance of the model was assessed. Several CDRs were constructed and evaluated on positive predictive value and alert rate. The following variables were retained in the prediction model: (1) age, (2) gender, (3) medical discipline for which the patient was admitted, (4) degree of physician training, (5) season of admission, (6) type of care before admission, number of (7) drugs, (8) high-risk drugs, (9) drugs acting on alimentary tract and metabolism, (10) antithrombotics, antihaemorrhagics and antianaemic preparations, (11) cardiovascular drugs, (12) drugs acting on musculoskeletal system and (13) drugs acting on the nervous system; all recorded by the ED physician on admission. The final CDR resulted in an alert rate of 29% with a positive predictive value of 74%. The final CDR allows identification of the majority of patients with a potential discrepancy within a feasible workload for the pharmacy staff. Our CDR is a first step towards a rule that could be incorporated into electronic medical records or a scoring system. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017

  11. Evaluation of an educational program on deciphering heterogeneity for medical coverage decisions.

    PubMed

    Warholak, Terri L; Hilgaertner, Jianhua W; Dean, Joni L; Taylor, Ann M; Hines, Lisa E; Hurwitz, Jason; Brown, Mary; Malone, Daniel C

    2014-06-01

    It is increasingly important for decision makers, such as medical and pharmacy managers (or pharmacy therapeutics committee members and staff), to understand the variation and diversity in treatment response as decisions shift from an individual patient perspective to optimizing care for populations of patients. To assess the effectiveness of an instructional program on heterogeneity designed for medical and pharmacy managers. A live educational program was offered to members of the Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy at the fall 2012 educational meeting and also to medical directors and managers attending a national payer roundtable meeting in October 2012. Participants completed a retrospective pretest-posttest assessment of their knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy immediately following the program. Participants were offered the opportunity to participate in a follow-up assessment 6 months later. Willing participants for the follow-up assessment were contacted via e-mail and telephone. Rasch rating scale models were used to compare pre- and postscores measuring participants' knowledge about and attitude towards heterogeneity. A total of 49 individuals completed the retrospective pretest-posttest assessment and agreed to be a part of the program evaluation. Fifty percent (n = 25) of participants had heard of the phrase "heterogeneity of treatment effect," and 36 (72%) were familiar with the phrase "individualized treatment effect" prior to the live program. Participants reported a significant improvement in knowledge of heterogeneity (P  less than  0.01) and attitudes about heterogeneity (P  less than  0.01) immediately after attending the program. At the time of the educational program, participants had either never considered heterogeneity (26%) or reported not knowing (28%) whether their organizations considered it when determining basic coverage. Participants were more likely to report "sometimes" considering heterogeneity for determining

  12. Religious and Spiritual Beliefs of Gynecologic Oncologists May Influence Medical Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Ramondetta, Lois; Brown, Alaina; Richardson, Gwyn; Urbauer, Diana; Thaker, Premal H.; Koenig, Harold G.; Gano, Jacalyn B.; Sun, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    Background Religious and spiritual (R/S) beliefs often affect patients' health care decisions, particularly with regards care at the end of life (EOL). Furthermore, patients desire more R/S involvement by the medical community however; physicians typically do not incorporate R/S assessment into medical interviews with patients. The effects of physicians' R/S beliefs on willingness to participate in controversial clinical practices such as medical abortions and physician assisted suicide has been evaluated, but how a physicians' R/S beliefs may affect other medical decision-making is unclear. Methods Using SurveyMonkey, an online survey tool, we surveyed 1972 members of the International Gynecologic Oncologists Society and the Society of Gynecologic Oncologists to determine the R/S characteristics of gynecologic oncologists and whether their R/S beliefs affected their clinical practice. Demographics, religiosity and spirituality data were collected. Physicians were also asked to evaluate 5 complex case scenarios. Results Two hundred seventy-three (14%) physicians responded. Sixty percent “agreed” or “somewhat agreed” that their R/S beliefs were a source of personal comfort. Forty-five percent reported that their R/S beliefs (“sometimes,” “frequently,” or “always”) play a role in the medical options they offered patients, but only 34% “frequently” or “always” take a R/S history from patients. Interestingly, 90% reported that they consider patients' R/S beliefs when discussing EOL issues. Responses to case scenarios largely differed by years of experience although age and R/S beliefs also had influence. Conclusions Our results suggest that gynecologic oncologists' R/S beliefs may affect patient care but that the majority of physicians fail to take a R/S history from their patients. More work needs to be done in order to evaluate possible barriers that prevent physicians from taking a spiritual history and engaging in discussions over these

  13. MEDICAL AND LEGAL ISSUES OF THE DECISIONS RENDERED BY THE EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS.

    PubMed

    Chakhvadze, B; Chakhvadze, G

    2017-01-01

    The European Convention on Human rights is a document that protects human rights and fundamental freedoms of individuals, and the European Court of Human Rights and its case-law makes a convention a powerful instrument to meet the new challenges of modernity and protect the principles of rule of law and democracy. This is important, particularly for young democracies, including Georgia. The more that Georgia is a party to this convention. Article 3 of the convention deals with torture, inhuman and degrading treatment, while article 8 deals with private life, home and correspondence. At the same time, the international practice of the European court of human rights shows that these articles are often used with regard to medical rights. The paper highlights the most recent and interesting cases from the case-law of the ECHR, in which the courts conclusions are based solely on the European Convention on Human Rights. In most instances, the European Court of Human Rights uses the principle of democracy with regard to medical rights. The European court of human rights considers medical rights as moral underpinning rights. Particularly in every occasion, the European Court of Human Rights acknowledges an ethical dimension of these rights. In most instances, it does not matter whether a plaintiff is a free person or prisoner, the European court of human rights make decisions based on fundamental human rights and freedoms of individuals.

  14. Decisions by Finnish Medical Research Ethics Committees: A Nationwide Study of Process and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hemminki, Elina; Virtanen, Jorma I; Regushevskaya, Elena

    2015-10-01

    Review by research ethics committees (RECs) is the key in medical research regulation. Data from meeting notes and project summaries were abstracted from all projects submitted in 2002 (n = 1,004) and 2007 (n = 1,045) to the official medical RECs in Finland. Data from consecutive submissions were combined per project. When comparing RECs, logistic regression was used to adjust for application characteristics. The number of projects handled varied notably by REC. In the first handling, 85% of applications in 2002 and 77% in 2007 were approved, while 13% and 20% were tabled. For 61% of the projects, the review time was <30 days, 16% had >89 days, and 6% had 6 months or longer. The variation by REC in approval rates, number of handlings, or long review times was not explained by project characteristics. In the last handling, 94% of the projects in both years were approved or concluded not to need a statement from that REC. The most common reason for tabling or not approving an application was patient autonomy, usually centered on the patient leaflet. The next most common reasons were requests for further information and dissatisfaction with the scientific aspects of the project. The reasons classified as "ethics" in the narrow sense were rare. The REC focus was to assure that researchers follow the various rules on medical research and to improve the quality of research and project documents. REC considerations could be divided into decisions based on ethics and recommendations covering other aspects.

  15. An architecture for linking medical decision-support applications to clinical databases and its evaluation.

    PubMed

    German, Efrat; Leibowitz, Akiva; Shahar, Yuval

    2009-04-01

    We describe and evaluate a framework, the Medical Database Adaptor (MEIDA), for linking knowledge-based medical decision-support systems (MDSSs) to multiple clinical databases, using standard medical schemata and vocabularies. Our solution involves a set of tools for embedding standard terms and units within knowledge bases (KBs) of MDSSs; a set of methods and tools for mapping the local database (DB) schema and the terms and units relevant to the KB of the MDSS into standardized schema, terms and units, using three heuristics (choice of a vocabulary, choice of a key term, and choice of a measurement unit); and a set of tools which, at runtime, automatically map standard term queries originating from the KB, to queries formulated using the local DB's schema, terms and units. The methodology was successfully evaluated by mapping three KBs to three DBs. Using a unit-domain matching heuristic reduced the number of term-mapping candidates by a mean of 71% even after other heuristics were used. Runtime access of 10,000 records required one second. We conclude that mapping MDSSs to different local clinical DBs, using the three-phase methodology and several term-mapping heuristics, is both feasible and efficient.

  16. A Statistical Evaluation of the Diagnostic Performance of MEDAS-The Medical Emergency Decision Assistance System

    PubMed Central

    Georgakis, D. Christine; Trace, David A.; Naeymi-Rad, Frank; Evens, Martha

    1990-01-01

    Medical expert systems require comprehensive evaluation of their diagnostic accuracy. The usefulness of these systems is limited without established evaluation methods. We propose a new methodology for evaluating the diagnostic accuracy and the predictive capacity of a medical expert system. We have adapted to the medical domain measures that have been used in the social sciences to examine the performance of human experts in the decision making process. Thus, in addition to the standard summary measures, we use measures of agreement and disagreement, and Goodman and Kruskal's λ and τ measures of predictive association. This methodology is illustrated by a detailed retrospective evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of the MEDAS system. In a study using 270 patients admitted to the North Chicago Veterans Administration Hospital, diagnoses produced by MEDAS are compared with the discharge diagnoses of the attending physicians. The results of the analysis confirm the high diagnostic accuracy and predictive capacity of the MEDAS system. Overall, the agreement of the MEDAS system with the “gold standard” diagnosis of the attending physician has reached a 90% level.

  17. [Patients as partners. Tumor patients and their participation in medical decisions].

    PubMed

    van Oorschot, B; Hausmann, C; Köhler, N; Leppert, K; Schweitzer, S; Steinbach, K; Anselm, R

    2004-10-01

    Between March 2002 and August 2003 as part of the research project "Patients as partners -- tumour patients and their participation in medical decisions" tumour patients undergoing palliative therapy (n=272) were interviewed and asked about their level of information, their desired place to die and whether they had prepared an advance directive. Furthermore, 72 relatives of deceased patients who had been looked after by the project's palliative care team were given a similar questionnaire including questions concerning their knowledge about disease and prognosis, the actual place of death and the relevance of advance directives. According to patients and relatives, information particularly about prognosis is unsatisfactory. Of the inter-viewed patients, 75% said they wanted to die at home and 15% in a hospital. According to their relatives, 36% of the patients looked after by the palliative care team had an advance directive. The survey of the relatives showed a significant relation between the preparation of an advance directive and dying at the desired place. According to the relatives, medical and health reasons, hope for an improvement up to the very end,acute worsening of the condition and deficits in medical care were important reasons for dying in hospital against the patient'swish. In future, advance directives should be used as an aid for communication and the planning of care. Therefore, cooperation between doctors and patients based on a partnership is necessary. The required competence in communication should be improved.

  18. What is a medical decision? A taxonomy based on physician statements in hospital encounters: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Ofstad, Eirik H; Frich, Jan C; Schei, Edvin; Frankel, Richard M; Gulbrandsen, Pål

    2016-01-01

    Objective The medical literature lacks a comprehensive taxonomy of decisions made by physicians in medical encounters. Such a taxonomy might be useful in understanding the physician-centred, patient-centred and shared decision-making in clinical settings. We aimed to identify and classify all decisions emerging in conversations between patients and physicians. Design Qualitative study of video recorded patient–physician encounters. Participants and setting 380 patients in consultations with 59 physicians from 17 clinical specialties and three different settings (emergency room, ward round, outpatient clinic) in a Norwegian teaching hospital. A randomised sample of 30 encounters from internal medicine was used to identify and classify decisions, a maximum variation sample of 20 encounters was used for reliability assessments, and the remaining encounters were analysed to test for applicability across specialties. Results On the basis of physician statements in our material, we developed a taxonomy of clinical decisions—the Decision Identification and Classification Taxonomy for Use in Medicine (DICTUM). We categorised decisions into 10 mutually exclusive categories: gathering additional information, evaluating test results, defining problem, drug-related, therapeutic procedure-related, legal and insurance-related, contact-related, advice and precaution, treatment goal, and deferment. Four-coder inter-rater reliability using Krippendorff's α was 0.79. Conclusions DICTUM represents a precise, detailed and comprehensive taxonomy of medical decisions communicated within patient–physician encounters. Compared to previous normative frameworks, the taxonomy is descriptive, substantially broader and offers new categories to the variety of clinical decisions. The taxonomy could prove helpful in studies on the quality of medical work, use of time and resources, and understanding of why, when and how patients are or are not involved in decisions. PMID:26868946

  19. [Medical decision making in hospital--results of an exploratory study on the value of shared decision making from the physicians point of view].

    PubMed

    Ernst, J; Holze, S; Sonnefeld, C; Götze, H; Schwarz, R

    2007-04-01

    The changes in the relationship between doctors and patients and the transfer of shared decision making into medical treatment has often been discussed. The role and the perspective of the patients are primarily described. The aim of our study is to examine the attitudes of physicians regarding the shared decision making concept, based on 15 interviews with clinical doctors. Our findings show that most doctors know the content of the concept and mostly agree with it. Practical barriers for the realisation of shared decision making are often stressed. The meaning of the concept of shared decision making for the physicians is in some respects different from the meaning of this concept for the patients. It is important to examine this concept more particularly with standardised instruments. It will be necessary to explore not only the role of patients and physicians in the medical decision making process but also the position of other relevant persons like the relatives of the patients or the nursing staff.

  20. The Effects of Clinical Decision Support Systems on Medication Safety: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Pengli; Zhang, Longhao; Chen, Jingjing; Zhao, Pujing; Zhang, Mingming

    2016-01-01

    Background The clinical decision support system(CDSS) has potential to improving medication safety. However, the effects of the intervention were conflicting and uncertain. Meanwhile, the reporting and methodological quality of this field were unknown. Objective The aim of this overview is to evaluate the effects of CDSS on medication safety and to examine the methodological and reporting quality. Methods PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library were searched to August 2015. Systematic reviews (SRs) investigating the effects of CDSS on medication safety were included. Outcomes were determined in advance and assessed separately for process of care and patient outcomes. The methodological quality was assessed by Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) and the reporting quality was examined by Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Results Twenty systematic reviews, consisting of 237 unique randomized controlled trials(RCTs) and 176 non-RCTs were included. Evidence that CDSS significantly impacted process of care was found in 108 out of 143 unique studies of the 16 SRs examining this effect (75%). Only 18 out of 90 unique studies of the 13 SRs reported significantly evidence that CDSS positively impacted patient outcomes (20%). Ratings for the overall scores of AMSTAR resulted in a mean score of 8.3 with a range of scores from 7.5 to 10.5. The reporting quality was varied. Some contents were particularly strong. However, some contents were poor. Conclusions CDSS reduces medication error by obviously improving process of care and inconsistently improving patient outcomes. Larger samples and longer-term studies are required to ensure more reliable evidence base on the effects of CDSS on patient outcomes. The methodological and reporting quality were varied and some realms need to be improved. PMID:27977697

  1. Menopause and the virtuous woman: the importance of the moral order in accounting for medical decision making.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Christine; Breheny, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Whether or not to use hormone replacement therapy (HRT) around the time of menopause is seen as an important decision for many mid-aged women. Recent studies of information provided to women to assist them in making a medical decision about the use of HRT have highlighted the importance of understanding the broader social context of the decision. In this article we examine one important aspect of western mid-aged women's social world: the moral order and the imperative of virtue. Qualitative data from a survey, focus group discussions, and interviews with mid-aged women about HRT use are used to provide examples of the importance of the local moral order in women's talk about menopause and HRT use. The implications of these data will be discussed in terms of the different narrative resources available to construct menopause and HRT, the role of morality, and the demonstration of virtue in daily social life, including medical decision making.

  2. Development of a decision support model for scheduling clinical studies and assigning medical personnel.

    PubMed

    Grunow, Martin; Günther, Hans-Otto; Yang, Gang

    2004-11-01

    Clinical studies for the development of new drugs in the pharmaceutical industry consist of a number of individual tasks which have to be carried out in a pre-defined chronological order. Each task requires certain types of medical personnel. This paper investigates the scheduling of clinical studies to be performed during a short-term planning horizon, the allocation of workforce between the studies, and the assignment of individual employees to tasks. Instead of developing a complex monolithic decision model, a hierarchical modelling approach is suggested. In the first stage, a compact integer optimization model is solved in order to determine the start-off times of the studies and the required staffing while taking the limited availability of personnel into account. The objective is to minimize total staffing costs. The assignment of individual employees to tasks is then made in the second stage of the procedure using a binary optimization model.

  3. Biomedical visual data analysis to build an intelligent diagnostic decision support system in medical genetics.

    PubMed

    Kuru, Kaya; Niranjan, Mahesan; Tunca, Yusuf; Osvank, Erhan; Azim, Tayyaba

    2014-10-01

    In general, medical geneticists aim to pre-diagnose underlying syndromes based on facial features before performing cytological or molecular analyses where a genotype-phenotype interrelation is possible. However, determining correct genotype-phenotype interrelationships among many syndromes is tedious and labor-intensive, especially for extremely rare syndromes. Thus, a computer-aided system for pre-diagnosis can facilitate effective and efficient decision support, particularly when few similar cases are available, or in remote rural districts where diagnostic knowledge of syndromes is not readily available. The proposed methodology, visual diagnostic decision support system (visual diagnostic DSS), employs machine learning (ML) algorithms and digital image processing techniques in a hybrid approach for automated diagnosis in medical genetics. This approach uses facial features in reference images of disorders to identify visual genotype-phenotype interrelationships. Our statistical method describes facial image data as principal component features and diagnoses syndromes using these features. The proposed system was trained using a real dataset of previously published face images of subjects with syndromes, which provided accurate diagnostic information. The method was tested using a leave-one-out cross-validation scheme with 15 different syndromes, each of comprised 5-9 cases, i.e., 92 cases in total. An accuracy rate of 83% was achieved using this automated diagnosis technique, which was statistically significant (p<0.01). Furthermore, the sensitivity and specificity values were 0.857 and 0.870, respectively. Our results show that the accurate classification of syndromes is feasible using ML techniques. Thus, a large number of syndromes with characteristic facial anomaly patterns could be diagnosed with similar diagnostic DSSs to that described in the present study, i.e., visual diagnostic DSS, thereby demonstrating the benefits of using hybrid image processing

  4. Knowledge discovery from data as a framework to decision support in medical domains

    PubMed Central

    Gibert, Karina

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Knowledge discovery from data (KDD) is a multidisciplinary discipline which appeared in 1996 for “non trivial identifying of valid, novel, potentially useful, ultimately understandable patterns in data”. Pre-treatment of data and post-processing is as important as the data exploitation (Data Mining) itself. Different analysis techniques can be properly combined to produce explicit knowledge from data. Methods Hybrid KDD methodologies combining Artificial Intelligence with Statistics and visualization have been used to identify patterns in complex medical phenomena: experts provide prior knowledge (pK); it biases the search of distinguishable groups of homogeneous objects; support-interpretation tools (CPG) assisted experts in conceptualization and labelling of discovered patterns, consistently with pK. Results Patterns of dependency in mental disabilities supported decision-making on legislation of the Spanish Dependency Law in Catalonia. Relationships between type of neurorehabilitation treatment and patterns of response for brain damage are assessed. Patterns of the perceived QOL along time are used in spinal cord lesion to improve social inclusion. Conclusion Reality is more and more complex and classical data analyses are not powerful enough to model it. New methodologies are required including multidisciplinarity and stressing on production of understandable models. Interaction with the experts is critical to generate meaningful results which can really support decision-making, particularly convenient transferring the pK to the system, as well as interpreting results in close interaction with experts. KDD is a valuable paradigm, particularly when facing very complex domains, not well understood yet, like many medical phenomena.

  5. Safety-cost trade-offs in medical device reuse: a Markov decision process model.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Thomas W

    2007-02-01

    Healthcare expenditures in the US are approaching 2 trillion dollars, and hospitals and other healthcare providers are under tremendous pressure to rein in costs. One cost-saving approach which is gaining popularity is the reuse of medical devices which were designed only for a single use. Device makers decry this practice as unsanitary and unsafe, but a growing number of third-party firms are willing to sterilize, refurbish, and/or remanufacture devices and resell them to hospitals at a fraction of the original price. Is this practice safe? Is reliance on single-use devices sustainable? A Markov decision process (MDP) model is formulated to study the trade-offs involved in these decisions. Several key parameters are examined: device costs, device failure probabilities, and failure penalty cost. For each of these parameters, expressions are developed which identify the indifference point between using new and reprocessed devices. The results can be used to inform the debate on the economic, ethical, legal, and environmental dimensions of this complex issue.

  6. Medical Decision-Making Among Adolescents with Neonatal Brachial Plexus Palsy and their Families: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Squitieri, Lee; Larson, Bradley P.; Chang, Kate W-C; Yang, Lynda J-S.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Elective surgical management of neonatal brachial plexus palsy is complex, variable, and often individualized. Little is known about the medical decision-making process among adolescents with NBPP and their families faced with making complex treatment decisions. The experiences of these patients and their parents were analyzed to identify key factors in the decision-making process. Patients and Methods Eighteen adolescents with residual NBPP deficits between the ages of 10 to 17 years along with their parents were included in the present study. A qualitative research design was employed involving the use of separate one hour, in person, semi-structured interviews, which were audio recorded and transcribed. Grounded theory was applied by two independent members of the research team to identify recurrent themes and ultimately create a codebook that was then applied to the data. Results Medical decision-making among adolescents with NBPP and their families is multifaceted and individualized, comprised of both patient and system dependent factors. Four codes pertaining to the medical decision-making process were identified: 1) knowledge acquisition, 2) multidisciplinary care, 3) adolescent autonomy, and 4) patient expectations and treatment desires. Overall, parental decision-making was heavily influenced by system dependent factors, while adolescents largely based their medical decision-making on individual treatment desires to improve function and/or aesthetics. Conclusions There are many areas for improving the delivery of information and health care organization among adolescents with NBPP and their families. We recommend the development of educational interdisciplinary programs and decision aids containing evidence-based management guidelines targeted toward primary care providers and patients. We believe that a computer-based learning module may provide the best avenue to achieve maximum penetrance and convenience of information sharing. PMID:23714810

  7. Integrating Client and Clinician Perspectives on Psychotropic Medication Decisions: Developing a Communication-Centered Epistemic Model of Shared Decision Making for Mental Health Contexts.

    PubMed

    Mikesell, Lisa; Bromley, Elizabeth; Young, Alexander S; Vona, Pamela; Zima, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    Shared decision making (SDM) interventions aim to improve client autonomy, information sharing, and collaborative decision making, yet implementation of these interventions has been variably perceived. Using interviews and focus groups with clients and clinicians from mental health clinics, we explored experiences with and perceptions about decision support strategies aimed to promote SDM around psychotropic medication treatment. Using thematic analysis, we identified themes regarding beliefs about participant involvement, information management, and participants' broader understanding of their epistemic expertise. Clients and clinicians highly valued client-centered priorities such as autonomy and empowerment when making decisions. However, two frequently discussed themes revealed complex beliefs about what that involvement should look like in practice: (a) the role of communication and information exchange and (b) the value and stability of clinician and client epistemic expertise. Complex beliefs regarding these two themes suggested a dynamic and reflexive approach to information management. Situating these findings within the Theory of Motivated Information Management, we discuss implications for conceptualizing SDM in mental health services and adapt Siminoff and Step's Communication Model of Shared Decision Making (CMSDM) to propose a Communication-centered Epistemic Model of Shared Decision Making (CEM-SDM).

  8. A qualitative study of women's decision to view or not view an ultrasound image before early medication abortion.

    PubMed

    Cappiello, Joyce; Merrell, Joy; Rentschler, Dorothy

    2014-01-01

    Transvaginal ultrasounds are commonly performed for gestational dating of pregnancy before a medication abortion. This paper presents findings regarding women's perspectives on viewing the gestational dating ultrasound image, which arose from a study exploring women's medication abortion experience. By providing women the opportunity to talk about their medication abortion experience through open-ended interviews, women reported their experience of viewing or not viewing the ultrasound in detail, which to date has been underexplored. A constructivist, grounded theory approach was used. The purposive sample consisted of 18 women in the United States who experienced a medication abortion in the preceding 4 months. Not all women wanted to view the ultrasound; however, they all wanted a choice. Women wanted to view the image to confirm health and fertility, satisfy curiosity, and process their decision regarding the pregnancy. None of the women stated that they wanted to view the image as a prerequisite to making their decision to terminate the pregnancy; rather, viewing was a way to process their decision. Women wanted a choice of whether to view the ultrasound image because they felt it was their right to decide whether to access this aspect of their personal health information. They wanted providers to engage in a dialogue about viewing the image or not and to respect their decision. Providers need to be appropriately prepared to offer women the choice to view and to support women in their decision. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Fuzzy Trace Theory and Medical Decisions by Minors: Differences in Reasoning between Adolescents and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelms, Evan A.

    2013-01-01

    Standard models of adolescent risk taking posit that the cognitive abilities of adolescents and adults are equivalent, and that increases in risk taking that occur during adolescence are the result of socio emotional differences in impulsivity, sensation seeking, and lack of self-control. Fuzzy-trace theory incorporates these socio emotional differences. However, it predicts that there are also cognitive differences between adolescents and adults, specifically that there are developmental increases in gist-based intuition that reflects understanding. Gist understanding, as opposed to verbatim-based analysis, generally has been hypothesized to have a protective effect on risk taking in adolescence. Gist understanding is also an essential element of informed consent regarding risks in medical decision- making. Evidence thus supports the argument that adolescents’ status as mature minors should be treated as an exception rather than a presumption, because accuracy in verbatim analysis is not mature gist understanding. Use of the exception should be accompanied by medical experts’ input on the bottom-line gist of risks involved in treatment. PMID:23606728

  10. Nonmedical influences on medical decision making: an experimental technique using videotapes, factorial design, and survey sampling.

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, H A; McKinlay, J B; Potter, D A; Freund, K M; Burns, R B; Moskowitz, M A; Kasten, L E

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study nonmedical influences on the doctor-patient interaction. A technique using simulated patients and "real" doctors is described. DATA SOURCES: A random sample of physicians, stratified on such characteristics as demographics, specialty, or experience, and selected from commercial and professional listings. STUDY DESIGN: A medical appointment is depicted on videotape by professional actors. The patient's presenting complaint (e.g., chest pain) allows a range of valid interpretation. Several alternative versions are taped, featuring the same script with patient-actors of different age, sex, race, or other characteristics. Fractional factorial design is used to select a balanced subset of patient characteristics, reducing costs without biasing the outcome. DATA COLLECTION: Each physician is shown one version of the videotape appointment and is asked to describe how he or she would diagnose or treat such a patient. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two studies using this technique have been completed to date, one involving chest pain and dyspnea and the other involving breast cancer. The factorial design provided sufficient power, despite limited sample size, to demonstrate with statistical significance various influences of the experimental and stratification variables, including the patient's gender and age and the physician's experience. Persistent recruitment produced a high response rate, minimizing selection bias and enhancing validity. CONCLUSION: These techniques permit us to determine, with a degree of control unattainable in observational studies, whether medical decisions as described by actual physicians and drawn from a demographic or professional group of interest, are influenced by a prescribed set of nonmedical factors. PMID:9240285

  11. Absolute versus relative values: effects on medical decisions and personality of patients and physicians.

    PubMed

    Neumann, J K; Olive, K E; McVeigh, S D

    1999-09-01

    Speculation suggests that health care workers and patients who believe in ethical values that do not change--absolute values--will respond differently to ethical problems and personality tests than those who affirm changing-relative values. We did a cross-sectional survey to investigate the effects of absolute vs relative values on (1) decision making concerning ethical dilemmas and (2) questionnaire assessments of hostility, forgiveness, and social desirability. Two groups of participants were medical/surgical inpatients (n = 60) at a Department of Veterans Affairs medical center and practicing physicians (n = 73) in the larger Johnson City, Tennessee, area. In both groups, relativists were more approving of birth control for sexually active single women, physician-assisted suicide, and abortion. For patients but not physicians, several indices of hostility were higher for relativists than absolutists. No overall group differences existed as a function of value type for forgiveness or social desirability scores. However, subgrouping by religious faith affected response pattern. The absolute/relative value dichotomy predicted differences in approval ratings for both physicians and patients. Ethically sensitive health care and health care training should explicitly consider this dimension of personal values.

  12. [The protocols and the medical decision: evidences based in experience or existence?].

    PubMed

    Uchôa, Severina Alice da Costa; de Camargo, Kenneth Rochel

    2010-07-01

    The main purpose of this study is to understand the concepts and interests concerning the transformation of the practical quotidian knowledge produced by experience into probabilistic epistemological models. The object is the argumentation and practices surrounding consensus-forming which knowledge criteria are valid for diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. Our starting point is Ludwik Fleck's work, which states that facts are not objectively given but collectively and contingently created so as to adjust themselves to a style of thought. Our research strategy was an ethnographic observation of medical rounds and clinical meetings in a cardiology ICU in Rio de Janeiro. The analysis was based on the works of Knorr-Cetina (transepistemic arenas) and Perelman's argumentation theory. It revealed the consolidation of a tendency to incorporate explicit cost-benefit criteria and the interests of different agents such as doctors, government and the medical-industrial complex in the introduction of protocols. The observation demonstrated an ambivalent use: protocols/scientific studies and clinical experience as well. A certain skepticism of the clinicians and their relative inability in the usage of the analytic tools of the epidemiological thought style were particularly remarkable.

  13. Implementation Pearls from a New Guidebook on Improving Medication Use and Outcomes with Clinical Decision Support

    PubMed Central

    Sirajuddin, Anwar M; Osheroff, Jerome A.; Sittig, Dean F.; Chuo, John; Velasco, Ferdinand; Collins, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Effective clinical decision support (CDS) is essential for addressing healthcare performance improvement imperatives, but care delivery organizations (CDO) typically struggle with CDS deployment. Ensuring safe and effective medication delivery to patients is a central focus of CDO performance improvement efforts, and this article provides an overview of best-practice strategies for applying CDS to these goals. The strategies discussed are drawn from a new guidebook, co-published and co-sponsored by more than a dozen leading organizations. Developed by scores of CDS implementers and experts, the guidebook outlines key steps and success factors for applying CDS to medication management. A central thesis is that improving outcomes with CDS interventions requires that the CDS five rights be addressed successfully. That is, the interventions must deliver the right information, to the right person, in the right format, through the right channel, at the right point in workflow. This paper provides further details about these CDS five rights, and highlights other important strategies for successful CDS programs. PMID:19894486

  14. The effect object paradigm--a means to support medication safety with clinical decision support.

    PubMed

    Patapovas, Andrius; Pfistermeister, Barbara; Tarkhov, Aleksey; Terfloth, Lothar; Maas, Renke; Fromm, Martin F; Kornhuber, Johannes; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich; Bürkle, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In many countries, officially approved drug information known as summary of product characteristics (SPC) is mostly available in text form, which cannot be used for Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSS). It may be essential however to substantiate CDSS advice with such legally binding text snippets. In an attempt to link various drug data sources including SPC towards a CDSS to support medication safety in psychiatric patients we arrived at the notion of an effect object. A requirements analysis revealed data items and data structure which are needed from the patient and from the drug information source for the CDSS functionality. Published drug data modelling approaches were analyzed and found unsuitable. A conceptional database modeling approach using top down and bottom up modeling was performed. The schema based data model implemented within the django framework centered on SPC "effect objects" which comprise all SPC data required for the respective CDSS function such as search for contraindications in the proposed medication. Today six effect objects have been defined for contraindications and warnings, missing indications, adverse effects, drug-drug interactions, dosing and pharmacokinetics. The transformation of SPC data to a database-driven "effect objects" structure permits decoupling between the CDSS functions and different underlying data sources and supports the design of reusable, stable and verified CDSS functions.

  15. How to introduce medical ethics at the bedside - Factors influencing the implementation of an ethical decision-making model.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Zehnder, Barbara; Albisser Schleger, Heidi; Tanner, Sabine; Schnurrer, Valentin; Vogt, Deborah R; Reiter-Theil, Stella; Pargger, Hans

    2017-02-23

    As the implementation of new approaches and procedures of medical ethics is as complex and resource-consuming as in other fields, strategies and activities must be carefully planned to use the available means and funds responsibly. Which facilitators and barriers influence the implementation of a medical ethics decision-making model in daily routine? Up to now, there has been little examination of these factors in this field. A medical ethics decision-making model called METAP was introduced on three intensive care units and two geriatric wards. An evaluation study was performed from 7 months after deployment of the project until two and a half years. Quantitative and qualitative methods including a questionnaire, semi-structured face-to-face and group-interviews were used. Sixty-three participants from different professional groups took part in 33 face-to-face and 9 group interviews, and 122 questionnaires could be analysed. The facilitating factors most frequently mentioned were: acceptance and presence of the model, support given by the medical and nursing management, an existing or developing (explicit) ethics culture, perception of a need for a medical ethics decision-making model, and engaged staff members. Lack of presence and acceptance, insufficient time resources and staff, poor inter-professional collaboration, absence of ethical competence, and not recognizing ethical problems were identified as inhibiting the implementation of the METAP model. However, the results of the questionnaire as well as of explicit inquiry showed that the respondents stated to have had enough time and staff available to use METAP if necessary. Facilitators and barriers of the implementation of a medical ethics decision-making model are quite similar to that of medical guidelines. The planning for implementing an ethics model or guideline can, therefore, benefit from the extensive literature and experience concerning the implementation of medical guidelines. Lack of time and

  16. A qualitative, exploratory study of nurses' decision-making when interrupted during medication administration within the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Bower, Rachel A; Coad, Jane E; Manning, Joseph C; Pengelly, Theresa A

    2017-05-23

    In the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU), medication administration is challenging. Empirical studies demonstrate that interruptions occur frequently and that nurses are fundamental in the delivery of medication. However, little is known about nurse's decision making when interrupted during medication administration. Therefore, the objective is to understand decision making when interrupted during medication administration within the PICU. A qualitative study incorporating non-participant observation and audio recorded semi-structured interviews. A convenience sample of ten PICU nurses were interviewed. Each interview schedule was informed by two hours of observation which involved a further 29 PICU nurses. Data was analysed using Framework Analysis. A regional PICU located in a university teaching hospital in the United Kingdom. Analysis resulted in four overarching themes: (1) Guiding the medication process, (2) Concentration, focus and awareness, (3) Influences on interruptions (4) Impact and recovery CONCLUSION: Medication administration within the PICU is an essential but complex activity. Interruptions can impact on focus and concentration which can contribute to patient harm. Decision making by PICU nurses is influenced by interruption awareness, fluctuating levels of concentration, and responding to critically ill patient and families' needs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Emergency medical triage decisions are swayed by computer-manipulated cues of physical dominance in caller’s voice

    PubMed Central

    Boidron, Laurent; Boudenia, Karim; Avena, Christophe; Boucheix, Jean-Michel; Aucouturier, Jean-Julien

    2016-01-01

    In humans as well as other animals, displays of body strength such as power postures or deep masculine voices are associated with prevalence in conflicts of interest and facilitated access to resources. We conduct here an ecological and highly critical test of this hypothesis in a domain that, on first thought, would appear to be shielded from such influences: access to emergency medical care. Using acoustic manipulations of vocal masculinity, we systematically varied the perceived level of physical dominance of mock patients calling a medical call center simulator. Callers whose voice were perceived as indicative of physical dominance (i.e. those with low fundamental and formant frequency voices) obtained a higher grade of response, a higher evaluation of medical emergency and longer attention from physicians than callers with strictly identical medical needs whose voice signaled lower physical dominance. Strikingly, while the effect was important for physician participants, it was virtually non-existent when calls were processed by non-medically-trained phone operators. This finding demonstrates an unprecedented degree of vulnerability of telephone-based medical decisions to extra-medical factors carried by vocal cues, and shows that it may not simply be assumed that more medical training will shield decisions from such influences. PMID:27456205

  18. Medical versus surgical methods of early abortion: protocol for a systematic review and environmental scan of patient decision aids

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Kyla Z; Thompson, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Currently, we lack understanding of the content, quality and impact of patient decision aids to support decision-making between medical and surgical methods of early abortion. We plan to undertake a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature to identify, appraise and describe the impact of early abortion method decision aids evaluated quantitatively (Part I), and an environmental scan to identify and appraise other early abortion method decision aids developed in the US (Part II). Methods and analysis For the systematic review, we will search PubMed, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, EMBASE and PsycINFO databases for articles describing experimental and observational studies evaluating the impact of an early abortion method decision aid on women's decision-making processes and outcomes. For the environmental scan, we will identify decision aids by supplementing the systematic review search with Internet-based searches and key informant consultation. The primary reviewer will assess all studies and decision aids for eligibility, and a second reviewer will also assess a subset of these. Both reviewers will independently assess risk of bias in the studies and abstract data using a piloted form. Finally, both reviewers will assess decision aid quality using the International Patient Decision Aid Standards criteria, ease of readability using Flesch/Flesch-Kincaid tests, and informational content using directed content analysis. Ethics and dissemination As this study does not involve human subjects, ethical approval will not be sought. We aim to disseminate the findings in a scientific journal, via academic and/or professional conferences and among the broader community to contribute knowledge about current early abortion method decision-making support. Trial registration number This protocol is registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (CRD42015016717). PMID:26173718

  19. Barriers to Medication Decision Making in Women with Lupus Nephritis: A Formative Study using Nominal Group Technique.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jasvinder A; Qu, Haiyan; Yazdany, Jinoos; Chatham, Winn; Dall'era, Maria; Shewchuk, Richard M

    2015-09-01

    To assess the perspectives of women with lupus nephritis on barriers to medication decision making. We used the nominal group technique (NGT), a structured process to elicit ideas from participants, for a formative assessment. Eight NGT meetings were conducted in English and moderated by an expert NGT researcher at 2 medical centers. Participants responded to the question: "What sorts of things make it hard for people to decide to take the medicines that doctors prescribe for treating their lupus kidney disease?" Patients nominated, discussed, and prioritized barriers to decisional processes involving medications for treating lupus nephritis. Fifty-one women with lupus nephritis with a mean age of 40.6 ± 13.3 years and disease duration of 11.8 ± 8.3 years participated in 8 NGT meetings: 26 African Americans (4 panels), 13 Hispanics (2 panels), and 12 whites (2 panels). Of the participants, 36.5% had obtained at least a college degree and 55.8% needed some help in reading health materials. Of the 248 responses generated (range 19-37 responses/panel), 100 responses (40%) were perceived by patients as having relatively greater importance than other barriers in their own decision-making processes. The most salient perceived barriers, as indicated by percent-weighted votes assigned, were known/anticipated side effects (15.6%), medication expense/ability to afford medications (8.2%), and the fear that the medication could cause other diseases (7.8%). Women with lupus nephritis identified specific barriers to decisions related to medications. Information relevant to known/anticipated medication side effects and medication cost will form the basis of a patient guide for women with systemic lupus erythematosus, currently under development.

  20. Use of the Diabetes Medication Choice Decision Aid in patients with type 2 diabetes in Greece: a cluster randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Karagiannis, Thomas; Liakos, Aris; Branda, Megan E; Athanasiadou, Eleni; Mainou, Maria; Boura, Panagiota; Goulis, Dimitrios G; LeBlanc, Annie; Montori, Victor M; Tsapas, Apostolos

    2016-11-14

    To assess the efficacy of the Diabetes Medication Choice Decision Aid among patients with type 2 diabetes in Greece. Open-label cluster randomised controlled trial. Primary and secondary care practices across Greece. 5 sites allocated to the decision aid (n=101 patients) and 4 sites to control (n=103 patients). Clinicians and patients in the intervention arm used a decision aid, based on outcomes that both consider important when choosing among antihyperglycaemic medications. Patients in the control arm received usual care. The primary outcome was patient's level of decisional comfort after the initial clinical encounter. Secondary outcomes included patient's knowledge about type 2 diabetes and medications, and patient's and clinician's satisfaction. Adherence to prescribed antihyperglycaemic medication and change in glycated haemoglobin were assessed at 24 weeks. Patients in both arms had similar scores in overall decisional comfort (mean difference between the usual care and decision aid arms -6.9, 95% CI -21.5 to 7.7) and its subscales. Patients' knowledge was high in both arms (mean difference 2.3%, 95% CI -15.7% to 20.4%). Patients and clinicians in both groups were equally satisfied with the decision-making. No significant difference in medication adherence and glycaemic control was found across arms. Clinicians found the decision aid useful and reported that its integration in their daily routine was easy. The decision aid was implemented and positively received in the clinical setting in Greece, in line with the patient-centred approach endorsed by current guidelines. However, this trial yielded imprecise results in terms of patient outcomes. Further research is needed to investigate the interaction between the patient and the clinician in order to clarify the association between the use of decision aids and implementation of shared decision-making. NCT01861756. Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  1. Age rationing for renal transplantation? The role of age in decisions regarding scarce life extending medical resources.

    PubMed

    Varekamp, I; Krol, L J; Danse, J A

    1998-07-01

    The use of age as a selection criterion for scarce life extending medical resources is justified by some theorists and rejected by others. Qualitative research was conducted into age rationing in daily medical practice. Observations were made at two renal transplantation centres and people professionally involved in decision making about transplantation were interviewed. Age appeared to be an important factor in indication decisions concerning individual patients, because it is associated in several ways with both the risks and benefits of transplantation that are weighed against each other. This happens apart from scarcity of donor organs. However, age also appeared to be used as a selection criterion, though apparently to a slight degree. This happens in a covert, implicit way. This is possible because all the aspects of age that are important in indication decisions regarding individual patients may also be used as comparative selection criteria.

  2. Critical thinking about adverse drug effects: lessons from the psychology of risk and medical decision-making for clinical psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Nierenberg, Andrew A; Smoller, Jordan W; Eidelman, Polina; Wu, Yelena P; Tilley, Claire A

    2008-01-01

    Systematic biases in decision-making have been well characterized in medical and nonmedical fields but mostly ignored in clinical psychopharmacology. The purpose of this paper is to sensitize clinicians who prescribe psychiatric drugs to the issues of the psychology of risk, especially as they pertain to the risk of side effects. Specifically, the present analysis focuses on heuristic organization and framing effects that create cognitive biases in medical practice. Our purpose is to increase the awareness of how pharmaceutical companies may influence physicians by framing the risk of medication side effects to favor their products.

  3. Optimal Medical Equipment Maintenance Service Proposal Decision Support System combining Activity Based Costing (ABC) and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP).

    PubMed

    da Rocha, Leticia; Sloane, Elliot; M Bassani, Jose

    2005-01-01

    This study describes a framework to support the choice of the maintenance service (in-house or third party contract) for each category of medical equipment based on: a) the real medical equipment maintenance management system currently used by the biomedical engineering group of the public health system of the Universidade Estadual de Campinas located in Brazil to control the medical equipment maintenance service, b) the Activity Based Costing (ABC) method, and c) the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Results show the cost and performance related to each type of maintenance service. Decision-makers can use these results to evaluate possible strategies for the categories of equipment.

  4. Individual and work-unit measures of psychological demands and decision latitude and the use of antihypertensive medication.

    PubMed

    Daugaard, S; Andersen, J H; Grynderup, M B; Stokholm, Z A; Rugulies, R; Hansen, Å M; Kærgaard, A; Mikkelsen, S; Bonde, J P; Thomsen, J F; Christensen, K L; Kolstad, H A

    2015-04-01

    To analyse whether psychological demands and decision latitude measured on individual and work-unit level were related to prescription of antihypertensive medication. A total of 3,421 women and 897 men within 388 small work units completed a questionnaire concerning psychological working conditions according to the job strain model. Mean levels of psychological demands and decision latitude were computed for each work unit to obtain exposure measures that were less influenced by reporting bias. Dispensed antihypertensive medication prescriptions were identified in The Danish National Prescription Registry. Odds ratios (OR) comparing the highest and lowest third of the population at individual and work-unit level, respectively, were estimated by multilevel logistic regression adjusted for confounders. Psychological demands and decision latitude were tested for interaction. Supplementary analyses of 21 months follow-up were conducted. Among women, increasing psychological demands at individual (adjusted OR 1.54; 95 % CI 1.02-2.33) and work-unit level (adjusted OR 1.41; 95 % CI 1.04-1.90) was significantly associated with purchase of antihypertensive medication. No significant association was found for decision latitude. Follow-up results supported an association with psychological demands but they were not significant. All results for men showed no association. Psychological demands and decision latitude did not interact. High psychological work demands were associated with the purchase of prescribed antihypertensive medication among women. This effect was present on both the work-unit and the individual level. Among men there were no associations. The lack of interaction between psychological demands and decision latitude did not support the job strain model.

  5. An Automated and Intelligent Medical Decision Support System for Brain MRI Scans Classification

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Muhammad Faisal; Reza, Ahmed Wasif; Kanesan, Jeevan

    2015-01-01

    A wide interest has been observed in the medical health care applications that interpret neuroimaging scans by machine learning systems. This research proposes an intelligent, automatic, accurate, and robust classification technique to classify the human brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) as normal or abnormal, to cater down the human error during identifying the diseases in brain MRIs. In this study, fast discrete wavelet transform (DWT), principal component analysis (PCA), and least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) are used as basic components. Firstly, fast DWT is employed to extract the salient features of brain MRI, followed by PCA, which reduces the dimensions of the features. These reduced feature vectors also shrink the memory storage consumption by 99.5%. At last, an advanced classification technique based on LS-SVM is applied to brain MR image classification using reduced features. For improving the efficiency, LS-SVM is used with non-linear radial basis function (RBF) kernel. The proposed algorithm intelligently determines the optimized values of the hyper-parameters of the RBF kernel and also applied k-fold stratified cross validation to enhance the generalization of the system. The method was tested by 340 patients’ benchmark datasets of T1-weighted and T2-weighted scans. From the analysis of experimental results and performance comparisons, it is observed that the proposed medical decision support system outperformed all other modern classifiers and achieves 100% accuracy rate (specificity/sensitivity 100%/100%). Furthermore, in terms of computation time, the proposed technique is significantly faster than the recent well-known methods, and it improves the efficiency by 71%, 3%, and 4% on feature extraction stage, feature reduction stage, and classification stage, respectively. These results indicate that the proposed well-trained machine learning system has the potential to make accurate predictions about brain abnormalities from the

  6. An Automated and Intelligent Medical Decision Support System for Brain MRI Scans Classification.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Muhammad Faisal; Reza, Ahmed Wasif; Kanesan, Jeevan

    2015-01-01

    A wide interest has been observed in the medical health care applications that interpret neuroimaging scans by machine learning systems. This research proposes an intelligent, automatic, accurate, and robust classification technique to classify the human brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) as normal or abnormal, to cater down the human error during identifying the diseases in brain MRIs. In this study, fast discrete wavelet transform (DWT), principal component analysis (PCA), and least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) are used as basic components. Firstly, fast DWT is employed to extract the salient features of brain MRI, followed by PCA, which reduces the dimensions of the features. These reduced feature vectors also shrink the memory storage consumption by 99.5%. At last, an advanced classification technique based on LS-SVM is applied to brain MR image classification using reduced features. For improving the efficiency, LS-SVM is used with non-linear radial basis function (RBF) kernel. The proposed algorithm intelligently determines the optimized values of the hyper-parameters of the RBF kernel and also applied k-fold stratified cross validation to enhance the generalization of the system. The method was tested by 340 patients' benchmark datasets of T1-weighted and T2-weighted scans. From the analysis of experimental results and performance comparisons, it is observed that the proposed medical decision support system outperformed all other modern classifiers and achieves 100% accuracy rate (specificity/sensitivity 100%/100%). Furthermore, in terms of computation time, the proposed technique is significantly faster than the recent well-known methods, and it improves the efficiency by 71%, 3%, and 4% on feature extraction stage, feature reduction stage, and classification stage, respectively. These results indicate that the proposed well-trained machine learning system has the potential to make accurate predictions about brain abnormalities from the

  7. Cost-Effectiveness of an Electronic Medical Record Based Clinical Decision Support System

    PubMed Central

    Gilmer, Todd P; O'Connor, Patrick J; Sperl-Hillen, JoAnn M; Rush, William A; Johnson, Paul E; Amundson, Gerald H; Asche, Stephen E; Ekstrom, Heidi L

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objective Medical groups have invested billions of dollars in electronic medical records (EMRs), but few studies have examined the cost-effectiveness of EMR-based clinical decision support (CDS). This study examined the cost-effectiveness of EMR-based CDS for adults with diabetes from the perspective of the health care system. Data Sources/Setting Clinical outcome and cost data from a randomized clinical trial of EMR-based CDS were used as inputs into a diabetes simulation model. The simulation cohort included 1,092 patients with diabetes with A1c above goal at baseline. Study Design The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study Outcomes Model, a validated simulation model of diabetes, was used to evaluate remaining life years, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and health care costs over patient lifetimes (40-year time horizon) from the health system perspective. Principal Findings Patients in the intervention group had significantly lowered A1c (0.26 percent, p = .014) relative to patients in the control arm. Intervention costs were $120 (SE = 45) per patient in the first year and $76 (SE = 45) per patient in the following years. In the base case analysis, EMR-based CDS increased lifetime QALYs by 0.04 (SE = 0.01) and increased lifetime costs by $112 (SE = 660), resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $3,017 per QALY. The cost-effectiveness of EMR-based CDS persisted in one-way, two-way, and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Conclusions Widespread adoption of sophisticated EMR-based CDS has the potential to modestly improve the quality of care for patients with chronic conditions without substantially increasing costs to the health care system. PMID:22578085

  8. Impact of decision support in electronic medical records on lipid management in primary care.

    PubMed

    Gill, James M; Chen, Ying Xia; Glutting, Joseph J; Diamond, James J; Lieberman, Michael I

    2009-10-01

    Electronic decision-support tools may help to improve management of hyperlipidemia and other chronic diseases. This study examined the impact of lipid management tools integrated into an electronic medical record (EMR) in primary care practices. This randomized controlled trial was conducted in a national network of physicians who use an outpatient EMR. Adult primary care physicians were randomized by office to receive an electronic form that was embedded in the EMR. The form contained prompts regarding suboptimal care based on Adult Treatment Panel-III (ATP-III) guidelines, as well as reporting tools to identify patients outside of office visits whose lipid management was suboptimal. All active patients, ages 20-79 years, whose physicians participated in the study, were categorized as high, moderate, or low cardiovascular risk, and the proportion who were tested for hyperlipidemia, at lipid goal, and on lipid-lowering medications if not at goal were measured according to ATP-III guidelines. A total of 105 physicians from 25 offices and 64,150 patients were included in the study. Outcomes improved for most measures from before to 1 year after the intervention (November 1, 2005 to October 31, 2006). However, after controlling for confounding variables and for clustering in multilevel modeling, only up-to-date lipid testing for high-risk patients was statistically better in the intervention group as compared to the control group (adjusted odds ratio 15.0, P < 0.05). This study showed few differences in quality of lipid management after implementing an EMR-based disease management intervention in primary care settings. Future studies may need to examine more comprehensive interventions that include office staff in a team approach to care.

  9. An Arden-Syntax-based clinical decision support framework for medical guidelines--Lyme borreliosis as an example.

    PubMed

    Seitinger, Alexander; Fehre, Karsten; Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter; Rappelsberger, Andrea; Wurm, Elisabeth; Aberer, Elisabeth; Binder, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Medicine is evolving at a very fast pace. The overwhelming quantity of new data compels the practician to be consistently informed about the most recent scientific advances. While medical guidelines have proven to be an acceptable tool for bringing new medical knowledge into clinical practice and also support medical personnel, reading them may be rather time-consuming. Clinical decision support systems have been developed to simplify this process. However, the implementation or adaptation of such systems for individual guidelines involves substantial effort. This paper introduces a clinical decision support platform that uses Arden Syntax to implement medical guidelines using client-server architecture. It provides a means of implementing different guidelines without the need for adapting the system's source code. To implement a prototype, three Lyme borreliosis guidelines were aggregated and a knowledge base created. The prototype employs transfer objects to represent any text-based medical guideline. As part of the implementation, we show how Fuzzy Arden Syntax can improve the overall usability of a clinical decision support system.

  10. Cognitive models of medical decision-making capacity in patients with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Okonkwo, O C; Griffith, H R; Belue, K; Lanza, S; Zamrini, E Y; Harrell, L E; Brockington, J C; Clark, D; Raman, R; Marson, D C

    2008-03-01

    This study investigated cognitive predictors of medical decision-making capacity (MDC) in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI). A total of 56 healthy controls, 60 patients with MCI, and 31 patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) were administered the Capacity to Consent to Treatment Instrument (CCTI) and a neuropsychological test battery. The CCTI assesses MDC across four established treatment consent standards--S1 (expressing choice), S3 (appreciation), S4 (reasoning), and S5 (understanding)--and one experimental standard [S2] (reasonable choice). Scores on neuropsychological measures were correlated with scores on each CCTI standard. Significant bivariate correlates were subsequently entered into stepwise regression analyses to identity group-specific multivariable predictors of MDC across CCTI standards. Different multivariable cognitive models emerged across groups and consent standards. For the MCI group, measures of short-term verbal memory were key predictors of MDC for each of the three clinically relevant standards (S3, S4, and S5). Secondary predictors were measures of executive function. In contrast, in the mild AD group, measures tapping executive function and processing speed were primary predictors of S3, S4, and S5. MDC in patients with MCI is supported primarily by short-term verbal memory. The findings demonstrate the impact of amnestic deficits on MDC in patients with MCI.

  11. Family matters: dyadic agreement in end-of-life medical decision making.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Bettina; Allen, Rebecca S; Haley, Philip P; Decoster, Jamie

    2010-04-01

    We examined race/ethnicity and cultural context within hypothetical end-of-life medical decision scenarios and its influence on patient-proxy agreement. Family dyads consisting of an older adult and 1 family member, typically an adult child, responded to questions regarding the older adult's preferences for cardiopulmonary resuscitation, artificial feeding and fluids, and palliative care in hypothetical illness scenarios. The responses of 34 Caucasian dyads and 30 African American dyads were compared to determine the extent to which family members could accurately predict the treatment preferences of their older relative. We found higher treatment preference agreement among African American dyads compared with Caucasian dyads when considering overall raw difference scores (i.e., overtreatment errors can compensate for undertreatment errors). Prior advance care planning moderated the effect such that lower levels of advance care planning predicted undertreatment errors among African American proxies and overtreatment errors among Caucasian proxies. In contrast, no racial/ethnic differences in treatment preference agreement were found within absolute difference scores (i.e., total error, regardless of the direction of error). This project is one of the first to examine the mediators and moderators of dyadic racial/cultural differences in treatment preference agreement for end-of-life care in hypothetical illness scenarios. Future studies should use mixed method approaches to explore underlying factors for racial differences in patient-proxy agreement as a basis for developing culturally sensitive interventions to reduce racial disparities in end-of-life care options.

  12. The Adoption of Electronic Medical Records and Decision Support Systems in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Ki Bong; Kim, Eun Sook; Chae, Hogene

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To examine the current status of hospital information systems (HIS), analyze the effects of Electronic Medical Records (EMR) and Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSS) have upon hospital performance, and examine how management issues change over time according to various growth stages. Methods Data taken from the 2010 survey on the HIS status and management issues for 44 tertiary hospitals and 2009 survey on hospital performance appraisal were used. A chi-square test was used to analyze the association between the EMR and CDSS characteristics. A t-test was used to analyze the effects of EMR and CDSS on hospital performance. Results Hospital size and top management support were significantly associated with the adoption of EMR. Unlike the EMR results, however, only the standardization characteristic was significantly associated with CDSS adoption. Both EMR and CDSS were associated with the improvement of hospital performance. The EMR adoption rates and outsourcing consistently increased as the growth stage increased. The CDSS, Knowledge Management System, standardization, and user training adoption rates for Stage 3 hospitals were higher than those found for Stage 2 hospitals. Conclusions Both EMR and CDSS influenced the improvement of hospital performance. As hospitals advanced to Stage 3, i.e. have more experience with information systems, they adopted EMRs and realized the importance of each management issue. PMID:22084812

  13. Modeling decision-making in single- and multi-modal medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canosa, R. L.; Baum, K. G.

    2009-02-01

    This research introduces a mode-specific model of visual saliency that can be used to highlight likely lesion locations and potential errors (false positives and false negatives) in single-mode PET and MRI images and multi-modal fused PET/MRI images. Fused-modality digital images are a relatively recent technological improvement in medical imaging; therefore, a novel component of this research is to characterize the perceptual response to these fused images. Three different fusion techniques were compared to single-mode displays in terms of observer error rates using synthetic human brain images generated from an anthropomorphic phantom. An eye-tracking experiment was performed with naÃve (non-radiologist) observers who viewed the single- and multi-modal images. The eye-tracking data allowed the errors to be classified into four categories: false positives, search errors (false negatives never fixated), recognition errors (false negatives fixated less than 350 milliseconds), and decision errors (false negatives fixated greater than 350 milliseconds). A saliency model consisting of a set of differentially weighted low-level feature maps is derived from the known error and ground truth locations extracted from a subset of the test images for each modality. The saliency model shows that lesion and error locations attract visual attention according to low-level image features such as color, luminance, and texture.

  14. A markov decision process model for the optimal dispatch of military medical evacuation assets.

    PubMed

    Keneally, Sean K; Robbins, Matthew J; Lunday, Brian J

    2016-06-01

    We develop a Markov decision process (MDP) model to examine aerial military medical evacuation (MEDEVAC) dispatch policies in a combat environment. The problem of deciding which aeromedical asset to dispatch to each service request is complicated by the threat conditions at the service locations and the priority class of each casualty event. We assume requests for MEDEVAC support arrive sequentially, with the location and the priority of each casualty known upon initiation of the request. The United States military uses a 9-line MEDEVAC request system to classify casualties as being one of three priority levels: urgent, priority, and routine. Multiple casualties can be present at a single casualty event, with the highest priority casualty determining the priority level for the casualty event. Moreover, an armed escort may be required depending on the threat level indicated by the 9-line MEDEVAC request. The proposed MDP model indicates how to optimally dispatch MEDEVAC helicopters to casualty events in order to maximize steady-state system utility. The utility gained from servicing a specific request depends on the number of casualties, the priority class for each of the casualties, and the locations of both the servicing ambulatory helicopter and casualty event. Instances of the dispatching problem are solved using a relative value iteration dynamic programming algorithm. Computational examples are used to investigate optimal dispatch policies under different threat situations and armed escort delays; the examples are based on combat scenarios in which United States Army MEDEVAC units support ground operations in Afghanistan.

  15. 38 CFR 1.484 - Disclosure of medical information to the surrogate of a patient who lacks decision-making capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... information to the surrogate of a patient who lacks decision-making capacity. 1.484 Section 1.484 Pensions...: (a) The patient lacks decision-making capacity; and (b) The practitioner deems the content of the... Patient Consent § 1.484 Disclosure of medical information to the surrogate of a patient who lacks decision...

  16. 38 CFR 1.484 - Disclosure of medical information to the surrogate of a patient who lacks decision-making capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... information to the surrogate of a patient who lacks decision-making capacity. 1.484 Section 1.484 Pensions...: (a) The patient lacks decision-making capacity; and (b) The practitioner deems the content of the... Patient Consent § 1.484 Disclosure of medical information to the surrogate of a patient who lacks decision...

  17. 38 CFR 1.484 - Disclosure of medical information to the surrogate of a patient who lacks decision-making capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... information to the surrogate of a patient who lacks decision-making capacity. 1.484 Section 1.484 Pensions...: (a) The patient lacks decision-making capacity; and (b) The practitioner deems the content of the... Patient Consent § 1.484 Disclosure of medical information to the surrogate of a patient who lacks decision...

  18. 38 CFR 1.484 - Disclosure of medical information to the surrogate of a patient who lacks decision-making capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... information to the surrogate of a patient who lacks decision-making capacity. 1.484 Section 1.484 Pensions...: (a) The patient lacks decision-making capacity; and (b) The practitioner deems the content of the... Patient Consent § 1.484 Disclosure of medical information to the surrogate of a patient who lacks decision...

  19. Accuracy enhancement in a fuzzy expert decision making system through appropriate determination of membership functions and its application in a medical diagnostic decision making system.

    PubMed

    Das, Suddhasattwa; Roy Chowdhury, Shubhajit; Saha, Hiranmay

    2012-06-01

    The paper attempts to improve the accuracy of a fuzzy expert decision making system by tuning the parameters of type-2 sigmoid membership functions of fuzzy input variables and hence determining the most appropriate type-1 membership function. The current work mathematically models the variability of human decision making process using type-2 fuzzy sets. Moreover, an index of accuracy of a fuzzy expert system has been proposed and determined analytically. It has also been ascertained that there exists only one rule in the rule base whose associated mapping for the ith linguistic variable maps to the same value as the maximum value of the membership function for the ith linguistic variable. The improvement in decision making accuracy was successfully verified in a medical diagnostic decision making system for renal diagnostic applications. Based on the accuracy estimations applied over a set of pathophysiological parameters, viz. body mass index, glucose, urea, creatinine, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, appropriate type-1 fuzzy sets of these parameters have been determined assuming normal distribution of type-1 membership function values in type-2 fuzzy sets. The type-1 fuzzy sets so determined have been used to develop an FPGA based smart processor. Using the processor, renal diagnosis of patients has been performed with an accuracy of 98.75%.

  20. Effect of training problem-solving skill on decision-making and critical thinking of personnel at medical emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Mohammad; Shahbazi, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of problem-solving training on decision-making skill and critical thinking in emergency medical personnel. Materials and Methods: This study is an experimental study that performed in 95 emergency medical personnel in two groups of control (48) and experimental (47). Then, a short problem-solving course based on 8 sessions of 2 h during the term, was performed for the experimental group. Of data gathering was used demographic and researcher made decision-making and California critical thinking skills questionnaires. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: The finding revealed that decision-making and critical thinking score in emergency medical personnel are low and problem-solving course, positively affected the personnel’ decision-making skill and critical thinking after the educational program (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Therefore, this kind of education on problem-solving in various emergency medicine domains such as education, research, and management, is recommended. PMID:28149823

  1. Novel Architecture for supporting medical decision making of different data types based on Fuzzy Cognitive Map Framework.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, Elpiniki; Stylios, Chrysostomos; Groumpos, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Medical problems involve different types of variables and data, which have to be processed, analyzed and synthesized in order to reach a decision and/or conclude to a diagnosis. Usually, information and data set are both symbolic and numeric but most of the well-known data analysis methods deal with only one kind of data. Even when fuzzy approaches are considered, which are not depended on the scales of variables, usually only numeric data is considered. The medical decision support methods usually are accessed in only one type of available data. Thus, sophisticated methods have been proposed such as integrated hybrid learning approaches to process symbolic and numeric data for the decision support tasks. Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCM) is an efficient modelling method, which is based on human knowledge and experience and it can handle with uncertainty and it is constructed by extracted knowledge in the form of fuzzy rules. The FCM model can be enhanced if a fuzzy rule base (IF-THEN rules) is available. This rule base could be derived by a number of machine learning and knowledge extraction methods. Here it is introduced a hybrid attempt to handle situations with different types of available medical and/or clinical data and with difficulty to handle them for decision support tasks using soft computing techniques.

  2. [Patient participation in medical decision making within an integrated health care system in Germany: results of a controlled cohort study].

    PubMed

    Hölzel, L P; Vollmer, M; Kriston, L; Siegel, A; Härter, M

    2012-11-01

    An integrated health care project called "Gesundes Kinzigtal" was conducted in a rural area in Germany. As part of the project, physicians were trained and other measures were taken to enhance patient involvement in medical decision making. As part of the external evaluation, various effects regarding patient involvement in medical decision making, patient involvement and information preference, decision confidence, patient satisfaction with ambulatory care and patient quality of life were examined. The data were gathered by means of a questionnaire on an annual basis between 2007 and 2009. Effects were compared between patients who were participating in the integrated care project and two control groups. Analyses are based on the data of 1,205 patients. Over time all outcomes decreased slightly, except for information preference and physical quality of life. No statistically significant intervention effects on patient involvement in medical decision making or any other outcome variable could be found. The intensity of the training was presumably too low to establish an enduring change in the physician-patient interaction.

  3. Cancer Counseling of Low-Income Limited English Proficient Latina Women Using Medical Interpreters: Implications for Shared Decision-Making.

    PubMed

    Kamara, Daniella; Weil, Jon; Youngblom, Janey; Guerra, Claudia; Joseph, Galen

    2017-08-09

    In cancer genetic counseling (CGC), communication across language and culture challenges the model of practice based on shared decision-making. To date, little research has examined the decision-making process of low-income, limited English proficiency (LEP) patients in CGC. This study identified communication patterns in CGC sessions with this population and assessed how these patterns facilitate or inhibit the decision-making process during the sessions. We analyzed 24 audio recordings of CGC sessions conducted in Spanish via telephone interpreters at two public hospitals. Patients were referred for risk of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer; all were offered genetic testing. Audio files were coded by two bilingual English-Spanish researchers and analyzed using conventional content analysis through an iterative process. The 24 sessions included 13 patients, 6 counselors, and 18 interpreters. Qualitative data analyses identified three key domains - Challenges Posed by Hypothetical Explanations, Misinterpretation by the Medical Interpreter, and Communication Facilitators - that reflect communication patterns and their impact on the counselor's ability to facilitate shared decision-making. Overall, we found an absence of patient participation in the decision-making process. Our data suggest that when counseling LEP Latina patients via medical interpreter, prioritizing information with direct utility for the patient and organizing information into short- and long-term goals may reduce information overload and improve comprehension for patient and interpreter. Further research is needed to test the proposed counseling strategies with this population and to assess how applicable our findings are to other populations.

  4. Decision making, beliefs, and attitudes toward hysterectomy: a focus group study with medically underserved women in Texas.

    PubMed

    Groff, J Y; Mullen, P D; Byrd, T; Shelton, A J; Lees, E; Goode, J

    2000-01-01

    Variations in hysterectomy rates have been associated with assorted physician and patient characteristics, and the disproportionate rate of hysterectomies in African American women has been attributed to a higher prevalence of leiomyomas. The role of women's beliefs and attitudes toward hysterectomy and participation in decision making for medical treatment has not been explored as a source of variance. The purposes of this qualitative study were to explore these constructs in a triethnic sample of women to understand beliefs, attitudes, and decision-making preferences among underserved women; to facilitate development of a quantitative survey; and to inform development of interventions to assist women with such medical decisions. Twenty-three focus groups were conducted with 148 women from community sites and public health clinics. Thirteen self-identified lesbians participated in three groups. Analysis of audiotaped transcripts yielded four main themes: perceived outcomes of hysterectomy, perceived views of men/partners, opinions about healthcare providers, decision-making process. Across groups, the women expressed similar expectations from hysterectomy, differing only in the degree to which dimensions were emphasized. The women thought men perceived women with hysterectomy as less desirable for reasons unrelated to childbearing. Attitudes toward physicians were negative except among Hispanic women. All women expressed a strong desire to be involved in elective treatment decisions and would discuss their choice with important others. Implications for intervention development include enhancing women's skills and confidence to evaluate treatment options and to interact with physicians around treatment choices and creation of portable educational components for important others.

  5. Decision Support Alerts for Medication Ordering in a Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) System: A systematic approach to decrease alerts.

    PubMed

    Beccaro, M A Del; Villanueva, R; Knudson, K M; Harvey, E M; Langle, J M; Paul, W

    2010-01-01

    We sought to determine the frequency and type of decision support alerts by location and ordering provider role during Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) medication ordering. Using these data we adjusted the decision support tools to reduce the number of alerts. Retrospective analyses were performed of dose range checks (DRC), drug-drug interaction and drug-allergy alerts from our electronic medical record. During seven sampling periods (each two weeks long) between April 2006 and October 2008 all alerts in these categories were analyzed. Another audit was performed of all DRC alerts by ordering provider role from November 2008 through January 2009. Medication ordering error counts were obtained from a voluntary error reporting system. MEASUREMENTRESULTS: Between April 2006 and October 2008 the percent of medication orders that triggered a dose range alert decreased from 23.9% to 7.4%. The relative risk (RR) for getting an alert was higher at the start of the interventions versus later (RR= 2.40, 95% CI 2.28-2.52; p< 0.0001). The percentage of medication orders that triggered alerts for drug-drug interactions also decreased from 13.5% to 4.8%. The RR for getting a drug interaction alert at the start was 1.63, 95% CI 1.60-1.66; p< 0.0001. Alerts decreased in all clinical areas without an increase in reported medication errors. We reduced the quantity of decision support alerts in CPOE using a systematic approach without an increase in reported medication errors.

  6. Retrieval of publications addressing shared decision making: an evaluation of full-text searches on medical journal websites.

    PubMed

    Blanc, Xavier; Collet, Tinh-Hai; Auer, Reto; Iriarte, Pablo; Krause, Jan; Légaré, France; Cornuz, Jacques; Clair, Carole

    2015-04-07

    Full-text searches of articles increase the recall, defined by the proportion of relevant publications that are retrieved. However, this method is rarely used in medical research due to resource constraints. For the purpose of a systematic review of publications addressing shared decision making, a full-text search method was required to retrieve publications where shared decision making does not appear in the title or abstract. The objective of our study was to assess the efficiency and reliability of full-text searches in major medical journals for identifying shared decision making publications. A full-text search was performed on the websites of 15 high-impact journals in general internal medicine to look up publications of any type from 1996-2011 containing the phrase "shared decision making". The search method was compared with a PubMed search of titles and abstracts only. The full-text search was further validated by requesting all publications from the same time period from the individual journal publishers and searching through the collected dataset. The full-text search for "shared decision making" on journal websites identified 1286 publications in 15 journals compared to 119 through the PubMed search. The search within the publisher-provided publications of 6 journals identified 613 publications compared to 646 with the full-text search on the respective journal websites. The concordance rate was 94.3% between both full-text searches. Full-text searching on medical journal websites is an efficient and reliable way to identify relevant articles in the field of shared decision making for review or other purposes. It may be more widely used in biomedical research in other fields in the future, with the collaboration of publishers and journals toward open-access data.

  7. Retrieval of Publications Addressing Shared Decision Making: An Evaluation of Full-Text Searches on Medical Journal Websites

    PubMed Central

    Collet, Tinh-Hai; Auer, Reto; Iriarte, Pablo; Krause, Jan; Légaré, France; Cornuz, Jacques; Clair, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Background Full-text searches of articles increase the recall, defined by the proportion of relevant publications that are retrieved. However, this method is rarely used in medical research due to resource constraints. For the purpose of a systematic review of publications addressing shared decision making, a full-text search method was required to retrieve publications where shared decision making does not appear in the title or abstract. Objective The objective of our study was to assess the efficiency and reliability of full-text searches in major medical journals for identifying shared decision making publications. Methods A full-text search was performed on the websites of 15 high-impact journals in general internal medicine to look up publications of any type from 1996-2011 containing the phrase “shared decision making”. The search method was compared with a PubMed search of titles and abstracts only. The full-text search was further validated by requesting all publications from the same time period from the individual journal publishers and searching through the collected dataset. Results The full-text search for “shared decision making” on journal websites identified 1286 publications in 15 journals compared to 119 through the PubMed search. The search within the publisher-provided publications of 6 journals identified 613 publications compared to 646 with the full-text search on the respective journal websites. The concordance rate was 94.3% between both full-text searches. Conclusions Full-text searching on medical journal websites is an efficient and reliable way to identify relevant articles in the field of shared decision making for review or other purposes. It may be more widely used in biomedical research in other fields in the future, with the collaboration of publishers and journals toward open-access data. PMID:25854180

  8. Decision support to avoid medication errors - how far have we come in Denmark and what are the present challenges.

    PubMed

    Hellebek, Annemarie; Marinakis, Christiana

    2009-01-01

    The number of medication errors reported to The Danish National Board of Health in Denmark exceeds 5000 per year. It is well known that computerized physician order entry (CPOE) with addition of decision support tools may reduce the frequency of medication errors. The primary scope of the work in Denmark has been to help health care professionals avoiding harmful errors. Using data primarily from The Danish National Board of Health, based on the reports of errors from Danish hospitals, and with our previous foundation in the international literature, we analyzed the errors which led to harmful conditions or death. In the process we developed a methodical consensus for identifying which medicines should have a warning attached, and we systematized the different kind of warnings. The following validation of the data resulted in a final list of 14 classes of drugs or drug substances, which all have been involved in serious medication errors. At present time there is a total of 136 different medicines with warnings found in the drug database for health professionals from Infomatum A/S (www.medicin.dk). In a parallel matter other decision support tools from Infomatum A/S(2) are available or in progress e.g. ensuring use of correct dosage based on normal range, information about drugs used during pregnancy, etc. A major challenge when implementing decision support for medication processes has been to ensure useful coding of the medicines, A/S there does not exist one unique identification number for each drug substance.

  9. Decision to take osteoporosis medication in patients who have had a fracture and are 'high' risk for future fracture: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients' values and preferences are fundamental tenets of evidence-based practice, yet current osteoporosis (OP) clinical guidelines pay little attention to these issues in therapeutic decision making. This may be in part due to the fact that few studies have examined the factors that influence the initial decision to take OP medication. The purpose of our study was to examine patients' experiences with the decision to take OP medication after they sustained a fracture. Methods A phenomenological qualitative study was conducted with outpatients identified in a university teaching hospital fracture clinic OP program. Individuals aged 65+ who had sustained a fragility fracture within 5 years, were 'high risk' for future fracture, and were prescribed OP medication were eligible. Analysis of interview data was guided by Giorgi's methodology. Results 21 patients (6 males, 15 females) aged 65-88 years participated. All participants had low bone mass; 9 had OP. Fourteen patients were taking a bisphosphonate while 7 patients were taking no OP medications. For 12 participants, the decision to take OP medication occurred at the time of prescription and involved minimal contemplation (10/12 were on medication). These patients made their decision because they liked/trusted their health care provider. However, 4/10 participants in this group indicated their OP medication-taking status might change. For the remaining 9 patients, the decision was more difficult (4/9 were on medication). These patients were unconvinced by their health care provider, engaged in risk-benefit analyses using other information sources, and were concerned about side effects; 7/9 patients indicated that their OP medication-taking status might change at a later date. Conclusions Almost half of our older patients who had sustained a fracture found the decision to take OP medication a difficult one. In general, the decision was not considered permanent. Health care providers should be aware of

  10. Patients' participation in decision-making in the medical field--'projectification' of patients in a neoliberal framed healthcare system.

    PubMed

    Glasdam, Stinne; Oeye, Christine; Thrysoee, Lars

    2015-10-01

    This article focuses on patients' participation in decision-making in meetings with healthcare professionals in a healthcare system, based on neoliberal regulations and ideas. Drawing on two constructed empirical cases, primarily from the perspective of patients, this article analyses and discusses the clinical practice around decision-making meetings within a Foucauldian perspective. Patients' participation in decision-making can be seen as an offshoot of respect for patient autonomy. A treatment must be chosen, when patients consult physicians. From the perspective of patients, there is a tendency for healthcare professionals to supply the patients with the information that they think are necessary for them to make their own decision. But patients do not always want to be a 'customer' in the healthcare system; they want to be a patient, consulting an expert for help and advice, which creates resistance to some parts of the decision-making process. Both professionals and patients are subject to the structural frame of the medical field, formed of both neoliberal framework and medical logic. The decision-making competence in relation to the choice of treatment is placed away from the professionals and seen as belonging to the patient. A 'projectification' of the patient occurs, whereby the patient becomes responsible for his/her choices in treatment and care and the professionals support him/her with knowledge, preferences, and alternative views, out of which he/she must make his/her own choices, and the responsibility for those choices now and in the future. At the same time, there is a tendency towards de-professionalization. In that light, participation of patients in decision-making can be regarded as a tacit governmentality strategy that shapes the location of responsibility between individual and society, and independent patients and healthcare professionals, despite the basically desirable, appropriate, and necessary idea of involving patients in their own

  11. Towards case-based medical learning in radiological decision making using content-based image retrieval

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Radiologists' training is based on intensive practice and can be improved with the use of diagnostic training systems. However, existing systems typically require laboriously prepared training cases and lack integration into the clinical environment with a proper learning scenario. Consequently, diagnostic training systems advancing decision-making skills are not well established in radiological education. Methods We investigated didactic concepts and appraised methods appropriate to the radiology domain, as follows: (i) Adult learning theories stress the importance of work-related practice gained in a team of problem-solvers; (ii) Case-based reasoning (CBR) parallels the human problem-solving process; (iii) Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) can be useful for computer-aided diagnosis (CAD). To overcome the known drawbacks of existing learning systems, we developed the concept of image-based case retrieval for radiological education (IBCR-RE). The IBCR-RE diagnostic training is embedded into a didactic framework based on the Seven Jump approach, which is well established in problem-based learning (PBL). In order to provide a learning environment that is as similar as possible to radiological practice, we have analysed the radiological workflow and environment. Results We mapped the IBCR-RE diagnostic training approach into the Image Retrieval in Medical Applications (IRMA) framework, resulting in the proposed concept of the IRMAdiag training application. IRMAdiag makes use of the modular structure of IRMA and comprises (i) the IRMA core, i.e., the IRMA CBIR engine; and (ii) the IRMAcon viewer. We propose embedding IRMAdiag into hospital information technology (IT) infrastructure using the standard protocols Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) and Health Level Seven (HL7). Furthermore, we present a case description and a scheme of planned evaluations to comprehensively assess the system. Conclusions The IBCR-RE paradigm incorporates a

  12. Towards case-based medical learning in radiological decision making using content-based image retrieval.

    PubMed

    Welter, Petra; Deserno, Thomas M; Fischer, Benedikt; Günther, Rolf W; Spreckelsen, Cord

    2011-10-27

    Radiologists' training is based on intensive practice and can be improved with the use of diagnostic training systems. However, existing systems typically require laboriously prepared training cases and lack integration into the clinical environment with a proper learning scenario. Consequently, diagnostic training systems advancing decision-making skills are not well established in radiological education. We investigated didactic concepts and appraised methods appropriate to the radiology domain, as follows: (i) Adult learning theories stress the importance of work-related practice gained in a team of problem-solvers; (ii) Case-based reasoning (CBR) parallels the human problem-solving process; (iii) Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) can be useful for computer-aided diagnosis (CAD). To overcome the known drawbacks of existing learning systems, we developed the concept of image-based case retrieval for radiological education (IBCR-RE). The IBCR-RE diagnostic training is embedded into a didactic framework based on the Seven Jump approach, which is well established in problem-based learning (PBL). In order to provide a learning environment that is as similar as possible to radiological practice, we have analysed the radiological workflow and environment. We mapped the IBCR-RE diagnostic training approach into the Image Retrieval in Medical Applications (IRMA) framework, resulting in the proposed concept of the IRMAdiag training application. IRMAdiag makes use of the modular structure of IRMA and comprises (i) the IRMA core, i.e., the IRMA CBIR engine; and (ii) the IRMAcon viewer. We propose embedding IRMAdiag into hospital information technology (IT) infrastructure using the standard protocols Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) and Health Level Seven (HL7). Furthermore, we present a case description and a scheme of planned evaluations to comprehensively assess the system. The IBCR-RE paradigm incorporates a novel combination of essential aspects

  13. From Value Assessment to Value Cocreation: Informing Clinical Decision-Making with Medical Claims Data.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Steven; Varvel, Stephen; Sasinowski, Maciek; Burke, James P

    2016-09-01

    Big data and advances in analytical processes represent an opportunity for the healthcare industry to make better evidence-based decisions on the value generated by various tests, procedures, and interventions. Value-based reimbursement is the process of identifying and compensating healthcare providers based on whether their services improve quality of care without increasing cost of care or maintain quality of care while decreasing costs. In this article, we motivate and illustrate the potential opportunities for payers and providers to collaborate and evaluate the clinical and economic efficacy of different healthcare services. We conduct a case study of a firm that offers advanced biomarker and disease state management services for cardiovascular and cardiometabolic conditions. A value-based analysis that comprised a retrospective case/control cohort design was conducted, and claims data for over 7000 subjects who received these services were compared to a matched control cohort. Study subjects were commercial and Medicare Advantage enrollees with evidence of CHD, diabetes, or a related condition. Analysis of medical claims data showed a lower proportion of patients who received biomarker testing and disease state management services experienced a MI (p < 0.01) or diabetic complications (p < 0.001). No significant increase in cost of care was found between the two cohorts. Our results illustrate the opportunity healthcare payers such as Medicare and commercial insurance companies have in terms of identifying value-creating healthcare interventions. However, payers and providers also need to pursue system integration efforts to further automate the identification and dissemination of clinically and economically efficacious treatment plans to ensure at-risk patients receive the treatments and interventions that will benefit them the most.

  14. Cognitive Predictors of Medical Decision-Making Capacity in Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Dreer, Laura E.; DeVivo, Michael J.; Novack, Thomas A.; Krzywanski, Sara; Marson, Daniel C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To identify cognitive predictors of medical decision-making capacity (MDC) in participants with traumatic brain injury (TBI) at time of acute injury (baseline) and at six-month follow-up. Participants At baseline, participants were 34 adults with moderate to severe TBI and 20 healthy adults. At six-month follow-up, participants were 24 adults with moderate to severe TBI and 20 normal adults. Main Outcome Measures Participants were administered a consent capacity instrument (Capacity to Consent to Treatment Instrument: CCTI) and neuropsychological test measures. In the TBI group, univariate and multivariate cognitive predictor models were developed at baseline and six-month follow-up for clinically relevant CCTI consent abilities/standards (S) of understanding (S5); reasoning (S4); and appreciation (S3). Results At baseline, measures of short-term verbal memory and semantic fluency predicted TBI group performance on understanding (S5); short-term verbal memory and attention predicted performance on reasoning (S4); and working memory predicted performance on appreciation (S3). Regarding six-month follow-up models, measures of basic executive function, verbal processing speed, and working memory predicted TBI performance on understanding (S5); working memory and short-term memory predicted reasoning (S4); and basic executive functioning predicted appreciation (S3). Conclusions Multiple cognitive functions are associated with acute impairment and partial recovery of MDC in patients with moderate to severe TBI. Short-term verbal memory was strongly associated with impairments in consent capacity in TBI participants at the time of acute inpatient hospitalization. As patients experience cognitive and functional recovery post-hospitalization, executive functioning and working memory abilities were associated with improved capacity at six-month follow-up. The results offer insight into the relationship between different standards of competency and cognitive

  15. Exploring the feasibility and acceptability of using tactical decision games to develop final year medical students' non-technical skills.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Iain; Sheikh, Gauhar; Skinner, Janet; Wood, Morwenna

    2016-05-01

    Clinical decision-making, situation awareness, task management, and teamwork are key non-technical skills (NTS) required by junior doctors. Tactical decision games (TDGs) are low-fidelity classroom-based activities designed to develop proficiency in NTS. This study aimed to explore the feasibility and acceptability of using TDGs as a novel teaching method for final year medical students. Final year medical students at the University of Edinburgh participated in a single TDG session. Focus groups were then used to explore students' perceptions of participating in the TDG session and transcribed data from the focus groups was thematically analyzed. Six key themes emerged from the data: "the value of non-medical games"; "giving and receiving feedback"; "observing and reflecting"; "recognizing and understanding NTS"; "dealing with uncertainty and ambiguity", and "introducing TDGs into the curriculum". TDGs are an easy-to-use, low-fidelity method of teaching medical students about the importance of NTS. Medical students view TDGs as a valuable learning activity that appears to increase awareness and understanding of the importance of NTS.

  16. Innovative medical devices and hospital decision making: a study comparing the views of hospital pharmacists and physicians.

    PubMed

    Billaux, Mathilde; Borget, Isabelle; Prognon, Patrice; Pineau, Judith; Martelli, Nicolas

    2016-06-01

    Objectives Many university hospitals have developed local health technology assessment processes to guide informed decisions about new medical devices. However, little is known about stakeholders' perceptions and assessment of innovative devices. Herein, we investigated the perceptions regarding innovative medical devices of their chief users (physicians and surgeons), as well as those of hospital pharmacists, because they are responsible for the purchase and management of sterile medical devices. We noted the evaluation criteria used to assess and select new medical devices and suggestions for improving local health technology assessment processes indicated by the interviewees. Methods We randomly selected 18 physicians and surgeons (nine each) and 18 hospital pharmacists from 18 French university hospitals. Semistructured interviews were conducted between October 2012 and August 2013. Responses were coded separately by two researchers. Results Physicians and surgeons frequently described innovative medical devices as 'new', 'safe' and 'effective', whereas hospital pharmacists focused more on economic considerations and considered real innovative devices to be those for which no equivalent could be found on the market. No significant difference in evaluation criteria was found between these groups of professionals. Finally, hospital pharmacists considered the management of conflicts of interests in local health technology assessment processes to be an issue, whereas physicians and surgeons did not. Conclusions The present study highlights differences in perceptions related to professional affiliation. The findings suggest several ways in which current practices for local health technology assessment in French university hospitals could be improved and studied. What is known about the topic? Hospitals are faced with ever-growing demands for innovative and costly medical devices. To help hospital management deal with technology acquisition issues, hospital

  17. Evaluation of resident familiarity and utilization of the ACR musculoskeletal study appropriateness criteria in the context of medical decision support.

    PubMed

    Logie, Chikaodili Iloanusi; Smith, Stacy E; Nagy, Paul

    2010-02-01

    The American College of Radiology (ACR) Appropriateness Criteria was compiled as a set of evidence-based guidelines to aid both radiologists and referring physicians in making efficient use of imaging resources. In our study, only 60% of residents knew how to obtain a copy of the ACR Appropriateness Criteria, and 90% were unaware of its contents. The overall mean score in a Medical Decision Support Competency Quiz was less than 60%. We propose that there is a clear need for the formal implementation of the ACR Appropriateness Criteria within our radiology training programs. Residents should be better familiarized with its contents so as to improve medical decision support to clinicians, technologists, and radiologists alike. Copyright 2010 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Emerging medical informatics with case-based reasoning for aiding clinical decision in multi-agent system.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ying; Colloc, Joël; Jacquet-Andrieu, Armelle; Lei, Kai

    2015-08-01

    This research aims to depict the methodological steps and tools about the combined operation of case-based reasoning (CBR) and multi-agent system (MAS) to expose the ontological application in the field of clinical decision support. The multi-agent architecture works for the consideration of the whole cycle of clinical decision-making adaptable to many medical aspects such as the diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, therapeutic monitoring of gastric cancer. In the multi-agent architecture, the ontological agent type employs the domain knowledge to ease the extraction of similar clinical cases and provide treatment suggestions to patients and physicians. Ontological agent is used for the extension of domain hierarchy and the interpretation of input requests. Case-based reasoning memorizes and restores experience data for solving similar problems, with the help of matching approach and defined interfaces of ontologies. A typical case is developed to illustrate the implementation of the knowledge acquisition and restitution of medical experts.

  19. Factors influencing coverage decisions on medical devices: A retrospective analysis of 78 medical device appraisals for the Austrian hospital benefit catalogue 2008-2015.

    PubMed

    Kisser, Agnes; Tüchler, Heinz; Erdös, Judit; Wild, Claudia

    2016-08-01

    Health technology assessments of medical devices (MD) present a well-recognized challenge to evaluators: the evidence on safety and clinical effectiveness is often of lower quality than for pharmaceuticals making a reliable assessment of the risk-benefit ratio difficult. Thus other factors might gain importance in decision making. To analyse which factors impact MD reimbursement decisions within the Austrian appraisal programme on "extra medical services" (procedures reimbursed in addition to case flat rates) for inpatient care over the past eight years. We collected variables on evidence base and device characteristics from all MD appraisals and assessed their impact on the reimbursement decision by means of odds ratios. Separate analyses were carried out for subgroups based on the risk class of the medical device subject of the assessment or the number of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) available for the assessment. Of 59 devices, 23 (39%) were accepted for reimbursement (18 with restrictions) and 36 (61%) were rejected. Variables addressing the quality of the evidence base were positive predictors for risk class II devices only, whereas no significant association could be determined in devices of risk class III. Inversely, high risk device characteristics were positive predictors in the subgroup not supported by RCTs only. Our data indicate that the combination of high risk characteristics and a low evidence base are factors favouring a positive reimbursement decision of MD, albeit with restrictions. Further research should analyse if these restrictions are appropriate to generate evidence development and to contain risks associated with early access to these MD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Racial, gender, and socioeconomic status bias in senior medical student clinical decision-making: a national survey.

    PubMed

    Williams, Robert L; Romney, Crystal; Kano, Miria; Wright, Randy; Skipper, Betty; Getrich, Christina M; Sussman, Andrew L; Zyzanski, Stephen J

    2015-06-01

    Research suggests stereotyping by clinicians as one contributor to racial and gender-based health disparities. It is necessary to understand the origins of such biases before interventions can be developed to eliminate them. As a first step toward this understanding, we tested for the presence of bias in senior medical students. The purpose of the study was to determine whether bias based on race, gender, or socioeconomic status influenced clinical decision-making among medical students. We surveyed seniors at 84 medical schools, who were required to choose between two clinically equivalent management options for a set of cardiac patient vignettes. We examined variations in student recommendations based on patient race, gender, and socioeconomic status. The study included senior medical students. We investigated the percentage of students selecting cardiac procedural options for vignette patients, analyzed by patient race, gender, and socioeconomic status. Among 4,603 returned surveys, we found no evidence in the overall sample supporting racial or gender bias in student clinical decision-making. Students were slightly more likely to recommend cardiac procedural options for black (43.9 %) vs. white (42 %, p = .03) patients; there was no difference by patient gender. Patient socioeconomic status was the strongest predictor of student recommendations, with patients described as having the highest socioeconomic status most likely to receive procedural care recommendations (50.3 % vs. 43.2 % for those in the lowest socioeconomic status group, p < .001). Analysis by subgroup, however, showed significant regional geographic variation in the influence of patient race and gender on decision-making. Multilevel analysis showed that white female patients were least likely to receive procedural recommendations. In the sample as a whole, we found no evidence of racial or gender bias in student clinical decision-making. However, we did find evidence of bias with regard to the

  1. Influence of analytical bias and imprecision on the number of false positive results using Guideline-Driven Medical Decision Limits.

    PubMed

    Hyltoft Petersen, Per; Klee, George G

    2014-03-20

    Diagnostic decisions based on decision limits according to medical guidelines are different from the majority of clinical decisions due to the strict dichotomization of patients into diseased and non-diseased. Consequently, the influence of analytical performance is more critical than for other diagnostic decisions where much other information is included. The aim of this opinion paper is to investigate consequences of analytical quality and other circumstances for the outcome of "Guideline-Driven Medical Decision Limits". Effects of analytical bias and imprecision should be investigated separately and analytical quality specifications should be estimated accordingly. Use of sharp decision limits doesn't consider biological variation and effects of this variation are closely connected with the effects of analytical performance. Such relationships are investigated for the guidelines for HbA1c in diagnosis of diabetes and in risk of coronary heart disease based on serum cholesterol. The effects of a second sampling in diagnosis give dramatic reduction in the effects of analytical quality showing minimal influence of imprecision up to 3 to 5% for two independent samplings, whereas the reduction in bias is more moderate and a 2% increase in concentration doubles the percentage of false positive diagnoses, both for HbA1c and cholesterol. An alternative approach comes from the current application of guidelines for follow-up laboratory tests according to clinical procedure orders, e.g. frequency of parathyroid hormone requests as a function of serum calcium concentrations. Here, the specifications for bias can be evaluated from the functional increase in requests for increasing serum calcium concentrations. In consequence of the difficulties with biological variation and the practical utilization of concentration dependence of frequency of follow-up laboratory tests already in use, a kind of probability function for diagnosis as function of the key-analyte is proposed

  2. Recovery and Resilience After a Nuclear Power Plant Disaster: A Medical Decision model for Managing an Effective, Timely, and Balanced Response

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, C. Norman; Blumenthal, Daniel J.

    2013-05-01

    Based on experiences in Tokyo responding to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant crisis, a real-time, medical decision model is presented by which to make key health-related decisions given the central role of health and medical issues in such disasters. Focus is on response and recovery activities that are safe, timely, effective, and well-organized. This approach empowers on-site decision makers to make interim decisions without undue delay using readily available and high-level scientific, medical, communication, and policy expertise. Key features of this approach include ongoing assessment, consultation, information, and adaption to the changing conditions. This medical decision model presented is compatible with the existing US National Response Framework structure.

  3. Medication decision making and patient outcomes in GP, nurse and pharmacist prescriber consultations.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Marjorie C; Platt, Jo; Riley, Ruth; Chewning, Betty; Taylor, Gordon; Horrocks, Susan; Taylor, Andrea

    2015-09-01

    Aim The aims of this study were twofold: (a) to explore whether specific components of shared decision making were present in consultations involving nurse prescribers (NPs), pharmacist prescribers (PPs) and general practitioners (GPs) and (b) to relate these to self-reported patient outcomes including satisfaction, adherence and patient perceptions of practitioner empathy. There are a range of ways for defining and measuring the process of concordance, or shared decision making as it relates to decisions about medicines. As a result, demonstrating a convincing link between shared decision making and patient benefit is challenging. In the United Kingdom, nurses and pharmacists can now take on a prescribing role, engaging in shared decision making. Given the different professional backgrounds of GPs, NPs and PPs, this study sought to explore the process of shared decision making across these three prescriber groups. Analysis of audio-recordings of consultations in primary care in South England between patients and GPs, NPs and PPs. Analysis of patient questionnaires completed post consultation. Findings A total of 532 consultations were audio-recorded with 20 GPs, 19 NPs and 12 PPs. Prescribing decisions occurred in 421 (79%). Patients were given treatment options in 21% (102/482) of decisions, the prescriber elicited the patient's treatment preference in 18% (88/482) and the patient expressed a treatment preference in 24% (118/482) of decisions. PPs were more likely to ask for the patient's preference about their treatment regimen (χ 2=6.6, P=0.036, Cramer's V=0.12) than either NPs or GPs. Of the 275 patient questionnaires, 192(70%) could be matched with a prescribing decision. NP patients had higher satisfaction levels than patients of GPs or PPs. More time describing treatment options was associated with increased satisfaction, adherence and greater perceived practitioner empathy. While defining, measuring and enabling the process of shared decision making

  4. Practical considerations to guide development of access controls and decision support for genetic information in electronic medical records

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Genetic testing is increasingly used as a tool throughout the health care system. In 2011 the number of clinically available genetic tests is approaching 2,000, and wide variation exists between these tests in their sensitivity, specificity, and clinical implications, as well as the potential for discrimination based on the results. Discussion As health care systems increasingly implement electronic medical record systems (EMRs) they must carefully consider how to use information from this wide spectrum of genetic tests, with whom to share information, and how to provide decision support for clinicians to properly interpret the information. Although some characteristics of genetic tests overlap with other medical test results, there are reasons to make genetic test results widely available to health care providers and counterbalancing reasons to restrict access to these test results to honor patient preferences, and avoid distracting or confusing clinicians with irrelevant but complex information. Electronic medical records can facilitate and provide reasonable restrictions on access to genetic test results and deliver education and decision support tools to guide appropriate interpretation and use. Summary This paper will serve to review some of the key characteristics of genetic tests as they relate to design of access control and decision support of genetic test information in the EMR, emphasizing the clear need for health information technology (HIT) to be part of optimal implementation of genetic medicine, and the importance of understanding key characteristics of genetic tests when designing HIT applications. PMID:22047175

  5. Initiating decision-making in neurology consultations: 'recommending' versus 'option-listing' and the implications for medical authority.

    PubMed

    Toerien, Merran; Shaw, Rebecca; Reuber, Markus

    2013-07-01

    This article compares two practices for initiating treatment decision-making, evident in audio-recorded consultations between a neurologist and 13 patients in two hospital clinics in the UK. We call these 'recommending' and 'option-listing'. The former entails making a proposal to do something; the latter entails the construction of a list of options. Using conversation analysis (CA), we illustrate each, showing that the distinction between these two practices matters to participants. Our analysis centres on two distinctions between the practices: epistemic differences and differences in the slots each creates for the patient's response. Considering the implications of our findings for understanding medical authority, we argue that option-listing - relative to recommending - is a practice whereby clinicians work to relinquish a little of their authority. This article contributes, then, to a growing body of CA work that offers a more nuanced, tempered account of medical authority than is typically portrayed in the sociological literature. We argue that future CA studies should map out the range of ways - in addition to recommending - in which treatment decision-making is initiated by clinicians. This will allow for further evidence-based contributions to debates on the related concepts of patient participation, choice, shared decision-making and medical authority.

  6. The Use of Art in the Medical Decision-Making Process of Oncology Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czamanski-Cohen, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of written informed consent in the 1970s created expectations of shared decision making between doctors and patients that has led to decisional conflict for some patients. This study utilized a collaborative, intrinsic case study approach to the decision-making process of oncology patients who participated in an open art therapy…

  7. The Use of Art in the Medical Decision-Making Process of Oncology Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czamanski-Cohen, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of written informed consent in the 1970s created expectations of shared decision making between doctors and patients that has led to decisional conflict for some patients. This study utilized a collaborative, intrinsic case study approach to the decision-making process of oncology patients who participated in an open art therapy…

  8. Using the Objective Borderline Method (OBM) to Support Board of Examiners' Decisions in a Medical Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulruf, Boaz; Booth, Roger; Baker, Heather; Bagg, Warwick; Barrow, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Decisions about progress through an academic programme are made by Boards of Examiners, on the basis of students' course assessments. For most students such pass/fail grading decisions are straightforward. However, for those students whose results are borderline (either at a pass/fail boundary or boundaries between grades) the exercise of some…

  9. Semantics-based plausible reasoning to extend the knowledge coverage of medical knowledge bases for improved clinical decision support.

    PubMed

    Mohammadhassanzadeh, Hossein; Van Woensel, William; Abidi, Samina Raza; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

    2017-01-01

    Capturing complete medical knowledge is challenging-often due to incomplete patient Electronic Health Records (EHR), but also because of valuable, tacit medical knowledge hidden away in physicians' experiences. To extend the coverage of incomplete medical knowledge-based systems beyond their deductive closure, and thus enhance their decision-support capabilities, we argue that innovative, multi-strategy reasoning approaches should be applied. In particular, plausible reasoning mechanisms apply patterns from human thought processes, such as generalization, similarity and interpolation, based on attributional, hierarchical, and relational knowledge. Plausible reasoning mechanisms include inductive reasoning, which generalizes the commonalities among the data to induce new rules, and analogical reasoning, which is guided by data similarities to infer new facts. By further leveraging rich, biomedical Semantic Web ontologies to represent medical knowledge, both known and tentative, we increase the accuracy and expressivity of plausible reasoning, and cope with issues such as data heterogeneity, inconsistency and interoperability. In this paper, we present a Semantic Web-based, multi-strategy reasoning approach, which integrates deductive and plausible reasoning and exploits Semantic Web technology to solve complex clinical decision support queries. We evaluated our system using a real-world medical dataset of patients with hepatitis, from which we randomly removed different percentages of data (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) to reflect scenarios with increasing amounts of incomplete medical knowledge. To increase the reliability of the results, we generated 5 independent datasets for each percentage of missing values, which resulted in 20 experimental datasets (in addition to the original dataset). The results show that plausibly inferred knowledge extends the coverage of the knowledge base by, on average, 2%, 7%, 12%, and 16% for datasets with, respectively, 5%, 10%, 15%, and

  10. Surveying End-of-Life Medical Decisions in France: Evaluation of an Innovative Mixed-Mode Data Collection Strategy.

    PubMed

    Legleye, Stephane; Pennec, Sophie; Monnier, Alain; Stephan, Amandine; Brouard, Nicolas; Bilsen, Johan; Cohen, Joachim

    2016-02-18

    Monitoring medical decisions at the end of life has become an important issue in many societies. Built on previous European experiences, the survey and project Fin de Vie en France ("End of Life in France," or EOLF) was conducted in 2010 to provide an overview of medical end-of-life decisions in France. To describe the methodology of EOLF and evaluate the effects of design innovations on data quality. EOLF used a mixed-mode data collection strategy (paper and Internet) along with follow-up campaigns that employed various contact modes (paper and telephone), all of which were gathered from various institutions (research team, hospital, and medical authorities at the regional level). A telephone nonresponse survey was also used. Through descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regressions, these innovations were assessed in terms of their effects on the response rate, quality of the sample, and differences between Web-based and paper questionnaires. The participation rate was 40.0% (n=5217). The respondent sample was very close to the sampling frame. The Web-based questionnaires represented only 26.8% of the questionnaires, and the Web-based secured procedure led to limitations in data management. The follow-up campaigns had a strong effect on participation, especially for paper questionnaires. With higher participation rates (63.21% and 63.74%), the telephone follow-up and nonresponse surveys showed that only a very low proportion of physicians refused to participate because of the topic or the absence of financial incentive. A multivariate analysis showed that physicians who answered on the Internet reported less medication to hasten death, and that they more often took no medical decisions in the end-of-life process. Varying contact modes is a useful strategy. Using a mixed-mode design is interesting, but selection and measurement effects must be studied further in this sensitive field.

  11. Surveying End-of-Life Medical Decisions in France: Evaluation of an Innovative Mixed-Mode Data Collection Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Pennec, Sophie; Monnier, Alain; Stephan, Amandine; Brouard, Nicolas; Bilsen, Johan; Cohen, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Background Monitoring medical decisions at the end of life has become an important issue in many societies. Built on previous European experiences, the survey and project Fin de Vie en France (“End of Life in France,” or EOLF) was conducted in 2010 to provide an overview of medical end-of-life decisions in France. Objective To describe the methodology of EOLF and evaluate the effects of design innovations on data quality. Methods EOLF used a mixed-mode data collection strategy (paper and Internet) along with follow-up campaigns that employed various contact modes (paper and telephone), all of which were gathered from various institutions (research team, hospital, and medical authorities at the regional level). A telephone nonresponse survey was also used. Through descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regressions, these innovations were assessed in terms of their effects on the response rate, quality of the sample, and differences between Web-based and paper questionnaires. Results The participation rate was 40.0% (n=5217). The respondent sample was very close to the sampling frame. The Web-based questionnaires represented only 26.8% of the questionnaires, and the Web-based secured procedure led to limitations in data management. The follow-up campaigns had a strong effect on participation, especially for paper questionnaires. With higher participation rates (63.21% and 63.74%), the telephone follow-up and nonresponse surveys showed that only a very low proportion of physicians refused to participate because of the topic or the absence of financial incentive. A multivariate analysis showed that physicians who answered on the Internet reported less medication to hasten death, and that they more often took no medical decisions in the end-of-life process. Conclusions Varying contact modes is a useful strategy. Using a mixed-mode design is interesting, but selection and measurement effects must be studied further in this sensitive field. PMID:26892632

  12. The sensitivity of medical diagnostic decision-support knowledge bases in delineating appropriate terms to document in the medical record.

    PubMed

    Feldman, M J; Barnett, G O; Morgan, M M

    1991-01-01

    A pertinent, legible and complete medical record facilitates good patient care. The recording of the symptoms, signs and lab findings which are relevant to a patient's condition contributes importantly to the medical record. The consideration and documentation of other disease states known to be related to the patient's primary illness provide further enhancement. We propose that developing sets of disease-specific core elements which a physician may want to document in the medical record can have many benefits. We hypothesize that for a given disease, terms with high importance (TI) and frequency (TF) in the DX-plain, QMR and Iliad knowledge bases (KBs) are terms which are used commonly in the medical record, and may be, in fact, terms which physicians would find useful to document. A study was undertaken to validate ten such sets of disease-specific core elements. For each of ten prevalent diseases, high TI and TF terms from the three KBs mentioned were pooled to derive the set of core elements. For each disease, all patient records (range 385 to 16,972) from a computerized ambulatory medical record database were searched to document the actual use by physicians of each of these core elements. A significant percentage (range 50 to 86%) of each set of core elements was confirmed as being used by the physicians. In addition, all medical concepts from a selection of full text records were identified, and an average of 65% of the concepts were found to be core elements.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. The sensitivity of medical diagnostic decision-support knowledge bases in delineating appropriate terms to document in the medical record.

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, M. J.; Barnett, G. O.; Morgan, M. M.

    1991-01-01

    A pertinent, legible and complete medical record facilitates good patient care. The recording of the symptoms, signs and lab findings which are relevant to a patient's condition contributes importantly to the medical record. The consideration and documentation of other disease states known to be related to the patient's primary illness provide further enhancement. We propose that developing sets of disease-specific core elements which a physician may want to document in the medical record can have many benefits. We hypothesize that for a given disease, terms with high importance (TI) and frequency (TF) in the DX-plain, QMR and Iliad knowledge bases (KBs) are terms which are used commonly in the medical record, and may be, in fact, terms which physicians would find useful to document. A study was undertaken to validate ten such sets of disease-specific core elements. For each of ten prevalent diseases, high TI and TF terms from the three KBs mentioned were pooled to derive the set of core elements. For each disease, all patient records (range 385 to 16,972) from a computerized ambulatory medical record database were searched to document the actual use by physicians of each of these core elements. A significant percentage (range 50 to 86%) of each set of core elements was confirmed as being used by the physicians. In addition, all medical concepts from a selection of full text records were identified, and an average of 65% of the concepts were found to be core elements.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1807600

  14. The science of medical decision making: neurosurgery, errors, and personal cognitive strategies for improving quality of care.

    PubMed

    Fargen, Kyle M; Friedman, William A

    2014-01-01

    During the last 2 decades, there has been a shift in the U.S. health care system towards improving the quality of health care provided by enhancing patient safety and reducing medical errors. Unfortunately, surgical complications, patient harm events, and malpractice claims remain common in the field of neurosurgery. Many of these events are potentially avoidable. There are an increasing number of publications in the medical literature in which authors address cognitive errors in diagnosis and treatment and strategies for reducing such errors, but these are for the most part absent in the neurosurgical literature. The purpose of this article is to highlight the complexities of medical decision making to a neurosurgical audience, with the hope of providing insight into the biases that lead us towards error and strategies to overcome our innate cognitive deficiencies. To accomplish this goal, we review the current literature on medical errors and just culture, explain the dual process theory of cognition, identify common cognitive errors affecting neurosurgeons in practice, review cognitive debiasing strategies, and finally provide simple methods that can be easily assimilated into neurosurgical practice to improve clinical decision making. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Playing the numbers: how hepatitis C patients create meaning and make healthcare decisions from medical test results.

    PubMed

    Perzynski, Adam T; Terchek, Joshua J; Blixen, Carol E; Dawson, Neal V

    2013-05-01

    In this article we describe how patients assign meanings to medical test results and use these meanings to justify their actions. Evidence is presented from lay interpretations of medical tests for monitoring hepatitis C viral infection (HCV) to show how numeracy becomes embodied in the absence of physical symptoms. Illness narratives from 307 individuals infected with HCV were collected from the internet and analysed qualitatively. As part of standard medical care, chronically infected HCV patients are required to have periodic blood tests for laboratory testing. The lab results are presented numerically and compared with established physiological standards. HCV patients' knowledge and interpretations of test results have important consequences for their health behaviour and their medical decisions. In their stories, the patients described their decisions to begin, delay or stop treatment and developed strategies to alter their diet, exercise and use alternative therapies according to changes in their test result. The perceived meanings of test results are powerful signifiers that are capable of altering the course of HCV patients' illness, lives and stories. An interpretive model of health numeracy has the advantage of promoting understanding between patients and healthcare providers over a model that views innumeracy as a skill deficit. © 2012 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2012 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Factors impacting decisions to decline or adhere to antidepressant medication in perinatal women with mood and anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Misri, Shaila; Eng, Andrea B; Abizadeh, Jasmin; Blackwell, Ekin; Spidel, Alicia; Oberlander, Tim F

    2013-11-01

    To identify specific quantitative and qualitative factors that govern the decision to adhere or decline antidepressant medication in antenatal women with moderate-to-severe mood and anxiety disorders. Fifty women (30 adherers, 20 decliners) were recruited between 18 and 34 weeks gestation in a tertiary care clinic for perinatal mothers. They were prospectively monitored 4 weeks apart up to 1-month postpartum on the: Hamilton Anxiety Scale, Hamilton Depression Scale, Mood Disorders Insight Scale, Antidepressant Compliance Questionnaire, Penn State Worry Questionnaire, and NEO Personality Inventory. Qualitative interviews were conducted at baseline. Hierarchical linear modeling determined illness trajectories of the two groups. Significantly different course of illness was observed in adherers versus decliners. Adherers had healthier attitudes toward depression and compliance with medication (P < .005). Decliners had less illness insight (P < .001) and cited fear of fetal exposure, and thought medication was unwarranted. Pregnant women experienced significantly divergent illness trajectories depending on if they accepted antidepressant medication therapy for their illness. Risk perception, attitudes, and illness insight impacted decisions surrounding adherence and decline. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The perception of shared medical decision making of expert and lay people: effects of observing a movie clip depicting a medical consultation.

    PubMed

    Arcuri, Luciano; Montagnini, Barbara; Calvi, Gabriella; Goss, Claudia

    2013-04-01

    To test for differences between experts and lay people in assessment of the degree to which a doctor engaged in a shared decision making (SDM) with a patient using the OPTION scale and a movie clip as stimulus material. A segment of the movie 'Wit', depicting the communication of the diagnosis and the therapy proposed of a cancer, was shown to (a) university students with no knowledge about doctor-patient communication; (b) nurses working in medicine departments; (c) advanced medical students; (d) hospital physicians. The participants were asked to complete the OPTION scale which measures the extent to which physicians involve patients in medical decisions. An analysis of variance was used to compare OPTION scores across the four groups and to compare males and females. Being female [F(1,190)=11.9; p<.001] and being familiar with medical issues [F(3,190)=11.09; p<.001] were both significantly associated with a negative evaluations of the doctor's ability to involve the patient in the SDM. Lay people and males (including male experts), are less demanding regarding SDM abilities. A more systematic use of videos and the OPTION scale as validated outcome measure could be helpful educational strategy for the teaching of SDM. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. How Usability of a Web-Based Clinical Decision Support System Has the Potential to Contribute to Adverse Medical Events

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Timothy A.D.; Kushniruk, Andre W.; Bullard, Michael J.; Holroyd, Brian R.; Meurer, David P.; Rowe, Brian H.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Clinical decision support systems (CDSS) have the potential to reduce adverse medical events, but improper design can introduce new forms of error. CDSS pertaining to community acquired pneumonia and neutropenic fever were studied to determine whether usability of the graphical user interface might contribute to potential adverse medical events. Methods Automated screen capture of 4 CDSS being used by volunteer emergency physicians was analyzed using structured methods. Results 422 events were recorded over 56 sessions. In total, 169 negative comments, 55 positive comments, 130 neutral comments, 21 application events, 34 problems, 6 slips, and 5 mistakes were identified. Three mistakes could have had life-threatening consequences. Conclusion Evaluation of CDSS will be of utmost importance in the future with increasing use of electronic health records. Usability engineering principles can identify interface problems that may lead to potential medical adverse events, and should be incorporated early in the software design phase. PMID:18998968

  19. Does students' gender, citizenship, or verbal ability affect fairness of portfolio-based promotion decisions? Results from one medical school.

    PubMed

    Bierer, S Beth; Dannefer, Elaine F

    2011-06-01

    Measurement experts use four criteria to examine the fairness of tests: (1) equitable treatment for examinees, (2) equal outcomes for subgroups, (3) absence of bias, and (4) equal opportunity to learn. These criteria apply to portfolios just as they do to other assessments. This report examines the fairness of portfolio-based promotion decisions for medical students at the Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine. Participants were 182 first-year medical students (97 men, 85 women) from six class cohorts (2004-2009). Chi-square statistics with Yates continuity correction were used to compare overall promotion decisions to students' gender, self-reports of language fluency, and MCAT Writing Sample score. The Cramér V statistic served as an effect size index. Post hoc power analyses identified the minimum sample size to obtain acceptable power. Approximately 85% of students were promoted to Year 2 of the program. Gender, U.S. citizenship, language fluency, and MCAT Writing Sample score were not significantly related to overall promotion decisions. Effect sizes were small (≤0.15) for all contingency tables, suggesting weak associations between overall promotion decisions and students' group characteristics. Examining fairness, although challenging, is essential to maintain professional standards and avoid potential liability. Preliminary evidence in this study suggests that students' background characteristics and verbal abilities were not strongly related to portfolio-based promotion decisions. Schools should monitor processes that may affect fairness. This study reports on just one aspect of fairness. More research is needed to evaluate other dimensions of fairness.

  20. Predictive Modeling of Physician-Patient Dynamics That Influence Sleep Medication Prescriptions and Clinical Decision-Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beam, Andrew L.; Kartoun, Uri; Pai, Jennifer K.; Chatterjee, Arnaub K.; Fitzgerald, Timothy P.; Shaw, Stanley Y.; Kohane, Isaac S.

    2017-02-01

    Insomnia remains under-diagnosed and poorly treated despite its high economic and social costs. Though previous work has examined how patient characteristics affect sleep medication prescriptions, the role of physician characteristics that influence this clinical decision remains unclear. We sought to understand patient and physician factors that influence sleep medication prescribing patterns by analyzing Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) including the narrative clinical notes as well as codified data. Zolpidem and trazodone were the most widely prescribed initial sleep medication in a cohort of 1,105 patients. Some providers showed a historical preference for one medication, which was highly predictive of their future prescribing behavior. Using a predictive model (AUC = 0.77), physician preference largely determined which medication a patient received (OR = 3.13 p = 3 × 10-37). In addition to the dominant effect of empirically determined physician preference, discussion of depression in a patient’s note was found to have a statistically significant association with receiving a prescription for trazodone (OR = 1.38, p = 0.04). EMR data can yield insights into physician prescribing behavior based on real-world physician-patient interactions.

  1. Predictive Modeling of Physician-Patient Dynamics That Influence Sleep Medication Prescriptions and Clinical Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Beam, Andrew L.; Kartoun, Uri; Pai, Jennifer K.; Chatterjee, Arnaub K.; Fitzgerald, Timothy P.; Shaw, Stanley Y.; Kohane, Isaac S.

    2017-01-01

    Insomnia remains under-diagnosed and poorly treated despite its high economic and social costs. Though previous work has examined how patient characteristics affect sleep medication prescriptions, the role of physician characteristics that influence this clinical decision remains unclear. We sought to understand patient and physician factors that influence sleep medication prescribing patterns by analyzing Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) including the narrative clinical notes as well as codified data. Zolpidem and trazodone were the most widely prescribed initial sleep medication in a cohort of 1,105 patients. Some providers showed a historical preference for one medication, which was highly predictive of their future prescribing behavior. Using a predictive model (AUC = 0.77), physician preference largely determined which medication a patient received (OR = 3.13; p = 3 × 10−37). In addition to the dominant effect of empirically determined physician preference, discussion of depression in a patient’s note was found to have a statistically significant association with receiving a prescription for trazodone (OR = 1.38, p = 0.04). EMR data can yield insights into physician prescribing behavior based on real-world physician-patient interactions. PMID:28181568

  2. Impact of a computerized provider radiography order entry system without clinical decision support on emergency department medical imaging requests.

    PubMed

    Claret, Pierre-Géraud; Bobbia, Xavier; Macri, Francesco; Stowell, Andrew; Motté, Antony; Landais, Paul; Beregi, Jean-Paul; de La Coussaye, Jean-Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    The adoption of computerized physician order entry is an important cornerstone of using health information technology (HIT) in health care. The transition from paper to computer forms presents a change in physicians' practices. The main objective of this study was to investigate the impact of implementing a computer-based order entry (CPOE) system without clinical decision support on the number of radiographs ordered for patients admitted in the emergency department. This single-center pre-/post-intervention study was conducted in January, 2013 (before CPOE period) and January, 2014 (after CPOE period) at the emergency department at Nîmes University Hospital. All patients admitted in the emergency department who had undergone medical imaging were included in the study. Emergency department admissions have increased since the implementation of CPOE (5388 in the period before CPOE implementation vs. 5808 patients after CPOE implementation, p=.008). In the period before CPOE implementation, 2345 patients (44%) had undergone medical imaging; in the period after CPOE implementation, 2306 patients (40%) had undergone medical imaging (p=.008). In the period before CPOE, 2916 medical imaging procedures were ordered; in the period after CPOE, 2876 medical imaging procedures were ordered (p=.006). In the period before CPOE, 1885 radiographs were ordered; in the period after CPOE, 1776 radiographs were ordered (p<.001). The time between emergency department admission and medical imaging did not vary between the two periods. Our results show a decrease in the number of radiograph requests after a CPOE system without clinical decision support was implemented in our emergency department. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Publication trends of shared decision making in 15 high impact medical journals: a full-text review with bibliometric analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Shared Decision Making (SDM) is increasingly advocated as a model for medical decision making. However, there is still low use of SDM in clinical practice. High impact factor journals might represent an efficient way for its dissemination. We aimed to identify and characterize publication trends of SDM in 15 high impact medical journals. Methods We selected the 15 general and internal medicine journals with the highest impact factor publishing original articles, letters and editorials. We retrieved publications from 1996 to 2011 through the full-text search function on each journal website and abstracted bibliometric data. We included publications of any type containing the phrase “shared decision making” or five other variants in their abstract or full text. These were referred to as SDM publications. A polynomial Poisson regression model with logarithmic link function was used to assess the evolution across the period of the number of SDM publications according to publication characteristics. Results We identified 1285 SDM publications out of 229,179 publications in 15 journals from 1996 to 2011. The absolute number of SDM publications by journal ranged from 2 to 273 over 16 years. SDM publications increased both in absolute and relative numbers per year, from 46 (0.32% relative to all publications from the 15 journals) in 1996 to 165 (1.17%) in 2011. This growth was exponential (P < 0.01). We found fewer research publications (465, 36.2% of all SDM publications) than non-research publications, which included non-systematic reviews, letters, and editorials. The increase of research publications across time was linear. Full-text search retrieved ten times more SDM publications than a similar PubMed search (1285 vs. 119 respectively). Conclusion This review in full-text showed that SDM publications increased exponentially in major medical journals from 1996 to 2011. This growth might reflect an increased dissemination of the SDM concept to the

  4. Social support plays a role in the attitude that people have towards taking an active role in medical decision-making.

    PubMed

    Brabers, Anne E M; de Jong, Judith D; Groenewegen, Peter P; van Dijk, Liset

    2016-09-21

    There is a growing emphasis towards including patients in medical decision-making. However, not all patients are actively involved in such decisions. Research has so far focused mainly on the influence of patient characteristics on preferences for active involvement. However, it can be argued that a patient's social context has to be taken into account as well, because social norms and resources affect behaviour. This study aims to examine the role of social resources, in the form of the availability of informational and emotional support, on the attitude towards taking an active role in medical decision-making. A questionnaire was sent to members of the Dutch Health Care Consumer Panel (response 70 %; n = 1300) in June 2013. A regression model was then used to estimate the relation between medical and lay informational support and emotional support and the attitude towards taking an active role in medical decision-making. Availability of emotional support is positively related to the attitude towards taking an active role in medical decision-making only in people with a low level of education, not in persons with a middle and high level of education. The latter have a more positive attitude towards taking an active role in medical decision-making, irrespective of the level of emotional support available. People with better access to medical informational support have a more positive attitude towards taking an active role in medical decision-making; but no significant association was found for lay informational support. This study shows that social resources are associated with the attitude towards taking an active role in medical decision-making. Strategies aimed at increasing patient involvement have to address this.

  5. The Evolution of Patient Decision-Making Regarding Medical Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Alexandra L.; Coleska, Adriana; Burns, Patricia B.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2016-01-01

    Background The migration of health care toward a consumer driven system favors increased patient participation during the treatment decision-making process. Patient involvement in treatment decision discussions has been linked to increased treatment adherence and patient satisfaction. Previous studies have quantified decision-making styles of patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA); however, none have considered the evolution in patient involvement after living with RA for decades. Objective We conducted a qualitative study to determine the decision-making model used by long-term RA patients, and to describe the changes in their involvement over time. Methods Twenty participants were recruited from the ongoing Silicone Arthroplasty in Rheumatoid Arthritis (SARA) study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and data were analyzed using Grounded Theory methodology. Results Nineteen out of 20 participants recalled using the paternalistic decision-making model immediately following their diagnosis. Fourteen of the 19 interviewees evolved to shared decision-making (SDM). Participants attributed the change in involvement to the development of a trusting relationship with their physician as well as becoming educated about the disease. Conclusion When initially diagnosed with RA, patients may let their physician decide on the best treatment course. However, over time patients may evolve to exercise a more collaborative role. Physicians should understand that even within SDM, each patient can demonstrate a varied amount of autonomy. It is up to the physician to have a discussion with each patient to determine his or her desired level of involvement. PMID:26315611

  6. Evolution of Patient Decision-Making Regarding Medical Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Alexandra L; Coleska, Adriana; Burns, Patricia B; Chung, Kevin C

    2016-03-01

    The migration of health care toward a consumer-driven system favors increased patient participation during the treatment decision-making process. Patient involvement in treatment decision discussions has been linked to increased treatment adherence and patient satisfaction. Previous studies have quantified decision-making styles of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however, none of them have considered the evolution of patient involvement after living with RA for many years. We conducted a qualitative study to determine the decision-making model used by long-term RA patients, and to describe the changes in their involvement over time. Twenty participants were recruited from the ongoing Silicone Arthroplasty in Rheumatoid Arthritis study. Semistructured interviews were conducted and data were analyzed using grounded theory methodology. Nineteen out of 20 participants recalled using the paternalistic decision-making (PDM) model immediately following their diagnosis. Fourteen of the 19 participants who initially used PDM evolved to shared decision-making (SDM). Participants attributed the change in involvement to the development of a trusting relationship with their physician, as well as to becoming educated about the disease. When initially diagnosed with RA, patients may let their physician decide on the best treatment course. However, over time patients may evolve to exercise a more collaborative role. Physicians should understand that even within SDM, each patient can demonstrate a varied amount of autonomy. It is up to the physician to have a discussion with each patient to determine his or her desired level of involvement. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  7. A pilot study of usefulness of clinician-patient videoconferencing for making routine medical decisions in the nursing home.

    PubMed

    Laflamme, Mark R; Wilcox, David C; Sullivan, Jacquelyn; Schadow, Gunther; Lindbergh, Donald; Warvel, Jill; Buchanan, Heydon; Ising, Terry; Abernathy, Greg; Perkins, Susan M; Daggy, Joanne; Frankel, Richard M; Dexter, Paul; McDonald, Clement J; Weiner, Michael

    2005-08-01

    To pilot and assess the role of videoconferencing in clinicians' medical decision-making and their interactions with nursing home residents (NHRs). Paired virtual and bedside examinations. Face-to-face (FTF) examination of NHRs by off-site clinicians immediately followed videoconferencing between the same clinician-NHR pair. A 240-bed, county-managed, urban nursing home. NHRs (n=35) and clinicians (n=3) receiving or providing routine care between 2002 and 2003. Orders generated by clinicians, clinicians' ratings of videoconferencing, and coded review of video encounters. After both examinations, clinicians rated the encounters and generated orders necessary for NHRs. Orders were categorized and counted according to timing (before or after the FTF visit). Clinician-NHR interactions were assessed using coding videos with a 31-item instrument. For 71% of the encounters, clinicians stated that videoconferencing facilitated their assessment. Difficulties included sound quality (19%) and participants' familiarity with videoconferencing (7%). Although NHRs were alert in 50% of encounters, 62% of alert NHRs did not indicate understanding of the recommended treatment. FTF examination was superior for most assessments, but videoconferencing was judged to be valuable, especially for wound care. Even when NHRs were alert, informed medical decision-making by NHRs with their clinicians was limited. Enhancing videoconferencing quality and providing more training about informed decision-making using videoconferencing might improve the effectiveness of the technology.

  8. 78 FR 55244 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for Medical Facilities Development and University...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... standards for military medicine at the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center (WRNMMC) by providing... provide adequate education and research space to meet Military Health System commitments to...

  9. Influence of Medical Student Debt on the Decision to Pursue Careers in Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Gil, Joseph A; Waryasz, Gregory R; Liu, Dorothy; Daniels, Alan H

    2016-07-01

    To determine if medical student debt has an effect on medical student specialty choice. A cross-sectional survey was distributed to students at 12 medical schools across the United States to assess the effect of debt on specialty choice. In total, 415 students responded to the survey; 98 medical students reported that they were pursuing a primary care residency (PCR) and 250 reported that they were pursing a non-primary care residency (NPCR). There was no significant difference in average student loan debt anticipated by medical students pursing PCR and NPCR ($142,217 vs $150,784; P>0.46). Medical students pursuing a PCR reported lower estimated salaries on average than medical students pursuing NPCR ($137,711 vs $241,804; p<0.01). Of the surveyed students, 62% of students who are pursuing PCR and 77% of the students who are pursuing a NPCR would not have pursued medicine as a career if residents were responsible for paying tuition. This study revealed no significant difference between the student debt of medical students pursuing PCR compared to those who are pursuing a NPCR. However, a large majority of medical students would not pursue a career in medicine if faced with the responsibility of paying tuition for residency. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2016-07.asp, free with no login].

  10. [The role of next of kin in medical decision-making--empirical findings from haemato-oncological diseases].

    PubMed

    Ernst, J; Schwarz, R; Schwarzer, A; Aldaoud, A; Niederwieser, D; Mantovani-Löffler, L; Schröder, C

    2009-08-01

    Models of shared decision making in the patient-doctor relationship are attracting increasing attention. A recent study focuses on the so far inadequate attention paid to the role of next of kin. It was examined in which decision areas next of kin of haematological cancer patients were included, further what support next of kin could provided and finally which factors encouraged the participation of next of kin in that process. From 2006-2008 empirical data were collected from hemato-oncological patients undergoing treatment as well as from their families. The participating family members of patients were mailed questionnaires based on the patient sample (designation of a family member by the patient: 118/177 or 66.7%) on average half of a year following the patient's (in- or outpatient) treatment. The response rate of the participants was 67.8% (80/118). Of the respondents, 65% were spouses or partners of the patients, the average age was 53.9 years, and 66.3% were female. Family members think it makes sense for them to take an active part in medical decisions affecting their loved ones and a majority of them reported having participated in decision-making processes concerning a variety of issues. Being involved in their loved one's discussions with their doctors has a significant influence on this. Family members' level of education was the only clear predictor for participation in discussions with doctors that could be isolated. It is clear that family members, especially spouses and partners, consider it meaningful to participate in medical decisions affecting their loved ones, and that they want to be able to do this in the clinical context. One limitation that must be mentioned is that due to the small size of the sample and an approach that focused on initial exploration, the results should be interpreted as a point of orientation. Further studies should look in more detail at how inner family structures play a role in patient-doctor shared decision

  11. Trends in medical end-of-life decision making in Flanders, Belgium 1998-2001-2007.

    PubMed

    Chambaere, Kenneth; Bilsen, Johan; Cohen, Joachim; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D; Mortier, Freddy; Deliens, Luc

    2011-01-01

    In 2002, Belgium saw the enactment of 3 laws concerning euthanasia, palliative care, and patient rights that are likely to affect end-of-life decision making. This report examines trends in the occurrence and decision-making process of end-of-life practices in different patient groups since these legal changes. A large-scale retrospective survey in Flanders, Belgium, previously conducted in 1998 and 2001, was repeated in 2007. Questionnaires regarding end-of-life practices and the preceding decision-making process were mailed to physicians who certified a representative sample (N = 6927) of death certificates. The 2007 response rate was 58.4%. In patient groups in which the prevalence of life-ending drug use without explicit patient request has dropped, performance of euthanasia and assisted suicide has increased. The consistent increase in intensified pain and symptom alleviation was found in all patient groups except cancer patients. In 2007, competent patients were slightly more often involved in the discussion of end-of-life practices than in previous years. Over the years, involvement of the patient in decision making was consistently more likely among younger patients, cancer patients, and those dying at home. Physicians consulted their colleagues more often than in previous years for euthanasia and nontreatment decisions. The euthanasia law and emerging palliative care culture have substantially affected the occurrence and decision making for end-of-life practices in Belgium. Efforts are still needed to encourage shared end-of-life decision making, as some patients would benefit from advance care planning.

  12. Informed decision making before prostate-specific antigen screening: Initial results using the American Cancer Society (ACS) Decision Aid (DA) among medically underserved men.

    PubMed

    Gökce, Mehmet I; Wang, Xuemei; Frost, Jacqueline; Roberson, Pamela; Volk, Robert J; Brooks, Durado; Canfield, Steven E; Pettaway, Curtis A

    2017-02-15

    The American Cancer Society (ACS) recommends men have the opportunity to make an informed decision about screening for prostate cancer (PCa). The ACS developed a unique decision aid (ACS-DA) for this purpose. However, to date, studies evaluating the efficacy of the ACS-DA are lacking. The authors evaluated the ACS-DA among a cohort of medically underserved men (MUM). A multiethnic cohort of MUM (n = 285) was prospectively included between June 2010 and December 2014. The ACS-DA was presented in a group format. Levels of knowledge on PCa were evaluated before and after the presentation. Participants' decisional conflict and thoughts about the presentation also were evaluated. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine factors associated with having an adequate level of knowledge. Before receiving the ACS-DA, 33.1% of participants had adequate knowledge on PCa, and this increased to 77% after the DA (P < .0001). On multivariate analysis, higher education level (odds ratio, 11.19; P = .001) and history of another cancer (odds ratio, 7.45; P = .03) were associated with having adequate knowledge after receiving the DA. Levels of decisional conflict were low and were correlated with levels of knowledge after receiving the DA. The majority of men also rated the presentation as favorable and would recommend the ACS-DA to others. Use of the ACS-DA was feasible among MUM and led to increased PCa knowledge. This also correlated with low levels of decisional conflict. The ACS-DA presented to groups of men may serve as a feasible tool for informed decision making in a MUM population. Cancer 2017;123:583-591. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  13. Evidence-based decision on medical technologies in Asia Pacific: experiences from India, Malaysia, Philippines, and Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Thatte, Urmila; Hussain, Samsinah; de Rosas-Valera, Madeleine; Malik, Muhammad Ashar

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses national programs implemented in India, Pakistan, Malaysia, and Philippines to generate and apply evidence in making informed policy decisions on the approval, pricing, reimbursement and financing of medicines, diagnostics, and medical devices. In all countries, the Ministries of Health are generally responsible for approval of health technologies through various agencies like the Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation in India, Bureau of Food and Drugs for medicines and Bureau of Health Devices and Technology for medical devices in the Philippines, the National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau, Health Technology Assessment Unit and Medical Device Bureau in Malaysia, and the Drug Control Organization in Pakistan. Product dossiers are evaluated while taking decisions. India has a strong price control mechanism through the National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority. In the Philippines, the Essential Drug Price Monitoring System monitors prices of 37 essential drugs monthly from all drugstore outlets nationwide. In Malaysia and Pakistan registration pricing of new drugs is negotiated/fixed by the government with the vendor. A mix of social, voluntary private and community-based health insurance plans are available in India while the Philippine Health Insurance Corporation is responsible for reimbursement of drugs and medical devices in the Philippines. In Malaysia no formal reimbursement system is being practiced, and in Pakistan the government reimburses medical claims of its employees. In both India and the Philippines the bulk of health expenditure is out of pocket while the government pays for 20% and 28% respectively in both countries. The public health care services in Malaysia are heavily subsidized by the government with minimum fee being charged to the public. The government of Pakistan gives free medicines to its citizens at the public health facilities. In the region under discussion, one of the priority areas that the different

  14. [The notion of decision making capacity in medical and legal practice].

    PubMed

    Bórquez E, Gladys; Raineri B, Gina; Horwitz C, Nina; Huepe O, Gabriela

    2007-09-01

    The relationship between patients and health professionals emphasizes deliberation and joint decision making, that derives in the informed consent. To evaluate decision making of patients in health care and to identify the notion of capacity for decision making, according to lawyers and physicians. A semi-structured interview about procedures to assess decision making capacity was applied to 27 selected physicians and lawyers, considering their experience in this area. A qualitative analysis of answers was performed. Several differences were observed between physicians and lawyers, probably originated in their respective disciplines as well as the context of their professional practice. For physicians the notion of capacity is associated to comprehension of the information, it is not absolute, and it must consider the intellectual maturity of the teenager and the autonomy of the elderly. This evaluation is frequently performed in the clinical interview and standardized protocols do not exist. For lawyers, capacity is established by age and is associated to rights and obligations, as determined by law. When it is assessed by experts, including physicians, it becomes evidence. These professionals assume that experts will use standardized assessment instruments. Capacity has significance in the legal system. Since there are substantial consequences when a person is deemed incompetent, it is necessary to distinguish between health capacity and legal capacity, and to inverted exclamation markink the informed consent with the fundamental rights of citizens, such as taking decisions about our own health.

  15. Effects of Simulated Pathophysiology on the Performance of a Decision Support Medical Monitoring System for Early Detection of Hemodynamic Decompensation in Humans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-2-0038 TITLE: Effects of Simulated Pathophysiology on the Performance of a Decision Support Medical Monitoring System ...Pathophysiology on the Performance of a Decision Support Medical Monitoring System for Early Detection of Hemodynamic 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-2-0038...simulate hyperdynamic circulatory response to stress, 3) blood loss and resuscitation with hypertonic saline, and 4) endotoxin administration to

  16. Effects of Simulated Pathophysiology on the Performance of a Decision Support Medical Monitoring System for Early Detection of Hemodynamic Decompensation in Humans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-2-0038 TITLE: Effects of Simulated Pathophysiology on the Performance of a Decision Support Medical Monitoring System for...Performance of a Decision Support Medical Monitoring System for Early Detection of Hemodynamic 5b. GRANT NUMBER Decompensation in Humans 5c. PROGRAM... circulatory response to stress, 3) blood loss and resuscitation with hypertonic saline, and 4) endotoxin administration to simulate the onset of sepsis

  17. Effects of Simulated Pathophysiology on the Performance of a Decision Support Medical Monitoring System for Early Detection of Hemodynamic Decompensation in Humans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-2-0038 TITLE: Effects of Simulated Pathophysiology on the Performance of a Decision Support Medical Monitoring System ...Pathophysiology on the Performance of a Decision Support Medical Monitoring System for Early Detection of Hemodynamic 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13...hyperdynamic circulatory response to stress, 3) blood loss and resuscitation with hypertonic saline, and 4) endotoxin administration to simulate the onset

  18. Nursing Home Stakeholder Views of Resident Involvement in Medical Care Decisions.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Theresa J; Harrison, Tracie C; Goodwin, James S

    2016-04-01

    Demand by nursing home residents for involvement in their medical care, or, patient-centered care, is expected to increase as baby boomers begin seeking long-term care for their chronic illnesses. To explore the needs in meeting this proposed demand, we used a qualitative descriptive method with content analysis to obtain the joint perspective of key stakeholders on the current state of person-centered medical care in the nursing home. We interviewed 31 nursing home stakeholders: 5 residents, 7 family members, 8 advanced practice registered nurses, 5 physicians, and 6 administrators. Our findings revealed constraints placed by the long-term care system limited medical involvement opportunities and created conflicting goals for patient-centered medical care. Resident participation in medical care was perceived as low, but important. The creation of supportive educational programs for all stakeholders to facilitate a common goal for nursing home admission and to provide assistance through the long-term care system was encouraged.

  19. Emotion and Value in the Evaluation of Medical Decision-Making Capacity: A Narrative Review of Arguments

    PubMed Central

    Hermann, Helena; Trachsel, Manuel; Elger, Bernice S.; Biller-Andorno, Nikola

    2016-01-01

    Ever since the traditional criteria for medical decision-making capacity (understanding, appreciation, reasoning, evidencing a choice) were formulated, they have been criticized for not taking sufficient account of emotions or values that seem, according to the critics and in line with clinical experiences, essential to decision-making capacity. The aim of this paper is to provide a nuanced and structured overview of the arguments provided in the literature emphasizing the importance of these factors and arguing for their inclusion in competence evaluations. Moreover, a broader reflection on the findings of the literature is provided. Specific difficulties of formulating and measuring emotional and valuational factors are discussed inviting reflection on the possibility of handling relevant factors in a more flexible, case-specific, and context-specific way rather than adhering to a rigid set of operationalized criteria. PMID:27303329

  20. Emotion and Value in the Evaluation of Medical Decision-Making Capacity: A Narrative Review of Arguments.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Helena; Trachsel, Manuel; Elger, Bernice S; Biller-Andorno, Nikola

    2016-01-01

    Ever since the traditional criteria for medical decision-making capacity (understanding, appreciation, reasoning, evidencing a choice) were formulated, they have been criticized for not taking sufficient account of emotions or values that seem, according to the critics and in line with clinical experiences, essential to decision-making capacity. The aim of this paper is to provide a nuanced and structured overview of the arguments provided in the literature emphasizing the importance of these factors and arguing for their inclusion in competence evaluations. Moreover, a broader reflection on the findings of the literature is provided. Specific difficulties of formulating and measuring emotional and valuational factors are discussed inviting reflection on the possibility of handling relevant factors in a more flexible, case-specific, and context-specific way rather than adhering to a rigid set of operationalized criteria.

  1. Simulation studies of data classification by artificial neural networks: potential applications in medical imaging and decision making.

    PubMed

    Wu, Y; Doi, K; Metz, C E; Asada, N; Giger, M L

    1993-05-01

    Artificial neural networks are being investigated in the field of medical imaging as a means to facilitate pattern recognition and patient classification. In the work reported here, the effects of internal structure and the nature of input data on the performance of neural networks were investigated systematically using computer-simulated data. Network performance was evaluated quantitatively by means of receiver operating characteristic analysis and compared with the performance of an ideal statistical decision maker. We found that the relatively simple neural networks investigated in this study can perform at the level of an ideal decision maker. These simple networks were also found to learn accurately even when the training data are extremely unbalanced with respect to the prevalence of actually positive cases and to differentiate input data patterns by recognizing their unique characteristics.

  2. Decision-Making after Prenatal Diagnosis of a Syndrome Predisposing to Intellectual Disability: What Prospective Parents Need to Know and the Importance of Non-Medical Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huyard, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recently researchers have suggested that non-medical information may impact the decision to continue or terminate a pregnancy after a prenatal diagnosis. This study is an investigation of what type of information prospective parents need for this decision-making in the case of a condition predisposing to intellectual disability.…

  3. Decision-Making after Prenatal Diagnosis of a Syndrome Predisposing to Intellectual Disability: What Prospective Parents Need to Know and the Importance of Non-Medical Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huyard, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recently researchers have suggested that non-medical information may impact the decision to continue or terminate a pregnancy after a prenatal diagnosis. This study is an investigation of what type of information prospective parents need for this decision-making in the case of a condition predisposing to intellectual disability.…

  4. How Patients View Lung Cancer Screening. The Role of Uncertainty in Medical Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Schapira, Marilyn M; Aggarwal, Charu; Akers, Scott; Aysola, Jaya; Imbert, Diana; Langer, Corey; Simone, Charlie B; Strittmatter, Emily; Vachani, Anil; Fraenkel, Liana

    2016-11-01

    Radiographic lung cancer screening guidelines and coverage requirements warrant a shared decision-making process. Guidance is needed regarding how to conduct shared decision making effectively. A useful organizing theme should include consideration of a patient's response to and tolerance of uncertainty associated with lung cancer screening. The objectives of this study are to: (1) describe how patients respond to specific categories of uncertainty in the context of lung cancer screening, and (2) inform strategies for addressing concerns about uncertainty as part of the shared decision making. We performed two series of structured interviews on participants in a convenience sample of current or former cigarette smokers recruited from primary care and pulmonary practices in Philadelphia. An interview guide included prompts related to benefits, harms, and responses to general and specific types of uncertainty (stochastic, statistical, and evidentiary) associated with lung cancer screening. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and independently coded by two investigators. An inductive analysis was conducted, and major themes were identified. Twenty-two adults participated in the study. Sixty-eight percent were men, 72% were black or African American, and 50% met U.S. Preventive Services Task Force criteria for lung cancer screening. The primary themes to emerge from our study were: (1) the desire to decrease uncertainty may motivate lung cancer screening decisions; (2) uncertainty is an attribute of health states that impacts how patients weigh benefits and harms of lung cancer screening; (3) patient understanding and tolerance of uncertainty varies across stochastic, statistical, and evidentiary uncertainty; and (4) provider-patient communication may mitigate intolerance of uncertainty in the context of lung cancer screening. A systematic approach to understanding and addressing patients' concerns about uncertainty in the context of lung cancer screening can

  5. OrderRex: clinical order decision support and outcome predictions by data-mining electronic medical records.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jonathan H; Podchiyska, Tanya; Altman, Russ B

    2016-03-01

    To answer a "grand challenge" in clinical decision support, the authors produced a recommender system that automatically data-mines inpatient decision support from electronic medical records (EMR), analogous to Netflix or Amazon.com's product recommender. EMR data were extracted from 1 year of hospitalizations (>18K patients with >5.4M structured items including clinical orders, lab results, and diagnosis codes). Association statistics were counted for the ∼1.5K most common items to drive an order recommender. The authors assessed the recommender's ability to predict hospital admission orders and outcomes based on initial encounter data from separate validation patients. Compared to a reference benchmark of using the overall most common orders, the recommender using temporal relationships improves precision at 10 recommendations from 33% to 38% (P < 10(-10)) for hospital admission orders. Relative risk-based association methods improve inverse frequency weighted recall from 4% to 16% (P < 10(-16)). The framework yields a prediction receiver operating characteristic area under curve (c-statistic) of 0.84 for 30 day mortality, 0.84 for 1 week need for ICU life support, 0.80 for 1 week hospital discharge, and 0.68 for 30-day readmission. Recommender results quantitatively improve on reference benchmarks and qualitatively appear clinically reasonable. The method assumes that aggregate decision making converges appropriately, but ongoing evaluation is necessary to discern common behaviors from "correct" ones. Collaborative filtering recommender algorithms generate clinical decision support that is predictive of real practice patterns and clinical outcomes. Incorporating temporal relationships improves accuracy. Different evaluation metrics satisfy different goals (predicting likely events vs. "interesting" suggestions). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association 2015. This work is written by US Government

  6. Architecture-Level Dependability Analysis of a Medical Decision Support System

    SciTech Connect

    Pullum, Laura L; Symons, Christopher T; Patton, Robert M; Beckerman, Barbara G

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in techniques such as image analysis, text analysis and machine learning have shown great potential to assist physicians in detecting and diagnosing health issues in patients. In this paper, we describe the approach and findings of an architecture-level dependability analysis for a mammography decision support system that incorporates these techniques. The goal of the research described in this paper is to provide an initial understanding of the dependability issues, particularly the potential failure modes and severity, in order to identify areas of potential high risk. The results will guide design decisions and provide the basis of a dependability and performance evaluation program.

  7. Decision Support for Medical Treatment: A TPN Prescription System on a Central Hospital Computer

    PubMed Central

    Moliver, Nina; Coates, Allan L.

    1987-01-01

    An interactive decision-support system for the prescription of total or partial parenteral nutrition (TPN) is described. The system is applicable to all sizes and ages of patients, from premature infants to adults. Both the physician and the pharmacist are users of the system, with the physician using rule-based safety checks and branching algorithms to make decisions in the prescription process, and the pharmacist receiving the prescription totals electronically in order to complete further calculations needed. Since its introduction, the system appears to have increased the safety of the TPN prescription, saved time, and improved the quality and appropriateness of TPN prescriptions.

  8. Implementation of virtual medical record object model for a standards-based clinical decision support rule engine.

    PubMed

    Huang, Christine; Noirot, Laura A; Heard, Kevin M; Reichley, Richard M; Dunagan, Wm Claiborne; Bailey, Thomas C

    2006-01-01

    The Virtual Medical Record (vMR) is a structured data model for representing individual patient informations. Our implementation of vMR is based on HL7 Reference Information Model (RIM) v2.13 from which a minimum set of objects and attributes are selected to meet the requirement of a clinical decision support (CDS) rule engine. Our success of mapping local patient data to the vMR model and building a vMR adaptor middle layer demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of implementing a vMR in a portable CDS solution.

  9. Tutorial in medical decision modeling incorporating waiting lines and queues using discrete event simulation.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Beate; Theurl, Engelbert; Siebert, Uwe; Pfeiffer, Karl-Peter

    2010-01-01

    In most decision-analytic models in health care, it is assumed that there is treatment without delay and availability of all required resources. Therefore, waiting times caused by limited resources and their impact on treatment effects and costs often remain unconsidered. Queuing theory enables mathematical analysis and the derivation of several performance measures of queuing systems. Nevertheless, an analytical approach with closed formulas is not always possible. Therefore, simulation techniques are used to evaluate systems that include queuing or waiting, for example, discrete event simulation. To include queuing in decision-analytic models requires a basic knowledge of queuing theory and of the underlying interrelationships. This tutorial introduces queuing theory. Analysts and decision-makers get an understanding of queue characteristics, modeling features, and its strength. Conceptual issues are covered, but the emphasis is on practical issues like modeling the arrival of patients. The treatment of coronary artery disease with percutaneous coronary intervention including stent placement serves as an illustrative queuing example. Discrete event simulation is applied to explicitly model resource capacities, to incorporate waiting lines and queues in the decision-analytic modeling example.

  10. Factors influencing clinicians' decisions to prescribe medication to prevent coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, S; Bryan, S; Gill, P; Gutridge, K; Marshall, T

    2005-02-01

    There are variations between individual clinicians as to the thresholds at which preventive treatment for coronary heart disease (CHD) should commence. Patients' decisions may be influenced by clinicians' recommendations. Free text comments added by respondents to closed questionnaires may identify areas which are of real concern to them about the topic being studied. The study aimed to identify issues voluntarily raised by clinicians surrounding the decision to prescribe preventive treatment for CHD. An analysis was undertaken of the free text comments made by cardiologists, general practitioners and practice nurses who responded to a closed question postal questionnaire in which they were asked to identify at which level of pretreatment risk they would offer treatment. A similar percentage of respondents in each professional group provided free text comments. Clinicians' concerns centred on five main themes around prescribing decisions: the risks and benefits of treatment, the patient's role in treatment decisions, patient characteristics, costs to patients, and costs to the health services. Different issues may be of more concern to some professional groups than others. In addition to the use of risk assessment tools and guidelines, clinicians' actual prescribing behaviour may be influenced by more subjective factors. Patients at similar risk may receive different advice depending on the individual clinician they consult.

  11. Critically Ill Patients and End-of-Life Decision-Making: The Senior Medical Resident Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahern, Stephane P.; Doyle, Tina K.; Marquis, Francois; Lesk, Corey; Skrobik, Yoanna

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the understanding of educational needs among residents caring for the critically ill, narrative accounts of 19 senior physician trainees participating in level of care decision-making were analyzed. In this multicentre qualitative study involving 9 university centers in Canada, in-depth interviews were conducted in either…

  12. The Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center decision-support system as a model for implementing the Arden Syntax.

    PubMed Central

    Hripcsak, G.; Cimino, J. J.; Johnson, S. B.; Clayton, P. D.

    1991-01-01

    Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center is implementing a decision-support system based on the Arden Syntax for Medical Logic Modules (MLM's). The system uses a compiler-interpreter pair. MLM's are first compiled into pseudo-codes, which are instructions for a virtual machine. The MLM's are then executed using an interpreter that emulates the virtual machine. This design has resulted in increased portability, easier debugging and verification, and more compact compiled MLM's. The time spent interpreting the MLM pseudo-codes has been found to be insignificant compared to database accesses. The compiler, which is written using the tools "lex" and "yacc," optimizes MLM's by minimizing the number of database accesses. The interpreter emulates a stack-oriented machine. A phased implementation of the syntax was used to speed the development of the system. PMID:1807598

  13. A Management-Decision-Oriented View of Medical School Information System Requirements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutina, Kenneth L.; Lee, Edgar

    1973-01-01

    At Case Western Reserve University an interdisciplinary management team has been formed of educators and management specialists to effectively organize, plan and control the medical school. (Editor/PG)

  14. Improving medication management in multimorbidity: development of the MultimorbiditY COllaborative Medication Review And DEcision Making (MY COMRADE) intervention using the Behaviour Change Wheel.

    PubMed

    Sinnott, Carol; Mercer, Stewart W; Payne, Rupert A; Duerden, Martin; Bradley, Colin P; Byrne, Molly

    2015-09-24

    Multimorbidity, the presence of two or more chronic conditions, affects over 60 % of patients in primary care. Due to its association with polypharmacy, the development of interventions to optimise medication management in patients with multimorbidity is a priority. The Behaviour Change Wheel is a new approach for applying behavioural theory to intervention development. Here, we describe how we have used results from a review of previous research, original research of our own and the Behaviour Change Wheel to develop an intervention to improve medication management in multimorbidity by general practitioners (GPs), within the overarching UK Medical Research Council guidance on complex interventions. Following the steps of the Behaviour Change Wheel, we sought behaviours associated with medication management in multimorbidity by conducting a systematic review and qualitative study with GPs. From the modifiable GP behaviours identified, we selected one and conducted a focused behavioural analysis to explain why GPs were or were not engaging in this behaviour. We used the behavioural analysis to determine the intervention functions, behavioural change techniques and implementation plan most likely to effect behavioural change. We identified numerous modifiable GP behaviours in the systematic review and qualitative study, from which active medication review (rather than passive maintaining the status quo) was chosen as the target behaviour. Behavioural analysis revealed GPs' capabilities, opportunities and motivations relating to active medication review. We combined the three intervention functions deemed most likely to effect behavioural change (enablement, environmental restructuring and incentivisation) to form the MultimorbiditY COllaborative Medication Review And DEcision Making (MY COMRADE) intervention. MY COMRADE primarily involves the technique of social support: two GPs review the medications prescribed to a complex multimorbid patient together. Four other

  15. Assessment for Systems Learning: A Holistic Assessment Framework to Support Decision Making Across the Medical Education Continuum.

    PubMed

    Bowe, Constance M; Armstrong, Elizabeth

    2017-05-01

    Viewing health care from a systems perspective-that is, "a collection of different things which, working together, produce a result not achievable by the things alone"-raises awareness of the complex interrelationships involved in meeting society's goals for accessible, cost-effective, high-quality health care. This perspective also emphasizes the far-reaching consequences of changes in one sector of a system on other components' performance. Medical education promotes this holistic view of health care in its curricula and competency requirements for graduation at the undergraduate and graduate training levels. But how completely does medical education apply a systems lens to itself?The continuum of medical training has undergone a series of changes that have moved it more closely to a systems organizational model. Competency assessment criteria have been expanded and more explicitly defined for learners at all levels of training. Outcomes data, in multiple domains, are monitored by external reviewers for program accreditation. However, translating increasing amounts of individual outcomes into actionable intelligence for decision making poses a formidable information management challenge.Assessment in systems is designed to impart a "big picture" of overall system performance through the synthesis, analysis, and interpretation of outcomes data to provide actionable information for continuous systems improvement, innovation, and long-term planning. A systems-based framework is presented for use across the medical education continuum to facilitate timely improvements in individual curriculum components, continuous improvement in overall program performance, and program decision making on changes required to better address society's health care needs.

  16. Integrated case studies and medical decision making: a novel, computer-assisted bridge from the basic sciences to the clinics.

    PubMed

    Schor, N F; Troen, P; Adler, S; Williams, J G; Kanter, S L; Mahling, D E; Sorrows, B; Skogseid, I; Bernier, G M

    1995-09-01

    This article describes a novel course that was designed to bridge the gap between the basic science years and clinical experiences in medical school by using information science and computer technology as major components of problem-based learning (PBL) sessions. The course, Integrated Case Studies and Medical Decision Making, was first given to second-year students at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine in the spring of 1994. It consists of 13 PBL exercises, each of which explores a clinical case. The cases, including images and gated access to information, are housed on a computer. Using one of 16 networked terminals in specially designed small-group rooms, groups of nine students progress through the cases with a faculty facilitator. The responses of students and faculty to the initial year of the course were favorable. In comparison with traditional PBL sessions, enhanced quality of and access to images and accountability for accessing case information in sequential fashion were cited as major strengths of the course. Juxtaposition of basic science and clinical material and utility in reviewing for the United States Medical Licensing Examination were also cited as strengths. The diversity of the basic science material involved in completing the cases drew overwhelming enthusiasm from students and facilitators alike. In conclusion, the course successfully employs computer and information science technology, which will be of increasing importance to future physicians. The course also serves as an effective bridge to the clinical years of medical school and as a study adjunct for the USMLE.

  17. Older Adults' Use of Online and Offline Sources of Health Information and Constructs of Reliance and Self-Efficacy for Medical Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Hall, Amanda K; Bernhardt, Jay M; Dodd, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    We know little about older adults' use of online and offline health information sources for medical decision making despite increasing numbers of older adults who report using the Internet for health information to aid in patient-provider communication and medical decision making. Therefore we investigated older adult users and nonusers of online and offline sources of health information and factors related to medical decision making. Survey research was conducted using random digit dialing of Florida residents' landline telephones. The Decision Self-Efficacy Scale and the Reliance Scale were used to measure relationships between users and nonusers of online health information. Study respondents were 225 older adults (age range = 50-92 years, M = 68.9, SD = 10.4), which included users (n = 105) and nonusers (n = 119) of online health information. Users and nonusers differed in frequency and types of health sources sought. Users of online health information preferred a self-reliant approach and nonusers of online health information preferred a physician-reliant approach to involvement in medical decisions on the Reliance Scale. This study found significant differences between older adult users and nonusers of online and offline sources of health information and examined factors related to online health information engagement for medical decision making.

  18. Data mining with decision trees for diagnosis of breast tumor in medical ultrasonic images.

    PubMed

    Kuo, W J; Chang, R F; Chen, D R; Lee, C C

    2001-03-01

    To increase the ability of ultrasonographic (US) technology for the differential diagnosis of solid breast tumors, we describe a novel computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) system using data mining with decision tree for classification of breast tumor to increase the levels of diagnostic confidence and to provide the immediate second opinion for physicians. Cooperating with the texture information extracted from the region of interest (ROI) image, a decision tree model generated from the training data in a top-down, general-to-specific direction with 24 co-variance texture features is used to classify the tumors as benign or malignant. In the experiments, accuracy rates for a experienced physician and the proposed CADx are 86.67% (78/90) and 95.50% (86/90), respectively.

  19. Nursing Home Stakeholder Views of Resident Involvement in Medical Care Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Theresa J.; Harrison, Tracie C.; Goodwin, James S.

    2017-01-01

    Demand by nursing home residents for involvement in their medical care, or, patient-centered care, is expected to increase as baby boomers begin seeking long-term care for their chronic illnesses. To explore the needs in meeting this proposed demand, we used a qualitative descriptive method with content analysis to obtain the joint perspective of key stakeholders on the current state of person-centered medical care in the nursing home. We interviewed 31 nursing home stakeholders: 5 residents, 7 family members, 8 advanced practice registered nurses, 5 physicians, and 6 administrators. Our findings revealed constraints placed by the long-term care system limited medical involvement opportunities and created conflicting goals for patient-centered medical care. Resident participation in medical care was perceived as low, but important. The creation of supportive educational programs for all stakeholders to facilitate a common goal for nursing home admission and to provide assistance through the long-term care system was encouraged. PMID:25721717

  20. Health care technology assessment: implications for modern medical practice. Part II. Decision making on technology adoption.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Read G; Bozic, Kevin J; Hall, Bruce Lee; Breivis, James

    2007-02-01

    Health care technology assessment, the multidisciplinary evaluation of clinical and economic aspects of technology, has come to have an increasingly important role in health policy and clinical decision-making. In Part I--Understanding Technology Adoption and Analyses--this review addressed the difficult challenges posed by assessment and provided a guide to the methodologies used. Part II presents the factors that drive the technology choices made by patients, by individual physicians, by provider groups, and by hospital administrators.

  1. The utility of a Personal Values Report for medical decision-making.

    PubMed

    Henderson, W; Corke, C

    2015-09-01

    Our aim was to determine if a patient's Personal Values Report (PVR) has a positive impact on a doctor's decisions regarding treatment. We conducted a prospective cohort study delivering a short, web-based hypothetical case-centred questionnaire to intensive care doctors practising in Australia and New Zealand. One hundred and twenty-four intensive care consultants and registrars agreed to participate in an online questionnaire in two routine mailings between November 2013 and February 2014. We evaluated the effect of a PVR on clinical decision-making in a case-based scenario. In addition, participants rated the utility of the PVR on their decision-making process. Participants were presented with a difficult scenario in a frail elderly man where death was almost inevitable without aggressive support but survival with severe disability was possible with significant intervention. Most doctors (52.4%) elected to continue ventilation and admit to ICU. After the PVR was made available, only 8.1% of doctors continued to choose to admit the patient to the ICU. In all cases where admission to the ICU was chosen after seeing the PVR, the admission to the ICU was stated to be to permit family to arrive before withdrawing support (an approach which was consistent with the values stated in the PVR). One hundred and twenty-one of the 124 participants (97.6%) agreed or strongly agreed that the PVR helped them get an understanding of the patient's wishes, whereas none of the participants (0%) were unsure, disagreed or strongly disagreed with this statement. The remaining 2.4% did not answer the question. It is surmised that PVRs pre-written by patients are potentially an effective and valuable tool for use in helping doctors make decisions regarding patient care.

  2. "Smart Forms" in an Electronic Medical Record: documentation-based clinical decision support to improve disease management.

    PubMed

    Schnipper, Jeffrey L; Linder, Jeffrey A; Palchuk, Matvey B; Einbinder, Jonathan S; Li, Qi; Postilnik, Anatoly; Middleton, Blackford

    2008-01-01

    Clinical decision support systems (CDSS) integrated within Electronic Medical Records (EMR) hold the promise of improving healthcare quality. To date the effectiveness of CDSS has been less than expected, especially concerning the ambulatory management of chronic diseases. This is due, in part, to the fact that clinicians do not use CDSS fully. Barriers to clinicians' use of CDSS have included lack of integration into workflow, software usability issues, and relevance of the content to the patient at hand. At Partners HealthCare, we are developing "Smart Forms" to facilitate documentation-based clinical decision support. Rather than being interruptive in nature, the Smart Form enables writing a multi-problem visit note while capturing coded information and providing sophisticated decision support in the form of tailored recommendations for care. The current version of the Smart Form is designed around two chronic diseases: coronary artery disease and diabetes mellitus. The Smart Form has potential to improve the care of patients with both acute and chronic conditions.

  3. Recommendations for Modeling Disaster Responses in Public Health and Medicine: A Position Paper of The Society for Medical Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Brandeau, Margaret L.; McCoy, Jessica H.; Hupert, Nathaniel; Holty, Jon-Erik; Bravata, Dena M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Mathematical and simulation models are increasingly used to plan for and evaluate health sector responses to disasters, yet no clear consensus exists regarding best practices for the design, conduct, and reporting of such models. We examined a large selection of published health sector disaster response models to generate a set of best practice guidelines for such models. Methods We reviewed a spectrum of published disaster response models addressing public health or healthcare delivery, focusing in particular on the type of disaster and response decisions considered, decision makers targeted, choice of outcomes evaluated, modeling methodology, and reporting format. We developed initial recommendations for best practices for creating and reporting such models and refined these guidelines after soliciting feedback from response modeling experts and from members of the Society for Medical Decision Making. Results We propose six recommendations for model construction and reporting, inspired by the most exemplary models: Health sector disaster response models should address real-world problems; be designed for maximum usability by response planners; strike the appropriate balance between simplicity and complexity; include appropriate outcomes, which extend beyond those considered in traditional cost-effectiveness analyses; and be designed to evaluate the many uncertainties inherent in disaster response. Finally, good model reporting is particularly critical for disaster response models. Conclusions Quantitative models are critical tools for planning effective health sector responses to disasters. The recommendations we propose can increase the applicability and interpretability of future models, thereby improving strategic, tactical, and operational aspects of preparedness planning and response. PMID:19605887

  4. “Smart Forms” in an Electronic Medical Record: Documentation-based Clinical Decision Support to Improve Disease Management

    PubMed Central

    Schnipper, Jeffrey L.; Linder, Jeffrey A.; Palchuk, Matvey B.; Einbinder, Jonathan S.; Li, Qi; Postilnik, Anatoly; Middleton, Blackford

    2008-01-01

    Clinical decision support systems (CDSS) integrated within Electronic Medical Records (EMR) hold the promise of improving healthcare quality. To date the effectiveness of CDSS has been less than expected, especially concerning the ambulatory management of chronic diseases. This is due, in part, to the fact that clinicians do not use CDSS fully. Barriers to clinicians' use of CDSS have included lack of integration into workflow, software usability issues, and relevance of the content to the patient at hand. At Partners HealthCare, we are developing “Smart Forms” to facilitate documentation-based clinical decision support. Rather than being interruptive in nature, the Smart Form enables writing a multi-problem visit note while capturing coded information and providing sophisticated decision support in the form of tailored recommendations for care. The current version of the Smart Form is designed around two chronic diseases: coronary artery disease and diabetes mellitus. The Smart Form has potential to improve the care of patients with both acute and chronic conditions. PMID:18436911

  5. Decisions about the use of psychotropic medication during pregnancy: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Fiona; Hamilton, Sarah; Pinfold, Vanessa; Walker, Charlotte; Dare, Ceri R J; Kaur, Harminder; Lambley, Ruth; Szymczynska, Paulina; Nicolls, Vicky; Petersen, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Objective To understand the perspectives of women with severe mental illness concerning the use of psychotropic medicines while pregnant. Design Interviews conducted by female peer researchers with personal experience of making or considering decisions about using psychotropic medicines in pregnancy, supported by professional researchers. Participants 12 women who had had a baby in the past 5 years and had taken antipsychotics or mood-stabilisers for severe mental illness within the 12-month period immediately prior to that pregnancy. Recruitment to the study was via peer networks and the women interviewed came from different regions of England. Setting Interviews were arranged in places where women felt comfortable and that accommodated their childcare needs including their home, local library and the research office. Results The views expressed demonstrated complex attempts to engage with decision-making about the use of psychotropic medicines in pregnancy. In nearly all cases, the women expressed the view that healthcare professionals had access to limited information leaving women to rely on experiential and common sense evidence when making decisions about medicine taking during pregnancy. Conclusions The findings complement existing work using electronic health records by providing explanations for the discontinuation of psychotropic medicines in pregnancy. Further work is necessary to understand health professionals’ perspectives on the provision of services and care to women with severe mental illness during pregnancy. PMID:26817641

  6. Decisions about the use of psychotropic medication during pregnancy: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Fiona; Hamilton, Sarah; Pinfold, Vanessa; Walker, Charlotte; Dare, Ceri R J; Kaur, Harminder; Lambley, Ruth; Szymczynska, Paulina; Nicolls, Vicky; Petersen, Irene

    2016-01-27

    To understand the perspectives of women with severe mental illness concerning the use of psychotropic medicines while pregnant. Interviews conducted by female peer researchers with personal experience of making or considering decisions about using psychotropic medicines in pregnancy, supported by professional researchers. 12 women who had had a baby in the past 5 years and had taken antipsychotics or mood-stabilisers for severe mental illness within the 12-month period immediately prior to that pregnancy. Recruitment to the study was via peer networks and the women interviewed came from different regions of England. Interviews were arranged in places where women felt comfortable and that accommodated their childcare needs including their home, local library and the research office. The views expressed demonstrated complex attempts to engage with decision-making about the use of psychotropic medicines in pregnancy. In nearly all cases, the women expressed the view that healthcare professionals had access to limited information leaving women to rely on experiential and common sense evidence when making decisions about medicine taking during pregnancy. The findings complement existing work using electronic health records by providing explanations for the discontinuation of psychotropic medicines in pregnancy. Further work is necessary to understand health professionals' perspectives on the provision of services and care to women with severe mental illness during pregnancy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Trust in medical decision-making concerning older people: the views of key professionals in the Dutch health care practice.

    PubMed

    Ubachs-Moust, Josy; Houtepen, Rob; Van der Weijden, Trudy; ter Meulen, Ruud; Vos, Rein

    2010-11-01

    This article deals with the issue of public trust in decisions made by individual physicians, concerning older people, as perceived by various key professionals. While trust is a basic element in our health care service, it is at the same time a difficult phenomenon to conceptualize. This article tries to contribute to a better understanding of what trust in medical practice entails and what are the necessary conditions for a society to put trust in the medical profession. The focus is on care for older people under the condition of scarcity in health care resources. Our study has a qualitative design consisting of semi-structured in-depth interviews with 24 key professionals focusing on decision-makers and those in line of professionally organizing or influencing the decision-making process. We found roughly three categories of trust: distrust; trust; and qualified trust. In each category we found different reasons to give or withhold trust and different views on how far the discretionary power of doctors should go. We recommend promoting trust by addressing the criteria or limits brought forward in the qualified trust category. The preconditions as identified in the qualified trust section provide the boundaries and marking points between which physicians have to move regarding the care for older people. The qualifications provide us insight in where and how to invest in trust under these and under different circumstances. An important conclusion is that trust is never finished: trust needs to be gained and negotiated in a continuous process of action and interaction.

  8. Parental role in medical decision-making: fact or fiction? A comparative study of ethical dilemmas in French and American neonatal intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Orfali, Kristina

    2004-05-01

    Neonatal intensive care has been studied from an epidemiological, ethical, medical and even sociological perspective, but little is known about the impact of parental involvement in decision-making, especially in critical cases. We rely here on a comparative, case-based approach to study the parental role in decision-making within two technologically identical but culturally and institutionally different contexts: France and the United States. These contexts rely on two opposed models of decision-making: parental autonomy in the United States and medical paternalism in France. This paternalism model excludes parents from the decision-making process. We investigate whether parental involvement leads to different outcomes from exclusively medically determined decisions or whether "technological imperatives" outplay all other factors to shape a unique, 'medically optimal' outcome. Using empirical data generated from extensive ethnographic fieldwork, in-depth interviews with 60 clinicians and 71 parents and chart review over a year in two neonatal intensive care units (one in France and one in the US), we analyze the factors that can explain the observed differences in decision-making in medically identical cases. Parental involvement and the legal context play a less role than physicians' differential use of certainty versus uncertainty in prognosis, a conclusion that corroborates the fact that medical control over ethical dilemmas remains even in the context of autonomy. French physicians do not ask parents permission to withdraw care (as expected in a paternalistic context); but symmetrically, American neonatologists (despite the prevailing autonomy model) tend not to ask permission to continue. The study provides an analysis of the making of "ethics", with an emphasis on how decisions are conceptualized as ethical dilemmas. The final conclusion is that the ongoing medical authority on ethics remains the key issue.

  9. The Influence of Attitudes, Beliefs, and Social Factors on Caregivers’ Decisions on the Use of OTC Medications in Preschool Children.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-02

    decision to medicate their child with OTC cough and cold medications and/or call the doctor. The theoretical framework used to examine these purposes is... cough and cold medications (CCM) 66.7%, and other pain relievers 6.9%. The reported percentages are greater than 100% because many children received...and risk is associated with improper use. Smith and Feldman (1993) found only two published clinical trials addressing the efficacy of OTC cough and

  10. Employer-sponsored health plans and experimental medical treatments: life and death cost/benefit decisions.

    PubMed

    Mrkonich, M J; Engstrom, G A

    1994-06-01

    The process of determining whether--and how--to limit coverage for certain expensive, experimental medical treatments is complex and involves social, legal and economic considerations. However, employers do have several options for responsibly containing their health plan costs while meeting their employees' basic health care needs.

  11. Dignity and cost-effectiveness: analysing the responsibility for decisions in medical ethics.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, G S

    1984-01-01

    In the operation of a health care system, defining the limits of medical care is the joint responsibility of many parties including clinicians, patients, philosophers and politicians. It is suggested that changes in the potential for prolonging life make it necessary to give doctors guidance which may have to incorporate certain features of utilitarianism, individualism and patient-autonomy. PMID:6502644

  12. Measurement Invariance in Careers Research: Using IRT to Study Gender Differences in Medical Students' Specialization Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrend, Tara S.; Thompson, Lori Foster; Meade, Adam W.; Newton, Dale A.; Grayson, Martha S.

    2008-01-01

    The current study demonstrates the use of item response theory (IRT) to conduct measurement invariance analyses in careers research. A self-report survey was used to assess the importance 1,363 fourth-year medical students placed on opportunities to provide comprehensive patient care when choosing a career specialty. IRT analyses supported…

  13. How family caregivers' medical and moral assumptions influence decision making for patients in the vegetative state: a qualitative interview study.

    PubMed

    Kuehlmeyer, Katja; Borasio, Gian Domenico; Jox, Ralf J

    2012-06-01

    Decisions on limiting life-sustaining treatment for patients in the vegetative state (VS) are emotionally and morally challenging. In Germany, doctors have to discuss, together with the legal surrogate (often a family member), whether the proposed treatment is in accordance with the patient's will. However, it is unknown whether family members of the patient in the VS actually base their decisions on the patient's wishes. To examine the role of advance directives, orally expressed wishes, or the presumed will of patients in a VS for family caregivers' decisions on life-sustaining treatment. A qualitative interview study with 14 next of kin of patients in a VS in a long-term care setting was conducted; 13 participants were the patient's legal surrogates. Interviews were analysed according to qualitative content analysis. The majority of family caregivers said that they were aware of aforementioned wishes of the patient that could be applied to the VS condition, but did not base their decisions primarily on these wishes. They gave three reasons for this: (a) the expectation of clinical improvement, (b) the caregivers' definition of life-sustaining treatments and (c) the moral obligation not to harm the patient. If the patient's wishes were not known or not revealed, the caregivers interpreted a will to live into the patient's survival and non-verbal behaviour. Whether or not prior treatment wishes of patients in a VS are respected depends on their applicability, and also on the medical assumptions and moral attitudes of the surrogates. We recommend repeated communication, support for the caregivers and advance care planning.

  14. OrderRex: clinical order decision support and outcome predictions by data-mining electronic medical records

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jonathan H; Podchiyska, Tanya

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To answer a “grand challenge” in clinical decision support, the authors produced a recommender system that automatically data-mines inpatient decision support from electronic medical records (EMR), analogous to Netflix or Amazon.com’s product recommender. Materials and Methods: EMR data were extracted from 1 year of hospitalizations (>18K patients with >5.4M structured items including clinical orders, lab results, and diagnosis codes). Association statistics were counted for the ∼1.5K most common items to drive an order recommender. The authors assessed the recommender’s ability to predict hospital admission orders and outcomes based on initial encounter data from separate validation patients. Results: Compared to a reference benchmark of using the overall most common orders, the recommender using temporal relationships improves precision at 10 recommendations from 33% to 38% (P < 10−10) for hospital admission orders. Relative risk-based association methods improve inverse frequency weighted recall from 4% to 16% (P < 10−16). The framework yields a prediction receiver operating characteristic area under curve (c-statistic) of 0.84 for 30 day mortality, 0.84 for 1 week need for ICU life support, 0.80 for 1 week hospital discharge, and 0.68 for 30-day readmission. Discussion: Recommender results quantitatively improve on reference benchmarks and qualitatively appear clinically reasonable. The method assumes that aggregate decision making converges appropriately, but ongoing evaluation is necessary to discern common behaviors from “correct” ones. Conclusions: Collaborative filtering recommender algorithms generate clinical decision support that is predictive of real practice patterns and clinical outcomes. Incorporating temporal relationships improves accuracy. Different evaluation metrics satisfy different goals (predicting likely events vs. “interesting” suggestions). PMID:26198303

  15. Feature Engineering and a Proposed Decision-Support System for Systematic Reviewers of Medical Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Bekhuis, Tanja; Tseytlin, Eugene; Mitchell, Kevin J.; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Evidence-based medicine depends on the timely synthesis of research findings. An important source of synthesized evidence resides in systematic reviews. However, a bottleneck in review production involves dual screening of citations with titles and abstracts to find eligible studies. For this research, we tested the effect of various kinds of textual information (features) on performance of a machine learning classifier. Based on our findings, we propose an automated system to reduce screeing burden, as well as offer quality assurance. Methods We built a database of citations from 5 systematic reviews that varied with respect to domain, topic, and sponsor. Consensus judgments regarding eligibility were inferred from published reports. We extracted 5 feature sets from citations: alphabetic, alphanumeric+, indexing, features mapped to concepts in systematic reviews, and topic models. To simulate a two-person team, we divided the data into random halves. We optimized the parameters of a Bayesian classifier, then trained and tested models on alternate data halves. Overall, we conducted 50 independent tests. Results All tests of summary performance (mean F3) surpassed the corresponding baseline, P<0.0001. The ranks for mean F3, precision, and classification error were statistically different across feature sets averaged over reviews; P-values for Friedman's test were .045, .002, and .002, respectively. Differences in ranks for mean recall were not statistically significant. Alphanumeric+ features were associated with best performance; mean reduction in screening burden for this feature type ranged from 88% to 98% for the second pass through citations and from 38% to 48% overall. Conclusions A computer-assisted, decision support system based on our methods could substantially reduce the burden of screening citations for systematic review teams and solo reviewers. Additionally, such a system could deliver quality assurance both by confirming concordant

  16. Optimizing medical device buying. Value analysis models can help you improve decision-making process.

    PubMed

    Feldstein, Josh; Brooks, Elizabeth

    2010-05-01

    Value Analysis Models (VAMs) are a burgeoning analytical tool that can help materials managers, operating room managers, CFOs and others to make comparative value assessments before reaching a critical purchasing decision. Although relatively new to the hospital field, more and more manufacturers are supporting these initiatives to bring critical information to their customers and the health care industry. VAMs aren't designed to conclude that one product is better than another but to be a tool that can help make the product acquisition process much easier.

  17. Media coverage of medical decision making at the end of life: a Belgian case study.

    PubMed

    Van Brussel, Leen; Van Landeghem, Paul; Cohen, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a content analysis of Belgian media coverage of end-of-life decision making. The authors examine a selection of press articles and the differences among media genres in covering the issue. In general terms, they found an overreporting of euthanasia; a focus on dying processes resulting from cancer and Alzheimer's disease; and an attention to political discussions and political voices, which outnumber patient voices. In genre-specific terms, unlike mainstream media, niche media reported less mediagenic aspects of the end of life. Finally, although popular mainstream media focus on personal aspects of the end-of-life, elite mainstream media privilege political aspects.

  18. [Medical data warehousing as a generator of system component for decision support in health care].

    PubMed

    Catibusić, Sulejman; Hadzagić-Catibusić, Feriha; Zubcević, Smail

    2004-01-01

    Growth in role of data warehousing as strategic information for decision makers is significant. Many health institutions have data warehouse implementations in process of development or even in production. This article was made with intention to improve general understanding of data warehousing requirements form the point of view of end-users, and information system as well. For that reason, in this document advantages and arguments for implementation, techniques and methods of data warehousing, data warehouse foundation and exploration of information as final product of data warehousing process have been described.

  19. An Exploratory Data Analysis System for Support in Medical Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, J. A.; Hamel, B.; Bourne, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    An experimental system was developed to allow retrieval and analysis of data collected during a study of neurobehavioral correlates of renal disease. After retrieving data organized in a relational data base, simple bivariate statistics of parametric and nonparametric nature could be conducted. An “exploratory” mode in which the system provided guidance in selection of appropriate statistical analyses was also available to the user. The system traversed a decision tree using the inherent qualities of the data (e.g., the identity and number of patients, tests, and time epochs) to search for the appropriate analyses to employ.

  20. Recovery and resilience after a nuclear power plant disaster: a medical decision model for managing an effective, timely, and balanced response.

    PubMed

    Coleman, C Norman; Blumenthal, Daniel J; Casto, Charles A; Alfant, Michael; Simon, Steven L; Remick, Alan L; Gepford, Heather J; Bowman, Thomas; Telfer, Jana L; Blumenthal, Pamela M; Noska, Michael A

    2013-04-01

    Resilience after a nuclear power plant or other radiation emergency requires response and recovery activities that are appropriately safe, timely, effective, and well organized. Timely informed decisions must be made, and the logic behind them communicated during the evolution of the incident before the final outcome is known. Based on our experiences in Tokyo responding to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant crisis, we propose a real-time, medical decision model by which to make key health-related decisions that are central drivers to the overall incident management. Using this approach, on-site decision makers empowered to make interim decisions can act without undue delay using readily available and high-level scientific, medical, communication, and policy expertise. Ongoing assessment, consultation, and adaption to the changing conditions and additional information are additional key features. Given the central role of health and medical issues in all disasters, we propose that this medical decision model, which is compatible with the existing US National Response Framework structure, be considered for effective management of complex, large-scale, and large-consequence incidents.

  1. Basic list of veterinary medical serials, third edition: using a decision matrix to update the core list of veterinary journals

    PubMed Central

    Ugaz, Ana G; Boyd, C. Trenton; Croft, Vicki F; Carrigan, Esther E; Anderson, Katherine M

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This paper presents the methods and results of a study designed to produce the third edition of the “Basic List of Veterinary Medical Serials,” which was established by the Veterinary Medical Libraries Section in 1976 and last updated in 1986. Methods: A set of 238 titles were evaluated using a decision matrix in order to systematically assign points for both objective and subjective criteria and determine an overall score for each journal. Criteria included: coverage in four major indexes, scholarly impact rank as tracked in two sources, identification as a recommended journal in preparing for specialty board examinations, and a veterinary librarian survey rating. Results: Of the 238 titles considered, a minimum scoring threshold determined the 123 (52%) journals that constituted the final list. The 36 subject categories represented on the list include general and specialty disciplines in veterinary medicine. A ranked list of journals and a list by subject category were produced. Conclusion: Serials appearing on the third edition of the “Basic List of Veterinary Medical Serials” met expanded objective measures of quality and impact as well as subjective perceptions of value by both librarians and veterinary practitioners. PMID:20936066

  2. Are medical ethicists out of touch? Practitioner attitudes in the US and UK towards decisions at the end of life

    PubMed Central

    Dickenson, D.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives—To assess whether UK and US health care professionals share the views of medical ethicists about medical futility, withdrawing/withholding treatment, ordinary/extraordinary interventions, and the doctrine of double effect Design, subjects and setting–A 138-item attitudinal questionnaire completed by 469 UK nurses studying the Open University course on "Death and Dying" was compared with a similar questionnaire administered to 759 US nurses and 687 US doctors taking the Hastings Center course on "Decisions near the End of Life". Results–Practitioners accept the relevance of concepts widely disparaged by bioethicists: double effect, medical futility, and the distinctions between heroic/ordinary interventions and withholding/ withdrawing treatment. Within the UK nurses' group a "rationalist" axis of respondents who describe themselves as having "no religion" are closer to the bioethics consensus on withholding and withdrawing treatment. Conclusions—Professionals' beliefs differ substantially from the recommendations of their professional bodies and from majority opinion in bioethics. Bioethicists should be cautious about assuming that their opinions will be readily accepted by practitioners. Key Words: Death and dying • withdrawal of care • refusal of treatment PMID:10951920

  3. Cesarean section without clinical indication versus vaginal delivery as a paradigmatic model in the discourse of medical setting decisions.

    PubMed

    Demontis, Roberto; Pisu, Salvatore; Pintor, Michela; D'aloja, Ernesto

    2011-12-01

    Natural childbirth has ceased to be considered the gold standard in the delivery room. For this reason cesarean section on demand is increasing. Many obstetricians justify this phenomenon on evidence-based obstetrical practice. However, other pieces of evidence demonstrate that the data are often a product of the social milieu, and as stated by Wendland, "technology magically wards off the unpredictability and danger of birth". In a recent paper, Kalish pointed out several problems with cesarean deliveries in the absence of medical indications regarding issues of good clinical practice, autonomy, and informed consent. From the late 1990s, the medical community began to speak in favor of women's autonomy in childbirth decisions thus supporting the maternal choice and request for a cesarean section. Starting from these new considerations, it is of primary importance to understand whether emphasizing patient's autonomy is the best, or the only, way to helping the medical decisional process. This general approach may be helpful in all the other cases in which patient's autonomy and physician's responsibility appear to be intertwined in an apparent conflicting manner. We fear that the rhetoric of autonomous choice represents a fundamental shift from medicine-based beneficence toward a perilous relationship founded mainly on patient's wishes, representing a dangerous slippery slope where the physician could be reduced to the role of a functionary delegated to execute patient's claims and demands.

  4. Basic list of veterinary medical serials, third edition: using a decision matrix to update the core list of veterinary journals.

    PubMed

    Ugaz, Ana G; Boyd, C Trenton; Croft, Vicki F; Carrigan, Esther E; Anderson, Katherine M

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents the methods and results of a study designed to produce the third edition of the "Basic List of Veterinary Medical Serials," which was established by the Veterinary Medical Libraries Section in 1976 and last updated in 1986. A set of 238 titles were evaluated using a decision matrix in order to systematically assign points for both objective and subjective criteria and determine an overall score for each journal. Criteria included: coverage in four major indexes, scholarly impact rank as tracked in two sources, identification as a recommended journal in preparing for specialty board examinations, and a veterinary librarian survey rating. Of the 238 titles considered, a minimum scoring threshold determined the 123 (52%) journals that constituted the final list. The 36 subject categories represented on the list include general and specialty disciplines in veterinary medicine. A ranked list of journals and a list by subject category were produced. Serials appearing on the third edition of the "Basic List of Veterinary Medical Serials" met expanded objective measures of quality and impact as well as subjective perceptions of value by both librarians and veterinary practitioners.

  5. Ehrlichia Meningitis Mimicking Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Case Study for Medical Decision-Making Heuristics.

    PubMed

    Dredla, Brynn; Freeman, William D

    2016-04-01

    Thunderclap headache is a sudden and severe headache that can occur after an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Subarachnoid hemorrhage is a medical emergency that requires prompt attention and hospitalization. Patients with thunderclap headache often undergo a noncontrast head computed tomography (CT) scan to ascertain SAH bleeding and, if the scan is negative, then undergo a lumbar puncture to look for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) red blood cells (RBCs), which would be consistent with an aneurysmal leak. If the initial CT is negative and CSF is positive for RBCs, patients are usually admitted to the hospital for evaluation of intracranial aneurysm. We encountered a patient with thunderclap headache whose initial head CT was negative for SAH and whose CSF tested positive for RBCs. The patient was referred to our center for evaluation and management of aneurysmal SAH. However, on careful review of the patient's medical history, serum laboratory values, and spinal fluid values, the patient was diagnosed with Ehrlichia chaffeensis meningitis. While Ehrlichia meningitis is rare, it is important to recognize the clinical clues that could help avoid formal cerebral angiography, a costly and potentially unnecessary procedure. We present how this case represented a cognitive framing bias and anchoring heuristic as well as steps that medical providers can use to prevent such cognitive errors in diagnosis.

  6. Court Decisions on Medical Malpractice in China After the New Tort Liability Law.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kui; Li, Yuan; Fan, Fei; Liu, Xin; Deng, Zhen-Hua

    2016-09-01

    A new Tort Law of the People's Republic of China became effective on July 1, 2010. We undertook an analysis of medical malpractice lawsuits brought before regional courts in Beijing districts after this new Tort Liability Law went into effect. In total, 726 cases eventuating in a final verdict were collected from the Beijing district courts from 2011 to 2013 in this retrospective study; 83.7% of the 726 alleged instances of medical malpractice were confirmed to be malpractice by the final verdict. The disciplines most frequently involved with claims of medical malpractice were obstetrics and gynecology, the most frequent outcomes was death, and the most common types of case associated with malpractice was surgery related. The average length of time between the occurrence of the injury and closure of the claim was 9.2 months, and the average payment was ¥163,000. Since the introduction of the new Tort Liability Law, the average time to complete a litigation was shortened, but it has made little apparent difference otherwise.

  7. Scalable decision support at the point of care: a substitutable electronic health record app for monitoring medication adherence.

    PubMed

    Bosl, William; Mandel, Joshua; Jonikas, Magdalena; Ramoni, Rachel Badovinac; Kohane, Isaac S; Mandl, Kenneth D

    2013-07-22

    of future adherence on a clinician-facing Web interface. The user interface allows the physician to quickly review all medications in a patient record for potential non-adherence problems. A gap-check and current medication possession ratio (MPR) threshold test are applied to all medications in the record to test for current non-adherence. Predictions of 1-year non-adherence are made for certain drug classes for which external data was available. Information is presented graphically to indicate present non-adherence, or predicted non-adherence at one year, based on early prescription fulfillment patterns. The MPR Monitor app is installed in the SMART reference container as the "MPR Monitor", where it is publically available for use and testing. MPR is an acronym for Medication Possession Ratio, a commonly used measure of adherence to a prescribed medication regime. This app may be used as an example for creating additional functionality by replacing statistical and display algorithms with new code in a cycle of rapid prototyping and implementation or as a framework for a new SMART app. The MPR Monitor app is a useful pilot project for monitoring medication adherence. It also provides an example that integrates several open source software components, including the Python-based Django Web framework and python-based graphics, to build a SMART app that allows complex decision support methods to be encapsulated to enhance EHR functionality.

  8. "Do your homework…and then hope for the best": the challenges that medical tourism poses to Canadian family physicians' support of patients' informed decision-making.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Jeremy; Crooks, Valorie A; Johnston, Rory; Dharamsi, Shafik

    2013-09-22

    Medical tourism-the practice where patients travel internationally to privately access medical care-may limit patients' regular physicians' abilities to contribute to the informed decision-making process. We address this issue by examining ways in which Canadian family doctors' typical involvement in patients' informed decision-making is challenged when their patients engage in medical tourism. Focus groups were held with family physicians practicing in British Columbia, Canada. After receiving ethics approval, letters of invitation were faxed to family physicians in six cities. 22 physicians agreed to participate and focus groups ranged from two to six participants. Questions explored participants' perceptions of and experiences with medical tourism. A coding scheme was created using inductive and deductive codes that captured issues central to analytic themes identified by the investigators. Extracts of the coded data that dealt with informed decision-making were shared among the investigators in order to identify themes. Four themes were identified, all of which dealt with the challenges that medical tourism poses to family physicians' abilities to support medical tourists' informed decision-making. Findings relevant to each theme were contrasted against the existing medical tourism literature so as to assist in understanding their significance. Four key challenges were identified: 1) confusion and tensions related to the regular domestic physician's role in decision-making; 2) tendency to shift responsibility related to healthcare outcomes onto the patient because of the regular domestic physician's reduced role in shared decision-making; 3) strains on the patient-physician relationship and corresponding concern around the responsibility of the foreign physician; and 4) regular domestic physicians' concerns that treatments sought abroad may not be based on the best available medical evidence on treatment efficacy. Medical tourism is creating new challenges for

  9. End‐of‐life decisions in medical practice: a survey of doctors in Victoria (Australia)

    PubMed Central

    Neil, D A; Coady, C A J; Thompson, J; Kuhse, H

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To discover the current state of opinion and practice among doctors in Victoria, Australia, regarding end‐of‐life decisions and the legalisation of voluntary euthanasia. Longitudinal comparison with similar 1987 and 1993 studies. Design and participants Cross‐sectional postal survey of doctors in Victoria. Results 53% of doctors in Victoria support the legalisation of voluntary euthanasia. Of doctors who have experienced requests from patients to hasten death, 35% have administered drugs with the intention of hastening death. There is substantial disagreement among doctors concerning the definition of euthanasia. Conclusions Disagreement among doctors concerning the meaning of the term euthanasia may contribute to misunderstanding in the debate over voluntary euthanasia. Among doctors in Victoria, support for the legalisation of voluntary euthanasia appears to have weakened slightly over the past 17 years. Opinion on this issue is sharply polarised. PMID:18055904

  10. End-of-life decisions in medical practice: a survey of doctors in Victoria (Australia).

    PubMed

    Neil, D A; Coady, C A J; Thompson, J; Kuhse, H

    2007-12-01

    To discover the current state of opinion and practice among doctors in Victoria, Australia, regarding end-of-life decisions and the legalisation of voluntary euthanasia. Longitudinal comparison with similar 1987 and 1993 studies. Cross-sectional postal survey of doctors in Victoria. 53% of doctors in Victoria support the legalisation of voluntary euthanasia. Of doctors who have experienced requests from patients to hasten death, 35% have administered drugs with the intention of hastening death. There is substantial disagreement among doctors concerning the definition of euthanasia. Disagreement among doctors concerning the meaning of the term euthanasia may contribute to misunderstanding in the debate over voluntary euthanasia. Among doctors in Victoria, support for the legalisation of voluntary euthanasia appears to have weakened slightly over the past 17 years. Opinion on this issue is sharply polarised.

  11. Physicians' personal values in determining medical decision-making capacity: a survey study.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Helena; Trachsel, Manuel; Biller-Andorno, Nikola

    2015-09-01

    Decision-making capacity (DMC) evaluations are complex clinical judgements with important ethical implications for patients' self-determination. They are achieved not only on descriptive grounds but are inherently normative and, therefore, dependent on the values held by those involved in the DMC evaluation. To date, the issue of whether and how physicians' personal values relate to DMC evaluation has never been empirically investigated. The present survey study aimed to investigate this question by exploring the relationship between physicians' value profiles and the use of risk-relative standards in capacity evaluations. The findings indicate that physicians' personal values are of some significance in this regard. Those physicians with relatively high scores on the value types of achievement, power-resource, face and conformity to interpersonal standards were more likely to apply risk-relative criteria in a range of situations, using more stringent assessment standards when interventions were riskier. By contrast, those physicians who strongly emphasise hedonism, conformity to rules and universalism concern were more likely to apply equal standards regardless of the consequences of a decision. Furthermore, it has been shown that around a quarter of all respondents do not appreciate that their values impact on their DMC evaluations, highlighting a need to better sensitise physicians in this regard. The implications of these findings are discussed, especially in terms of the moral status of the potential and almost unavoidable influence of physicians' values. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Getting ahead of illness: using metaphors to influence medical decision making.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Aaron M; Scherer, Laura D; Fagerlin, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Metaphors influence judgments and decisions in nonmedical contexts. First, to investigate whether describing the flu metaphorically increases an individual's willingness and interest in getting a flu vaccination, and second, to explore possible mediators and moderators of the effect that metaphors might have on vaccination intentions. Three studies, each using a between-subjects manipulation in which the flu was described literally (as a virus) or metaphorically (as a beast, riot, army, or weed), were conducted. A total of 167 psychology undergraduates (study 1) and 300 and 301 online participants (studies 2 and 3, respectively) were included. Studies 1 through 3 examined vaccination behavioral intentions, absolute risk, comparative risk, perceived flu severity, and recent flu and flu vaccination experience. Studies 2 and 3 assessed vaccination e-mail reminder requests and global affect. Study 3 evaluated affective reactions, personal control, and understanding of the flu. Describing the flu metaphorically increased individuals' willingness to get vaccinated (studies 1-3), while the impact of metaphors on requests to receive an e-mail reminder to get vaccinated was unclear (studies 2 and 3). These results were moderated by vaccination frequency in study 2, such that the effects were found among individuals who occasionally receive flu vaccinations but not among individuals who never or always receive flu vaccinations. Metaphor use did not significantly impact any of the hypothesized mediators: perceived absolute risk, comparative risk, flu severity, affect, personal control, or understanding of the flu. Limitations include convenience samples and measuring behavioral intentions but not actual vaccination behavior. Describing the flu virus metaphorically in decision aids or information campaigns could be a simple, cost-effective way to increase vaccinations against the flu. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Design and implementation of decision support for tobacco dependence treatment in an inpatient electronic medical record: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Steven L; Rosner, June; DeWitt, Michelle; Tetrault, Jeanette; Hsiao, Allen L; Dziura, James; Sussman, Scott; O'Connor, Patrick; Toll, Benjamin

    2017-02-13

    Tobacco dependence treatment for hospitalized smokers results in long-term cessation if treatment continues at least 30 days post-discharge. Health information technology may facilitate ongoing tobacco dependence treatment after hospital discharge. To describe the use and impact of a new decision support tool and order set for inpatient physicians, addressing tobacco dependence treatment for hospitalized smokers, embedded in an electronic health record (EHR). In a cluster-randomized trial, 254 physicians were randomized (1:1) to either receive or not receive the decision support tool and order set, which were embedded in the Epic (Madison, WI) EHR used at 2 hospitals in a single city. When an adult patient was admitted to a medical service, an electronic alert appeared if the patient was coded in the EHR as a smoker. For physicians randomized to the intervention, the alert linked to an order set to prescribe tobacco treatment medications and refer the patient to the state tobacco quitline. Additionally, "tobacco use disorder" was added to the patient's problem list, and an e-mail was sent to the patient's primary care provider (PCP). In the control arm, an alert fired with no screen visibility. Generalized estimating equations were used to model the data. Since August 2013, the alert has appeared for 10,939 patients (5391 intervention, 5548 control). Compared to control physicians, intervention physicians were more likely to order tobacco treatment medication (35 vs. 29%, P < 0.0001), populate the problem list with tobacco use disorder (41 vs. 2%, P < 0.0001), and make a referral to the state smokers' quitline (30 vs. 0%, P < 0.0001). In addition, intervention physicians sent an e-mail to the patient's PCP 4152 (99%) times. Designing and implementing an order set and alert for tobacco treatment in an EHR is feasible and helps physicians place more orders for tobacco treatment medication, referrals to the state smokers' quitline, and e-mails to patients' PCPs

  14. Point of care information services: a platform for self-directed continuing medical education for front line decision makers

    PubMed Central

    Moja, Lorenzo; Kwag, Koren Hyogene

    2015-01-01

    The structure and aim of continuing medical education (CME) is shifting from the passive transmission of knowledge to a competency-based model focused on professional development. Self-directed learning is emerging as the foremost educational method for advancing competency-based CME. In a field marked by the constant expansion of knowledge, self-directed learning allows physicians to tailor their learning strategy to meet the information needs of practice. Point of care information services are innovative tools that provide health professionals with digested evidence at the front line to guide decision making. By mobilising self-directing learning to meet the information needs of clinicians at the bedside, point of care information services represent a promising platform for competency-based CME. Several points, however, must be considered to enhance the accessibility and development of these tools to improve competency-based CME and the quality of care. PMID:25655251

  15. Consistency versus Completeness in Medical Decision Making: Exemplar of 155 Patients Autopsied after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Moore, G. William; Hutchins, Grover M.

    1982-01-01

    Diagnoses made at autopsy are usually yes-no (binary) decisions inferred from clinicopathologic data. A major conceptual problem in determining cause of death is that variables used in classifying some patients may be missing in other patients. A model with too few logical implications will be mathematically incomplete for small data sets; but a model too many implications may be inconsistent with large data sets. We examined the 155 patients autopsied after coronary artery bypass surgery from The Johns Hopkins Hospital autopsy database of 43200 cases. Diagnoses entered on a word processor and transmitted to a minicomputer were solved by the Quine-McCluskey algorithm. Our analysis disclosed that 41% of patients suffered a fatal complication of cardiac surgery; 43% had established surgical complications or unrelated causes of death; and in 17% of cases the cause of death was unexplained. Computerized symbolic logic analysis of medical information is useful in testing the completeness of a proposed set of causes of death.

  16. Understanding older peoples' decisions about the use of sleeping medication: issues of control and autonomy.

    PubMed

    Venn, Susan; Arber, Sara

    2012-11-01

    Poor sleep is known to impact on health and wellbeing in later life and has implications for the ability of older people to remain active during the day. Medical treatments for chronic poor sleep have primarily included the regular, long-term prescribing of hypnotics, which are known to impact on older people's health, cognitive function and quality of life. Therefore, recent policy and practice has focused on reducing such prescribing, on encouraging older people to stop taking long-term hypnotics and on finding alternative, non-pharmacological ways to manage poor sleep. However, little research has been undertaken to understand the perspectives of older people who choose not to seek professional help for their poor sleep, despite the potential impact of poor sleep on their health and ability to remain active. Through in-depth interviews with 62 older men and women living in their own homes in England, this article explores the factors that deter older people from seeking professional help for their poor sleep. We argue that these are located in their perceptions of the normativity of poor sleep in later life, their beliefs about prescription sleeping medications and their desire to maintain control and autonomy over their everyday and night lives.

  17. [Decision aids in complex polypharmacy : Medication data bases and counselling by clinical pharmacists].

    PubMed

    Weinrebe, W; Preda, R; Bischoff, S; Nussbickel, D; Humm, M; Jeckelmann, K; Goetz, S

    2017-07-18

    The number of older people with polypharmacy (more than six drugs taken simultaneously) is increasing. The greatest proportion consists of guideline drugs, analgesics and psychopharmaceuticals because in many cases of geriatric multimorbidity several underlying main diseases are present which must be treated according to the guidelines. Polypharmacy is a complex and difficult situation for all treating physicians because substantial side effects and intoxication can be induced but it can also be very difficult to recognize which drug was at fault and how a reduction can be safely made. This article describes the exemplary case of a 77-year-old patient with drug-induced delirium and demonstrates the procedure followed. The question of rapid assistance by the utilization of medication data bases is described and the importance of clinical pharmacists is demonstrated. In the future working with medication data bases will possibly become increasingly more important for physicians and hopefully simpler. The case presented here also shows that the effective and justified reduction of drugs can show a very good effect and is possible.

  18. 'It's time she stopped torturing herself': structural constraints to decision-making about life-sustaining treatment by medical trainees.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Tania M

    2015-05-01

    This article explores how structural factors associated with the profession and organization of medicine can constrain internal medicine residents, leading them to sometimes limit or terminate treatment in end-of-life care in ways that do not always embrace patient autonomy. Specifically, it examines the opportunities and motivations that explain why residents sometimes arrogate decision-making for themselves about life-sustaining treatment. Using ethnographic data drawn from over two years at an American community hospital, I contend that unlike previous studies which aggregate junior and senior physicians' perspectives, medical trainees face unique constraints that can lead them to intentionally or unintentionally overlook patient preferences. This is especially salient in cases where they misunderstand their patients' wishes, disagree about what is in their best interest, and/or lack the standing to pursue alternative ethical approaches to resolving these tensions. The study concludes with recommendations that take into account the structural underpinnings of arrogance in decision-making about life-sustaining treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Improving Medical Decision Making and Health Promotion through Culture-Sensitive Health Communication: An Agenda for Science and Practice.

    PubMed

    Betsch, Cornelia; Böhm, Robert; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O; Butler, Robb; Chapman, Gretchen B; Haase, Niels; Herrmann, Benedikt; Igarashi, Tasuku; Kitayama, Shinobu; Korn, Lars; Nurm, Ülla-Karin; Rohrmann, Bernd; Rothman, Alexander J; Shavitt, Sharon; Updegraff, John A; Uskul, Ayse K

    2016-10-01

    This review introduces the concept of culture-sensitive health communication. The basic premise is that congruency between the recipient's cultural characteristics and the respective message will increase the communication's effectiveness. Culture-sensitive health communication is therefore defined as the deliberate and evidence-informed adaptation of health communication to the recipients' cultural background in order to increase knowledge and improve preparation for medical decision making and to enhance the persuasiveness of messages in health promotion. To achieve effective health communication in varying cultural contexts, an empirically and theoretically based understanding of culture will be indispensable. We therefore define culture, discuss which evolutionary and structural factors contribute to the development of cultural diversity, and examine how differences are conceptualized as scientific constructs in current models of cultural differences. In addition, we will explicate the implications of cultural differences for psychological theorizing, because common constructs of health behavior theories and decision making, such as attitudes or risk perception, are subject to cultural variation. In terms of communication, we will review both communication strategies and channels that are used to disseminate health messages, and we will discuss the implications of cultural differences for their effectiveness. Finally, we propose an agenda both for science and for practice to advance and apply the evidence base for culture-sensitive health communication. This calls for more interdisciplinary research between science and practice but also between scientific disciplines and between basic and applied research.

  20. Community-based participatory research and user-centered design in a diabetes medication information and decision tool.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Vida A; Barr, Kathryn L; An, Lawrence C; Guajardo, Claudia; Newhouse, William; Mase, Rebecca; Heisler, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Together, community-based participatory research (CBPR), user-centered design (UCD), and health information technology (HIT) offer promising approaches to improve health disparities in low-resource settings. This article describes the application of CBPR and UCD principles to the development of iDecide/Decido, an interactive, tailored, web-based diabetes medication education and decision support tool delivered by community health workers (CHWs) to African American and Latino participants with diabetes in Southwest and Eastside Detroit. The decision aid is offered in English or Spanish and is delivered on an iPad in participants' homes. The overlapping principles of CBPR and UCD used to develop iDecide/Decido include a user-focused or community approach, equitable academic and community partnership in all study phases, an iterative development process that relies on input from all stakeholders, and a program experience that is specified, adapted, and implemented with the target community. Collaboration between community members, researchers, and developers is especially evident in the program's design concept, animations, pictographs, issue cards, goal setting, tailoring, and additional CHW tools. The principles of CBPR and UCD can be successfully applied in developing health information tools that are easy to use and understand, interactive, and target health disparities.

  1. Community-based participatory research and user-centered design in a diabetes medication information and decision tool

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Vida A; Barr, Kathryn LC; An, Lawrence C; Guajardo, Claudia; Newhouse, William; Mase, Rebecca; Heisler, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Background Together, community-based participatory research (CBPR), usercentered design (UCD) and health information technology (HIT) offer promising approaches to improve health disparities in low-resource settings. Objectives This article describes the application of CBPR and UCD principles to the development of iDecide/Decido, an interactive, tailored, web-based diabetes medication education and decision support tool delivered by community health workers (CHWs) to African-American and Latino participants with diabetes in Southwest and Eastside Detroit. The decision aid is offered in English or Spanish and is delivered on an iPad in participants’ homes. Methods The overlapping principles of CBPR and UCD used to develop iDecide/Decido include: a user-focused or community approach; equitable academic and community partnership in all study phases; an iterative development process that relies on input from all stakeholders; and a program experience that is specified, adapted, and implemented with the target community. Results Collaboration between community members, researchers, and developers is especially evident in the program’s design concept, animations, pictographs, issue cards, goal setting, tailoring, and additional