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Sample records for readout electronics development

  1. Development of TORCH readout electronics for customised MCPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, R.; Brook, N.; Castillo García, L.; Cussans, D.; Fohl, K.; Forty, R.; Frei, C.; Gys, T.; Harnew, N.; Piedigrossi, D.; Rademacker, J.; Ros García, A.; Van Dijk, M.

    2016-04-01

    The TORCH detector is being developed for low-momentum particle identification, combining time-of-flight and Cherenkov techniques to achieve charged particle pi/K/p separation up to 10 GeV/c over a flight distance of 10m. This requires a timing resolution of 70 ps for single photons. Based on an existing scalable design, production and testing of a TORCH readout system has been undertaken over the past year, and a novel customized Micro Channel Plate (MCP) photomultiplier device with 128-channels has been instrumented. This paper will report on the development of the readout system which is being used to measure time-of-flight in a test-beam, and its performance. We will also discuss the communication and data alignment between the TORCH system and the TimePix3 telescope in order to provide track reconstruction.

  2. Electronics development for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter trigger and readout for future LHC running

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Walter

    2017-02-01

    The upgrade of the LHC will provide 7 times greater instantaneous and 10 times greater total luminosities than assumed in the original design of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters. Radiation tolerance criteria and an improved trigger system with higher acceptance rate and longer latency require an upgrade of the LAr readout electronics. In the first upgrade phase in 2019-2020, a trigger readout with up to 10 times higher granularity will be implemented. This allows an improved reconstruction of electromagnetic and hadronic showers and will reduce the background for electron, photon and energy-flow signals at the first trigger level. The analog and digital signal processing components are currently in their final design stages and a fully functional demonstrator system is operated and tested on the LAr Calorimeters. In a second upgrade stage in 2024-2026, the readout of all 183,000 LAr Calorimeter cells will be performed without trigger selection at 40 MHz sampling rate and 16 bit dynamic range. Calibrated energies of all cells will be available at the second trigger level operating at 1 MHz, in order to allow further mitigation of pile-up effects in energy reconstruction. Radiation tolerant, low-power front-end electronics optimized for high pile-up conditions are currently being developed, including pre-amplifier, ADC and serializer components in 65-180 nm technology. This contribution will give an overview of the future LAr readout electronics and present research results from the two upgrade programs.

  3. SNO+ Readout Electronics Upgrades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonventre, Richard; Shokair, Timothy; Knapik, Robert

    2012-03-01

    The SNO+ experiment is designed to explore several topics in neutrino physics including neutrinoless double beta decay, reactor antineutrinos, and low energy solar neutrinos. SNO+ uses the existing Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) detector, with the heavy water target replaced with liquid scintillator. The new target requires an upgrade to the command and control electronics to handle the higher rates expected with scintillation light as compared to Cherenkov light. The readout electronics have been upgraded to autonomously push data to a central data acquisition computer over ethernet from each of the 19 front end crates. The autonomous readout is achieved with a field programmable gate array (FPGA) with an embedded processor. Inside the FPGA fabric a state machine is configured to pull data across the VME-like bus of each crate. A small C program, making use of the open source Light Weight IP (LWIP) libraries, is run directly on the hardware (with no operating system) to push the data via TCP/IP. The hybrid combination of `high-level' C code and a `low-level' VHDL state machine is a cost effective and flexible solution for reading out individual front end crates.

  4. Development of readout electronics for POLARBEAR-2 cosmic microwave background experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Hattori, K.; Akiba, Y.; Arnold, K.; ...

    2016-01-06

    The readout of transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers with a large multiplexing factor is key for the next generation cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiment, Polarbear-2, having 7588 TES bolometers. To enable the large arrays, we have been developing a readout system with a multiplexing factor of 40 in the frequency domain. Extending that architecture to 40 bolometers requires an increase in the bandwidth of the SQUID electronics, above 4 MHz. This paper focuses on cryogenic readout and shows how it affects cross talk and the responsivity of the TES bolometers. A series resistance, such as equivalent series resistance of capacitors formore » LC filters, leads to non-linear response of the bolometers. A wiring inductance modulates a voltage across the bolometers and causes cross talk. They should be controlled well to reduce systematic errors in CMB observations. As a result, we have been developing a cryogenic readout with a low series impedance and have tuned bolometers in the middle of their transition at a high frequency (>3 MHz).« less

  5. Development of readout electronics for POLARBEAR-2 cosmic microwave background experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Hattori, K.; Akiba, Y.; Arnold, K.; Barron, D.; Bender, A. N.; Cukierman, A.; de Haan, T.; Dobbs, M.; Elleflot, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Hazumi, M.; Holzapfel, W.; Hori, Y.; Keating, B.; Kusaka, A.; Lee, A.; Montgomery, J.; Rotermund, K.; Shirley, I.; Suzuki, A.; Whitehorn, N.

    2016-01-06

    The readout of transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers with a large multiplexing factor is key for the next generation cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiment, Polarbear-2, having 7588 TES bolometers. To enable the large arrays, we have been developing a readout system with a multiplexing factor of 40 in the frequency domain. Extending that architecture to 40 bolometers requires an increase in the bandwidth of the SQUID electronics, above 4 MHz. This paper focuses on cryogenic readout and shows how it affects cross talk and the responsivity of the TES bolometers. A series resistance, such as equivalent series resistance of capacitors for LC filters, leads to non-linear response of the bolometers. A wiring inductance modulates a voltage across the bolometers and causes cross talk. They should be controlled well to reduce systematic errors in CMB observations. As a result, we have been developing a cryogenic readout with a low series impedance and have tuned bolometers in the middle of their transition at a high frequency (>3 MHz).

  6. Development of Readout Electronics for POLARBEAR-2 Cosmic Microwave Background Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, K.; Akiba, Y.; Arnold, K.; Barron, D.; Bender, A. N.; Cukierman, A.; de Haan, T.; Dobbs, M.; Elleflot, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Hazumi, M.; Holzapfel, W.; Hori, Y.; Keating, B.; Kusaka, A.; Lee, A.; Montgomery, J.; Rotermund, K.; Shirley, I.; Suzuki, A.; Whitehorn, N.

    2016-07-01

    The readout of transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers with a large multiplexing factor is key for the next generation cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiment, Polarbear-2 (Suzuki in J Low Temp Phys 176:719, 2014), having 7588 TES bolometers. To enable the large arrays, we have been developing a readout system with a multiplexing factor of 40 in the frequency domain. Extending that architecture to 40 bolometers requires an increase in the bandwidth of the SQUID electronics, above 4 MHz. This paper focuses on cryogenic readout and shows how it affects cross talk and the responsivity of the TES bolometers. A series resistance, such as equivalent series resistance of capacitors for LC filters, leads to non-linear response of the bolometers. A wiring inductance modulates a voltage across the bolometers and causes cross talk. They should be controlled well to reduce systematic errors in CMB observations. We have been developing a cryogenic readout with a low series impedance and have tuned bolometers in the middle of their transition at a high frequency (>3 MHz).

  7. High speed readout electronics development for frequency-multiplexed kinetic inductance detector design optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourrion, O.; Vescovi, C.; Catalano, A.; Calvo, M.; D'Addabbo, A.; Goupy, J.; Boudou, N.; Macias-Perez, J. F.; Monfardini, A.

    2013-12-01

    Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKID) are a promising solution for space-borne mm-wave astronomy. To optimize their design and make them insensitive to the ballistic phonons created by cosmic-ray interactions in the substrate, the phonon propagation in silicon must be studied. A dedicated fast readout electronics, using channelized Digital Down Conversion for monitoring up to 12 MKIDs over a 100 MHz bandwidth was developed. Thanks to the fast ADC sampling and steep digital filtering, In-phase and Quadrature samples, having a high dynamic range, are provided at ~ 2 Msps. This paper describes the technical solution chosen and the results obtained.

  8. Development of silicon pad detectors and readout electronics for a Compton camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studen, A.; Cindro, V.; Clinthorne, N. H.; Czermak, A.; Dulinski, W.; Fuster, J.; Han, L.; Jalocha, P.; Kowal, M.; Kragh, T.; Lacasta, C.; Llosá, G.; Meier, D.; Mikuž, M.; Nygård, E.; Park, S. J.; Roe, S.; Rogers, W. L.; Sowicki, B.; Weilhammer, P.; Wilderman, S. J.; Yoshioka, K.; Zhang, L.

    2003-03-01

    Applications in nuclear medicine and bio-medical engineering may profit using a Compton camera for imaging distributions of radio-isotope labelled tracers in organs and tissues. These applications require detection of photons using thick position-sensitive silicon sensors with the highest possible energy and good spatial resolution. In this paper, research and development on silicon pad sensors and associated readout electronics for a Compton camera are presented. First results with low-noise, self-triggering VATAGP ASIC's are reported. The measured energy resolution was 1.1 keV FWHM at room temperature for the 241Am photo-peak at 59.5 keV.

  9. The PAUCam readout electronics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Jorge; Illa, José M.; Cardiel-Sas, Laia; de Vicente, Juan; Castilla, Javier; Casas, Ricard

    2016-08-01

    The PAUCam is an optical camera with a wide field of view of 1 deg x 1 deg and up to 46 narrow and broad band filters. The camera is already installed on the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) in the Canary Islands, Spain and successfully commissioned during the first period of 2015. The paper presents the main results from the readout electronics commissioning tests and include an overview of the whole readout electronics system, its configuration and current performance.

  10. Development of large area, pico-second resolution photo-detectors and associated readout electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Grabas, H.; Oberla, E.; Attenkoffer, K.; Bogdan, M.; Frisch, H. J.; Genat, J. F.; May, E. N.; Varner, G. S.; Wetstein, M.

    2011-07-01

    The Large Area Pico-second Photo-detectors described in this contribution incorporate a photo-cathode and a borosilicate glass capillary Micro-Channel Plate (MCP) pair functionalized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of separate resistive and electron secondary emitters materials. They may be used for biomedical imaging purposes, a remarkable opportunity to apply technologies developed in HEP having the potential to make major advances in the medical world, in particular for Positron Emission Tomography (PET). If daisy-chained and coupled to fast transmission lines read at both ends, they could be implemented in very large dimensions. Initial testing with matched pairs of small glass capillary test has demonstrated gains of the order of 105 to 106. Compared to other fast imaging devices, these photo-detectors are expected to provide timing resolutions in the 10-100 ps range, and two-dimension position in the sub-millimeter range. A 6-channel readout ASIC has been designed in 130 nm CMOS technology and tested. As a result, fast analog sampling up to 17 GS/s has been obtained, the intrinsic analog bandwidth being presently under evaluation. The digitization in parallel of several cells in two microseconds allows getting off-chip digital data read at a maximum rate of 40 MHz. Digital Signal Processing of the sampled waveforms is expected achieving the timing and space resolutions obtained with digital oscilloscopes. (authors)

  11. Readout electronics for LGAD sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, O.; Franch, N.; Canals, J.; Palacio, F.; López, M.; Vilà, A.; Diéguez, A.; Carulla, M.; Flores, D.; Hidalgo, S.; Merlos, A.; Pellegrini, G.; Quirion, D.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, an ASIC fabricated in 180 nm CMOS technology from AMS with the very front-end electronics used to readout LGAD sensors is presented as well as its experimental results. The front-end has the typical architecture for Si-strip readout, i.e., preamplification stage with a Charge Sensitive Amplifier (CSA) followed by a CR-RC shaper. Both amplifiers are based on a folded cascode structure with a PMOS input transistor and the shaper only uses passive elements for the feedback stage. The CSA has programmable gain and a configurable input stage in order to adapt to the different input capacitance of the LGAD sensors (pixelated, short and long strips) and to the different input signal (depending on the gain of the LGAD). The fabricated prototype has an area of 0.865 mm × 0.965 mm and includes the biasing circuit for the CSA and the shaper, 4 analog channels (CSA+shaper) and programmable charge injection circuits included for testing purposes. Noise and power analysis performed during simulation fixed the size of the input transistor to W/L = 860 μm/0.2 μm. The shaping time is fixed by design at 1 us and, in this ASIC version, the feedback elements of the shaper are passive, which means that the area of the shaper can be reduced using active elements in future versions. Finally, the different gains of the CSA have been selected to maintain an ENC below 400 electrons for a detector capacitor of 20 pF, with a power consumption of 150 μ W per channel.

  12. Characterization of Silicon Detector Readout Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.

    2015-07-22

    Configuration and calibration of the front-end electronics typical of many silicon detector configurations were investigated in a lab activity based on a pair of strip sensors interfaced with FSSR2 read-out chips and an FPGA. This simple hardware configuration, originally developed for a telescope at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility, was used to measure thresholds and noise on individual readout channels and to study the influence that different configurations of the front-end electronics had on the observed levels of noise in the system. An understanding of the calibration and operation of this small detector system provided an opportunity to explore the architecture of larger systems such as those currently in use at LHC experiments.

  13. Low-noise low-power readout electronics circuit development in standard CMOS technology for 4 K applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merken, Patrick; Souverijns, Tim; Putzeys, Jan; Creten, Ybe; Van Hoof, Chris

    2006-06-01

    In the framework of the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) project IMEC designed the Cold Readout Electronics (CRE) for the Ge:Ga far-infrared detector array. Key specifications for this circuit were high linearity, low power consumption and low noise at an operating temperature of 4.2K. We have implemented this circuit in a standard CMOS technology which guarantees high yield and uniformity, and design portability. A drawback of this approach is the anomalous behavior of CMOS transistors at temperatures below 30-40K. These cryogenic phenomena disturb the normal functionality of commonly used circuits. We were able to overcome these problems and developed a library of digital and analog building blocks based on the modeling of cryogenic behavior, and on adapted design and layout techniques. We will present the design of the 18 channel CRE circuit, its interface with the Ge:Ga sensor, and its electrical performance. We will show how the library that was developed for PACS served as a baseline for the designs used in the Darwin-far-infrared detector array, where a cryogenic 180 channel, 30μm pitch, Readout Integrated Circuit (ROIC) for flip-chip integration was developed. Other designs and topologies for low noise and low power applications will be equally presented.

  14. BESIII ETOF upgrade readout electronics commissioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Zhuang; Dai, Hong-Liang; Wu, Zhi; Heng, Yue-Kun; Zhang, Jie; Cao, Ping; Ji, Xiao-Lu; Li, Cheng; Sun, Wei-Jia; Wang, Si-Yu; Wang, Yun

    2017-01-01

    It is proposed to upgrade the endcap time-of-flight (ETOF) of the Beijing Spectrometer III (BESIII) with a multi-gap resistive plate chamber (MRPC), aiming at an overall time resolution of about 80 ps. After completing the entire readout electronics system, some experiments, such as heat radiation, radiation hardness and large-current beam tests, have been carried out to confirm the reliability and stability of the readout electronics. An on-detector test of the readout electronics has also been performed with the beam at the BEPCII E3 line. The test results indicate that the readout electronics system fulfills its design requirements. Supported by Chinese Academy of Sciences (1G201331231172010)

  15. A radiation-tolerant electronic readout system for portal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Östling, J.; Brahme, A.; Danielsson, M.; Iacobaeus, C.; Peskov, V.

    2004-06-01

    A new electronic portal imaging device, EPID, is under development at the Karolinska Institutet and the Royal Institute of Technology. Due to considerable demands on radiation tolerance in the radiotherapy environment, a dedicated electronic readout system has been designed. The most interesting aspect of the readout system is that it allows to read out ˜1000 pixels in parallel, with all electronics placed outside the radiation beam—making the detector more radiation resistant. In this work we are presenting the function of a small prototype (6×100 pixels) of the electronic readout board that has been tested. Tests were made with continuous X-rays (10-60 keV) and with α particles. The results show that, without using an optimised gas mixture and with an early prototype only, the electronic readout system still works very well.

  16. Development of a cryogenic DC-low noise amplifier for SQuID-based readout electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macculi, C.; Torrioli, G.; Di Giorgio, A.; Spinoglio, L.; Piro, Luigi

    2014-07-01

    We present the preliminary results of the design and test activities for a DC cryogenic low noise amplifier for the SAFARI imaging spectrometer, planned to be onboard the SPICA mission, necessary not only to drive, as usual, the voltage signal produced by the SQuID but also to boost such signals over about 7 meter of path towards the warm feedback electronics. This development has been done in the framework of the mission preparation studies, within the European Consortium for the development of the SAFARI instrument. The actual configuration of the SAFARI focal plane assembly (FPA), indeed, foresees a long distance to the warm back end electronics. It is therefore mandatory to boost the faint electric signal coming from the SQuID device by keeping under control both power dissipation and noise: this is the main role of the designed Cryogenic Low Noise Amplifier (LNA). Working at 136K, it has a differential input gain-stage, and a differential balanced voltage buffer output stage, running at few mW target overall power. At present the design is based on the use of Heterojunction Si:Ge transistors, the required bandwidth is DC-4MHz and the required noise lower than 1 nV/rtHz.

  17. Zero suppression logic of the ALICE muon forward tracker pixel chip prototype PIXAM and associated readout electronics development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flouzat, C.; Değerli, Y.; Guilloux, F.; Orsini, F.; Venault, P.

    2015-05-01

    In the framework of the ALICE experiment upgrade at HL-LHC, a new forward tracking detector, the Muon Forward Tracker (MFT), is foreseen to overcome the intrinsic limitations of the present Muon Spectrometer and will perform new measurements of general interest for the whole ALICE physics. To fulfill the new detector requirements, CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) provide an attractive trade-off between readout speed, spatial resolution, radiation hardness, granularity, power consumption and material budget. This technology has been chosen to equip the Muon Forward Tracker and also the vertex detector: the Inner Tracking System (ITS). Since few years, an intensive R&D program has been performed on the design of MAPS in the 0.18 μ m CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) process. In order to avoid pile up effects in the experiment, the classical rolling shutter readout system of MAPS has been improved to overcome the readout speed limitation. A zero suppression algorithm, based on a 3 by 3 cluster finding (position and data), has been chosen for the MFT. This algorithm allows adequate data compression for the sensor. This paper presents the large size prototype PIXAM, which represents 1/3 of the final chip, and will focus specially on the zero suppression block architecture. This chip is designed and under fabrication in the 0.18 μ m CIS process. Finally, the readout electronics principle to send out the compressed data flow is also presented taking into account the cluster occupancy per MFT plane for a single central Pb-Pb collision.

  18. Spin readout of trapped electron qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Pai; Matthiesen, Clemens; Häffner, Hartmut

    2017-01-01

    We propose a scheme to read out the spin of a single electron quantum bit in a surface Paul trap using oscillating magnetic-field gradients. The readout sequence is composed of cooling, driving, amplification, and detection of the electron's motion. We study the scheme in the presence of noise and trap anharmonicities at liquid-helium temperatures. An analysis of the four procedures shows short measurement times (25 μ s ) and high fidelities (99.7 % ) are achievable with realistic experimental parameters. Our scheme performs the function of fluorescence detection in ion trapping schemes, highlighting the potential to build all-electric quantum computers based on trapped electron-spin qubits.

  19. Read-out electronics for DC squid magnetic measurements

    DOEpatents

    Ganther, Jr., Kenneth R.; Snapp, Lowell D.

    2002-01-01

    Read-out electronics for DC SQUID sensor systems, the read-out electronics incorporating low Johnson noise radio-frequency flux-locked loop circuitry and digital signal processing algorithms in order to improve upon the prior art by a factor of at least ten, thereby alleviating problems caused by magnetic interference when operating DC SQUID sensor systems in magnetically unshielded environments.

  20. An integrated wire harp and readout electronics inside vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Mou; Nabhiraj, P. Y.

    2015-03-15

    A wire harp is a well known instrument used in ion beam profile measurement and beam diagnostics. Till date, for beam instrumentation, the harp is placed inside the vacuum chamber or beam line in direct exposure to the beam profile to be measured, whereas the related readout electronics is placed outside somewhere at a convenient place. Here, a harp has been developed along with the readout electronics as an integrated part of it and both were placed inside the beam line vacuum (order of 10{sup −7} Torr) to make the system much simpler, easy to operate, and measure small beam current more accurately. The entire signal conversion and processing is done inside the vacuum unlike other systems; hence, the electronics is kept inside. This results in a lesser number (only 4 pin) of electrical connections (feedthrough) including power which otherwise would have required 32 feedthrough pins only for signal readout for a 13 × 13 (X × Y) channel harp. This paper describes a completely new approach to the design of a conventional beam harp widely used for beam instrumentation.

  1. An integrated wire harp and readout electronics inside vacuum.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Mou; Nabhiraj, P Y

    2015-03-01

    A wire harp is a well known instrument used in ion beam profile measurement and beam diagnostics. Till date, for beam instrumentation, the harp is placed inside the vacuum chamber or beam line in direct exposure to the beam profile to be measured, whereas the related readout electronics is placed outside somewhere at a convenient place. Here, a harp has been developed along with the readout electronics as an integrated part of it and both were placed inside the beam line vacuum (order of 10(-7) Torr) to make the system much simpler, easy to operate, and measure small beam current more accurately. The entire signal conversion and processing is done inside the vacuum unlike other systems; hence, the electronics is kept inside. This results in a lesser number (only 4 pin) of electrical connections (feedthrough) including power which otherwise would have required 32 feedthrough pins only for signal readout for a 13 × 13 (X × Y) channel harp. This paper describes a completely new approach to the design of a conventional beam harp widely used for beam instrumentation.

  2. An integrated wire harp and readout electronics inside vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Mou; Nabhiraj, P. Y.

    2015-03-01

    A wire harp is a well known instrument used in ion beam profile measurement and beam diagnostics. Till date, for beam instrumentation, the harp is placed inside the vacuum chamber or beam line in direct exposure to the beam profile to be measured, whereas the related readout electronics is placed outside somewhere at a convenient place. Here, a harp has been developed along with the readout electronics as an integrated part of it and both were placed inside the beam line vacuum (order of 10-7 Torr) to make the system much simpler, easy to operate, and measure small beam current more accurately. The entire signal conversion and processing is done inside the vacuum unlike other systems; hence, the electronics is kept inside. This results in a lesser number (only 4 pin) of electrical connections (feedthrough) including power which otherwise would have required 32 feedthrough pins only for signal readout for a 13 × 13 (X × Y) channel harp. This paper describes a completely new approach to the design of a conventional beam harp widely used for beam instrumentation.

  3. Prototype readout electronics for the upgraded ALICE Inner Tracking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sielewicz, K. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Bonora, M.; Ferencei, J.; Giubilato, P.; Rossewij, M. J.; Schambach, J.; Vanat, T.

    2017-01-01

    The ALICE Collaboration is preparing a major upgrade to the experimental apparatus. A key element of the upgrade is the construction of a new silicon-based Inner Tracking System containing 12 Gpixels in an area of 10 m2. Its readout system consists of 192 readout units that control the pixel sensors and the power units, and deliver the sensor data to the counting room. A prototype readout board has been designed to test: the interface between the sensor modules and the readout electronics, the signal integrity and reliability of data transfer, the interface to the ALICE DAQ and trigger, and the susceptibility of the system to the expected radiation level.

  4. Issues and directions in IR detector readout electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R.

    1990-01-01

    An introduction to the major issues encountered in the readout of imaging detector arrays in the infrared are presented. These include circuit issues such as multiplexing, buffering, and noise, as well as materials issues. Future directions in infrared readout electronics will also be discussed. These include on-chip signal processing and advanced hybridization schemes. Finally, recent work at Columbia on 2DEG-charge coupled devices for IR detector multiplexing are described.

  5. Development of the readout controller for KASINICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Seoung-hyun; Jin, Ho; Nam, Uk-Won; Lee, Sungho; Kong, Kyung-Nam; Yuk, In-Soo; Park, Youngsik; Pak, Soojong; Han, Wonyong; Kim, Sungsoo S.

    2006-06-01

    Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) is developing the KASI Near Infrared Camera System (KASINICS) which will be installed on the 61 cm telescope at the Sobaeksan Optical Astronomy Observatory (SOAO) in Korea. KASINICS is equipped with a ALADDIN III Quadrant (512×512 InSb array, manufactured by Raytheon). For this instrument, we make a new IR array control electronics system. The controller consists of DSP, Bias, Clock, and Video boards which are installed on a VME bus system. The DSP board includes TMS320C6713, FPGA, and 384MB SDRAM. Clock patterns are downloaded from a PC and stored on the FPGA. USB 2.0 is used for the communication with the PC and UART for the serial communication with peripherals. Each of two video boards has 4 video channels. The Bias board provides 16 voltage sources and the Clock board has 15 clock channels. Our goal of readout speed is 10 frames sec -1. We have successfully finished operational tests of the controller using a 256×256 ROIC (CRC744). We are now upgrading the system for the ALADDIN III array. We plan to operate KASINICS by the end of 2006.

  6. PAUCam readout electronics assembly, integration and test (AIT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Jorge; Illa, José M.; Cardiel-Sas, Laia; de Vicente, Juan; Castilla, Javier; Casas, Ricard

    2014-08-01

    The PAUCam is an optical camera with an array of 18 CCDs (Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.) and up to 45 narrow and broad band filters. The camera will be installed on the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) in the Canary Islands, Spain. In order to fulfill with the specifications for the camera readout system, it was necessary to test the different readout electronics subsystems individually before to integrate the final readout work package, which is composed of 4 MONSOON (NOAO) front-ends, 6 fan out boards (MIX), each one driving up to 5 CCDs signals and a pre-amplification stage (PREAMP) located inside the cryostat. To get the subsystems integration, it was built a small camera prototype using the same technology as used in the main camera: a carbon fiber cryostat refrigerated by a cryotiger cooling system but with capacity to allocate just 2 CCDs, which were readout and re-characterized to measure the electronics performance as conversion factor or gain, readout noise, stability, linearity, etc. while the cross-talk was measured by using a spot-light. The aim of this paper is to review the whole process of assembly, integration and test (AIT) of the readout electronics work package and present the main results to demonstrate the viability of the proposed systems to be use with the PAUCam camera.

  7. The pad readout electronics of the SLD Warm Iron Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, P.N.; Busza, W.; Cartwright, S.L.; Friedman, J.I.; Fuess, S.; Gonzalez, S.; Hansl-Kozanecka, T.; Kendall, H.W.; Lath, A.; Lyons, T.; Osborne, L.S.; Rosenson, L.; Schneekloth, U.; Taylor, F.E.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Williams, D.C.; Yamartino, J.M. ); Byers, B.L.; Escalera, J.; Gioumousis, A.; Gray, R.; Horelick, D.; Kharakh, D.; Messner, R.L.; Moss, J.; Zdark

    1990-08-01

    The design of the pad readout electronics of the Warm Iron Calorimeter for the SLD detector at SLAC, consisting of about 9000 analog channels, is described. Results of various tests performed during the construction, installation and commissioning of the electronics mounted on the detector are presented. 10 refs., 12 figs.

  8. Development of a prototype PET scanner with depth-of-interaction measurement using solid-state photomultiplier arrays and parallel readout electronics.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yiping; Sun, Xishan; Lan, Kejian A; Bircher, Chad; Lou, Kai; Deng, Zhi

    2014-03-07

    In this study, we developed a prototype animal PET by applying several novel technologies to use solid-state photomultiplier (SSPM) arrays to measure the depth of interaction (DOI) and improve imaging performance. Each PET detector has an 8 × 8 array of about 1.9 × 1.9 × 30.0 mm(3) lutetium-yttrium-oxyorthosilicate scintillators, with each end optically connected to an SSPM array (16 channels in a 4 × 4 matrix) through a light guide to enable continuous DOI measurement. Each SSPM has an active area of about 3 × 3 mm(2), and its output is read by a custom-developed application-specific integrated circuit to directly convert analogue signals to digital timing pulses that encode the interaction information. These pulses are transferred to and are decoded by a field-programmable gate array-based time-to-digital convertor for coincident event selection and data acquisition. The independent readout of each SSPM and the parallel signal process can significantly improve the signal-to-noise ratio and enable the use of flexible algorithms for different data processes. The prototype PET consists of two rotating detector panels on a portable gantry with four detectors in each panel to provide 16 mm axial and variable transaxial field-of-view (FOV) sizes. List-mode ordered subset expectation maximization image reconstruction was implemented. The measured mean energy, coincidence timing and DOI resolution for a crystal were about 17.6%, 2.8 ns and 5.6 mm, respectively. The measured transaxial resolutions at the center of the FOV were 2.0 mm and 2.3 mm for images reconstructed with and without DOI, respectively. In addition, the resolutions across the FOV with DOI were substantially better than those without DOI. The quality of PET images of both a hot-rod phantom and mouse acquired with DOI was much higher than that of images obtained without DOI. This study demonstrates that SSPM arrays and advanced readout/processing electronics can be used to develop a practical DOI

  9. Development of a prototype PET scanner with depth-of-interaction measurement using solid-state photomultiplier arrays and parallel readout electronics

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yiping; Sun, Xishan; Lan, Kejian A.; Bircher, Chad; Lou, Kai; Deng, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we developed a prototype animal PET by applying several novel technologies to use the solid-state photomultiplier (SSPM) arrays for measuring the depth-of-interaction (DOI) and improving imaging performance. Each PET detector has an 8×8 array of about 1.9×1.9×30.0 mm3 lutetium-yttrium-oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) scintillators, with each end optically connected to a SSPM array (16-channel in a 4×4 matrix) through a light guide to enable continuous DOI measurement. Each SSPM has an active area of about 3×3 mm2, and its output is read by a custom-developed application-specific-integrated-circuit (ASIC) to directly convert analog signals to digital timing pulses that encode the interaction information. These pulses are transferred to and be decoded by a field-programmable-gate-array (FPGA) based time-to-digital convertor for coincident event selection and data acquisition. The independent readout of each SSPM and the parallel signal process can significantly improve the signal-to-noise ratio and enable using flexible algorithms for different data processes. The prototype PET consists of two rotating detector panels on a portable gantry with four detectors in each panel to provide 16 mm axial and variable transaxial field-of-view (FOV) sizes. List-mode ordered-subset-expectation-maximization image reconstruction was implemented. The measured mean energy, coincidence timing, and DOI resolution for a crystal were about 17.6%, 2.8 ns, and 5.6 mm, respectively. The measured transaxial resolutions at the center of the FOV were 2.0 mm and 2.3 mm for images reconstructed with and without DOI, respectively. In addition, the resolutions across the FOV with DOI were substantially better than those without DOI. The quality of PET images of both a hot-rod phantom and mouse acquired with DOI was much higher than that of images obtained without DOI. This study demonstrates that SSPM arrays and advanced readout/processing electronics can be used to develop a practical

  10. Development of a Position Sensitive Microstrip Detector System and its Readout Electronics Using ASICs Technologies for SAMURAI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saastamoinen, A.; Baba, H.; Blackmon, J. C.; Elson, J.; Kurokawa, M.; McCleskey, M.; Otsu, H.; Rasco, B. C.; Roeder, B. T.; Sobotka, L. G.; Trache, L.; Tribble, R. E.; Yoneda, K.; Zenihiro, J.

    We are building a Si detector tracker system for the SAMURAI spectrometer. Characterizing the behavior of the detectors and associated electronics is essential for properly analyzing the future experimental results. We have performed test experiments to study the detector system response to heavy ion and proton beams of various energies. In this contribution we present some of the results and give an outlook of the future plans.

  11. NIKEL_AMC: readout electronics for the NIKA2 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourrion, O.; Benoit, A.; Bouly, J. L.; Bouvier, J.; Bosson, G.; Calvo, M.; Catalano, A.; Goupy, J.; Li, C.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Monfardini, A.; Tourres, D.; Ponchant, N.; Vescovi, C.

    2016-11-01

    The New Iram Kid Arrays-2 (NIKA2) instrument has recently been installed at the IRAM 30 m telescope. NIKA2 is a state-of-art instrument dedicated to mm-wave astronomy using microwave kinetic inductance detectors (KID) as sensors. The three arrays installed in the camera, two at 1.25 mm and one at 2.05 mm, feature a total of 3300 KIDs. To instrument these large array of detectors, a specifically designed electronics, composed of 20 readout boards and hosted in three microTCA crates, has been developed. The implemented solution and the achieved performances are presented in this paper. We find that multiplexing factors of up to 400 detectors per board can be achieved with homogeneous performance across boards in real observing conditions, and a factor of more than 3 decrease in volume with respect to previous generations.

  12. Cross strip anode readouts for large format, photon counting microchannel plate detectors: developing flight qualified prototypes of the detector and electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallerga, John; Raffanti, Rick; Cooney, Michael; Cumming, Harley; Varner, Gary; Seljak, Andrej

    2014-07-01

    Photon counting microchannel plate (MCP) imagers have been the detector of choice for most UV astronomical missions over the last two decades (e.g. EUVE, FUSE, COS on Hubble etc.). Over this duration, improvements in the MCP laboratory readout technology have resulted in better spatial resolution (x10), temporal resolution (x1000) and output event rate (x100), all the while operating at lower gain (x 10) resulting in lower high voltage requirements and longer MCP lifetimes. One such technology is the parallel cross strip (PXS) readout. Laboratory versions of PXS electronics have demonstrated < 20 μm FWHM spatial resolution, count rates on the order of 2 MHz, and temporal resolution of ~ 1ns. In 2012 our group at U.C. Berkeley, along with our partners at the U. Hawaii, received a Strategic Astrophysics Technology grant to raise the TRL of the PXS detector and electronics from 4 to 6 by replacing most of the high powered electronics with application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) which will lower the power, mass and volume requirements of the PXS detector. We were also tasked to design and fabricate a "standard" 50mm square active area MCP detector incorporating these electronics that can be environmentally qualified for flight (temperature, vacuum, vibration). The first ASICs designed for this program have been fabricated and are undergoing testing. We present the latest progress on these ASIC designs and performance and show imaging results from the new 50 x 50 mm XS detector.

  13. Fabrication of the GLAST Silicon Tracker Readout Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Baldini, Luca; Brez, Alessandro; Himel, Thomas; Johnson, R.P.; Latronico, Luca; Minuti, Massimo; Nelson, David; Sadrozinski, H.F.-W.; Sgro, Carmelo; Spandre, Gloria; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Tajima, Hiro; Cohen Tanugi, Johann; Young, Charles; Ziegler, Marcus; /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /SLAC /UC, Santa Cruz

    2006-03-03

    A unique electronics system has been built and tested for reading signals from the silicon-strip detectors of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope mission. The system amplifies and processes signals from 884,736 36-cm long silicon strips in a 4 x 4 array of tower modules. An aggressive mechanical design fits the readout electronics in narrow spaces between the tower modules, to minimize dead area. This design and the resulting departures from conventional electronics packaging led to several fabrication challenges and lessons learned. This paper describes the fabrication processes and how the problems peculiar to this design were overcome.

  14. A SPICE model for Si microstrip detectors and read-out electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Bacchetta, N.; Candelori, A.; Bisello, D. |; Calgarotto, C.; Paccagnella, A. |

    1996-06-01

    The authors have developed a SPICE model of silicon microstrip detector and its read-out electronics. The SPICE model of an AC-coupled single-sided polysilicon-biased silicon microstrip detector has been implemented by using a RC network containing up to 19 strips. The main parameters of this model have been determined by direct comparison with DC and AC measurements. The simulated interstrip and coupling impedance and phase angle are in good agreement with experimental results, up to a frequency of 1 MHz. The authors have used the PreShape 32 as the read-out chip for both the simulation and the measurements. It consists of a charge sensitive preamplifier followed by a shaper and a buffer. The SPICE parameters have been adjusted to fit the experimental results obtained for the configuration where every strip is connected to the read-out electronics and kept the same for the different read-out configurations they have considered. By adding 2 further capacitances simulating the parasitic contributions between the read-out channels of the PS32 chip, a satisfactory matching between the experimental data and the simulated curves has been reached on both rising and trailing edges of the signal. Such agreement deteriorates only for strips far from the strip where the signal has been applied.

  15. The readout electronics for Plastic Scintillator Detector of DAMPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Jie; Yang, Haibo; Zhao, Hongyun; Su, Hong; Sun, Zhiyu; Yu, Yuhong; JingZhe, Zhang; Wang, XiaoHui; Liu, Jie; Xiao, Guoqing; Ma, Xinwen

    2016-07-01

    The Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) satellite, which launched in December 2015, is designed to find the evidence of the existence of dark matter particles in the universe via the detection of the high-energy electrons and gamma-ray particles produced possibly by the annihilation of dark matter particles. Plastic Scintillator Detector (PSD) is one of major part of the satellite payload, which is comprised of a crossed pair of layers with 41 plastic scintillator-strips, each read out from both ends by the same Hamamatsu R4443MOD2 photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs). In order to extend linear dynamic range of detector, PMTs read out each plastic scintillator-strip separately with two dynode pickoffs. Therefore, the readout electronics system comprises of four Front-end boards to receive the pulses from 328 PMTs and implement charge measurement, which is based on the Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) chip VA160, 16 bits ADC and FPGA. The electronics of the detector has been designed following stringent requirements on mechanical and thermal stability, power consumption, radiation hardness and double redundancy. Various experiments are designed and implemented to check the performance of the electronics, some excellent results has been achieved.According to experimental results analysis, it is proved that the readout electronics works well.

  16. CCD readout electronics for the Subaru Prime Focus Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hope, Stephen C.; Gunn, James E.; Loomis, Craig P.; Fitzgerald, Roger E.; Peacock, Grant O.

    2014-07-01

    The following paper details the design for the CCD readout electronics for the Subaru Telescope Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS). PFS is designed to gather spectra from 2394 objects simultaneously, covering wavelengths that extend from 380 nm to 1260 nm. The spectrograph is comprised of four identical spectrograph modules, each collecting roughly 600 spectra. The spectrograph modules provide simultaneous wavelength coverage over the entire band through the use of three separate optical channels: blue, red, and near infrared (NIR). A camera in each channel images the multi-object spectra onto a 4k × 4k, 15 μm pixel, detector format. The two visible cameras use a pair of Hamamatsu 2k × 4k CCDs with readout provided by custom electronics, while the NIR camera uses a single Teledyne HgCdTe 4k × 4k detector and Teledyne's ASIC Sidecar to read the device. The CCD readout system is a custom design comprised of three electrical subsystems - the Back End Electronics (BEE), the Front End Electronics (FEE), and a Pre-amplifier. The BEE is an off-the-shelf PC104 computer, with an auxiliary Xilinx FPGA module. The computer serves as the main interface to the Subaru messaging hub and controls other peripheral devices associated with the camera, while the FPGA is used to generate the necessary clocks and transfer image data from the CCDs. The FEE board sets clock biases, substrate bias, and CDS offsets. It also monitors bias voltages, offset voltages, power rail voltage, substrate voltage and CCD temperature. The board translates LVDS clock signals to biased clocks and returns digitized analog data via LVDS. Monitoring and control messages are sent from the BEE to the FEE using a standard serial interface. The Pre-amplifier board resides behind the detectors and acts as an interface to the two Hamamatsu CCDs. The Pre-amplifier passes clocks and biases to the CCDs, and analog CCD data is buffered and amplified prior to being returned to the FEE. In this paper we describe the

  17. Upgraded Trigger Readout Electronics for the ATLAS LAr Calorimeters for Future LHC Running

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hong; ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Group

    2015-02-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters produce almost 200K signals that are digitized and processed by the front-end and back-end electronics for every triggered event. Additionally, the front-end electronics sums analog signals to provide coarse-grained energy sums to the first- level (L1) trigger system. The current design was optimized for the nominal LHC luminosity of 1034cm-2s-1. In order to retain the capability to trigger on low energy electrons and photons when the LHC is upgraded to higher luminosity, an improved LAr calorimeter trigger readout is proposed and being constructed. The new trigger readout system makes available the fine segmentation of the calorimeter at the L1 trigger with high precision in order to reduce the QCD jet background in electron, photon and tau triggers, and to improve jet and missing ET trigger performance. The new LAr Trigger Digitizer Board is designed to receive the higher granularity signals, digitize them on-detector and send them via fast optical links to a new Digital Processing System. The reconstructed energies of trigger readout channels after digital filtering are transmitted to the L1 system, allowing the extraction of improved trigger signatures. This contribution presents the motivation for the upgrade, the concept for the new trigger readout and the expected performance of the new trigger, and describes the components being developed for the new system.

  18. ADVANCED READOUT ELECTRONICS FOR MULTIELEMENT CdZnTe SENSORS.

    SciTech Connect

    DE GERONIMO,G.; O CONNOR,P.; KANDASAMY,A.; GROSHOLZ,J.

    2002-07-08

    A generation of high performance front-end and read-out ASICs customized for highly segmented CdZnTe sensors is presented. The ASICs, developed in a multi-year effort at Brookhaven National Laboratory, are targeted to a wide range of applications including medical, safeguards/security, industrial, research, and spectroscopy. The front-end multichannel ASICs provide high accuracy low noise preamplification and filtering of signals, with versions for small and large area CdZnTe elements. They implement a high order unipolar or bipolar shaper, an innovative low noise continuous reset system with self-adapting capability to the wide range of detector leakage currents, a new system for stabilizing the output baseline and high output driving capability. The general-purpose versions include programmable gain and peaking time. The read-out multichannel ASICs provide fully data driven high accuracy amplitude and time measurements, multiplexing and time domain derandomization of the shaped pulses. They implement a fast arbitration scheme and an array of innovative two-phase offset-free rail-to-rail analog peak detectors for buffering and absorption of input rate fluctuations, thus greatly relaxing the rate requirement on the external ADC. Pulse amplitude, hit timing, pulse risetime, and channel address per processed pulse are available at the output in correspondence of an external readout request. Prototype chips have been fabricated in 0.5 and 0.35 {micro}m CMOS and tested. Design concepts and experimental results are discussed.

  19. Low Background Signal Readout Electronics for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Guinn, I.; Abgrall, N.; Arnquist, I. J.; Avignone, III, F. T.; Barabash, A.S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Bradley, A. W.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y-D; Christofferson, C. D.; Cuesta, C; Detwiler, J. A.; Efremenko, M.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gilliss, T.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J; Guiseppe, V E; Henning, R.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K.J.; Kidd, M. F.; Konovalov, S.I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; MacMullin, J.; Meijer, S. J.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Robertson, R.G.H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Snyder, N; Suriano, A. M.; Tedeschi, D; Trimble, J.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K. [University of California Vorren, K. [University of North Carolina et al.

    2015-01-01

    The MAJORANA Collaboration will seek neutrinoless double beta decay (0 nu beta beta) in Ge-76 using isotopically enriched p-type point contact (PPC) high purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors. A tonne-scale array of HPGe detectors would require background levels below 1 count/ROI-tonne-year in the 4 keV region of interest (ROI) around the 2039 keV Q-value of the decay. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of such an experiment, the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, a 40 kg HPGe detector array, is being constructed with a background goal of <3 counts/ROI-tonne-year, which is expected to scale down to <1 count/ROI-tonne-year for a tonne-scale experiment. The signal readout electronics, which must be placed in close proximity to the detectors, present a challenge toward reaching this background goal. This talk will discuss the materials and design used to construct signal readout electronics with low enough backgrounds for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR.

  20. Low Background Signal Readout Electronics for the Majorana Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect

    Guinn, Ian; Rielage, Keith Robert; Elliott, Steven Ray; Xu, Wenqin; Goett, John Jerome III

    2015-06-11

    The MAJORANA Collaboration will seek neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in 76Ge using isotopically enriched p-type point contact (PPC) high purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors. A tonne-scale array of HPGe detectors would require background levels below 1 count/ROI-tonne-year in the 4 keV region of interest (ROI) around the 2039 keV Q-value of the decay. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of such an experiment, the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, a 40 kg HPGe detector array, is being constructed. The DEMONSTRATOR has a background goal of < 3 counts/ROI-tonne-year, which is expected to scale down to < 1 count/ROI-tonne-year for a one tonne experiment. The signal readout electronics, which must be placed in close proximity to the detectors, present a challenge toward reaching this background goal. This paper discusses the materials and design used to construct signal readout electronics with low enough backgrounds for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR.

  1. Single Crystal Diamond Beam Position Monitors with Radiofrequency Electronic Readout

    SciTech Connect

    Solar, B.; Graafsma, H.; Potdevin, G.; Trunk, U.; Morse, J.; Salome, M.

    2010-06-23

    Over the energy range 5{approx}30 keV a suitably contacted, thin ({approx}100 {mu}m) diamond plate can be operated in situ as a continuous monitor of X-ray beam intensity and position as the diamond absorbs only a small percentage of the incident beam. Single crystal diamond is a completely homogeneous material showing fast (ns), spatially uniform signal response and negligible (electronic readout corresponding to the RF accelerator frequency. The instrumentation for these monitors must cover a large range of operating conditions: different beam sizes, fluxes, energies and time structure corresponding to the synchrotron fill patterns. Sophisticated new RF sampling electronics can satisfy most requirements: using a modified Libera Brilliance readout system, we measured the center of gravity position of a 25 {mu}m beam at the DORIS III F4 beam line at a rate of 130 Msample/s with narrowband filtering of a few MHz bandwidth. Digitally averaging the signal further provided a spatial resolution {approx}20 nm.

  2. Low background signal readout electronics for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Guinn, I.; Buuck, M.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Gruszko, J.; Leon, J.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Abgrall, N.; Bradley, A. W.; Chan, Y-D.; Mertens, S.; Poon, A. W. P.; Arnquist, I. J.; Hoppe, E. W.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Orrell, J. L.; Avignone, F. T.; Baldenegro-Barrera, C. X.; Bertrand, F. E.; and others

    2015-08-17

    The MAJORANA Collaboration will seek neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in {sup 76}Ge using isotopically enriched p-type point contact (PPC) high purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors. A tonne-scale array of HPGe detectors would require background levels below 1 count/ROI-tonne-year in the 4 keV region of interest (ROI) around the 2039 keV Q-value of the decay. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of such an experiment, the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, a 40 kg HPGe detector array, is being constructed with a background goal of < 3 count/ROI-tonne-year, which is expected to scale down to < 1 count/ROI-tonne-year for a tonne-scale experiment. The signal readout electronics, which must be placed in close proximity to the detectors, present a challenge toward reaching this background goal. This talk will discuss the materials and design used to construct signal readout electronics with low enough backgrounds for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR.

  3. Breakup of loosely bound nuclei at intermediate energies for nuclear astrophysics and the development of a position sensitive microstrip detector system and its readout electronics using ASICs technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bertulani, Carlos A.

    2016-01-12

    The work performed under this grant has led to the development of a detection system that will be used to measure reaction rates for proton or neutron capture reactions at stellar energies on radioactive ions far from stability. The reaction rates are needed to better understand the physics of nucleosynthesis in explosive stellar processes such as supernovae and x-ray burst events. The radioactive ions will be produced at the Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (RIBF) at RIKEN near Tokyo, Japan. During the course of this work, the group involved in this project has expanded by several institutions in Europe and Japan and now involves collaborators from the U.S., Japan, Hungary, Romania, Germany, Spain, Italy, China, and South Korea. As part of the project, a novel design based on large-area silicon detectors has been built and tested. The work has involved mechanical construction of a special purpose vacuum chamber, with a precision mounting system for the silicon detectors, development of a new ASICs readout system that has applications with a wide variety of silicon detector systems, and the development of a data acquisition system that is integrated into the computer system being used at RIBF. The parts noted above that are needed to carry out the research program are completed and ready for installation. Several approved experiments that will use this system will be carried out in the near future. The experimental work has been delayed due to a large increase in the cost and availability of electrical power for RIBF that occurred following the massive earthquake and tsunami that hit Japan in the spring of 2011. Another component of the research carried out with this grant involved developing the theoretical tools that are required to extract the information from the experiments that is needed to determine the stellar reaction rates. The tools developed through this part of the work will be made freely available for general use.

  4. Handheld readout electronics to fully exploit the particle discrimination capabilities of elpasolite scintillators

    DOE PAGES

    Budden, B. S.; Stonehill, L. C.; Warniment, A.; ...

    2015-06-10

    In this study, a new class of elpasolite scintillators has garnered recent attention due to the ability to perform as simultaneous gamma spectrometers and thermal neutron detectors. Such a dual-mode capability is made possible by pulse-shape discrimination (PSD), whereby the emission waveform profiles of gamma and neutron events are fundamentally unique. To take full advantage of these materials, we have developed the Compact Advanced Readout Electronics for Elpasolites (CAREE). This handheld instrument employs a multi-channel PSD-capable ASIC, custom micro-processor board, front-end electronics, power supplies, and a 2 in. photomultiplier tube for readout of the scintillator. The unit is highly configurablemore » to allow for performance optimization amongst a wide sample of elpasolites which provide PSD in fundamentally different ways. We herein provide an introduction to elpasolites, then describe the motivation for the work, mechanical and electronic design, and preliminary performance results.« less

  5. Handheld readout electronics to fully exploit the particle discrimination capabilities of elpasolite scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Budden, B. S.; Stonehill, L. C.; Warniment, A.; Michel, J.; Storms, S.; Dallmann, N.; Coupland, D. D. S.; Stein, P.; Weller, S.; Borges, L.; Proicou, M.; Duran, G.; Kamto, J.

    2015-06-10

    In this study, a new class of elpasolite scintillators has garnered recent attention due to the ability to perform as simultaneous gamma spectrometers and thermal neutron detectors. Such a dual-mode capability is made possible by pulse-shape discrimination (PSD), whereby the emission waveform profiles of gamma and neutron events are fundamentally unique. To take full advantage of these materials, we have developed the Compact Advanced Readout Electronics for Elpasolites (CAREE). This handheld instrument employs a multi-channel PSD-capable ASIC, custom micro-processor board, front-end electronics, power supplies, and a 2 in. photomultiplier tube for readout of the scintillator. The unit is highly configurable to allow for performance optimization amongst a wide sample of elpasolites which provide PSD in fundamentally different ways. We herein provide an introduction to elpasolites, then describe the motivation for the work, mechanical and electronic design, and preliminary performance results.

  6. Infrared readout electronics; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 21, 22, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The present volume on IR readout electronics discusses cryogenic readout using silicon devices, cryogenic readout using III-V and LTS devices, multiplexers for higher temperatures, and focal-plane signal processing electronics. Attention is given to the optimization of cryogenic CMOS processes for sub-10-K applications, cryogenic measurements of aerojet GaAs n-JFETs, inP-based heterostructure device technology for ultracold readout applications, and a three-terminal semiconductor-superconductor transimpedance amplifier. Topics addressed include unfulfilled needs in IR astronomy focal-plane readout electronics, IR readout integrated circuit technology for tactical missile systems, and radiation-hardened 10-bit A/D for FPA signal processing. Also discussed are the implementation of a noise reduction circuit for spaceflight IR spectrometers, a real-time processor for staring receivers, and a fiber-optic link design for INMOS transputers.

  7. Breakup of loosely bound nuclei at intermediate energies for nuclear astrophysics and the development of a position sensitive microstrip detector system and its readout electronics using ASICs technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Tribble, Robert E.; Sobotka, Lee G.; Blackmon, Jeff C.; Bertulani, Carlos A.

    2015-12-29

    The work performed under this grant has led to the development of a detection system that will be used to measure reaction rates for proton or neutron capture reactions at stellar energies on radioactive ions far from stability. The reaction rates are needed to better understand the physics of nucleosynthesis in explosive stellar processes such as supernovae and x-ray burst events. The radioactive ions will be produced at the Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (RIBF) at RIKEN near Tokyo, Japan. During the course of this work, the group involved in this project has expanded by several institutions in Europe and Japan and now involves collaborators from the U.S., Japan, Hungary, Romania, Germany, Spain, Italy, China, and South Korea. As part of the project, a novel design based on large-area silicon detectors has been built and tested and the performance characterized in a series of tests using particle beams with a variety of atomic numbers at the Cyclotron Institute of Texas A&M University and the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba facility (HIMAC) in Chiba, Japan. The work has involved mechanical construction of a special purpose vacuum chamber, with a precision mounting system for the silicon detectors, development of a new ASICs readout system that has applications with a wide variety of silicon detector systems, and the development of a data acquisition system that is integrated into the computer system being used at RIBF. The parts noted above that are needed to carry out the research program are completed and ready for installation. Several approved experiments that will use this system will be carried out in the near future. The experimental work has been delayed due to a large increase in the cost and availability of electrical power for RIBF that occurred following the massive earthquake and tsunami that hit Japan in the spring of 2011. Another component of the research carried out with this grant involved developing the theoretical tools that are required

  8. Improvement of Event Synchronization in the ATLAS Pixel Readout Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Logan; Atlas Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    As the LHC continues in Run2, the B-Layer still uses the Atlas-SiROD Pixel readout system initially developed for Run 1. The higher luminosity occurring during Run 2 results in higher occupancy causing increased desynchronization errors in the Pixel Readout. In order to ensure lasting operation of the B-Layer until it is replaced after Run 3, changes were made to the firmware and software to add debug capabilities to identify when the errors are crossing certain thresholds and change the internal control logic accordingly. These features also allow for better debugging of the Event Counter Reset addition to the firmware. This talk will focus on the features implemented and measurements to demonstrate the positive impact on the Pixel DAQ system. A Pixel front-end chip emulator which can be used for readout system development beyond Run 3 will also be discussed. Presenter is Logan Adams, University of Washington.

  9. Development of the Readout Controller for Infrared Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Seounghyun; Jin, Ho; Nam, Uk-Won; Cha, Sang-Mok; Lee, Sungho; Yuk, In-Soo; Park, Youngsik; Pak, Soojong; Han, Wonyong; Kim, Sungsoo

    2006-12-01

    We have developed a control electronics system for an infrared detector array of KASINICS (KASI Near Infrared Camera System), which is a new ground-based instrument of the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI). Equipped with a 512×512 InSb array (ALADDIN III Quadrant, manufactured by Raytheon) sensitive from 1 to 5 μm, KASINICS will be used at J, H, Ks, and L-bands. The controller consists of DSP (Digital Signal Processor), Bias, Clock, and Video boards which are installed on a single VME-bus backplane. TMS320C6713DSP, FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array), and 384-MB SDRAM (Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory) are included in the DSP board. DSP board manages entire electronics system, generates digital clock patterns and communicates with a PC using USB 2.0 interface. The clock patterns are downloaded from a PC and stored on the FPGA. UART is used for the communication with peripherals. Video board has 4 channel ADC which converts video signal into 16-bit digital numbers. Two video boards are installed on the controller for ALADDIN array. The Bias board provides 16 dc bias voltages and the Clock board has 15 clock channels. We have also coded a DSP firmware and a test version of control software in C-language. The controller is flexible enough to operate a wide range of IR array and CCD. Operational tests of the controller have been successfully finished using a test ROIC (Read-Out Integrated Circuit).

  10. Development of arrays of Silicon Drift Detectors and readout ASIC for the SIDDHARTA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quaglia, R.; Schembari, F.; Bellotti, G.; Butt, A. D.; Fiorini, C.; Bombelli, L.; Giacomini, G.; Ficorella, F.; Piemonte, C.; Zorzi, N.

    2016-07-01

    This work deals with the development of new Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs) and readout electronics for the upgrade of the SIDDHARTA experiment. The detector is based on a SDDs array organized in a 4×2 format with each SDD square shaped with 64 mm2 (8×8) active area. The total active area of the array is therefore 32×16 mm2 while the total area of the detector (including 1 mm border dead area) is 34 × 18mm2. The SIDDHARTA apparatus requires 48 of these modules that are designed and manufactured by Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK). The readout electronics is composed by CMOS preamplifiers (CUBEs) and by the new SFERA (SDDs Front-End Readout ASIC) circuit. SFERA is a 16-channels readout ASIC designed in a 0.35 μm CMOS technology, which features in each single readout channel a high order shaping amplifier (9th order Semi-Gaussian complex-conjugate poles) and a high efficiency pile-up rejection logic. The outputs of the channels are connected to an analog multiplexer for the external analog to digital conversion. An on-chip 12-bit SAR ADC is also included. Preliminary measurements of the detectors in the single SDD format are reported. Also measurements of low X-ray energies are reported in order to prove the possible extension to the soft X-ray range.

  11. Development of Frequency-Division Multiplexing Readout System for Large-Format TES X-ray Microcalorimeter Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, K.; Yamamoto, R.; Takei, Y.; Mitsuda, K.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Hidaka, M.; Nagasawa, S.; Kohjiro, S.; Miyazaki, T.

    2016-07-01

    We are developing the frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) readout system aimed to realize the 400-pixel transition edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter array for the DIOS mission as well as large-format arrays with more than a thousand of TES for future space missions such as the ATHENA mission. The developed system consists of the low-power superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), the digital FDM electronics, and the analog front-end to bridge the SQUID and the digital electronics. Using the developed readout system, we performed a TES readout experiment and succeeded to multiplex four TES signals with the single-staged cryogenic setup. We have experienced two issues during the experiment: an excess noise and crosstalk. The brief overview of the developed system and the details, results, and issues of the TES multiplexing readout experiment is discussed.

  12. All-in-one readout electronics for the Belle-II Central Drift Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Nanae; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iwasaki, Yoshihito; Saito, Masatoshi; Shimazaki, Shoichi; Tanaka, Manobu; Uchida, Tomohisa; Uno, Shoji

    2013-12-01

    For the Belle-II experiment at KEK, a Central Drift Chamber (CDC) with readout electronics is required to be upgraded to cope with the design luminosity of 8×1035 cm-2 s-1. Not only the readout electronics will be completely replaced, but also the wire chamber itself. The new readout electronics system must handle higher trigger rates with less dead time. The front-end electronics are located close to detector and send digitized signal through optical fibers. The Amp-Shaper-Discriminator chips, FADC and FPGA are assembled on a single board. This paper will give an overview of the Belle-II CDC and present results of the performance of the readout board in a test beam.

  13. Front End Readout Electronics of the MicroBooNE Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; De Geronimo, G.; Lanni, F.; Lissauer, D.; Makowiecki, D.; Radeka, V.; Rescia, S.; Thorn, C.; Yu, B.

    MicroBooNE experiment is to build a ˜170 tons Liquid Argon (LAr) Time Projection Chamber (TPC) detector that will observe interactions of neutrinos from the on-axis Booster Neutrino Beam and off-axis NuMI Beam at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The experiment will address the low energy excess observed by the MiniBooNE experiment, measure low energy neutrino cross sections, and serve as the necessary next step in a phased program towards massive Liquid Argon TPC detectors. MicroBooNE TPC will have 3 readout wire planes with 8,256 wires/signal channels. All the signals will be pre-amplified, shaped, digitized and pre-processed online before recording for offline analysis of a wide variety of physics programs. To optimize the detector performance and signal-to-noise ratio, analog front end ASIC designed in 180 nm CMOS technology will be deployed and operated in LAr. Pre-amplified and shaped detector signals will be differentially driven to ADC boards operated in detector hall where signals are digitized and prepared for online data pre-processing in FPGAs. This article is an overview of the front end readout architecture of the MicroBooNE experiment, which describes the development of the front end readout electronics and preliminary test results.

  14. World's Cheapest Readout Electronics for Kinetic Inductance Detector by Using RedPitaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, N.; Jeong, H.; Choi, J.; Ishitsuka, H.; Mima, S.; Nagasaki, T.; Oguri, S.; Tajima, O.

    2016-07-01

    The kinetic inductance detector (KID) is a cutting-edge superconducting detector. The number of KID developers is growing. Most of them have switched from their previous study to superconducting technologies. Therefore, infrastructures for the fabrication of KIDs and cooling systems for their tests have already been established. However, readout electronics have to be newly prepared. Neither a commercial system nor low-cost standard electronics are available despite various attempts to create a standard one. We suggest the use of RedPitaya as readout electronics for the initial step of KID development, which is low cost (≈ 400 USD) and easy to set up. The RedPitaya consists of an all-programmable FPGA-CPU module and a dual-channel 14 bit DAC (ADC) to generate (measure) fast analog signals with 125 MSpS. Each port can be synchronized in-phase or quadrature-phase, and functions for generating and sampling analog signal are prepared. It is straightforward to construct vector network analyzer-like logic by using a combination of these default functions. Up-conversion and down-conversion of its frequency range are also possible by using commercial equipment, i.e., mixers, couplers, and a local oscillator. We implemented direct down-conversion logic on the RedPitaya, and successfully demonstrated KID signal measurements.

  15. READOUT ELECTRONICS FOR A HIGH-RATE CSC DETECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    OCONNOR,P.; GRATCHEV,V.; KANDASAMY,A.; POLYCHRONAKOS,V.; TCHERNIATINE,V.; PARSONS,J.; SIPPACH,W.

    1999-09-25

    A readout system for a high-rate muon Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) is described. The system, planned for use in the forward region of the ATLAS muon spectrometer, uses two custom CMOS integrated circuits to achieve good position resolution at a flux of up to 2,500 tracks/cm{sup 2}/s.

  16. Superconducting Cold-Electron Bolometers with JFET Readout for OLIMPO Balloon Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmin, Leonid; Mauskopf, Phillip; Golubev, Dmitry

    2006-06-01

    The OLIMPO experiment is a 2.6 m balloon-borne telescope, aimed at measuring the Sunyaev- Zeldovich effect in clusters of Galaxies. OLIMPO will carry out surveys in four frequency bands centered at 140, 220, 410 and 540 GHz. The detector system consists of four bolometer arrays and incorporates new detector technologies that are potential candidates for future space missions. One of these technologies is the Capacitively Coupled Cold-Electron Bolometer (CEB) with JFET readout. The JFET readout coupled to semiconductor-based high-impedence bolometers has been developed already for the BOOMERanG and Planck-HFI experiments. The CEB is a planar antenna-coupled superconductong detector with high sensitivity and high dynamic range. Here, we discuss a scheme to match the relatively moderate dynamic resistance of CEB (~1kOhm) to the high noise equivalent resistance of JFET (1 MΩ). To achieve noise matching with JFET, a Cold-Electron Bolometer with a weak Superconducting Absorber (SCEB) has been proposed. In voltage-biased mode with voltage higher than (Delta 1-Delta 2) the IV of SIS' junctions has considerably increased dynamic resistance up to the level of Rj = 1000*Rn. Electron cooling will be still very effective for the incoming power. Simulations show that photon noise level can be achieved at 300 mK for a structure with Ti absorber and Al/Ti tunnel junctions for all frequency ranges with the estimated in-flight optical power load for OLIMPO.

  17. Sensor Development and Readout Prototyping for the STAR Pixel Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Greiner, L.; Anderssen, E.; Matis, H.S.; Ritter, H.G.; Stezelberger, T.; Szelezniak, M.; Sun, X.; Vu, C.; Wieman, H.

    2009-01-14

    The STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is designing a new vertex detector. The purpose of this upgrade detector is to provide high resolution pointing to allow for the direct topological reconstruction of heavy flavor decays such as the D{sup 0} by finding vertices displaced from the collision vertex by greater than 60 microns. We are using Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) as the sensor technology and have a coupled sensor development and readout system plan that leads to a final detector with a <200 {micro}s integration time, 400 M pixels and a coverage of -1 < {eta} < 1. We present our coupled sensor and readout development plan and the status of the prototyping work that has been accomplished.

  18. RF Single Electron Transistor Readout Amplifiers for Superconducting Astronomical Detectors for X-Ray to Sub-mm Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, Thomas; Aassime, Abdelhanin; Delsing, Per; Frunzio, Luigi; Li, Li-Qun; Prober, Daniel; Schoelkopf, Robert; Segall, Ken; Wilson, Chris; Stahle, Carl

    2000-01-01

    We report progress on using a new type of amplifier, the Radio-Frequency Single-Electron Transistor (RF-SET), to develop multi-channel sensor readout systems for fast and sensitive readout of high impedance cryogenic photodetectors such as Superconducting Tunnel Junctions and Single Quasiparticle Photon Counters. Although cryogenic, these detectors are desirable because of capabilities not other-wise attainable. However, high impedances and low output levels make low-noise, high-speed readouts challenging, and large format arrays would be facilitated by compact, low-power, on-chip integrated amplifiers. Well-suited for this application are RF-SETs, very high performance electrometers which use an rf readout technique to provide 100 MHz bandwidth. Small size, low power, and cryogenic operation allow direct integration with detectors, and using multiple rf carrier frequencies permits simultaneous readout of 20-50 amplifiers with a common electrical connection. We describe both the first 2-channel demonstration of this wavelength division multiplexing technique for RF-SETs, and Charge-Locked-Loop operation with 100 kHz of closed-loop bandwidth.

  19. Front-end module readout and control electronics for the PHENIX Multiplicity Vertex Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Ericson, M.N.; Allen, M.D.; Boissevain, J.

    1997-11-01

    Front-end module (FEM) readout and control are implemented as modular, high-density, reprogrammable functions in the PHENIX Multiplicity Vertex Detector. FEM control is performed by the heap manager, an FPGA-based circuit in the FEM unit. Each FEM has 256 channels of front-end electronics, readout, and control, all located on an MCM. Data readout, formatting, and control are performed by the heap manager along with 4 interface units that reside outside the MVD detector cylinder. This paper discusses the application of a generic heap manager and the addition of 4 interface module types to meet the specific control and data readout needs of the MVD. Unit functioning, interfaces, timing, data format, and communication rates will be discussed in detail. In addition, subsystem issues regarding mode control, serial architecture and functions, error handling, and FPGA implementation and programming will be presented.

  20. Development and commissioning of the HARDROC based readout for the INO-ICAL experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ashok; Gaur, Ankit; Phogat, Aman; Rafik, Md.; Naimuddin, Md.

    2016-10-01

    Glass based Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) are going to be used as an active element in the Iron Calorimeter (ICAL) experiment at the India based Neutrino Observatory (INO), which is being constructed to study atmospheric neutrinos. Though the RPC detector operational parameters are more or less finalized, the readout electronics is being developed using various technologies. The ICAL experiment will consist of about 29,000 RPC detectors of 2 m × 2 m in size with each detector having 64 readout channels both in the X and Y directions. The present study focusses on multi-channel electronics based on SiGe 350 nm technology as an option for the INO-ICAL RPC detectors. The study includes commissioning and usage of frontend application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) HARDROC chip in which 64 channels are handled independently to perform zero suppression. We present first testbench results using the HARDROC chip with the aim to use it finally in the ICAL experiment.

  1. The trigger readout electronics for the Phase-I upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hao

    2017-03-01

    For the Phase-I luminosity upgrade of the LHC a higher granularity trigger readout of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters is foreseen to enhance the trigger feature extraction and background rejection. The new readout system digitizes the detector signals, grouped into 34000 so-called Super Cells, with 12-bit precision at 40 MHz and transfers the data on optical links to the digital processing system, which computes the Super Cell transverse energies. In this paper, development and test results of the new readout system are presented.

  2. ALICE inner tracking system readout electronics prototype testing with the CERN ``Giga Bit Transceiver''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schambach, J.; Rossewij, M. J.; Sielewicz, K. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Bonora, M.; Ferencei, J.; Giubilato, P.; Vanat, T.

    2016-12-01

    The ALICE Collaboration is preparing a major detector upgrade for the LHC Run 3, which includes the construction of a new silicon pixel based Inner Tracking System (ITS). The ITS readout system consists of 192 readout boards to control the sensors and their power system, receive triggers, and deliver sensor data to the DAQ. To prototype various aspects of this readout system, an FPGA based carrier board and an associated FMC daughter card containing the CERN Gigabit Transceiver (GBT) chipset have been developed. This contribution describes laboratory and radiation testing results with this prototype board set.

  3. Common Bias Readout for TES Array on Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, R.; Sakai, K.; Maehisa, K.; Nagayoshi, K.; Hayashi, T.; Muramatsu, H.; Nakashima, Y.; Mitsuda, K.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Takei, Y.; Hidaka, M.; Nagasawa, S.; Maehata, K.; Hara, T.

    2016-07-01

    A transition edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter array as an X-ray sensor for a scanning transmission electron microscope system is being developed. The technical challenge of this system is a high count rate of ˜ 5000 counts/second/array. We adopted a 64 pixel array with a parallel readout. Common SQUID bias, and common TES bias are planned to reduce the number of wires and the resources of a room temperature circuit. The reduction rate of wires is 44 % when a 64 pixel array is read out by a common bias of 8 channels. The possible degradation of the energy resolution has been investigated by simulations and experiments. The bias fluctuation effects of a series connection are less than those of a parallel connection. Simple calculations expect that the fluctuations of the common SQUID bias and common TES bias in a series connection are 10^{-7} and 10^{-3}, respectively. We constructed 8 SQUIDs which are connected to 8 TES outputs and a room temperature circuit for common bias readout and evaluated experimentally. Our simulation of crosstalk indicates that at an X-ray event rate of 500 cps/pixel, crosstalk will broaden a monochromatic line by about 0.01 %, or about 1.5 eV at 15 keV. Thus, our design goal of 10 eV energy resolution across the 0.5-15 keV band should be achievable.

  4. A front-end readout Detector Board for the OpenPET electronics system.

    PubMed

    Choong, W-S; Abu-Nimeh, F; Moses, W W; Peng, Q; Vu, C Q; Wu, J-Y

    2015-08-01

    We present a 16-channel front-end readout board for the OpenPET electronics system. A major task in developing a nuclear medical imaging system, such as a positron emission computed tomograph (PET) or a single-photon emission computed tomograph (SPECT), is the electronics system. While there are a wide variety of detector and camera design concepts, the relatively simple nature of the acquired data allows for a common set of electronics requirements that can be met by a flexible, scalable, and high-performance OpenPET electronics system. The analog signals from the different types of detectors used in medical imaging share similar characteristics, which allows for a common analog signal processing. The OpenPET electronics processes the analog signals with Detector Boards. Here we report on the development of a 16-channel Detector Board. Each signal is digitized by a continuously sampled analog-to-digital converter (ADC), which is processed by a field programmable gate array (FPGA) to extract pulse height information. A leading edge discriminator creates a timing edge that is "time stamped" by a time-to-digital converter (TDC) implemented inside the FPGA. This digital information from each channel is sent to an FPGA that services 16 analog channels, and then information from multiple channels is processed by this FPGA to perform logic for crystal lookup, DOI calculation, calibration, etc.

  5. A front-end readout Detector Board for the OpenPET electronics system

    DOE PAGES

    Choong, W. -S.; Abu-Nimeh, F.; Moses, W. W.; ...

    2015-08-12

    Here, we present a 16-channel front-end readout board for the OpenPET electronics system. A major task in developing a nuclear medical imaging system, such as a positron emission computed tomograph (PET) or a single-photon emission computed tomograph (SPECT), is the electronics system. While there are a wide variety of detector and camera design concepts, the relatively simple nature of the acquired data allows for a common set of electronics requirements that can be met by a flexible, scalable, and high-performance OpenPET electronics system. The analog signals from the different types of detectors used in medical imaging share similar characteristics, whichmore » allows for a common analog signal processing. The OpenPET electronics processes the analog signals with Detector Boards. Here we report on the development of a 16-channel Detector Board. Each signal is digitized by a continuously sampled analog-to-digital converter (ADC), which is processed by a field programmable gate array (FPGA) to extract pulse height information. A leading edge discriminator creates a timing edge that is "time stamped" by a time-to-digital converter (TDC) implemented inside the FPGA. In conclusion, this digital information from each channel is sent to an FPGA that services 16 analog channels, and then information from multiple channels is processed by this FPGA to perform logic for crystal lookup, DOI calculation, calibration, etc.« less

  6. A front-end readout Detector Board for the OpenPET electronics system

    SciTech Connect

    Choong, W. -S.; Abu-Nimeh, F.; Moses, W. W.; Peng, Q.; Vu, C. Q.; Wu, J. -Y.

    2015-08-12

    Here, we present a 16-channel front-end readout board for the OpenPET electronics system. A major task in developing a nuclear medical imaging system, such as a positron emission computed tomograph (PET) or a single-photon emission computed tomograph (SPECT), is the electronics system. While there are a wide variety of detector and camera design concepts, the relatively simple nature of the acquired data allows for a common set of electronics requirements that can be met by a flexible, scalable, and high-performance OpenPET electronics system. The analog signals from the different types of detectors used in medical imaging share similar characteristics, which allows for a common analog signal processing. The OpenPET electronics processes the analog signals with Detector Boards. Here we report on the development of a 16-channel Detector Board. Each signal is digitized by a continuously sampled analog-to-digital converter (ADC), which is processed by a field programmable gate array (FPGA) to extract pulse height information. A leading edge discriminator creates a timing edge that is "time stamped" by a time-to-digital converter (TDC) implemented inside the FPGA. In conclusion, this digital information from each channel is sent to an FPGA that services 16 analog channels, and then information from multiple channels is processed by this FPGA to perform logic for crystal lookup, DOI calculation, calibration, etc.

  7. A front-end readout Detector Board for the OpenPET electronics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choong, W.-S.; Abu-Nimeh, F.; Moses, W. W.; Peng, Q.; Vu, C. Q.; Wu, J.-Y.

    2015-08-01

    We present a 16-channel front-end readout board for the OpenPET electronics system. A major task in developing a nuclear medical imaging system, such as a positron emission computed tomograph (PET) or a single-photon emission computed tomograph (SPECT), is the electronics system. While there are a wide variety of detector and camera design concepts, the relatively simple nature of the acquired data allows for a common set of electronics requirements that can be met by a flexible, scalable, and high-performance OpenPET electronics system. The analog signals from the different types of detectors used in medical imaging share similar characteristics, which allows for a common analog signal processing. The OpenPET electronics processes the analog signals with Detector Boards. Here we report on the development of a 16-channel Detector Board. Each signal is digitized by a continuously sampled analog-to-digital converter (ADC), which is processed by a field programmable gate array (FPGA) to extract pulse height information. A leading edge discriminator creates a timing edge that is ``time stamped'' by a time-to-digital converter (TDC) implemented inside the FPGA . This digital information from each channel is sent to an FPGA that services 16 analog channels, and then information from multiple channels is processed by this FPGA to perform logic for crystal lookup, DOI calculation, calibration, etc.

  8. A front-end readout Detector Board for the OpenPET electronics system

    PubMed Central

    Choong, W.-S.; Abu-Nimeh, F.; Moses, W.W.; Peng, Q.; Vu, C.Q.; Wu, J.-Y.

    2016-01-01

    We present a 16-channel front-end readout board for the OpenPET electronics system. A major task in developing a nuclear medical imaging system, such as a positron emission computed tomograph (PET) or a single-photon emission computed tomograph (SPECT), is the electronics system. While there are a wide variety of detector and camera design concepts, the relatively simple nature of the acquired data allows for a common set of electronics requirements that can be met by a flexible, scalable, and high-performance OpenPET electronics system. The analog signals from the different types of detectors used in medical imaging share similar characteristics, which allows for a common analog signal processing. The OpenPET electronics processes the analog signals with Detector Boards. Here we report on the development of a 16-channel Detector Board. Each signal is digitized by a continuously sampled analog-to-digital converter (ADC), which is processed by a field programmable gate array (FPGA) to extract pulse height information. A leading edge discriminator creates a timing edge that is “time stamped” by a time-to-digital converter (TDC) implemented inside the FPGA. This digital information from each channel is sent to an FPGA that services 16 analog channels, and then information from multiple channels is processed by this FPGA to perform logic for crystal lookup, DOI calculation, calibration, etc. PMID:27134641

  9. Image readout device with electronically variable spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benz, H. A.

    1981-07-01

    An invention relating to the use of a standing acoustic wave charge storage device as an image readout device is described. A frequency f sub 1 was applied to the storage transfer device to create a traveling electric field in the device in one direction along a straight line. A second frequency f sub 2 was applied to the charge transfer device to create a traveling electric field opposite to the first traveling electric field. A standing wave was created. When an image was focused on the charge transfer device, light was stored in the wells of the standing wave. When the frequency f sub 2 is removed from the device, the standing wave tends to break up and the charges stored move to an electrode connected to an output terminal and to a utilization device where the received charges represent the image on the surface of the charge transfer device along a projection of said straight line.

  10. Efficient readout electronics for multi-anode photomultiplier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerche, Christoph W.; Herrero-Bosch, Vicente; Ferrando-Jodar, Nestor; Gadea-Girones, Rafa; Sanchez-Martinez, Filomeno; Mora-Más, Francisco J.

    2010-08-01

    We present a novel active and analog readout and preprocessing topology for position sensitive photodetectors (PSPD) that allows to readout a large variety of PSPD devices with different pixel numbers. Additionally, the topology was designed to allow for a significant reduction of analog-to-digital conversion channels. The circuit topology replaces the common passive charge divider and consists of N input stages, N × M weighting stages and M analog adder stages, where N is the number of the input channels, i.e. the number of photodetector pixels and M is the number of outputs. The circuit performs the multiplication of a matrix (the weights) with a vector (signals). For this, the input stage makes M copies of each of the N input signals, the weighting stage multiplies these signal copies with N × M different weights and the output stage adds all weighted copies with the same copy index. For high flexibility, the weights are programmable and the topology allows to interconnect several identical circuits for larger N. Measurements with a first prototype ASIC show that the achieved energy and centroid resolutions equal the resolutions from detectors with passive charge division circuits. However, the presented topology presents important advantages such as scalability. As a first application, we used the prototype ASIC to correct the sensitivity inhomogeneity of position sensitive photomultiplier tubes. As a second application for the circuit, we present a Neural Network based positioning scheme for γ-ray imaging detectors with thick, monolithic scintillation crystals. This allows to correct the strong border artifacts of the center of gravity positioning scheme in monolithic scintillation crystals and thus enhances the spatial resolution of the γ-ray imaging detector.

  11. Clock distribution for BaF2 readout electronics at CSNS-WNS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Bing; Cao, Ping; Zhang, De-Liang; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Ya-Xi; Qi, Xin-Cheng; An, Qi

    2017-01-01

    A BaF2 (Barium Fluoride) detector array is designed to precisely measure the (n, γ) cross section at the CSNS-WNS (white neutron source at China Spallation Neutron Source). It is a 4π solid angle-shaped detector array consisting of 92 BaF2 crystal elements. To discriminate signals from the BaF2 detector, a pulse shape discrimination method is used, supported by a waveform digitization technique. There are 92 channels for digitizing. The precision and synchronization of clock distribution restricts the performance of waveform digitizing. In this paper, a clock prototype for the BaF2 readout electronics at CSNS-WNS is introduced. It is based on the PXIe platform and has a twin-stage tree topology. In the first stage, clock is synchronously distributed from the tree root to each PXIe crate through a coaxial cable over a long distance, while in the second stage, the clock is further distributed to each electronic module through a PXIe dedicated differential star bus. With the help of this topology, each tree node can fan out up to 20 clocks with 3U size. Test results show the clock jitter is less than 20 ps, which meets the requirements of the BaF2 readout electronics. Besides, this clock system has the advantages of high density, simplicity, scalability and cost saving, so it can be useful for other clock distribution applications. Supported by National Research and Development plan (2016 YFA0401602) NSAF (U1530111) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11005107)

  12. A rack-mounted precision waveguide-below-cutoff attenuator with an absolute electronic readout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, C. C.

    1974-01-01

    A coaxial precision waveguide-below-cutoff attenuator is described which uses an absolute (unambiguous) electronic digital readout of displacement in inches in addition to the usual gear driven mechanical counter-dial readout in decibels. The attenuator is rack-mountable and has the input and output RF connectors in a fixed position. The attenuation rate for 55, 50, and 30 MHz operation is given along with a discussion of sources of errors. In addition, information is included to aid the user in making adjustments on the attenuator should it be damaged or disassembled for any reason.

  13. Orthogonal sequencing multiplexer for superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors with RSFQ electronics readout circuit.

    PubMed

    Hofherr, Matthias; Wetzstein, Olaf; Engert, Sonja; Ortlepp, Thomas; Berg, Benjamin; Ilin, Konstantin; Henrich, Dagmar; Stolz, Ronny; Toepfer, Hannes; Meyer, Hans-Georg; Siegel, Michael

    2012-12-17

    We propose an efficient multiplexing technique for superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors based on an orthogonal detector bias switching method enabling the extraction of the average count rate of a set of detectors by one readout line. We implemented a system prototype where the SNSPDs are connected to an integrated cryogenic readout and a pulse merger system based on rapid single flux quantum (RSFQ) electronics. We discuss the general scalability of this concept, analyze the environmental requirements which define the resolvability and the accuracy and demonstrate the feasibility of this approach with experimental results for a SNSPD array with four pixels.

  14. Design of the readout electronics for the DAMPE Silicon Tracker detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fei; Peng, Wen-Xi; Gong, Ke; Wu, Di; Dong, Yi-Fan; Qiao, Rui; Fan, Rui-Rui; Wang, Jin-Zhou; Wang, Huan-Yu; Wu, Xin; La Marra, Daniel; Azzarello, Philipp; Gallo, Valentina; Ambrosi, Giovanni; Nardinocchi, Andrea

    2016-11-01

    The Silicon Tracker (STK) is one of the detectors of the DAMPE satellite used to measure the incidence direction of high energy cosmic rays. It consists of 6 X-Y double layers of silicon micro-strip detectors with 73728 readout channels. It is a great challenge to read out the channels and process the huge volume of data in the harsh environment of space. 1152 Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC) and 384 ADCs are used to read out the detector channels. 192 Tracker Front-end Hybrid (TFH) modules and 8 identical Tracker Readout Board (TRB) modules are designed to control and digitalize the front signals. In this paper, the design of the readout electronics for the STK and its performance are presented in detail.

  15. Medipix2 parallel readout system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanti, V.; Marzeddu, R.; Randaccio, P.

    2003-08-01

    A fast parallel readout system based on a PCI board has been developed in the framework of the Medipix collaboration. The readout electronics consists of two boards: the motherboard directly interfacing the Medipix2 chip, and the PCI board with digital I/O ports 32 bits wide. The device driver and readout software have been developed at low level in Assembler to allow fast data transfer and image reconstruction. The parallel readout permits a transfer rate up to 64 Mbytes/s. http://medipix.web.cern ch/MEDIPIX/

  16. An 8×8 Row-Column Summing Readout Electronics for Preclinical Positron Emission Tomography Scanners

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Y. C.; Sun, F. W.; MacDonald, L. R.; Otis, B. P.; Miyaoka, R. S.; McDougald, W.; Lewellen, T. K.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a row/column summing readout electronics for an 8×8 silicon photomultiplier array. The summation circuit greatly reduces the number of electronic channels, which is desirable for pursuing higher resolution positron emission tomography scanners. By using a degenerated common source topology in the summation circuit, more fan-in is possible and therefore a greater reduction in the number of electronic channels can be achieved. The timing signal is retrieved from a common anode, which allows the use of a single fast-sampling analog to digital converter (ADC) for the timing channel and slower, lower power ADCs for the 64 spatial channels. Preliminary results of one row summation of the 8×8 readout electronics exhibited FWHM energy resolution of 17.8% and 18.3% with and without multiplexing, respectively. The measured timing resolution is 2.9ns FWHM. PMID:20729983

  17. Digitally controlled high-performance dc SQUID readout electronics for a 304-channel vector magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechstein, S.; Petsche, F.; Scheiner, M.; Drung, D.; Thiel, F.; Schnabel, A.; Schurig, Th

    2006-06-01

    Recently, we have developed a family of dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) readout electronics for several applications. These electronics comprise a low-noise preamplifier followed by an integrator, and an analog SQUID bias circuit. A highly-compact low-power version with a flux-locked loop bandwidth of 0.3 MHz and a white noise level of 1 nV/√Hz was specially designed for a 304-channel low-Tc dc SQUID vector magnetometer, intended to operate in the new Berlin Magnetically Shielded Room (BMSR-2). In order to minimize the space needed to mount the electronics on top of the dewar and to minimize the power consumption, we have integrated four electronics channels on one 3 cm × 10 cm sized board. Furthermore we embedded the analog components of these four channels into a digitally controlled system including an in-system programmable microcontroller. Four of these integrated boards were combined to one module with a size of 4 cm × 4 cm × 16 cm. 19 of these modules were implemented, resulting in a total power consumption of about 61 W. To initialize the 304 channels and to service the system we have developed software tools running on a laptop computer. By means of these software tools the microcontrollers are fed with all required data such as the working points, the characteristic parameters of the sensors (noise, voltage swing), or the sensor position inside of the vector magnetometer system. In this paper, the developed electronics including the software tools are described, and first results are presented.

  18. Ionization Readout Electronics for SuperCDMS SNOLAB Employing a HEMT Front-End

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partridge, R.

    2014-09-01

    The SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment seeks to deploy 200 kg of cryogenic Ge detectors employing phonon and ionization readout to identify dark matter interactions. One of the design challenges for the experiment is to provide amplification of the high impedance ionization signal while minimizing power dissipation and noise. This paper describes the design and expected performance of the ionization readout being developed for an engineering model of the SuperCDMS SNOLAB Ge Tower System. The readout features the use of a low-noise HEMT front end transistor operating at 4 K to achieve a power dissipation of 100 W per channel, local grounding to minimize noise injection, and biasing circuitry that allows precise control of the HEMT operating point.

  19. Readout electronics validation and target detector assessment for the Neutrinos Angra experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarenga, T. A.; Anjos, J. C.; Azzi, G.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Chimenti, P.; Costa, J. A.; Dornelas, T. I.; Farias, P. C. M. A.; Guedes, G. P.; Gonzalez, L. F. G.; Kemp, E.; Lima, H. P.; Machado, R.; Nóbrega, R. A.; Pepe, I. M.; Ribeiro, D. B. S.; Simas Filho, E. F.; Valdiviesso, G. A.; Wagner, S.

    2016-09-01

    A compact surface detector designed to identify the inverse beta decay interaction produced by anti-neutrinos coming from near operating nuclear reactors is being developed by the Neutrinos Angra Collaboration. In this document we describe and test the detector and its readout system by means of cosmic rays acquisition. In this measurement campaign, the target detector has been equipped with 16 8-in PMTs and two scintillator paddles have been used to trigger cosmic ray events. The achieved results disclosed the main operational characteristics of the Neutrinos Angra system and have been used to assess the detector and to validate its readout system.

  20. Low Background Signal Readout Electronics for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Guinn, I.; Abgrall, N.; Avignone, III, F. T.; Efremenko, Yuri; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Green, M. P.; Radford, D. C.; Romero-Romero, E.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Majorana,

    2015-01-01

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a planned 40 kg array of Germanium detectors intended to demonstrate the feasibility of constructing a tonne-scale experiment that will seek neutrinoless double beta decay (0 nu beta beta) in Ge-76. Such an experiment would require backgrounds of less than 1 count/tonne-year in the 4 keV region of interest around the 2039 keV Q-value of the beta beta decay. Designing low-noise electronics, which must be placed in close proximity to the detectors, presents a challenge to reaching this background target. This paper will discuss the MAJORANA collaboration's solutions to some of these challenges.

  1. Readout electronics for the Wide Field of view Cherenkov/Fluorescence Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, Y.; Zhou, R.; Bai, L.; Zhang, J.; Huang, J.; Yang, C.; Cao, Z.

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO), supported by IHEP of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, is a multipurpose project with a complex detectors array for high energy gamma ray and cosmic ray detection. The Wide Field of view Cherenkov Telescope Array (WFCTA), as one of the components of the LHAASO project, aim to tag each primary particle that causes an air shower. The WFCTA is a portable telescope array used to detect cosmic ray spectra. The design of the readout electronics of the WFCTA is described in this paper Sixteen photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), together with their readout electronics are integrated into a single sub-cluster. To maintain good resolution and linearity over a wide dynamic range, a dual-gain amplification configuration on an analog board is used The digital board contains two 16channel 14-bit, 50 Msps analog-to-digital converters (ADC) and its power consumption, noise level, and relative deviation are all tested.

  2. Coherent operation of detector systems and their readout electronics in a complex experiment control environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koestner, Stefan

    2009-09-01

    With the increasing size and degree of complexity of today's experiments in high energy physics the required amount of work and complexity to integrate a complete subdetector into an experiment control system is often underestimated. We report here on the layered software structure and protocols used by the LHCb experiment to control its detectors and readout boards. The experiment control system of LHCb is based on the commercial SCADA system PVSS II. Readout boards which are outside the radiation area are accessed via embedded credit card sized PCs which are connected to a large local area network. The SPECS protocol is used for control of the front end electronics. Finite state machines are introduced to facilitate the control of a large number of electronic devices and to model the whole experiment at the level of an expert system.

  3. Phase-I trigger readout electronics upgrade of the ATLAS liquid-argon calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Tatsuya

    2016-09-01

    This article gives an overview of the Phase-I Upgrade of the ATLAS LAr Calorimeter Trigger Readout. The design of custom developed hardware for fast real-time data processing and transfer are presented. Performance results from the prototype boards operated in the demonstrator system, first measurements of noise behavior and responses on the test pulses to the demonstrator system are shown.

  4. Designing an Electronic Readout for a Directional Micro Electro-Mechanical (MEMS) Sound Sensor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    Pins CHPRST, V2P25, TESTSEL, SDATA & SCLK are required for data comunications from the computer to the MS3110 IC/die and pins VDD & GND are...LIST OF REFERENCES [1] Irvine Sensors Corporation , “MS3110 universal capacitive readoutTM IC data sheet,” May 2004. [2] K. Simsek, “Developing a

  5. High-speed readout method of ID information on a large amount of electronic tags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagate, Wataru; Sasabe, Masahiro; Nakano, Hirotaka

    2006-10-01

    An electronic tag such as RFID is expected to create new services that cannot be achieved by the traditional bar code. Specifically, in a distribution system, simultaneous readout method of a large amount of electronic tags embedded in products is required to reduce costs and time. In this paper, we propose novel methods, called Response Probability Control (RPC), to accomplish this requirement. In RPC, a reader firstly sends an ID request to electronic tags in its access area. It succeeds reading information on a tag only if other tags do not respond. To improve the readout efficiency, the reader appropriately controls the response probability in accordance with the number of tags. However, this approach cannot entirely avoid a collision of multiple responses. When a collision occurs, ID information is lost. To reduce the amount of lost data, we divide the ID registration process into two steps. The reader first gathers the former part of the original ID, called temporal ID, according to the above method. After obtaining the temporal ID, it sequentially collects the latter part of ID, called remaining ID, based on the temporal ID. Note that we determine the number of bits of a temporal ID in accordance with the number of tags in the access area so that each tag can be distinguishable. Through simulation experiments, we evaluate RPC in terms of the readout efficiency. Simulation results show that RPC can accomplish the readout efficiency 1.17 times higher than the traditional method where there are a thousand of electronic tags whose IDs are 128 bits.

  6. Low background signal readout electronics for the Majorana Demonstrator

    DOE PAGES

    Guinn, I.; Abgrall, N.; Avignone, F. T.; ...

    2015-05-01

    The Majorana Demonstrator is a planned 40 kg array of Germanium detectors intended to demonstrate the feasibility of constructing a tonne-scale experiment that will seek neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in 76Ge. In such an experiment we require backgrounds of less than 1 count/tonne-year in the 4 keV region of interest around the 2039 keV Q-value of the ββ decay. Moreover, designing low-noise electronics, which must be placed in close proximity to the detectors, presents a challenge to reaching this background target. Finally, this paper will discuss the Majorana collaboration's solutions to some of these challenges.

  7. Low background signal readout electronics for the Majorana Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect

    Guinn, I.; Abgrall, N.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Buuck, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y-D; Christofferson, C. D.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Efremenko, Yu; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Jasinski, B. R.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; MacMullin, J.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, N. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, A. M.; Tedeschi, D.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, C-H; Yumatov, V.

    2015-05-01

    The Majorana Demonstrator is a planned 40 kg array of Germanium detectors intended to demonstrate the feasibility of constructing a tonne-scale experiment that will seek neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in 76Ge. In such an experiment we require backgrounds of less than 1 count/tonne-year in the 4 keV region of interest around the 2039 keV Q-value of the ββ decay. Moreover, designing low-noise electronics, which must be placed in close proximity to the detectors, presents a challenge to reaching this background target. Finally, this paper will discuss the Majorana collaboration's solutions to some of these challenges.

  8. On Certain New Methodology for Reducing Sensor and Readout Electronics Circuitry Noise in Digital Domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kizhner, Semion; Miko, Joseph; Bradley, Damon; Heinzen, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    NASA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and upcoming cosmology science missions carry instruments with multiple focal planes populated with many large sensor detector arrays. These sensors are passively cooled to low temperatures for low-level light (L3) and near-infrared (NIR) signal detection, and the sensor readout electronics circuitry must perform at extremely low noise levels to enable new required science measurements. Because we are at the technological edge of enhanced performance for sensors and readout electronics circuitry, as determined by thermal noise level at given temperature in analog domain, we must find new ways of further compensating for the noise in the signal digital domain. To facilitate this new approach, state-of-the-art sensors are augmented at their array hardware boundaries by non-illuminated reference pixels, which can be used to reduce noise attributed to sensors. There are a few proposed methodologies of processing in the digital domain the information carried by reference pixels, as employed by the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope Projects. These methods involve using spatial and temporal statistical parameters derived from boundary reference pixel information to enhance the active (non-reference) pixel signals. To make a step beyond this heritage methodology, we apply the NASA-developed technology known as the Hilbert- Huang Transform Data Processing System (HHT-DPS) for reference pixel information processing and its utilization in reconfigurable hardware on-board a spaceflight instrument or post-processing on the ground. The methodology examines signal processing for a 2-D domain, in which high-variance components of the thermal noise are carried by both active and reference pixels, similar to that in processing of low-voltage differential signals and subtraction of a single analog reference pixel from all active pixels on the sensor. Heritage methods using the aforementioned statistical parameters in the

  9. TELL1: development of a common readout board for LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legger, Federica; Bay, Aurelio; Haefeli, Guido; Locatelli, Laurent

    2004-12-01

    LHCb is one of the four experiments currently under construction at LHC (Large Hadron Collider) at CERN, and its aim is the study of b-quark physics (LHCb Collaboration, CERN-LHCC/98-4). LHCb trigger strategy is based on three levels, and will reduce the event rate from 40 MHz to a few hundred Hz (LHCb Collaboration, CERN/LHCC 2003-031, LHCb TDR 10, September 2003). The first two levels (L0 and L1) will use signals from some part of the detector in order to take fast decisions, while the last one, called High Level Trigger (HLT), will have access to the full event data. An "off detector" readout board (TELL1) has been developed and will be used by the majority of LHCb subdetectors. It takes L0 accepted data as input and, after data processing which includes event synchronization, L1 Trigger pre-processing and zero suppression, L1 buffering, and HLT zero suppression, the output is sent to L1 Trigger and HLT .

  10. System Architecture of the Dark Energy Survey Camera Readout Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, Theresa; Ballester, Otger; Cardiel-Sas, Laia; Castilla, Javier; Chappa, Steve; de Vicente, Juan; Holm, Scott; Huffman, Dave; Kozlovsky, Mark; Martinez, Gustavo; Moore, Todd; /Madrid, CIEMAT /Fermilab /Illinois U., Urbana /Fermilab

    2010-05-27

    The Dark Energy Survey makes use of a new camera, the Dark Energy Camera (DECam). DECam will be installed in the Blanco 4M telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). DECam is presently under construction and is expected to be ready for observations in the fall of 2011. The focal plane will make use of 62 2Kx4K and 12 2kx2k fully depleted Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs) for guiding, alignment and focus. This paper will describe design considerations of the system; including, the entire signal path used to read out the CCDs, the development of a custom crate and backplane, the overall grounding scheme and early results of system tests.

  11. Development and characterization of the readout system for POLARBEAR-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, D.; Ade, P. A. R.; Akiba, Y.; Aleman, C.; Arnold, K.; Atlas, M.; Bender, A.; Borrill, J.; Chapman, S.; Chinone, Y.; Cukierman, A.; Dobbs, M.; Elleflot, T.; Errard, J.; Fabbian, G.; Feng, G.; Gilbert, A.; Halverson, N. W.; Hasegawa, M.; Hattori, K.; Hazumi, M.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hori, Y.; Inoue, Y.; Jaehnig, G. C.; Katayama, N.; Keating, B.; Kermish, Z.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.; Le Jeune, M.; Lee, A. T.; Matsuda, F.; Matsumura, T.; Morii, H.; Myers, M. J.; Navroli, M.; Nishino, H.; Okamura, T.; Peloton, J.; Rebeiz, G.; Reichardt, C. L.; Richards, P. L.; Ross, C.; Sholl, M.; Siritanasak, P.; Smecher, G.; Stebor, N.; Steinbach, B.; Stompor, R.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, J.; Takada, S.; Takakura, T.; Tomaru, T.; Wilson, B.; Yamaguchi, H.; Zahn, O.

    2014-07-01

    POLARBEAR-2 is a next-generation receiver for precision measurements of the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB)). Scheduled to deploy in early 2015, it will observe alongside the existing POLARBEAR-1 receiver, on a new telescope in the Simons Array on Cerro Toco in the Atacama desert of Chile. For increased sensitivity, it will feature a larger area focal plane, with a total of 7,588 polarization sensitive antenna-coupled Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers, with a design sensitivity of 4.1 uKrt(s). The focal plane will be cooled to 250 milliKelvin, and the bolometers will be read-out with 40x frequency domain multiplexing, with 36 optical bolometers on a single SQUID amplifier, along with 2 dark bolometers and 2 calibration resistors. To increase the multiplexing factor from 8x for POLARBEAR-1 to 40x for POLARBEAR-2 requires additional bandwidth for SQUID readout and well-defined frequency channel spacing. Extending to these higher frequencies requires new components and design for the LC filters which define channel spacing. The LC filters are cold resonant circuits with an inductor and capacitor in series with each bolometer, and stray inductance in the wiring and equivalent series resistance from the capacitors can affect bolometer operation. We present results from characterizing these new readout components. Integration of the readout system is being done first on a small scale, to ensure that the readout system does not affect bolometer sensitivity or stability, and to validate the overall system before expansion into the full receiver. We present the status of readout integration, and the initial results and status of components for the full array.

  12. Development of a hadron blind detector using a finely segmented pad readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanno, Koki; Aoki, Kazuya; Aramaki, Yoki; En`yo, Hideto; Kawama, Daisuke; Komatsu, Yusuke; Masumoto, Shinichi; Nakai, Wataru; Obara, Yuki; Ozawa, Kyoichiro; Sekimoto, Michiko; Shibukawa, Takuya; Takahashi, Tomonori; Watanabe, Yosuke; Yokkaichi, Satoshi

    2016-05-01

    We constructed a hadron blind detector (HBD) using a finely segmented pad readout. The finely segmented pad readout enabled us to adopt an advanced particle identification method which applies a threshold to the number of pad hits in addition to the total amount of collected charge. The responses of the detector to electrons and pions were evaluated using a negatively charged secondary beam at 1.0 GeV/c containing 20% electrons at the J-PARC K1.1BR beam line. We observed 7.3 photoelectrons per incident electron. Using the advanced particle identification method, an electron detection efficiency of 83% was achieved with a pion rejection factor of 120. The method improved the pion rejection by approximately a factor of five, compared to the one which just applies a threshold to the amount of collected charge. The newly introduced finely segmented pad readout was found to be effective in rejecting pions.

  13. The electronics readout and the DAQ system of the DRAGO Anger Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gola, A.; Fiorini, C.; Porro, M.; Zanchi, M.

    2007-02-01

    The aim of the DRAGO project, supported by Italian INFN, is the development of a high-resolution, compact γ-ray imager, based on the Anger Camera principle. In this configuration, the light generated by a unique scintillator is read by an array of 77 Silicon Drift Detectors. In order to locate the position of interaction of the photon inside the scintillator, it is necessary to make an amplification and filtering of the detector signals followed by a processing of the acquired data. The electronics readout and processing system can be divided in two separate parts: the analog front end and the DAQ board. The analog front end is composed of 80 readout channels divided in 10 CMOS chips, produced in the 0.35 μm AMS technology, each one processing 8 channels. Each analog channel of the circuit includes a low-noise preamplifier, a sixth-order semigaussian shaping amplifier with four selectable peaking times from 1.8 μs up to 6 μs, a peak stretcher and a baseline holder. The energy resolution measured using a single channel of the chip with a Silicon Drift Detector Droplet (SD 3) is of 128 eV FWHM at 6 keV with the detector cooled at -20 °C. The 8 analog channels of the chip are multiplexed to a single analog output and fed to the acquisition system. For each γ event, this system performs the A/D conversion of all the signals of the array and sends them to a host PC, where the position reconstruction algorithm is executed. The DAQ board contains 10 ADCs, each one dedicated to a single ASIC of the analog section and having a resolution of 13 bit (ENOB). The burst conversion rate of the 10 ADCs together is 50 Ms/s resulting in a dead time of about 2 μs/event. The converted data are stored in a FIFO memory, for buffering, and then are transferred to the host PC via a USB 2.0 interface, which allows an event rate of more than 40k events/s for the whole Anger Camera, compatible with the application.

  14. Gafchromic EBT3 film dosimetry in electron beams - energy dependence and improved film read-out.

    PubMed

    Sipilä, Petri; Ojala, Jarkko; Kaijaluoto, Sampsa; Jokelainen, Ilkka; Kosunen, Antti

    2016-01-01

    For megavoltage photon radiation, the fundamental dosimetry characteristics of Gafchromic EBT3 film were determined in  60Co gamma ray beam with addition of experimental and Monte Carlo (MC)-simulated energy dependence of the film for 6 MV photon beam and 6 MeV, 9 MeV, 12 MeV, and 16 MeV electron beams in water phantom. For the film read-out, two phase correction of scanner sensitivity was applied: a matrix correction for scanning area and dose-dependent correction by iterative procedure. With these corrections, the uniformity of response can be improved to be within ±50 pixel values (PVs). To improve the read-out accuracy, a procedure with flipped film orientations was established. With the method, scanner uniformity can be improved further and dust particles, scratches and/or dirt on scanner glass can be detected and eliminated. Responses from red and green channels were averaged for read-out, which decreased the effect of noise present in values from separate channels. Since the signal level with the blue channel is considerably lower than with other channels, the signal variation due to different perturbation effects increases the noise level so that the blue channel is not recommended to be used for dose determination. However, the blue channel can be used for the detection of emulsion thickness variations for film quality evaluations with unexposed films. With electron beams ranging from 6 MeV to 16 MeV and at reference measurement conditions in water, the energy dependence of the EBT3 film is uniform within 0.5%, with uncertainties close to 1.6% (k=2). Including 6 MV photon beam and the electron beams mentioned, the energy dependence is within 1.1%. No notable differences were found between the experimental and MC-simulated responses, indicating negligible change in intrinsic energy dependence of the EBT3 film for 6 MV photon beam and 6 MeV-16 MeV electron beams. Based on the dosimetric characteristics of the EBT3 film, the read-out procedure established

  15. Gafchromic EBT3 film dosimetry in electron beams - energy dependence and improved film read-out.

    PubMed

    Sipilä, Petri; Ojala, Jarkko; Kaijaluoto, Sampsa; Jokelainen, Ilkka; Kosunen, Antti

    2016-01-08

    For megavoltage photon radiation, the fundamental dosimetry characteristics of Gafchromic EBT3 film were determined in 60Co gamma ray beam with addition of experimental and Monte Carlo (MC)-simulated energy dependence of the film for 6 MV photon beam and 6 MeV, 9 MeV, 12 MeV, and 16 MeV electron beams in water phantom. For the film read-out, two phase correction of scanner sensitivity was applied: a matrix correction for scanning area and dose-dependent correction by iterative procedure. With these corrections, the uniformity of response can be improved to be within ± 50 pixel values (PVs). To improve the read-out accuracy, a procedure with flipped film orientations was established. With the method, scanner uniformity can be improved further and dust particles, scratches and/or dirt on scan-ner glass can be detected and eliminated. Responses from red and green channels were averaged for read-out, which decreased the effect of noise present in values from separate channels. Since the signal level with the blue channel is considerably lower than with other channels, the signal variation due to different perturbation effects increases the noise level so that the blue channel is not recommended to be used for dose determination. However, the blue channel can be used for the detection of emulsion thickness variations for film quality evaluations with unexposed films. With electron beams ranging from 6 MeV to 16 MeV and at reference measurement conditions in water, the energy dependence of the EBT3 film is uniform within 0.5%, with uncertainties close to 1.6% (k = 2). Including 6 MV photon beam and the electron beams mentioned, the energy dependence is within 1.1%. No notable differences were found between the experimental and MC-simulated responses, indicating negligible change in intrinsic energy dependence of the EBT3 film for 6 MV photon beam and 6 MeV-16 MeV electron beams. Based on the dosimetric characteristics of the EBT3 film, the read-out procedure established

  16. Sub-electron read noise and millisecond full-frame readout with the near infrared eAPD array SAPHIRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finger, Gert; Baker, Ian; Alvarez, Domingo; Dupuy, Christophe; Ives, Derek; Meyer, Manfred; Mehrgan, Leander; Stegmeier, Jörg; Weller, Harald J.

    2016-07-01

    In 2007 ESO started a program at SELEX (now LEONARDO) to develop noiseless near infrared HgCdTe electron avalanche photodiode arrays (eAPD)[1][2][3]. This eAPD technology is only way to overcome the limiting CMOS noise barrier of near infrared sensors used for wavefront sensing and fringe tracking. After several development cycles of solid state engineering techniques which can be easily applied to the chosen growth technology of metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE), the eAPD arrays have matured and resulted in the SAPHIRA arrays. They have a format of 320x256 pixels with a pitch of 24 μm. They now offer an unmatched combination of sub-electron read noise at millisecond frame readout rates. The first generation of SAPHIRA arrays were only sensitive in H and K-band. With the removal of a wide bandgap buffer layer the arrays are now sensitive from λ=0.8 μm to 2.5 μm with high quantum efficiency over the entire wavelength range. The high temperature anneal applied during the growth process produces material with superb cosmetic quality at an APD gain of over 600. The design of the SAPHIRA ROIC has also been revised and the new ME1000 ROIC has an optimized analogue chain and more flexible readout modes. The clock for the vertical shift register is now under external control. The advantage of this is that correlated-double-sampling and uncorrelated readout in the rolling shutter mode now have a duty cycle of 100% at the maximum frame rate. Furthermore, to reduce the readout noise rows can be read several times before and after row reset. Since the APD gain is sufficiently high that one photon produces many more electrons than the square root of kTC which is the charge uncertainty after reset, signals of one photon per exposure can be easily detected without the need for double correlated sampling. First results obtained with the fringe tracker in GRAVITY and the four SAPHIRA wavefront sensors installed in the CIAO adaptive optics systems of the four 8 meter

  17. Design and characterization of the PREC (Prototype Readout Electronics for Counting particles)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assis, P.; Brogueira, P.; Ferreira, M.; Luz, R.; Mendes, L.

    2016-08-01

    The design, tests and performance of a novel, low noise, acquisition system—the PREC (Prototype Readout Electronics for Counting particles) is presented in this article. PREC is a system developed using discrete electronics for particle counting applications using RPCs (Resistive Plate Chamber) detectors. PREC can, however, be used with other kind of detectors that present fast pulses, e.g. Silicon Photomultipliers. The PREC system consists in several Front-End boards that transmit data to a purely digital Motherboard. The amplification and discrimination of the signal is performed in the Front-End boards, making them the critical component of the system. In this paper, the Front-End was tested extensively by measuring the gain, noise level, crosstalk, trigger efficiency, propagation time and power consumption. The gain shows a decrease with the working temperature and an increase with the power supply voltage. The Front-End board shows a low noise level (<= 1.6 mV at 3σ level) and no crosstalk is detected above this level. The s-curve of the trigger efficiency is characterized by a 3 mV gap from the region where most of the signals are triggered to almost no signal is triggered. The signal transit time between the Front-End input and the digital Motherboard is estimated to be 5.82 ns. The maximum power consumption is 3.372 W for the Motherboard and 3.576 W and 1.443 W for each Front-End analogue circuitry and digital part, respectively.

  18. Readout Electronics for BGO Calorimeter of DAMPE: Status during the First Half-year after Launching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Siyuan; Feng, Changqing; Zhang, Deliang; Wang, Qi

    2016-07-01

    The DAMPE (DArk Matter Particle Explorer) is a scientic satellite which was successfully launched into a 500 Km sun-synchronous orbit, on December 17th, 2015, from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center of China. The major scientific objective of DAMPE mission is indirect searching for dark matter by observing high energy primary cosmic rays, especially positrons/electrons and gamma rays with an energy range from 5 GeV to 10 TeV. The BGO (Bismuth Germanate Oxide) calorimeter, which is a critical sub-detector of DAMPE payload, was developed for measuring the energy of cosmic particles, distinguishing positrons/electrons and gamma rays from hadron background, and providing trigger information. It is composed of 308 BGO crystal logs, with the size of 2.5cm*2.5cm*60cm for each log to form a total absorption electromagnetic calorimeter. All the BGO logs are stacked in 14 layers, with each layer consisting of 22 BGO crystal logs and each log is viewed by two Hamamatsu R5610A PMTs (photomultiplier tubes), from both sides respectively. Each PMT incorporates a three dynode pick off to achieve a large dynamic range, which results in 616 PMTs and 1848 signal channels. The main function of readout electronics system, which consists of 16 FEE(Front End Electronics) modules, is to precisely measure the charge of PMT signals and providing "hit" signals. The hit signals are sent to the trigger module of PDPU (Payload Data Process Unit) to generate triggers for the payload. The calibration of the BGO calorimeter is composed of pedestal testing and electronic linear scale, which are executed frequently in the space after launching. The data of the testing is transmitted to ground station in the form of scientific data. The monitor status consists of temperature, current and status words of the FEE, which are measured and recorded every 16 seconds and packed in the engineering data, then transmitted to ground station. The status of the BGO calorimeter can be evaluated by the calibration

  19. A simple readout electronics for automatic power controlled self-mixing laser diode systems.

    PubMed

    Cattini, Stefano; Rovati, Luigi

    2008-08-01

    The paper describes a simple electronic circuit to drive a laser diode for self-mixing interferometry. The network integrates a stable commercial automatic power controller and a current mirror based readout of the interferometric signal. The first prototype version of the circuit has been realized and characterized. The system allows easily performing precise interferometric measurements with no thermostatic circuitry to stabilize the laser diode temperature and an automatic control gain network to compensate emitted optical power fluctuations. To achieve this result, in the paper a specific calibration procedure to be performed is described.

  20. The Silicon Tracker Readout Electronics of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Baldini, Luca; Brez, Alessandro; Himel, Thomas; Hirayama, Masaharu; Johnson, R.P.; Kroeger, Wilko; Latronico, Luca; Minuti, Massimo; Nelson, David; Rando, Riccardo; Sadrozinski, H.F.-W.; Sgro, Carmelo; Spandre, Gloria; Spencer, E.N.; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Tajima, Hiro; Cohen-Tanugi, Johann; Ziegler, Marcus; /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /SLAC /Maryland U. /UC, Santa Cruz /Padua U. /INFN, Padua

    2006-02-27

    A unique electronics system has been built and tested for reading signals from the silicon-strip detectors of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope mission. The system amplifies and processes signals from 884,736 36-cm strips using only 160 W of power, and it achieves close to 100% detection efficiency with noise occupancy sufficiently low to allow it to self trigger. The design of the readout system is described, and results are presented from ground-based testing of the completed detector system.

  1. Bloch oscillating transistor as the readout element for hot electron bolometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassel, Juha; Seppä, Heikki; Lindell, Rene; Hakonen, Pertti

    2004-10-01

    In this paper we analyse the properties of the Bloch oscillating transistor as a preamplifier in cryogenic devices. We consider here especially the readout of hot electron bolometers (HEBs) based on Normal-Superconductor-Insulator tunnel junctions, but the results also apply more generally. We show that one can get an equivalent noise voltage below 1 nV/√Hz with a single BOT. By using N BOTs in a parallel array configuration, a further reduction by factor √N may be achieved.

  2. SiPM arrays and miniaturized readout electronics for compact gamma camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinu, N.; Imando, T. Ait; Nagai, A.; Pinot, L.; Puill, V.; Callier, S.; Janvier, B.; Esnault, C.; Verdier, M.-A.; Raux, L.; Vandenbussche, V.; Charon, Y.; Menard, L.

    2015-07-01

    This article reports on the design and features of a very compact and light gamma camera based on SiPM arrays and miniaturized readout electronics dedicated to tumor localization during radio-guided cancer surgery. This gamma camera, called MAGICS, is composed of four (2×2) photo-detection elementary modules coupled to an inorganic scintillator. The 256 channels photo-detection system covers a sensitive area of 54×53 m2. Each elementary module is based on four (2×2) SiPM monolithic arrays, each array consisting of 16 SiPM photo-sensors (4×4) with 3×3 mm2 sensitive area, coupled to a miniaturized readout electronics and a dedicated ASIC. The overall dimensions of the electronics fit the size of the detector, enabling to assemble side-by-side several elementary modules in a close-packed arrangement. The preliminary performances of the system are very encouraging, showing an energy resolution of 9.8% and a spatial resolution of less than 1 mm at 122 keV.

  3. Integrated readout electronics for the PbWO{sub 4} photon spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, M.L.; Alley, G.T.; Awes, T.

    1995-12-31

    The PbWO{sub 4} calorimeter of the ALICE detector is designed to detect the prompt photons to provide direct information on the partonic, early phases of the heavy-ion interaction. The goal is to measure all the photons over a large enough solid angle to reconstruct both {pi}{sup 0}`s and {eta}`s. A proposed readout system for the ALICE PbWO{sub 4} photon spectrometer is presented. In one proposed implementation, light will be detected from each end of the crystals by PIN photodiodes and this signal will be amplified by charge-sensitive amplifiers. The 73,728 channel readout system will accept the preamplifier signals and deliver digitized data to the data collection modules. A readout board will consist of 8-channel, custom front-end chips which form energy and timing signals, and board-level control and communication circuits. Many of the subcircuits proposed for this spectrometer have been developed for use in other applications. The performance of these circuits is shown.

  4. CMOS Integrated Single Electron Transistor Electrometry (CMOS-SET) circuit design for nanosecond quantum-bit read-out.

    SciTech Connect

    Gurrieri, Thomas M.; Lilly, Michael Patrick; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Levy, James E.

    2008-08-01

    Novel single electron transistor (SET) read-out circuit designs are described. The circuits use a silicon SET interfaced to a CMOS voltage mode or current mode comparator to obtain a digital read-out of the state of the qubit. The design assumes standard submicron (0.35 um) CMOS SOI technology using room temperature SPICE models. Implications and uncertainties related to the temperature scaling of these models to 100mK operation are discussed. Using this technology, the simulations predict a read-out operation speed of approximately Ins and a power dissipation per cell as low as 2nW for single-shot read-out, which is a significant advantage over currently used radio frequency SET (RF-SET) approaches.

  5. BLASTbus electronics: general-purpose readout and control for balloon-borne experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benton, S. J.; Ade, P. A.; Amiri, M.; Angilè, F. E.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Bryan, S. A.; Chiang, H. C.; Contaldi, C. R.; Crill, B. P.; Devlin, M. J.; Dober, B.; Doré, O. P.; Farhang, M.; Filippini, J. P.; Fissel, L. M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Fukui, Y.; Galitzki, N.; Gambrel, A. E.; Gandilo, N. N.; Golwala, S. R.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Halpern, M.; Hasselfield, M.; Hilton, G. C.; Holmes, W. A.; Hristov, V. V.; Irwin, K. D.; Jones, W. C.; Kermish, Z. D.; Klein, J.; Korotkov, A. L.; Kuo, C. L.; MacTavish, C. J.; Mason, P. V.; Matthews, T. G.; Megerian, K. G.; Moncelsi, L.; Morford, T. A.; Mroczkowski, T. K.; Nagy, J. M.; Netterfield, C. B.; Novak, G.; Nutter, D.; O'Brient, R.; Ogburn, R. W.; Pascale, E.; Poidevin, F.; Rahlin, A. S.; Reintsema, C. D.; Ruhl, J. E.; Runyan, M. C.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Shariff, J. A.; Soler, J. D.; Thomas, N. E.; Trangsrud, A.; Truch, M. D.; Tucker, C. E.; Tucker, G. S.; Tucker, R. S.; Turner, A. D.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Weber, A. C.; Wiebe, D. V.; Young, E. Y.

    2014-07-01

    We present the second generation BLASTbus electronics. The primary purposes of this system are detector readout, attitude control, and cryogenic housekeeping, for balloon-borne telescopes. Readout of neutron transmutation doped germanium (NTD-Ge) bolometers requires low noise and parallel acquisition of hundreds of analog signals. Controlling a telescope's attitude requires the capability to interface to a wide variety of sensors and motors, and to use them together in a fast, closed loop. To achieve these different goals, the BLASTbus system employs a flexible motherboard-daughterboard architecture. The programmable motherboard features a digital signal processor (DSP) and field-programmable gate array (FPGA), as well as slots for three daughterboards. The daughterboards provide the interface to the outside world, with versions for analog to digital conversion, and optoisolated digital input/output. With the versatility afforded by this design, the BLASTbus also finds uses in cryogenic, thermometry, and power systems. For accurate timing control to tie everything together, the system operates in a fully synchronous manner. BLASTbus electronics have been successfully deployed to the South Pole, and own on stratospheric balloons.

  6. Prototype of readout electronics for the LHAASO KM2A electromagnetic particle detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiang; Chang, Jing-Fan; Wang, Zheng; Fan, Lei

    2016-07-01

    The KM2A (one kilometer square extensive air shower array) is the largest detector array in the LHAASO (Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory) project. The KM2A consists of 5242 EDs (Electromagnetic particle Detectors) and 1221 MDs (Muon Detectors). The EDs are distributed and exposed in the wild. Two channels, anode and dynode, are employed for the PMT (photomultiplier tube) signal readout. The readout electronics designed in this paper aims at accurate charge and arrival time measurement of the PMT signals, which cover a large amplitude range from 20 P.E. (photoelectrons) to 2 × 105 P.E. By using a “trigger-less” architecture, we digitize signals close to the PMTs. All digitized data is transmitted to DAQ (Data Acquisition) via a simplified White Rabbit protocol. Compared with traditional high energy experiments, high precision of time measurement over such a large area and suppression of temperature effects in the wild become the key techniques. Experiments show that the design has fulfilled the requirements in this project. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375210) and the Knowledge Innovation Fund of IHEP, Beijing

  7. Development of a new readout system for the near-infrared detector of HONIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ui, Takahiro; Sako, Shigeyuki; Yamashita, Takuya; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Kawabata, Koji S.; Nakaya, Hidehiko; Moritani, Yuki; Itoh, Ryosuke; Takaki, Katsutoshi; Urano, Takeshi; Ueno, Issei; Ohsugi, Takashi; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Nakao, Hikaru; Hashiba, Yasuhito

    2014-08-01

    We developed a new readout system for the near-infrared detector VIRGO-2K (2kx2k HgCdTe array) installed in the optical-infrared simultaneous camera, HONIR, for the 1.5 m Kanata telescope at Higashi-Hiroshima observatory. The main goal of this development is to read out one frame within ~ 1 second through 16 output readout mode of the detector, in order to reduce the overhead time per exposure. The system is based on a CCD controller, Kiso Array Controller (KAC). We redesigned the analog part of KAC to fit VIRGO-2K. We employed a fully differential input circuit and a third order Bessel low-pass filter for noise reduction and a constant current system to improve the linearity of the detector. We set the cutoff frequency of the Bessel low-pass filter at the readout clock rate (120 kHz). We also set the constant current at 200 μA according to the data sheet of VIRGO-2K. We tested the new readout system at room temperature and confirmed that the low-pass filter works well as designed. The fluctuation of the current level of the constant current system is less than 2% for the typical output voltage range of VIRGO-2K (3.2-4.4 V). We measured the readout noise caused by the new readout system (connected to cooled multiplexer) and found that it is 30-40 μV rms, being comparable to or slightly higher than the typical readout noise of VIRGO-2K, ˜ 37 μV rms.

  8. Analysis of de-noising methods to improve the precision of the ILSF BPM electronic readout system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafiee, M.; Feghhi, S. A. H.; Rahighi, J.

    2016-12-01

    In order to have optimum operation and precise control system at particle accelerators, it is required to measure the beam position with the precision of sub-μm. We developed a BPM electronic readout system at Iranian Light Source Facility and it has been experimentally tested at ALBA accelerator facility. The results show the precision of 0.54 μm in beam position measurements. To improve the precision of this beam position monitoring system to sub-μm level, we have studied different de-noising methods such as principal component analysis, wavelet transforms, filtering by FIR, and direct averaging method. An evaluation of the noise reduction was given to testify the ability of these methods. The results show that the noise reduction based on Daubechies wavelet transform is better than other algorithms, and the method is suitable for signal noise reduction in beam position monitoring system.

  9. Design of fast signal processing readout front-end electronics implemented in CMOS 40 nm technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleczek, Rafal

    2016-12-01

    The author presents considerations on the design of fast readout front-end electronics implemented in a CMOS 40 nm technology with an emphasis on the system dead time, noise performance and power dissipation. The designed processing channel consists of a charge sensitive amplifier with different feedback types (Krummenacher, resistive and constant current blocks), a threshold setting block, a discriminator and a counter with logic circuitry. The results of schematic and post-layout simulations with randomly generated input pulses in a time domain according to the Poisson distribution are presented and analyzed. Dead time below 20 ns is possible while keeping noise ENC ≈ 90 e- for a detector capacitance CDET = 160 fF.

  10. Developing novel techniques for readout, calibration and event selection in the NOvA long-baseline neutrino experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, Ryan; Backhouse, Christopher; Bays, Kirk; Lozier, Joseph; Pershey, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    The NOvA long-baseline neutrino experiment uses a fine-grained, low-Z, fully active detector that offers unprecedented electron neutrino identification capabilities for a detector of its scale. In this award’s proposal, the PI outlined the development and implementation of novel techniques for channel readout, detector calibration, and event reconstruction that make full use of the strengths of the NOvA detector technology. In particular, this included designing custom event reconstruction algorithms that utilize the rich information available in the substructure of hadronic and electromagnetic showers. Exploiting this information provides not only substantial improvement in background rejection for the electron neutrino search but also better shower energy resolution (improving the precision on measured oscillation parameters) and a high-energy electromagnetic calibration source (through neutral pion events). The PI further proposed developing and deploying a new electronics readout scheme compatible with the existing hardware that can reduce near detector event pile-up and can offer powerful timing information to the reconstruction, allowing for cosmic ray muon tagging via track direction determination, among other things. In conjunction with the above, the PI proposed leading the calibration of the NOvA detectors, including characterizing individual electronics channels, correcting for spatial variations across the detector, and establishing absolute event energy scales. All three of these lines of effort have been successfully completed, feeding directly into the NOvA’s recent exciting neutrino oscillation results. The techniques developed under this award are detailed in this final technical report.

  11. Some Progress In The Development Of An Optical Readout System For The LISA Gravitational Reference Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acernese, Fausto; De Rosa, Rosario; Di Fiore, Luciano; Garufi, Fabio; La Rana, Adele; Milano, Leopoldo

    2006-11-01

    In this paper, we report on the progress in the development of an optical read-out (ORO) system for the inertial sensor of the LISA gravitational wave antenna. The device is based on optical levers and position sensors and is intended to be integrated in the present baseline design for the LISA inertial sensor, which is based on capacitive readout of the test mass position. In particular, we report some improved measurement of the sensitivity of this device, performed with a bench-top rigid set-up and tests on a real scale prototype.

  12. Radiation Tolerant Electronics and Digital Processing for the Phase-1 Read-out Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Milic, A.

    2015-07-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeters are designed and built to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are employed for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudorapidity region |η|<3.2, and for hadronic calorimetry in the region from |η|=1.5 to |η|=4.9. Although the nominal LHC experimental programme is still in progress, an upgrade of the read-out electronics is being launched to cope with luminosities of up to 3x10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, which are beyond the original design by a factor of 3. An improved spatial granularity of the trigger primitives is therefore proposed in order to improve the identification performance for trigger signatures, like electrons, photons, tau leptons, jets, total and missing energy, at high background rejection rates. For the upgrade Phase-1 in 2018, new LAr Trigger Digitizer Boards (LTDB) are being designed to receive higher granularity signals, digitize them on detector and send them via fast optical links to a new LAr digital processing system (LDPS). The LDPS applies a digital filtering and identifies significant energy depositions in each trigger channel. The refined trigger primitives are then transmitted to the first level trigger system to extract improved trigger signatures. The read-out of the trigger signals will process 34000 so-called Super Cells at every LHC bunch-crossing at a frequency of 40 MHz. The new LTDB on-detector electronics is designed to be radiation tolerant in order to be operated for the remaining live-time of the ATLAS detector up to a total luminosity of 3000 fb{sup -1}. For the analog-to-digital conversion (12-bit ADC at 40 MSPS), the data serialization and the fast optical link (5.44 Gb/s) custom components have been developed. They have been qualified for the expected radiation environment of a total ionization dose of 1.3 kGy and a hadron fluence of 6 x 10{sup 13} h/cm{sup 2} with energies above

  13. Low-noise ultra-high-speed dc SQUID readout electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drung, Dietmar; Hinnrichs, Colmar; Barthelmess, Henry-Jobes

    2006-05-01

    User-friendly ultra-high-speed readout electronics for dc superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) are presented. To maximize the system bandwidth, the SQUID is directly read out without flux modulation. A composite preamplifier is used consisting of a slow dc amplifier in parallel with a fast ac amplifier. In this way, excellent dc precision and a high amplifier bandwidth of 50 MHz are achieved, simultaneously. A virtual 50 Ω amplifier input resistance with negligible excess noise is realized by active shunting, i.e., by applying feedback from preamplifier output to input via a high resistance. The white voltage and current noise levels are 0.33 nV Hz-1 and 2.6 pA Hz-1/2, respectively. The electronics is fully computer controlled via a microcontroller integrated into the flux-locked loop (FLL) board. Easy-to-use software makes the various electronic settings accessible. A wide bias voltage range of 1.3 mV enables the readout of series SQUID arrays. Furthermore, additional current sources allow the operation of two-stage SQUIDs or transition edge sensors. The electronics was tested using various SQUIDs with input inductances between 30 nH and 1.5 µH. Typically, the maximum FLL bandwidth was 20 MHz, which is close to the theoretical limit given by transmission line delay within the FLL. Slew rates of up to 4.6 Φ0 µs-1 were achieved with series SQUID arrays. Current noise levels as low as 0.47 pA Hz-1/2 and coupled energy sensitivities between 90 h and 500 h were measured at 4.2 K, where h is the Planck constant. The noise did not degrade when the system bandwidth was increased to the maximum value of about 20 MHz. With a two-stage set-up, intrinsic white energy sensitivities of 30 h and 2.3 h were measured at 4.2 and 0.3 K, respectively.

  14. Development of microwave kinetic inductance detectors and their readout system for LiteBIRD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, K.; Hazumi, M.; Ishino, H.; Kibayashi, A.; Kibe, Y.; Mima, S.; Okamura, T.; Sato, N.; Tomaru, T.; Yamada, Y.; Yoshida, M.; Yuasa, T.; Watanabe, H.

    2013-12-01

    Primordial gravitational waves generated by inflation have produced an odd-parity pattern B-mode in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization. LiteBIRD (Light satellite for the studies of B-mode polarization and Inflation from cosmic background Radiation Detection) aims at detecting this B-mode polarization precisely. It requires about 2000 detectors capable of detecting a frequency range from 50 GHz to 250 GHz with ultra low noise. Superconducting detectors are suitable for this requirement. We have fabricated and tested microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) and developed a new readout system. We have designed antenna-coupled MKIDs. Quasi-particles are created by incident radiation and are detected as a change of the surface impedance of a superconductor strip. This change of the surface impedance is translated into the change of the resonant frequency of a microwave signal transmitted through the resonator. We also have developed a new readout system for MKIDs. The newly developed readout system is not only able to read out the amplitude and the phase data with the homodyne detection for multi-channels, but also provides a unique feature of tracking the resonant frequency of the target resonator. This mechanism enables us to detect signals with a large dynamic range. We report on the recent R&D status of the developing MKIDs and on the read-out system for LiteBIRD.

  15. Development of readout system for FE-I4 pixel module using SiTCP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teoh, J. J.; Hanagaki, K.; Ikegami, Y.; Takubo, Y.; Terada, S.; Unno, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The ATLAS pixel detector will be replaced in the future High Luminosity-Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) upgrade to preserve or improve the detector performance at high luminosity environment. To meet the tight requirements of the upgrade, a new pixel Front-End (FE) Integrated Circuit (IC) called FE-I4 has been developed. We have then devised a readout system for the new FE IC. Our system incorporates Silicon Transmission Control Protocol (SiTCP) technology (Uchida, 2008 [1]) which utilizes the standard TCP/IP and UDP communication protocols. This technology allows direct data access and transfer between a readout hardware chain and PC via a high speed Ethernet. In addition, the communication protocols are small enough to be implemented in a single Field-Programable Gate Array (FPGA). Relying on this technology, we have been able to construct a very compact, versatile and fast readout system. We have developed a firmware and software together with the readout hardware chain. We also have established basic functionalities for reading out FE-I4.

  16. Development of a Novel Readout System for Radiochromic Film Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Kevin Mackenzie

    Oxidative stress underlies the mechanisms of many diseases such as Parkinson's disease, heart failure, myocardial infarction, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, diabetes, Multiple Sclerosis, bipolar disorder, and chronic fatigue syndrome. Oxidative stress is caused by excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide, superoxide, and hydroxyl radicals, which are byproducts of oxygen metabolism in aerobic organisms. Environmental factors such as exposure to ultraviolet light, chemicals ingested by the diet, ionizing radiation, and cigarette smoke can also lead to production of ROS and therefore oxidative stress. As a result, there is a growing need for quantitative and noninvasive methodologies to probe oxidative stress at the single-cell level and ultimately in vivo. In this thesis, we examined the potential of natural coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) as a natural biomarker for oxidative stress in C3H 10T1/2 living cells in culture. NADH (fluorescent) is a coenzyme that is essential for energy metabolism via oxidative phosphorylation pathway in the inner membrane of mitochondria, which is also a major source for intrinsic ROS species generated through the electron transport chain. Our experimental multiparametric approach combined cell culture with fluorescence microscopy (confocal and two-photon) and spectroscopy (fluorescence lifetime imaging and time-resolved anisotropy) methods. Cultured cells were treated with hydrogen peroxide and rotenone in order to trigger oxidative stress. As a point of reference, conventional oxidative stress assays such as MitoSOX Red, JC-1, and H2DCFDA were used to optimize the chemical dosage and incubation time needed for observable oxidative stress. Our results help in the collective effort to establish cellular NADH autofluorescence as a natural biomarker for cellular metabolic health and oxidative stress.

  17. Developing scintillation light readout simulation for the SBND experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Gamez, D.

    2016-01-01

    Detection of scintillation light can play several important roles in LArTPCs. Increased collection efficiency could result in the improvement of time, energy, and position resolution. The SBND collaboration is developing detailed MC simulations to study the performance of different types of light systems in the LArSoft framework. Due to the vast number of photons typically produced in neutrino physics events, a full optical simulation becomes extremely hard to run on reasonable time scales. I will describe how the SBND simulation tackles these problems and its current status for two of the light detection systems considered by SBND: (i) a traditional TPB-coated PMT based system and (ii) a system based on TPB-coated reflector foils to increase collection efficiency without increasing the number of photodetectors.

  18. A 4 V, ns-range pulse generator for the test of Cherenkov Telescopes readout electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoranz, P.; Vegas, I.; Miranda, J. M.

    2010-08-01

    We present in this paper the design, fabrication and verification of a ns-range pulse generator based on a Step Recovery Diode (SRD). This device needs only a 5 V DC power supply, delivers 1 ns pulses with peak amplitudes in excess of 4 V and features state of the art jitter figures. In addition, the pulser contains a trigger channel. The long standing problem of the SRD simulation via circuital analysis is addressed. It is shown that the dynamic properties of the Step Recovery Diode can accurately be reproduced via a small signal circuital simulation for the rise times needed in a ns-range pulser. It is also demonstrated that strong inaccuracies in the pulse shape prediction are obtained if the wave propagation through the lines typically used in this type of circuits is simulated by a simple Transverse Electromagnetic Mode (TEM) line model. Instead, it is necessary to account for non-TEM effects. By means of broadband resistive power splitters and high dynamic range amplifiers, a prototype of 4 channels was also fabricated. This prototype is particularly useful for testing the readout electronics of Cherenkov Telescopes, but additional applications to other large-scale experiments are expected, any of those where calibration or verification with compact ns-range pulsers featuring low jitter, large dynamic ranges and multichannel operation is needed. In addition, the fabrication cost of this pulser is almost negligible as compared with bulky, commercially available waveform generators, which rarely deliver ns pulses in excess of 3 V. Furthermore, the small size of the pulser presented here and its low power consumption allow an easy integration into more complex systems.

  19. Development of a multiplexed readout with high position resolution for positron emission tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangwon; Choi, Yong; Kang, Jihoon; Jung, Jin Ho

    2017-04-01

    Detector signals for positron emission tomography (PET) are commonly multiplexed to reduce the number of digital processing channels so that the system can remain cost effective while also maintaining imaging performance. In this work, a multiplexed readout combining Anger position estimation algorithm and position decoder circuit (PDC) was developed to reduce the number of readout channels by a factor of 24, 96-to-4. The data acquisition module consisted of a TDC (50 ps resolution), 4-channel ADCs (12 bit, 105 MHz sampling rate), 2 GB SDRAM and USB3.0. The performance of the multiplexed readout was assessed with a high-resolution PET detector block composed of 2×3 detector modules, each consisting of an 8×8 array of 1.52×1.52×6 mm3 LYSO, a 4×4 array of 3×3 mm2 silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) and 13.4×13.4 mm2 light guide with 0.7 mm thickness. The acquired flood histogram showed that all 384 crystals could be resolved. The average energy resolution at 511 keV was 13.7±1.6% full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) and the peak-to-valley ratios of the flood histogram on the horizontal and vertical lines were 18.8±0.8 and 22.8±1.3, respectively. The coincidence resolving time of a pair of detector blocks was 6.2 ns FWHM. The reconstructed phantom image showed that rods down to a diameter of 1.6 mm could be resolved. The results of this study indicate that the multiplexed readout would be useful in developing a PET with a spatial resolution less than the pixel size of the photosensor, such as a SiPM array.

  20. Precision muon tracking detectors and read-out electronics for operation at very high background rates at future colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortner, O.; Kroha, H.; Nowak, S.; Richter, R.; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, K.; Schwegler, Ph.

    2016-07-01

    The experience of the ATLAS MDT muon spectrometer shows that drift-tube chambers provide highly reliable precision muon tracking over large areas. The ATLAS muon chambers are exposed to unprecedentedly high background of photons and neutrons induced by the proton collisions. Still higher background rates are expected at future high-energy and high-luminosity colliders beyond HL-LHC. Therefore, drift-tube detectors with 15 mm tube diameter (30 mm in ATLAS), optimised for high rate operation, have been developed for such conditions. Several such full-scale sMDT chambers have been constructed with unprecedentedly high sense wire positioning accuracy of better than 10 μm. The chamber design and assembly methods have been optimised for large-scale production, reducing considerably cost and construction time while maintaining the high mechanical accuracy and reliability. Tests at the Gamma Irradiation Facility at CERN showed that the rate capability of sMDT chambers is improved by more than an order of magnitude compared to the MDT chambers. By using read-out electronics optimised for high counting rates, the rate capability can be further increased.

  1. Radiation Tolerant Electronics and Digital Processing for the Phase-I Trigger Readout Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Milic, A.

    2015-07-01

    The high luminosities of L > 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN produce an intense radiation environment that the detectors and their electronics must withstand. The ATLAS detector is a multi-purpose apparatus constructed to explore the new particle physics regime opened by the LHC. Of the many decay particles observed by the ATLAS detector, the energy of the created electrons and photons is measured by a sampling calorimeter technique that uses Liquid Argon (LAr) as its active medium. The front end (FE) electronic readout of the ATLAS LAr calorimeter located on the detector itself consists of a combined analog and digital processing system. In order to exploit the higher luminosity while keeping the same trigger bandwidth of 100 kHz, higher transverse granularity, higher resolution and longitudinal shower shape information will be provided from the LAr calorimeter to the Level-l trigger processors. New trigger readout electronics have been designed for this purpose, which will withstand the radiation dose levels expected for an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb{sup -1} during the high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), which is well above the original LHC design qualifications. (authors)

  2. Single shot spin readout with a cryogenic high-electron-mobility transistor amplifier at sub-Kelvin temperatures

    DOE PAGES

    Tracy, Lisa A.; Luhman, Dwight R.; Carr, Stephen M.; ...

    2016-02-08

    We use a cryogenic high-electron-mobility transistor circuit to amplify the current from a single electron transistor, allowing for demonstration of single shot readout of an electron spin on a single P donor in Si with 100 kHz bandwidth and a signal to noise ratio of ~9. In order to reduce the impact of cable capacitance, the amplifier is located adjacent to the Si sample, at the mixing chamber stage of a dilution refrigerator. For a current gain of ~2.7 x 103 the power dissipation of the amplifier is 13 μW, the bandwidth is ~1.3 MHz, and for frequencies above 300more » kHz the current noise referred to input is ≤ 70 fA/√Hz. Furthermore, with this amplification scheme, we are able to observe coherent oscillations of a P donor electron spin in isotopically enriched 28Si with 96% visibility.« less

  3. Single shot spin readout with a cryogenic high-electron-mobility transistor amplifier at sub-Kelvin temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Tracy, Lisa A.; Luhman, Dwight R.; Carr, Stephen M.; Bishop, Nathaniel C.; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.; Pluym, Tammy; Wendt, Joel R.; Lilly, Michael P.; Carroll, Malcolm S.

    2016-02-08

    We use a cryogenic high-electron-mobility transistor circuit to amplify the current from a single electron transistor, allowing for demonstration of single shot readout of an electron spin on a single P donor in Si with 100 kHz bandwidth and a signal to noise ratio of ~9. In order to reduce the impact of cable capacitance, the amplifier is located adjacent to the Si sample, at the mixing chamber stage of a dilution refrigerator. For a current gain of ~2.7 x 103 the power dissipation of the amplifier is 13 μW, the bandwidth is ~1.3 MHz, and for frequencies above 300 kHz the current noise referred to input is ≤ 70 fA/√Hz. Furthermore, with this amplification scheme, we are able to observe coherent oscillations of a P donor electron spin in isotopically enriched 28Si with 96% visibility.

  4. High-speed, multi-channel detector readout electronics for fast radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Hennig, Wolfgang

    2012-06-22

    In this project, we are developing a high speed digital spectrometer that a) captures detector waveforms at rates up to 500 MSPS b) has upgraded event data acquisition with additional data buffers for zero dead time operation c) moves energy calculations to the FPGA to increase spectrometer throughput in fast scintillator applications d) uses a streamlined architecture and high speed data interface for even faster readout to the host PC These features are in addition to the standard functions in our existing spectrometers such as digitization, programmable trigger and energy filters, pileup inspection, data acquisition with energy and time stamps, MCA histograms, and run statistics. In Phase I, we upgraded one of our existing spectrometer designs to demonstrate the key principle of fast waveform capture using a 500 MSPS, 12 bit ADC and a Xilinx Virtex-4 FPGA. This upgraded spectrometer, named P500, performed well in initial tests of energy resolution, pulse shape analysis, and timing measurements, thus achieving item (a) above. In Phase II, we are revising the P500 to build a commercial prototype with the improvements listed in items (b)-(d). As described in the previous report, two devices were built to pursue this goal, named the Pixie-500 and the Pixie-500 Express. The Pixie-500 has only minor improvements from the Phase I prototype and is intended as an early commercial product (its production and part of its development were funded outside the SBIR). It also allows testing of the ADC performance in real applications.The Pixie-500 Express (or Pixie-500e) includes all of the improvements (b)-(d). At the end of Phase II of the project, we have tested and debugged the hardware, firmware and software of the Pixie-500 Express prototype boards delivered 12/3/2010. This proved substantially more complex than anticipated. At the time of writing, all hardware bugs have been fixed, the PCI Express interface is working, the SDRAM has been successfully tested and the SHARC

  5. Development of Readout Interconnections for the Si-W Calorimeter of SiD

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, M.; Fields, R.G.; Holbrook, B.; Lander, R.L.; Moskaleva, A.; Neher, C.; Pasner, J.; Tripathi, M.; Brau, J.E.; Frey, R.E.; Strom, D.; Breidenbach, M.; Freytag, D.; Haller, G.; Herbst, R.; Nelson, T.; Schier, S.; Schumm, B.; /UC, Santa Cruz

    2012-09-14

    The SiD collaboration is developing a Si-W sampling electromagnetic calorimeter, with anticipated application for the International Linear Collider. Assembling the modules for such a detector will involve special bonding technologies for the interconnections, especially for attaching a silicon detector wafer to a flex cable readout bus. We review the interconnect technologies involved, including oxidation removal processes, pad surface preparation, solder ball selection and placement, and bond quality assurance. Our results show that solder ball bonding is a promising technique for the Si-W ECAL, and unresolved issues are being addressed.

  6. Development of an analog read-out channel for time projection chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkin, E.; Sagdiev, I.

    2017-01-01

    The development of an analog read-out channel for time projection chambers (TPC) is presented both in schematic and layout. Structure of the channel consists of a preamplifier, fourth order shaper and differential buffer. The channel operates with positive and negative polarities of input charge. The prototype has the following features: dynamic range of 100 fC for both polarities, 20 mv/fC of sensitivity for differential output, peaking time – 160 ns, ENC - <1000e at 40 pF of source capacitance. The presented channel was designed and verified in the CMOS UMC MMRF 180 nm process. The results of post layout simulation are presented.

  7. Development and simulation results of a sparsification and readout circuit for wide pixel matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrielli, A.; Giorgi, F.; Morsani, F.; Villa, M.

    2011-06-01

    In future collider experiments, the increasing luminosity and centre of mass energy are rising challenging problems in the design of new inner tracking systems. In this context we develop high-efficiency readout architectures for large binary pixel matrices that are meant to cope with the high-stressing conditions foreseen in the innermost layers of a tracker [The SuperB Conceptual Design Report, INFN/AE-07/02, SLAC-R-856, LAL 07-15, Available online at: http://www.pi.infn.it/SuperB]. We model and design digital readout circuits to be integrated on VLSI ASICs. These architectures can be realized with different technology processes and sensors: they can be implemented on the same silicon sensor substrate of a CMOS MAPS devices (Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor), on the CMOS tier of a hybrid pixel sensor or in a 3D chip where the digital layer is stacked on the sensor and the analog layers [V. Re et al., Nuc. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. A, doi:10.1016/j.nima.2010.05.039]. In the presented work, we consider a data-push architecture designed for a sensor matrix of an area of about 1.3 cm 2 with a pitch of 50 microns. The readout circuit tries to take great advantage of the high density of in-pixel digital logic allowed by vertical integration. We aim at sustaining a rate density of 100 Mtrack ṡ s -1 ṡ cm -2 with a temporal resolution below 1 μs. We show how this architecture can cope with these stressing conditions presenting the results of Monte Carlo simulations.

  8. Front-End Electronics for the Array Readout of a Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detector Towards Observation of Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishitsuka, H.; Ikeno, M.; Oguri, S.; Tajima, O.; Tomita, N.; Uchida, T.

    2016-07-01

    Precise measurements of polarization patterns in cosmic microwave background (CMB) provide deep knowledge about the begin of the Universe. The GroundBIRD experiment aims to measure the CMB polarization by using microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID) arrays. The MKID is suited to multiplexing. One of our requirements is a MUX factor (the number of readout channels for a single wire pair) of at least 100. If we make frequency combs of the MKIDs with 2-MHz spacing, a bandwidth of 200 MHz satisfies 100 MUX. The analog electronics must consist of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), digital-to-analog converter (DAC), and local oscillator. We developed our own analog electronics board " RHEA." Two outputs/inputs of DAC/ADC with a 200-MHz clock provide an effective bandwidth of 200 MHz. The RHEA allows us to measure both the amplitude and phase responses of each MKID simultaneously. These data are continuously sampled at a high rate (e.g., 1 kSPS) and with no dead time. We achieved 12 and 14 bits resolution for ADC and DAC, respectively. This corresponds to achieve that our electronics achieved low noise: 1/1000 compared with the detector noise. We also achieved low power consumption compared with that of other electronics development for other experiments. Another important feature is that the board is completely separated from the digital part. Each user can choose their preferred field-programmable array. With the combination of the Kintex-7 evaluation kit from Xilinx, we demonstrated readout of MKID response.

  9. Cross strip anode readouts for microchannel plate detectors: developing flight qualified prototypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallerga, John; Cooney, M.; Raffanti, R.; Varner, G.; Siegmund, O.; McPhate, J. B.; Tremsin, A.

    2014-01-01

    Photon counting microchannel plate (MCP) imagers have been the detector of choice for most UV astronomical missions over the last two decades (eg. EUVE, FUSE, COS on Hubble etc.). Over this duration, improvements in the MCP laboratory readout technology have resulted in better spatial resolution (x10), temporal resolution (x 1000) and output event rate (x100), all the while operating at lower gain (x 10) resulting in lower high voltage requirements and longer MCP lifetimes. One such technology is the parallel cross strip (PXS) readout. The PXS anode is a set of orthogonal conducting strips (80 x 80), typically spaced at a 635 micron pitch onto which charge clouds from MCP amplified events land. Each strip has its own charge sensitive amplifier that is sampled continuously by a dedicated analog to digital (ADC) converter at 50MHz. All of the 160 ADC digital output lines are fed into a field programmable gate array (FGPA) which can detect charge events landing on the strips, measure the peak amplitudes of those charge events and calculate their spatial centroid along with their time of arrival (X,Y,T). Laboratory versions of these electronics have demonstrated < 20 microns FWHM spatial resolution, count rates on the order of 2 MHz, and temporal resolution of ~ 1ns. In 2012 the our group at U.C. Berkeley, along with our partners at the U. Hawaii, received a Strategic Astrophysics Technology grant to raise the TRL of the PXS detector from 4 to 6 by replacing most of the 19" rack mounted, high powered electronics with application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) which will lower the power, mass and volume requirements of the PXS detector. We were also tasked to design and fabricate a "standard" 50mm square active area MCP detector incorporating these electronics that can be environmentally qualified for flight (temperature, vacuum, vibration). This detector design could then be modified for individual flight opportunities with a higher level of confidence than

  10. A Low Noise CMOS Readout Based on a Polymer-Coated SAW Array for Miniature Electronic Nose

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Cheng-Chun; Liu, Szu-Chieh; Chiu, Shih-Wen; Tang, Kea-Tiong

    2016-01-01

    An electronic nose (E-Nose) is one of the applications for surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors. In this paper, we present a low-noise complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) readout application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) based on an SAW sensor array for achieving a miniature E-Nose. The center frequency of the SAW sensors was measured to be approximately 114 MHz. Because of interference between the sensors, we designed a low-noise CMOS frequency readout circuit to enable the SAW sensor to obtain frequency variation. The proposed circuit was fabricated in Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) 0.18 μm 1P6M CMOS process technology. The total chip size was nearly 1203 × 1203 μm2. The chip was operated at a supply voltage of 1 V for a digital circuit and 1.8 V for an analog circuit. The least measurable difference between frequencies was 4 Hz. The detection limit of the system, when estimated using methanol and ethanol, was 0.1 ppm. Their linearity was in the range of 0.1 to 26,000 ppm. The power consumption levels of the analog and digital circuits were 1.742 mW and 761 μW, respectively. PMID:27792131

  11. A Low Noise CMOS Readout Based on a Polymer-Coated SAW Array for Miniature Electronic Nose.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cheng-Chun; Liu, Szu-Chieh; Chiu, Shih-Wen; Tang, Kea-Tiong

    2016-10-25

    An electronic nose (E-Nose) is one of the applications for surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors. In this paper, we present a low-noise complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) readout application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) based on an SAW sensor array for achieving a miniature E-Nose. The center frequency of the SAW sensors was measured to be approximately 114 MHz. Because of interference between the sensors, we designed a low-noise CMOS frequency readout circuit to enable the SAW sensor to obtain frequency variation. The proposed circuit was fabricated in Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) 0.18 μm 1P6M CMOS process technology. The total chip size was nearly 1203 × 1203 μm². The chip was operated at a supply voltage of 1 V for a digital circuit and 1.8 V for an analog circuit. The least measurable difference between frequencies was 4 Hz. The detection limit of the system, when estimated using methanol and ethanol, was 0.1 ppm. Their linearity was in the range of 0.1 to 26,000 ppm. The power consumption levels of the analog and digital circuits were 1.742 mW and 761 μW, respectively.

  12. Development of low mass optical readout for high data bandwidth systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, D.; DeLurgio, P.; Drake, G.; Fernando, W.; Lopez, D.; Salvachua-Ferrando, B.; Stanek, R.

    2010-10-01

    At Argonne National Laboratory the High Energy Physics and Center for Nanoscale Materials Divisions are working on a project to develop a new generation of detector readout using high speed data transfer optical devices that can be implemented in particle physics or for long distances. Free-space communications devices offer the potential for reductions in mass, power, and cost of data paths for on-board trigger and readout of tracking detectors. The project involves three areas of study: light modulation, the design and construction of MEMS optical devices, and the control systems for maintaining precise laser light positioning. We demonstrate an optical link in air over one meter and with low error rate at 1 Gb/s. We demonstrate steering of an optical beam over a meter with a precision of 5 micrometers utilizing a MEMS mirror and reflected light in the feedback loop. For early testing, light modulation tests with a fiber link using Li-Niobate modulators and a data generation and error checking chip are done at 1 Gb/s. Many companies and universities are developing modulators which will be incorporated into CMOS chips. We are doing radiation hardness studies for one of the materials involved. Laser light will need to be steered on to and kept centered on the detector in the presence of thermal or mechanical motion, etc. This steering will be controlled by MEMS mirrors. Polycrystalline and crystalline silicon based mirror designs are being studied. We review the current status of the project and outline plans for the future development of the system.

  13. The data acquisition system for a fixed target experiment at NICA complex at JINR and its connection to the ATLAS TileCal readout electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiwa, K. G.; Slepnev, I.; Bazylev, S.

    2015-10-01

    Today's large-scale science projects have always encountered challenges in processing large data flow from the experiments, the ATLAS detector records proton-proton collisions provided by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN every 50 ns which results in a total data flow of 10 Pb/s. These data must be reduced to the science data product for further analysis, thus a very fast decisions need to be executed, to modify this large amounts of data at high rates. The capabilities required to support this scale of data movement is development and improvement of high-throughput electronics. The upgraded LHC will provide collisions at rates that will be at least 10 times higher than those of today due to it's luminosity by 2022. This will require a complete redesign of the read-out electronics and Processing Units (PU) in the Tile-calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment. A general purpose, high-throughput PU has been developed for the TileCal at CERN, by using several ARM-processors in cluster configuration. The PU is capable of handling large data throughput and apply advanced operations at high rates. This system has been proposed for the fixed target experiment at NICA complex to handle the first level processes and event building. The aim of this work is to have a look at the architecture of the data acquisition system (DAQ) of the fixed target experiment at the NICA complex at JINR, by compiling the data-flow requirements of all the subcomponents. Furthermore, the VME DAQ modules characteristics to control, triggering and data acquisition will be described in order to define the DAQ with maximum readout efficiency, no dead time and data selection and compression.

  14. PETIROC2 based readout electronics optimization for Gamma Cameras and PET detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monzo, J. M.; Aguilar, A.; González-Montoro, A.; Lamprou, E.; González, A. J.; Hernández, L.; Mazur, D.; Colom, R. J.; Benlloch, J. M.

    2017-02-01

    Developing front-end electronics to improve charge detection and time resolution in gamma-ray detectors is one of the main tasks to improve performance in new multimodal imaging systems that merge information of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Gamma Camera or PET tomographs. The aim of this work is to study the behaviour and to optimize the performance of an ASIC for PET and Gamma Camera applications based on SiPMs detectors. PETIROC2 is a commercial ASIC developed by Weeroc to provide accurate charge and time coincidence resolutions. It has 32 analog input channels that are independently managed. Each channel is divided into two signals, one for time stamping using a TDC and another for charge measurement. In this work, PETIROC2 is evaluated in an experimental setup composed of two pixelated LYSO crystals based detectors, each coupled to a Hamamatsu 4×4 SiPM array. Both detectors are working in coincidence with a separation distance between them that can be modified. In the present work, an energy resolution of 13.6% FWHM and a time coincidence resolution of 815 ps FWHM have been obtained. These results will be useful to optimize and improve PETIROC2 based PET and Gamma Camera systems.

  15. Highly sensitive hBN/graphene hot electron bolometers with a Johnson noise readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efetov, Dmitri; Gao, Yuanda; Walsh, Evan; Shiue, Ren-Jye; Grosso, Gabriele; Peng, Cheng; Hone, James; Fong, Kin Chun; Englund, Dirk

    Graphene has remarkable opto-electronic and thermo-electric properties that make it an exciting functional material for various photo-detection applications. In particular, owed to graphenes unique combination of an exceedingly low electronic heat capacity and a strongly suppressed electron-phonon thermal conductivity Gth, the electronic and phononic temperatures are highly decoupled allowing an operation principle as a hot electron bolometer (HEB). Here we demonstrate highly sensitive HEBs made of high quality hBN/graphene/hBN stacks and employ a direct electronic temperature read out scheme via Johnson noise thermometry (JNT). We perform combined pump-probe and JNT measurements to demonstrate strongly damped Ce and Gth in the ultra-low impurity σi = 109 cm-2 hBN/G/hBN stacks, which result in unprecedented photo-detection sensitivity and noise equivalent power for graphene HEBs.

  16. Developing electronic textbooks

    SciTech Connect

    Zadoks, R.I.; Ratner, J.A.

    1996-03-01

    This paper discusses a new approach to the development of engineering education materials. The ``Electronic Textbook`` represents the logical progression of the printed textbook in the Electronic Age. The concept behind this approach is simple; to place all of the information contained in a textbook in electronic form. Currently, paper texts exist on the market with electronic supplements, however, this Electronic Textbook would include supplements fully integrated in the whole text. The computer hardware and software needed to make this advance possible have existed for nearly ten years, and they have been readily available to engineering educators and students for over three years. Computer based ``tools`` in engineering textbooks as are prevalent today range from computer styled algorithms and code snippets, to fully developed software applications with graphical user interfaces on floppy disks attached to the back covers of books. The next logical step in publishing is to dispense with the paper book entirely, by distributing textbooks via electronic media such as CD-ROM. Electronic Textbooks use the full range of multi-media technologies in the learning and teaching process including video clips, computer animations and fully functional numerical engines as integral parts of the textbook material. This is very appealing since interactive media provide teaching tools that appeal to divergent learning styles. The advantages of Electronic Textbooks lead to several challenges. Special attention must be paid to the development of user interfaces; navigation is of particular importance when non- linear exploration is encouraged. These issues are being addressed at the Sandia National Laboratories by an electronic documentation development team. This team includes experts in engineering, in human factors, and in computer hardware and software development. Guidelines for the development of electronic textbooks based on the experiences of this team are provided.

  17. Inexpensive read-out for coincident electron spectroscopy with a transmission electron microscope at nanometer scale using micro channel plates and multistrip anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollander, R. W.; Bom, V. R.; van Eijk, C. W. E.; Faber, J. S.; Hoevers, H.; Kruit, P.

    1994-09-01

    The elemental composition of a sample at nanometer scale is determined by measurement of the characteristic energy of Auger electrons, emitted in coincidence with incoming primary electrons from a microbeam in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). Single electrons are detected with position sensitive detectors, consisting of MicroChannel Plates (MCP) and MultiStrip Anodes (MSA), one for the energy of the Auger electrons (Auger-detector) and one for the energy loss of primary electrons (EELS-detector). The MSAs are sensed with LeCroy 2735DC preamplifiers. The fast readout is based on LeCroy's PCOS III system. On the detection of a coincidence (Event) energy data of Auger and EELS are combined with timing data to an Event word. Event words are stored in list mode in a VME memory module. Blocks of Event words are scanned by transputers in VME and two-dimensional energy histograms are filled using the timing information to obtain a maximal true/accidental ratio. The resulting histograms are stored on disk of a PC-386, which also controls data taking. The system is designed to handle 10 5 Events per second, 90% of which are accidental. In the histograms the "true" to "accidental" ratio will be 5. The dead time is 15%.

  18. SPIROC: design and performances of a dedicated very front-end electronics for an ILC Analog Hadronic CALorimeter (AHCAL) prototype with SiPM read-out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conforti Di Lorenzo, S.; Callier, S.; Fleury, J.; Dulucq, F.; De la Taille, C.; Chassard, G. Martin; Raux, L.; Seguin-Moreau, N.

    2013-01-01

    For the future e+ e- International Linear Collider (ILC) the ASIC SPIROC (Silicon Photomultiplier Integrated Read-Out Chip) was designed to read out the Analog Hadronic Calorimeter (AHCAL) equipped with Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM). It is an evolution of the FLC_SiPM chip designed by the OMEGA group in 2005. SPIROC2 [1] was realized in AMS SiGe 0.35 μm technology [2] and developed to match the requirements of large dynamic range, low noise, low consumption, high precision and large number of read-out channels. This ASIC is a very front-end read-out chip that integrates 36 self triggered channels with variable gain to achieve charge and time measurements. The charge measurement must be performed from 1 up to 2000 photo-electrons (p.e.) corresponding to 160 fC up to 320 pC for SiPM gain 106. The time measurement is performed with a coarse 12-bit counter related to the bunch crossing clock (up to 5 MHz) and a fine time ramp based on this clock (down to 200 ns) to achieve a resolution of 1 ns. An analog memory array with a depth of 16 for each channel is used to store the time information and the charge measurement. The analog memory content (time and charge) is digitized thanks to an internal 12-bit Wilkinson ADC. The data is then stored in a 4kbytes RAM. A complex digital part is necessary to manage all these features and to transfer the data to the DAQ. SPIROC2 is the second generation of the SPIROC ASIC family designed in 2008 by the OMEGA group. A very similar version (SPIROC2c) was submitted in February 2012 to improve the noise performance and also to integrate a new TDC (Time to Digital Converter) structure. This paper describes SPIROC2 and SPIROC2c ASICs and illustrates the main characteristics thank to a series of measurements.

  19. 3-D readout-electronics packaging for high-bandwidth massively paralleled imager

    DOEpatents

    Kwiatkowski, Kris; Lyke, James

    2007-12-18

    Dense, massively parallel signal processing electronics are co-packaged behind associated sensor pixels. Microchips containing a linear or bilinear arrangement of photo-sensors, together with associated complex electronics, are integrated into a simple 3-D structure (a "mirror cube"). An array of photo-sensitive cells are disposed on a stacked CMOS chip's surface at a 45.degree. angle from light reflecting mirror surfaces formed on a neighboring CMOS chip surface. Image processing electronics are held within the stacked CMOS chip layers. Electrical connections couple each of said stacked CMOS chip layers and a distribution grid, the connections for distributing power and signals to components associated with each stacked CSMO chip layer.

  20. Development of a dedicated readout ASIC for TPC based X-ray polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongyan; Deng, Zhi; Li, Hong; Liu, Yinong; Feng, Hua

    2016-07-01

    X-ray polarimetry with time projection chambers was firstly proposed by JK Black in 2007 and has been greatly developed since then. It measured two dimensional photoelectron tracks with one dimensional strip and the other dimension was estimated by the drift time from the signal waveforms. A readout ASIC, APV25, originally developed for CMS silicon trackers was used and has shown some limitations such as waveform sampling depth. A dedicated ASIC was developed for TPC based X-ray polarimeters in this paper. It integrated 32 channel circuits and each channel consisted of an analog front-end and a waveform sampler based on switched capacitor array. The analog front-end has a charge sensitive preamplifier with a gain of 25 mV/fC, a CR-RC shaper with a peaking time of 25 ns, a baseline holder and a discriminator for self-triggering. The SCA has a buffer latency of 3.2 μs with 64 cells operating at 20 MSPS. The ASIC was fabricated in a 0.18 μm CMOS process. The equivalent noise charge (ENC) of the analog front-end was measured to be 274.8 e+34.6 e/pF. The effective resolution of the SCA was 8.8 bits at sampling rate up to 50 MSPS. The total power consumption was 2.8 mW per channel. The ASIC was also tested with real TPC detectors and two dimensional photoelectron tracks have been successfully acquired. More tests and analysis on the sensitivity to the polarimetry are undergoing and will be presented in this paper.

  1. Frequency-domain multiplex with eight-input SQUID and readout electronics over 1 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masui, K.; Takei, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Kimura, S.; Mitsuda, K.; Yamasaki, N. Y.

    2006-04-01

    In a magnetic summation method, TES and SQUID driving circuits are isolated and thus small crosstalk and stray impedance are expected. Since a FLL circuit with a large bandwidth and a small noise level is required for a SQUID, we designed and produced an electronics to meet our design of multiplexing with an 8-input SQUID. The FLL circuit achieved an open loop-gain bandwidth product of 8 MHz with 1 m wire length, which is enough for a TES to be operated with a bias current of 70 μA, and a noise level of 30 pA/√{Hz}.

  2. Development of an automated, high-throughput bactericidal assay that measures cellular respiration as a survival readout for Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Mak, Puiying A; Santos, George F; Masterman, Kelly-Anne; Janes, Jeff; Wacknov, Bill; Vienken, Kay; Giuliani, Marzia; Herman, Ann E; Cooke, Michael; Mbow, M Lamine; Donnelly, John

    2011-08-01

    Complement-mediated bactericidal activity has long been regarded as the serological correlate of protective immunity against Neisseria meningitidis. This was affirmed in 2005 at a WHO-sponsored meningococcal serology standardization workshop. The assay currently employed by most laboratories involves determining surviving bacterial colony counts on agar as a readout which is labor-intensive, time-consuming, and not amendable to rapid data analysis for clinical trials. Consequently, there is an acute need to develop a sensitive, high-throughput bactericidal assay to enable a rapid and robust assessment of the effectiveness of vaccine candidates. To this end, we have developed an automated, kinetic assay based on the fluorescent respiration product of resazurin which reduces assay volume, shortens assay time, and facilitates automation of data analysis. We demonstrate proof of concept for applicability of this high-throughput system with multiple meningococcal strains and utilizing different lots of human complement. The assay is robust and highly reproducible. Titers obtained by the fluorescence readout method are strongly correlated with the data obtained using the conventional, agar plate-based assay. These results demonstrate that the detection of bacteria that have survived the bactericidal reaction by measuring metabolic activity using a fluorescent dye as an alternative readout is a promising approach for the development of a high-throughput bactericidal assay.

  3. Development of a fast read-out system of a single photon counting detector for mammography with synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, F. C.; Rigon, L.; Longo, R.; Arfelli, F.; Bergamaschi, A.; Chen, R. C.; Dreossi, D.; Schmitt, B.; Vallazza, E.; Castelli, E.

    2011-12-01

    A single-photon counting detector read-out system for mammography with synchrotron radiation has been developed with the aim to meet the needs of the mammographic imaging station of the SYRMEP beamline at ELETTRA. The system called PICASSO (Phase Imaging for Clinical Application with Silicon detector and Synchrotron radiatiOn) is a modular detector that implements a read-out system with MYTHEN II ASICs, an embedded Linux-based controller board and a Scientific Linux acquisition workstation. The system architecture and characteristics are herein presented. The system was tested at the SYRMEP beamline and achieved a frame rate of 33 Hz for 8448 channels at 24-bit dynamic range, and it is capable of continuously acquiring up to 2000 frames. Standard mammographic phantoms were imaged and good quality images were obtained at doses comparable with what is delivered in conventional full field mammographic systems.

  4. Development of a low noise readout ASIC for CZT detectors for gamma-ray spectroscopy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, J.; Deng, Z.; Wang, G.; Li, H.; Liu, Y.

    2012-08-01

    A multi-channel readout ASIC for pixelated CZT detectors has been developed for gamma-ray spectroscopy applications. Each channel consists of a low noise dual-stage charge sensitive amplifier (CSA), a CR-(RC)4 semi-Gaussian shaper and a class-AB output buffer. The equivalent noise charge (ENC) of input PMOS transistor is optimized for 5 pF input capacitance and 1 μs peaking time using gm/ID design methodology. The gain can be adjusted from 100 mV/fC to 400 mV/fC and the peaking time can be adjusted from 1 μs to 4 μs. A 16-channel chip has been designed and fabricated in 0.35 μm 2P4M CMOS technology. The test results show that the chip works well and fully satisfies the design specifications. The ENC was measured to be 72 e + 26 e/pF at 1 μs peaking time and 86 e + 20 e/pF at 4 μs peaking time. The non-uniformity of the channel gain and ENC was less than ±12% and ±11% respectively for 16 channels in one chip. The chip was also tested with a pixelated CZT detector at room temperature. The measured energy resolution at 59.5 keV photopeak of 241Am and 122 keV photopeak of 57Co were 4.5% FWHM and 2.8% FWHM for the central area pixels, respectively.

  5. Microwave multiplex readout for superconducting sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferri, E.; Becker, D.; Bennett, D.; Faverzani, M.; Fowler, J.; Gard, J.; Giachero, A.; Hays-Wehle, J.; Hilton, G.; Maino, M.; Mates, J.; Puiu, A.; Nucciotti, A.; Reintsema, C.; Schmidt, D.; Swetz, D.; Ullom, J.; Vale, L.

    2016-07-01

    The absolute neutrino mass scale is still an outstanding challenge in both particle physics and cosmology. The calorimetric measurement of the energy released in a nuclear beta decay is a powerful tool to determine the effective electron-neutrino mass. In the last years, the progress on low temperature detector technologies has allowed to design large scale experiments aiming at pushing down the sensitivity on the neutrino mass below 1 eV. Even with outstanding performances in both energy ( eV on keV) and time resolution ( 1 μs) on the single channel, a large number of detectors working in parallel is required to reach a sub-eV sensitivity. Microwave frequency domain readout is the best available technique to readout large array of low temperature detectors, such as Transition Edge Sensors (TESs) or Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs). In this way a multiplex factor of the order of thousands can be reached, limited only by the bandwidth of the available commercial fast digitizers. This microwave multiplexing system will be used to readout the HOLMES detectors, an array of 1000 microcalorimeters based on TES sensors in which the 163Ho will be implanted. HOLMES is a new experiment for measuring the electron neutrino mass by means of the electron capture (EC) decay of 163Ho. We present here the microwave frequency multiplex which will be used in the HOLMES experiment and the microwave frequency multiplex used to readout the MKID detectors developed in Milan as well.

  6. A low-noise low-power readout electronics circuit at 4 K in standard CMOS technology for PACS/Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merken, Patrick; Creten, Ybe; Putzeys, Jan; Souverijns, Tim; Van Hoof, Chris

    2004-10-01

    IMEC has designed, in the framework of the PACS project (for the European Herschel Space Observatory) the Cold Readout Electronics (CRE) for the Ge:Ga far-infrared detector array. Key specifications for the CRE were high linearity (3 %), low power consumption (80 μW for an 18 channel array), and very low noise (200 e-) at an operating temperature of 4.2 K (LHT - Liquid Helium Temperature). IMEC has implemented this circuit in a standard CMOS technology (AMIS 0.7 μm), which guarantees high production yield and uniformity, relatively easy availability of the technology and portability of the design. However, the drawback of this approach is the anomalous behavior of CMOS transistors at temperatures below 30-40K, known as kink and hysteresis effects and under certain conditions the presence of excess noise. These cryogenic phenomena disturb the normal functionality of commonly used circuits or building blocks like buffer amplifiers and opamps. We were able to overcome these problems and developed a library of digital and analog building blocks based on the modeling of cryogenic behavior, and on adapted design and layout techniques. These techniques have been validated in an automated cryogenic test set-ups developed at IMEC. We will present here in detail the full design of the 18 channel CRE circuit, its interface with the Ge:Ga sensor, and its electrical performance and demonstrate that all major specifications at 4.2 K were met. Future designs and implementations will be equally presented.

  7. Gain drift compensation with no-feedback-loop developed for the X-IFU/ATHENA readout chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prêle, D.; Voisin, F.; Beillimaz, C.; Chen, S.; Goldwurm, A.

    2016-07-01

    The focal plane of the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) instrument of the Athena observatory is composed of about 4000 micro-calorimeters. These sensors, based on superconducting Transition Edge Sensors, are read out through a frequency multiplexer and a base-band feedback to linearize SQUIDs. However, the loop gain of this feedback is lower than 10 in the modulated TES signal bandwidth, which is not enough to fix the gain of the full readout chain. Calibration of the instrument is planned to be done at a time scale larger than a dozen minutes and the challenging energy resolution goal of 2.5 eV at 6 keV will probably require a gain stability larger than 10-4 over a long duration. A large part of this gain is provided by a Low-Noise Amplifier (LNA) in the Warm Front-End Electronics (WFEE). To reach such gain stability over more than a dozen minutes, this non-cooled amplifier has to cope with the temperature and supply voltage variations. Moreover, mainly for noise reasons, common large loop gain with feedback can not be used. We propose a new amplifier topology using diodes as loads of a differential amplifier to provide a fixed voltage gain, independent of the temperature and of the bias fluctuations. This amplifier is designed using a 350 nm SiGe BiCMOS technology and is part of an integrated circuit developed for the WFEE. Our simulations provide the expected gain drift and noise performances of such structure. Comparison with standard resistive loaded differential pair clearly shows the advantages of the proposed amplifier topology with a gain drift decreasing by more than an order of magnitude. Performances of this diode loaded amplifier are discussed in the context of the X-IFU requirements.

  8. GBT based readout in the CBM experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, J.; Byszuk, A. P.; Emschermann, D.; Kasinski, K.; Müller, W. F. J.; Schmidt, C. J.; Szczygiel, R.; Zabolotny, W. M.

    2017-02-01

    The CBM experiment at FAIR will use GBTX and Versatile Link based readout systems for several of its subdetectors. The paper describes the GBT based readout concept in CBM, emphasizing the common features among systems. Particular choices and features of the readout are motivated mainly by the requirements in the readout of the silicon tracking system (STS). Common developments like a common CBM readout board are presented. The prototype board provides full GBT functionality for all systems, can be interfaced to various prototype readout chains and be refined for later detector specific versions.

  9. Advances in Discrete GaAs JFETs and Simple Amplifiers for Deep Cryogenic Readouts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, T. J.; Fitzsimmons, M.

    1998-01-01

    The progress of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in developing gallium arsenide junction field-effect transistors (GaAs JFETs) for application in infrared readout electronics operating below 10 Kelvin is discussed.

  10. Measurement of MKID Performance with High-Speed and Wide-Band Readout System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karatsu, Kenichi; Naruse, M.; Nitta, T.; Sekine, M.; Sekiguchi, S.; Sekimoto, Y.; Noguchi, T.; Uzawa, Y.; Matsuo, H.; Kiuchi, H.

    2014-08-01

    Microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) are being developed at the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan to enable precise measurements of the cosmic microwave background. One of the features of MKIDs is scalability using a frequency-division multiplexing (FDMUX) readout scheme. A digital fast fourier transform spectrometer (FFTS) is a good way to read out a number of resonance frequencies simultaneously and fully utilize the advantage of FDMUX of MKIDs. We have developed FFTS readout electronics using an ADC/DAC with 1 Gsps (sample per second) sampling rate and 270 MHz bandwidth. We measured the noise characteristics of a single MKID in the frequency range of 60 Hz-30 kHz with this readout system, and found the noise was almost equivalent to the noise measured by ordinary analog IQ down-converter readout. This indicates our FFTS electronics do not add any additional noise to the MKID readout system over the frequency range.

  11. Readout of the upgraded ALICE-ITS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczepankiewicz, A.

    2016-07-01

    The ALICE experiment will undergo a major upgrade during the second long shutdown of the CERN LHC. As part of this program, the present Inner Tracking System (ITS), which employs different layers of hybrid pixels, silicon drift and strip detectors, will be replaced by a completely new tracker composed of seven layers of monolithic active pixel sensors. The upgraded ITS will have more than twelve billion pixels in total, producing 300 Gbit/s of data when tracking 50 kHz Pb-Pb events. Two families of pixel chips realized with the TowerJazz CMOS imaging process have been developed as candidate sensors: the ALPIDE, which uses a proprietary readout and sparsification mechanism and the MISTRAL-O, based on a proven rolling shutter architecture. Both chips can operate in continuous mode, with the ALPIDE also supporting triggered operations. As the communication IP blocks are shared among the two chip families, it has been possible to develop a common Readout Electronics. All the sensor components (analog stages, state machines, buffers, FIFOs, etc.) have been modelled in a system level simulation, which has been extensively used to optimize both the sensor and the whole readout chain design in an iterative process. This contribution covers the progress of the R&D efforts and the overall expected performance of the ALICE-ITS readout system.

  12. Development of ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter front-end electronics for the HL-LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T.

    2017-01-01

    The high-luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider will provide 5–7 times greater luminosities than assumed in the original detector design. An improved trigger system requires an upgrade of the readout electronics of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter. Concepts for the future readout of the 182,500 calorimeter cells at 40–80 MHz and 16-bit dynamic range and the developments of radiation-tolerant, low-noise, low-power, and high-bandwidth front-end electronic components, including preamplifiers and shapers, 14-bit ADCs, and 10-Gb/s laser diode array drivers, are presented in this paper.

  13. Development and test in liquid argon of the light readout system for the ArDM experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccone, V.

    2009-12-01

    ArDM is a new-generation WIMP detector which will measure simultaneously light and charge from scintillation and ionization of liquid argon. Our goal is to construct, characterize and operate a 1 ton liquid argon (LAr) underground detector. The project relies on the read out of the VUV scintillation light and on the extraction of the electrons produced by ionization from the liquid into the gas phase of the detector. The light has to be converted with wavelength shifters such as TetraPhenyl Butadiene in order to be detected by photomultipliers with bialkali photocathodes. I describe the light readout system and the tests of the prototype with liquid argon in the full size detector.

  14. Single-Shot Ternary Readout of Two-Electron Spin States in a Quantum Dot Using Spin Filtering by Quantum Hall Edge States.

    PubMed

    Kiyama, H; Nakajima, T; Teraoka, S; Oiwa, A; Tarucha, S

    2016-12-02

    We report on the single-shot readout of three two-electron spin states-a singlet and two triplet substates-whose z components of spin angular momentum are 0 and +1, in a gate-defined GaAs single quantum dot. The three spin states are distinguished by detecting spin-dependent tunnel rates that arise from two mechanisms: spin filtering by spin-resolved edge states and spin-orbital correlation with orbital-dependent tunneling. The three states form one ground state and two excited states, and we observe the spin relaxation dynamics among the three spin states.

  15. The electronics readout and data acquisition system of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope node

    SciTech Connect

    Real, Diego [IFIC, Instituto de Física Corpuscular, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, C Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The KM3NeT neutrino telescope will be composed by tens of thousands of glass spheres, called Digital Optical Module (DOM), each of them containing 31 PMTs of small photocathode area (3'). The readout and data acquisition system of KM3NeT have to collect, treat and send to shore, in an economic way, the enormous amount of data produced by the photomultipliers and at the same time to provide time synchronization between each DOM at the level of 1 ns. It is described in the present article the Central Logic Board, that integrates the Time to Digital Converters and the White Rabbit protocol used for the DOM synchronization in a transparent way, the Power Board used in the DOM, the PMT base to readout the photomultipliers and the respective collecting boards, the so called Octopus Board.

  16. Development of an Optical Read-Out System for the LISA/NGO Gravitational Reference Sensor: A Status Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Fiore, L.; De Rosa, R.; Garufi, F.; Grado, A.; Milano, L.; Spagnuolo, V.; Russano, G.

    2013-01-01

    The LISA group in Napoli is working on the development of an Optical Read-Out (ORO) system, based on optical levers and position sensitive detectors, for the LISA gravitational reference sensor. ORO is not meant as an alternative, but as an addition, to capacitive readout, that is the reference solution for LISA/NGO and will be tested on flight by LISA-Pathfinder. The main goal is the introduction of some redundancy with consequent mission risk mitigation. Furthermore, the ORO system is more sensitive than the capacitive one and its usage would allow a significant relaxation of the specifications on cross-couplings in the drag free control loops. The reliability of the proposed ORO device and the fulfilment of the sensitivity requirements have been already demonstrated in bench-top measurements and tests with the four mass torsion pendulum developed in Trento as a ground testing facility for LISA-Pathfinder and LISA hardware. In this paper we report on the present status of this activity presenting the last results and perspectives on some relevant aspects. 1) System design, measured sensitivity and noise characterization. 2) Possible layouts for integration in LISA/NGO and bench-top tests on real scale prototypes. 3) Search for space compatible components and preliminary tests. We will also discuss next steps in view of a possible application in LISA/NGO.

  17. PANDA straw tube detectors and readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strzempek, P.

    2016-07-01

    PANDA is a detector under construction dedicated to studies of production and interaction of particles in the charmonium mass range using antiproton beams in the momentum range of 1.5 - 15 GeV/c at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt. PANDA consists of two spectrometers: a Target Spectrometer with a superconducting solenoid and a Forward Spectrometer using a large dipole magnet and covering the most forward angles (Θ < 10 °). In both spectrometers, the particle's trajectories in the magnetic field are measured using self-supporting straw tube detectors. The expected high count rates, reaching up to 1 MHz/straw, are one of the main challenges for the detectors and associated readout electronics. The paper presents the readout chain of the tracking system and the results of tests performed with realistic prototype setups. The readout chain consists of a newly developed ASIC chip (PASTTREC < PANDASTTReadoutChip >) with amplification, signal shaping, tail cancellation, discriminator stages and Time Readout Boards as digitizer boards.

  18. Developing Basic Electronics Aptitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakeshore Technical Coll., Cleveland, WI.

    This curriculum guide provides materials for basic training in electrical and electronic theory to enable participants to analyze circuits and use test equipment to verify electrical operations and to succeed in the beginning electrical and electronic courses in the Lakeshore Technical College (Wisconsin) electronics programs. The course includes…

  19. Functional Description of Read-out Electronics for Time-Domain Multiplexed Bolometers for Millimeter and Sub-millimeter Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battistelli, E. S.; Amiri, M.; Burger, B.; Halpern, M.; Knotek, S.; Ellis, M.; Gao, X.; Kelly, D.; Macintosh, M.; Irwin, K.; Reintsema, C.

    2008-05-01

    We have developed multi-channel electronics (MCE) which work in concert with time-domain multiplexors developed at NIST, to control and read signals from large format bolometer arrays of superconducting transition edge sensors (TESs). These electronics were developed as part of the Submillimeter Common-User Bolometer Array-2 (SCUBA2 ) camera, but are now used in several other instruments. The main advantages of these electronics compared to earlier versions is that they are multi-channel, fully programmable, suited for remote operations and provide a clean geometry, with no electrical cabling outside of the Faraday cage formed by the cryostat and the electronics chassis. The MCE is used to determine the optimal operating points for the TES and the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) amplifiers autonomously. During observation, the MCE execute a running PID-servo and apply to each first stage SQUID a feedback signal necessary to keep the system in a linear regime at optimal gain. The feedback and error signals from a ˜1000-pixel array can be written to hard drive at up to 2 kHz.

  20. Vertically integrated pixel readout chip for high energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Khalid, Farah; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

    2011-01-01

    We report on the development of the vertex detector pixel readout chips based on multi-tier vertically integrated electronics for the International Linear Collider. Some testing results of the VIP2a prototype are presented. The chip is the second iteration of the silicon implementation of the prototype, data-pushed concept of the readout developed at Fermilab. The device was fabricated in the 3D MIT-LL 0.15 {micro}m fully depleted SOI process. The prototype is a three-tier design, featuring 30 x 30 {micro}m{sup 2} pixels, laid out in an array of 48 x 48 pixels.

  1. Front-end electronics in a 65 nm CMOS process for high density readout of pixel sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaioni, Luigi; Manghisoni, Massimo; Ratti, Lodovico; Re, Valerio; Traversi, Gianluca

    2011-09-01

    In future high energy physics experiments (HEP), readout integrated circuits for vertexing and tracking applications will be implemented by means of CMOS devices belonging to processes with minimum feature size in the 100 nm span. In these nanoscale technologies the impact of new dielectric materials and processing techniques on the analog behavior of MOSFETs has to be carefully evaluated. This paper is concerned with the study of the analog properties, in particular in terms of noise performance and radiation hardness, of MOSFET devices belonging to a 65 nm CMOS low power technology. The behavior of the 1/ f and white noise terms is studied as a function of the main device parameters before and after exposure to 10 keV X-rays and 60Co γ-rays. A prototype chip designed in a 65 nm CMOS process including deep n-well MAPS structures and a fast front-end conceived for the readout of high-resistivity pixel sensors will be introduced.

  2. Development of the analog ASIC for multi-channel readout X-ray CCD camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Hiroshi; Matsuura, Daisuke; Idehara, Toshihiro; Anabuki, Naohisa; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Doty, John P.; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Katayama, Haruyoshi; Kitamura, Hisashi; Uchihori, Yukio

    2011-03-01

    We report on the performance of an analog application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) developed aiming for the front-end electronics of the X-ray CCD camera system onboard the next X-ray astronomical satellite, ASTRO-H. It has four identical channels that simultaneously process the CCD signals. Distinctive capability of analog-to-digital conversion enables us to construct a CCD camera body that outputs only digital signals. As the result of the front-end electronics test, it works properly with low input noise of ≤30μV at the pixel rate below 100 kHz. The power consumption is sufficiently low of ˜150mW/chip. The input signal range of ±20 mV covers the effective energy range of the typical X-ray photon counting CCD (up to 20 keV). The integrated non-linearity is 0.2% that is similar as those of the conventional CCDs in orbit. We also performed a radiation tolerance test against the total ionizing dose (TID) effect and the single event effect. The irradiation test using 60Co and proton beam showed that the ASIC has the sufficient tolerance against TID up to 200 krad, which absolutely exceeds the expected amount of dose during the period of operating in a low-inclination low-earth orbit. The irradiation of Fe ions with the fluence of 5.2×108 Ion/cm2 resulted in no single event latchup (SEL), although there were some possible single event upsets. The threshold against SEL is higher than 1.68 MeV cm2/mg, which is sufficiently high enough that the SEL event should not be one of major causes of instrument downtime in orbit.

  3. Formation flying metrology for the ESA-PROBA3 mission: the Shadow Position Sensors (SPS) silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) readout electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Focardi, M.; Bemporad, A.; Buckley, S.; O'Neill, K.; Fineschi, S.; Noce, V.; Pancrazzi, M.; Landini, F.; Baccani, C.; Capobianco, G.; Romoli, M.; Loreggia, D.; Nicolini, G.; Massone, G.; Thizy, C.; Servaye, J. S.; Renotte, E.

    2015-09-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) is planning to launch in 2018 the PROBA3 Mission, designed to demonstrate the inorbit formation flying (FF) attitude capability of its two satellites and to observe the inner part of the visible solar corona as the main scientific objective. The solar corona will be observed thanks to the presence on the first satellite, facing the Sun, of an external occulter producing an artificial eclipse of the Sun disk. The second satellite will carry on the coronagraph telescope and the digital camera system in order to perform imaging of the inner part of the corona in visible polarized light, from 1.08 R⦿ up to about 3 R⦿. One of the main metrological subsystems used to control and to maintain the relative (i.e. between the two satellites) and absolute (i.e. with respect to the Sun) FF attitude is the Shadow Position Sensor (SPS) assembly. It is composed of eight micro arrays of silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) able to measure with the required sensitivity and dynamic range the penumbral light intensity on the Coronagraph entrance pupil. In the following of the present paper we describe the overall SPS subsystem and its readout electronics with respect to the capability to satisfy the mission requirements, from the light conversion process on board the silicon-based SPS devices up to the digital signal readout and sampling.

  4. VCSELs for interferometric readout of MEMS sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serkland, Darwin K.; Geib, Kent M.; Peake, Gregory M.; Keeler, Gordon A.; Shaw, Michael J.; Baker, Michael S.; Okandan, Murat

    2016-03-01

    We report on the development of single-frequency VCSELs (vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers) for sensing the position of a moving MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical system) object with resolution much less than 1nm. Position measurement is the basis of many different types of MEMS sensors, including accelerometers, gyroscopes, and pressure sensors. Typically, by switching from a traditional capacitive electronic readout to an interferometric optical readout, the resolution can be improved by an order of magnitude with a corresponding improvement in MEMS sensor performance. Because the VCSEL wavelength determines the scale of the position measurement, laser wavelength (frequency) stability is desirable. This paper discusses the impact of VCSEL amplitude and frequency noise on the position measurement.

  5. Cryogenic readout techniques for germanium detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Benato, G.; Cattadori, C.; Di Vacri, A.; Ferri, E.

    2015-07-01

    High Purity Germanium detectors are used in many applications, from nuclear and astro-particle physics, to homeland security or environment protection. Although quite standard configurations are often used, with cryostats, charge sensitive amplifiers and analog or digital acquisition systems all commercially available, it might be the case that a few specific applications, e.g. satellites, portable devices, cryogenic physics experiments, etc. also require the development of a few additional or complementary techniques. An interesting case is for sure GERDA, the Germanium Detector Array experiment, searching for neutrino-less double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory of INFN - Italy. In GERDA the entire detector array, composed of semi-coaxial and BEGe naked crystals, is operated suspended inside a cryostat filled with liquid argon, that acts not only as cooling medium and but also as an active shield, thanks to its scintillation properties. These peculiar circumstances, together with the additional requirement of a very low radioactive background from all the materials adjacent to the detectors, clearly introduce significant constraints on the design of the Ge front-end readout electronics. All the Ge readout solutions developed within the framework of the GERDA collaboration, for both Phase I and Phase II, will be briefly reviewed, with their relative strength and weakness compared together and with respect to ideal Ge readout. Finally, the digital processing techniques developed by the GERDA collaboration for energy estimation of Ge detector signals will be recalled. (authors)

  6. Development of a low-noise readout ASIC for Silicon Drift Detectors in high energy resolution X-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkin, E.; Levin, V.; Malankin, E.; Shumikhin, V.

    2017-03-01

    ASIC with a low-noise readout channel for Silicon Drift Detectors in high energy resolution X-ray spectrometry was designed and prototyped in the AMS 350 nm CMOS process via Europractice as a miniASIC. For the analog readout channel tests there was used the detector module SDD-10-130-PTW LTplus-ic (PNDetector GmbH). The measured energy resolution of this module with the designed readout channel: 200 eV (FWHM) at 55Fe, -16 °C, 1 kcps and a peaking time of 8 μs.

  7. A novel readout concept for multianode photomultiplier tubes with pad matrix anode layout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Vladimir; Majewski, Stan; Welch, Benjamin L.

    2006-11-01

    We have developed a new analog readout concept for multianode photomultiplier tubes with a pad matrix anode layout. This new readout technique is the result of a modification of a technique previously developed at the Detector Group of Jefferson Lab, (V. Popov, US patent No: 6,747,263 B1) [V. Popov, S. Majewski, A.G. Weisenberger, Readout Electronics for Multianode Photomultiplier Tubes with Pad Matrix Anode Layout, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, IEEE 2003 Medical Imaging Conference Record, November 2003]. The new analog readout circuit provides the same analog conversion of matrix 2-D output into X and Y projective output with a significant reduction of analog outputs. The old readout network consists of resistors' matrix and current collecting amplifiers, and it provides decoupling of each anode output into two directions (one to X and one to Y coordinates), but a decoupling function that is carried out independent of photomultiplier tube gains nonuniformity. A newly developed readout network (US patent pending) also consists of resistors' matrix and current collecting amplifiers, but the new matrix includes an additional dumping resistor that provides an excess current from anode pad grounding. As a result, we subtract an extra current of high-gain pads in order to move the pads gain to an absolute minimum value for a given photomultiplier tube. This gain equalization procedure reduces image distortion related to gain nonuniformity. The new readout technique was used in several new radiation imaging detectors designed in the Detector Group of Jefferson Lab. It shows a visible readout uniformity and linearity improvement. The test results of an initial evaluation of this readout that is applied for data readout of four H8500 Hamamtsu PSPMT are presented.

  8. New methods for trigger electronics development

    SciTech Connect

    Cleland, W.E.; Stern, E.G.

    1991-12-31

    The large and complex nature of RHIC experiments and the tight time schedule for their construction requires that new techniques for designing the electronics should be employed. This is particularly true of the trigger and data acquisition electronics which has to be ready for turn-on of the experiment. We describe the use of the Workview package from VIEWlogic Inc. for design, simulation, and verification of a flash ADC readout system. We also show how field-programmable gate arrays such as the Xilinx 4000 might be employed to construct or prototype circuits with a large number of gates while preserving flexibility.

  9. Looking at Earth from space: Direct readout from environmental satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Direct readout is the capability to acquire information directly from meteorological satellites. Data can be acquired from NASA-developed, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-operated satellites, as well as from other nations' meteorological satellites. By setting up a personal computer-based ground (Earth) station to receive satellite signals, direct readout may be obtained. The electronic satellite signals are displayed as images on the computer screen. The images can display gradients of the Earth's topography and temperature, cloud formations, the flow and direction of winds and water currents, the formation of hurricanes, the occurrence of an eclipse, and a view of Earth's geography. Both visible and infrared images can be obtained. This booklet introduces the satellite systems, ground station configuration, and computer requirements involved in direct readout. Also included are lists of associated resources and vendors.

  10. Upgrade of the D0 luminosity monitor readout system

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, John; Bridges, Lloyd; Casey, Brendan; Enari, Yuji; Green, Johnny; Johnson, Marvin; Kwarciany, Rick; Miao, Chyi-Chiang; Partridge, Richard; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Wang, Jigang; /Brown U. /Fermilab

    2006-12-01

    We describe upgrades to the readout system for the D0 Luminosity Monitor. The D0 Luminosity Monitor consists of plastic scintillation detectors with fine-mesh photomultiplier readout that cover the pseudorapidity range 2.7 < |{eta}| < 4.4. The detector is designed to provide a precise measurement of the rate for non-diffractive inelastic collisions that is used to calculate the TeVatron luminosity at D0. The new readout system is based on custom VME electronics that make precise time-of-flight and charge measurements for each luminosity counter. These measurements are used to identify beam crossings with non-diffractive interactions by requiring in-time hits in both the forward and backward luminosity counters. We have also significantly increased signal/noise for the photomultiplier signals by developing a new front-end preamplifier and improving the grounding scheme.

  11. The NA62 liquid Krypton calorimeter's new readout system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceccucci, A.; Fantechi, R.; Farthouat, P.; Lamanna, G.; Rouet, J.; Ryjov, V.; Venditti, S.

    2014-01-01

    The NA62 experiment [1] at CERN SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) accelerator aims at studying Kaon decays with high precision. The high resolution Liquid Krypton (LKr) calorimeter, built for the NA48 [2] experiment, is a crucial part of the experiment photon-veto system; to cope with the new requirements, the back-end electronics of the LKr had to be completely renewed. Due to the huge number of the calorimeter readout channels ( ~ 14 K) and the maintenance requirement over 10 years of the experiment lifetime, the decision to sub-contract the development and production to industry was taken in 2011. This paper presents the primary test results of the Calorimeter REAdout Module (CREAM) [3] prototype delivered by the manufacturer in March 2013. All essential features, analog performance, data processing and readout, are covered.

  12. Investigation and optimization of low-frequency noise performance in readout electronics of dc superconducting quantum interference device

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Yi; Krause, Hans-Joachim; Lee, Yong-Ho

    2014-05-15

    We investigated and optimized the low-frequency noise characteristics of a preamplifier used for readout of direct current superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). When the SQUID output was detected directly using a room-temperature low-voltage-noise preamplifier, the low-frequency noise of a SQUID system was found to be dominated by the input current noise of the preamplifiers in case of a large dynamic resistance of the SQUID. To reduce the current noise of the preamplifier in the low-frequency range, we investigated the dependence of total preamplifier noise on the collector current and source resistance. When the collector current was decreased from 8.4 mA to 3 mA in the preamplifier made of 3 parallel SSM2220 transistor pairs, the low-frequency total voltage noise of the preamplifier (at 0.1 Hz) decreased by about 3 times for a source resistance of 30 Ω whereas the white noise level remained nearly unchanged. Since the relative contribution of preamplifier's input voltage and current noise is different depending on the dynamic resistance or flux-to-voltage transfer of the SQUID, the results showed that the total noise of a SQUID system at low-frequency range can be improved significantly by optimizing the preamplifier circuit parameters, mainly the collector current in case of low-noise bipolar transistor pairs.

  13. Investigation and optimization of low-frequency noise performance in readout electronics of dc superconducting quantum interference device.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Yi; Lee, Yong-Ho; Krause, Hans-Joachim

    2014-05-01

    We investigated and optimized the low-frequency noise characteristics of a preamplifier used for readout of direct current superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). When the SQUID output was detected directly using a room-temperature low-voltage-noise preamplifier, the low-frequency noise of a SQUID system was found to be dominated by the input current noise of the preamplifiers in case of a large dynamic resistance of the SQUID. To reduce the current noise of the preamplifier in the low-frequency range, we investigated the dependence of total preamplifier noise on the collector current and source resistance. When the collector current was decreased from 8.4 mA to 3 mA in the preamplifier made of 3 parallel SSM2220 transistor pairs, the low-frequency total voltage noise of the preamplifier (at 0.1 Hz) decreased by about 3 times for a source resistance of 30 Ω whereas the white noise level remained nearly unchanged. Since the relative contribution of preamplifier's input voltage and current noise is different depending on the dynamic resistance or flux-to-voltage transfer of the SQUID, the results showed that the total noise of a SQUID system at low-frequency range can be improved significantly by optimizing the preamplifier circuit parameters, mainly the collector current in case of low-noise bipolar transistor pairs.

  14. Investigation and optimization of low-frequency noise performance in readout electronics of dc superconducting quantum interference device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Yi; Lee, Yong-Ho; Krause, Hans-Joachim

    2014-05-01

    We investigated and optimized the low-frequency noise characteristics of a preamplifier used for readout of direct current superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). When the SQUID output was detected directly using a room-temperature low-voltage-noise preamplifier, the low-frequency noise of a SQUID system was found to be dominated by the input current noise of the preamplifiers in case of a large dynamic resistance of the SQUID. To reduce the current noise of the preamplifier in the low-frequency range, we investigated the dependence of total preamplifier noise on the collector current and source resistance. When the collector current was decreased from 8.4 mA to 3 mA in the preamplifier made of 3 parallel SSM2220 transistor pairs, the low-frequency total voltage noise of the preamplifier (at 0.1 Hz) decreased by about 3 times for a source resistance of 30 Ω whereas the white noise level remained nearly unchanged. Since the relative contribution of preamplifier's input voltage and current noise is different depending on the dynamic resistance or flux-to-voltage transfer of the SQUID, the results showed that the total noise of a SQUID system at low-frequency range can be improved significantly by optimizing the preamplifier circuit parameters, mainly the collector current in case of low-noise bipolar transistor pairs.

  15. Development of n+-in-p planar pixel quadsensor flip-chipped with FE-I4 readout ASICs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unno, Y.; Kamada, S.; Yamamura, K.; Yamamoto, H.; Hanagaki, K.; Hori, R.; Ikegami, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Takubo, Y.; Takashima, R.; Tojo, J.; Kono, T.; Nagai, R.; Saito, S.; Sugibayashi, K.; Hirose, M.; Jinnouchi, O.; Sato, S.; Sawai, H.; Hara, K.; Sato, Kz.; Sato, Kj.; Iwabuchi, S.; Suzuki, J.

    2017-01-01

    We have developed flip-chip modules applicable to the pixel detector for the HL-LHC. New radiation-tolerant n+-in-p planar pixel sensors of a size of four FE-I4 application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) are laid out in a 6-in wafer. Variation in readout connection for the pixels at the boundary of ASICs is implemented in the design of quadsensors. Bump bonding technology is developed for four ASICs onto one quadsensor. Both sensors and ASICs are thinned to 150 μm before bump bonding, and are held flat with vacuum chucks. Using lead-free SnAg solder bumps, we encounter deficiency with large areas of disconnected bumps after thermal stress treatment, including irradiation. Surface oxidation of the solder bumps is identified as a critical source of this deficiency after bump bonding trials, using SnAg bumps with solder flux, indium bumps, and SnAg bumps with a newly-introduced hydrogen-reflow process. With hydrogen-reflow, we establish flux-less bump bonding technology with SnAg bumps, appropriate for mass production of the flip-chip modules with thin sensors and thin ASICs.

  16. Gain drift compensation with no feedback-loop developed for the X-Ray Integral Field Unit/ATHENA readout chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prêle, Damien; Voisin, Fabrice; Beillimaz, Cyril; Chen, Si; Goldwurm, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    The focal plane of the X-Ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) instrument of the Advanced Telescope for High-Energy Astrophysics observatory is composed of 3840 microcalorimeters. These sensors, based on superconducting transition edge sensors (TES), are read out through a frequency multiplexer. A "base-band feedback" suppresses all the carriers of the multiplexed signal in the superconducting quantum interference devices input coil (cryogenic readout). However, the loop gain of this feedback is too small (less than 10 in the present baseline of the phase A mission) to strongly compensate the readout gain drifts. An onboard x-ray source is considered to calibrate the gain of the full instrument. However, in-flight calibration time must be minimized, which leads to a requirement on the gain stability larger than 10-4 over a long duration (between each calibration) to reach the challenging energy resolution goal of 2.5 eV at 6 keV of the X-IFU. A significant part of this gain is provided by a low-noise amplifier in the warm front-end electronics (WFEE). To reach such gain stability over more than a dozen minutes, this noncooled amplifier has to cope with the temperature and supply voltage variations. Moreover, mainly for noise reasons, a common large loop gain with feedback cannot be used. We propose a new amplifier topology using diodes as loads of a differential amplifier to provide a fixed voltage gain, independent of the temperature and of the bias fluctuations. This amplifier is designed using 350-nm SiGe BiCMOS technology and is part of an integrated circuit developed for the WFEE. Our simulations provide the expected gain and noise performances. Comparison with standard resistive loaded differential pair clearly shows the advantages of the proposed amplifier topology with a gain drift decreased by more than an order of magnitude. Performances of this diode loaded amplifier are discussed in the context of the X-IFU requirements.

  17. Compensated digital readout family

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, David E.; Skow, Michael

    1991-01-01

    ISC has completed test on an IC which has 32 channels of amplifiers, low pass anti-aliasing filters, 13-bit analog-to-digital (A/D) converters with non-uniformity correction per channel and a digital multiplexer. The single slope class of A/D conversion is described, as are the unique variations required for incorporation of this technique for use with on-focal plane detector readout electronics. This paper describes the architecture used to implement the digital on-focal plane signal processing functions. Results from measured data on a test IC are presented for a circuit containing these functions operating at a sensor frame rate of 1000 hertz.

  18. Developments in electron gun simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1994-05-01

    This paper will discuss the developments in the electron gun simulation programs that are based on EGUN and its derivatives and supporting programs. Much of the code development has been inspired by technology changes in computer hardware; the implications on EGN2 of this evolution will be discussed. Some examples and a review of the capabilities of the EGUN family will be described.

  19. Thermopile detector radiation hard readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaalema, Stephen; Van Duyne, Stephen; Gates, James L.; Foote, Marc C.

    2010-08-01

    The NASA Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) conceptual payload contains a thermal instrument with six different spectral bands ranging from 8μm to 100μm. The thermal instrument is based on multiple linear arrays of thermopile detectors that are intrinsically radiation hard; however, the thermopile CMOS readout needs to be hardened to tolerate the radiation sources of the JEO mission. Black Forest Engineering is developing a thermopile readout to tolerate the JEO mission radiation sources. The thermal instrument and ROIC process/design techniques are described to meet the JEO mission requirements.

  20. Development of a high-throughput method to evaluate serum bactericidal activity using bacterial ATP measurement as survival readout

    PubMed Central

    Saul, Allan; Rondini, Simona

    2017-01-01

    Serum Bactericidal Activity (SBA) assay is the method of choice to evaluate the complement-mediated functional activity of both infection- and vaccine-induced antibodies. To perform a typical SBA assay, serial dilutions of sera are incubated with target bacterial strains and complement. The conventional SBA assay is based on plating on agar the SBA reaction mix and counting the surviving bacterial colony forming units (CFU) at each serum dilution. Even with automated colony counting, it is labor-intensive, time-consuming and not amenable for large-scale studies. Here, we have developed a luminescence-based SBA (L-SBA) method able to detect surviving bacteria by measuring their ATP. At the end of the SBA reaction, a single commercially available reagent is added to each well of the SBA plate, and the resulting luminescence signal is measured in a microplate reader. The signal obtained is proportional to the ATP present, which is directly proportional to the number of viable bacteria. Bactericidal activity is subsequently calculated. We demonstrated the applicability of L-SBA with multiple bacterial serovars, from 5 species: Citrobacter freundii, Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis, Shigella flexneri serovars 2a and 3a, Shigella sonnei and Neisseria meningitidis. Serum bactericidal titers obtained by the luminescence readout method strongly correlate with the data obtained by the conventional agar plate-based assay, and the new assay is highly reproducible. L-SBA considerably shortens assay time, facilitates data acquisition and analysis and reduces the operator dependency, avoiding the plating and counting of CFUs. Our results demonstrate that L-SBA is a useful high-throughput bactericidal assay. PMID:28192483

  1. Development of electronic cinema projectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, William E.

    2001-03-01

    All of the components for the electronic cinema are now commercially available. Sony has a high definition progressively scanned 24 frame per second electronic cinema camera. This can be recorded digitally on tape or film on hard drives in RAID recorders. Much of the post production processing is now done digitally by scanning film, processing it digitally, and recording it on film for release. Fiber links and satellites can transmit cinema program material to theaters in real time. RAID or tape recorders can play programs for viewing at a much lower cost than storage on film. Two companies now have electronic cinema projectors on the market. Of all of the components, the electronic cinema projector is the most challenging. Achieving the resolution, light, output, contrast ratio, and color rendition all at the same time without visible artifacts is a difficult task. Film itself is, of course, a form of light-valve. However, electronically modulated light uses other techniques rather than changes in density to control the light. The optical techniques that have been the basis for many electronic light-valves have been under development for over 100 years. Many of these techniques are based on optical diffraction to modulate the light. This paper will trace the history of these techniques and show how they may be extended to produce electronic cinema projectors in the future.

  2. Advanced data readout technique for Multianode Position Sensitive Photomultiplier Tube applicable in radiation imaging detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, V.

    2011-01-01

    Most of the best performing PSPMT tubes from Hamamatsu and Burle are designed with a pad-matrix anode layout. However, for obtaining a high resolution, a small-sized anode photomultiplier tubes are preferable; these tubes may have 64, 256 or 1024 anodes per tube. If the tubes are used in array to get a larger area detector, the number of analog channels may range from hundreds to thousands. Multichannel analog readout requires special electronics ICs, ASICs etc., which are attached to multichannel DAQ system. As a result, the data file and data processing time will be increased. Therefore, this readout could not be performed in a small project. Usually, most of radiation imaging applications allow the use of analog data processing in front-end electronics, significantly reducing the number of the detector's output lines to data acquisition without reducing the image quality. The idea of pad-matrix decoupling circuit with gain correction was invented and intensively tested in JLab. Several versions of PSPMT readout electronics were produced and studied. All developments were done and optimized specifically for radiation imaging projects. They covered high resolution SPECT, high speed PET, fast neutron imaging, and single tube and multi tube array systems. This paper presents and discusses the summary of the observed results in readout electronics evaluation with different PSPMTs and radiation imaging systems, as well as the advantages and limitations of the developed approach to radiation imaging detectors readout.

  3. Development of a compact radiation-hardened low-noise front-end readout ASIC for CZT-based hard X-ray imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, W.; Gan, B.; Li, X.; Wei, T.; Gao, D.; Hu, Y.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we present the development and performances of a radiation-hardened front-end readout application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) dedicated to CZT detectors for a hard X-ray imager in space applications. The readout channel consists of a charge sensitive amplifier (CSA), a CR-RC shaper, a fast shaper, a discriminator and a driving buffer. With the additional digital filtering, the readout channel can achieve very low noise performances and low power dissipation. An eight-channel prototype ASIC is designed and fabricated in 0.35 μm CMOS process. The energy range of the detected X-rays is evaluated as 1.45 keV to 281 keV. The gain is larger than 100 mV/fC. The equivalent noise charge (ENC) of the ASIC is 53 e- at zero farad plus 10 e- per picofarad. The power dissipation is less than 4.4 mW/channel. Through the measurement with a CZT detector, the energy resolution is less than 3.45 keV (FWHM) under the irradiation of the radioactive source 241Am. The radiation effect experiments indicate that the proposed ASIC can resist the total ionization dose (TID) irradiation of higher than 200 krad (Si).

  4. Antenna-Coupled Superconducting Tunnel Junctions with Single-Electron Transistor Readout for Detection of Sub-mm Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, T. R.; Hsieh, W.-T.; Li, M. J.; Stahle, C. M.; Wollack, E. J.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Teufel, J.; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Antenna-coupled superconducting tunnel junction detectors have the potential for photon-counting sensitivity at sub-mm wavelengths. The device consists of an antenna structure to couple radiation into a small superconducting volume and cause quasiparticle excitations, and a single-electron transistor to measure currents through tunnel junction contacts to the absorber volume. We will describe optimization of device parameters, and recent results on fabrication techniques for producing devices with high yield for detector arrays. We will also present modeling of expected saturation power levels, antenna coupling, and rf multiplexing schemes.

  5. Control System for Readout Electronics of Multi-Channel Magnetocardiographs Using High-Temperature DC Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandori, Akihiko; Suzuki, Daisuke; Tsukamoto, Akira; Kumagai, Yukio; Miyashita, Tsuyoshi; Ogata, Kuniomi; Seki, Yusuke; Yokosawa, Koichi; Tsukada, Keiji

    2005-09-01

    We aimed to develop a control system for multichannel magnetocardiography (MCG) based on a high-temperature DC superconducting quantum interference device (high-Tc SQUID). To create this system, we used one oscillator as an AC bias controller to operate a multichannel high-Tc SQUID. To optimize the SQUID parameters (such as the AC bias, offset voltage), two new control sequences based on a cross-correlation method and a fast Fourier transform method were developed. Using the AC bias controller and the sequences, the typical white noise level of the SQUID was about 50--60 fT Hz-1/2 around 100 Hz. Multichannel MCG signals were detected clearly in the system with the SQUIDs. We conclude that our control system with one oscillator and new protocols can reliably operate a multichannel SQUID.

  6. Development of a GEM Electronic Board (GEB) for triple-GEM detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspell, P.; Dabrowski, M.; Conde Garcia, A.; De Lentdecker, G.; Marinov, A.; De Oliveira, R.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Yang, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Developed for use with triple GEM detectors, the GEM Electronic Board (GEB) forms a crucial part of the electronics readout system being developed as part of the CMS muon upgrade program. The objective of the GEB is threefold; to provide stable powering and ground for the VFAT3 front ends, to enable high-speed communication between 24 VFAT3 front ends and an optohybrid, and to shield the GEM detector from electromagnetic interference. The paper describes the concept and design of a large-size GEB in detail, highlighting the challenges in terms of design and feasibility of this deceptively difficult system component.

  7. Single-Shot Charge Readout Using a Cryogenic Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor Preamplifier Inline with a Silicon Single Electron Transistor at Millikelvin Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, Matthew; England, Troy; Wendt, Joel; Pluym, Tammy; Lilly, Michael; Carr, Stephen; Carroll, Malcolm

    Single-shot readout is a requirement for many implementations of quantum information processing. The single-shot readout fidelity is dependent on the signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) and bandwidth of the readout detection technique. Several different approaches are being pursued to enhance read-out including RF-reflectometry, RF-transmission, parametric amplification, and transistor-based cryogenic preamplification. The transistor-based cryogenic preamplifier is attractive in part because of the reduced experimental complexity compared with the RF techniques. Here we present single-shot charge readout using a cryogenic Heterojunction-Bipolar-Transistor (HBT) inline with a silicon SET charge-sensor at millikelvin temperatures. For the relevant range of HBT DC-biasing, the current gain is 100 to 2000 and the power dissipation is 50 nW to 5 μW, with the microfabricated SET and discrete HBT in an integrated package mounted to the mixing chamber stage of a dilution refrigerator. We experimentally demonstrate a SNR of up to 10 with a bandwidth of 1 MHz, corresponding to a single-shot time-domain charge-sensitivity of approximately 10-4 e / √Hz. This measured charge-sensitivity is comparable to the values reported using the RF techniques. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  8. Fiber and crystals dual readout calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cascella, Michele; Franchino, Silvia; Lee, Sehwook

    2016-11-01

    The RD52 (DREAM) collaboration is performing R&D on dual readout calorimetry techniques with the aim of improving hadronic energy resolution for future high energy physics experiments. The simultaneous detection of Cherenkov and scintillation light enables us to measure the electromagnetic fraction of hadron shower event-by-event. As a result, we could eliminate the main fluctuation which prevented from achieving precision energy measurement for hadrons. We have tested the performance of the lead and copper fiber prototypes calorimeters with various energies of electromagnetic particles and hadrons. During the beam test, we investigated the energy resolutions for electrons and pions as well as the identification of those particles in a longitudinally unsegmented calorimeter. Measurements were also performed on pure and doped PbWO4 crystals, as well as BGO and BSO, with the aim of realizing a crystal based dual readout detector. We will describe our results, focusing on the more promising properties of homogeneous media for the technique. Guidelines for additional developments on crystals will be also given. Finally we discuss the construction techniques that we have used to assemble our prototypes and give an overview of the ones that could be industrialized for the construction of a full hermetic calorimeter.

  9. SU-8 Cantilevers for Bio/chemical Sensing; Fabrication, Characterisation and Development of Novel Read-out Methods

    PubMed Central

    Nordström, Maria; Keller, Stephan; Lillemose, Michael; Johansson, Alicia; Dohn, Søren; Haefliger, Daniel; Blagoi, Gabriela; Havsteen-Jakobsen, Mogens; Boisen, Anja

    2008-01-01

    Here, we present the activities within our research group over the last five years with cantilevers fabricated in the polymer SU-8. We believe that SU-8 is an interesting polymer for fabrication of cantilevers for bio/chemical sensing due to its simple processing and low Young's modulus. We show examples of different integrated read-out methods and their characterisation. We also show that SU-8 cantilevers have a reduced sensitivity to changes in the environmental temperature and pH of the buffer solution. Moreover, we show that the SU-8 cantilever surface can be functionalised directly with receptor molecules for analyte detection, thereby avoiding gold-thiol chemistry. PMID:27879783

  10. Design and performance of a modular low-radioactivity readout system for cryogenic detectors in the CDMS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akerib, D. S.; Barnes, P. D., Jr.; Brink, P. L.; Cabrera, B.; Clarke, R. M.; Gaitskell, R. J.; Golwala, S. R.; Huber, M. E.; Kurylowicz, M.; Mandic, V.; Martinis, J. M.; Meunier, P.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Nam, S. W.; Perillo-Isaac, M.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Schnee, R. W.; Seitz, D. N.; Shutt, T.; Smith, G. W.; Stockwell, W. K.; Sundqvist, K. M.; White, S.

    2008-07-01

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment employs ultra-cold solid-state detectors to search for rare events resulting from WIMP-nucleus scattering. An innovative detector packaging and readout system has been developed to meet the unusual combination of requirements for: low temperature, low radioactivity, low energy threshold, and large channel count. Features include use of materials with low radioactivity such as multi-layer KAPTON laminates for circuit boards; immunity to microphonic noise via a vacuum coaxial wiring design, manufacturability, and modularity. The detector readout design had to accommodate various electronic components which have to be operated in close proximity to the detector as well maintaining separate individual temperatures (ranging from 600 mK to 150 K) in order to achieve optimal noise performance. The paper will describe the general electrical, thermal, and mechanical designs of the CDMS readout system, as well as presenting the theoretical and measured performance of the detector readout channels.

  11. New readout system optimized for the Planck Surveyor bolometric instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaertner, Siegfried; Benoit, A.; Piat, M.

    1998-08-01

    We have developed a new readout system for bolometers optimized for the Planck Surveyor experiment, a satellite mission dedicated to survey the Cosmological Microwave Background. The bolometer resistance is measured in a bridge with a capacitance load, using a periodic square wave bias current in order to remove the 1/f noises of the electronics. The use of a capacitance allows to reduce the transient signal and to get rid of the Johnson noise. The bias voltages are fully controlled by computer, and the lock-in detection is digital. This system has been implemented and successfully tested on the Diabolo ground- based astronomical experiment. Using the advantages of our readout system, we have built and fully tested an engineering model of the space qualifiable electronics which fulfills the scientific and technical requirements of the Planck Surveyor bolometric instrument: low noise system down to 0.1 Hz, electrical power consumption lower than 40 Watts and volume lower than 15 liters. Our presentation will consist in a full description of this readout system and a review of the current test results. Our system could also be adapted, with some modifications, to other space born instruments which use bolometers.

  12. Research and development for a free-running readout system for the ATLAS LAr Calorimeters at the high luminosity LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hils, Maximilian

    2016-07-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters were designed and built to measure electromagnetic and hadronic energy in proton-proton collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to 1034 cm-2 s-1. The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) programme is now developed for up to 5-7 times the design luminosity, with the goal of accumulating an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1. In the HL-LHC phase, the increased radiation levels and an improved ATLAS trigger system require a replacement of the Front-end (FE) and Back-end (BE) electronics of the LAr Calorimeters. Results from research and development of individual components and their radiation qualification as well as the overall system design will be presented.

  13. The Electronic Library Program: Developing Networked Electronic Library Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Brett

    1991-01-01

    The Memex Research Institute (MRI), an independent nonprofit research and development organization, has created an electronic library program of shared research and development to make the collective vision of Vannevar Bush's "memex" more concrete. Program is working toward the creation of large, publicly available indexed electronic image…

  14. A two-dimensional position sensitive gas chamber with scanned charge transfer readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, F.; Iglesias, A.; Lobato, R.; Mosquera, J.; Pardo, J.; Pena, J.; Pazos, A.; Pombar, M.; Rodríguez, A.

    2003-10-01

    We have constructed and tested a two-dimensional position sensitive parallel-plate gas ionization chamber with scanned charge transfer readout. The scan readout method described here is based on the development of a new position-dependent charge transfer technique. It has been implemented by using gate strips perpendicularly oriented to the collector strips. This solution reduces considerably the number of electronic readout channels needed to cover large detector areas. The use of a 25 μm thick kapton etched circuit allows high charge transfer efficiency with a low gating voltage, consequently needing a very simple commutating circuit. The present prototype covers 8×8 cm2 with a pixel size of 1.27×1.27 mm2. Depending on the intended use and beam characteristics a smaller effective pixel is feasible and larger active areas are possible. This detector can be used for X-ray or other continuous beam intensity profile monitoring.

  15. Development of a low-noise, 4th-order readout ASIC for CdZnTe detectors in gamma spectrometer applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia; Su, Lin; Wei, Xiaomin; Zheng, Ran; Hu, Yann

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents an ASIC readout circuit development, which aims to achieve low noise. In order to compensate the leakage current and improve gain, a dual-stage CSA has been utilized. A 4th-order high-linearity shaper is proposed to obtain a Semi-Gaussian wave and further decrease the noise induced by the leakage current. The ASIC has been designed and fabricated in a standard commercial 2P4M 0.35 μm CMOS process. Die area of one channel is about 1190 μm×147 μm. The input charge range is 1.8 fC. The peaking time can be adjusted from 1 μs to 3 μs. Measured ENC is about 55e- (rms) at input capacitor of 0 F. The gain is 271 mV/fC at the peaking time of 1 μs.

  16. Readout of two-kilopixel transition-edge sensor arrays for Advanced ACTPol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Shawn W.; Stevens, Jason R.; Amiri, Mandana; Austermann, Jason; Beall, James A.; Chaudhuri, Saptarshi; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Choi, Steve K.; Cothard, Nicholas F.; Crowley, Kevin T.; Duff, Shannon M.; Fitzgerald, Colin P.; Gallardo, Patricio A.; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hilton, Gene; Ho, Shuay-Pwu Patty; Hubmayr, Johannes; Irwin, Kent D.; Koopman, Brian J.; Li, Dale; Li, Yaqiong; McMahon, Jeff; Nati, Federico; Niemack, Michael; Reintsema, Carl D.; Salatino, Maria; Schillaci, Alessandro; Schmitt, Benjamin L.; Simon, Sara M.; Staggs, Suzanne T.; Vavagiakis, Eve M.; Ward, Jonathan T.

    2016-07-01

    Advanced ACTPol is an instrument upgrade for the six-meter Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) designed to measure the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization with arcminute-scale angular resolution. To achieve its science goals, Advanced ACTPol utilizes a larger readout multiplexing factor than any previous CMB experiment to measure detector arrays with approximately two thousand transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers in each 150 mm detector wafer. We present the implementation and testing of the Advanced ACTPol time-division multiplexing readout architecture with a 64-row multiplexing factor. This includes testing of individual multichroic detector pixels and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) multiplexing chips as well as testing and optimizing of the integrated readout electronics. In particular, we describe the new automated multiplexing SQUID tuning procedure developed to select and optimize the thousands of SQUID parameters required to readout each Advanced ACTPol array. The multichroic detector pixels in each array use separate channels for each polarization and each of the two frequencies, such that four TESes must be read out per pixel. Challenges addressed include doubling the number of detectors per multiplexed readout channel compared to ACTPol and optimizing the Nyquist inductance to minimize detector and SQUID noise aliasing.

  17. Electronic Collection Development: A Practical Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Stuart D.

    Chapter 1, "Preliminary Issues," explores the historical importance of the electronic publishing revolution, some of the terminology to be used in the book, and the differences and similarities between traditional and electronic collection development. Chapter 2, "What Is an Offer? The Electronic Resources Landscape," covers…

  18. Development of low-noise CCD drive electronics for the world space observatory ultraviolet spectrograph subsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salter, Mike; Clapp, Matthew; King, James; Morse, Tom; Mihalcea, Ionut; Waltham, Nick; Hayes-Thakore, Chris

    2016-07-01

    World Space Observatory Ultraviolet (WSO-UV) is a major Russian-led international collaboration to develop a large space-borne 1.7 m Ritchey-Chrétien telescope and instrumentation to study the universe at ultraviolet wavelengths between 115 nm and 320 nm, exceeding the current capabilities of ground-based instruments. The WSO Ultraviolet Spectrograph subsystem (WUVS) is led by the Institute of Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences and consists of two high resolution spectrographs covering the Far-UV range of 115-176 nm and the Near-UV range of 174-310 nm, and a long-slit spectrograph covering the wavelength range of 115-305 nm. The custom-designed CCD sensors and cryostat assemblies are being provided by e2v technologies (UK). STFC RAL Space is providing the Camera Electronics Boxes (CEBs) which house the CCD drive electronics for each of the three WUVS channels. This paper presents the results of the detailed characterisation of the WUVS CCD drive electronics. The electronics include a novel high-performance video channel design that utilises Digital Correlated Double Sampling (DCDS) to enable low-noise readout of the CCD at a range of pixel frequencies, including a baseline requirement of less than 3 electrons rms readout noise for the combined CCD and electronics system at a readout rate of 50 kpixels/s. These results illustrate the performance of this new video architecture as part of a wider electronics sub-system that is designed for use in the space environment. In addition to the DCDS video channels, the CEB provides all the bias voltages and clocking waveforms required to operate the CCD and the system is fully programmable via a primary and redundant SpaceWire interface. The development of the CEB electronics design has undergone critical design review and the results presented were obtained using the engineering-grade electronics box. A variety of parameters and tests are included ranging from general system metrics, such as the power and mass

  19. Electron Beam IEMP Simulation Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-08-01

    Effect of Injected Current Pulse Width Variation Upon Transmittfed Current Pulse 69 4.10 Open Shutter Photograph of Surface Flashover on Dielectric Tube...occurred, presumably by electrical breakdown In volume. However it was no+ observed In all cases. Surface flashover Is another electrical failure mode...early in the Injected pulse 71 TDIELECTRIC TUBE ELECTRON BEAM oil~ Flgu--e 4.10 Open Shutter Photograph of Surface Flashover on Dielectric Tube 7

  20. Spectral contents readout of birefringent sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redner, Alex S.

    1989-01-01

    The technical objective of this research program was to develop a birefringent sensor, capable of measuring strain/stress up to 2000 F and a readout system based on Spectral Contents analysis. As a result of the research work, a data acquisition system was developed, capable of measuring strain birefringence in a sensor at 2000 F, with multi-point static and dynamic capabilities. The system uses a dedicated spectral analyzer for evaluation of stress-birefringence and a PC-based readout. Several sensor methods were evaluated. Fused silica was found most satisfactory. In the final evaluation, measurements were performed up to 2000 F and the system performance exceeded expectations.

  1. The New APD Based Readout for the Crystal Barrel Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, M.; Honisch, Ch; Steinacher, M.; CBELSA/TAPS Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    The CBELSA/TAPS experiment at ELSA measures double polarization observables in meson photoproduction off protons and neutrons. To be able to measure purely neutral reactions off polarized neutrons with high efficiency, the main calorimeter has to be integrated into the first level trigger. This requires to exchange the existing PIN photo diode by a new avalanche photo diode (APD) readout. The newly developed readout electronics will provide an energy resolution compatible to the previous set-up and a fast trigger signal down to 10 MeV energy deposit per crystal. After the successful final tests with a 3x3 CsI crystal matrix in Bonn at ELSA and in Mainz at MAMI all front-end electronics were produced in fall 2013. Automated test routines for the front-end electronics were developed and the characterization measurements of all APDs were successfully accomplished in Bonn. The project is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SFB/TR16) and Schweizerischer Nationalfonds.

  2. Flexible Electronics Development Supported by NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The commercial electronics industry is leading development in most areas of electronics for NASA applications; however, working in partnership with industry and the academic community, results from NASA research could lead to better understanding and utilization of electronic materials by the flexible electronics industry. Innovative ideas explored by our partners in industry and the broader U.S. research community help NASA execute our missions and bring new American products and services to the global technology marketplace. [Mike Gazarik, associate administrator for Space Technology, NASA Headquarters, Washington DC] This presentation provides information on NASA needs in electronics looking towards the future, some of the work being supported by NASA in flexible electronics, and the capabilities of the Glenn Research Center supporting the development of flexible electronics.

  3. Sensor readout detector circuit

    DOEpatents

    Chu, D.D.; Thelen, D.C. Jr.

    1998-08-11

    A sensor readout detector circuit is disclosed that is capable of detecting sensor signals down to a few nanoamperes or less in a high (microampere) background noise level. The circuit operates at a very low standby power level and is triggerable by a sensor event signal that is above a predetermined threshold level. A plurality of sensor readout detector circuits can be formed on a substrate as an integrated circuit (IC). These circuits can operate to process data from an array of sensors in parallel, with only data from active sensors being processed for digitization and analysis. This allows the IC to operate at a low power level with a high data throughput for the active sensors. The circuit may be used with many different types of sensors, including photodetectors, capacitance sensors, chemically-sensitive sensors or combinations thereof to provide a capability for recording transient events or for recording data for a predetermined period of time following an event trigger. The sensor readout detector circuit has applications for portable or satellite-based sensor systems. 6 figs.

  4. Sensor readout detector circuit

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Dahlon D.; Thelen, Jr., Donald C.

    1998-01-01

    A sensor readout detector circuit is disclosed that is capable of detecting sensor signals down to a few nanoamperes or less in a high (microampere) background noise level. The circuit operates at a very low standby power level and is triggerable by a sensor event signal that is above a predetermined threshold level. A plurality of sensor readout detector circuits can be formed on a substrate as an integrated circuit (IC). These circuits can operate to process data from an array of sensors in parallel, with only data from active sensors being processed for digitization and analysis. This allows the IC to operate at a low power level with a high data throughput for the active sensors. The circuit may be used with many different types of sensors, including photodetectors, capacitance sensors, chemically-sensitive sensors or combinations thereof to provide a capability for recording transient events or for recording data for a predetermined period of time following an event trigger. The sensor readout detector circuit has applications for portable or satellite-based sensor systems.

  5. Recent Developments in Electronic Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, D.A.; Claytor, T.N.; Davis, A.W.; Jones, M.H.; Sheats, M.J.; Stupin, D.M.; Summa, D.A.; White, S.M.; Hefele, J.; Watson, S.A.; Kauppila, T.J.; Mueller, K.H.

    1999-07-18

    An overview of the radiographic capabilities with emphasis on electronic image detection and processing at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is presented. Fixed facilities and portable x-ray sources and imaging systems make up the Los Alamos capability. Examples of imaging with large area amorphous silicon imaging panels, a portable computed tomography system, high speed x-ray imaging applications and equipment, and small area, high resolution imagers are given. Radiographic simulation and reverse engineering from radiographic images to computer aided design files and solid models is also presented.

  6. X2000 power system electronics development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Greg; Deligiannis, Frank; Franco, Lauro; Jones, Loren; Lam, Barbara; Nelson, Ron; Pantaleon, Jose; Ruiz, Ian; Treichler, John; Wester, Gene; Sauers, Jim; Giampoli, Paul; Haskell, Russ; Mulvey, Jim; Repp, John

    2005-01-01

    The X2000 Power System Electronics (PSE) is a Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) task to develop a new generation of power system building blocks for potential use on future deep space missions. The effort includes the development of electronic components and modules that can be used as building blocks in the design of generic spacecraft power systems.

  7. SPiRIT-TPC with GET readout electronics for the study of density dependent symmetry energy of high dense matter with Heavy RI collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isobe, Tadaaki; SPiRIT Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The nuclear Equation of State (EoS) is a fundamental property of nuclear matter that describes the relationships between the parameters for a nuclear system, such as energy, density and temperature. An international collaboration, named SPiRIT, to study the nuclear EoS has been formed recently. One of the main devices of experimental setup is a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) which will be installed into the SAMURAI dipole magnet at RIKEN-RIBF. The TPC can measure charged pions, protons and light ions simultaneously in heavy RI collisions, and those will be used as probes to study the asymmetric dense nuclear matter. In addition to the status of the SPiRIT project, testing of SPiRIT-TPC with GET electronics will be presented in this talk. GET, general electronics for TPC, is a project for the development of novel electronics for TPC supported by NSF and ANR. This work is supported in part by the Japan Grant-in-Aide award and the US DOE grant DE-SC0004835 and JUSEIPEN.

  8. Development for Germanium Blocked Impurity Band Far-Infrared Image Sensors with Fully-Depleted Silicon-On-Insulator CMOS Readout Integrated Circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, T.; Arai, Y.; Baba, S.; Hanaoka, M.; Hattori, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Kaneda, H.; Kochi, C.; Miyachi, A.; Nagase, K.; Nakaya, H.; Ohno, M.; Oyabu, S.; Suzuki, T.; Ukai, S.; Watanabe, K.; Yamamoto, K.

    2016-07-01

    We are developing far-infrared (FIR) imaging sensors for low-background and high-sensitivity applications such as infrared astronomy. Previous FIR monolithic imaging sensors, such as an extrinsic germanium photo-conductor (Ge PC) with a PMOS readout integrated circuit (ROIC) hybridized by indium pixel-to-pixel interconnection, had three difficulties: (1) short cut-off wavelength (120 \\upmu m), (2) large power consumption (10 \\upmu W/pixel), and (3) large mismatch in thermal expansion between the Ge PC and the Si ROIC. In order to overcome these difficulties, we developed (1) a blocked impurity band detector fabricated by a surface- activated bond technology, whose cut-off wavelength is longer than 160 \\upmu m, (2) a fully-depleted silicon-on-insulator CMOS ROIC which works below 4 K with 1 \\upmu W/pixel operating power, and (3) a new concept, Si-supported Ge detector, which shows tolerance to thermal cycling down to 3 K. With these new techniques, we are now developing a 32 × 32 FIR imaging sensor.

  9. Readout Circuit System for In2O3/RGO Nanocomposite Gas Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Cheng-Yi

    A readout circuit system for In2O3/RGO nanocomposite gas sensors using open-source software has been developed for the first time. The readout system adopts a Raspberry Pi as an electronic control unit and incorporates different electronics components to realize the function of a source measure unit (SMU). During the operation, real-time results of measured gas concentrations can be accessed through the Internet and alarm functions are also included. All control programs were written in Python language. Using this readout system, current response of gas sensors toward oxygen concentrations (2,000---32,000 ppm) in argon environment at 140 °C are in a good agreement with the data measured by Agilent SMU (B2902A). Furthermore, temperature effects and transient response of the proposed system are investigated. The success of this readout system demonstrates the potential use of open-source hardware to construct scientific instruments with the advantages of miniaturization, low cost, flexible design, and Internet access.

  10. Development of the doppler electron velocimeter: theory.

    SciTech Connect

    Reu, Phillip L.

    2007-03-01

    Measurement of dynamic events at the nano-scale is currently impossible. This paper presents the theoretical underpinnings of a method for making these measurements using electron microscopes. Building on the work of Moellenstedt and Lichte who demonstrated Doppler shifting of an electron beam with a moving electron mirror, further work is proposed to perfect and utilize this concept in dynamic measurements. Specifically, using the concept of ''fringe-counting'' with the current principles of transmission electron holography, an extension of these methods to dynamic measurements is proposed. A presentation of the theory of Doppler electron wave shifting is given, starting from the development of the de Broglie wave, up through the equations describing interference effects and Doppler shifting in electron waves. A mathematical demonstration that Doppler shifting is identical to the conceptually easier to understand idea of counting moving fringes is given by analogy to optical interferometry. Finally, potential developmental experiments and uses of a Doppler electron microscope are discussed.

  11. Development and evaluation of a practical method to measure the Depth of Interaction function for a single side readout PET detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stringhini, G.; Pizzichemi, M.; Ghezzi, A.; Stojkovic, A.; Paganoni, M.; Auffray, E.

    2016-11-01

    In small animal and organ dedicated PET scanners, the knowledge of depth of interaction (DOI) of the gamma ray along the main axis of the scintillator is a fundamental information in order to avoid parallax error and to achieve high performances in terms of spatial resolution. Recently we developed a new method to obtain the DOI function for a single side readout PET module, recirculating the scintillation light in the matrix by means of a mirror placed on top of the module. In a complete PET scanner, periodical DOI calibrations have to be performed to prevent time dependent miscalibrations and performance degradations. The current DOI calibration relies on a coincidence system between the module and an external scintillator to provide a priori the DOI information and it is clearly not feasible in a real system without unpractical disassemblies of the scanner. In this paper we develop instead a fast and precise calibration method based on uniform irradiation of the scintillators. Three irradiation modalities are presented, in particular one where the source is placed on top of the module, one with the source placed on one side of the module and one that exploits the internal radioactivity of the scintillator. The three different procedures are evaluated and the calibration method is validated by comparing the information provided by the coincidence setup.

  12. New readout and data-acquisition system in an electron-tracking Compton camera for MeV gamma-ray astronomy (SMILE-II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizumoto, T.; Matsuoka, Y.; Mizumura, Y.; Tanimori, T.; Kubo, H.; Takada, A.; Iwaki, S.; Sawano, T.; Nakamura, K.; Komura, S.; Nakamura, S.; Kishimoto, T.; Oda, M.; Miyamoto, S.; Takemura, T.; Parker, J. D.; Tomono, D.; Sonoda, S.; Miuchi, K.; Kurosawa, S.

    2015-11-01

    For MeV gamma-ray astronomy, we have developed an electron-tracking Compton camera (ETCC) as a MeV gamma-ray telescope capable of rejecting the radiation background and attaining the high sensitivity of near 1 mCrab in space. Our ETCC comprises a gaseous time-projection chamber (TPC) with a micro pattern gas detector for tracking recoil electrons and a position-sensitive scintillation camera for detecting scattered gamma rays. After the success of a first balloon experiment in 2006 with a small ETCC (using a 10×10×15 cm3 TPC) for measuring diffuse cosmic and atmospheric sub-MeV gamma rays (Sub-MeV gamma-ray Imaging Loaded-on-balloon Experiment I; SMILE-I), a (30 cm)3 medium-sized ETCC was developed to measure MeV gamma-ray spectra from celestial sources, such as the Crab Nebula, with single-day balloon flights (SMILE-II). To achieve this goal, a 100-times-larger detection area compared with that of SMILE-I is required without changing the weight or power consumption of the detector system. In addition, the event rate is also expected to dramatically increase during observation. Here, we describe both the concept and the performance of the new data-acquisition system with this (30 cm)3 ETCC to manage 100 times more data while satisfying the severe restrictions regarding the weight and power consumption imposed by a balloon-borne observation. In particular, to improve the detection efficiency of the fine tracks in the TPC from 10% to 100%, we introduce a new data-handling algorithm in the TPC. Therefore, for efficient management of such large amounts of data, we developed a data-acquisition system with parallel data flow.

  13. TES Detector Noise Limited Readout Using SQUID Multiplexers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staguhn, J. G.; Benford, D. J.; Chervenak, J. A.; Khan, S. A.; Moseley, S. H.; Shafer, R. A.; Deiker, S.; Grossman, E. N.; Hilton, G. C.; Irwin, K. D.

    2004-01-01

    The availability of superconducting Transition Edge Sensors (TES) with large numbers of individual detector pixels requires multiplexers for efficient readout. The use of multiplexers reduces the number of wires needed between the cryogenic electronics and the room temperature electronics and cuts the number of required cryogenic amplifiers. We are using an 8 channel SQUID multiplexer to read out one-dimensional TES arrays which are used for submillimeter astronomical observations. We present results from test measurements which show that the low noise level of the SQUID multiplexers allows accurate measurements of the TES Johnson noise, and that in operation, the readout noise is dominated by the detector noise. Multiplexers for large number of channels require a large bandwidth for the multiplexed readout signal. We discuss the resulting implications for the noise performance of these multiplexers which will be used for the readout of two dimensional TES arrays in next generation instruments.

  14. Daily weather direct readout microprocessor study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davisson, L. D.; Davisson, J. B.

    1976-01-01

    The work completed included a study of the requirements and hardware and software implementation techniques for NIMBUS ESMR and TWERLE direct readout applications using microprocessors. Many microprocessors were studied for this application. Because of the available Interdata development capabilities, it was concluded that future implementations be on an Interdata microprocessor which was found adequate for the task.

  15. Commercial and Cost Effective Production of Two-Dimensional Read-Out Boards for Sub-Atomic Particle Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Crary, David; Majka, Richard

    2010-10-22

    We report results from research aimed at developing and demonstrating production of 2-D readout structures for GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) charged particle tracking chambers at Tech-Etch. Readout boards of two types, bi-planar and single plane, were fabricated and evaluated. The results show that Tech-Etch can produce suitable boards of either type however the single plane board has a number of advantages both in production and use that will likely make it the preferred choice for GEM tracking chambers.

  16. Automatic readout micrometer

    DOEpatents

    Lauritzen, T.

    A measuring system is described for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principle use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse of fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

  17. Automatic readout micrometer

    DOEpatents

    Lauritzen, Ted

    1982-01-01

    A measuring system is disclosed for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principal use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse or fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

  18. Development of Scanning Ultrafast Electron Microscope Capability.

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Kimberlee Chiyoko; Talin, Albert Alec; Chandler, David W.; Michael, Joseph R.

    2016-11-01

    Modern semiconductor devices rely on the transport of minority charge carriers. Direct examination of minority carrier lifetimes in real devices with nanometer-scale features requires a measurement method with simultaneously high spatial and temporal resolutions. Achieving nanometer spatial resolutions at sub-nanosecond temporal resolution is possible with pump-probe methods that utilize electrons as probes. Recently, a stroboscopic scanning electron microscope was developed at Caltech, and used to study carrier transport across a Si p-n junction [ 1 , 2 , 3 ] . In this report, we detail our development of a prototype scanning ultrafast electron microscope system at Sandia National Laboratories based on the original Caltech design. This effort represents Sandia's first exploration into ultrafast electron microscopy.

  19. Development and performance of a suprathermal electron spectrometer to study auroral precipitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogasawara, Keiichi; Grubbs, Guy; Michell, Robert G.; Samara, Marilia; Stange, Jason L.; Trevino, John A.; Webster, James; Jahn, Jörg-Micha

    2016-05-01

    The design, development, and performance of Medium-energy Electron SPectrometer (MESP), dedicated to the in situ observation of suprathermal electrons in the auroral ionosphere, are summarized in this paper. MESP employs a permanent magnet filter with a light tight structure to select electrons with proper energies guided to the detectors. A combination of two avalanche photodiodes and a large area solid-state detector (SSD) provided 46 total energy bins (1 keV resolution for 3-20 keV range for APDs, and 7 keV resolution for >20 keV range for SSDs). Multi-channel ultra-low power application-specific integrated circuits are also verified for the flight operation to read-out and analyze the detector signals. MESP was launched from Poker Flat Research Range on 3 March 2014 as a part of ground-to-rocket electrodynamics-electrons correlative experiment (GREECE) mission. MESP successfully measured the precipitating electrons from 3 to 120 keV in 120-ms time resolution and characterized the features of suprathermal distributions associated with auroral arcs throughout the flight. The measured electrons were showing the inverted-V type spectra, consistent with the past measurements. In addition, investigations of the suprathermal electron population indicated the existence of the energetic non-thermal distribution corresponding to the brightest aurora.

  20. Development and performance of a suprathermal electron spectrometer to study auroral precipitations.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Keiichi; Grubbs, Guy; Michell, Robert G; Samara, Marilia; Stange, Jason L; Trevino, John A; Webster, James; Jahn, Jörg-Micha

    2016-05-01

    The design, development, and performance of Medium-energy Electron SPectrometer (MESP), dedicated to the in situ observation of suprathermal electrons in the auroral ionosphere, are summarized in this paper. MESP employs a permanent magnet filter with a light tight structure to select electrons with proper energies guided to the detectors. A combination of two avalanche photodiodes and a large area solid-state detector (SSD) provided 46 total energy bins (1 keV resolution for 3-20 keV range for APDs, and 7 keV resolution for >20 keV range for SSDs). Multi-channel ultra-low power application-specific integrated circuits are also verified for the flight operation to read-out and analyze the detector signals. MESP was launched from Poker Flat Research Range on 3 March 2014 as a part of ground-to-rocket electrodynamics-electrons correlative experiment (GREECE) mission. MESP successfully measured the precipitating electrons from 3 to 120 keV in 120-ms time resolution and characterized the features of suprathermal distributions associated with auroral arcs throughout the flight. The measured electrons were showing the inverted-V type spectra, consistent with the past measurements. In addition, investigations of the suprathermal electron population indicated the existence of the energetic non-thermal distribution corresponding to the brightest aurora.

  1. HEXITEC ASIC—a pixellated readout chip for CZT detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Lawrence; Seller, Paul; Wilson, Matthew; Hardie, Alec

    2009-06-01

    HEXITEC is a collaborative project with the aim of developing a new range of detectors for high-energy X-ray imaging. High-energy X-ray imaging has major advantages over current lower energy imaging for the life and physical sciences, including improved phase-contrast images on larger, higher density samples and with lower accumulated doses. However, at these energies conventional silicon-based devices cannot be used, hence, the requirement for a new range of high Z-detector materials. Underpinning the HEXITEC programme are the development of a pixellated Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors and a pixellated readout ASIC which will be bump-bonded to the detector. The HEXITEC ASIC is required to have low noise (20 electrons rms) and tolerate detector leakage currents. A prototype 20×20 pixel ASIC has been developed and manufactured on a standard 0.35 μm CMOS process.

  2. System design for precise digitization and readout of the CSNS-WNS BaF2 spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, De-Liang; Cao, Ping; Wang, Qi; He, Bing; Zhang, Ya-Xi; Qi, Xin-Cheng; Yu, Tao; An, Qi

    2017-02-01

    The BaF2 (barium fluoride) spectrometer is one of the experiment facilities at the CSNS-WNS (White Neutron Source at China Spallation Neutron Source), currently under construction. It is designed to precisely measure the (n, γ) cross section, with 92 crystal elements and complete 4π steradian coverage. In order to improve the precision of measurement, in this paper, a new precise digitization and readout method is proposed. Waveform digitizing with 1 GSps sampling rate and 12-bit resolution is used to precisely capture the detector signal. To solve the problem of massive data readout and processing, the readout electronics is designed as a distributed architecture with 4 PXIe crates. The digitized signal is concentrated to the PXIe crate controller through a PCIe bus on the backplane and transmitted to the data acquisition system over gigabit Ethernet in parallel. Besides, the clock and trigger can be fanned out synchronously to every electronic channel over a high-precision distribution network. Test results show that the prototype of the readout electronics can achieve good performance and meet the requirements of the CSNS-WNS BaF2 spectrometer. Supported by National Research and Development plan (2016YFA0401602) and NSAF (U1530111)

  3. A High-Speed, Event-Driven, Active Pixel Sensor Readout for Photon-Counting Microchannel Plate Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimble, Randy A.; Pain, B.; Norton, T. J.; Haas, P.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Silicon array readouts for microchannel plate intensifiers offer several attractive features. In this class of detector, the electron cloud output of the MCP intensifier is converted to visible light by a phosphor; that light is then fiber-optically coupled to the silicon array. In photon-counting mode, the resulting light splashes on the silicon array are recognized and centroided to fractional pixel accuracy by off-chip electronics. This process can result in very high (MCP-limited) spatial resolution for the readout while operating at a modest MCP gain (desirable for dynamic range and long term stability). The principal limitation of intensified CCD systems of this type is their severely limited local dynamic range, as accurate photon counting is achieved only if there are not overlapping event splashes within the frame time of the device. This problem can be ameliorated somewhat by processing events only in pre-selected windows of interest or by using an addressable charge injection device (CID) for the readout array. We are currently pursuing the development of an intriguing alternative readout concept based on using an event-driven CMOS Active Pixel Sensor. APS technology permits the incorporation of discriminator circuitry within each pixel. When coupled with suitable CMOS logic outside the array area, the discriminator circuitry can be used to trigger the readout of small sub-array windows only when and where an event splash has been detected, completely eliminating the local dynamic range problem, while achieving a high global count rate capability and maintaining high spatial resolution. We elaborate on this concept and present our progress toward implementing an event-driven APS readout.

  4. READOUT SYSTEM FOR ARRAYS OF FRISCH-RING CDZNTE DETECTORS.

    SciTech Connect

    CUI, Y.; BOLOTNIKOV, A.E.; CAMARDA, G.S.; DE GERONIMO, G.; O'CONNOR, P.; JAMES, R.B.; KARGAR, A.; HARRISON, M.J.; MCGREGOR, D.S.

    2006-10-29

    Frisch-ring CdZnTe detectors have demonstrated good energy resolution for identifying isotopes, <1% FWHM at 662 keV, and good efficiency for detecting gamma rays. We will fabricate and test at Brookhaven National Laboratory an integrated module of a 64-element array of 6 x 6 x 12 mm{sup 3} Frisch-ring detectors, coupled with a readout electronics system. It supports 64 readout channels, and includes front-end electronics, signal processing circuit, USB interface and high-voltage power supply. The data-acquisition software is used to process the data stream, which includes amplitude and timing information for each detected event. This paper describes the design and assembly of the detector modules, readout electronics, and a conceptual prototype system. Some test results are also reported.

  5. Development of plasma cathode electron guns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oks, Efim M.; Schanin, Peter M.

    1999-05-01

    The status of experimental research and ongoing development of plasma cathode electron guns in recent years is reviewed, including some novel upgrades and applications to various technological fields. The attractiveness of this kind of e-gun is due to its capability of creating high current, broad or focused beams, both in pulsed and steady-state modes of operation. An important characteristic of the plasma cathode electron gun is the absence of a thermionic cathode, a feature which leads to long lifetime and reliable operation even in the presence of aggressive background gas media and at fore-vacuum gas pressure ranges such as achieved by mechanical pumps. Depending on the required beam parameters, different kinds of plasma discharge systems can be used in plasma cathode electron guns, such as vacuum arcs, constricted gaseous arcs, hollow cathode glows, and two kinds of discharges in crossed E×B fields: Penning and magnetron. At the present time, plasma cathode electron guns provide beams with transverse dimension from fractional millimeter up to about one meter, beam current from microamperes to kiloamperes, beam current density up to about 100 A/cm2, pulse duration from nanoseconds to dc, and electron energy from several keV to hundreds of keV. Applications include electron beam melting and welding, surface treatment, plasma chemistry, radiation technologies, laser pumping, microwave generation, and more.

  6. Electron Storage Ring Development for ICS Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Loewen, Roderick

    2015-09-30

    There is an increasing world-wide interest in compact light sources based on Inverse Compton Scattering. Development of these types of light sources includes leveraging the investment in accelerator technology first developed at DOE National Laboratories. Although these types of light sources cannot replace the larger user-supported synchrotron facilities, they offer attractive alternatives for many x-ray science applications. Fundamental research at the SLAC National Laboratory in the 1990’s led to the idea of using laser-electron storage rings as a mechanism to generate x-rays with many properties of the larger synchrotron light facilities. This research led to a commercial spin-off of this technology. The SBIR project goal is to understand and improve the performance of the electron storage ring system of the commercially available Compact Light Source. The knowledge gained from studying a low-energy electron storage ring may also benefit other Inverse Compton Scattering (ICS) source development. Better electron storage ring performance is one of the key technologies necessary to extend the utility and breadth of applications of the CLS or related ICS sources. This grant includes a subcontract with SLAC for technical personnel and resources for modeling, feedback development, and related accelerator physics studies.

  7. Readout system of TPC/MPD NICA project

    SciTech Connect

    Averyanov, A. V.; Bajajin, A. G.; Chepurnov, V. F.; Cheremukhina, G. A.; Fateev, O. V.; Korotkova, A. M.; Levchanovskiy, F. V.; Lukstins, J.; Movchan, S. A.; Razin, S. V.; Rybakov, A. A.; Vereschagin, S. V. Zanevsky, Yu. V.; Zaporozhets, S. A.; Zruyev, V. N.

    2015-12-15

    The time-projection chamber (TPC) is the main tracking detector in the MPD/NICA. The information on charge-particle tracks in the TPC is registered by the MWPG with cathode pad readout. The frontend electronics (FEE) are developed with use of modern technologies such as application specific integrated circuits (ASIC), field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA), and data transfer to a concentrator via a fast optical interface. The main parameters of the FEE are as follows: total number of channels, ∼95 000; data stream from the whole TPC, 5 GB/s; low power consumption, less than 100 mW/ch; signal to noise ratio (S/N), 30; equivalent noise charge (ENC), <1000e{sup –} (C{sub in} = 10–20 pF); and zero suppression (pad signal rejection ∼90%). The article presents the status of the readout chamber construction and the data acquisition system. The results of testing FEE prototypes are presented.

  8. The supernova neutrino readout of MicroBooNE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo Anadon, Jose Ignacio; MicroBooNE Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The MicroBooNE detector is currently the largest liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) operative worldwide. In the case of a nearby (a few kiloparsecs away) core-collapse supernova, the emitted neutrinos would induce on the order of tens of interactions within the MicroBooNE TPC. This would constitute the first detection of supernova neutrinos with the LArTPC technology, offering a unique sensitivity to the electron neutrino flux. Due to the low energy of the events (tens of MeV), the detector size (89 tons of active volume) and the location near surface, MicroBooNE cannot trigger on supernova neutrinos and therefore relies on an external alert generated by other neutrino detectors (the SuperNova Early Warning System, or SNEWS). A continuous readout is being commissioned in MicroBooNE in which the data are temporarily stored in buffers, waiting for the SNEWS alert to save them permanently. In order to cope with the large data rate produced by the TPC and the PMT systems, online zero-suppression algorithms have been developed. This talk will explain the continuous supernova readout of MicroBooNE, which is of interest to the future short and long baseline neutrino programs which will bring additional LArTPCs online in the coming years.

  9. Enhancements to a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) Multiplexer Readout and Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forgione, J.; Benford, D. J.; Buchanan, E. D.; Moseley, S. H.; Rebar, J.; Shafer, R. A.

    2004-01-01

    Far-infrared detector arrays such as the 16x32 superconducting bolometer array for the SAFIRE instrument (flying on the SOFIA airborne observatory) require systems of readout and control electronics to provide translation between a user-driven, digital PC and the cold, analog world of the cryogenic detector. In 2001, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) developed their Mark III electronics for purposes of control and readout of their 1x32 SQUID Multiplexer chips. We at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center acquired a Mark 111 system and subsequently designed upgrades to suit our and our collaborators purposes. We developed an arbitrary, programmable multiplexing system that allows the user to cycle through rows in a SQUID array in an infinite number of combinations. We provided hooks in the Mark III system to allow readout of signals from outside the Mark 111 system, such as telescope status information. Finally, we augmented the heart of the system with a new feedback algorithm implementation, flexible diagnostic tools, and informative telemetry.

  10. Low-jitter single flux quantum signal readout from superconducting single photon detector.

    PubMed

    Terai, Hirotaka; Yamashita, Taro; Miki, Shigehito; Makise, Kazumasa; Wang, Zhen

    2012-08-27

    We developed a single-flux-quantum (SFQ) readout technology for superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs) to achieve low-jitter signal readout. By optimizing circuit parameters of the SFQ readout circuit, the input current sensitivity was improved below 10 μA, which is smaller than a typical critical current of SSPD. The experiment using a pulse-pattern generator as an input pulse source revealed that the measured jitter of the SFQ readout circuit is well below the system jitter of our measurement setup for the input current level above 15 μA. The measured jitter of the SSPD connected to the SFQ readout circuit was 37 ps full width at half maximum (FWHM) for an SSPD bias current of around 18 μA, which is a significant improvement on 67 ps FWHM jitter observed in conventional readout without an SFQ readout circuit.

  11. Multikilowatt power electronics development for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, D. K.; Inouye, L. Y.; Rolandelli, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    Attention is given to several multikilowatt power electronic components developed by TRW for the Space Station Power Management and Distribution test bed at NASA Lewis Research Center. These components include a 12.5-kW DC-DC converter, a 6.25-kW battery charge/discharge regulator, an 82-channel sequential shunt unit, a 10-A remote power controllers, and three different types of 1-kW load converters. TRW is also monitoring the development of 120-V fuses for space applications. The authors discuss these developments and provide steady-state and dynamic performance parameters.

  12. FPIX2, the BTeV pixel readout chip

    SciTech Connect

    David C. Christian et al.

    2003-12-10

    A radiation tolerant pixel readout chip, FPIX2, has been developed at Fermilab for use by BTeV. Some of the requirements of the BTeV pixel readout chip are reviewed and contrasted with requirements for similar devices in LHC experiments. A description of the FPIX2 is given, and results of initial tests of its performance are presented, as is a summary of measurements planned for the coming year.

  13. A multi-channel integrated readout circuit (MIROC) chip for solid state charged particle detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiang

    2011-12-01

    Various electronic amplifier systems have been developed during the past years for solid state detectors for energetic charged particle detection. Most of them were based on the design of discrete parts or high performance hybrid packaged chips. With rapid development of modern integrated circuit industry, there are more and more integrated systems built for such applications. This work describes a novel multi-channel integrated readout circuit (MIROC) mixed-signal ASIC for solid stage charged particle detectors. The chip contains nineteen analog amplifier channels including the test channel, three on-chip 8-bit ADCs, each equipped with a 8-bit parallel-to-serial shift register, three 19-input analog multiplexers, and other digital control logic modules. This was the first known integrated readout system with multiple channels and multiple ADCs, by the time the project started. The chip is designed with special interest in 1MeV electrons. It is a highly integrated system that only requires minimal external controls, which could significantly reduce cost, space, power and total mass of the readout system, and reduce the development cycle of new instruments. MIROC chip was fabricated with IBM 7WL 0.18microm SiGe BiCMOS technology through MOSIS MEP research license, and has been tested, with key components characterized. Measured only 4mmx4mm, this highly integrated readout system has a FWHM noise below 20keV. The four configurable conversion gain levels of the amplifier chains, measured to be 164mV/MeV, 378mV/MeV, 611mV/MeV and 950mV/MeV, make the chip capable of studying energetic charged particles over the range of 100keV up to 6MeV.

  14. Low-Temperature Electronic Components Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammond, Ahmad

    1999-01-01

    In many future NASA missions, such as deep space planetary exploration and the Next Generation Space Telescope, electrical components and systems must operate reliably and efficiently in extremely low temperature environments. Most modern electronic components cannot operate below moderately low operating temperatures (-40 to -55 C). The low-temperature electronics program at the NASA Lewis Research Center is focusing on the development and characterization of low-temperature components and the integration of the developed devices into demonstrable very low-temperature (-200 C) power systems such as dc-dc converters. Such low-temperature electronics will not only tolerate hostile environments but also will reduce system size and weight by eliminating radioisotope heating units, thereby reducing launch cost, improving reliability and lifetime, and increasing energy densities. Low-temperature electronic components will also have a great influence on terrestrial applications such as medical instrumentation, magnetic levitation transportation systems, and arctic and antarctic exploration. Lewis researchers are now performing extensive evaluations of commercially available as well as custom-made devices. These include various types of energy storage and signal capacitors, power switching devices, magnetic and superconducting materials, and primary lithium batteries, to name a few.

  15. Cryogenic Electronics Being Developed for Space Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad; Gerber, Scott S.

    2002-01-01

    Planetary exploration missions and deep space probes require electrical power management and control systems that can operate efficiently and reliably in very low temperature environments. Presently, spacecraft operating in the cold environment of deep space carry a large number of radioisotope heating units to maintain the surrounding temperature of the onboard electronics at approximately 20 C. Electronics capable of operation at cryogenic temperatures would not only tolerate the hostile environment of deep space but also reduce system size and weight by eliminating or reducing the radioisotope heating units and their associate structures. Thereby, such electronics would reduce system development as well as launch costs. In addition, power electronic circuits designed for operation at low temperatures are expected to result in more efficient systems than those at room temperature. This improvement results because semiconductor and dielectric materials have better behavior and tolerance in their electrical and thermal properties at low temperatures. The Low Temperature Electronics Program at the NASA Glenn Research Center is focusing on the research and development of electrical components, circuits, and systems suitable for applications in the aerospace environment and in deep space exploration missions. Research is being conducted on devices and systems for reliable use down to cryogenic temperatures. Some of the commercial off-the-shelf as well as developed components that are being characterized include semiconductor switching devices, resistors, magnetics, and capacitors. Semiconductor devices and integrated circuits including digital-to-analog and analog-to-digital converters, dc-dc converters, operational amplifiers, and oscillators are also being investigated for potential use in low-temperature applications. For example, the output response of an advanced oscillator at room temperature and at -190 C is shown. Most oscillators can operate at temperatures

  16. Self-triggering readout system for the neutron lifetime experiment PENeLOPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaisbauer, D.; Konorov, I.; Steffen, D.; Paul, S.

    2016-07-01

    The aim of PENeLOPE (Precision Experiment on Neutron Lifetime Operating with Proton Extraction) at the Forschungsreaktor München II is a high-precision measurement of the neutron lifetime and thereby an improvement of the parameter's precision by one order of magnitude. In order to achieve a higher accuracy, modern experiments naturally require state-of-the-art readout electronics, as well as high-performance data acquisition systems. This paper presents the self-triggering readout system designed for PENeLOPE which features a continuous pedestal tracking, configurable signal detection logic, floating ground up to 30 kV, cryogenic environment and the novel Switched Enabling Protocol (SEP). The SEP is a time-division multiplexing transport level protocol developed for a star network topology.

  17. Design of a ballistic fluxon qubit readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herr Kidiyarova-Shevchenko, Anna; Fedorov, Arkady; Shnirman, Alexander; Il'ichev, Evgeny; Schön, Gerd

    2007-11-01

    A detailed design is given for a flux qubit readout using ballistic fluxons. In this scheme, fluxons propagate through an underdamped Josephson transmission line (JTL) coupled to the qubit, whose state affects the fluxon propagation time. For strong qubit-JTL coupling, and far from the symmetry point, a qubit can be measured with fidelity greater than 99% and measurement time of 4 ns. The readout circuit requires additional rapid single flux quantum (RSFQ) interface circuitry to launch and receive the delayed flux solitons. The parameters of this driver and receiver have been optimized to produce low fluxon speed at launch and impedance matching at the receiver. The delayed solitons are compared to a reference line using a detector with time resolution of better than 16 ps. Both the JTL and RSFQ interface were designed for the Nb 30 A cm-2 process developed at VTT, Finland, with postdeposition of the Al qubit at IPHT, Germany.

  18. Qubit readout with the Josephson Photomultiplier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeill, Guilhem

    Recent demonstrations of error correction in many qubit circuits, as well as efforts to build a logical qubit, have shown the need for a simple and scalable superconducting quantum bit (qubit) readout. Current solutions based on heterodyne detection and cryogenic amplification of microwave readout tones may prove difficult to scale, while photon counting presents an attractive alternative. However, the development of counters operating at these frequencies has proved technically challenging. In this thesis, we describe the development of the Josephson Photomultiplier (JPM), a microwave photon counting circuit. We discuss the JPM theoretically, and describe the fabrication of the JPM using standard thin film lithography techniques. We measure its properties as a microwave photon counter using a qubit as an in-situ calibrated source of photons. We measure a JPM quantum efficiency at the few percent level. We then use the JPM to perform readout of a transmon qubit in both the dispersive and bright regimes. We observe raw measurement fidelities of 35% and 62% respectively. We discuss how the JPM and measurement protocol could be further optimized to achieve fidelities in excess of 90%.

  19. A near-infrared 64-pixel superconducting nanowire single photon detector array with integrated multiplexed readout

    SciTech Connect

    Allman, M. S. Verma, V. B.; Stevens, M.; Gerrits, T.; Horansky, R. D.; Lita, A. E.; Mirin, R.; Nam, S. W.; Marsili, F.; Beyer, A.; Shaw, M. D.; Kumor, D.

    2015-05-11

    We demonstrate a 64-pixel free-space-coupled array of superconducting nanowire single photon detectors optimized for high detection efficiency in the near-infrared range. An integrated, readily scalable, multiplexed readout scheme is employed to reduce the number of readout lines to 16. The cryogenic, optical, and electronic packaging to read out the array as well as characterization measurements are discussed.

  20. Validation of a highly integrated SiPM readout system with a TOF-PET demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niknejad, T.; Setayeshi, S.; Tavernier, S.; Bugalho, R.; Ferramacho, L.; Di Francesco, A.; Leong, C.; Rolo, M. D.; Shamshirsaz, M.; Silva, J. C.; Silva, R.; Silveira, M.; Zorraquino, C.; Varela, J.

    2016-12-01

    We have developed a highly integrated, fast and compact readout electronics for Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) based Time of Flight Positron Emission Tomography (TOF-PET) scanners. The readout is based on the use of TOP-PET Application Specific Integrated Circuit (PETsys TOFPET1 ASIC) with 64 channels, each with its amplifier, discriminator, Time to Digital Converter (TDC) and amplitude determination using Time Over Threshold (TOT). The ASIC has 25 ps r.m.s. intrinsic time resolution and fully digital output. The system is optimised for high rates, good timing, low power consumption and low cost. For validating the readout electronics, we have built a technical PET scanner, hereafter called ``demonstrator'', with 2'048 SiPM channels. The PET demonstrator has 16 compact Detector Modules (DM). Each DM has two ASICs reading 128 SiPM pixels in one-to-one coupling to 128 Lutetium Yttrium Orthosilicate (LYSO) crystals measuring 3.1 × 3.1 × 15 mm3 each. The data acquisition system for the demonstrator has two Front End Boards type D (FEB/D), each collecting the data of 1'024 channels (8 DMs), and transmitting assembled data frames through a serial link (4.8 Gbps), to a single Data Acquisition (DAQ) board plugged into the Peripheral Component Interconnect Express (PCIe) bus of the data acquisition PC. Results obtained with this PET demonstrator are presented.

  1. Visual displays that directly interface and provide read-outs of molecular states via molecular graphics processing units.

    PubMed

    Poje, Julia E; Kastratovic, Tamara; Macdonald, Andrew R; Guillermo, Ana C; Troetti, Steven E; Jabado, Omar J; Fanning, M Leigh; Stefanovic, Darko; Macdonald, Joanne

    2014-08-25

    The monitoring of molecular systems usually requires sophisticated technologies to interpret nanoscale events into electronic-decipherable signals. We demonstrate a new method for obtaining read-outs of molecular states that uses graphics processing units made from molecular circuits. Because they are made from molecules, the units are able to directly interact with molecular systems. We developed deoxyribozyme-based graphics processing units able to monitor nucleic acids and output alphanumerical read-outs via a fluorescent display. Using this design we created a molecular 7-segment display, a molecular calculator able to add and multiply small numbers, and a molecular automaton able to diagnose Ebola and Marburg virus sequences. These molecular graphics processing units provide insight for the construction of autonomous biosensing devices, and are essential components for the development of molecular computing platforms devoid of electronics.

  2. XAMPS Detectors Readout ASIC for LCLS

    SciTech Connect

    Dragone, A; Pratte, J.F.; Rehak, P.; Carini, G.A.; Herbst, R.; O'Connor, P.; Siddons, D.P.; /BNL, NSLS

    2008-12-18

    An ASIC for the readout of signals from X-ray Active Matrix Pixel Sensor (XAMPS) detectors to be used at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is presented. The X-ray Pump Probe (XPP) instrument, for which the ASIC has been designed, requires a large input dynamic range on the order of 104 photons at 8 keV with a resolution of half a photon FWHM. Due to the size of the pixel and the length of the readout line, large input capacitance is expected, leading to stringent requirement on the noise optimization. Furthermore, the large number of pixels needed for a good position resolution and the fixed LCLS beam period impose limitations on the time available for the single pixel readout. Considering the periodic nature of the LCLS beam, the ASIC developed for this application is a time-variant system providing low-noise charge integration, filtering and correlated double sampling. In order to cope with the large input dynamic range a charge pump scheme implementing a zero-balance measurement method has been introduced. It provides an on chip 3-bit coarse digital conversion of the integrated charge. The residual charge is sampled using correlated double sampling into analog memory and measured with the required resolution. The first 64 channel prototype of the ASIC has been fabricated in TSMC CMOS 0.25 {micro}m technology. In this paper, the ASIC architecture and performances are presented.

  3. AC Read-Out Circuits for Single Pixel Characterization of TES Microcalorimeters and Bolometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottardi, L.; van de Kuur, J.; Bandler, S.; Bruijn, M.; de Korte, P.; Gao, J. R.; den Hartog, R.; Hijmering, R. A.; Hoevers, H.; Koshropanah, P.; Kilbourne, C.; Lindemann, M. A.; Parra Borderias, M.; Ridder, M.

    2011-01-01

    SRON is developing Frequency Domain Multiplexing (FDM) for the read-out of transition edge sensor (TES) soft x-ray microcalorimeters for the XMS instrument of the International X-ray Observatory and far-infrared bolometers for the SAFARI instrument on the Japanese mission SPICA. In FDM the TESs are AC voltage biased at frequencies from 0.5 to 6 MHz in a superconducting LC resonant circuit and the signal is read-out by low noise and high dynamic range SQUIDs amplifiers. The TES works as an amplitude modulator. We report on several AC bias experiments performed on different detectors. In particular, we discuss the results on the characterization of Goddard Space Flight Center x-ray pixels and SRON bolometers. The paper focuses on the analysis of different read-out configurations developed to optimize the noise and the impedance matching between the detectors and the SQUID amplifier. A novel feedback network electronics has been developed to keep the SQUID in flux locked loop, when coupled to superconducting high Q circuits, and to optimally tune the resonant bias circuit. The achieved detector performances are discussed in view of the instrument requirement for the two space missions.

  4. Focal plane infrared readout circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An infrared imager, such as a spectrometer, includes multiple infrared photodetectors and readout circuits for reading out signals from the photodetectors. Each readout circuit includes a buffered direct injection input circuit including a differential amplifier with active feedback provided through an injection transistor. The differential amplifier includes a pair of input transistors, a pair of cascode transistors and a current mirror load. Photocurrent from a photodetector can be injected onto an integration capacitor in the readout circuit with high injection efficiency at high speed. A high speed, low noise, wide dynamic range linear infrared multiplexer array for reading out infrared detectors with large capacitances can be achieved even when short exposure times are used. The effect of image lag can be reduced.

  5. Commercial and Cost Effective Production of Two-Dimensional Read-Out Boards for Sub-Atomic Particle Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Crary, David; Majka, Richard

    2010-10-22

    Tech-Etch has considerable experience in numerous related high precision etched Kapton® products including production of GEM foils. The required precision and production process for 2-D readout boards is similar to that developed for GEM foil production. Additionally, Tech-Etch has strong ties with several research institutions (namely Brookhaven National Laboratory, MIT and Yale University) that can help design and evaluate the performance of the readout boards produced at Tech-Etch. Since Tech-Etch is a small company, it also has the capability to produce a large variety of part configurations, optimized for a particular customer's requirements. We report results from research aimed at developing and demonstrating production of 2-D readout structures for GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) charged particle tracking chambers at Tech-Etch. Readout boards of two types, bi-planar and single plane, were fabricated and evaluated. The results show that Tech-Etch can produce suitable boards of either type however the single plane board has a number of advantages both in production and use that will likely make it the preferred choice for GEM tracking chambers.

  6. Linear readout of object manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, SueYeon; Lee, Daniel D.; Sompolinsky, Haim

    2016-06-01

    Objects are represented in sensory systems by continuous manifolds due to sensitivity of neuronal responses to changes in physical features such as location, orientation, and intensity. What makes certain sensory representations better suited for invariant decoding of objects by downstream networks? We present a theory that characterizes the ability of a linear readout network, the perceptron, to classify objects from variable neural responses. We show how the readout perceptron capacity depends on the dimensionality, size, and shape of the object manifolds in its input neural representation.

  7. Fully digital readout of segmented solid state detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenhagen, K. H.; Badura, E.; Bräuning, H.; Hoffmann, J.; Koch, K.; Kurz, N.; Märtin, R.; Minami, S.; Ott, W.; Spillmann, U.; Stöhlker, Th; Weber, G.; Weber, M.

    2013-09-01

    In this work, the digital readout of semiconductor detectors in combination with digital filters was investigated. Both non-segmented high-purity germanium and segmented planar lithium-drifted silicon detectors were used. In each case, photons from a stationary americium (241Am) gamma source were detected. The resulting preamplifier output pulses were digitized at a fixed sampling frequency and stored entirely. Digital filters were applied to the stored waveforms to extract time and energy information. The performance of different digital filters was compared. The optimum energy resolution obtained was comparable with the value resulting from an analogue readout system based on standard nuclear instrumentation module and versatile module Europe bus electronics.

  8. The performance of the bolometer array and readout system during the 2012/2013 flight of the E and B experiment (EBEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDermid, Kevin; Aboobaker, Asad M.; Ade, Peter; Aubin, François; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Bandura, Kevin; Bao, Chaoyun; Borrill, Julian; Chapman, Daniel; Didier, Joy; Dobbs, Matt; Grain, Julien; Grainger, William; Hanany, Shaul; Helson, Kyle; Hillbrand, Seth; Hilton, Gene; Hubmayr, Hannes; Irwin, Kent; Johnson, Bradley; Jaffe, Andrew; Jones, Terry; Kisner, Ted; Klein, Jeff; Korotkov, Andrei; Lee, Adrian; Levinson, Lorne; Limon, Michele; Miller, Amber; Milligan, Michael; Pascale, Enzo; Raach, Katherine; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Britt; Reintsema, Carl; Sagiv, Ilan; Smecher, Graeme; Stompor, Radek; Tristram, Matthieu; Tucker, Greg; Westbrook, Ben; Zilic, Kyle

    2014-07-01

    EBEX is a balloon-borne telescope designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation. During its eleven day science flight in the Austral Summer of 2012, it operated 955 spider-web transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers separated into bands at 150, 250 and 410 GHz. This is the first time that an array of TES bolometers has been used on a balloon platform to conduct science observations. Polarization sensitivity was provided by a wire grid and continuously rotating half-wave plate. The balloon implementation of the bolometer array and readout electronics presented unique development requirements. Here we present an outline of the readout system, the remote tuning of the bolometers and Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) amplifiers, and preliminary current noise of the bolometer array and readout system.

  9. A High-Speed, Event-Driven, Active Pixel Sensor Readout for Photon-Counting Microchannel Plate Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimble, Randy A.; Pain, Bedabrata; Norton, Timothy J.; Haas, J. Patrick; Oegerle, William R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Silicon array readouts for microchannel plate intensifiers offer several attractive features. In this class of detector, the electron cloud output of the MCP intensifier is converted to visible light by a phosphor; that light is then fiber-optically coupled to the silicon array. In photon-counting mode, the resulting light splashes on the silicon array are recognized and centroided to fractional pixel accuracy by off-chip electronics. This process can result in very high (MCP-limited) spatial resolution while operating at a modest MCP gain (desirable for dynamic range and long term stability). The principal limitation of intensified CCD systems of this type is their severely limited local dynamic range, as accurate photon counting is achieved only if there are not overlapping event splashes within the frame time of the device. This problem can be ameliorated somewhat by processing events only in pre-selected windows of interest of by using an addressable charge injection device (CID) for the readout array. We are currently pursuing the development of an intriguing alternative readout concept based on using an event-driven CMOS Active Pixel Sensor. APS technology permits the incorporation of discriminator circuitry within each pixel. When coupled with suitable CMOS logic outside the array area, the discriminator circuitry can be used to trigger the readout of small sub-array windows only when and where an event splash has been detected, completely eliminating the local dynamic range problem, while achieving a high global count rate capability and maintaining high spatial resolution. We elaborate on this concept and present our progress toward implementing an event-driven APS readout.

  10. Preliminary validation results of an ASIC for the readout and control of near-infrared large array detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pâhlsson, Philip; Meier, Dirk; Otnes Berge, Hans Kristian; Øya, Petter; Steenari, David; Olsen, Alf; Hasanbegovic, Amir; Altan, Mehmet A.; Najafiuchevler, Bahram; Talebi, Jahanzad; Azman, Suleyman; Gheorghe, Codin; Ackermann, Jörg; Mæhlum, Gunnar

    2015-06-01

    In this paper we present initial test results of the Near Infrared Readout and Controller ASIC (NIRCA), designed for large area image sensors under contract from the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Norwegian Space Center. The ASIC is designed to read out image sensors based on mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe, or MCT) operating down to 77 K. IDEAS has developed, designed and initiated testing of NIRCA with promising results, showing complete functionality of all ASIC sub-components. The ASIC generates programmable digital signals to clock out the contents of an image array and to amplify, digitize and transfer the resulting pixel charge. The digital signals can be programmed into the ASIC during run-time and allows for windowing and custom readout schemes. The clocked out voltages are amplified by programmable gain amplifiers and digitized by 12-bit, 3-Msps successive approximation register (SAR) analogue-to-digital converters (ADC). Digitized data is encoded using 8-bit to 10-bit encoding and transferred over LVDS to the readout system. The ASIC will give European researchers access to high spectral sensitivity, very low noise and radiation hardened readout electronics for astronomy and Earth observation missions operating at 77 K and room temperature. The versatility of the chip makes the architecture a possible candidate for other research areas, or defense or industrial applications that require analog and digital acquisition, voltage regulation, and digital signal generation.

  11. Development FD-SOI MOSFET Amplifiers for Integrated Read-Out Circuit of Superconducting-Tunnel-Junction Single-Photon-Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Kiuchi, Kenji; et al.

    2015-07-27

    We proposed a new high-resolution single-photon infrared spectrometer for search for radiative decay of cosmic neutrino background (Cν#23;B). The superconducting-tunnel-junctions(STJs) are used as a single-photon counting device. Each STJ consists of Nb/Al/AlxOy/Al/Nb layers, and their thicknesses are optimized for the operation temperature at 370 mK cooled by a 3He sorption refrigerator. Our STJs achieved the leak current 250 pA, and the measured data implies that a smaller area STJ fulfills our requirement. FD-SOI MOSFETs are employed to amplify the STJ signal current in order to increase signal-to-noise ratio (S/N). FD-SOI MOSFETs can be operated at cryogenic temperature of 370 mK, which reduces the noise of the signal amplification system. FD-SOI MOSFET characteristics are measured at cryogenic temperature. The Id-Vgs curve shows a sharper turn on with a higher threshold voltage and the Id-Vds curve shows a nonlinear shape in linear region at cryogenic temperature. Taking into account these effects, FD-SOI MOSFETs are available for read-out circuit of STJ detectors. The bias voltage for STJ detectors is 0.4 mV, and it must be well stabilized to deliver high performance. We proposed an FD-SOI MOSFET-based charge integrated amplifier design as a read-out circuit of STJ detectors. The requirements for an operational amplifier used in the amplifier is estimated using SPICE simulation. The op-amp is required to have a fast response (GBW ≥ #21;100 MHz), and it must have low power dissipation as compared to the cooling power of refrigerator.

  12. Germanium JFET for Cryogenic Readout Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, N. C.; Monroy, C.; Jhabvala, M.; Shu, P.

    1999-01-01

    The n-channel Germanium junction field effect transistor (Ge-JFET) was designed and fabricated for cryogenic applications. The Ge-JFET exhibits superior noise performance at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K). From the device current voltage characteristics of n-channel JFETs, it is seen that transconductance increases monotonically with the lowering of temperature to 4.2 K (liquid helium temperature).

  13. 3D reconstruction of nuclear reactions using GEM TPC with planar readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bihałowicz, Jan Stefan

    2015-02-01

    The research program of the Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) laboratory under construction in Magurele, Romania facilities the need of developing a gaseous active-target detector providing 3D reconstruction of charged products of nuclear reactions induced by gamma beam. The monoenergetic, high-energy (Eγ > 19 MeV) gamma beam of intensity 1013γ/s allows studying nuclear reactions in astrophysics. A Time Projection Chamber with crossed strip readout (eTPC) is proposed as one of the imaging detectors. The special feature of the readout electrode structure is a 2D reconstruction based on the information read out simultaneously from three arrays of strips that form virtual pixels. It is expected to reach similar spatial resolution as for pixel readout at largely reduced cost of electronics. The paper presents the current progress and first results of the small scale prototype TPC which is a one of implementation steps towards eTPC detector proposed in the Technical Design Report of Charged Particles Detection at ELI-NP.

  14. Radiation tolerance of prototype BTeV pixel detector readout chips

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriele Chiodini et al.

    2002-07-12

    High energy and nuclear physics experiments need tracking devices with increasing spatial precision and readout speed in the face of ever-higher track densities and increased radiation environments. The new generation of hybrid pixel detectors (arrays of silicon diodes bump bonded to arrays of front-end electronic cells) is the state of the art technology able to meet these challenges. We report on irradiation studies performed on BTeV pixel readout chip prototypes exposed to a 200 MeV proton beam at Indiana University Cyclotron Facility. Prototype pixel readout chip preFPIX2 has been developed at Fermilab for collider experiments and implemented in standard 0.25 micron CMOS technology following radiation tolerant design rules. The tests confirmed the radiation tolerance of the chip design to proton total dose up to 87 MRad. In addition, non destructive radiation-induced single event upsets have been observed in on-chip static registers and the single bit upset cross section has been extensively measured.

  15. A Digital Readout System For The CSO Microwave Kinetic Inductance Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Max-Moerbeck, Walter; Mazin, B. A.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2007-12-01

    Submillimeter galaxies are important to the understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. Determination of the spectral energy distribution in the millimeter and submillimeter regimes allows important and powerful diagnostics. Our group is developing a camera for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) using Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs). MKIDs are superconducting devices whose impedance changes with the absorption of photons. The camera will have 600 spatial pixels and 4 bands at 750 μm, 850 μm, 1.1 mm and 1.3 mm. For each spatial pixel of the camera the radiation is coupled to the MKIDs using phased-array antennas. This signal is split into 4 different bands using filters and detected using the superconductor as part of a MKID's resonant circuit. The detection process consists of measurement of the changes in the transmission through the resonator when it is illuminated. By designing resonant circuits to have different resonant frequencies and high transmission out resonance, MKIDs can be frequency-domain multiplexed. This allows the simultaneous readout of many detectors through a single coaxial cable. The readout system makes use of microwave IQ modulation and is based on commercial electronics components operating at room temperature. The basic readout has been demonstrated on the CSO. We are working on the implementation of an improved design to be tested on a prototype system with 6x6 pixels and 4 colors next April on the CSO.

  16. 3D reconstruction of nuclear reactions using GEM TPC with planar readout

    SciTech Connect

    Bihałowicz, Jan Stefan

    2015-02-24

    The research program of the Extreme Light Infrastructure – Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) laboratory under construction in Magurele, Romania facilities the need of developing a gaseous active-target detector providing 3D reconstruction of charged products of nuclear reactions induced by gamma beam. The monoenergetic, high-energy (E{sub γ} > 19 MeV) gamma beam of intensity 10{sup 13}γ/s allows studying nuclear reactions in astrophysics. A Time Projection Chamber with crossed strip readout (eTPC) is proposed as one of the imaging detectors. The special feature of the readout electrode structure is a 2D reconstruction based on the information read out simultaneously from three arrays of strips that form virtual pixels. It is expected to reach similar spatial resolution as for pixel readout at largely reduced cost of electronics. The paper presents the current progress and first results of the small scale prototype TPC which is a one of implementation steps towards eTPC detector proposed in the Technical Design Report of Charged Particles Detection at ELI-NP.

  17. Frequency multiplexed superconducting quantum interference device readout of large bolometer arrays for cosmic microwave background measurements.

    PubMed

    Dobbs, M A; Lueker, M; Aird, K A; Bender, A N; Benson, B A; Bleem, L E; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Cho, H-M; Clarke, J; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; Flanigan, D I; de Haan, T; George, E M; Halverson, N W; Holzapfel, W L; Hrubes, J D; Johnson, B R; Joseph, J; Keisler, R; Kennedy, J; Kermish, Z; Lanting, T M; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Luong-Van, D; McMahon, J J; Mehl, J; Meyer, S S; Montroy, T E; Padin, S; Plagge, T; Pryke, C; Richards, P L; Ruhl, J E; Schaffer, K K; Schwan, D; Shirokoff, E; Spieler, H G; Staniszewski, Z; Stark, A A; Vanderlinde, K; Vieira, J D; Vu, C; Westbrook, B; Williamson, R

    2012-07-01

    A technological milestone for experiments employing transition edge sensor bolometers operating at sub-Kelvin temperature is the deployment of detector arrays with 100s-1000s of bolometers. One key technology for such arrays is readout multiplexing: the ability to read out many sensors simultaneously on the same set of wires. This paper describes a frequency-domain multiplexed readout system which has been developed for and deployed on the APEX-SZ and South Pole Telescope millimeter wavelength receivers. In this system, the detector array is divided into modules of seven detectors, and each bolometer within the module is biased with a unique ∼MHz sinusoidal carrier such that the individual bolometer signals are well separated in frequency space. The currents from all bolometers in a module are summed together and pre-amplified with superconducting quantum interference devices operating at 4 K. Room temperature electronics demodulate the carriers to recover the bolometer signals, which are digitized separately and stored to disk. This readout system contributes little noise relative to the detectors themselves, is remarkably insensitive to unwanted microphonic excitations, and provides a technology pathway to multiplexing larger numbers of sensors.

  18. SPIDR: a read-out system for Medipix3 & Timepix3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, J.; van Beuzekom, M.; Boterenbrood, Henk; van der Heijden, B.; Muñoz, J. I.; Kulis, S.; Munneke, B.; Schreuder, F.

    2015-12-01

    The realisation of the Timepix3 chip opened the way for new opportunities in research areas such as particle tracking with both semiconductor sensors and gas filled time projection chambers, electron microscopy and imaging mass spectrometry. To exploit the full capability of the Timepix3 chip, Nikhef developed a compact read-out system, called SPIDR that can deal with the high data output of 80 Mhits per chip per second. The main read-out board connects to both 10 Gb Ethernet and 1 Gb Ethernet devices. The latter obviously at a reduced rate. The main board connects to individual chip-carrier boards via a standard FMC connector. The system is designed such that support for other readout chips is foreseen via reprogramming of the FPGA. Besides the Timepix3 chip also the Medipix3 chip is currently supported. Both the main board and the chip carrier boards are cooled, via the housing and a fan to obtain a stable temperature of around 40 ± 0.2 °C for the Timepix3 chips. We will present the system and the results obtained with the LHCb beam telescope at CERN and proton radiography data obtained with a time projection chamber based on GEM technology.

  19. A simple readout method for MWPCs with high-rate and sub-millimetre resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonte, P.

    1994-09-01

    In this work we describe the experimental tests of a new approach to the fast digital readout of MWPCs: electronic subdivision of the cathode strips increases the readout granularity, while a special coding method allows one to extract the address information from a small number of analogue channels with very simple electronics. The principle is demonstrated to be correct and a quite satisfactory performance is observed. This method may help to create economically the large and fast readout systems necessary for high-luminosity colliders and synchrotron radiation research. Also space-borne applications may profit from reduced weight and power requirements.

  20. Front-end electronics development at BNL

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, P.

    1995-09-01

    AT BNL the monolithic front-end electronics development effort is an outgrowth of work in discrete and hybrid circuits over the past 30 years. BNL`s area of specialization centers on circuits for precision amplitude measurement, with signal-to-noise ratios of 100:1 and calibration to the same level of precision. Circuits are predominantly classical, continuous-time implementation of the functions now performed by hybrids, with little or no loss of performance. Included in this category are charge and current-sensitive preamplifiers, pulse shapers, sample/hold, multiplexing, and associated calibration and control circuits. Presently integration densities are limited to 16 channels per chip. Two examples are presented to illustrate the techniques needed to adopt hybrid circuits to the constraints of monolithic CMOS technology. They are programmable pulse shapes and a charge-sensitive preamp for very low detector capacitance.

  1. Semiconductor detectors with proximity signal readout

    SciTech Connect

    Asztalos, Stephen J.

    2014-01-30

    Semiconductor-based radiation detectors are routinely used for the detection, imaging, and spectroscopy of x-rays, gamma rays, and charged particles for applications in the areas of nuclear and medical physics, astrophysics, environmental remediation, nuclear nonproliferation, and homeland security. Detectors used for imaging and particle tracking are more complex in that they typically must also measure the location of the radiation interaction in addition to the deposited energy. In such detectors, the position measurement is often achieved by dividing or segmenting the electrodes into many strips or pixels and then reading out the signals from all of the electrode segments. Fine electrode segmentation is problematic for many of the standard semiconductor detector technologies. Clearly there is a need for a semiconductor-based radiation detector technology that can achieve fine position resolution while maintaining the excellent energy resolution intrinsic to semiconductor detectors, can be fabricated through simple processes, does not require complex electrical interconnections to the detector, and can reduce the number of required channels of readout electronics. Proximity electrode signal readout (PESR), in which the electrodes are not in physical contact with the detector surface, satisfies this need.

  2. Spindt cold cathode electron gun development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spindt, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    A thin film field emission cathode array and an electron gun based on this emitter array are summarized. Fabricating state of the art cathodes for testing at NASA and NRL, advancing the fabrication technology, developing wedge shaped emitters, and performing emission tests are covered. An anistropic dry etching process (reactive ion beam etching) developed that leads to increasing the packing density of the emitter tips to about 5 x 10 to the 6th power/square cm. Tests with small arrays of emitter tips having about 10 tips has demonstrated current densities of over 100 A/sq cm. Several times using cathodes having a packing density of 1.25 x 10 to the 6th power tips/sq cm. Indications are that the higher packing density achievable with the dry etch process may extend this capability to the 500 A/sq cm range and beyond. The wedge emitter geometry was developed and shown to produce emission. This geometry can (in principle) extend the current density capability of the cathodes beyond the 500 A/sq cm level. An emission microscope was built and tested for use with the cathodes.

  3. Comparing interferometry techniques for multi-degree of freedom test mass readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isleif, Katharina-Sophie; Gerberding, Oliver; Mehmet, Moritz; Schwarze, Thomas S.; Heinzel, Gerhard; Danzmann, Karsten

    2016-05-01

    Laser interferometric readout systems with 1pm/Hz precision over long time scales have successfully been developed for LISA and LISA Pathfinder. Future gravitational physics experiments, for example in the fields of gravitational wave detection and geodesy, will potentially require similar levels of displacement and tilt readouts of multiple test masses in multiple degrees of freedom. In this article we compare currently available classic interferometry schemes with new techniques using phase modulations and complex readout algorithms. Based on a simple example we show that the new techniques have great potential to simplify interferometric readouts.

  4. A low-noise and fast pre-amplifier and readout system for SiPMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biroth, M.; Achenbach, P.; Downie, E.; Thomas, A.

    2015-07-01

    To operate silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) in a demanding environment with large temperature gradients, different amplifier concepts were characterized by analyzing SiPM pulse-shapes and charge distributions. A fully differential 4-wire SiPM pre-amplifier with separated tracks for the bias voltage and with good common-mode noise suppression was developed and successfully tested. To achieve highest single-pixel resolutions an online after-pulse and pile-up suppression was realized with fast readout electronics based on digital filters.

  5. Radiation hard electronics for LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, M.; Millmore, M.; Hall, G.; Sachdeva, R.; French, M.; Nygård, E.; Yoshioka, K.

    1995-02-01

    A CMOS front end electronics chain is being developed by the RD20 collaboration for microstrip detector readout at LHC. It is based on a preamplifier and CR-RC filter, analogue pipeline and an analogue signal processor. Amplifiers and transistor test structures have been constructed and evaluated in detail using a Harris 1.2 μm radiation hardened CMOS process. Progress with larger scale elements, including 32 channel front end chips, is described. A radiation hard 128 channel chip, with a 40 MHz analogue multiplexer, is to be submitted for fabrication in July 1994 which will form the basis of the readout of the tracking system of the CMS experiment.

  6. Development of the superconducting detectors and read-out for the X-IFU instrument on board of the X-ray observatory Athena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottardi, L.; Akamatsu, H.; Bruijn, M. P.; den Hartog, R.; den Herder, J.-W.; Jackson, B.; Kiviranta, M.; van der Kuur, J.; van Weers, H.

    2016-07-01

    The Advanced Telescope for High-Energy Astrophysics (Athena) has been selected by ESA as its second large-class mission. The future European X-ray observatory will study the hot and energetic Universe with its launch foreseen in 2028. Microcalorimeters based on superconducting Transition-edge sensor (TES) are the chosen technology for the detectors array of the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) on board of Athena. The X-IFU is a 2-D imaging integral-field spectrometer operating in the soft X-ray band (0.3-12 keV). The detector consists of an array of 3840 TESs coupled to X-ray absorbers and read out in the MHz bandwidth using Frequency Domain Multiplexing (FDM) based on Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs). The proposed design calls for devices with a high filling-factor, high quantum efficiency, relatively high count-rate capability and an energy resolution of 2.5 eV at 5.9 keV. The paper will review the basic principle and the physics of the TES-based microcalorimeters and present the state-of-the art of the FDM read-out.

  7. Double side read-out technique for mitigation of radiation damage effects in PbWO4 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucchini, M. T.; Auffray, E.; Benaglia, A.; Cavallari, F.; Cockerill, D.; Dolgopolov, A.; Faure, J. L.; Golubev, N.; Hobson, P. R.; Jain, S.; Korjik, M.; Mechinski, V.; Singovski, A.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Tarasov, I.; Zahid, S.

    2016-04-01

    Test beam results of a calorimetric module based on 3×3×22 cm3 PbWO4 crystals, identical to those used in the CMS ECAL Endcaps, read out by a pair of photodetectors coupled to the two opposite sides (front and rear) of each crystal are presented. Nine crystals with different level of induced absorption, from 0 to 20 m-1, have been tested using electrons in the 50-200 GeV energy range. Photomultiplier tubes have been chosen as photodetectors to allow for a precise measurement of highly damaged crystals. The information provided by this double side read-out configuration allows to correct for event-by-event fluctuations of the longitudinal development of electromagnetic showers. By strongly mitigating the effect of non-uniform light collection efficiency induced by radiation damage, the double side read-out technique significantly improves the energy resolution with respect to a single side read-out configuration. The non-linearity of the response arising in damaged crystals is also corrected by a double side read-out configuration and the response linearity of irradiated crystals is restored. In high radiation environments at future colliders, as it will be the case for detectors operating during the High Luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider, defects can be created inside the scintillator volume leading to a non-uniform response of the calorimetric cell. The double side read-out technique presented in this study provides a valuable way to improve the performance of calorimeters based on scintillators whose active volumes are characterized by high aspect ratio cells similar to those used in this study.

  8. Fast readout of carbon nanotube mechanical resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerwaldt, Harold; Singh, Vibhor; Schneider, Ben; Schouten, Raymond; van der Zant, Herre; Steele, Gary

    2013-03-01

    We perform fast readout measurements of carbon nanotube mechanical resonators. Using an electronic mixing scheme, we can detect the amplitude of the mechanical motion with an intermediate frequency (IF) of 46 MHz and a timeconstant of 1 us, up to 5 orders of magnitude faster than before. Previous measurements suffered from a low bandwidth due to the combination of the high resistance of the carbon nanotube and a large stray capacitance. We have increased the bandwidth significantly by using a high-impedance, close-proximity HEMT amplifier. The increased bandwidth should allow us to observe the nanotube's thermal motion and its transient response, approaching the regime of real-time detection of the carbon nanotube's mechanical motion.

  9. Advanced Electronics. Curriculum Development. Bulletin 1778.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eppler, Thomas

    This document is a curriculum guide for a 180-hour course in advanced electronics for 11th and 12th grades that has four instructional units. The instructional units are orientation, discrete components, integrated circuits, and electronic systems. The document includes a course flow chart; a two-page section that describes the course, lists…

  10. Compact confocal readout system for three-dimensional memories using a laser-feedback semiconductor laser.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Masaharu; Kawata, Yoshimasa

    2003-08-01

    We present a compact confocal readout system for three-dimensional optical memories that uses the thresholding property of a semiconductor laser for feedback light. The system has higher axial resolution than a conventional confocal system with a pinhole. We demonstrate readout results for data recorded in two recording layers with the developed system.

  11. Rejection of Electronic Recoils with the DMTPC Dark Matter Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, J. P.; Ahlen, S.; Battat, J.; Caldwell, T.; Chernicoff, M.; Deaconu, C.; Dujmic, D.; Dushkin, A.; Fedus, W.; Fisher, P.; Golub, F.; Henderson, S.; Inglis, A.; Kaboth, A.; Kohse, G.; Kirsch, L.; Lanza, R.; Lee, A.; Monroe, J.; Ouyang, H.; Sahin, T.; Sciolla, G.; Skvorodnev, N.; Tomita, H.; Wellenstein, H.; Wolfe, I.; Yamamoto, R.; Yegoryan, H.

    The Dark Matter Time Projection Chamber (DMTPC) collaboration is developing a low-pressure gas TPC for detecting WIMP-nucleon interactions. DMTPC detectors use optical readout with CCD cameras to search for the daily modulation of the directional signal of the dark matter wind. An analysis of several charge readout channels has been developed to obtain additional information about ionization events in the detector. In order to reach sensitivities required for the WIMP detection, the detector needs to minimize backgrounds from electron recoils. This article shows that by using the readout of charge signals in addition to CCD readout, a preliminary statistics-limited 90% C.L. upper limit on the γ and e- rejection factor of 5.6 × 10-6 is obtained for energies between 40 keVee and 200 keVee.

  12. Readout, Sensing, and Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vajente, Gabriele

    Suspending the mirrors is one of the most crucial tasks in gravitational wave interferometer technology. The performance of the suspensions must provide the required attenuation of seismic noise and reduction of thermal noise, two fundamental limits to the sensitivity of any gravitational wave detector. Moreover, the suspension system must be equipped with sensors and actuators which are used to actively control some relevant degrees of freedom, so to be able to keep the interferometer at its working point (i.e., "locked"). In the first part of this chapter we deal with the basic principles behind the super attenuator chains developed in Virgo to reduce the seismic noise. In the second part, we illustrate the techniques to suspend the mirror reducing the thermal noise in the detection bandwidth, according to the theory illustrated in Chap. 8, 10.1007/978-3-319-03792-9_8.

  13. The SoLid anti-neutrino detector's readout system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, L.; Beaumont, W.; Cussans, D.; Newbold, D.; Ryder, N.; Weber, A.

    2017-02-01

    The SoLid collaboration have developed an intelligent readout system to reduce their 3200 silicon photomultiplier detector's data rate by a factor of 10000 whilst maintaining high efficiency for storing data from anti-neutrino interactions. The system employs an FPGA-level waveform characterisation to trigger on neutron signals. Following a trigger, data from a space-time region of interest around the neutron will be read out using the IPbus protocol. In these proceedings the design of the readout system is explained and results showing the performance of a prototype version of the system are presented.

  14. Common Readout Unit (CRU) - A new readout architecture for the ALICE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, J.; Khan, S. A.; Mukherjee, S.; Paul, R.

    2016-03-01

    The ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is presently going for a major upgrade in order to fully exploit the scientific potential of the upcoming high luminosity run, scheduled to start in the year 2021. The high interaction rate and the large event size will result in an experimental data flow of about 1 TB/s from the detectors, which need to be processed before sending to the online computing system and data storage. This processing is done in a dedicated Common Readout Unit (CRU), proposed for data aggregation, trigger and timing distribution and control moderation. It act as common interface between sub-detector electronic systems, computing system and trigger processors. The interface links include GBT, TTC-PON and PCIe. GBT (Gigabit transceiver) is used for detector data payload transmission and fixed latency path for trigger distribution between CRU and detector readout electronics. TTC-PON (Timing, Trigger and Control via Passive Optical Network) is employed for time multiplex trigger distribution between CRU and Central Trigger Processor (CTP). PCIe (Peripheral Component Interconnect Express) is the high-speed serial computer expansion bus standard for bulk data transport between CRU boards and processors. In this article, we give an overview of CRU architecture in ALICE, discuss the different interfaces, along with the firmware design and implementation of CRU on the LHCb PCIe40 board.

  15. Development of large-area CZT detector systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuvvetli, Irfan; Budtz-Joergensen, Carl C.; Westergaard, Niels J.; Jonasson, Per; van Pamelen, Mike A.; Reglero, Victor; Eyles, Christopher J.; Neubert, Torsten

    1999-10-01

    DSRI has initiated a development program of CZT x-ray and gamma ray detectors employing strip readout techniques. A dramatic improvement of the energy response was found operating the detectors as so-called drift detectors. For the electronic readout, modern ASIC chips were investigated. Modular design and the low power electronics will make large area detectors using the drift strip method feasible. The performance of a prototype CZT system will be presented and discussed.

  16. Ion age transport: developing devices beyond electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2014-03-01

    There is more to current devices than conventional electronics. Increasingly research into the controlled movement of ions and molecules is enabling a range of new technologies. For example, as Weihua Guan, Sylvia Xin Li and Mark Reed at Yale University explain, 'It offers a unique opportunity to integrate wet ionics with dry electronics seamlessly'. In this issue they provide an overview of voltage-gated ion and molecule transport in engineered nanochannels. They cover the theory governing these systems and fabrication techniques, as well as applications, including biological and chemical analysis, and energy conversion [1]. Studying the movement of particles in nanochannels is not new. The transport of materials in rock pores led Klinkenberg to describe an analogy between diffusion and electrical conductivity in porous rocks back in 1951 [2]. And already in 1940, Harold Abramson and Manuel Gorin noted that 'When an electric current is applied across the living human skin, the skin may be considered to act like a system of pores through which transfer of substances like ragweed pollen extract may be achieved both by electrophoretic and by diffusion phenomena' [3]. Transport in living systems through pore structures on a much smaller scale has attracted a great deal of research in recent years as well. The selective transport of ions and small organic molecules across the cell membrane facilitates a number of functions including communication between cells, nerve conduction and signal transmission. Understanding these processes may benefit a wide range of potential applications such as selective separation, biochemical sensing, and controlled release and drug delivery processes. In Germany researchers have successfully demonstrated controlled ionic transport through nanopores functionalized with amine-terminated polymer brushes [4]. The polymer nanobrushes swell and shrink in response to changes in temperature, thus opening and closing the nanopore passage to ionic

  17. Pad Plane Design and Readout for SAMURAI TPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barney, J.; Chajecki, Z.; Chan, C. F.; Dunn, J. W.; Estee, J.; Gilbert, J.; Lu, F.; Lynch, W. G.; Shane, R.; Tsang, M. B.; McIntosh, A. B.; Yenello, S. J.; Famiano, M.; Isobe, T.; Sakurai, H.; Taketani, A.; Murakami, T.; Samurai-Tpc Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The SAMURAI TPC is being built at Michigan State University to be used in the SAMURAI spectrometer at RIKEN in Japan, as part of the Symmetry Energy project, which focuses on obtaining constraints on the symmetry energy at supra-saturation densities. The presentation will discuss the development of the TPC as well as design for readout plane design for the TPC. These involve enabling the use of existing and future front end electronics (FEE), making the most of limited space, designing a circuit board for the pad plane, and techniques to glue the pad plane. The pad plane has been designed to work with either STAR or AGET electronics. The pad plane is made of a circuit board designed to minimize crosstalk and capacitance. The board must be built in smaller pieces and tiled, using alignment pins and precision gluing. Prototypes for the pad plane to FEE connection, pad plane gluing and STAR card mounting will be presented. Supported by the Department of Energy under Grant DE-SC0004835.

  18. Sources of noise in magneto-optical readout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansuripur, M.

    1991-01-01

    The various sources of noise which are often encountered in magneto-optical readout systems are analyzed. Although the focus is on magneto-optics, most sources of noise are common among the various optical recording systems and one can easily adapt the results to other media and systems. A description of the magneto-optical readout system under consideration is given, and the standard methods and the relevant terminology of signal and noise measurement are described. The characteristics of thermal noise, which originates in the electronic circuitry of the readout system, are described. The most fundamental of all sources of noise, the shot noise, is considered, and a detailed account of its statistical properties is given. Shot noise, which is due to random fluctuations in photon arrival times, is an ever-present noise in optical detection. Since the performance of magneto-optical recording devices in use today is approaching the limit imposed by the shot noise, it is important that the reader have a good grasp of this particular source of noise. A model for the laser noise is described, and measurement results which yield numerical values for the strength of the laser power fluctuations are presented. Spatial variations of the disk reflectivity and random depolarization phenomena also contribute to the overall level of noise in readout; these and related issues are treated. Numerical simulation results describing some of the more frequently encountered sources of noise which accompany the recorded waveform itself, namely, jitter noise and signal-amplitude fluctuation noise are presented.

  19. Spatial distribution read-out system for thermoluminescence sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamoto, I.; Tomiyama, T.; Imaeda, K.; Ninagawa, K.; Wada, T.; Yamashita, Y.; Misaki, A.

    1985-01-01

    A spatial distribution read-out system of thermoluminescence (TL) sheets is developed. This system consists of high gain image intensifier, a CCD-TV camera, a video image processor and a host computer. This system has been applied to artificial TL sheets (BaSO4:Eu doped) for detecting high energy electromagnetic shower and heavy nuclei tracks.

  20. Nanosecond monolithic CMOS readout cell

    DOEpatents

    Souchkov, Vitali V.

    2004-08-24

    A pulse shaper is implemented in monolithic CMOS with a delay unit formed of a unity gain buffer. The shaper is formed of a difference amplifier having one input connected directly to an input signal and a second input connected to a delayed input signal through the buffer. An elementary cell is based on the pulse shaper and a timing circuit which gates the output of an integrator connected to the pulse shaper output. A detector readout system is formed of a plurality of elementary cells, each connected to a pixel of a pixel array, or to a microstrip of a plurality of microstrips, or to a detector segment.

  1. A summary of high-temperature electronics research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Thome, F.V.; King, D.B.

    1991-10-18

    Current and future needs in automative, aircraft, space, military, and well logging industries require operation of electronics at higher temperatures than today's accepted limit of 395 K. Without the availability of high-temperature electronics, many systems must operate under derated conditions or must accept severe mass penalties required by coolant systems to maintain electronic temperatures below critical levels. This paper presents ongoing research and development in the electronics community to bring high-temperature electronics to commercial realization. Much of this work was recently reviewed at the First International High-Temperature Electronics Conference held 16--20 June 1991 in Albuquerque, New Mexico. 4 refs., 1 tab.

  2. ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter front end electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchanan, N. J.; Chen, L.; Gingrich, D. M.; Liu, S.; Chen, H.; Damazio, D.; Densing, F.; Duffin, S.; Farrell, J.; Kandasamy, S.; Kierstead, J.; Lanni, F.; Lissauer, D.; Ma, H.; Makowiecki, D.; Muller, T.; Radeka, V.; Rescia, S.; Ruggiero, R.; Takai, H.; Wolniewicz, K.; Ghazlane, H.; Hoummada, A.; Hervas, L.; Hott, T.; Wilkens, H. G.; Ban, J.; Boettcher, S.; Brooijmans, G.; Chi, C.-Y.; Caughron, S.; Cooke, M.; Copic, K.; Dannheim, D.; Gara, A.; Haas, A.; Katsanos, I.; Parsons, J. A.; Simion, S.; Sippach, W.; Zhang, L.; Zhou, N.; Eckstein, P.; Kobel, M.; Ladygin, E.; Auge, E.; Bernier, R.; Bouchel, M.; Bozzone, A.; Breton, D.; de la Taille, C.; Falleau, I.; Fournier, D.; Imbert, P.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Perus, A.; Richer, J. P.; Seguin Moreau, N.; Serin, L.; Tocut, V.; Veillet, J.-J.; Zerwas, D.; Colas, J.; Dumont-Dayot, N.; Massol, N.; Perrodo, P.; Perrot, G.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Escalier, M.; Hubaut, F.; Laforge, B.; LeDortz, O.; Schwemling, Ph; Collot, J.; Dzahini, D.; Gallin-Martel, M.-L.; Martin, P.; Cwienk, W. D.; Fent, J.; Kurchaninov, L.; Citterio, M.; Mazzanti, M.; Tartarelli, F.; Bansal, V.; Boulahouache, C.; Cleland, W.; Liu, B.; McDonald, J.; Paolone, V.; Rabel, J.; Savinov, V.; Zuk, G.; Benslama, K.; Borgeaud, P.; de la Broïse, X.; Delagnes, E.; LeCoguie, A.; Mansoulié, B.; Pascual, J.; Teiger, J.; Dinkespiler, B.; Liu, T.; Stroynowski, R.; Ye, J.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Grahn, K.-J.; Hansson, P.; Lund-Jensen, B.; Chu, M. L.; Lee, S.-C.; Su, D. S.; Teng, P. K.; Braun, H. M.

    2008-09-01

    The ATLAS detector has been designed for operation at CERN's Large Hadron Collider. ATLAS includes a complex system of liquid argon calorimeters. This paper describes the architecture and implementation of the system of custom front end electronics developed for the readout of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters.

  3. Single-shot readout of spin qubits in Si/SiGe quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Christie

    2012-02-01

    Si/SiGe quantum dots are an attractive option for spin qubit development, because of the long coherence times for electron spins in silicon, arising from weak hyperfine interaction and low spin orbit coupling. I will present measurements of gate-defined single and double quantum dots formed in Si/SiGe semiconductor heterostuctures. Control of the gate voltages on these dots enables tuning of the tunnel coupling to the leads and to other dots. Careful tuning of these tunnel rates, in combination with fast, pulsed-gate manipulation and spin-to-charge conversion, allow spin state measurement using an integrated quantum point contact as a local charge detector. Single spin qubit readout relies on the Zeeman energy splitting from an external magnetic field for spin-to-charge conversion. Two-electron singlet-triplet qubits, on the other hand, can be measured by using Pauli spin blockade of tunneling between the dots to readout the qubit even at zero magnetic field. I will present real-time, single-shot readout measurements of both individual spin [1] and singlet-triplet qubits [2] in gated Si/SiGe quantum dots. Work performed in collaboration with J. R. Prance, Zhan Shi, B. J. Van Bael, Teck Seng Koh, D. E. Savage, M. G. Lagally, R. Joynt, L. R. Schreiber, L. M. K. Vandersypen, M. Friesen, S. N. Coppersmith, and M. A. Eriksson. [4pt] [1] C. B. Simmons et al. Physical Review Letters 106, 156804 (2011). [0pt] [2] J. R. Prance, et al., e-print: http://lanl.arxiv.org/abs/1110.6431

  4. The development of organic super electron donors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shengze; Farwaha, Hardeep; Murphy, John A

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, a host of exceptionally strong organic electron donors has been designed and prepared; their redox potentials are more negative than any previous neutral organic donors and extend beyond E(1/2) = -1 V vs. the saturated calomel electrode (SCE). Their ability to reduce a wide range of organic functional groups has been demonstrated and this article provides an overview of the main advances in the area and the guiding principles for the design of these reagents.

  5. Thermal Neutron Detectors with Discrete Anode Pad Readout

    SciTech Connect

    Yu,B.; Schaknowski, N.A., Smith, G.C., DeGeronimo, G., Vernon, E.O.

    2008-10-19

    A new two-dimensional thermal neutron detector concept that is capable of very high rates is being developed. It is based on neutron conversion in {sup 3}He in an ionization chamber (unity gas gain) that uses only a cathode and anode plane; there is no additional electrode such as a Frisch grid. The cathode is simply the entrance window, and the anode plane is composed of discrete pads, each with their own readout electronics implemented via application specific integrated circuits. The aim is to provide a new generation of detectors with key characteristics that are superior to existing techniques, such as higher count rate capability, better stability, lower sensitivity to background radiation, and more flexible geometries. Such capabilities will improve the performance of neutron scattering instruments at major neutron user facilities. In this paper, we report on progress with the development of a prototype device that has 48 x 48 anode pads and a sensitive area of 24cm x 24cm.

  6. Development of a cold-neutron imaging detector based on thick gaseous electron multiplier.

    PubMed

    Cortesi, M; Zboray, R; Kaestner, A; Prasser, H-M

    2013-02-01

    We present the results of our recent studies on a cold-neutron imaging detector prototype based on THick Gaseous Electron Multiplier (THGEM). The detector consists of a thin Boron layer, for neutron-to-charged particle conversion, coupled to two THGEM electrodes in cascade for charge amplification and a position-sensitive charge-readout anode. The detector operates in Ne∕(5%)CF4, at atmospheric pressure, in a stable condition at a gain of around 10(4). Due to the geometrical structure of the detector elements (THGEM geometry and charge read-out anode), the image of detector active area shows a large inhomogeneity, corrected using a dedicated flat-filed correction algorithm. The prototype provides a detection efficiency of 5% and an effective spatial resolution of the order of 1.3 mm.

  7. Optimized readout system for cooled optically stimulated luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S. D.; Eschbach, P. A.

    1990-09-01

    Cooled Optically Stimulated Luminescence (COSL) in CaF2:Mn is an ionizing radiation dosimetry method recently developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). In this method CaF2:Mn crystals irradiated by gamma radiation at room temperature are cooled to liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K), stimulated by ultraviolet laser light at 326 nm, and allowed to warm to room temperature. Light emission proportional to the gamma exposure occurs as the TLD warms from liquid nitrogen temperature to room temperature. The new method is an example of a highly sensitive phototransfer technique which could form the basis for future radiation dosimetry applications. Measurements to date have shown high potential for measuring gamma exposures in the range of 10 microR. The high sensitivity of the COSL technique is due in part to the larger quantum efficiency of radiative recombination at low temperatures and to the complete absence of the incandescent background associated with conventional thermoluminescent readout methods. Along with the potential for a system which is more sensitive than thermoluminescent readers, multiple COSL readouts can be performed with minimal reduction in the COSL intensity. The multiple readout capability can serve as a possible permanent dosimetry record, thus allowing the reanalysis of a questionable reading. In an attempt to optimize the sensitivity of the COSL method, a new readout system is being developed.

  8. Digitial readout for microwave kinetic inductance detectors and applications in high time resolution astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strader, Matthew James

    This dissertation spans two topics relating to optical to near-infrared astronomical cameras built around Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs). The first topic is the development of a digital readout system for 10- to 30-kilopixel arrays of MKIDs. MKIDs are superconducting detectors that can detect individual photons with a wide range of wavelengths with high time resolution (SI{2}{micro s}) and low energy resolution. The advantage of MKIDs over other low temperature detectors with similar capabilities is that it is relatively straightforward to multiplex MKIDs into large arrays. All the complexity of readout is in room temperature electronics. This work discusses the implementation and programming of these electronics. The second part of this work demonstrates the capabilities of the prototype optical and near-infrared MKID instrument with observations of pulsars. Detecting optical pulsations in these objects require high time resolution and low noise. The discovery of a correlation between the brightness of optical pulses from the Crab pulsar and the time of arrival of coincident giant radio pulses is presented. The search for optical pulses from a millisecond pulsar J0337+1715 is discussed along with a new upper limit on the brightness of its optical pulses.

  9. The Belle II SVD data readout system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thalmeier, R.; Adamczyk, K.; Aihara, H.; Angelini, C.; Aziz, T.; Babu, V.; Bacher, S.; Bahinipati, S.; Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, Ti.; Baroncelli, To.; Basith, A. K.; Batignani, G.; Bauer, A.; Behera, P. K.; Bergauer, T.; Bettarini, S.; Bhuyan, B.; Bilka, T.; Bosi, F.; Bosisio, L.; Bozek, A.; Buchsteiner, F.; Bulla, L.; Casarosa, G.; Ceccanti, M.; Cervenkov, D.; Chendvankar, S. R.; Dash, N.; Divekar, S. T.; Doleźal, Z.; Dutta, D.; Forti, F.; Friedl, M.; Hara, K.; Higuchi, T.; Horiguchi, T.; Irmler, C.; Ishikawa, A.; Jeon, H. B.; Joo, C.; Kandra, J.; Kang, K. H.; Kato, E.; Kawasaki, T.; Kodyś, P.; Kohriki, T.; Koike, S.; Kolwalkar, M. M.; Kvasnićka, P.; Lanceri, L.; Lettenbicher, J.; Lueck, T.; Maki, M.; Mammini, P.; Mayekar, S. N.; Mohanty, G. B.; Mohanty, S.; Morii, T.; Nakamura, K. R.; Natkaniec, Z.; Negishi, K.; Nisar, N. K.; Onuki, Y.; Ostrowicz, W.; Paladino, A.; Paoloni, E.; Park, H.; Pilo, F.; Profeti, A.; Rao, K. K.; Rashevskaya, I.; Rizzo, G.; Rozanska, M.; Sasaki, J.; Sato, N.; Schultschik, S.; Schwanda, C.; Seino, Y.; Shimizu, N.; Stypula, J.; Suzuki, J.; Tanaka, S.; Tanida, K.; Taylor, G. N.; Thomas, R.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uozumi, S.; Urquijo, P.; Vitale, L.; Watanuki, S.; Watson, I. J.; Webb, J.; Wiechczynski, J.; Williams, S.; Würkner, B.; Yamamoto, H.; Yin, H.; Yoshinobu, T.

    2017-02-01

    The Belle II Experiment at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) in Tsukuba, Japan, will explore the asymmetry between matter and antimatter and search for new physics beyond the standard model. 172 double-sided silicon strip detectors are arranged cylindrically in four layers around the collision point to be part of a system which measures the tracks of the collision products of electrons and positrons. A total of 1748 radiation-hard APV25 chips read out 128 silicon strips each and send the analog signals by time-division multiplexing out of the radiation zone to 48 Flash Analog Digital Converter Modules (FADC). Each of them applies processing to the data; for example, it uses a digital finite impulse response filter to compensate line signal distortions, and it extracts the peak timing and amplitude from a set of several data points for each hit, using a neural network. We present an overview of the SVD data readout system, along with front-end electronics, cabling, power supplies and data processing.

  10. Preceptor preferences for participating in electronic preceptor development

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Machelle; Medina, Melissa S.; Ray, Nancy E.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives New guidelines require preceptors to deliver approximately 30% of the doctor of pharmacy curricula. With preceptor’s increasing responsibilities, colleges are faced with the task of training preceptors as educators. Identifying preceptor’s training format preferences (i.e. electronic vs. live) should contribute to the more effective and efficient creation of training materials and programs. Methods A preceptor training video was created and made available electronically and was distributed to 400 preceptors with a brief 2-part questionnaire about preceptor training preferences, electronic training preferences after viewing the video, and available technology resources for participating in electronic training. Results 38.25% of the questionnaires were returned. The majority of respondents (57%) preferred electronic to live preceptor developing training and the majority (53%) had not previously attended the live annual preceptor development conference offered by the college. 51.6% participants reviewed the electronic training video created by the OU College of Pharmacy. Of the respondents who did not watch the video, 73% cited having too little time, problems accessing the video, or technical reasons for not watching the training video. The majority of responders in all age groups preferred electronic training to face-to-face training except those ages 61-65 and the majority (55.7%) would participate in on-line training again in the future. The majority of respondents have the technical resources to participate in electronic training. Conclusion Preceptors have limited time to participate in preceptor development training, although they view training as an important activity. This study reveals three main findings: (1) the majority of preceptors prefer electronic preceptor development training programs regardless of age; (2) would participate in future electronic training after having participated in electronic training; and (3) have the available

  11. Design of integrated and networked multidimensional grating digital readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Li; Xu, Hui; Xiu, Guoyi

    2008-10-01

    The grating digital readout is the key measurement feedback device of the numerical control system and base of the equipment manufacturing industry. With the development of the complex machining, the multi-axis linkage is a new direction of the numerical control system, which needs the multidimensional measurement. Based on all digital grating moiré fringe subdivision theory, the paper introduces the design of integrated and networked multidimensional grating digital readout with an embedded system-on-chip ZA7V that is a complete field configurable system-on-chip with a 32- bit ARM7TDMI processor core, a programmable logic matrix, a robust memory subsystem and a high-performance dedicated internal bus. Networked functions include Ethernet interface, CAN bus interface, USB bus interface and GPRS interface so that the grating digital readout can access the device network, workshop network, intranet network and Internet. The simulation results and experimental data prove that the realization of the integrated and networked multidimensional grating digital readout. It will be widely used in the numerical control system and machining center.

  12. Polycrystalline Mercuric Iodide Films on CMOS Readout Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Hartsough, Neal E.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Nygard, Einar; Malakhov, Nail; Barber, William C.; Gandhi, Thulasidharan

    2009-01-01

    We have created high-resolution x-ray imaging devices using polycrystalline mercuric iodide (HgI2) films grown directly onto CMOS readout chips using a thermal vapor transport process. Images from prototype 400×400 pixel HgI2-coated CMOS readout chips are presented, where the pixel grid is 30 μm × 30 μm. The devices exhibited sensitivity of 6.2 μC/Rcm2 with corresponding dark current of ∼2.7 nA/cm2, and a 80 μm FWHM planar image response to a 50 μm slit aperture. X-ray CT images demonstrate a point spread function sufficient to obtain a 50 μm spatial resolution in reconstructed CT images at a substantially reduced dose compared to phosphor-coated readouts. The use of CMOS technology allows for small pixels (30 μm), fast readout speeds (8 fps for a 3200×3200 pixel array), and future design flexibility due to the use of well-developed fabrication processes. PMID:20161098

  13. Recent developments and applications of electron microscopy to heterogeneous catalysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Judith C; Small, Matthew W; Grieshaber, Ross V; Nuzzo, Ralph G

    2012-12-21

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) are popular and powerful techniques used to characterize heterogeneous catalysts. Rapid developments in electron microscopy--especially aberration correctors and in situ methods--permit remarkable capabilities for visualizing both morphologies and atomic and electronic structures. The purpose of this review is to summarize the significant developments and achievements in this field with particular emphasis on the characterization of catalysts. We also highlight the potential and limitations of the various methods, describe the need for synergistic and complementary tools when characterizing heterogeneous catalysts, and conclude with an outlook that also envisions future needs in the field.

  14. Fast, High-Precision Readout Circuit for Detector Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rider, David M.; Hancock, Bruce R.; Key, Richard W.; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Wrigley, Chris J.; Seshadri, Suresh; Sander, Stanley P.; Blavier, Jean-Francois L.

    2013-01-01

    The GEO-CAPE mission described in NASA's Earth Science and Applications Decadal Survey requires high spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution measurements to monitor and characterize the rapidly changing chemistry of the troposphere over North and South Americas. High-frame-rate focal plane arrays (FPAs) with many pixels are needed to enable such measurements. A high-throughput digital detector readout integrated circuit (ROIC) that meets the GEO-CAPE FPA needs has been developed, fabricated, and tested. The ROIC is based on an innovative charge integrating, fast, high-precision analog-to-digital circuit that is built into each pixel. The 128×128-pixel ROIC digitizes all 16,384 pixels simultaneously at frame rates up to 16 kHz to provide a completely digital output on a single integrated circuit at an unprecedented rate of 262 million pixels per second. The approach eliminates the need for off focal plane electronics, greatly reducing volume, mass, and power compared to conventional FPA implementations. A focal plane based on this ROIC will require less than 2 W of power on a 1×1-cm integrated circuit. The ROIC is fabricated of silicon using CMOS technology. It is designed to be indium bump bonded to a variety of detector materials including silicon PIN diodes, indium antimonide (InSb), indium gallium arsenide (In- GaAs), and mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) detector arrays to provide coverage over a broad spectral range in the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet spectral ranges.

  15. X-ray and gamma ray detector readout system

    DOEpatents

    Tumer, Tumay O; Clajus, Martin; Visser, Gerard

    2010-10-19

    A readout electronics scheme is under development for high resolution, compact PET (positron emission tomography) imagers based on LSO (lutetium ortho-oxysilicate, Lu.sub.2SiO.sub.5) scintillator and avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays. The key is to obtain sufficient timing and energy resolution at a low power level, less than about 30 mW per channel, including all required functions. To this end, a simple leading edge level crossing discriminator is used, in combination with a transimpedance preamplifier. The APD used has a gain of order 1,000, and an output noise current of several pA/ Hz, allowing bipolar technology to be used instead of CMOS, for increased speed and power efficiency. A prototype of the preamplifier and discriminator has been constructed, achieving timing resolution of 1.5 ns FWHM, 2.7 ns full width at one tenth maximum, relative to an LSO/PMT detector, and an energy resolution of 13.6% FWHM at 511 keV, while operating at a power level of 22 mW per channel. Work is in progress towards integration of this preamplifier and discriminator with appropriate coincidence logic and amplitude measurement circuits in an ASIC suitable for a high resolution compact PET instrument. The detector system and/or ASIC can also be used for many other applications for medical to industrial imaging.

  16. The Electronic Nose Training Automation Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schattke, Nathan

    2002-01-01

    The electronic nose is a method of using several sensors in conjunction to identify an unknown gas. Statistical analysis has shown that a large number of training exposures need to be performed in order to get a model that can be depended on. The number of training exposures needed is on the order of 1000. Data acquisition from the noses are generally automatic and built in. The gas generation equipment consists of a Miller-Nelson (MN) flow/temperature/humidity controller and a Kin-Tek (KT) trace gas generator. This equipment has been controlled in the past by an old data acquisition and control system. The new system will use new control boards and an easy graphical user interface. The programming for this is in the LabVIEW G programming language. A language easy for the user to make modifications to. This paper details some of the issues in selecting the components and programming the connections. It is not a primer on LabVIEW programming, a separate CD is being delivered with website files to teach that.

  17. Noise analysis for infrared focal plane arrays CMOS readout integrated circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jiamu; Ding, Ruijun; Chen, Honglei; Shen, Xiao; Liu, Fei

    2008-12-01

    With the development of the infrared focal plane detectors, the internal noises in the infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPAs) CMOS readout integrated circuit gradually became an important factor of the development of the IRFPAs. The internal noises in IRFPAs CMOS readout integrated circuit are researched in this work. Part of the motivation for this work is to analyze the mechanism and influence of the internal noises in readout integrated circuit. And according to the signal transporting process, many kinds of internal noises are analyzed. According to the results of theory analysis, it is shown that 1/f noise, KTC noise and pulse switch noise have greater amplitude in frequency domain. These noises have seriously affected the performance of output signal. Also this work has frequency test on the signals of a readout integrated circuit chip which is using DI readout mode. After analyzing the frequency test results, it is shown that 1/f noises and pulse switch noises are the main components of the internal noises in IRFPAS CMOS readout integrated circuit and they are the noises which give a major impact to the output signal. In accordance with the type of noise, some design methods for noise suppression are put forward. And after the simulation of these methods with EDA software, the results show that noises have been reduced. The results of this work gave the referenced gist for improving the noise suppression design of IRFPAs CMOS readout integrated circuit.

  18. Chapter 9: Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Grupen, Claus; Shwartz, Boris A.

    2006-12-19

    Sophisticated front-end electronics are a key part of practically all modern radiation detector systems. This chapter introduces the basic principles and their implementation. Topics include signal acquisition, electronic noise, pulse shaping (analog and digital), and data readout techniques.

  19. Digital readouts for large microwave low-temperature detector arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazin, Benjamin A.; Day, Peter K.; Irwin, Kent D.; Reintsema, Carl D.; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2006-04-01

    Over the last several years many different types of low-temperature detectors (LTDs) have been developed that use a microwave resonant circuit as part of their readout. These devices include microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKID), microwave SQUID readouts for transition edge sensors (TES), and NIS bolometers. Current readout techniques for these devices use analog frequency synthesizers and IQ mixers. While these components are available as microwave integrated circuits, one set is required for each resonator. We are exploring a new readout technique for this class of detectors based on a commercial-off-the-shelf technology called software defined radio (SDR). In this method a fast digital to analog (D/A) converter creates as many tones as desired in the available bandwidth. Our prototype system employs a 100 MS/s 16-bit D/A to generate an arbitrary number of tones in 50 MHz of bandwidth. This signal is then mixed up to the desired detector resonant frequency (˜10 GHz), sent through the detector, then mixed back down to baseband. The baseband signal is then digitized with a series of fast analog to digital converters (80 MS/s, 14-bit). Next, a numerical mixer in a dedicated integrated circuit or FPGA mixes the resonant frequency of a specified detector to 0 Hz, and sends the complex detector output over a computer bus for processing and storage. In this paper we will report on our results in using a prototype system to readout a MKID array, including system noise performance, X-ray pulse response, and cross-talk measurements. We will also discuss how this technique can be scaled to read out many thousands of detectors.

  20. Twelve tips for the development of electronic study guides.

    PubMed

    Montemayor, Luz Leticia Elizondo

    2002-09-01

    With recent advances in technology, electronic study guides are becoming extraordinary management, learning and assessment tools in the teaching-learning process, replacing printed study guides. The educational advantages they offer are listed here. During the elaboration of an electronic study guide, there are important issues to consider, such as the student's capabilities in the use of electronic media, the type of software to be used, proper authorizations and accessibility, the inclusion of all information and links needed, as well as a clear explanation on the use of the software. This paper offers twelve useful tips for the development of electronic study guides.

  1. Design of low-cross-talk readout pads for time projection chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, K.; Isobe, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Taketani, A.

    2012-06-01

    We are developing a readout pad for the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) in the Superconducting Analyzer for the Multi-Particle Radio-Isotope beam (SAMURAI) spectrometer at RIKEN. The functionality of the TPC should have a wide dynamic range readout of 3200:1 for identifying injected particles. Therefore the transmission line in the TPC should have low crosstalk and high signal integrity. We describe development of the TPC pad using an electromagnetic and circuit simulator in this article.

  2. Active pixel sensor array with multiresolution readout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Kemeny, Sabrina E. (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An imaging device formed as a monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated circuit in an industry standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor process, the integrated circuit including a focal plane array of pixel cells, each one of the cells including a photogate overlying the substrate for accumulating photo-generated charge in an underlying portion of the substrate and a charge coupled device section formed on the substrate adjacent the photogate having a sensing node and at least one charge coupled device stage for transferring charge from the underlying portion of the substrate to the sensing node. There is also a readout circuit, part of which can be disposed at the bottom of each column of cells and be common to all the cells in the column. The imaging device can also include an electronic shutter formed on the substrate adjacent the photogate, and/or a storage section to allow for simultaneous integration. In addition, the imaging device can include a multiresolution imaging circuit to provide images of varying resolution. The multiresolution circuit could also be employed in an array where the photosensitive portion of each pixel cell is a photodiode. This latter embodiment could further be modified to facilitate low light imaging.

  3. Encouraging nurses to develop effective electronic documentation.

    PubMed

    Procter, Paula; Woodburn, Ian

    2012-10-01

    This article is the first in a series that explores the growth in the use of, and reliance on, information management systems in health and social care. Its aim is to help nurses understand how effective information management systems can improve their practice. Problems faced by nurses in the past, when they have been required to use these systems to record, store and retrieve information, tended to be generated by poor or inappropriate systems. The series offers examples of how the vital role that nurses play in increasingly information-intensive healthcare environments can be developed. This first article sets the scene and considers the health and social care information agenda in light of the Department of Health (2012) information strategy.

  4. Atmospheric electron-induced x-ray spectrometer development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Jaroslava Z.; Urgiles, Eduardo; Toda, Risaku; Crisp, Joy

    2005-01-01

    This paper extends the work reported at the IEEE Aerospace conference in 2001 and 2003 where the concept and progress in the development of the so called atmospheric Electron X-ray Spectrometer (AEXS) has been described.

  5. 23. CURRENT VELOCITYDIRECTION INDICATOR DEVELOPED BY WES ELECTRONICS ENGINEER LEILAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. CURRENT VELOCITY-DIRECTION INDICATOR DEVELOPED BY WES ELECTRONICS ENGINEER LEILAND M. DUKE. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  6. Development of High Power Electron Beam Measuring and Analyzing System for Microwave Vacuum Electron Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, C. J.; Wu, X. L.; Li, Q. S.; Li, C. S.

    The measurement and analysis of high power electron beam during its formation and transmission are the basic scientific problems and key techniques for the development of high performance microwave vacuum electron devices, which are widely used in the fields of military weapon, microwave system and scientific instruments. In this paper, the dynamic parameters measurement and analysis system being built in Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IECAS) recently are introduced. The instrument are designed to determine the cross-section, the current density, and the energy resolution of the high power electron beam during its formation and transmission process, which are available both for the electron gun and the electron optics system respectively. Then the three dimension trajectory images of the electron beam can be rebuilt and display with computer controlled data acquisition and processing system easily. Thus, much more complicated structures are considered and solved completely to achieve its detection and analysis, such as big chamber with 10-6 Pa high vacuum system, the controlled detector movement system in axis direction with distance of 600 mm inside the vacuum chamber, the electron beam energy analysis system with high resolution of 0.5%, and the electron beam cross-section and density detector using the YAG: Ce crystal and CCD imaging system et al. At present, the key parts of the instrument have been finished, the cross-section experiment of the electron beam have been performed successfully. Hereafter, the instrument will be used to measure and analyze the electron beam with the electron gun and electron optics system for the single beam and multiple beam klystron, gyrotron, sheet beam device, and traveling wave tube etc. thoroughly.

  7. Back-Side Readout Silicon Photomultiplier.

    PubMed

    Choong, Woon-Seng; Holland, Stephen E

    2012-07-19

    We present a novel structure for the back-side readout silicon photomultipler (SiPM). Current SiPMs are front-illuminated structures with front-side readout, which have relatively small geometric fill factor leading to degradation in their photon detection efficiency (PDE). Back-side readout devices will provide an advantageous solution to achieve high PDE. We designed and investigated a novel structure that would allow back-side readout while creating a region of high electric field optimized for avalanche breakdown. In addition, this structure has relatively high fill factor and also allow direct coupling of individual micro-cell of the SiPM to application-specific integrated circuits. We will discuss the performance that can be attained with this structure through device simulation and the process flow that can be used to fabricate this structure through process simulation.

  8. Belle2Link: A Global Data Readout and Transmission for Belle II Experiment at KEK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Dehui; Liua, Zhen'an.; Zhao, Jingzhou; Xu, Hao

    The Belle II experiment is an upgrade of the Belle experiment at KEK B-Factory, which will be also upgraded to SuperKEKB with a luminosity of 8 x 1035 cm-2 s-1. Belle II will be composed of new detector components: a new pixel vertex detector (PXD), a significantly larger silicon vertex detector (SVD), new design of central drift chamber (CDC), new particle identification (PID) detector, an improved electromagnetic calorimeter (ECL), higher rate KL and muon detector (KLM), and also a completely new trigger (TRG) and data acquisition systems (DAQ) to handle data produced in a 40 times higher rate. The collaboration has decided to use serial data transmission and unified readout techniques to reach simple, reliable connections between Front-End Electronics (FEE) and DAQ system with easy maintenance. A so-called Belle2Link - a unified readout and high speed data transmission has been designed for use both in the FEE of all sub-detector systems and in DAQ system. Proto-types of key modules for a HS link with 3.125Gbps line rate and <10-16 Bit Error Rate had been designed together with firmware development based on which a model system with CDC detector system had been setup. Overall test with CDC detector prototype and DAQ file server system showed that the present design satisfies the experiment requirement. This paper describes the techniques and also some test results.

  9. Innovative multi-cantilever array sensor system with MOEMS read-out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivaldi, F.; Bieniek, T.; Janus, P.; Grabiec, P.; Majstrzyk, W.; Kopiec, D.; Gotszalk, T.

    2016-11-01

    Cantilever based sensor system are a well-established sensor family exploited in several every-day life applications as well as in high-end research areas. The very high sensitivity of such systems and the possibility to design and functionalize the cantilevers to create purpose built and highly selective sensors have increased the interest of the scientific community and the industry in further exploiting this promising sensors type. Optical deflection detection systems for cantilever sensors provide a reliable, flexible method for reading information from cantilevers with the highest sensitivity. However the need of using multi-cantilever arrays in several fields of application such as medicine, biology or safety related areas, make the optical method less suitable due to its structural complexity. Working in the frame of a the Joint Undertaking project Lab4MEMS II our group proposes a novel and innovative approach to solve this issue, by integrating a Micro-Opto-Electro-Mechanical-System (MOEMS) with dedicated optics, electronics and software with a MOEMS micro-mirror, ultimately developed in the frame of Lab4MEMSII. In this way we are able to present a closely packed, lightweight solution combining the advantages of standard optical read-out systems with the possibility of recording multiple read-outs from large cantilever arrays quasi simultaneously.

  10. Satellite Direct Readout: Opportunities for Science Education

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-01

    AD-A276 257 1UIIIIIlii 253860-1-X (R) SATELLITE DIRECT READOUT: OPPORTUNITIES FOR SCIENCE EDUCATION Thomas W. Wagner February 1994 C, Submitted to...Their Classroom ..................... 10 LIST OF TABLES 1. Summary Statement of Work .............................. 1 2. Science Education Goals and...with emphasis on newly emerging national Science Education Standards. Section 3 provides the specifications of the portable ERIM Direct Readout

  11. Readout and DAQ for Pixel Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platkevic, Michal

    2010-01-01

    Data readout and acquisition control of pixel detectors demand the transfer of significantly a large amounts of bits between the detector and the computer. For this purpose dedicated interfaces are used which are designed with focus on features like speed, small dimensions or flexibility of use such as digital signal processors, field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA) and USB communication ports. This work summarizes the readout and DAQ system built for state-of-the-art pixel detectors of the Medipix family.

  12. A study on dual readout crystal calorimeter for hadron and jet energy measurement at a future lepton collider

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, G.P.; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    Studies of requirements and specifications of crystals are necessary to develop a new generation of crystals for dual readout crystal hadron or total absorption calorimeter. This is a short and basic study of the characteristics and hadron energy measurement of PbWO4 and BGO crystals for scintillation and Cerenkov Dual Readout hadron calorimeter.

  13. Study of the spatial resolution for binary readout detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonamine, R.; Maerschalk, T.; Lentdecker, G. De

    2016-07-01

    Often the binary readout is proposed for high granularity detectors to reduce the generated data volume to be readout at the price of a somewhat reduced spatial resolution compared to an analogue readout. We have been studying single hit resolutions obtained with a binary readout using simulations as well as analytical approaches. In this note we show that the detector geometry could be optimized to offer an equivalent spatial resolution than with an analogue readout.

  14. Event building for free-streaming readout in the CBM experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolko, I. E.; Prokudin, M. S.; Zaitsev, Yu M.

    2017-01-01

    CBM is the first experiment gaining advantage of free-streaming triggerless readout system. All readout channels of the detector going to work in self triggered mode. Dedicated methods are developed to extract individual events (collisions) from continuous information stream rejecting noise. Efficiency of the methods depends on projectile energy, masses of colliding nucleons, interaction and accelerator frequencies. Quality control of the algorithms and comparison of the methods require special efforts.

  15. Theoretical descriptions of electron transport through single molecules: Developing design tools for molecular electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Natalie R.

    There are vast numbers of organic compounds that could be considered for use in molecular electronics. Hence there is a need for efficient and economical screening tools. Here we develop theoretical methods to describe electron transport through individual molecules, the ultimate goal of which is to establish design tools for molecular electronic devices. To successfully screen a compound for its use as a device component requires a proper representation of the quantum mechanics of electron transmission. In this work we report the development of tools for the description of electron transmission that are: Charge self-consistent, valid in the presence of a finite applied potential field and (in some cases) explicitly time-dependent. In addition, the tools can be extended to any molecular system, including biosystems, because they are free of restrictive parameterizations. Two approaches are explored: (1) correlation of substituent parameter values (sigma), (commonly found in organic chemistry textbooks) to properties associated with electron transport, (2) explicit tracking of the time evolution of the wave function of a nonstationary electron. In (1) we demonstrate that the a correlate strongly with features of the charge migration process, establishing them as useful indicators of electronic properties. In (2) we employ a time-dependent description of electron transport through molecular junctions. To date, the great majority of theoretical treatments of electron transport in molecular junctions have been of the time-independent variety. Time dependence, however, is critical to such properties as switching speeds in binary computer components and alternating current conductance, so we explored methods based on time-dependent quantum mechanics. A molecular junction is modeled as a single molecule sandwiched between two clusters of close-packed metal atoms or other donor and acceptor groups. The time dependence of electron transport is investigated by initially

  16. Development of an (e,2e) electron momentum spectroscopy apparatus using an ultrashort pulsed electron gun

    SciTech Connect

    Yamazaki, M.; Kasai, Y.; Oishi, K.; Nakazawa, H.; Takahashi, M.

    2013-06-15

    An (e,2e) apparatus for electron momentum spectroscopy (EMS) has been developed, which employs an ultrashort-pulsed incident electron beam with a repetition rate of 5 kHz and a pulse duration in the order of a picosecond. Its instrumental design and technical details are reported, involving demonstration of a new method for finding time-zero. Furthermore, EMS data for the neutral Ne atom in the ground state measured by using the pulsed electron beam are presented to illustrate the potential abilities of the apparatus for ultrafast molecular dynamics, such as by combining EMS with the pump-and-probe technique.

  17. Development of the electron cooling simulation program for JLEIC

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, He; Chen, Jie; Li, Rui; Zhang, Yuhong; Huang, He; Luo, Li-Shi

    2016-05-01

    In the JLab Electron Ion Collider (JLEIC) project the traditional electron cooling technique is used to reduce the ion beam emittance at the booster ring, and to compensate the intrabeam scattering effect and maintain the ion beam emittance during collision at the collider ring. A new electron cooling process simulation program has been developed to fulfill the requirements of the JLEIC electron cooler design. The new program allows the users to calculate the electron cooling rate and simulate the cooling process with either DC or bunched electron beam to cool either coasting or bunched ion beam. It has been benchmarked with BETACOOL in aspect of accuracy and efficiency. In typical electron cooling process of JLEIC, the two programs agree very well and we have seen a significant improvement of computational speed using the new one. Being adaptive to the modern multicore hardware makes it possible to further enhance the efficiency for computationally intensive problems. The new program is being actively used in the electron cooling study and cooler design for JLEIC. We will present our models and some simulation results in this paper.

  18. Mixed species radioiodine air sampling readout and dose assessment system

    DOEpatents

    Distenfeld, Carl H.; Klemish, Jr., Joseph R.

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides a simple, reliable, inexpensive and portable means and method for determining the thyroid dose rate of mixed airborne species of solid and gaseous radioiodine without requiring highly skilled personnel, such as health physicists or electronics technicians. To this end, this invention provides a means and method for sampling a gas from a source of a mixed species of solid and gaseous radioiodine for collection of the mixed species and readout and assessment of the emissions therefrom by cylindrically, concentrically and annularly molding the respective species around a cylindrical passage for receiving a conventional probe-type Geiger-Mueller radiation detector.

  19. Developing Effective Case Scenarios for Interprofessional Electronic Health Record Research.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Kristie; Courtney, Karen L; Frisch, Noreen

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade, there have been numerous calls for research in interprofessional communication and documentation. Some of the limitations of research in this area have been proprietary user interfaces that may not be generalizable and impact varying adoption rates of electronic documentation among different health disciplines. In order to address these concerns, researchers need to create standardized case scenarios as research instruments. This paper outlines the process for developing a case scenario instrument for use in interprofessional electronic documentation research.

  20. Development of a continuous broad-energy-spectrum electron source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamo, R. C.; Nanevicz, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    The development of a practical prototype, large-area, continuous-spectrum, multienergy electron source to simulate the lower energy (approx = 1 to 30 keV) portion of the geosynchronous orbit electron environment was investigated. The results of future materials-charging tests using this multienergy source should significantly improve the understanding of actual in-orbit charging processes and should help to resolve some of the descrepancies between predicted and observed spacecraft materials performance.

  1. 2+2 Electronics. A Model Program Development Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jack; And Others

    This document contains materials and information used during and developed by a model 2+2 electronics technology program development project conducted by Gainesville High School and Cooke County College, Texas. A procedures manual provides information on grant application, surveys, committees, curricula, articulation agreement, and goals and…

  2. The Development Model Electronic Commerce of Regional Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jun; Cai, Lecai; Li, Hongchan

    With the developing of the agricultural information, it is inevitable trend of the development of agricultural electronic commercial affairs. On the basis of existing study on the development application model of e-commerce, combined with the character of the agricultural information, compared with the developing model from the theory and reality, a new development model electronic commerce of regional agriculture base on the government is put up, and such key issues as problems of the security applications, payment mode, sharing mechanisms, and legal protection are analyzed, etc. The among coordination mechanism of the region is discussed on, it is significance for regulating the development of agricultural e-commerce and promoting the regional economical development.

  3. Development and processing of hyperspectral images in optical-electronic remote sensing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozinov, I. A.; Maltsev, G. N.

    2016-12-01

    The development and processing of three-dimensional images as a "hypercube" of spectral data in hyperspectral optical-electronic remote sensing systems are described in a formalized manner. The correlation identification of observed objects on the basis of spectral features is considered. The criterion for determining of similarity between vectors of recorded and reference spectral images of objects is based on their cross-correlation. Taking into the fact that the total spectral data array recorded by currently applicable hyperspectrometers is excessive for the solution of many issues related to remote sensing of the Earth, this paper proposes a method making it possible to reduce spectral data redundancy by selection of the most informative spectral channels. The essential dimension of the spectral data makes it possible to solve issues related to identification and classification of objects by spectral features through a limited number of very informative spectral channels selected in the areas where the function describing a spectral image of the observed object undergoes well-defined changes in behavior. The algorithm for selection of the most informative spectral channels, which is based on the determination of jump coordinates (major changes) of a spectral image, is substantiated. The selected channels meet the maximum likelihood criterion. The obtained experimental research data on object identification quality with involvement of real hyperspectral data of aerospace Earth remote sensing systems are reported. Five to twenty spectral readouts are needed to provide identification by a limited number of very informative spectral channels. This confirms the idea of existing essential dimensionality of the spectral data.

  4. A discrete component low-noise preamplifier readout for a linear (1×16) SiC photodiode array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahle, Duncan; Aslam, Shahid; Herrero, Federico A.; Waczynski, Augustyn

    2016-09-01

    A compact, low-noise and inexpensive preamplifier circuit has been designed and fabricated to optimally readout a common cathode (1×16) channel 4H-SiC Schottky photodiode array for use in ultraviolet experiments. The readout uses an operational amplifier with 10 pF capacitor in the feedback loop in parallel with a low leakage switch for each of the channels. This circuit configuration allows for reiterative sample, integrate and reset. A sampling technique is given to remove Johnson noise, enabling a femtoampere level readout noise performance. Commercial-off-the-shelf acquisition electronics are used to digitize the preamplifier analog signals. The data logging acquisition electronics has a different integration circuit, which allows the bandwidth and gain to be independently adjusted. Using this readout, photoresponse measurements across the array between spectral wavelengths 200 nm and 370 nm are made to establish the array pixels external quantum efficiency, current responsivity and noise equivalent power.

  5. Advances in Electronic-Nose Technologies Developed for Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Alphus D.; Baietto, Manuela

    2011-01-01

    The research and development of new electronic-nose applications in the biomedical field has accelerated at a phenomenal rate over the past 25 years. Many innovative e-nose technologies have provided solutions and applications to a wide variety of complex biomedical and healthcare problems. The purposes of this review are to present a comprehensive analysis of past and recent biomedical research findings and developments of electronic-nose sensor technologies, and to identify current and future potential e-nose applications that will continue to advance the effectiveness and efficiency of biomedical treatments and healthcare services for many years. An abundance of electronic-nose applications has been developed for a variety of healthcare sectors including diagnostics, immunology, pathology, patient recovery, pharmacology, physical therapy, physiology, preventative medicine, remote healthcare, and wound and graft healing. Specific biomedical e-nose applications range from uses in biochemical testing, blood-compatibility evaluations, disease diagnoses, and drug delivery to monitoring of metabolic levels, organ dysfunctions, and patient conditions through telemedicine. This paper summarizes the major electronic-nose technologies developed for healthcare and biomedical applications since the late 1980s when electronic aroma detection technologies were first recognized to be potentially useful in providing effective solutions to problems in the healthcare industry. PMID:22346620

  6. Atmospheric Electron-Induced X-Ray Spectrometer (AEXS) Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Jaroslava Z.; Urgiles, Eduardo; Toda, Risaku; George, Thomas; Douglas, Susanne; Crisp, Joy

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the progress in the development of the so-called Atmospheric Electron X-ray Spectrometer (AEXS) instrument in our laboratory at JPL. The AEXS is a novel miniature instrument concept based on the excitation of characteristic X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and luminescence spectra using a focused electron beam, for non-destructive evaluation of surfaces of samples in situ, in planetary ambient atmosphere. In situ operation is obtained through the use of a thin electron transmissive membrane to isolate the vacuum within the AEXS electron source from the outside ambient atmosphere. By using a focused electron beam, the impinging electrons on samples in the external atmosphere excite XRF spectra from the irradiated spots with high-to-medium spatial resolution. The XRF spectra are analyzed using an energy-dispersive detector to determine surface elemental composition. The use of high- intensity electron beam results in rapid spectrum acquisition (several minutes), and consequently low energy consumption (several tens of Joules) per acquired XRF spectrum in comparison to similar portable instruments.

  7. Template and Model Driven Development of Standardized Electronic Health Records.

    PubMed

    Kropf, Stefan; Chalopin, Claire; Denecke, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Digital patient modeling targets the integration of distributed patient data into one overarching model. For this integration process, both a theoretical standard-based model and information structures combined with concrete instructions in form of a lightweight development process of single standardized Electronic Health Records (EHRs) are needed. In this paper, we introduce such a process along side a standard-based architecture. It allows the modeling and implementation of EHRs in a lightweight Electronic Health Record System (EHRS) core. The approach is demonstrated and tested by a prototype implementation. The results show that the suggested approach is useful and facilitates the development of standardized EHRSs.

  8. Developing electron beam bunching technology for improving light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsten, B.E.; Chan, K.C.D.; Feldman, D.W.

    1997-08-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this project was to develop a new electron bunch compression technology, experimentally demonstrate subpicosecond compression of bunches with charges on the order of 1 nC, and to theoretically investigate fundamental limitations to electron bunch compression. All of these goals were achieved, and in addition, the compression system built for this project was used to generate 22 nm light in a plasma-radiator light source.

  9. Ultracapacitor/battery electronic interface development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.D.; Salasoo, L.; Schwartz, J.; Cardinal, M.

    1998-06-30

    A flexible, highly efficient laboratory proof-of-concept Ultracapacitor/Battery Interface power electronic circuit with associated controls was developed on a cost-shared contract funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE), the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA), and the General Electric Company (GE). This power electronic interface translates the varying dc voltage on an ultracapacitor with bi-directional power flow to the dc bus of an inverter-supplied ac propulsion system in an electric vehicle application. In a related application, the electronic interface can also be utilized to interface a low-voltage battery to a dc bus of an inverter supplied ac propulsion system. Variations in voltage for these two intended applications occur (1) while extracting energy (discharge) or supplying energy (charge) to an ultracapacitor, and (2) while extracting energy (discharge) or supplying energy (charge) to a low-voltage battery. The control electronics of this interface is designed to be operated as a stand-alone unit acting in response to an external power command. However, the interface unit`s control is not configured to provide any of the vehicle system control functions associated with load leveling or power splitting between the propulsion battery and the ultracapacitor in an electric or hybrid vehicle application. A system study/preliminary design effort established the functional specification of the interface unit, including voltage, current, and power ratings, to meet the program objectives and technical goals for the development of a highly efficient ultracapacitor/battery electronic interface unit; and performed a system/application study of a hybrid-electric transit bus including an ultracapacitor and appropriate electronic interface. The maximum power capability of the ultracapacitor/battery electronic interface unit is 25 kW.

  10. Development of an X-ray pixel detector with multi-port charge-coupled device for X-ray free-electron laser experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kameshima, Takashi; Ono, Shun; Kudo, Togo; Ozaki, Kyosuke; Kirihara, Yoichi; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Inubushi, Yuichi; Yabashi, Makina; Hatsui, Takaki; Horigome, Toshio; Holland, Andrew; Holland, Karen; Burt, David; Murao, Hajime

    2014-03-15

    This paper presents development of an X-ray pixel detector with a multi-port charge-coupled device (MPCCD) for X-ray Free-Electron laser experiments. The fabrication process of the CCD was selected based on the X-ray radiation hardness against the estimated annual dose of 1.6 × 10{sup 14} photon/mm{sup 2}. The sensor device was optimized by maximizing the full well capacity as high as 5 Me- within 50 μm square pixels while keeping the single photon detection capability for X-ray photons higher than 6 keV and a readout speed of 60 frames/s. The system development also included a detector system for the MPCCD sensor. This paper summarizes the performance, calibration methods, and operation status.

  11. Development of Electronics for Low Temperature Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad; Dickman, John E.; Gerber, Scott; Overton, Eric

    2000-01-01

    The operation of electronic systems at cryogenic temperatures is anticipated for many future NASA space missions such as deep space probes and planetary surface exploration. For example, an unheated interplanetary probe launched to explore the rings of Saturn would reach an average temperature near Saturn of about -183 C. In addition to surviving the deep space harsh environment, electronics capable of low temperature operation would contribute to improving circuit performance, increasing system efficiency, and reducing payload development and launch costs. Terrestrial applications where components and systems must operate in low temperature environments include cryogenic instrumentation, superconducting magnetic energy storage, magnetic levitation transportation system, and arctic exploration. An on-going research and development program on low temperature electronics at the NASA Glenn Research Center focuses on the development of efficient power systems capable of surviving and exploiting the advantages of low temperature environments. Inhouse efforts include the design, fabrication, and characterization of low temperature power systems and the development of supporting technologies for low temperature operations, such as dielectric and insulating materials, semiconductor devices, passive power components, opto-electronic devices, as well as packaging and integration of the developed components into prototype flight hardware.

  12. The capacitive division image readout: a novel imaging device for microchannel plate detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapington, J. S.; Conneely, T. M.; Leach, S. A.; Moore, L.

    2013-09-01

    The Capacitive Division Image Readout (C-DIR) is a simple and novel image readout for photon counting detectors offering major performance advantages. C-DIR is a charge centroiding device comprising three elements; (i) a resistive anode providing event charge localization, event current return path and electrical isolation from detector high voltage, (ii) a dielectric substrate which capacitively couples the event transient signal to the third element, (iii) the readout device; an array of capacitively coupled electrodes which divides the signal among the readout charge measurement nodes. The resistive anode and dielectric substrate constitute the rear interface of the detector and capacitively couple the signal to the external C-DIR readout device. The C-DIR device is a passive, multilayer printed circuit board type device comprising a matrix of isolated electrodes whose geometries define the capacitive network. C-DIR is manufactured using conventional PCB geometries and is straightforward and economical to construct. C-DIR's robustness and simplicity belie its performance advantages. Its capacitive nature avoids partition noise, the Poisson noise associated with collection of discrete charges. The dominant noise limiting position resolution is electronic noise. However C-DIR also presents a low input capacitance to the readout electronics, minimising this noise component thus maximising spatial resolution. Optimisation of the C-DIR pattern-edge geometry can provide ~90% linear dynamic range. We present data showing image resolution and linearity of the C-DIR device in a microchannel plate detector and describe various electronic charge measurement scheme designed to exploit the full performance potential of the C-DIR device.

  13. Developing Electronic Cooperation Tools: A Case From Norwegian Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Mydske, Per Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Background Many countries aim to create electronic cooperational tools in health care, but the progress is rather slow. Objective The study aimed to uncover how the authoritys’ financing policies influence the development of electronic cooperational tools within public health care. Methods An interpretative approach was used in this study. We performed 30 semistructured interviews with vendors, policy makers, and public authorities. Additionally, we conducted an extensive documentation study and participated in 18 workshops concerning information and communication technology (ICT) in Norwegian health care. Results We found that the interorganizational communication in sectors like health care, that have undergone an independent development of their internal information infrastructure would find it difficult to create electronic services that interconnect the organizations because such connections would affect all interconnected organizations within the heterogenic structure. The organizations would, to a large extent, depend on new functionality in existing information systems. Electronic patient records play a central role in all parts of the health care sector and therefore dependence is established to the information systems and theirs vendors. The Norwegian government authorities, which run more than 80% of the Norwegian health care, have not taken extraordinary steps to compensate for this dependency–the government's political philosophy is that each health care institution should pay for further electronic patient record development. However, cooperational tools are complex due to the number of players involved and the way they are intertwined with the overall workflow. The customers are not able to buy new functionalities on the drawing table, while the electronic patient record vendors are not willing to take the economic risk in developing cooperational tools. Thus, the market mechanisms in the domain are challenged. We also found that public projects

  14. Development of maskless electron-beam lithography using nc-Si electron-emitter array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, A.; Ikegami, N.; Yoshida, T.; Miyaguchi, H.; Muroyama, M.; Nishino, H.; Yoshida, S.; Sugata, M.; Cakir, S.; Ohyi, H.; Koshida, N.; Esashi, M.

    2013-03-01

    This study demonstrated our prototyped Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) electron emitter which is a nc-Si (nanocrystalline silicon) ballistic electron emitter array integrated with an active-matrix driving LSI for high-speed Massively Parallel Electron Beam Direct Writing (MPEBDW) system. The MPEBDW system consists of the multi-column, and each column provides multi-beam. Each column consists of emitter array, a MEMS condenser lens array, an MEMS anode array, a stigmator, three-stage deflectors to align and to scan the multi beams, and a reduction lens as an objective lens. The emitter array generates 100x100 electron beams with binary patterns. The pattern exposed on a target is stored in one of the duplicate memories in the active matrix LSI. After the emission, each electron beam is condensed into narrow beam in parallel to the axis of electron optics of the system with the condenser lens array. The electrons of the beams are accelerated and pass through the anode array. The stigmator and deflectors make fine adjustments to the position of the beams. The reduction lens in the final stage focuses all parallel beams on the surface of the target wafer. The lens reduces the electron image to 1%-10% in size. Electron source in this system is nc-Si ballistic surface electron emitter. The characteristics of the emitter of 1:1 projection of e-beam have been demonstrated in our previous work. We developed a Crestec Surface Electron emission Lithography (CSEL) for mass production of semiconductor devices. CSEL system is 1:1 electron projection lithography using surface electron emitter. In first report, we confirmed that a test bench of CSEL resolved below 30 nm pattern over 0.2 um square area. Practical resolution of the system is limited by the chromatic aberration. We also demonstrated the CSEL system exposed deep sub-micron pattern over full-field for practical use. As an interim report of our development of MPEBDW system, we evaluated characteristics of the

  15. Characteristics of a large system of pad readout wire proportional chambers for the HPC calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Camporesi, T.; Cavallo, F.R.; Giordano, V.; Laurenti, G.; Molinari, G.; Navarria, F.L.; Privitera, P.; Rovelli, T.; Valenti, G.; Zucchini, A.

    1989-02-01

    A large system of wire proportional chambers is being constructed for the readout of the High-Density Projection Chamber (HPC) of the DELPHI experiment at the Large Electron-Positron storage ring. The system consists of 144 chambers, each 0.3 m/sup 2/ wide and read out via cathode pads, located at the end of the HPC drift volume.

  16. Central FPGA-based destination and load control in the LHCb MHz event readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsson, R.

    2012-10-01

    The readout strategy of the LHCb experiment is based on complete event readout at 1 MHz. A set of 320 sub-detector readout boards transmit event fragments at total rate of 24.6 MHz at a bandwidth usage of up to 70 GB/s over a commercial switching network based on Gigabit Ethernet to a distributed event building and high-level trigger processing farm with 1470 individual multi-core computer nodes. In the original specifications, the readout was based on a pure push protocol. This paper describes the proposal, implementation, and experience of a non-conventional mixture of a push and a pull protocol, akin to credit-based flow control. An FPGA-based central master module, partly operating at the LHC bunch clock frequency of 40.08 MHz and partly at a double clock speed, is in charge of the entire trigger and readout control from the front-end electronics up to the high-level trigger farm. One FPGA is dedicated to controlling the event fragment packing in the readout boards, the assignment of the farm node destination for each event, and controls the farm load based on an asynchronous pull mechanism from each farm node. This dynamic readout scheme relies on generic event requests and the concept of node credit allowing load control and trigger rate regulation as a function of the global farm load. It also allows the vital task of fast central monitoring and automatic recovery in-flight of failing nodes while maintaining dead-time and event loss at a minimum. This paper demonstrates the strength and suitability of implementing this real-time task for a very large distributed system in an FPGA where no random delays are introduced, and where extreme reliability and accurate event accounting are fundamental requirements. It was in use during the entire commissioning phase of LHCb and has been in faultless operation during the first two years of physics luminosity data taking.

  17. A continuous read-out TPC for the ALICE upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippmann, C.

    2016-07-01

    The largest gaseous Time Projection Chamber (TPC) in the world, the ALICE TPC, will be upgraded based on Micro Pattern Gas Detector technology during the second long shutdown of the CERN Large Hadron Collider in 2018/19. The upgraded detector will operate continuously without the use of a triggered gating grid. It will thus be able to read all minimum bias Pb-Pb events that the LHC will deliver at the anticipated peak interaction rate of 50 kHz for the high luminosity heavy-ion era. New read-out electronics will send the continuous data stream to a new online farm at rates up to 1 TByte/s. A fractional ion feedback of below 1% is required to keep distortions due to space charge in the TPC drift volume at a tolerable level. The new read-out chambers will consist of quadruple stacks of Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM), combining GEM foils with a different hole pitch. Other key requirements such as energy resolution and operational stability have to be met as well. A careful optimisation of the performance in terms of all these parameters was achieved during an extensive R&D program. A working point well within the design specifications was identified with an ion backflow of 0.63%, a local energy resolution of 11.3% (sigma) and a discharge probability comparable to that of standard triple GEM detectors.

  18. Collimated Photo-Electron Gun (CPEG) Development for Spaceflight Applications: Electronics Design and Preliminary Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, A.; Everding, D.; Krause, L. H.

    2012-12-01

    In previous decades, active space experiments have been conducted with electron beams generate artificial aurora, trace magnetic field lines, and stimulate Very Low Frequency (VLF) emissions. A new electron source called the collimated photo-electron gun (CPEG) is presently under development for spaceflight applications. High-energy Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) are used to photo-eject electrons off a target material, and these photoelectrons are then focused into a beam using electrostatic lenses. The beam electron energy is controlled by the voltage on the lenses, and the electron flux is controlled by the brightness of the LEDs. The LEDs require a narrow range of both voltage and current setpoints, and thus must be pulse-width modulated at a high frequency to control the brightness. Because the lens and target voltages must be kept at fixed ratio to ensure a laminar beam, the target is powered by a voltage-controlled current source. An Arduino is used to provide command and data handling for the electron gun and the telemetry interface with the host spacecraft. To measure the current flowing to the target, an instrumentation amplifier boosts the voltage from a current-viewing resistor and feeds this voltage to one of the analog inputs of the Arduino. The LEDs are powered using a highly-specialized integrated circuit designed for sourcing high-power LEDs: The LM3500-21. The detailed design and preliminary results of the calibration of the electronics will be presented with this paper. The CPEG is presently under consideration for numerous flight opportunities, and a prototype is scheduled for environmental and functional testing in the fourth quarter of 2012.

  19. Directions for Research and Development on Electronic Portfolios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrami, Philip C.; Barrett, Helen

    2005-01-01

    This lead article for the special issue of the "Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology" explores directions for research and development on electronic portfolios, which are digital containers capable of storing visual and auditory content; software for which may also be designed to support a variety of pedagogical processes and…

  20. Constructing a MEZOPED (Multiple Electronic Zone of Proximal Development).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murfin, Brian

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the theoretical background for using computer-mediated communication to link children and scientists in a multiple electronic zone of proximal development. It is postulated that students will be able to perform at higher cognitive levels as a result of this increased interment contact with many adults. (LZ)

  1. Development program on a cold cathode electron gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spindt, C. A.; Holland, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    During this phase of the cathode development program, SRI improved the multiple electron beam exposure system used to print hole patterns for the cathode arrays, studied anisotropic etch processes, conducted cathode investigations using an emission microscope, reviewed possible alternate materials for cathode fabrication, studied cathode storage techniques, conducted high power operation experiments, and demonstrated high-current-density operation with small arrays of tips.

  2. Measurement of characteristic impedance of silicon fiber sheet based readout strip panel for RPC detector in INO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, M. K.; Kumar, A.; Marimuthu, N.; Singh, V.; Subrahmanyam, V. S.

    2017-01-01

    The India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) is a mega science project of India, which is going to use about 30,000 Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) as active detector elements for the study of atmoshpheric neutrino oscillations. Each RPC detector will consist of two orthogonally placed readout strip panel for picking the signals generated in the gas chamber. The area of RPC detector in INO-ICAL (Iron Calorimeter) experiment will be 2 m × 2 m, therefore the dimensions of readout strip panel should also be 2 m × 2 m. To get undistorted signals pass through the readout strip panel to front-end electronics, their characteristic impedance should be matched with each other. In the present paper, we describe the need and search of new dielectric material for the fabrication of flame resistant, waterproof and flexible readout strip panel. We will also describe the measurement of characteristic impedance of Plastic Honeycomb (PH) based readout strip panel and Silicon Fiber Sheet (SFS) based readout strip panel in a comparative way, and its variation under loading and with time. Based on this study, we found that a 5 mm thick SFS-based readout strip panel has a minimum signal reflection at 49.5 ohm characteristic impedance value. Our study shows that SFS is a good dielectric material for the purpose.

  3. SPIDR, a general-purpose readout system for pixel ASICs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Heijden, B.; Visser, J.; van Beuzekom, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Kulis, S.; Munneke, B.; Schreuder, F.

    2017-02-01

    The SPIDR (Speedy PIxel Detector Readout) system is a flexible general-purpose readout platform that can be easily adapted to test and characterize new and existing detector readout ASICs. It is originally designed for the readout of pixel ASICs from the Medipix/Timepix family, but other types of ASICs or front-end circuits can be read out as well. The SPIDR system consists of an FPGA board with memory and various communication interfaces, FPGA firmware, CPU subsystem and an API library on the PC . The FPGA firmware can be adapted to read out other ASICs by re-using IP blocks. The available IP blocks include a UDP packet builder, 1 and 10 Gigabit Ethernet MAC's and a "soft core" CPU . Currently the firmware is targeted at the Xilinx VC707 development board and at a custom board called Compact-SPIDR . The firmware can easily be ported to other Xilinx 7 series and ultra scale FPGAs. The gap between an ASIC and the data acquisition back-end is bridged by the SPIDR system. Using the high pin count VITA 57 FPGA Mezzanine Card (FMC) connector only a simple chip carrier PCB is required. A 1 and a 10 Gigabit Ethernet interface handle the connection to the back-end. These can be used simultaneously for high-speed data and configuration over separate channels. In addition to the FMC connector, configurable inputs and outputs are available for synchronization with other detectors. A high resolution (≈ 27 ps bin size) Time to Digital converter is provided for time stamping events in the detector. The SPIDR system is frequently used as readout for the Medipix3 and Timepix3 ASICs. Using the 10 Gigabit Ethernet interface it is possible to read out a single chip at full bandwidth or up to 12 chips at a reduced rate. Another recent application is the test-bed for the VeloPix ASIC, which is developed for the Vertex Detector of the LHCb experiment. In this case the SPIDR system processes the 20 Gbps scrambled data stream from the VeloPix and distributes it over four 10 Gigabit

  4. Gravity Probe B gyroscope readout system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhlfelder, B.; Lockhart, J.; Aljabreen, H.; Clarke, B.; Gutt, G.; Luo, M.

    2015-11-01

    We describe the Gravity Probe B London-moment readout system successfully used on-orbit to measure two gyroscope spin axis drift rates predicted by general relativity. The system couples the magnetic signal of a spinning niobium-coated rotor into a low noise superconducting quantum interference device. We describe the multi-layered magnetic shield needed to attenuate external fields that would otherwise degrade readout performance. We discuss the ∼35 nrad/yr drift rate sensitivity that was achieved on-orbit.

  5. A large dynamic range readout design for the plastic scintillator detector of DAMPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yong; Sun, Zhiyu; Yu, Yuhong; Zhang, Yongjie; Fang, Fang; Chen, Junling; Hu, Bitao

    2016-08-01

    A large dynamic range is required by the Plastic Scintillator Detector (PSD) of DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) to detect particles from electron to heavy ions with Z ≤ 20. To expand the dynamic range, the readout design based on the double-dynodes signal extraction from the photomultiplier tube has been proposed and adopted by PSD. To verify this design, a prototype detector module has been constructed and tested with cosmic ray and relativistic ion beam. The results match with the estimation and the readout unit could easily cover the required dynamic range of about 4 orders of magnitude.

  6. Energy and Timing Measurement with Time-Based Detector Readout for PET Applications: Principle and Validation with Discrete Circuit Components.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xishan; Lan, Allan K; Bircher, Chad; Deng, Zhi; Liu, Yinong; Shao, Yiping

    2011-06-11

    A new signal processing method for PET application has been developed, with discrete circuit components to measure energy and timing of a gamma interaction based solely on digital timing processing without using an amplitude-to-digital convertor (ADC) or a constant fraction discriminator (CFD). A single channel discrete component time-based readout (TBR) circuit was implemented in a PC board. Initial circuit functionality and performance evaluations have been conducted. Accuracy and linearity of signal amplitude measurement were excellent, as measured with test pulses. The measured timing accuracy from test pulses reached to less than 300 ps, a value limited mainly by the timing jitter of the prototype electronics circuit. Both suitable energy and coincidence timing resolutions (~18% and ~1.0 ns) have been achieved with 3 × 3 × 20 mm(3) LYSO scintillator and photomultiplier tube-based detectors. With its relatively simple circuit and low cost, TBR is expected to be a suitable front-end signal readout electronics for compact PET or other radiation detectors requiring the reading of a large number of detector channels and demanding high performance for energy and timing measurement.

  7. Energy and Timing Measurement with Time-Based Detector Readout for PET Applications: Principle and Validation with Discrete Circuit Components

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xishan; Lan, Allan K.; Bircher, Chad; Deng, Zhi; Liu, Yinong; Shao, Yiping

    2011-01-01

    A new signal processing method for PET application has been developed, with discrete circuit components to measure energy and timing of a gamma interaction based solely on digital timing processing without using an amplitude-to-digital convertor (ADC) or a constant fraction discriminator (CFD). A single channel discrete component time-based readout (TBR) circuit was implemented in a PC board. Initial circuit functionality and performance evaluations have been conducted. Accuracy and linearity of signal amplitude measurement were excellent, as measured with test pulses. The measured timing accuracy from test pulses reached to less than 300 ps, a value limited mainly by the timing jitter of the prototype electronics circuit. Both suitable energy and coincidence timing resolutions (~18% and ~1.0 ns) have been achieved with 3 × 3 × 20 mm3 LYSO scintillator and photomultiplier tube-based detectors. With its relatively simple circuit and low cost, TBR is expected to be a suitable front-end signal readout electronics for compact PET or other radiation detectors requiring the reading of a large number of detector channels and demanding high performance for energy and timing measurement. PMID:21743761

  8. Technology Developments in Radiation-Hardened Electronics for Space Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Andrew S.; Howell, Joe T.

    2008-01-01

    The Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments (RHESE) project consists of a series of tasks designed to develop and mature a broad spectrum of radiation hardened and low temperature electronics technologies. Three approaches are being taken to address radiation hardening: improved material hardness, design techniques to improve radiation tolerance, and software methods to improve radiation tolerance. Within these approaches various technology products are being addressed including Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA), Field Programmable Analog Arrays (FPAA), MEMS, Serial Processors, Reconfigurable Processors, and Parallel Processors. In addition to radiation hardening, low temperature extremes are addressed with a focus on material and design approaches. System level applications for the RHESE technology products are discussed.

  9. Development program on a Spindt cold-cathode electron gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spindt, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    A thin film field emission cathode (TFFEC) array and a cold cathode electron gun based on the emitter were developed. A microwave tube gun that uses the thin film field emission cathode as an electron source is produced. State-of-the-art cathodes were fabricated and tested. The tip-packing density of the arrays were increased thereby increasing the cathode's current density capability. The TFFEC is based on the well known field emission effect and was conceived to exploit the advantages of that phenomenon while minimizing the difficulties associated with conventional field emission structures, e.g. limited life and high voltage requirements. Field emission follows the Fowler-Nordheim equation.

  10. New STS-1 Electronics: Development and Test Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhrhammer, R. A.; Karavas, B.; Friday, J.; Vanzandt, T.; Hutt, C. R.; Wielandt, E.; Romanowicz, B.

    2007-12-01

    The STS-1 seismometer is currently the principal very broad-band (VBB) seismometer used in global or regional seismic networks operated by members of the Federation of Digital Broad-Band Seismograph Networks (FDSN). It is widely viewed as the finest VBB sensor in the world, Unfortunately, many of the STS-1's, which were manufactured and installed 10-20 years ago, are encountering both operational failures and age-related degradation. This problem is exacerbated by the fact that sensors are no longer being produced or supported by the original manufacturer, G. Streckeisen AG. In a first step towards assuring continued high quality of VBB data for decades to come, we have developed and tested new electronics and methods for mechanical repair for the STS-1 very broadband seismometer. This is a collaborative project with Tom VanZandt of Metrozet, LLC (Redondo Beach, CA) and Erhard Wielandt (original designer of the STS-1), and has been funded by a grant from NSF through the IRIS/GSN program. A primary goal of this effort was to develop a fully-tested, modern electronics module that will be a drop-in replacement for the original electronics. This new electronics design addresses environmental packaging problems that have led to operational degradation and failures in the existing instruments. This effort also provided the opportunity to implement a set of electronic improvements that will make the installation and operation of the sensors more efficient. Metrozet developed the first prototype new electronics for the STS-1, while the BSL engineering staff constructed a test-bed at the Byerly Vault (BKS) and developed the capability to simultaneously test 6-8 STS-1 components. BSL staff then tested successive versions of the electronics. The first generation prototype electronics did not include centering or calibration functionality. The second generation prototype included remote centering functionality as well as calibration functions. After some observations and

  11. Power Electronics Being Developed for Deep Space Cryogenic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2003-01-01

    Electronic circuits and systems designed for deep space missions need to operate reliably and efficiently in harsh environments that include very low temperatures. Spacecraft that operate in such cold environments carry a large number of heaters so that the ambient temperature for the onboard electronics remains near 20 C. Electronics that can operate at cryogenic temperatures will simplify system design and reduce system size and weight by eliminating the heaters and their associated structures. As a result, system development and launch cost will be reduced. At the NASA Glenn Research Center, an ongoing program is focusing on the development of power electronics geared for deep space low-temperature environments. The research and development efforts include electrical components design, circuit design and construction, and system integration and demonstration at cryogenic temperatures. Investigations are being carried out on circuits and systems that are targeted for use in NASA missions where low temperatures will be encountered: devices such as ceramic and tantalum capacitors, metal film resistors, semiconductor switches, magnetics, and integrated circuits including dc/dc converters, operational amplifiers, voltage references, and motor controllers. Test activities cover a wide range of device and circuit performance under simple as well as complex test conditions, such as multistress and thermal cycling. The effect of low-temperature conditions on the switching characteristics of an advanced silicon-on-insulator field effect transistor is shown. For gate voltages (VGS) below 2.6 V, drain currents at -190 C are lower than drain currents at room temperature (20 C).

  12. On the comparison of analog and digital SiPM readout in terms of expected timing performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundacker, S.; Auffray, E.; Jarron, P.; Meyer, T.; Lecoq, P.

    2015-07-01

    In time of flight positron emission tomography (TOF-PET) and in particular for the EndoTOFPET-US Project (Frisch, 2013 [1]), and other applications for high energy physics, the multi-digital silicon photomultiplier (MD-SiPM) was recently proposed (Mandai and Charbon, 2012 [2]), in which the time of every single photoelectron is being recorded. If such a photodetector is coupled to a scintillator, the largest and most accurate timing information can be extracted from the cascade of the scintillation photons, and the most probable time of positron emission determined. The readout concept of the MD-SiPM is very different from that of the analog SiPM, where the individual photoelectrons are merely summed up and the output signal fed into the readout electronics. We have developed a comprehensive Monte Carlo (MC) simulation tool that describes the timing properties of the photodetector and electronics, the scintillation properties of the crystal and the light transfer within the crystal. In previous studies we have compared MC simulations with coincidence time resolution (CTR) measurements and found good agreement within less than 10% for crystals of different lengths (from 3 mm to 20 mm) coupled to SiPMs from Hamamatsu. In this work we will use the developed MC tool to directly compare the highest possible time resolution for both the analog and digital readout of SiPMs with different scintillator lengths. The presented studies reveal that the analog readout of SiPMs with microcell signal pile-up and leading edge discrimination can lead to nearly the same time resolution as compared to the maximum likelihood time estimation applied to MD-SiPMs. Consequently there is no real preference for either a digital or analog SiPM for the sake of achieving highest time resolution. However, the best CTR in the analog SiPM is observed for a rather small range of optimal threshold values, whereas the MD-SiPM provides stable CTR after roughly 20 registered photoelectron timestamps in

  13. The CECAM Electronic Structure Library: community-driven development of software libraries for electronic structure simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Micael

    The CECAM Electronic Structure Library (ESL) is a community-driven effort to segregate shared pieces of software as libraries that could be contributed and used by the community. Besides allowing to share the burden of developing and maintaining complex pieces of software, these can also become a target for re-coding by software engineers as hardware evolves, ensuring that electronic structure codes remain at the forefront of HPC trends. In a series of workshops hosted at the CECAM HQ in Lausanne, the tools and infrastructure for the project were prepared, and the first contributions were included and made available online (http://esl.cecam.org). In this talk I will present the different aspects and aims of the ESL and how these can be useful for the electronic structure community.

  14. A microfabricated fringing field capacitive pH sensor with an integrated readout circuit

    SciTech Connect

    Arefin, Md Shamsul Redoute, Jean-Michel; Rasit Yuce, Mehmet; Bulut Coskun, M.; Alan, Tuncay; Neild, Adrian

    2014-06-02

    This work presents a microfabricated fringe-field capacitive pH sensor using interdigitated electrodes and an integrated modulation-based readout circuit. The changes in capacitance of the sensor result from the permittivity changes due to pH variations and are converted to frequency shifts using a crossed-coupled voltage controlled oscillator readout circuit. The shift in resonant frequency of the readout circuit is 30.96 MHz for a change in pH of 1.0–5.0. The sensor can be used for the measurement of low pH levels, such as gastric acid, and can be integrated with electronic pills. The measurement results show high repeatability, low noise, and a stable output.

  15. 3D-FBK pixel sensors with CMS readout: First test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obertino, M.; Solano, A.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Alagoz, E.; Andresen, J.; Arndt, K.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; Boscardin, M.; Brosius, R.; Bubna, M.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Jensen, F.; Krzywda, A.; Kumar, A.; Kwan, S.; Lei, C. M.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Ngadiuba, J.; Osipenkov, I.; Perera, L.; Povoli, M.; Prosser, A.; Rivera, R.; Shipsey, I.; Tan, P.; Terzo, S.; Uplegger, L.; Wagner, S.; Dinardo, M.

    2013-08-01

    Silicon 3D detectors consist of an array of columnar electrodes of both doping types which penetrate entirely in the detector bulk, perpendicularly to the surface. They are emerging as one of the most promising technologies for innermost layers of tracking devices for the foreseen upgrades of the LHC. Until recently, properties of 3D sensors have been investigated mostly with ATLAS readout electronics. 3D pixel sensors compatible with the CMS readout were first fabricated at SINTEF (Oslo, Norway), and more recently at FBK (Trento, Italy) and CNM (Barcelona, Spain). Several sensors with different electrode configurations, bump-bonded with the CMS pixel PSI46 readout chip, were characterized in laboratory and tested at Fermilab with a proton beam of 120 GeV/c. Preliminary results of the data analysis are presented.

  16. A microfabricated fringing field capacitive pH sensor with an integrated readout circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arefin, Md Shamsul; Bulut Coskun, M.; Alan, Tuncay; Redoute, Jean-Michel; Neild, Adrian; Rasit Yuce, Mehmet

    2014-06-01

    This work presents a microfabricated fringe-field capacitive pH sensor using interdigitated electrodes and an integrated modulation-based readout circuit. The changes in capacitance of the sensor result from the permittivity changes due to pH variations and are converted to frequency shifts using a crossed-coupled voltage controlled oscillator readout circuit. The shift in resonant frequency of the readout circuit is 30.96 MHz for a change in pH of 1.0-5.0. The sensor can be used for the measurement of low pH levels, such as gastric acid, and can be integrated with electronic pills. The measurement results show high repeatability, low noise, and a stable output.

  17. Architectural development of an advanced EVA Electronic System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavelle, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    An advanced electronic system for future EVA missions (including zero gravity, the lunar surface, and the surface of Mars) is under research and development within the Advanced Life Support Division at NASA Ames Research Center. As a first step in the development, an optimum system architecture has been derived from an analysis of the projected requirements for these missions. The open, modular architecture centers around a distributed multiprocessing concept where the major subsystems independently process their own I/O functions and communicate over a common bus. Supervision and coordination of the subsystems is handled by an embedded real-time operating system kernel employing multitasking software techniques. A discussion of how the architecture most efficiently meets the electronic system functional requirements, maximizes flexibility for future development and mission applications, and enhances the reliability and serviceability of the system in these remote, hostile environments is included.

  18. The Development of Lightweight Electronics Enclosures for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenske, Matthew T.; Barth, Janet L.; Didion, Jeffrey R.; Mule, Peter

    1999-01-01

    This paper outlines the end to end effort to produce lightweight electronics enclosures for NASA GSFC electronics applications with the end goal of presenting an array of lightweight box options for a flight opportunity. Topics including the development of requirements, design of three different boxes, utilization of advanced materials and processes, and analysis and test will be discussed. Three different boxes were developed independently and in parallel. A lightweight machined Aluminum box, a cast Aluminum box and a composite box were designed, fabricated, and tested both mechanically and thermally. There were many challenges encountered in meeting the requirements with a non-metallic enclosure and the development of the composite box employed several innovative techniques.

  19. Development of scanning electron and x-ray microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumura, Tomokazu Hirano, Tomohiko Suyama, Motohiro

    2016-01-28

    We have developed a new type of microscope possessing a unique feature of observing both scanning electron and X-ray images under one unit. Unlike former X-ray microscopes using SEM [1, 2], this scanning electron and X-ray (SELX) microscope has a sample in vacuum, thus it enables one to observe a surface structure of a sample by SEM mode, to search the region of interest, and to observe an X-ray image which transmits the region. For the X-ray observation, we have been focusing on the soft X-ray region from 280 eV to 3 keV to observe some bio samples and soft materials. The resolutions of SEM and X-ray modes are 50 nm and 100 nm, respectively, at the electron energy of 7 keV.

  20. Improved Readout For Micromagnet/Hall-Effect Memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Jiin-Chuan; Stadler, Henry L.; Katti, Romney R.

    1993-01-01

    Two improved readout circuits for micromagnet/Hall-effect random-access memories designed to eliminate current shunts introducing errors into outputs of older readout circuits. Incorporate additional switching transistors to isolate Hall sensors as needed.

  1. Coplanar interdigitated grid detector with single electrode readout

    DOEpatents

    Luke, Paul N.

    2001-01-01

    The coplanar interdigitated grid technique with single electrode readout provides substantial spectral performance improvement over that of conventional full-area planar electrode detectors and over coplanar interdigitated grid detectors which measure the difference between the induced charge signals from two interdigitated coplanar grid electrodes. The signal from only one interdigitated grid electrode is read out. The signal response is optimized by changing the relative areas of the two grid electrodes and the bias applied across the detector. Only one preamplifier is needed and signal subtraction is not necessary. This eliminates the electronic noise contribution from the additional preamplifier used in the normal coplanar grid implementation, and conventional single-amplifier detector electronics can be used.

  2. Methodology for security development of an electronic prescription system.

    PubMed

    Niinimäki, J; Savolainen, M; Forsström, J J

    1998-01-01

    Data security is an essential requirement in all health care applications. Developers of medical information systems should utilize the existing security development and evaluation methods to foresee as many of the technical and human factors that may endanger data security as possible and apply appropriate precautions. Modern smart card technology facilitates the building of robust security framework for interorganizational shared care systems. In this article, we describe the way we utilized the existing security evaluation criteria in developing the security concept of our electronic prescription system.

  3. A microstrip detector with delay line readout

    SciTech Connect

    Barbosa, A.F. , BP 220, 38043 Grenoble CNPq Riekel, C.; Wattecamps, P. , BP 220, 38043 Grenoble )

    1992-01-01

    Principal limitations of position sensitive gasfilled detectors for x-ray synchrotron radiation applications are the counting rate and the positional resolution. Improvements in both areas are expected with microstrip technology. First results of a linear position sensitive microstrip detector with delay line readout are shown, and the possibility to achieve two-dimensional localization is evaluated.

  4. Raman-based microarray readout: a review.

    PubMed

    Haisch, Christoph

    2016-07-01

    For a quarter of a century, microarrays have been part of the routine analytical toolbox. Label-based fluorescence detection is still the commonest optical readout strategy. Since the 1990s, a continuously increasing number of label-based as well as label-free experiments on Raman-based microarray readout concepts have been reported. This review summarizes the possible concepts and methods and their advantages and challenges. A common label-based strategy is based on the binding of selective receptors as well as Raman reporter molecules to plasmonic nanoparticles in a sandwich immunoassay, which results in surface-enhanced Raman scattering signals of the reporter molecule. Alternatively, capture of the analytes can be performed by receptors on a microarray surface. Addition of plasmonic nanoparticles again leads to a surface-enhanced Raman scattering signal, not of a label but directly of the analyte. This approach is mostly proposed for bacteria and cell detection. However, although many promising readout strategies have been discussed in numerous publications, rarely have any of them made the step from proof of concept to a practical application, let alone routine use. Graphical Abstract Possible realization of a SERS (Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering) system for microarray readout.

  5. Alumina Based 500 C Electronic Packaging Systems and Future Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Liang-Yu

    2012-01-01

    NASA space and aeronautical missions for probing the inner solar planets as well as for in situ monitoring and control of next-generation aeronautical engines require high-temperature environment operable sensors and electronics. A 96% aluminum oxide and Au thick-film metallization based packaging system including chip-level packages, printed circuit board, and edge-connector is in development for high temperature SiC electronics. An electronic packaging system based on this material system was successfully tested and demonstrated with SiC electronics at 500 C for over 10,000 hours in laboratory conditions previously. In addition to the tests in laboratory environments, this packaging system has more recently been tested with a SiC junction field effect transistor (JFET) on low earth orbit through the NASA Materials on the International Space Station Experiment 7 (MISSE7). A SiC JFET with a packaging system composed of a 96% alumina chip-level package and an alumina printed circuit board mounted on a data acquisition circuit board was launched as a part of the MISSE7 suite to International Space Station via a Shuttle mission and tested on the orbit for eighteen months. A summary of results of tests in both laboratory and space environments will be presented. The future development of alumina based high temperature packaging using co-fired material systems for improved performance at high temperature and more feasible mass production will also be discussed.

  6. Recent developments in two fundamental aspects of electron backscatter diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingard, K. P.; Day, A. P.; Quested, P. N.

    2014-03-01

    Two very different aspects of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) are considered in this paper. Firstly, the use of the technique for the measurement of grain size is discussed with particular reference to the development of international standards to help ensure reproducible and repeatable measurements. In particular the lessons learnt for both calibration of the complete SEM-EBSD system and in choice of the correct data acquisition and processing parameters from an international round robin are summarized. Secondly, extending the capability of EBSD through development of new detectors is discussed. New shadow casting methods provide a means to achieve better accuracy in definition of sample-pattern geometry, while increased detail can be obtained by larger cameras and ultimately direct electron detection.

  7. CALORIC: A readout chip for high granularity calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Royer, L.; Bonnard, J.; Manen, S.; Gay, P.; Soumpholphakdy, X.

    2011-07-01

    A very-front-end electronics has been developed to fulfil requirements for the next generation of electromagnetic calorimeters. The compactness of this kind of detector and its large number of channels (up to several millions) impose a drastic limitation of the power consumption and a high level of integration. The electronic channel proposed is first of all composed of a low-noise Charge Sensitive Amplifier (CSA) able to amplify the charge delivered by a silicon diode up to 10 pC. Next, a two-gain shaping, based on a Gated Integration (G.I.), is implemented to cover the 15 bits dynamic range required: a high gain shaper processes signals from 4 fC (charge corresponding to the MIP) up to 1 pC, and a low gain filter handles charges up to 10 pC. The G.I. performs also the analog memorization of the signal until it is digitalized. Hence, the analog-to-digital conversion is carried out through a low-power 12-bit cyclic ADC. If the signal overloads the high-gain channel dynamic range, a comparator selects the low-gain channel instead. Moreover, an auto-trigger channel has been implemented in order to select and store a valid event over the noise. The timing sequence of the channel is managed by a digital IP. It controls the G.I. switches, generates all needed clocks, drives the ADC and delivers the final result over 12 bits. The whole readout channel is power controlled, which permits to reduce the consumption according to the duty cycle of the beam collider. Simulations have been performed with Spectre simulator on the prototype chip designed with the 0.35 {mu}m CMOS technology from Austriamicrosystems. Results show a non-linearity better than 0.1% for the high-gain channel, and a non-linearity limited to 1% for the low-gain channel. The Equivalent Noise Charge referred to the input of the channel is evaluated to 0.4 fC complying with the MIP/10 limit. With the timing sequence of the International Linear Collider, which presents a duty cycle of 1%, the power

  8. Practical aspects of monochromators developed for transmission electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kimoto, Koji

    2014-01-01

    A few practical aspects of monochromators recently developed for transmission electron microscopy are briefly reviewed. The basic structures and properties of four monochromators, a single Wien filter monochromator, a double Wien filter monochromator, an omega-shaped electrostatic monochromator and an alpha-shaped magnetic monochromator, are outlined. The advantages and side effects of these monochromators in spectroscopy and imaging are pointed out. A few properties of the monochromators in imaging, such as spatial or angular chromaticity, are also discussed. PMID:25125333

  9. MSAT mobile electronically steered phased array antenna development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Fred

    1988-01-01

    The Mobile Satellite Experiment (MSAT-X) breadboard antenna design demonstrates the feasibility of using a phased array in a mobile satellite application. An electronically steerable phased array capable of tracking geosynchronous satellites from anywhere in the Continental United States has been developed. The design is reviewed along with the test data. Cost analysis are presented which indicate that this design can be produced at a cost of $1620 per antenna.

  10. Development of Electronics for Low-Temperature Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad; Dickman, John E.; Gerber, Scott S.; Overton, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Electronic systems that are capable of operating at cryogenic temperatures will be needed for many future NASA space missions, including deep space probes and spacecraft for planetary surface exploration. In addition to being able to survive the harsh deep space environment, low-temperature electronics would help improve circuit performance, increase system efficiency, and reduce payload development and launch costs. Terrestrial applications where components and systems must operate in low-temperature environments include cryogenic instrumentation, superconducting magnetic energy storage, magnetic levitation transportation systems, and arctic exploration. An ongoing research and development project for the design, fabrication, and characterization of low-temperature electronics and supporting technologies at NASA Glenn Research Center focuses on efficient power systems capable of surviving in and exploiting the advantages of low-temperature environments. Supporting technologies include dielectric and insulating materials, semiconductor devices, passive power components, optoelectronic devices, and packaging and integration of the developed components into prototype flight hardware. An overview of the project is presented, including a description of the test facilities, a discussion of selected data from component testing, and a presentation of ongoing research activities being performed in collaboration with various organizations.

  11. Nanotube field electron emission: principles, development, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yunhan; Sun, Yonghai; Yeow, J. T. W.

    2015-06-01

    There is a growing trend to apply field emission (FE) electron sources in vacuum electronic devices due to their fast response, high efficiency and low energy consumption compared to thermionic emission ones. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been regarded as a promising class of electron field emitters since the 1990s and have promoted the development of FE technology greatly because of their high electrical and thermal conductivity, chemical stability, high aspect ratio and small size. Recent studies have shown that FE from CNTs has the potential to replace conventional thermionic emission in many areas and that it exhibits advanced features in practical applications. Consequently, FE from nanotubes and applications thereof have attracted much attention. This paper provides a comprehensive review of both recent advances in CNT field emitters and issues related to applications of CNT based FE. FE theories and principles are introduced, and the early development of field emitters is related. CNT emitter types and their FE performance are discussed. The current situation for applications based on nanotube FE is reviewed. Although challenges remain, the tremendous progress made in CNT FE over the past ten years indicates the field’s development potential.

  12. Massively Parallel Atomic Force Microscope with Digital Holographic Readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sache, L.; Kawakatsu, H.; Emery, Y.; Bleuler, H.

    2007-03-01

    Massively Parallel Scanning Probe Microscopy is an obvious path for data storage (E Grochowski, R F Hoyt, Future Trends in Hard disc Drives, IEEE Trans. Magn. 1996, 32, 1850- 1854; J L Griffin, S W Schlosser, G R Ganger and D F Nagle, Modeling and Performance of MEMS-Based Storage Devices, Proc. ACM SIGMETRICS, 2000). Current experimental systems still lay far behind Hard Disc Drive (HDD) or Digital Video Disk (DVD), be it in access speed, data throughput, storage density or cost per bit. This paper presents an entirely new approach with the promise to break several of these barriers. The key idea is readout of a Scanning Probes Microscope (SPM) array by Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM). This technology directly gives phase information at each pixel of a CCD array. This means that no contact line to each individual SPM probes is needed. The data is directly available in parallel form. Moreover, the optical setup needs in principle no expensive components, optical (or, to a large extent, mechanical) imperfections being compensated in the signal processing, i.e. in electronics. This gives the system the potential for a low cost device with fast Terabit readout capability.

  13. Readout architecture for sub-nanosecond resolution TDC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marteau, J.; Carlus, B.; Gardien, S.; Girerd, C.; Ianigro, J.-C.; Montorio, J.-L.; Gibert, D.; Nicollin, F.

    2012-04-01

    The DIAPHANE project is pluri-disciplinary collaboration between particle physicists and geophysicists to perform the tomography of large geological structure mainly devoted to the study of active volcanoes. The detector used for this tomography, hereafter referred to as telescope, uses a standard, robust, cost-effective and well-known technology based on solid plastic scintillator readout by photomultiplier(s) (either multichannel pixelized PM or silicon PM). The electronics system is built on the concept of autonomous, triggerless, smart sensor directly connected on a standard fast Ethernet network. First radiographies have been performed on the Mont-Terri underground laboratory (St-Ursanne, Switzerland) and on the active volcano of La Soufrière (Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles, France). We present an upgrade of the readout architecture allowing to embed a sub-nanosecond resolution TDC within the existing programmable logic to help in the background rejection (rear flux, random coincidences) and to improve the detection purity and the radiography quality. First results obtained are also presented and briefly discussed.

  14. Development of mobile electron beam plant for environmental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Bumsoo; Kim, Jinkyu; Kang, Wongu; Choi, Jang Seung; Jeong, Kwang-Young

    2016-07-01

    Due to the necessity of pilot scale test facility for continuous treatment of wastewater and gases on site, a mobile electron beam irradiation system mounted on a trailer has developed. This mobile electron beam irradiation system is designed for the individual field application with self-shielded structure of steel plate and lead block which will satisfy the required safety figures of International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Shielding of a mobile electron accelerator of 0.7 MeV, 30 mA has been designed and examined by Monte Carlo technique. Based on a 3-D model of electron accelerator shielding which is designed with steel and lead shield, radiation leakage was examined using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport (MCNP) Code. Simulations with two different versions (version 4c2 and version 5) of MCNP code showed agreements within statistical uncertainties, and the highest leakage expected is 5.5061×10-01 (1±0.0454) μSv/h, which is far below the tolerable radiation dose limit for occupational workers. This unit could treat up to 500 m3 of liquid waste per day at 2 kGy or 10,000 N m3 of gases per hour at 15 kGy.

  15. Developing a strategy for a regulated electronic bioanalytical laboratory.

    PubMed

    McDowall, R D

    2014-01-01

    This perspective article considers the strategy, design and implementation of an electronic bioanalytical laboratory working to GLP and/or GCP regulations. There are a range of available automated systems and laboratory informatics that could be implemented and integrated to make an electronic laboratory. However, which are the appropriate ones to select and what is realistic and cost-effective for an individual laboratory? The answer is to develop an overall automation strategy that is updated periodically after each system or application has been implemented to assess if the strategy is still valid or needs to be changed. As many laboratory informatics applications have functional overlap or convergence, for example, Laboratory Information Management System, Electronic Laboratory Notebook, and Instrument and Chromatography Data Systems, the decision of which application performs a specific task needs to be carefully considered in the overall strategy. Ensuring data integrity and regulatory compliance, especially in light of a number of recent falsification cases, is a mandatory consideration for the overall strategy for an electronic bioanalytical laboratory submitting data to regulatory authorities.

  16. First functionality tests of a 64 × 64 pixel DSSC sensor module connected to the complete ladder readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donato, M.; Hansen, K.; Kalavakuru, P.; Kirchgessner, M.; Kuster, M.; Porro, M.; Reckleben, C.; Turcato, M.

    2017-03-01

    The European X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL.EU) will provide every 0.1 s a train of 2700 spatially coherent ultrashort X-ray pulses at 4.5 MHz repetition rate. The Small Quantum Systems (SQS) instrument and the Spectroscopy and Coherent Scattering instrument (SCS) operate with soft X-rays between 0.5 keV–6 keV. The DEPFET Sensor with Signal Compression (DSSC) detector is being developed to meet the requirements set by these two XFEL.EU instruments. The DSSC imager is a 1 mega-pixel camera able to store up to 800 single-pulse images per train. The so-called ladder is the basic unit of the DSSC detector. It is the single unit out of sixteen identical-units composing the DSSC-megapixel camera, containing all representative electronic components of the full-size system and allows testing the full electronic chain. Each DSSC ladder has a focal plane sensor with 128× 512 pixels. The read-out ASIC provides full-parallel readout of the sensor pixels. Every read-out channel contains an amplifier and an analog filter, an up-to 9 bit ADC and the digital memory. The ASIC amplifier have a double front-end to allow one to use either DEPFET sensors or Mini-SDD sensors. In the first case, the signal compression is a characteristic intrinsic of the sensor; in the second case, the compression is implemented at the first amplification stage. The goal of signal compression is to meet the requirement of single-photon detection capability and wide dynamic range. We present the first results of measurements obtained using a 64× 64 pixel DEPFET sensor attached to the full final electronic and data-acquisition chain.

  17. Electronic materials with a wide band gap: recent developments

    PubMed Central

    Klimm, Detlef

    2014-01-01

    The development of semiconductor electronics is reviewed briefly, beginning with the development of germanium devices (band gap E g = 0.66 eV) after World War II. A tendency towards alternative materials with wider band gaps quickly became apparent, starting with silicon (E g = 1.12 eV). This improved the signal-to-noise ratio for classical electronic applications. Both semiconductors have a tetrahedral coordination, and by isoelectronic alternative replacement of Ge or Si with carbon or various anions and cations, other semiconductors with wider E g were obtained. These are transparent to visible light and belong to the group of wide band gap semiconductors. Nowadays, some nitrides, especially GaN and AlN, are the most important materials for optical emission in the ultraviolet and blue regions. Oxide crystals, such as ZnO and β-Ga2O3, offer similarly good electronic properties but still suffer from significant difficulties in obtaining stable and technologically adequate p-type conductivity. PMID:25295170

  18. Development of an electronic database for Acute Pain Service outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Love, Brandy L; Jensen, Louise A; Schopflocher, Donald; Tsui, Ban CH

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Quality assurance is increasingly important in the current health care climate. An electronic database can be used for tracking patient information and as a research tool to provide quality assurance for patient care. OBJECTIVE: An electronic database was developed for the Acute Pain Service, University of Alberta Hospital (Edmonton, Alberta) to record patient characteristics, identify at-risk populations, compare treatment efficacies and guide practice decisions. METHOD: Steps in the database development involved identifying the goals for use, relevant variables to include, and a plan for data collection, entry and analysis. Protocols were also created for data cleaning quality control. The database was evaluated with a pilot test using existing data to assess data collection burden, accuracy and functionality of the database. RESULTS: A literature review resulted in an evidence-based list of demographic, clinical and pain management outcome variables to include. Time to assess patients and collect the data was 20 min to 30 min per patient. Limitations were primarily software related, although initial data collection completion was only 65% and accuracy of data entry was 96%. CONCLUSIONS: The electronic database was found to be relevant and functional for the identified goals of data storage and research. PMID:22518364

  19. National Skills Standards Development Program: Organization and Operation of Technical Committees To Develop National Skill Standards for Competency in the Electronics Industry. The Third Party Summative Evaluation of the Electronic Industries Foundation Project. Phase I & II. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losh, Charles

    The Electronics Industries Foundation was awarded a project to develop national entry-level standards and a certification system. Ten specialties were included: automotive electronics, avionics, biomedical electronics, business machines, consumer products electronics, general electronics, industrial electronics, instrumentation, microcomputer, and…

  20. Tunable mechanical monolithic sensor with interferometric readout for low frequency seismic noise measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acernese, F.; De Rosa, R.; Giordano, G.; Romano, R.; Barone, F.

    2008-03-01

    This paper describes a mechanical monolithic sensor for geophysical applications developed at the University of Salerno. The instrument is basically a monolithic tunable folded pendulum, shaped with precision machining and electric-discharge-machining, that can be used both as seismometer and, in a force-feedback configuration, as accelerometer. The monolithic mechanical design and the introduction of laser interferometric techniques for the readout implementation make it a very compact instrument, very sensitive in the low-frequency seismic noise band, with a very good immunity to environmental noises. Many changes have been produced since last version (2007), mainly aimed to the improvement of the mechanics and of the optical readout of the instrument. In fact, we have developed and tested a prototype with elliptical hinges and mechanical tuning of the resonance frequency together with a laser optical lever and a new laser interferometer readout system. The theoretical sensitivity curve both for both laser optical lever and laser interferometric readouts, evaluated on the basis of suitable theoretical models, shows a very good agreement with the experimental measurements. Very interesting scientific result, for example, is that the measured natural resonance frequency of the instrument is 70 mHz with a Q = 140 in air without thermal stabilization, demonstrating the feasibility of a monolithic FP sensor with a natural resonance frequency of the order of mHz with a more refined mechanical tuning. Results on the readout system based on polarimetric homodyne Michelson interferometer is discussed.

  1. Latest Diagnostic Electronics Development for the PROSCAN Proton Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Duperrex, P.A.; Frei, U.; Gamma, G.; Mueller, U.; Rezzonico, L.

    2004-11-10

    New VME-based diagnostic electronics are being developed for PROSCAN, a proton accelerator for medical application presently under construction at PSI. One new development is a VME-based multi-channel logarithmic amplifier for converting current to voltage (LogIV). The LogIV boards are used for measuring current from the multiple wire (harp) profile monitors. The LogIV calibration method, current dependant bandwidth and temperature stability are presented. Another development is a BPM front end, based on the newest digital receiver techniques. Features of this new system are the remote control of the preamplifier stage and the continuous monitoring of each individual signal overall gain. Characteristics of the developed prototype are given.

  2. Development of a Francium Electron Electric Dipole Moment Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munger, Charles T., Jr.; Feinberg, B.; Gould, Harvey; Kalnins, Juris; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Jentschura, Ulrich; Behr, John; Pearson, Matt

    2014-09-01

    An experiment to discover or rule out a permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of the electron, at a sensitivity well beyond the present experimental limit, is being developed. The experiment will use 211Fr, obtainable online at TRIUMF at rates of 109/s, in a laser-cooled fountain. The experiment is done in free space and free fall, with an electric field, but no applied magnetic field, between optical state preparation and analysis. The relation between an electron EDM and an EDM of a francium atom has recently been recalculated using field theory alone (Blundell, Griffith & Sapirstein, Phys. Rev. D 86, 025023 [2012]), confirming previous atomic physics calculations and removing any ambiguity in the experimental interpretation.

  3. Correlative video-light-electron microscopy: development, impact and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Riccardo; Parashuraman, Seetharaman; Luini, Alberto

    2014-08-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based video microscopy can provide profound insight into biological processes by generating information on the 'history,' or dynamics, of the cellular structures involved in such processes in live cells. A crucial limitation of this approach, however, is that many such structures may not be resolved by light microscopy. Like more recent super-resolution techniques, correlative video-light-electron microscopy (CLEM) was developed to overcome this limitation. CLEM integrates GFP-based video microscopy and electron microscopy through a series of ancillary techniques, such as proper fixation, hybrid labeling and retracing, and so provides sufficient resolution as well as, crucially, cellular 'context' to the fluorescent dynamic structures of interest. CLEM 'multiplies' the power of video microscopy and is having an important impact in several areas cell and developmental biology. Here, we discuss potential, limitations and perspectives of correlative approaches aimed at integrating the unique insight generated by video microscopy with information from other forms of imaging.

  4. The process of developing an instrument: the JPL electronic nose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, M. A.

    2012-06-01

    An electronic nose is a sensing array designed to monitor for targeted chemical species or mixtures. From 1995 to 2008, an electronic nose was developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to monitor the environment in human occupied spacecraft for the sudden release, such as leaks or spills, of targeted chemical species. The JPL ENose was taken through three generations of device, from basic exploratory research into polymer-carbon composite chemiresistive sensors to a fully operating instrument which was demonstrated on the International Space Station for several months. The Third Generation JPL ENose ran continuously in the U.S. Lab on the International Space Station to monitor for sudden releases of a targeted group of chemical species. It is capable of detecting, identifying and quantifying targeted species in the parts-per-million range in air, and of operating at a range of temperatures, humidities and pressures.

  5. High Density Mastering Using Electron Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Yoshiaki; Kitahara, Hiroaki; Kasono, Osamu; Katsumura, Masahiro; Wada, Yasumitsu

    1998-04-01

    A mastering system for the next-generation digital versatile disk (DVD) is required to have a higher resolution compared with the conventional mastering systems. We have developed an electron beam mastering machine which features a thermal field emitter and a vacuum sealed air spindle motor. Beam displacement caused by magnetic fluctuation with spindle rotation was about 60 nm(p-p) in both the radial and tangential directions. Considering the servo gain of a read-out system, it has little influence on the read-out signal in terms of tracking errors and jitters. The disk performance was evaluated by recording either the 8/16 modulation signal or a groove on the disk. The electron beam recording showed better jitter values from the disk playback than those from a laser beam recorder. The deviation of track pitch was 44 nm(p-p). We also confirmed the high density recording with a capacity reaching 30 GB.

  6. Characterization of the CDMS Ionization Readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phipps, Arran

    2007-10-01

    Current cosmological models predict that a large portion of the total mass of the universe, about eighty percent, consists of putative dark matter. Theory predicts this dark matter may be in the form of particles constantly passing through the Earth. A class of these particles may interact with ordinary matter, earning the name weakly-interacting massive particles (WIMPs). The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) aims to directly detect the existence of WIMPs. CDMS has designed ZIP (Z-dependent Ionization & Phonon) detectors which measure phonon production and ionization of an interaction, making it possible to determine the interacting particle. The low-energy threshold of the ZIP detectors is determined by the signal-to-noise ratio of the ionization readout. A characterization of the signal-to-noise ratio of the ionization readout, along with possible modifications for improved sensitivity will be presented.

  7. Readout electrode assembly for measuring biological impedance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, L. D.; Moody, D. L., Jr. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    The invention comprises of a pair of readout ring electrodes which are used in conjunction with apparatus for measuring the electrical impedance between different points in the body of a living animal to determine the amount of blood flow therebetween. The readout electrodes have independently adjustable diameters to permit attachment around different parts of the body between which it is desired to measure electric impedance. The axial spacing between the electrodes is adjusted by a pair of rods which have a first pair of ends fixedly attached to one electrode and a second pair of ends slidably attached to the other electrode. Indicia are provided on the outer surface of the ring electrodes and on the surface of the rods to permit measurement of the circumference and spacing between the ring electrodes.

  8. LSST camera readout chip ASPIC: test tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antilogus, P.; Bailly, Ph; Jeglot, J.; Juramy, C.; Lebbolo, H.; Martin, D.; Moniez, M.; Tocut, V.; Wicek, F.

    2012-02-01

    The LSST camera will have more than 3000 video-processing channels. The readout of this large focal plane requires a very compact readout chain. The correlated ''Double Sampling technique'', which is generally used for the signal readout of CCDs, is also adopted for this application and implemented with the so called ''Dual Slope integrator'' method. We have designed and implemented an ASIC for LSST: the Analog Signal Processing asIC (ASPIC). The goal is to amplify the signal close to the output, in order to maximize signal to noise ratio, and to send differential outputs to the digitization. Others requirements are that each chip should process the output of half a CCD, that is 8 channels and should operate at 173 K. A specific Back End board has been designed especially for lab test purposes. It manages the clock signals, digitizes the analog differentials outputs of ASPIC and stores data into a memory. It contains 8 ADCs (18 bits), 512 kwords memory and an USB interface. An FPGA manages all signals from/to all components on board and generates the timing sequence for ASPIC. Its firmware is written in Verilog and VHDL languages. Internals registers permit to define various tests parameters of the ASPIC. A Labview GUI allows to load or update these registers and to check a proper operation. Several series of tests, including linearity, noise and crosstalk, have been performed over the past year to characterize the ASPIC at room and cold temperature. At present, the ASPIC, Back-End board and CCD detectors are being integrated to perform a characterization of the whole readout chain.

  9. A cryo-amplifier working in a double loop-flux locked loop scheme for SQUID readout of TES detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrioli, Guido; Bastia, Paolo; Piro, Luigi; Macculi, Claudio; Colasanti, Luca

    2010-07-01

    In this paper we report on a novel SQUID readout scheme, called Double Loop-Flux Locked loop (DL-FLL), that we are investigating in the frame of ASI and ESA technological development contracts. This scheme is based on the realization of a cryogenic amplifier which is used in order to readout TES detectors in the Frequency Division Multiplexing technique, where high loop-gain is required up to few MHz. Loop-gain in feedback systems is, usually, limited by the propagation delay of the signals traveling in the loop because of the distance between the feedback loop elements. This problem is particularly evident in the case of SQUID systems, where the elements of the feedback loop are placed both at cryogenic and room temperature. To solve this issue we propose a low power dissipation cryo-amplifier capable to work at cryogenic temperatures so that it can be placed close to the SQUID realizing a local cryogenic loop. The adoption of the DL-FLL scheme allows to simplify considerably the cryo-amplifier which, being AC-coupled, don't require the features of a precision DC-coupled amplifier and can be made with a limited number of electronic components and with a consequent reduction of power dissipation.

  10. A Prototype of the Read-out Subsystem of the BESIII DAQ Based on PowerPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Ning; Chu, Yuanping; Jin, Ge; Zhao, Jingwei

    2005-10-01

    This article describes the prototype of the read-out subsystem which will be subject to the BESIII data acquisition system. According to the purpose of the BESIII, the event rate will be about 4000 Hz and the data rate up to 50 Mbytes/sec after Level 1 trigger. The read-out subsystem consists of some read-out crates and a read-out computer whose function is to initialize the hardware, to collect the event data from the front-end electronics after Level 1 trigger, to transfer data fragments to the computer in online form through two levels of computer pre-processing and high-speed network transmission. In this model, the crate level read-out implementation is based on the commercial single board computer MVME5100 running the VxWorks operating system. The article outlines the structure of the crate level testing platform of hardware and software. It puts emphasis on the framework of the read-out test model, data process flow and test method at crate level. Especially, it enumerates the key technologies in the process of design and analyses the test results. In addition, results which summarize the performance of the single board computer from the data transferring aspects will be presented.

  11. Study of spacecraft direct readout meteorological systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R.; Elam, W.; Hoedemaker, R.

    1973-01-01

    Characteristics are defined of the next generation direct readout meteorological satellite system with particular application to Tiros N. Both space and ground systems are included. The recommended space system is composed of four geosynchronous satellites and two low altitude satellites in sun-synchronous orbit. The goesynchronous satellites transmit to direct readout ground stations via a shared S-band link, relayed FOFAX satellite cloud cover pictures (visible and infrared) and weather charts (WEFAX). Basic sensor data is transmitted to regional Data Utilization Stations via the same S-band link. Basic sensor data consists of 0.5 n.m. sub-point resolution data in the 0.55 - 0.7 micron spectral region, and 4.0 n.m. resolution data in the 10.5 - 12.6 micron spectral region. The two low altitude satellites in sun-synchronous orbit provide data to direct readout ground stations via a 137 MHz link, a 400 Mhz link, and an S-band link.

  12. Submicrosecond-timescale readout of carbon nanotube mechanical motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerwaldt, H. B.; Johnston, S. R.; van der Zant, H. S. J.; Steele, G. A.

    2013-07-01

    We report fast readout of the motion of a carbon nanotube mechanical resonator. A close-proximity high electron mobility transistor amplifier is used to increase the bandwidth of the measurement of nanotube displacements from the kHz to the MHz regime. Using an electrical detection scheme with the nanotube acting as a mixer, we detect the amplitude of its mechanical motion at room temperature with an intermediate frequency of 6 MHz and a timeconstant of 780 ns, both up to five orders of magnitude faster than achieved before. The transient response of the mechanical motion indicates a ring-down time faster than our enhanced time resolution, placing an upper bound on the contribution of energy relaxation processes to the room temperature mechanical quality factor.

  13. Mercuric Iodide Photocell Technology for Room Temperature Readout of Scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Warnick Kernan et al.

    2007-08-31

    Mercuric iodide (HgI2) is a well known material for the direct detection of gamma rays; however, the largest volume achievable is limited by thickness of the detector, which needs to be a small fraction of the average trapping length for electrons. We are reporting here preliminary results in using HgI2 crystals to fabricate photocells used in the readout of various scintillators. The optical spectral response and efficiency of these photocells were measured and will be reported. Preliminary nuclear response from a HgI2 photocell that was optically matched to a Ce3+ :LaBr3 scintillator will also be presented and discussed. Further improvements will be sought by optimizing the transparent contact technology.

  14. Monolithic readout circuits for RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, P.; Harder, J.

    1991-12-31

    Several CMOS ASICs have been developed for a proposed RHIC experiment. This paper discusses why ASIC implementation was chosen for certain functions, circuit specifications and the design techniques used to meet them, and results of simulations and early prototypes. By working closely together from an early stage in the planning process, in-house ASIC designers and detector and data acquisition experimenters can achieve optimal use of this important technology.

  15. JPSS Science Data Services for the Direct Readout Community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chander, Gyanesh; Lutz, Bob

    2014-01-01

    The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) and Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) High Rate Data (HRD) link provides Direct Broadcast data to users in real-time, utilizing their own remote field terminals. The Field Terminal Support (FTS) provides the resources needed to support the Direct Readout communities by providing software, documentation, and periodic updates to enable them to produce data products from SNPP and JPSS. The FTS distribution server will also provide the necessary ancillary and auxiliary data needed for processing the broadcasts, as well as making orbital data available to assist in locating the satellites of interest. In addition, the FTS provides development support for the algorithm and software through GSFC Direct Readout Laboratory (DRL) International Polar Orbiter Processing Package (IPOPP) and University of Wisconsin (UWISC) Community Satellite Processing Package (CSPP), to enable users to integrate the algorithms into their remote terminals. The support the JPSS Program provides to the institutions developing and maintaining these two software packages, will demonstrate the ability to produce ready-to-use products from the HRD link and provide risk reduction effort at a minimal cost. This paper discusses the key functions and system architecture of FTS.

  16. Development of Portable Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC (the “Contractor”) and Sense Holdings, Inc. (the “Participant”) was for the development of hand-held detectors with high sensitivity and selectivity for the detection of explosives, toxic industrial chemicals and materials, and other materials of interest for security applications. The two parties built a series of demonstration and prototype handheld sensors based upon micoelectromechanical systems (MEMS) with electronic readout.

  17. Streak Camera Performance with Large-Format CCD Readout

    SciTech Connect

    Lerche, R A; Andrews, D S; Bell, P M; Griffith, R L; McDonald, J W; Torres, P III; Vergel de Dios, G

    2003-07-08

    The ICF program at Livermore has a large inventory of optical streak cameras that were built in the 1970s and 1980s. The cameras include micro-channel plate image-intensifier tubes (IIT) that provide signal amplification and early lens-coupled CCD readouts. Today, these cameras are still very functional, but some replacement parts such as the original streak tube, CCD, and IIT are scarce and obsolete. This article describes recent efforts to improve the performance of these cameras using today's advanced CCD readout technologies. Very sensitive, large-format CCD arrays with efficient fiber-optic input faceplates are now available for direct coupling with the streak tube. Measurements of camera performance characteristics including linearity, spatial and temporal resolution, line-spread function, contrast transfer ratio (CTR), and dynamic range have been made for several different camera configurations: CCD coupled directly to the streak tube, CCD directly coupled to the IIT, and the original configuration with a smaller CCD lens coupled to the IIT output. Spatial resolution (limiting visual) with and without the IIT is 8 and 20 lp/mm, respectively, for photocathode current density up to 25% of the Child-Langmuir (C-L) space-charge limit. Temporal resolution (fwhm) deteriorates by about 20% when the cathode current density reaches 10% of the C-L space charge limit. Streak tube operation with large average tube current was observed by illuminating the entire slit region through a Ronchi ruling and measuring the CTR. Sensitivity (CCD electrons per streak tube photoelectron) for the various configurations ranged from 7.5 to 2,700 with read noise of 7.5 to 10.5 electrons. Optimum spatial resolution is achieved when the IIT is removed. Maximum dynamic range requires a configuration where a single photoelectron from the photocathode produces a signal that is 3 to 5 times the read noise.

  18. Power Electronics Development for the SPT-100 Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamley, John A.; Hill, Gerald M.; Sankovic, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Russian electric propulsion technologies have recently become available on the world market. Of significant interest is the Stationary Plasma Thruster (SPT) which has a significant flight heritage in the former Soviet space program. The SPT has performance levels of up to 1600 seconds of specific impulse at a thrust efficiency of 0.50. Studies have shown that this level of performance is well suited for stationkeeping applications, and the SPT-100, with a 1.35 kW input power level, is presently being evaluated for use on Western commercial satellites. Under a program sponsored by the Innovative Science and Technology Division of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization, a team of U.S. electric propulsion specialists observed the operation of the SPT-100 in Russia. Under this same program, power electronics were developed to operate the SPT-100 to characterize thruster performance and operation in the U.S. The power electronics consisted of a discharge, cathode heater, and pulse igniter power supplies to operate the thruster with manual flow control. A Russian designed matching network was incorporated in the discharge supply to ensure proper operation with the thruster. The cathode heater power supply and igniter were derived from ongoing development projects. No attempts were made to augment thruster electromagnet current in this effort. The power electronics successfully started and operated the SPT-100 thruster in performance tests at NASA Lewis, with minimal oscillations in the discharge current. The efficiency of the main discharge supply was measured at 0.92, and straightforward modifications were identified which could increase the efficiency to 0.94.

  19. Maximal adaptive-decision speedups in quantum-state readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Anjou, Benjamin; Kuret, Loutfi; Childress, Lilian; Coish, William A.

    The average time T required for high-fidelity readout of quantum states can be significantly reduced via a real-time adaptive decision rule. An adaptive decision rule stops the readout as soon as a desired level of confidence has been achieved, as opposed to setting a fixed readout time tf. The performance of the adaptive decision is characterized by the ``adaptive-decision speedup'', tf / T . In this work, we reformulate this readout problem in terms of the first-passage time of a particle undergoing stochastic motion. This formalism allows us to theoretically establish the maximum achievable adaptive-decision speedups for several physical two-state readout implementations. We show that for two common readout schemes (the Gaussian latching readout and a readout relying on state-dependent decay), the speedup is bounded by 4 and 2, respectively, in the limit of high single-shot readout fidelity. We experimentally study the achievable speedup in a real-world scenario by applying the adaptive decision rule to a readout of the nitrogen-vacancy-center (NV-center) charge state. We find a speedup of ~ 2 with our experimental parameters. Our results should lead to immediate improvements in nano-scale magnetometry based on spin-to-charge conversion of the NV-center spin. We acknowledge support from NSERC, INTRIQ, CIFAR and the Walter C. Sumner Foundation.

  20. The development of silicon carbide-based power electronics devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Richard H.; Perkins, John F.

    1995-01-01

    In 1989 Westinghouse created an internally funded initiative to develop silicon carbide materials and device technology for a variety of potential commercial and military applications. Westinghouse saw silicon carbide as having the potential for dual use. For space applications, size and weight reductions could be achieved, together with increased reliability. Terrestrially, uses in harsh-temperature environments would be enabled. Theoretically, the physical and electrical properties of silicon carbide were highly promising for high-power, high-temperature, radiation-hardened electronics. However, bulk material with the requisite electronic qualities was not available, and the methods needed to produce a silicon carbide wafer—to fabricate high-quality devices—and to transition these technologies into a commercial product were considered to be a high-risk investment. It was recognized that through a collaborative effort, the CCDS could provide scientific expertise in several areas, thus reducing this risk. These included modeling of structures, electrical contacts, dielectrics, and epitaxial growth. This collaboration has been very successful, with developed technologies being transferred to Westinghouse.

  1. Open source cardiology electronic health record development for DIGICARDIAC implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugarte, Nelson; Medina, Rubén.; Huiracocha, Lourdes; Rojas, Rubén.

    2015-12-01

    This article presents the development of a Cardiology Electronic Health Record (CEHR) system. Software consists of a structured algorithm designed under Health Level-7 (HL7) international standards. Novelty of the system is the integration of high resolution ECG (HRECG) signal acquisition and processing tools, patient information management tools and telecardiology tools. Acquisition tools are for management and control of the DIGICARDIAC electrocardiograph functions. Processing tools allow management of HRECG signal analysis searching for indicative patterns of cardiovascular pathologies. Telecardiology tools incorporation allows system communication with other health care centers decreasing access time to the patient information. CEHR system was completely developed using open source software. Preliminary results of process validation showed the system efficiency.

  2. Archetype Development Process of Electronic Health Record of Minas Gerais.

    PubMed

    Abreu Maia, Thais; Fernandes De Muylder, Cristiana; Mendonça Queiroga, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    The Electronic Health Record (EHR) supports health systems and aims to reduce fragmentation, which will enable continuity of patient care. The paper's main objective is to define the steps, roles and artifacts for an archetype development process (ADP) for the EHR at the Brazilian National Health System (SUS) in the State of Minas Gerais (MG). This study was conducted using qualitative analysis based upon an applied case. It had an exploratory purpose metodologically defined in four stages: literature review; descriptive comparison; proposition of an archetype development process and proof of concept. The proof of concept showed that the proposed ADP ensures the archetype quality and supports the semantic interoperability in SUS to improve clinical safety and the continuity of patient care.

  3. Angular sensitivity of modeled scientific silicon charge-coupled devices to initial electron direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plimley, Brian; Coffer, Amy; Zhang, Yigong; Vetter, Kai

    2016-08-01

    Previously, scientific silicon charge-coupled devices (CCDs) with 10.5-μm pixel pitch and a thick (650 μm), fully depleted bulk have been used to measure gamma-ray-induced fast electrons and demonstrate electron track Compton imaging. A model of the response of this CCD was also developed and benchmarked to experiment using Monte Carlo electron tracks. We now examine the trade-off in pixel pitch and electronic noise. We extend our CCD response model to different pixel pitch and readout noise per pixel, including pixel pitch of 2.5 μm, 5 μm, 10.5 μm, 20 μm, and 40 μm, and readout noise from 0 eV/pixel to 2 keV/pixel for 10.5 μm pixel pitch. The CCD images generated by this model using simulated electron tracks are processed by our trajectory reconstruction algorithm. The performance of the reconstruction algorithm defines the expected angular sensitivity as a function of electron energy, CCD pixel pitch, and readout noise per pixel. Results show that our existing pixel pitch of 10.5 μm is near optimal for our approach, because smaller pixels add little new information but are subject to greater statistical noise. In addition, we measured the readout noise per pixel for two different device temperatures in order to estimate the effect of temperature on the reconstruction algorithm performance, although the readout is not optimized for higher temperatures. The noise in our device at 240 K increases the FWHM of angular measurement error by no more than a factor of 2, from 26° to 49° FWHM for electrons between 425 keV and 480 keV. Therefore, a CCD could be used for electron-track-based imaging in a Peltier-cooled device.

  4. A new analogue sampling readout system for the COMPASS RICH-1 detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbon, P.; Dafni, T.; Delagnes, E.; Deschamps, H.; Gerassimov, S.; Ketzer, B.; Kolosov, V.; Konorov, I.; Kravtchuk, N.; Kunne, F.; Magnon, A.; Neyret, D.; Panebianco, S.; Paul, S.; Rebourgeard, P.

    2008-05-01

    A new electronic readout for CsI-coated multiwire proportional chambers (MWPC), used as photon detectors in the COMPASS ring imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector, is described. A prototype system comprising more than 5000 channels has been built and tested in high-intensity beam conditions. It is based on the APV25-S1 analogue sampling chip, and replaces the GASSIPLEX chip readout used previously. The APV25 chip, although originally designed for Silicon microstrip detectors, is shown to perform well even with "slow" signals from an MWPC, maintaining a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 9. For every trigger the system reads out three consecutive amplitudes in time, thus allowing to extract information on both the signal amplitude and its timing. This information is used to reduce pile-up events in a high-rate environment. Prototype tests of the new readout electronics on a central RICH photocathode in nominal COMPASS beam conditions showed that the effective time window is reduced from more than 3 μs for the GASSIPLEX to less than 400 ns for the APV25 chip. This leads to a significant improvement of the signal-to-background ratio (SBR) with respect to the original readout. A gain by a factor of 5-6 was experimentally verified in the very forward region of phase space, where pile-up due to the muon beam halo is most significant. Owing to its pipelined architecture, the new readout system also considerably reduces the dead time per event, thus allowing to make use of trigger rates exceeding 50 kHz.

  5. High-speed crystal detection and characterization using a fast-readout detector.

    PubMed

    Aishima, Jun; Owen, Robin L; Axford, Danny; Shepherd, Emma; Winter, Graeme; Levik, Karl; Gibbons, Paul; Ashton, Alun; Evans, Gwyndaf

    2010-09-01

    A novel raster-scanning method combining continuous sample translation with the fast readout of a Pilatus P6M detector has been developed on microfocus beamline I24 at Diamond Light Source. This fast grid-scan tool allows the rapid evaluation of large sample volumes without the need to increase the beam size at the sample through changes in beamline hardware. A slow version is available for slow-readout detectors. Examples of grid-scan use in centring optically invisible samples and in detecting and characterizing numerous microcrystals on a mesh-like holder illustrate the most common applications of the grid scan now in routine use on I24.

  6. Indium Hybridization of Large Format TES Bolometer Arrays to Readout Multiplexers for Far-Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Timothy M.; Costen, Nick; Allen, Christine

    2007-01-01

    This conference poster reviews the Indium hybridization of the large format TES bolometer arrays. We are developing a key technology to enable the next generation of detectors. That is the Hybridization of Large Format Arrays using Indium bonded detector arrays containing 32x40 elements which conforms to the NIST multiplexer readout architecture of 1135 micron pitch. We have fabricated and hybridized mechanical models with the detector chips bonded after being fully back-etched. The mechanical support consists of 30 micron walls between elements Demonstrated electrical continuity for each element. The goal is to hybridize fully functional array of TES detectors to NIST readout.

  7. Drive system and readout characteristics of micro-reflector optical disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Kimihiro; Horigome, Toshihiro; Miyamoto, Hirotaka; Yamatsu, Hisayuki; Tanabe, Norihiro; Hayashi, Kunihiko; Fujita, Goro; Kobayashi, Seiji; Kudo, Takao; Uchiyama, Hiroshi

    2007-06-01

    This paper reviews the analyses and the experimental results of Micro-reflector optical disc system. In Micro-reflector optical disc, data are recorded on multiple virtual planes in a monolithic holographic medium. We have demonstrated the possibility of huge capacity from our analyses of readout characteristics of the Micro-reflector. In addition, we have developed the five-axis servo control system in order to achieve precise control of two counter-propagating light spots in recording media. Using this system, we succeeded in four-layer recording/readout.

  8. Digital Signal Processors for Cryogenic High-Resolution X-Ray Detector Readout

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, S; Drury, O; Bechstein, S; Henning, W; Momayezi, M

    2003-01-01

    The authors are developing fast digital signal processors (DSPs) to read out superconducting high-resolution X-ray detectors with on-line pulse processing. For superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detector read-out, the DSPs offer on-line filtering, rise time discrimination and pile-up rejection. Compared to analog pulse processing, DSP readout somewhat degrades the detector resolution, but improves the spectral purity of the detector response. They discuss DSP performance with the 9-channel STJ array for synchrotron-based high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy.

  9. The read-out shutter unit of the Euclid VIS instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genolet, L.; Bozzo, E.; Paltani, S.; Autissier, N.; Larcheveque, C.; Thomas, C.

    2016-07-01

    Euclid is the second medium-size mission (M2) of the ESA Cosmic Vision Program, currently scheduled for a launch in 2020. The two instruments on-board Euclid, VIS and NISP, will provide key measurements to investigate the nature of dark energy, advancing our knowledge on cosmology. We present in this contribution the development and manufacturing status of the VIS Read-out Shutter Unit, whose main function is to prevent direct light from falling onto the VIS CCDs during the read-out of the scientific exposures and to allow the dark-current/bias calibrations of the instrument.

  10. Graphene oxide embedded sandwich nanostructures for enhanced Raman readout and their applications in pesticide monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lulu; Jiang, Changlong; Zhang, Zhongping

    2013-04-01

    Analytical techniques based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) suffer from a lack of reproducibility and reliability, thus hampering their practical applications. Herein, we have developed a SERS-active substrate based on a graphene oxide embedded sandwich nanostructure for ultrasensitive Raman signal readout. By using this novel Au@Ag NPs/GO/Au@Ag NPs sandwich nanostructure as a SERS substrate, the Raman signals of analytes were dramatically enhanced due to having plenty of hot spots on their surfaces and the unique structure of the graphene oxide sheets. These features make the sandwich nanostructured film an ideal SERS substrate to improve the sensitivity, reproducibility and reliability of the Raman readout. The sandwich nanostructure film can be applied to detect rhodamine-6G (R6G) with an enhancement factor (EF) of ~7.0 × 107 and the pesticide thiram in commercial grape juice with a detection limit of as low as 0.1 μM (0.03 ppm), which is much lower than the maximal residue limit (MRL) of 7 ppm in fruit prescribed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The GO embedded sandwich nanostructure also has the ability to selectively detect dithiocarbamate compounds over other types of agricultural chemical. Furthermore, spiked tests show that the sandwich nanostructure can be used to monitor thiram in natural lake water and commercial grape juice without further treatment. In addition, the GO enhanced Raman spectroscopic technique offers potential practical applications for the on-site monitoring and assessment of pesticide residues in agricultural products and environments.Analytical techniques based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) suffer from a lack of reproducibility and reliability, thus hampering their practical applications. Herein, we have developed a SERS-active substrate based on a graphene oxide embedded sandwich nanostructure for ultrasensitive Raman signal readout. By using this novel Au@Ag NPs/GO/Au@Ag NPs sandwich

  11. Model development for MODIS thermal band electronic cross-talk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Tiejun; Wu, Aisheng; Geng, Xu; Li, Yonghong; Brinkmann, Jake; Keller, Graziela; Xiong, Xiaoxiong (Jack)

    2016-10-01

    MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) has 36 bands. Among them, 16 thermal emissive bands covering a wavelength range from 3.8 to 14.4 μm. After 16 years on-orbit operation, the electronic crosstalk of a few Terra MODIS thermal emissive bands develop substantial issues which cause biases in the EV brightness temperature measurements and surface feature contamination. The crosstalk effects on band 27 with center wavelength at 6.7 μm and band 29 at 8.5 μm increased significantly in recent years, affecting downstream products such as water vapor and cloud mask. The crosstalk issue can be observed from nearly monthly scheduled lunar measurements, from which the crosstalk coefficients can be derived. Most of MODIS thermal bands are saturated at moon surface temperatures and the development of an alternative approach is very helpful for verification. In this work, a physical model was developed to assess the crosstalk impact on calibration as well as in Earth view brightness temperature retrieval. This model was applied to Terra MODIS band 29 empirically for correction of Earth brightness temperature measurements. In the model development, the detector nonlinear response is considered. The impacts of the electronic crosstalk are assessed in two steps. The first step consists of determining the impact on calibration using the on-board blackbody (BB). Due to the detector nonlinear response and large background signal, both linear and nonlinear coefficients are affected by the crosstalk from sending bands. The crosstalk impact on calibration coefficients was calculated. The second step is to calculate the effects on the Earth view brightness temperature retrieval. The effects include those from affected calibration coefficients and the contamination of Earth view measurements. This model links the measurement bias with crosstalk coefficients, detector nonlinearity, and the ratio of Earth measurements between the sending and receiving bands. The correction

  12. Electronic Warfare Closed Loop Laboratory (EWCLL) Antenna Motor Software and Hardware Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    ARL-TN-0779 ● SEP 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Electronic Warfare Closed Loop Laboratory (EWCLL) Antenna Motor Software and... Electronic Warfare Closed Loop Laboratory (EWCLL) Antenna Motor Software and Hardware Development by Neal Tesny Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Electronic Warfare Closed Loop Laboratory (EWCLL) Antenna Motor Software and Hardware Development 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  13. Reliable and redundant FPGA based read-out design in the ATLAS TileCal Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect

    Akerstedt, Henrik; Muschter, Steffen; Drake, Gary; Anderson, Kelby; Bohm, Christian; Oreglia, Mark; Tang, Fukun

    2015-10-01

    The Tile Calorimeter at ATLAS [1] is a hadron calorimeter based on steel plates and scintillating tiles read out by PMTs. The current read-out system uses standard ADCs and custom ASICs to digitize and temporarily store the data on the detector. However, only a subset of the data is actually read out to the counting room. The on-detector electronics will be replaced around 2023. To achieve the required reliability the upgraded system will be highly redundant. Here the ASICs will be replaced with Kintex-7 FPGAs from Xilinx. This, in addition to the use of multiple 10 Gbps optical read-out links, will allow a full read-out of all detector data. Due to the higher radiation levels expected when the beam luminosity is increased, opportunities for repairs will be less frequent. The circuitry and firmware must therefore be designed for sufficiently high reliability using redundancy and radiation tolerant components. Within a year, a hybrid demonstrator including the new readout system will be installed in one slice of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter. This will allow the proposed upgrade to be thoroughly evaluated well before the planned 2023 deployment in all slices, especially with regard to long term reliability. Different firmware strategies alongside with their integration in the demonstrator are presented in the context of high reliability protection against hardware malfunction and radiation induced errors.

  14. High-speed readout of high-Z pixel detectors with the LAMBDA detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennicard, D.; Smoljanin, S.; Sheviakov, I.; Xia, Q.; Rothkirch, A.; Yu, Y.; Struth, B.; Hirsemann, H.; Graafsma, H.

    2014-12-01

    High-frame-rate X-ray pixel detectors make it possible to perform time-resolved experiments at synchrotron beamlines, and to make better use of these sources by shortening experiment times. LAMBDA is a photon-counting hybrid pixel detector based on the Medipix3 chip, designed to combine a small pixel size of 55 μm, a large tileable module design, high speed, and compatibility with ``high-Z'' sensors for hard X-ray detection. This technical paper focuses on LAMBDA's high-speed-readout functionality, which allows a frame rate of 2000 frames per second with no deadtime between successive images. This takes advantage of the Medipix3 chip's ``continuous read-write'' function and highly parallelised readout. The readout electronics serialise this data and send it back to a server PC over two 10 Gigabit Ethernet links. The server PC controls the detector and receives, processes and stores the data using software designed for the Tango control system. As a demonstration of high-speed readout of a high-Z sensor, a GaAs LAMBDA detector was used to make a high-speed X-ray video of a computer fan.

  15. Fast Readout Architectures for Large Arrays of Digital Pixels: Examples and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Gabrielli, A.

    2014-01-01

    Modern pixel detectors, particularly those designed and constructed for applications and experiments for high-energy physics, are commonly built implementing general readout architectures, not specifically optimized in terms of speed. High-energy physics experiments use bidimensional matrices of sensitive elements located on a silicon die. Sensors are read out via other integrated circuits bump bonded over the sensor dies. The speed of the readout electronics can significantly increase the overall performance of the system, and so here novel forms of readout architectures are studied and described. These circuits have been investigated in terms of speed and are particularly suited for large monolithic, low-pitch pixel detectors. The idea is to have a small simple structure that may be expanded to fit large matrices without affecting the layout complexity of the chip, while maintaining a reasonably high readout speed. The solutions might be applied to devices for applications not only in physics but also to general-purpose pixel detectors whenever online fast data sparsification is required. The paper presents also simulations on the efficiencies of the systems as proof of concept for the proposed ideas. PMID:24778588

  16. A general approach to low noise readout of terahertz imaging arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisum, Jonathan D.; Grossman, Erich N.; Popović, Zoya

    2011-06-01

    This article describes the theory and design of an ultra-low noise electronic readout circuit for use with room temperature video-rate terahertz imaging arrays. First, the noise characteristics of various imaging detectors, including low resistance bolometers and high resistance diodes are discussed. Theoretical approaches to white and 1/f noise mitigation are examined, and a corresponding low-noise readout circuit is designed, built, and tested. It is shown that the circuit is capable of achieving detector limited noise performance for use in room temperature terahertz imaging systems. A thorough noise analysis of the circuit provides the necessary information for applying the readout circuit to any type of imaging detector, and more generally, any measurement of small signals from various source impedances in the presence of white and 1/f noise. W-band measurements of an 8-element, high-resistance detector array, and a 32-element, low-resistance detector array demonstrate the usefulness of the readout circuit. Finally, recommended circuit configurations for various detectors in the literature are provided, with theoretical performance metrics summarized.

  17. Discovery and Development of Organic Super-Electron-Donors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Based on simple ideas of electron-rich alkenes, exemplified by tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethene, TDAE, and on additional driving force associated with aromatization, families of very powerful neutral organic super-electron-donors (SEDs) have been developed. In the ground state, they carry out metal-free reductions of a range of functional groups. Iodoarenes are reduced either to aryl radicals or, with stronger donors, to aryl anions. Reduction to aryl radicals allows the initiation of very efficient transition-metal-free coupling of haloarenes to arenes. The donors also reduce alkyl halides, arenesulfonamides, triflates, and triflamdes, Weinreb amides, and acyloin derivatives. Under photoactivation at 365 nm, they are even more powerful and reductively cleave aryl chlorides. They reduce unactivated benzenes to the corresponding radical anions and display original selectivities in preferentially reducing benzenes over malonates or cyanoacetates. Additionally, they reductively cleave ArC–X, ArX–C (X = N or O) and ArC–C bonds, provided that the two resulting fragments are somewhat stabilized. PMID:24605904

  18. Development program on a cold cathode electron gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spindt, C. A.

    1979-01-01

    A prototype electron gun with a field emitter cathode capable of producing 95 mA in a 1/4 mm diameter beam at 12 kV was produced. Achievement of this goal required supporting studies in cathode fabrication, cathode performance, gun design, cathode mounting and gun fabrication. A series of empirical investigations advanced fabrication technology: More stable emitters were produced and multiple cone failure caused by chain reaction discharges were reduced. The cathode is capable of producing well over 95 mA, but a substantial collector development effort was required to demonstrate emission levels in the 100 mA region. Space charge problems made these levels difficult to achieve. Recommendations are made for future process and materials investigation. Electron gun designs were modeled and tested. A pair of two-electrode gun structures were fabricated and tested; one gun was delivered to NASA. Cathodes were pretested up to 100 mA at SRI and delivered to NASA for test in the gun structure.

  19. Precision electronics for a system of custom MCPs in the TORCH Time of Flight detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, R.; Brook, N.; Castillo García, L.; Conneely, T.; Cussans, D.; Föhl, K.; Forty, R.; Frei, C.; Gys, T.; Harnew, N.; Piedigrossi, D.; Rademacker, J.; Ros García, A.; Van Dijk, M.

    2017-03-01

    The TORCH detector will provide charged particle pi/K/p identification up to 10 GeV/c, combining Time-of-Flight and Cherenkov techniques to achieve a timing resolution of 70 ps for single photons. Based on a scalable design, a Time-of-Flight electronics readout system has been developed to instrument a novel customized 512-channel Micro Channel Plate (MCP) device. A Gigabit Ethernet-based readout scheme that operates the TORCH demonstration unit consisting of ten such MCPs will be reported. The trigger and clock distribution will also be discussed.

  20. Using Organizational Development for Electronic Medical Record Transformation.

    PubMed

    Kiel, Joan M

    With mandates requiring the transition from paper medical records to the use of electronic medical records, organizations are embarking on a change process. To engender this process, organizational development models and interventions based predominantly on the theories of Chris Argyris, Warren Bennis, and the team of Paul Lawrence and Jay Lorsch are explored. Interventions are subdivided into behavioral and structural as organizations benefit by recognizing a need for change and, perhaps, a cultural shift in addition to refocusing their mission. To support these interventions, a champion or super user is recommended to maintain the momentum of the transformation and enculturation. With so many changes in the internal and external environments, organizations must respond systematically for, in health care, lives depend on it.

  1. The development and demonstration of hybrid programmable attitude control electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, L. S.; Kopf, E. H., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    In the course of extended life attitude control system (ELACS) research sponsored by NASA a hybrid programable attitude control electronics (HYPACE) concept was developed and demonstrated. The wide variety of future planetary missions demanded a new control approach to accommodate the automatic fault tolerance and long the life requirements of such missions. HYPACE provides an adaptable, analog/digital design approach that permits preflight and in-flight accommodation of mission changes, component performance variations, and spacecraft changes, through programing. This enabled broad multimission flexibility of application in a cost effective manner. Previously, flight control computers have not been not flown on planetary missions because of weight and power problems. These problems were resolved in the design of HYPACE. The HYPACE design, which was demonstrated in breadboard form on a single-axis gas-bearing spacecraft simulation, uses a single control channel to perform the attitude control functions sequentially, thus significantly reducing the number of component parts over hard-wired designs.

  2. Development of a thick gas electron multiplier for microdosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchard, G. M.; Chin, K.; Prestwich, W. V.; Waker, A. J.; Byun, S. H.

    2011-05-01

    A new tissue-equivalent proportional counter based on a thick gas electron multiplier (THGEM) was developed and tested for microdosimetry. A systematic test was conducted at the McMaster Accelerator Laboratory to investigate the overall performance of the prototype detector. A mixed neutron-gamma-ray radiation field was generated using the 7Li(p,n) reaction. The detector was operated at low voltage initially to test the stability and then the relative multiplication gain was measured as a function of the operating high voltage. A drift potential of 100 V and a THGEM bias of 727 V generated a multiplication gain sufficient for the detection of both neutron and gamma-ray radiation. A consistent microdosimetric pattern was observed between the THGEM detector and standard TEPC for microdosimetry.

  3. Development of the Electron Drift Instrument (EDI) for Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Jack; Christensen, John L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Electron Drift Instrument (EDI) is a new technique for measuring electric fields in space by detecting the effect on weak beams of test electrons. This U.S. portions of the technique, flight hardware, and flight software were developed for the Cluster mission under this contract. Dr. Goetz Paschmann of the Max Planck Institute in Garching, Germany, was the Principle Investigator for Cluster EDI. Hardware for Cluster was developed in the U.S. at the University of New Hampshire, Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory, and University of California, San Diego. The Cluster satellites carrying the original EDI instruments were lost in the catastrophic launch failure of first flight of the Arianne-V rocket in 1996. Following that loss, NASA and ESA approved a rebuild of the Cluster mission, for which all four satellites were successfully launched in the Summer of 2000. Limited operations of EDI were also obtained on the Equator-S satellite, which was launched in December, 1997. A satellite failure caused a loss of the Equator-S mission after only 5 months, but these operations were extremely valuable in learning about the characteristics and operations of the complex EDI instrument. The Cluster mission, satellites, and instruments underwent an extensive on-orbit commissioning phase in the Fall of 2000, carrying over through January 2001. During this period all elements of the instruments were checked and careful measurements of inter-experiments interferences were made. EDI is currently working exceptionally well in orbit. Initial results verify that all aspects of the instrument are working as planned, and returning highly valuable scientific information. The first two papers describing EDI on-orbit results have been submitted for publication in April, 2001. The principles of the EDI technique, and its implementation on Cluster are described in two papers by Paschmann et al., attached as Appendices A and B. The EDI presentation at the formal Cluster Commissioning

  4. A Readout Mechanism for Latency Codes.

    PubMed

    Zohar, Oran; Shamir, Maoz

    2016-01-01

    Response latency has been suggested as a possible source of information in the central nervous system when fast decisions are required. The accuracy of latency codes was studied in the past using a simplified readout algorithm termed the temporal-winner-take-all (tWTA). The tWTA is a competitive readout algorithm in which populations of neurons with a similar decision preference compete, and the algorithm selects according to the preference of the population that reaches the decision threshold first. It has been shown that this algorithm can account for accurate decisions among a small number of alternatives during short biologically relevant time periods. However, one of the major points of criticism of latency codes has been that it is unclear how can such a readout be implemented by the central nervous system. Here we show that the solution to this long standing puzzle may be rather simple. We suggest a mechanism that is based on reciprocal inhibition architecture, similar to that of the conventional winner-take-all, and show that under a wide range of parameters this mechanism is sufficient to implement the tWTA algorithm. This is done by first analyzing a rate toy model, and demonstrating its ability to discriminate short latency differences between its inputs. We then study the sensitivity of this mechanism to fine-tuning of its initial conditions, and show that it is robust to wide range of noise levels in the initial conditions. These results are then generalized to a Hodgkin-Huxley type of neuron model, using numerical simulations. Latency codes have been criticized for requiring a reliable stimulus-onset detection mechanism as a reference for measuring latency. Here we show that this frequent assumption does not hold, and that, an additional onset estimator is not needed to trigger this simple tWTA mechanism.

  5. A Readout Mechanism for Latency Codes

    PubMed Central

    Zohar, Oran; Shamir, Maoz

    2016-01-01

    Response latency has been suggested as a possible source of information in the central nervous system when fast decisions are required. The accuracy of latency codes was studied in the past using a simplified readout algorithm termed the temporal-winner-take-all (tWTA). The tWTA is a competitive readout algorithm in which populations of neurons with a similar decision preference compete, and the algorithm selects according to the preference of the population that reaches the decision threshold first. It has been shown that this algorithm can account for accurate decisions among a small number of alternatives during short biologically relevant time periods. However, one of the major points of criticism of latency codes has been that it is unclear how can such a readout be implemented by the central nervous system. Here we show that the solution to this long standing puzzle may be rather simple. We suggest a mechanism that is based on reciprocal inhibition architecture, similar to that of the conventional winner-take-all, and show that under a wide range of parameters this mechanism is sufficient to implement the tWTA algorithm. This is done by first analyzing a rate toy model, and demonstrating its ability to discriminate short latency differences between its inputs. We then study the sensitivity of this mechanism to fine-tuning of its initial conditions, and show that it is robust to wide range of noise levels in the initial conditions. These results are then generalized to a Hodgkin-Huxley type of neuron model, using numerical simulations. Latency codes have been criticized for requiring a reliable stimulus-onset detection mechanism as a reference for measuring latency. Here we show that this frequent assumption does not hold, and that, an additional onset estimator is not needed to trigger this simple tWTA mechanism. PMID:27812332

  6. Gaseous photomultipliers for the readout of scintillators and detection Cherenkov radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Peskov, V.; Borovik-Romanov, A.

    1993-11-01

    The latest achievements in the development of gaseous detectors for registering UV and visible photons are described. Possible modifications of their design for some particular applications such as the readout of crystal scintillators. noble liquids, fibers and for large area Cherenkov detectors are discussed.

  7. BJT detector with FPGA-based read-out for alpha particle monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyzhnevyi, V.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Rovati, L.; Verzellesi, G.; Zorzi, N.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we introduce a new prototype of readout electronics (ALPHADET), which was designed for an α-particle detection system based on a bipolar junction transistor (BJT) detector. The system uses an FPGA, which provides many advantages at the stage of prototyping and testing the detector. The main design and electrical features of the board are discussed in this paper, along with selected results from the characterization of ALPHADET coupled to BJT detectors.

  8. Session summary: Electronics, triggering and data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Rescia, S.

    1991-12-01

    The session focused on the requirements for calorimetry at the SSC/LHC. Results on new readout techniques, calibration, radiation hard electronics and semiconductor devices, analog and digital front and electronics, and trigger strategies are presented.

  9. Scintillation counter with WLS fiber readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukin, D. A.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Serednyakov, S. I.

    1997-02-01

    The parameters of a cylindrical scintillation counter of 126 mm in diameter and 370 mm in length with wavelength shifter (WLS) fiber readout are presented. The fibers are glued into machined grooves along the scintillator. Light from both ends of the WLS fibers is transmitted to separate photomultipliers by 1 m long clear optical fibers. The average total signal, collected from both sides of the counter is equivalent to 8 photoelectrons per minimum ionizing particle. The described cylindrical scintillation counter is a part of inner system of collider detector SND.

  10. ARTICLES: Optoelectronic readout with an injection laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luc, Vu V.; Eliseev, P. G.; Man'ko, Margarita A.; Mikaelyan, T. T.; Okhotnikov, O. G.; Sokolov, S. N.

    1982-09-01

    An investigation was made of the possibility of utilizing an injection heterolaser in optical devices for data retrieval. An injection laser was used both as a source and detector of its own radiation reflected from a data carrier (optoelectronic readout). The influence of the reflected radiation was due to quasisteady modulation of the Q factor of the resonator, which was accompanied by modulation of the voltage across the laser diode. A study was made of the influence of the pump current on the useful signal and it was found that this current was related to the differential resistance of the laser diode.

  11. Mass-based readout for agglutination assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chunara, Rumi; Godin, Michel; Knudsen, Scott M.; Manalis, Scott R.

    2007-11-01

    We present a mass-based readout for agglutination assays. The suspended microchannel resonator (SMR) is used to classify monomers and dimers that are formed during early stage aggregation, and to relate the total count to the analyte concentration. Using a model system of streptavidin functionalized microspheres and biotinylated antibody as the analyte, we obtain a dose-response curve over a concentration range of 0.63-630nM and show that the results are comparable to what has been previously achieved by image analysis and conventional flow cytometry.

  12. Electronic Teaching Portfolios: Technology Skills + Portfolio Development = Powerful Preservice Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capraro, Mary Margaret

    An electronic portfolio is a collection of work captured by electronic means that serves as an exhibit of individual efforts, progress, and achievements in one or more areas. Due to rapid growth and updates in technology, keeping electronic portfolios is becoming increasingly common in a variety of educational settings. In fall 2002 at one large…

  13. Upgrade of the ALICE muon trigger electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupieux, P.; Joly, B.; Jouve, F.; Manen, S.; Vandaële, R.

    2014-09-01

    The ALICE muon trigger is a large scale detector based on single gap bakelite RPCs. An upgrade of the electronics is needed in order to withstand the increase of luminosity after the LHC Long Shutdown-2 in 2018-2019. The detector will be read out at the minimum bias rate of 100 kHz in Pb-Pb collisions (including a safety factor of 2), two orders of magnitude above the present design. For the most exposed RPCs and in the present conditions of operation, the total integrated charge could be as high as 100 mC/cm2 with rates up to 100 Hz/cm2, which is above the present limit for safe operation. In order to overcome these limitations, upgrade projects of the Front-End (FE) and Readout Electronics are scheduled. The readout upgrade at high rate with low dead time requires changing most of the present electronics. It involves a new design for the 234 Local cards receiving the LVDS signals from the FE electronics and the 16 Regional concentrator cards. The readout chain is completed by a single Common Readout Unit developed for most ALICE sub-detectors. The new architecture of the muon trigger readout will be briefly presented. The present FE electronics, designed for the streamer mode, must be replaced to prevent ageing of the RPCs in the future operating conditions. The new FE called FEERIC (for Front-End Electronics Rapid Integrated Circuit) will have to perform amplification of the analog input signals. This will allow for RPC operation in a low-gain avalanche mode, with a much smaller charge deposit (factor 3-5) in the detector as compared to the present conditions. The purpose is to discriminate RPC signals with a charge threshold around 100 fC, in both polarities, and with a time jitter below 1 ns. We will describe the FE card and FEERIC ASIC features and first prototype performance, report on test results obtained on a cosmic test bench and discuss ongoing developments.

  14. Multiplexed Readout of Thermal Bolometers with Superconducting Transition Edge Thermometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Allen, Christine A.; Chervenak, James A.; Freund, Mino M.; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Shafer, Richard A.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Grossman, Erich N.; Hilton, Gene C.

    2001-01-01

    History shows that in astronomy, more is better. In the near future, direct detector arrays for the far-infrared and submillimeter will contain hundreds to thousands of elements. A multiplexed readout is necessary for practical implementation of such arrays, and has been developed using SQUIDs. The technology permits a 32 x 32 array of bolometers to be read out using approximately 100 wires rather than the >2000 needed with direct wiring. These bolometer arrays are made by micromachining techniques, using superconducting transition edge sensors as the thermistors. We describe the development of this multiplexed superconducting bolometer array architecture as a step toward bringing about the first astronomically useful arrays of this design. This technology will be used in the Submillimeter and Far Infrared Experiment (SAFIRE) instrument on Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), and is a candidate for a wide variety of other spectroscopic and photometric instruments.

  15. 75 FR 18825 - Advantage Electronic Product Development Incorporated/Utility Crew Safety LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... Advantage Electronic Product Development Incorporated/Utility Crew Safety LLC AGENCY: Department of Energy... intent to grant to: Advantage Electronic Product Development Incorporated/Utility Crew Safety LLC, of... enhanced. Advantage Electronic Product Development Incorporated/Utility Crew Safety LLC, of...

  16. Low-power priority Address-Encoder and Reset-Decoder data-driven readout for Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors for tracker system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, P.; Aglieri, G.; Cavicchioli, C.; Chalmet, P. L.; Chanlek, N.; Collu, A.; Gao, C.; Hillemanns, H.; Junique, A.; Kofarago, M.; Keil, M.; Kugathasan, T.; Kim, D.; Kim, J.; Lattuca, A.; Marin Tobon, C. A.; Marras, D.; Mager, M.; Martinengo, P.; Mazza, G.; Mugnier, H.; Musa, L.; Puggioni, C.; Rousset, J.; Reidt, F.; Riedler, P.; Snoeys, W.; Siddhanta, S.; Usai, G.; van Hoorne, J. W.; Yi, J.

    2015-06-01

    Active Pixel Sensors used in High Energy Particle Physics require low power consumption to reduce the detector material budget, low integration time to reduce the possibilities of pile-up and fast readout to improve the detector data capability. To satisfy these requirements, a novel Address-Encoder and Reset-Decoder (AERD) asynchronous circuit for a fast readout of a pixel matrix has been developed. The AERD data-driven readout architecture operates the address encoding and reset decoding based on an arbitration tree, and allows us to readout only the hit pixels. Compared to the traditional readout structure of the rolling shutter scheme in Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), AERD can achieve a low readout time and a low power consumption especially for low hit occupancies. The readout is controlled at the chip periphery with a signal synchronous with the clock, allows a good digital and analogue signal separation in the matrix and a reduction of the power consumption. The AERD circuit has been implemented in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS Imaging Sensor (CIS) process with full complementary CMOS logic in the pixel. It works at 10 MHz with a matrix height of 15 mm. The energy consumed to read out one pixel is around 72 pJ. A scheme to boost the readout speed to 40 MHz is also discussed. The sensor chip equipped with AERD has been produced and characterised. Test results including electrical beam measurement are presented.

  17. Development of Mobile Platform Integrated with Existing Electronic Medical Records

    PubMed Central

    Kim, YoungAh; Kang, Simon; Kim, Kyungduk; Kim, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This paper describes a mobile Electronic Medical Record (EMR) platform designed to manage and utilize the existing EMR and mobile application with optimized resources. Methods We structured the mEMR to reuse services of retrieval and storage in mobile app environments that have already proven to have no problem working with EMRs. A new mobile architecture-based mobile solution was developed in four steps: the construction of a server and its architecture; screen layout and storyboard making; screen user interface design and development; and a pilot test and step-by-step deployment. This mobile architecture consists of two parts, the server-side area and the client-side area. In the server-side area, it performs the roles of service management for EMR and documents and for information exchange. Furthermore, it performs menu allocation depending on user permission and automatic clinical document architecture document conversion. Results Currently, Severance Hospital operates an iOS-compatible mobile solution based on this mobile architecture and provides stable service without additional resources, dealing with dynamic changes of EMR templates. Conclusions The proposed mobile solution should go hand in hand with the existing EMR system, and it can be a cost-effective solution if a quality EMR system is operated steadily with this solution. Thus, we expect this example to be shared with hospitals that currently plan to deploy mobile solutions. PMID:25152837

  18. Maximal Adaptive-Decision Speedups in Quantum-State Readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Anjou, B.; Kuret, L.; Childress, L.; Coish, W. A.

    2016-01-01

    The average time T required for high-fidelity readout of quantum states can be significantly reduced via a real-time adaptive decision rule. An adaptive decision rule stops the readout as soon as a desired level of confidence has been achieved, as opposed to setting a fixed readout time tf . The performance of the adaptive decision is characterized by the "adaptive-decision speedup," tf/T . In this work, we reformulate this readout problem in terms of the first-passage time of a particle undergoing stochastic motion. This formalism allows us to theoretically establish the maximum achievable adaptive-decision speedups for several physical two-state readout implementations. We show that for two common readout schemes (the Gaussian latching readout and a readout relying on state-dependent decay), the speedup is bounded by 4 and 2, respectively, in the limit of high single-shot readout fidelity. We experimentally study the achievable speedup in a real-world scenario by applying the adaptive decision rule to a readout of the nitrogen-vacancy-center (NV-center) charge state. We find a speedup of ≈2 with our experimental parameters. In addition, we propose a simple readout scheme for which the speedup can, in principle, be increased without bound as the fidelity is increased. Our results should lead to immediate improvements in nanoscale magnetometry based on spin-to-charge conversion of the NV-center spin, and provide a theoretical framework for further optimization of the bandwidth of quantum measurements.

  19. Geant4 Simulations of the SuperCDMS iZIP Detector Charge Carrier Propagation and FET Readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnese, R.; Brandt, D.; Asai, M.; Cabrera, B.; Leman, S.; McCarthy, K.; Redl, P.; Saab, T.; Wright, D.

    2014-09-01

    The SuperCDMS experiment aims to directly detect dark matter particles called WIMPs (weakly interacting massive particles). The detectors measure phonon and ionization energy due to nuclear and electron recoils from incident particles. The SuperCDMS Detector Monte Carlo group uses Geant4 to simulate electron-hole pairs () and low temperature phonons. We use these simulations in order to study energy deposition in the detectors. Phonons and electron-hole pairs are tracked in a crystal detector. Because of the band structure of the crystals, the electrons undergo oblique propagation. The charge electrodes on each side of the detector are biased at different voltages while the phonon sensors are grounded. This creates a nearly uniform electric field through the bulk of the detector, with a complex shape near the surfaces. The electric field is calculated from interpolating on a tetrahedral mesh. The resulting TES phonon readout, as well as the FET charge readout are simulated. To calculate the FET readout, the Shockley-Ramo theorem is applied to simulate the current in the FET. The goal of this paper is to describe the theory and implementation of calculating the electric field, performing the charge carrier propagation, and simulating the FET readout of the SuperCDMS detectors.

  20. Low Background Signal Readout Electronics for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Guinn, I.; Abgrall, N.; Arnquist, Isaac J.; Avignone, Frank T.; Baldenegro-Barrera, C. X.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Bertrand, F.; Bradley, A. W.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Buuck, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, C. D.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Efremenko, Yuri; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, Steven R.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gilliss, T.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Henning, Reyco; Hoppe, Eric W.; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Jasinski, B. R.; Keeter, K.; Kidd, M. F.; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Laferriere, Brian D.; Leon, Jonathan D.; MacMullin, J.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Orrell, John L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Poon, Alan; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, Anne-Marie; Tedeschi, D.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, Sergey; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; White, Brandon R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir; Zhitnikov, I.

    2015-03-18

    The Majorana Demonstrator (MJD)[1] is an array of p-type point contact (PPC) high purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors intended to search for neutrinoless double beta decay (0vBB decay) in 76Ge. MJD will consist of 40 kg of detectors, 30 kg of which will be isotopically enriched to 87% 76Ge. The array will consist of 14 strings of four or ve detectors placed in two separate cryostats. One of the main goals of the experiment is to demonstrate the feasibility of building a tonne-scale array of detectors to search for 0vBB decay with a much higher sensitivity. This involves acheiving backgrounds in the 4 keV region of interest (ROI) around the 2039 keV Q-value of the BB decay of less than 1 count/ROI-t-y. Because many backgrounds will not directly scale with detector mass, the specific background goal of MJD is less than 3 counts/ROI-t-y.

  1. Gas proportional detectors with interpolating cathode pad readout for high track multiplicities

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Bo

    1991-12-01

    New techniques for position encoding in very high rate particle and photon detectors will be required in experiments planned for future particle accelerators such as the Superconducting Super Collider and new, high intensity, synchrotron sources. Studies of two interpolating cathode ``pad`` readout systems are described in this thesis. They are well suited for high multiplicity, two dimensional unambiguous position sensitive detection of minimum ionizing particles and heavy ions as well as detection of x-rays at high counting rates. One of the readout systems uses subdivided rows of pads interconnected by resistive strips as the cathode of a multiwire proportional chamber (MWPC). A position resolution of less than 100 {mu}m rms, for 5.4 keV x-rays, and differential non-linearity of 12% have been achieved. Low mass ({approximately}0.6% of a radiation length) detector construction techniques have been developed. The second readout system uses rows of chevron shaped cathode pads to perform geometrical charge division. Position resolution (FWHM) of about 1% of the readout spacing and differential non-linearity of 10% for 5.4 keV x-rays have been achieved. A review of other interpolating methods is included. Low mass cathode construction techniques are described. In conclusion, applications and future developments are discussed. 54 refs.

  2. Gas proportional detectors with interpolating cathode pad readout for high track multiplicities

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Bo.

    1991-12-01

    New techniques for position encoding in very high rate particle and photon detectors will be required in experiments planned for future particle accelerators such as the Superconducting Super Collider and new, high intensity, synchrotron sources. Studies of two interpolating cathode pad'' readout systems are described in this thesis. They are well suited for high multiplicity, two dimensional unambiguous position sensitive detection of minimum ionizing particles and heavy ions as well as detection of x-rays at high counting rates. One of the readout systems uses subdivided rows of pads interconnected by resistive strips as the cathode of a multiwire proportional chamber (MWPC). A position resolution of less than 100 {mu}m rms, for 5.4 keV x-rays, and differential non-linearity of 12% have been achieved. Low mass ({approximately}0.6% of a radiation length) detector construction techniques have been developed. The second readout system uses rows of chevron shaped cathode pads to perform geometrical charge division. Position resolution (FWHM) of about 1% of the readout spacing and differential non-linearity of 10% for 5.4 keV x-rays have been achieved. A review of other interpolating methods is included. Low mass cathode construction techniques are described. In conclusion, applications and future developments are discussed. 54 refs.

  3. Reusable conductimetric array of interdigitated microelectrodes for the readout of low-density microarrays.

    PubMed

    Mallén, Maria; Díaz-González, María; Bonilla, Diana; Salvador, Juan P; Marco, María P; Baldi, Antoni; Fernández-Sánchez, César

    2014-06-17

    Low-density protein microarrays are emerging tools in diagnostics whose deployment could be primarily limited by the cost of fluorescence detection schemes. This paper describes an electrical readout system of microarrays comprising an array of gold interdigitated microelectrodes and an array of polydimethylsiloxane microwells, which enabled multiplexed detection of up to thirty six biological events on the same substrate. Similarly to fluorescent readout counterparts, the microarray can be developed on disposable glass slide substrates. However, unlike them, the presented approach is compact and requires a simple and inexpensive instrumentation. The system makes use of urease labeled affinity reagents for developing the microarrays and is based on detection of conductivity changes taking place when ionic species are generated in solution due to the catalytic hydrolysis of urea. The use of a polydimethylsiloxane microwell array facilitates the positioning of the measurement solution on every spot of the microarray. Also, it ensures the liquid tightness and isolation from the surrounding ones during the microarray readout process, thereby avoiding evaporation and chemical cross-talk effects that were shown to affect the sensitivity and reliability of the system. The performance of the system is demonstrated by carrying out the readout of a microarray for boldenone anabolic androgenic steroid hormone. Analytical results are comparable to those obtained by fluorescent scanner detection approaches. The estimated detection limit is 4.0 ng mL(-1), this being below the threshold value set by the World Anti-Doping Agency and the European Community.

  4. Second coordinate readout in drift chambers by timing of the electromagnetic wave propagating along the anode wire

    SciTech Connect

    Boie, R.A.; Radeka, V.; Rehak, P.; Xi, D.M.

    1980-11-01

    The feasibility of using an anode wire and surrounding electrodes in drift chambers as a transmission line for second coordinate readout has been studied. The method is based on propagation of the electromagnetic wave along the anode wire is determined by measurement, in an optimized electronic readout system, of the time difference between the arrivals of the signal to the ends of the wire. The resolution obtained on long wires (approx. 2 meters) is about 2 cm FWHM for minimum ionizing particles at a gas gain of approx. = 10/sup 5/.

  5. Development of hollow electron beams for proton and ion collimation

    SciTech Connect

    Stancari, G.; Drozhdin, A.I.; Kuznetsov, G.; Shiltsev, V.; Still, D.A.; Valishev, A.; Vorobiev, L.G.; Assmann, R.; Kabantsev, A.; /UC, San Diego

    2010-06-01

    Magnetically confined hollow electron beams for controlled halo removal in high-energy colliders such as the Tevatron or the LHC may extend traditional collimation systems beyond the intensity limits imposed by tolerable material damage. They may also improve collimation performance by suppressing loss spikes due to beam jitter and by increasing capture efficiency. A hollow electron gun was designed and built. Its performance and stability were measured at the Fermilab test stand. The gun will be installed in one of the existing Tevatron electron lenses for preliminary tests of the hollow-beam collimator concept, addressing critical issues such as alignment and instabilities of the overlapping proton and electron beams.

  6. Developing a Legal Framework for Remote Electronic Voting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Axel; Heinson, Dennis; Langer, Lucie; Opitz-Talidou, Zoi; Richter, Philipp; Volkamer, Melanie; Buchmann, Johannes

    This paper describes how to legally regulate remote electronic elections. Electronic voting systems have to respect the constitutional election principles. For technological solutions, this translates into security requirements that have to be fulfilled by the operational environment in which the voting takes place. Therefore [26] introduced the concept of providing the technical and organizational implementation of a remote electronic election by a qualified trustworthy third party. This paper adds legal regulation to support this concept. The legal framework addresses the secure operation of remote electronic voting services as well as their accreditation and supervision by an official authority.

  7. Some studies of avalanche photodiode readout of fast scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Holl, I.; Lorenz, E.; Natkaniez, S.; Renker, D.; Schmelz, C. |; Schwartz, B.

    1995-08-01

    Photomultipliers (PMs) are the classical readout element for scintillation detectors in high energy particle physics, nuclear physics, medical physics, industrial radiation monitors etc. Here, large area avalanche photodiodes with high performance, narrow operation tolerances and high reliability have recently become available. The authors report on some tests of their performance in the readout of fast scintillators.

  8. Histological preparation of developing vestibular otoconia for scanning electron microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huss, D.; Dickman, J. D.

    2003-01-01

    The unique nature of vestibular otoconia as calcium carbonate biominerals makes them particularly susceptible to chemical deformation during histological processing. We fixed and stored otoconia from all three otolith endorgans of embryonic, hatchling and adult Japanese quail in glutaraldehyde containing either phosphate or non-phosphate buffers for varying lengths of time and processed them for scanning electron microscopy. Otoconia from all age groups and otolith endorgans processed in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) showed abnormal surface morphology when compared to acetone fixed controls. Otoconia processed in 0.1 M sodium cacodylate or HEPES buffered artificial endolymph (pH 7.4) showed normal morphology that was similar to controls. The degree of otoconial deformation was directly related to the time exposed to phosphate buffer. Short duration exposure produced particulate deformations while longer exposures resulted in fused otoconia that formed solid sheets. Otoconial surface deformation and fusing was independent of the glutaraldehyde component of the histological processing. These findings should help vestibular researchers to develop appropriate histological processing protocols in future studies of otoconia.

  9. Electron guns and collectors developed at INP for electron cooling devices

    SciTech Connect

    Sharapa, A.N.; Shemyakin, A.V.

    1997-09-01

    Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP) has a rich experience in designing electron guns and collectors for electron cooling devices. This paper is a review of the experience of several INP research groups in this field. Some results obtained at INP for systems without a guiding magnetic field are also discussed.

  10. The readout driver (ROD) for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efthymiopoulos, Ilias

    2001-04-01

    The Readout Driver (ROD) for the Liquid Argon calorimeter of the ATLAS detector is described. Each ROD module receives triggered data from 256 calorimeter cells via two fiber-optics 1.28 Gbit/s links with a 100 kHz event rate (25 kbit/event). Its principal function is to determine the precise energy and timing of the signal from discrete samples of the waveform, taken each period of the LHC clock (25 ns). In addition, it checks, histograms, and formats the digital data stream. A demonstrator system, consisting of a motherboard and several daughter-board processing units (PUs) was constructed and is currently used for tests in the lab. The design of this prototype board is presented here. The board offers maximum modularity and allows the development and testing of different PU designs based on today's leading integer and floating point DSPs.

  11. Finite element simulations of low-mass readout cables for the CBM Silicon Tracking System using RAPHAEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singla, M.; Chatterji, S.; Müller, W. F. J.; Kleipa, V.; Heuser, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    The first three-dimensional simulation study of thin multi-line readout cables using finite element simulation tool RAPHAEL is being reported. The application is the Silicon Tracking System (STS) of the fixed-target heavy-ion experiment Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM), under design at the forthcoming accelerator center FAIR in Germany. RAPHAEL has been used to design low-mass analog readout cables with minimum possible Equivalent Noise Charge (ENC). Various trace geometries and trace materials have been explored in detail for this optimization study. These cables will bridge the distance between the microstrip detectors and the signal processing electronics placed at the periphery of the silicon tracking stations. SPICE modeling has been implemented in Sentaurus Device to study the transmission loss (dB loss) in cables and simulation has been validated with measurements. An optimized design having minimum possible ENC, material budget and transmission loss for the readout cables has been proposed.

  12. High fidelity readout of a transmon qubit using a superconducting low-inductance undulatory galvanometer microwave amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanbing; Srinivasan, Srikanth J.; Hover, D.; Zhu, Shaojiang; McDermott, R.; Houck, A. A.

    2014-11-01

    We report high-fidelity, quantum non-demolition, single-shot readout of a superconducting transmon qubit using a dc-biased superconducting low-inductance undulatory galvanometer (SLUG) amplifier. The SLUG improves the system signal-to-noise ratio by 6.5 dB in a 20 MHz window compared with a bare high electron mobility transistor amplifier. An optimal cavity drive pulse is chosen using a genetic search algorithm, leading to a maximum combined readout and preparation fidelity of 91.9% with a measurement time of {{T}meas}=200 ns. Using post-selection to remove preparation errors caused by heating, we realize a combined preparation and readout fidelity of 94.3%.

  13. Characterization of direct readout Si:Sb and Si:Ga infrared detector arrays for space-based astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckelvey, Mark E.; Mccreight, Craig R.; Goebel, John H.; Moss, Nicolas N.; Savage, Maureen L.

    1988-01-01

    Preliminary test results from the evaluation of Si:Sb and Si:Ga 58 x 62-element infrared detector arrays are presented. These devices are being characterized under background conditions and readout rates representative of operation in orbiting, crogenically-cooled infrared observatories. The arrays are hybridized to silicon direct-readout multiplexers which allow random-access and nondestructive readout. Array performance optimization is being conducted with a flexible microcomputer-based drive and readoaut electronics system. Preliminary Si:Sb measurements indicate a sense node capacitance of 0.06 pF, peak (28-micron) responsivity above 3 A/W at 2V bias, read noise of 130 rms e(-), dark current approximately 10 e(-)/s, and a well capacity greater than 10 to the 5th e(-). The limited test data available on the performance of the Si:Ga array are also discussed.

  14. Near-infrared-assisted charge control and spin readout of the nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopper, David A.; Grote, Richard R.; Exarhos, Annemarie L.; Bassett, Lee C.

    2016-12-01

    We utilize nonlinear absorption to design all-optical protocols that improve both charge-state initialization and spin readout for the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond. Nonmonotonic variations in the equilibrium charge state as a function of visible and near-infrared optical power are attributed to competing multiphoton absorption processes. In certain regimes, multicolor illumination enhances the steady-state population of the NV's negative charge state above 90%. At higher NIR intensities, selective ionization of the singlet manifold facilitates a protocol for spin-to-charge conversion that dramatically enhances the spin readout fidelity. We demonstrate a sixfold increase in the signal-to-noise ratio for single-shot spin measurements and demonstrate a pathway towards single-shot electron spin readout at room temperature.

  15. The development of efficient coding for an electronic mail system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Techniques for efficiently representing scanned electronic documents were investigated. Major results include the definition and preliminary performance results of a Universal System for Efficient Electronic Mail (USEEM), offering a potential order of magnitude improvement over standard facsimile techniques for representing textual material.

  16. Developing Argumentation Strategies in Electronic Dialogs: Is Modeling Effective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayweg-Paus, Elisabeth; Macagno, Fabrizio; Kuhn, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    The study presented here examines how interacting with a more capable interlocutor influences use of argumentation strategies in electronic discourse. To address this question, 54 young adolescents participating in an intervention centered on electronic peer dialogs were randomly assigned to either an experimental or control condition. In both…

  17. The Early Development of Electronic pH Meters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Wallis G.; de Levie, Robert

    2010-01-01

    A 19-year-old undergraduate at the University of Chicago, Kenneth Goode, in 1921 came up with the idea of an electronic pH meter, worked out some of its initial problems, and set in motion an international scientific effort that culminated in the current, wide availability of electronic pH meters. Except for the replacement of vacuum tubes by…

  18. Fast Multiplexed Readout of Xmon Qubits Part I: Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sank, Daniel; Jeffrey, E.; Mutus, J. Y.; White, T. C.; Barends, R.; Kelly, J.; Chen, Y.; Roushan, P.; Campbell, B.; Chen, Z.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Megrant, A.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P.; Quintana, C.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; Cleland, A. N.; Martinis, J. M.

    2014-03-01

    Realization of a surface code quantum computer requires fast scalable qubit readout. Previous systems have shown accurate readout in continuous wave mode. This neglects the transient response time which is crucial for the operation of the surface code and for measurement accuracy in the presence of finite qubit T1. We have designed a readout system, based on an integrated band pass filter, which achieves very fast transient response while maintaining long qubit T1. Our design uses separate readout resonators for each qubit. This allows individual qubit readout with frequency multiplexing while preventing correlated measurement errors. By connecting each resonator to a single filter the device requires zero additional on chip area and no extra control lines. We present design considerations, theory of operation, and physical layout of the device. With high fidelity gates this system forms the final element needed for a surface code cell.

  19. A novel readout system for wireless passive pressure sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huixin; Hong, Yingping; Ge, Binger; Liang, Ting; Xiong, Jijun

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a novel readout system for wireless passive pressure sensors based on the inductively coupled inductor and cavity (LC) resonant circuits. The proposed system consists of a reader antenna inductively coupled to the sensor circuit, a readout circuit, and a personal computer (PC) post processing unit. The readout circuit generates a voltage signal representing the sensor's capacitance. The frequency of the reader antenna driving signal is a constant, which is equal to the sensor's resonant frequency at zero pressure. Based on mechanical and electrical modeling, the pressure sensor design based on the high temperature co-fired ceramic (HTCC) technology is conducted and discussed. The functionality and accuracy of the readout system are tested with a voltage-capacitance measurement system and demonstrated in a realistic pressure measurement environment, so that the overall performance and the feasibility of the readout system are proved.

  20. Trigger and Readout System for the Ashra-1 Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aita, Y.; Aoki, T.; Asaoka, Y.; Morimoto, Y.; Motz, H. M.; Sasaki, M.; Abiko, C.; Kanokohata, C.; Ogawa, S.; Shibuya, H.; Takada, T.; Kimura, T.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Kuze, S.; Binder, P. M.; Goldman, J.; Sugiyama, N.; Watanabe, Y.

    Highly sophisticated trigger and readout system has been developed for All-sky Survey High Resolution Air-shower (Ashra) detector. Ashra-1 detector has 42 degree diameter field of view. Detection of Cherenkov and fluorescence light from large background in the large field of view requires finely segmented and high speed trigger and readout system. The system is composed of optical fiber image transmission system, 64 × 64 channel trigger sensor and FPGA based trigger logic processor. The system typically processes the image within 10 to 30 ns and opens the shutter on the fine CMOS sensor. 64 × 64 coarse split image is transferred via 64 × 64 precisely aligned optical fiber bundle to a photon sensor. Current signals from the photon sensor are discriminated by custom made trigger amplifiers. FPGA based processor processes 64 × 64 hit pattern and correspondent partial area of the fine image is acquired. Commissioning earth skimming tau neutrino observational search was carried out with this trigger system. In addition to the geometrical advantage of the Ashra observational site, the excellent tau shower axis measurement based on the fine imaging and the night sky background rejection based on the fine and fast imaging allow zero background tau shower search. Adoption of the optical fiber bundle and trigger LSI realized 4k channel trigger system cheaply. Detectability of tau shower is also confirmed by simultaneously observed Cherenkov air shower. Reduction of the trigger threshold appears to enhance the effective area especially in PeV tau neutrino energy region. New two dimensional trigger LSI was introduced and the trigger threshold was lowered. New calibration system of the trigger system was recently developed and introduced to the Ashra detector

  1. A vertically integrated pixel readout device for the Vertex Detector at the International Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Christian, David; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

    2008-12-01

    3D-Integrated Circuit technology enables higher densities of electronic circuitry per unit area without the use of nanoscale processes. It is advantageous for mixed mode design with precise analog circuitry because processes with conservative feature sizes typically present lower process dispersions and tolerate higher power supply voltages, resulting in larger separation of a signal from the noise floor. Heterogeneous wafers (different foundries or different process families) may be combined with some 3D integration methods, leading to the optimization of each tier in the 3D stack. Tracking and vertexing in future High-Energy Physics (HEP) experiments involves construction of detectors composed of up to a few billions of channels. Readout electronics must record the position and time of each measurement with the highest achievable precision. This paper reviews a prototype of the first 3D readout chip for HEP, designed for a vertex detector at the International Linear Collider. The prototype features 20 x 20 {micro}m{sup 2} pixels, laid out in an array of 64 x 64 elements and was fabricated in a 3-tier 0.18 {micro}m Fully Depleted SOI CMOS process at MIT-Lincoln Laboratory. The tests showed correct functional operation of the structure. The chip performs a zero-suppressed readout. Successive submissions are planned in a commercial 3D bulk 0.13 {micro}m CMOS process to overcome some of the disadvantages of an FDSOI process.

  2. A novel method of encoded multiplexing readout for micro-pattern gas detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Bin-Xiang; Liu, Shu-Bin; Ji, Heng; Shen, Zhong-Tao; Ma, Si-Yuan; Liu, Hong-Bang; Huang, Wen-Qian; An, Qi

    2016-05-01

    The requirement of a large number of electronic channels poses a big challenge to the further applications of Micro-pattern Gas Detectors (MPGDs). By using the redundancy that at least two neighboring strips record the signal of a particle, a novel method of encoded multiplexing readout for MPGDs is presented in this paper. The method offers a feasible and easily-extensible way of encoding and decoding, and can significantly reduce the number of readout channels. A verification test was carried out on a 5 cm × 5 cm Thick Gas Electron Multiplier (THGEM) detector using a 8 keV Cu X-ray source with 100 μm slit, where 166 strips were read out by 21 encoded readout channels. The test results show good linearity in its position response, and the spatial resolution root-mean-square (RMS) of the test system is about 260 μm. This method has potential to build large area detectors and can be easily adapted to other detectors similar to MPGDs. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11222552, 11265003)

  3. Study of the readout configuration of the GAMMA-400 silicon tracker sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berra, A.; Bonvicini, V.; Lietti, D.; Prest, M.; Vallazza, E.

    2015-10-01

    The GAMMA-400 satellite is an upcoming international space mission designed to detect gamma and cosmic rays in a broad energy range up to 3 TeV, with an excellent angular and energy resolution. The present design foresees a 10 layers Si-W tracker formed by single sided silicon sensors with 80 μm strip pitch, with a readout pitch of 240 μm; the sensors are arranged in four towers, each one with an area of 50×50 cm2, for a total of more than 150k channels. This paper presents an analysis of the spatial resolution of the proposed readout configuration, compared with different readout approaches, both in terms of readout pitch and strip/implant widths. The study has been performed with two specially developed silicon modules, each one divided into zones with different characteristics. The tests have been performed on the CERN PS-T9 beamline using 10 GeV negative particles.

  4. Readout system of multi-level run-length-limited read-only disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hequn; Xu, Haizheng; Pan, Longfa; Yan, Mingming

    2008-12-01

    The Radio Frequency (RF) signal of the Multi-Level Run-Length-Limited (ML-RLL) read-only disc is different from that of DVD, so the readout system of the ML-RLL read-only disc is built specially. The readout system of the ML-RLL read-only disc can realize servo control, RF signal readout and so on. The readout system consists of Digital Versatile Disc (DVD) traverse, analog front-end and digital processing part. Analog front-end can realize front-end amplification of the output signal of the optical pick-up and power drive of mechanism. Digital processing part mainly consists of digital circuits, which functions are the servo controlling, demodulation and decoding of RF signal, general control and so on. The whole system is implemented on two Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chips and the experimental results show a good performance. We tested the important signals, and experimental results are also given to verify the performance of this development platform, which meets the controlling and detecting requirements to multi-level read-only disc completely. The Bit Error Rate (SER) can achieve below 10-4.

  5. A frequency-sensing readout using piezoelectric sensors for sensing of physiological signals.

    PubMed

    Buxi, Dilpreet; Redouté, Jean-Michel; Yuce, Mehmet Rasit

    2014-01-01

    Together with a charge or voltage amplifier, piezoelectric sensors are commonly used to pick up physiological vibrations from the body. As an alternative to chopper or auto-zero amplifiers, frequency sensing is known in literature to provide advantages of noise immunity, interfacing to digital readout systems as well as tunable range of sensing. A frequency-sensing readout circuit for sensing low voltage signals from piezoelectric sensors is successfully developed and tested in this work. The output voltage of a piezoelectric sensor is fed to a varactor, which is part of an Colpitts LC oscillator. The oscillation frequency is converted into a voltage using a phase locked loop. The circuit is compared to a reference design in terms of linearity, noise and transfer function. The readout has a input-referred noise voltage of 2.24μV/√Hz and consumes 15 mA at 5V supply. Arterial pulse wave signals and the cardiac vibrations from the chest are measured from one subject to show the proof of concept of the proposed readout. The results of this work are intended to contribute towards alternative low noise analog front end designs for piezoelectric sensors.

  6. Test results of a self-triggering silicon strip detector readout chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasiński, Krzysztof; Szczygieł, Robert; Czermak, Adam

    2009-08-01

    The n-XYter integrated circuit (ASIC) was designed in a CMOS 0.35 μm technology, as a 128-channel, data-driven silicon detector readout chip and became a prototype readout chip for several experiments at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR). The details of the circuit architecture have already been published [C. Schmidt, et al., in: Proceedings of the Topical Workshop on Electronics for Particle Physics, Prague, Czech Republic, 03-07 September 2007; A. Brogna, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 568 (2006) 301]. In this paper we present test results on discriminator threshold spread and its correction, analogue front-end gain measurements and calibration of the time-stamp circuitry. The measurements were performed using on-chip test pulses. The ASIC was connected to a 1 cm long, 100 μm pitch, AC-coupled silicon strip detector (SSD).

  7. Research of time discrimination circuits for PMT signal readout over large dynamic range in LHAASO WCDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, C.; Zhao, L.; Dong, R.; Jiang, Z.; Chu, S.; Gao, X.; Liu, S.; An, Q.

    2016-11-01

    In the readout electronics of the Water Cerenkov Detector Array (WCDA) in the Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO), both high-resolution charge and time measurement are required over a dynamic range from 1 photoelectron (P.E.) to 4000 P.E. for the PMT signal readout. In this paper, we present our work on the design of time discrimination circuits in LHAASO WCDA, especially on improvement to reduce the circuit dead time. Several approaches were studied through analysis and simulations, and actual circuits were designed and tested in the laboratory to evaluate the performance. Test results indicate that a time resolution better than 500 ps RMS is achieved in the whole large dynamic range, and the circuit dead time is successfully reduced to less than 200 ns.

  8. Electronic calorimetric computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckelman, J. D.

    1968-01-01

    Electronic calorimetric computer calculates nuclear reactor thermal power output to a nominal accuracy of 1 percent. Heat balance is determined by an electronic approach. The thermal power is calculated using the inlet and outlet temperatures and the volume of cooling water and is displayed by a digital readout system.

  9. IMPLEMENTING AND AUDITING ELECTRONIC RECORDKEEPING SYSTEMS USED IN SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electronic recordkeeping is increasingly replacing hadwritten records in the course of "normal business." As this trend continues, it is important that organizations develop and implement electronic recordkeeping policies and procedures. This is especially true for Research and...

  10. New developments in electron microscopy for serial image acquisition of neuronal profiles.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Yoshiyuki

    2015-02-01

    Recent developments in electron microscopy largely automate the continuous acquisition of serial electron micrographs (EMGs), previously achieved by laborious manual serial ultrathin sectioning using an ultramicrotome and ultrastructural image capture process with transmission electron microscopy. The new systems cut thin sections and capture serial EMGs automatically, allowing for acquisition of large data sets in a reasonably short time. The new methods are focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy, ultramicrotome/serial block-face scanning electron microscopy, automated tape-collection ultramicrotome/scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope camera array. In this review, their positive and negative aspects are discussed.

  11. A Broadband Polyvinylidene Difluoride-Based Hydrophone with Integrated Readout Circuit for Intravascular Photoacoustic Imaging.

    PubMed

    Daeichin, Verya; Chen, Chao; Ding, Qing; Wu, Min; Beurskens, Robert; Springeling, Geert; Noothout, Emile; Verweij, Martin D; van Dongen, Koen W A; Bosch, Johan G; van der Steen, Antonius F W; de Jong, Nico; Pertijs, Michiel; van Soest, Gijs

    2016-05-01

    Intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging can visualize the coronary atherosclerotic plaque composition on the basis of the optical absorption contrast. Most of the photoacoustic (PA) energy of human coronary plaque lipids was found to lie in the frequency band between 2 and 15 MHz requiring a very broadband transducer, especially if a combination with intravascular ultrasound is desired. We have developed a broadband polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) transducer (0.6 × 0.6 mm, 52 μm thick) with integrated electronics to match the low capacitance of such a small polyvinylidene difluoride element (<5 pF/mm(2)) with the high capacitive load of the long cable (∼100 pF/m). The new readout circuit provides an output voltage with a sensitivity of about 3.8 μV/Pa at 2.25 MHz. Its response is flat within 10 dB in the range 2 to 15 MHz. The root mean square (rms) output noise level is 259 μV over the entire bandwidth (1-20 MHz), resulting in a minimum detectable pressure of 30 Pa at 2.25 MHz.

  12. Pulse mode readout techniques for use with non-gridded industrial ionization chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, Vladimir E.; Degtiarenko, Pavel V.

    2011-10-01

    Highly sensitive readout technique for precision long-term radiation measurements has been developed and tested in the Radiation Control Department at Jefferson Lab. The new electronics design is used to retrieve ionization data in a pulse mode. The dedicated data acquisition system works with M=Audio Audiophile 192 High-Definition 24-bit/192 kHz audio cards, taking data in continuous waveform recording mode. The on-line data processing algorithms extract signals of the ionization events from the data flow and measure the ionization value for each event. Two different ion chambers are evaluated. The first is a Reuter-Stokes Argon-filled (at 25 atm) High Pressure Ionization Chamber (HPIC), commonly used as a detector part in many GE Reuter-Stokes instruments of the RSS series. The second is a VacuTec Model 70181, 5 atm Xenon-filled ionization chamber. Results for both chambers indicate that the techniques allow using industrial ICs for high sensitivity and precision long-term radiation measurements, while at the same time providing information about spectral characteristics of the radiation fields.

  13. Prototyping the read-out chain of the CBM Microvertex Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, P.; Wiebusch, M.; Amar-Youcef, S.; Deveaux, M.; Koziel, M.; Michel, J.; Milanovic, B.; Müntz, C.; Tischler, T.; Stroth, J.

    2016-03-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) Experiment at the future FAIR (Darmstadt/Germany) will study the phase diagram of hadronic matter in the regime of highest net-baryon densities. The fixed target experiment will explore the nuclear fireballs created in violent heavy ion reactions with a rich number of probes. To reconstruct the decay topologies of open-charm particles as well as to track low-momentum particles, an ultra-light and precise Microvertex Detector (MVD) is required. The necessary performance in terms of spatial resolution, material budget and rate capability will be reached by equipping the MVD with highly granular, radiation-hard CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (CPS) developped at IPHC Strasbourg, which are operated in the target vacuum of the experiment. This contribution introduces the concept of the MVD and puts a focus on the latest results obtained from the R&D of the electronics and read-out chain of the device. Moreover, we briefly introduce the PRESTO project, which realises a prototype of a full size quadrant of an MVD detector station.

  14. Integrated input protection against discharges for Micro Pattern Gas Detectors readout ASICs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiutowski, T.; Dąbrowski, W.; Koperny, S.; Wiącek, P.

    2017-02-01

    Immunity against possible random discharges inside active detector volume of MPGDs is one of the key aspects that should be addressed in the design of the front-end electronics. This issue becomes particularly critical for systems with high channel counts and high density readout employing the front-end electronics built as multichannel ASICs implemented in modern CMOS technologies, for which the breakdown voltages are in the range of a few Volts. The paper presents the design of various input protection structures integrated in the ASIC manufactured in a 350 nm CMOS process and test results using an electrical circuit to mimic discharges in the detectors.

  15. NIH Electronic Cigarette Workshop: Developing a Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, David B.; Bailey, William C.; Clark, David; Connolly, Gregory N.; Djordjevic, Mirjana V.; Eissenberg, Thomas E.; Fiore, Michael C.; Goniewicz, Maciej L.; Haverkos, Lynne; Hecht, Stephen S.; Henningfield, Jack E.; Hughes, John R.; Oncken, Cheryl A.; Postow, Lisa; Rose, Jed E.; Wanke, Kay L.; Yang, Lucie; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) represent an emerging public health issue. These devices deliver nicotine along with other constituents, including flavorants, via an inhalable aerosol. Their uptake is rapidly increasing in both adults and youths, primarily among current smokers. Public debate is increasing on how these devices should be regulated and used, yet only limited peer-reviewed research exists. To develop a informed policy for e-cigarettes, their effects on human behavior, physiology, and health need to be understood. Purpose: This paper describes proceedings from a National Institutes of Health–sponsored workshop, which was held in November 2013, to identify research needs related to the effects of e-cigarettes. Discussion topics included e-cigarette risks and abuse potential; the potential role for e-cigarettes in harm reduction and smoking cessation; unintended consequences of e-cigarette use, such as becoming a gateway to conventional cigarettes; and dual use of both e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes. Results and Conclusions: The research needs identified by the workshop participants included the following: standards to measure the contents and emissions of e-cigarettes; biomarkers of exposure; physiological effects of e-cigarettes on tissues and organ systems, including pulmonary and cardiovascular; information on e-cigarette users, how the devices are used, and identification of the best tools to assess these measures; factors that drive use and influence patterns of use; and appropriate methods for evaluating a potential role for e-cigarettes in smoking or nicotine cessation. To understand fully the challenges and the opportunities that e-cigarettes represent, expertise will be needed in basic, behavioral, translational, and clinical sciences. PMID:25335949

  16. Experimental characterization of the 192 channel Clear-PEM frontend ASIC coupled to a multi-pixel APD readout of LYSO:Ce crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albuquerque, Edgar; Bexiga, Vasco; Bugalho, Ricardo; Carriço, Bruno; Ferreira, Cláudia S.; Ferreira, Miguel; Godinho, Joaquim; Gonçalves, Fernando; Leong, Carlos; Lousã, Pedro; Machado, Pedro; Moura, Rui; Neves, Pedro; Ortigão, Catarina; Piedade, Fernando; Pinheiro, João F.; Rego, Joel; Rivetti, Angelo; Rodrigues, Pedro; Silva, José C.; Silva, Manuel M.; Teixeira, Isabel C.; Teixeira, João P.; Trindade, Andreia; Varela, João

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of the Clear-PEM project for the construction of a high-resolution scanner for breast cancer imaging, a very compact and dense frontend electronics system has been developed for readout of multi-pixel S8550 Hamamatsu APDs. The frontend electronics are instrumented with a mixed-signal Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC), which incorporates 192 low-noise charge pre-amplifiers, shapers, analog memory cells and digital control blocks. Pulses are continuously stored in memory cells at clock frequency. Channels above a common threshold voltage are readout for digitization by off-chip free-sampling ADCs. The ASIC has a size of 7.3×9.8 mm2 and was implemented in a AMS 0.35 μm CMOS technology. In this paper the experimental characterization of the Clear-PEM frontend ASIC, reading out multi-pixel APDs coupled to LYSO:Ce crystal matrices, is presented. The chips were mounted on a custom test board connected to six APD arrays and to the data acquisition system. Six 32-pixel LYSO:Ce crystal matrices coupled on both sides to APD arrays were readout by two test boards. All 384 channels were operational. The chip power consumption is 660 mW (3.4 mW per channel). A very stable behavior of the chip was observed, with an estimated ENC of 1200-1300e- at APD gain 100. The inter-channel noise dispersion and mean baseline variation is less than 8% and 0.5%, respectively. The spread in the gain between different channels is found to be 1.5%. Energy resolution of 16.5% at 511 keV and 12.8% at 662 keV has been measured. Timing measurements between the two APDs that readout the same crystal is extracted and compared with detailed Monte Carlo simulations. At 511 keV the measured single photon time RMS resolution is 1.30 ns, in very good agreement with the expected value of 1.34 ns.

  17. White noise of Nb-based microwave superconducting quantum interference device multiplexers with NbN coplanar resonators for readout of transition edge sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Kohjiro, Satoshi; Hirayama, Fuminori; Yamamori, Hirotake; Nagasawa, Shuichi; Fukuda, Daiji; Hidaka, Mutsuo

    2014-06-14

    White noise of dissipationless microwave radio frequency superconducting quantum interference device (RF-SQUID) multiplexers has been experimentally studied to evaluate their readout performance for transition edge sensor (TES) photon counters ranging from near infrared to gamma ray. The characterization has been carried out at 4 K, first to avoid the low-frequency fluctuations present at around 0.1 K, and second, for a feasibility study of readout operation at 4 K for extended applications. To increase the resonant Q at 4 K and maintain low noise SQUID operation, multiplexer chips consisting of niobium nitride (NbN)-based coplanar-waveguide resonators and niobium (Nb)-based RF-SQUIDs have been developed. This hybrid multiplexer exhibited 1 × 10{sup 4} ≤ Q ≤ 2 × 10{sup 4} and the square root of spectral density of current noise referred to the SQUID input √S{sub I} = 31 pA/√Hz. The former and the latter are factor-of-five and seven improvements from our previous results on Nb-based resonators, respectively. Two-directional readout on the complex plane of the transmission component of scattering matrix S{sub 21} enables us to distinguish the flux noise from noise originating from other sources, such as the cryogenic high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) amplifier. Systematic noise measurements with various microwave readout powers P{sub MR} make it possible to distinguish the contribution of noise sources within the system as follows: (1) The achieved √S{sub I} is dominated by the Nyquist noise from a resistor at 4 K in parallel to the SQUID input coil which is present to prevent microwave leakage to the TES. (2) The next dominant source is either the HEMT-amplifier noise (for small values of P{sub MR}) or the quantization noise due to the resolution of 300-K electronics (for large values of P{sub MR}). By a decrease of these noise levels to a degree that is achievable by current technology, we predict that the

  18. White noise of Nb-based microwave superconducting quantum interference device multiplexers with NbN coplanar resonators for readout of transition edge sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohjiro, Satoshi; Hirayama, Fuminori; Yamamori, Hirotake; Nagasawa, Shuichi; Fukuda, Daiji; Hidaka, Mutsuo

    2014-06-01

    White noise of dissipationless microwave radio frequency superconducting quantum interference device (RF-SQUID) multiplexers has been experimentally studied to evaluate their readout performance for transition edge sensor (TES) photon counters ranging from near infrared to gamma ray. The characterization has been carried out at 4 K, first to avoid the low-frequency fluctuations present at around 0.1 K, and second, for a feasibility study of readout operation at 4 K for extended applications. To increase the resonant Q at 4 K and maintain low noise SQUID operation, multiplexer chips consisting of niobium nitride (NbN)-based coplanar-waveguide resonators and niobium (Nb)-based RF-SQUIDs have been developed. This hybrid multiplexer exhibited 1 × 104 ≤ Q ≤ 2 × 104 and the square root of spectral density of current noise referred to the SQUID input √SI = 31 pA/√Hz. The former and the latter are factor-of-five and seven improvements from our previous results on Nb-based resonators, respectively. Two-directional readout on the complex plane of the transmission component of scattering matrix S21 enables us to distinguish the flux noise from noise originating from other sources, such as the cryogenic high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) amplifier. Systematic noise measurements with various microwave readout powers PMR make it possible to distinguish the contribution of noise sources within the system as follows: (1) The achieved √SI is dominated by the Nyquist noise from a resistor at 4 K in parallel to the SQUID input coil which is present to prevent microwave leakage to the TES. (2) The next dominant source is either the HEMT-amplifier noise (for small values of PMR) or the quantization noise due to the resolution of 300-K electronics (for large values of PMR). By a decrease of these noise levels to a degree that is achievable by current technology, we predict that the microwave RF-SQUID multiplexer can exhibit √SI ≤ 5 pA/√Hz, i.e., close to √SI of

  19. Development of models for exchange of electronic documents

    SciTech Connect

    Glavev, Victor

    2014-11-18

    The report presents a model for exchange of electronic documents between different government administrations. It defines electronic messages that are transmitted between them and the way that messages should be processed by software systems. The proposed approach is sufficiently general and allows use of the best applicable information technologies such as data presentation structures and communication protocols. Within the study, a simple implementation of the model is implemented and deployed in various government administrations in Republic of Bulgaria.

  20. Evaluation of detector readout gain mode and bowtie filters for cone-beam CT imaging of the head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jennifer; Sisniega, Alejandro; Zbijewski, Wojciech; Dang, Hao; Webster Stayman, J.; Wang, Xiaohui; Foos, David H.; Aygun, Nafi; Koliatsos, Vassillis E.; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.

    2016-08-01

    The effects of detector readout gain mode and bowtie filters on cone-beam CT (CBCT) image quality and dose were characterized for a new CBCT system developed for point-of-care imaging of the head, with potential application to diagnosis of traumatic brain injury, intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), and stroke. A detector performance model was extended to include the effects of detector readout gain on electronic digitization noise. The noise performance for high-gain (HG), low-gain (LG), and dual-gain (DG) detector readout was evaluated, and the benefit associated with HG mode in regions free from detector saturation was quantified. Such benefit could be realized (without detector saturation) either via DG mode or by incorporation of a bowtie filter. Therefore, three bowtie filters were investigated that varied in thickness and curvature. A polyenergetic gain correction method was developed to equalize the detector response between the flood-field and projection data in the presence of a bowtie. The effect of bowtie filters on dose, scatter-to-primary ratio, contrast, and noise was quantified in phantom studies, and results were compared to a high-speed Monte Carlo (MC) simulation to characterize x-ray scatter and dose distributions in the head. Imaging in DG mode improved the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) by ~15% compared to LG mode at a dose (D 0, measured at the center of a 16 cm CTDI phantom) of 19 mGy. MC dose calculations agreed with CTDI measurements and showed that bowtie filters reduce peripheral dose by as much as 50% at the same central dose. Bowtie filters were found to increase the CNR per unit square-root dose near the center of the image by ~5-20% depending on bowtie thickness, but reduced CNR in the periphery by ~10-40%. Images acquired at equal CTDIw with and without a bowtie demonstrated a 24% increase in CNR at the center of an anthropomorphic head phantom. Combining a thick bowtie filter with a short arc (180°  +  fan angle) scan centered

  1. Evaluation of detector readout gain mode and bowtie filters for cone-beam CT imaging of the head.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jennifer; Sisniega, Alejandro; Zbijewski, Wojciech; Dang, Hao; Stayman, J Webster; Wang, Xiaohui; Foos, David H; Aygun, Nafi; Koliatsos, Vassillis E; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H

    2016-08-21

    The effects of detector readout gain mode and bowtie filters on cone-beam CT (CBCT) image quality and dose were characterized for a new CBCT system developed for point-of-care imaging of the head, with potential application to diagnosis of traumatic brain injury, intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), and stroke. A detector performance model was extended to include the effects of detector readout gain on electronic digitization noise. The noise performance for high-gain (HG), low-gain (LG), and dual-gain (DG) detector readout was evaluated, and the benefit associated with HG mode in regions free from detector saturation was quantified. Such benefit could be realized (without detector saturation) either via DG mode or by incorporation of a bowtie filter. Therefore, three bowtie filters were investigated that varied in thickness and curvature. A polyenergetic gain correction method was developed to equalize the detector response between the flood-field and projection data in the presence of a bowtie. The effect of bowtie filters on dose, scatter-to-primary ratio, contrast, and noise was quantified in phantom studies, and results were compared to a high-speed Monte Carlo (MC) simulation to characterize x-ray scatter and dose distributions in the head. Imaging in DG mode improved the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) by ~15% compared to LG mode at a dose (D 0, measured at the center of a 16 cm CTDI phantom) of 19 mGy. MC dose calculations agreed with CTDI measurements and showed that bowtie filters reduce peripheral dose by as much as 50% at the same central dose. Bowtie filters were found to increase the CNR per unit square-root dose near the center of the image by ~5-20% depending on bowtie thickness, but reduced CNR in the periphery by ~10-40%. Images acquired at equal CTDIw with and without a bowtie demonstrated a 24% increase in CNR at the center of an anthropomorphic head phantom. Combining a thick bowtie filter with a short arc (180°  +  fan angle) scan centered

  2. Development of splitting convergent beam electron diffraction (SCBED).

    PubMed

    Houdellier, Florent; Röder, Falk; Snoeck, Etienne

    2015-12-01

    Using a combination of condenser electrostatic biprism with dedicated electron optic conditions for sample illumination, we were able to split a convergent beam electron probe focused on the sample in two half focused probes without introducing any tilt between them. As a consequence, a combined convergent beam electron diffraction pattern is obtained in the back focal plane of the objective lens arising from two different sample areas, which could be analyzed in a single pattern. This splitting convergent beam electron diffraction (SCBED) pattern has been tested first on a well-characterized test sample of Si/SiGe multilayers epitaxially grown on a Si substrate. The SCBED pattern contains information from the strained area, which exhibits HOLZ lines broadening induced by surface relaxation, with fine HOLZ lines observed in the unstrained reference part of the sample. These patterns have been analyzed quantitatively using both parts of the SCBED transmitted disk. The fine HOLZ line positions are used to determine the precise acceleration voltage of the microscope while the perturbed HOLZ rocking curves in the stained area are compared to dynamical simulated ones. The combination of these two information leads to a precise evaluation of the sample strain state. Finally, several SCBED setups are proposed to tackle fundamental physics questions as well as applied materials science ones and demonstrate how SCBED has the potential to greatly expand the range of applications of electron diffraction and electron holography.

  3. Multiwire proportional chamber development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doolittle, R. F.; Pollvogt, U.; Eskovitz, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    The development of large area multiwire proportional chambers, to be used as high resolution spatial detectors in cosmic ray experiments is described. A readout system was developed which uses a directly coupled, lumped element delay-line whose characteristics are independent of the MWPC design. A complete analysis of the delay-line and the readout electronic system shows that a spatial resolution of about 0.1 mm can be reached with the MWPC operating in the strictly proportional region. This was confirmed by measurements with a small MWPC and Fe-55 X-rays. A simplified analysis was carried out to estimate the theoretical limit of spatial resolution due to delta-rays, spread of the discharge along the anode wire, and inclined trajectories. To calculate the gas gain of MWPC's of different geometrical configurations a method was developed which is based on the knowledge of the first Townsend coefficient of the chamber gas.

  4. Electron-bombarded CCD detectors for ultraviolet atmospheric remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruthers, G. R.; Opal, C. B.

    1983-01-01

    Electronic image sensors based on charge coupled devices operated in electron-bombarded mode, yielding real-time, remote-readout, photon-limited UV imaging capability are being developed. The sensors also incorporate fast-focal-ratio Schmidt optics and opaque photocathodes, giving nearly the ultimate possible diffuse-source sensitivity. They can be used for direct imagery of atmospheric emission phenomena, and for imaging spectrography with moderate spatial and spectral resolution. The current state of instrument development, laboratory results, planned future developments and proposed applications of the sensors in space flight instrumentation is described.

  5. Front-End electronics development for the new Resistive Plate Chamber detector of HADES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, A.; Belver, D.; Cabanelas, P.; Díaz, J.; Garzón, J. A.; González-Díaz, D.; Koenig, W.; Lange, J. S.; Marín, J.; Montes, N.; Skott, P.; Traxler, M.

    2007-11-01

    In this paper we present the new RPC wall, which is being installed in the HADES detector at Darmstadt GSI. It consists of time-of-flight (TOF) detectors used for both particle identification and triggering. Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) detectors are becoming widely used because of their excellent TOF capabilities and reduced cost. The wall will contain 1024 RPC modules, covering an active area of around 7 m2, replacing the old TOFino detector at the low polar angle region. The excellent TOF and good charge resolutions of the new detector will improve the time resolution to values better than 100 ps. The Front-End electronics for the readout of the RPC signals is implemented with two types of boards to satisfy the space constraints: the Daughterboards are small boards that amplify the low level signals from the detector and provide fast discriminators for time of flight measurements, as well as an integrator for charge measurements. The Motherboard provides stable DC voltages and a stable ground, threshold DACs for the discriminators, multiplicity trigger and impedance matched paths for transfer of time window signals that contain information about time and charge. These signals are sent to a custom TDC board that label each event and send data through Ethernet to be conveniently stored.

  6. R&D on a novel spectro-imaging polarimeter with Micromegas detectors and a Caliste readout system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attié, D.; Blondel, C.; Boilevin-Kayl, L.; Desforges, D.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Giomataris, I.; Gevin, O.; Jeanneau, F.; Limousin, O.; Meuris, A.; Papaevangelou, T.; Peyaud, A.

    2015-07-01

    Micromegas detectors, part of the Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGD) family, are used in a very wide range of applications in the High Energy Physics community but also in astroparticle and neutrino physics. In most of the Micromegas applications the design of the detector vessel and the readout plane is extremely coupled. A way of dissociating these two components would be by separating the amplification structure and the detector volume from the readout plane and electronics. This is achieved with the so called piggyback Micromegas detectors. They open up new possibilities of applications in terms of adaptability to new electronics. In particular piggyback resistive Micromegas can be easily coupled to modern pixel array electronic ASICs. First tests have been carried out with a Medipix chip where the protection of the resistive layer has been proved. The results of very recent tests coupling piggyback Micromegas with the readout module of Caliste are presented. Caliste is a high performance spectro-imager with event time-tagging capability, able to detect photons between 2 keV and 250 keV in the context of a spatial micro spectro-imaging polarimetrer. In the current application, with the Piggyback Micromegas, we use the readout module only as the sensitive detector. We benefit of the good spatial resolution thanks to the high density readout pixels ( 600 μm pixel pitch), to the low noise, to the low power and to the radiation hard integrated front-end IDEF-X electronics. The advantage of such a device is to have a high gain, low noise, low threshold, and robust detector operating at room temperature. This would be very attractive for spatial applications, for instance X-ray polarisation.

  7. Development of time-resolved electron momentum spectroscopy: a tool for visualizing the motion of electrons during a chemical reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, M.; Kasai, Y.; Oishi, K.; Nakazawa, H.; Takahashi, M.

    2014-04-01

    An electron momentum spectroscopy (EMS) apparatus has been developed, which employs an ultrashort-pulsed incident electron beam with a repetition rate of 5 kHz and a pulse duration in the order of picoseconds. Its instrumental design and technical details are reported, involving demonstration of a new method for finding time-zero. Furthermore, a preliminary time-resolved EMS study on the photodissociation dynamics of acetone at 195 nm is presented.

  8. Present and Future Applications of Digital Electronics in Nuclear Science - a Commercial Prospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Hui

    2011-10-01

    Digital readout electronics instrumenting radiation detectors have experienced significant advancements in the last decade or so. This on one hand can be attributed to the steady improvements in commercial digital processing components such as analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), digital-to-analog converters (DACs), field-programmable-gate-arrays (FPGAs), and digital-signal-processors (DSPs), and on the other hand can also be attributed to the increasing needs for improved time, position, and energy resolution in nuclear physics experiments, which have spurred the rapid development of commercial off-the-shelf high speed, high resolution digitizers or spectrometers. Absent from conventional analog electronics, the capability to record fast decaying pulses from radiation detectors in digital readout electronics has profoundly benefited nuclear physics researchers since they now can perform detailed pulse processing for applications such as gamma-ray tracking and decay-event selection and reconstruction. In this talk, present state-of-the-art digital readout electronics and its applications in a variety of nuclear science fields will be discussed, and future directions in hardware development for digital electronics will also be outlined, all from the prospective of a commercial manufacturer of digital electronics.

  9. Development of miniaturized electron probe X-ray microanalyzer.

    PubMed

    Imashuku, Susumu; Imanishi, Akira; Kawai, Jun

    2011-11-15

    A miniaturized electron probe X-ray microanalyzer (EPMA) with a small chamber including the electron source and the sample stage was realized using a pyroelectric crystal as an electron source. The EPMA we propose is the smallest reported so far. Performance of the EPMA was evaluated by investigating energy of obtained continuous X-rays and lower detection limits of transition metals (titanium, iron, and nickel). End point energy (Duane-Hunt limit) of continuous X-rays of 45 keV was obtained. However, it is expected that the EPMA can analyze characteristic X-rays with energy less than 20 keV. The EPMA was able to measure titanium, iron, and nickel wires whose projected areas were more than 0.03 mm(2).

  10. Present State of Electron Backscatter Diffraction and Prospective Developments

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarzer, R A; Field, D P; Adams, B L; Kumar, M; Schwartz, A J

    2008-10-24

    Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), when employed as an additional characterization technique to a scanning electron microscope (SEM), enables individual grain orientations, local texture, point-to-point orientation correlations, and phase identification and distributions to be determined routinely on the surfaces of bulk polycrystals. The application has experienced rapid acceptance in metallurgical, materials, and geophysical laboratories within the past decade (Schwartz et al. 2000) due to the wide availability of SEMs, the ease of sample preparation from the bulk, the high speed of data acquisition, and the access to complementary information about the microstructure on a submicron scale. From the same specimen area, surface structure and morphology of the microstructure are characterized in great detail by the relief and orientation contrast in secondary and backscatter electron images, element distributions are accessed by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS), or cathodoluminescence analysis, and the orientations of single grains and phases can now be determined, as a complement, by EBSD.

  11. Monte Carlo calculations of PET coincidence timing: single and double-ended readout

    PubMed Central

    Derenzo, Stephen E; Choong, Woon-Seng; Moses, William W

    2016-01-01

    We present Monte Carlo computational methods for estimating the coincidence resolving time (CRT) of scintillator detector pairs in positron emission tomography (PET) and present results for Lu2SiO5 : Ce (LSO), LaBr3 : Ce, and a hypothetical ultra-fast scintillator with a 1 ns decay time. The calculations were applied to both single-ended and double-ended photodetector readout with constant-fraction triggering. They explicitly include (1) the intrinsic scintillator properties (luminosity, rise time, decay time, and index of refraction), (2) the exponentially distributed depths of interaction, (3) the optical photon transport efficiency, delay, and time dispersion, (4) the photodetector properties (fill factor, quantum efficiency, transit time jitter, and single electron response), and (5) the determination of the constant fraction trigger level that minimizes the CRT. The calculations for single-ended readout include the delayed photons from the opposite reflective surface. The calculations for double-ended readout include (1) the simple average of the two photodetector trigger times, (2) more accurate estimators of the annihilation photon entrance time using the pulse height ratio to estimate the depth of interaction and correct for annihilation photon, optical photon, and trigger delays, and (3) the statistical lower bound for interactions at the center of the crystal. For time-of-flight (TOF) PET we combine stopping power and TOF information in a figure of merit equal to the sensitivity gain relative to whole-body non-TOF PET using LSO. For LSO crystals 3 mm × 3 mm × 30 mm, a decay time of 37 ns, a total photoelectron count of 4000, and a photodetector with 0.2 ns full-width at half-maximum (fwhm) timing jitter, single-ended readout has a CRT of 0.16 ns fwhm and double-ended readout has a CRT of 0.111 ns fwhm. For LaBr3 : Ce crystals 3 mm × 3 mm × 30 mm, a rise time of 0.2 ns, a decay time of 18 ns, and a total of 7600 photoelectrons the CRT numbers are 0

  12. FASTBUS readout system for the CDF DAQ upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, J.; Areti, H.; Black, D.

    1993-11-01

    The Data Acquisition System (DAQ) at the Collider Detector at Fermilab is currently being upgraded to handle a minimum of 100 events/sec for an aggregate bandwidth that is at least 25 Mbytes/sec. The DAQ System is based on a commercial switching network that has interfaces to VME bus. The modules that readout the front end crates (FASTBUS and RABBIT) have to deliver the data to the VME bus based host adapters of the switch. This paper describes a readout system that has the required bandwidth while keeping the experiment dead time due to the readout to a minimum.

  13. A CMOS Smart Temperature and Humidity Sensor with Combined Readout

    PubMed Central

    Eder, Clemens; Valente, Virgilio; Donaldson, Nick; Demosthenous, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    A fully-integrated complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor for combined temperature and humidity measurements is presented. The main purpose of the device is to monitor the hermeticity of micro-packages for implanted integrated circuits and to ensure their safe operation by monitoring the operating temperature and humidity on-chip. The smart sensor has two modes of operation, in which either the temperature or humidity is converted into a digital code representing a frequency ratio between two oscillators. This ratio is determined by the ratios of the timing capacitances and bias currents in both oscillators. The reference oscillator is biased by a current whose temperature dependency is complementary to the proportional to absolute temperature (PTAT) current. For the temperature measurement, this results in an exceptional normalized sensitivity of about 0.77%/°C at the accepted expense of reduced linearity. The humidity sensor is a capacitor, whose value varies linearly with relative humidity (RH) with a normalized sensitivity of 0.055%/% RH. For comparison, two versions of the humidity sensor with an area of either 0.2 mm2 or 1.2 mm2 were fabricated in a commercial 0.18 μm CMOS process. The on-chip readout electronics operate from a 5 V power supply and consume a current of approximately 85 μA. PMID:25230305

  14. A CMOS smart temperature and humidity sensor with combined readout.

    PubMed

    Eder, Clemens; Valente, Virgilio; Donaldson, Nick; Demosthenous, Andreas

    2014-09-16

    A fully-integrated complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor for combined temperature and humidity measurements is presented. The main purpose of the device is to monitor the hermeticity of micro-packages for implanted integrated circuits and to ensure their safe operation by monitoring the operating temperature and humidity on-chip. The smart sensor has two modes of operation, in which either the temperature or humidity is converted into a digital code representing a frequency ratio between two oscillators. This ratio is determined by the ratios of the timing capacitances and bias currents in both oscillators. The reference oscillator is biased by a current whose temperature dependency is complementary to the proportional to absolute temperature (PTAT) current. For the temperature measurement, this results in an exceptional normalized sensitivity of about 0.77%/°C at the accepted expense of reduced linearity. The humidity sensor is a capacitor, whose value varies linearly with relative humidity (RH) with a normalized sensitivity of 0.055%/% RH. For comparison, two versions of the humidity sensor with an area of either 0.2 mm2 or 1.2 mm2 were fabricated in a commercial 0.18 μm CMOS process. The on-chip readout electronics operate from a 5 V power supply and consume a current of approximately 85 µA.

  15. Spectrophotometric readout for an alanine dosimeter for food irradiation applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebraheem, S.; Beshir, W. B.; Eid, S.; Sobhy, R.; Kovács, A.

    2003-06-01

    The alanine-electron spin resonance (EPR) readout system is well known as a reference and transfer dosimetry system for the evaluation of high doses in radiation processing. The high cost of an EPR/alanine dosimetry system is a serious handicap for large-scale routine application in irradiation facilities. In this study, the use of a complex produced by dissolving irradiated L-alanine in 1,4-phenyl diammonium dichloride solution was investigated for dosimetry purposes. This complex—having a purple colour—has an increasing absorbance with increasing dose in the range of 1-20 kGy. The applicability of spectrophotometric evaluation was studied by measuring the absorbance intensity of this complex at 360 and 505 nm, respectively. Fluorimetric evaluation was also investigated by measuring the emission of the complex at 435 nm as a function of dose. The present method is easy for routine application. The effect of the dye concentration as well as the suitable amount of irradiated alanine has been studied. With respect to routine application, the stability of the product complex after its formation was also investigated.

  16. Development of advanced electron holographic techniques and application to industrial materials and devices.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kazuo; Hirayama, Tsukasa; Tanji, Takayoshi

    2013-06-01

    The development of a transmission electron microscope equipped with a field emission gun paved the way for electron holography to be put to practical use in various fields. In this paper, we review three advanced electron holography techniques: on-line real-time electron holography, three-dimensional (3D) tomographic holography and phase-shifting electron holography, which are becoming important techniques for materials science and device engineering. We also describe some applications of electron holography to the analysis of industrial materials and devices: GaAs compound semiconductors, solid oxide fuel cells and all-solid-state lithium ion batteries.

  17. Electronic Publishing and Collection Development, a Subscription Agent's View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallas, Philip

    Trends in publishing, advances in technology and pressures on library budgets have combined to put libraries and publishers at odds with each other. Research libraries expect broad, easy access to electronic information, greater convenience and faster delivery but at reduced cost. Publishers are exploring new channels for distributing their…

  18. Resistive graphene humidity sensors with rapid and direct electrical readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Anderson D.; Elgammal, Karim; Niklaus, Frank; Delin, Anna; Fischer, Andreas C.; Vaziri, Sam; Forsberg, Fredrik; Råsander, Mikael; Hugosson, Håkan; Bergqvist, Lars; Schröder, Stephan; Kataria, Satender; Östling, Mikael; Lemme, Max C.

    2015-11-01

    investigate the sensitivity of the graphene devices towards water vapor. The interaction between the electrostatic dipole moment of the water and the impurity bands in the SiO2 substrate leads to electrostatic doping of the graphene layer. The proposed graphene sensor provides rapid response direct electrical readout and is compatible with back end of the line (BEOL) integration on top of CMOS-based integrated circuits. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06038a

  19. Specifications of analog-to-digital converter for uncooled infrared readout circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, Patrick; Durand, Alain; Gravot, Vincent; Pochic, David; Tissot, Jean-Luc

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents how to specify an ADC to digitalize the analog video of the uncooled infrared readout circuit. In a first part the main features will be discussed to select the right resolution, SNR, THD and ENOB of the converter. In a second part the characteristics more specifically sensitive for an ADC integrated in the readout circuit will be presented: architecture, power consumption, electrical dynamic range, crosstalk issues. Indeed, the increasing demand for integrated functions in uncooled readout circuits leads to on-chip ADC design as interface between the internal analog core and the digital processing electronic. In addition this IP could be seen as an inescapable link to integrate also NUC, BPR or all other processing functions on-chip. However specifying an on-chip ADC dedicated to focal plane array raises many questions about its architecture and its performance requirements. We show two architectural approaches are needed to cover the different sensor features in term of array size and frame speed. Finally we will conclude with a trade-off between external or internal approach taking into account the application of the camera, the cost and the ADC state of art.

  20. On-ground characterization of the Euclid's CCD273-based readout chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szafraniec, Magdalena; Azzollini, R.; Cropper, M.; Pottinger, S.; Khalil, A.; Hailey, M.; Hu, D.; Plana, C.; Cutts, A.; Hunt, T.; Kohley, R.; Walton, D.; Theobald, C.; Sharples, R.; Schmoll, J.; Ferrando, P.

    2016-07-01

    Euclid is a medium class European Space Agency mission scheduled for launch in 2020. The goal of the survey is to examine the nature of Dark Matter and Dark Energy in the Universe. One of the cosmological probes used to analyze Euclid's data, the weak lensing technique, measures the distortions of galaxy shapes and this requires very accurate knowledge of the system point spread function (PSF). Therefore, to ensure that the galaxy shape is not affected, the detector chain of the telescope's VISible Instrument (VIS) needs to meet specific performance performance requirements. Each of the 12 VIS readout chains consisting of 3 CCDs, readout electronics (ROE) and a power supply unit (RPSU) will undergo a rigorous on-ground testing to ensure that these requirements are met. This paper reports on the current status of the warm and cold testing of the VIS Engineering Model readout chain. Additionally, an early insight to the commissioning of the Flight Model calibration facility and program is provided.