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Sample records for ready-to-use fortified spread

  1. Complementary feeding with fortified spread and incidence of severe stunting in 6- to 18-month-old rural Malawians

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to compare growth and incidence of malnutrition in infants receiving long-term dietary supplementation with ready-to-use fortified spread (FS) or micronutrient-fortified maize-soy flour (likuni phala [LP]). A total of 182 6-month-old infants in rural Malawi were rando...

  2. Improved quality of a vitamin B12-fortified 'ready to blend' fresh-cut mix salad with chitosan.

    PubMed

    Artés-Hernández, Francisco; Formica-Oliveira, Anna Carolina; Artés, Francisco; Martínez-Hernández, Ginés Benito

    2017-09-01

    A vitamin B12-fortified (0.25 mg L -1 ) chitosan (10 g L -1 ) coating was applied to a ready-to-blend fresh-cut salad including melon, pineapple and carrot, which was stored at 5 ℃ up to nine days. Uncoated samples were used as control while the vitamin B12 effect was compared to non-fortified chitosan-coated samples. Beverages were prepared on blending days 0, 4, 7 and 9 with subsequent storage at 5 ℃ for 0, 24 and 48 h. Physicochemical quality of fresh blended beverages was well preserved throughout storage. The chitosan coating highly reduced epiphytic microflora growth and polyphenoloxidase/peroxidase activities. No relevant variations of total phenolic contents were observed between different fresh blended beverages. However, its total antioxidant capacity reported after blending was lower as storage time of ready-to-blend samples increased. Fortified samples showed a vitamin B12 content of 8.6 µg kg -1 on processing day, ensuring 200 mL of such beverage the recommended daily intake of this vitamin. In conclusion, a ready-to-blend fruit/vegetable mix, fortified with vitamin B12, was developed with a shelf life of nine days at 5 ℃ showing the prepared beverages good quality during subsequent storage for 48 h at 5 ℃.

  3. [Physical and chemical stability of fortified ophtalmic ready-to-use solutions: review of literature].

    PubMed

    Sourdeau, P; Evrard, J-M; Remy, G; Hecq, J-D

    2012-03-01

    Ophtalmic infections and inflammations are often encountered during hospitalization. They require the preparation of "fortified" ophtalmic solutions, i.e. pharmaceutical ophtalmic solutions which are hyperconcentrated in active substance. The data of physicochemical stabilities are modified and it is therefore essential to gather the results of the various publications devoted to this subject. In 2006, an initial literature review was undertaken to identify the molecules mostly used in the preparation of fortified ophtalmic solutions in hospital. A second review of the literature in 2010 has enriched the knowledge about it. Two new drugs have entered the summary table: amikacin and ticarcillin disodium. Date on 12 molecules already known in 2006 were updated to improve clinical practices. A review of the literature was undertaken in order to collect the results of the molecules mostly used for the preparation of the fortified ophtalmic solutions in hospitals. A summary table, indicating the active substance, its concentration, the assay method, the storage temperature and physicochemical modifications, presents all the results. This review of literature makes it possible to match stability and validity period to these preparations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Local production and provision of ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) spread for the treatment of severe childhood malnutrition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) spread has been shown to be very effective in the rehabilitation of severely malnourished children and facilitates home-based therapy of these children. RUTF spread is an edible lipid-based paste that is energy dense, resists bacterial contamination, and requires...

  5. Impact of daily consumption of iron fortified ready-to-eat cereal and pumpkin seed kernels (Cucurbita pepo) on serum iron in adult women.

    PubMed

    Naghii, Mohammad Reza; Mofid, Mahmood

    2007-01-01

    Iron deficiency, anemia, is the most prevalent nutritional problem in the world today. The objective of this study was to consider the effectiveness of consumption of iron fortified ready-to-eat cereal and pumpkin seed kernels as two sources of dietary iron on status of iron nutrition and response of hematological characteristics of women at reproductive ages. Eight healthy female, single or non pregnant subjects, aged 20-37 y consumed 30 g of iron fortified ready-to-eat cereal (providing 7.1 mg iron/day) plus 30 g of pumpkin seed kernels (providing 4.0 mg iron/day) for four weeks. Blood samples collected on the day 20 of menstrual cycles before and after consumption and indices of iron status such as reticulocyte count, hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht), serum ferritin, iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin and transferrin saturation percent were determined. Better response for iron status was observed after consumption period. The statistical analysis showed a significant difference between the pre and post consumption phase for higher serum iron (60 +/- 22 vs. 85 +/- 23 ug/dl), higher transferrin saturation percent (16.8 +/- 8.0 vs. 25.6 +/- 9.0%), and lower TIBC (367 +/- 31 vs. 339 +/- 31 ug/dl). All individuals had higher serum iron after consumption. A significant positive correlation (r=0.981, p=0.000) between the differences in serum iron levels and differences in transferrin saturation percentages and a significant negative correlation (r=-0.916, p<0.001) between the differences in serum iron levels and differences in TIBC was found, as well. Fortified foods contribute to maintaining optimal nutritional status and minimizing the likelihood of iron insufficiencies and use of fortified ready-to-eat cereals is a common strategy. The results showed that adding another food source of iron such as pumpkin seed kernels improves the iron status. Additional and longer studies using these two food products are recommended to further determine the

  6. The effect of lipids, a lipid-rich ready-to-use therapeutic food, or a phytase on iron absorption from maize-based meals fortified with micronutrient powders.

    PubMed

    Monnard, Arnaud; Moretti, Diego; Zeder, Christophe; Steingötter, Andreas; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2017-06-01

    Background: Ready-to-use-therapeutic foods (RUTFs) high in lipid, protein, and iron are used to treat malnutrition. Lipids increase gastric residence time, which could increase iron absorption, particularly from poorly soluble iron compounds and in combination with phytase. Objectives: The objectives were to 1 ) assess the effect on iron absorption of a lipid emulsion given 20 min before or together with an iron-fortified maize meal and 2 ) assess iron absorption from a micronutrient powder (MNP) given with a nutrient-dense RUTF and/or a microbial phytase. Design: A total of 41 women participated in 3 studies. They consumed a maize meal fortified with isotopically labeled ferrous sulfate (FeSO 4 ; study 1) or ferric pyrophosphate (FePP; study 2). In studies 1 and 2, a lipid emulsion was given with or 20 min before the meal. In study 3, with the use of a 2 × 2 factorial design, subjects consumed a maize meal fortified with an MNP containing labeled FeSO 4 (MNP) given with an RUTF (MNP+RUTF), with a phytase (MNP+phytase), or both (MNP+RUTF+phytase). Iron absorption was assessed by isotope incorporation in erythrocytes 14 d after the test meals. Results: The lipid emulsion given either before or with the meal significantly increased iron absorption from FePP by 2.55-fold (95% CI: 1.48-, 4.37-fold; P = 0.001) but not from FeSO 4 There was a trend to increase iron absorption with the MNP+RUTF meal, which did not reach significance (1.21-fold; 95% CI: 0.92-, 1.61-fold; P = 0.060). The addition of phytase to MNP and MNP+RUTF significantly increased iron absorption by 1.85-fold (95% CI: 1.49-, 2.29-fold; P < 0.001), with no interaction between phytase and RUTF. Conclusions: In iron-fortified maize-based meals, the addition of lipids more than doubles iron absorption from FePP. Our results suggest the possibility of an enhancing effect on iron absorption of lipid-rich RUTFs, but more research is needed to determine this. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as

  7. COMPLEMENTARY FEEDING WITH FORTIFIED SPREAD IS LIKELY TO REDUCE THE INCIDENCE OF SEVERE STUNTING AMONG 6–18 MONTH OLD RURAL MALAWIAN INFANTS

    PubMed Central

    Phuka, John C.; Maleta, Kenneth; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Cheung, Yin Bun; Briend, André; Manary, Mark J.; Ashorn, Per

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare growth and incidence of malnutrition among infants receiving long-term dietary complementation with ready-to-use fortified spread (FS) or micronutrient fortified maize-soy flour (LP). Design Randomized, controlled, single-blind trial Setting Rural Malawian population with high incidence of malnutrition Participants 182 six-month-old infants. Intervention Participants were randomized to receive 1-year-long daily supplementation with either 71g of LP (282 kcal energy / day), 50g FS50 (256 kcal), or 25g FS25 (127 kcal). Main outcome measures Weight and length gain, incidence of severe stunting, underweight, and wasting. Results The mean weight and length gains in LP, FS50 and FS25 groups were 2.37, 2.47, and 2.37 kg (p= 0.658) and 12.7, 13.5, and 13.2 cm (p=0.234), respectively. In the same groups, cumulative 12-month incidence of severe stunting was 14.0%, 0.0% and 4.0% (p=0.011), severe underweight 15.0%, 22.5% and 16.9% (p=0.706), and severe wasting 1.8%, 1.9% and 1.8% (p=0.999). Compared to LP-supplemented infants, those given FS50 gained on average (95%CI;p) 100 g (−143 to 343; p=0.419) more weight and 0.8 cm (−0.1 to 1.7; p=0.091) more length. There was a significant interaction between baseline length and intervention (p=0.042); among children with below-median length at enrolment, those given FS50 gained on average 1.9 cm (0.3 to 3.5; p=0.020) more than individuals receiving LP. Conclusions One-year-long complementary feeding with FS does not have significantly larger effect than maize-soy flour on the average weight gain of all infants, but it seems to boost linear growth in the disadvantaged individuals and hence decrease the incidence of severe stunting. PMID:18606932

  8. Growth and change in blood haemoglobin concentration among underweight Malawian infants receiving fortified spreads for 12 weeks: a preliminary trial

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fortified spreads (FSs) have proven effective in the rehabilitation of severely malnourished children. We examined acceptability, growth and change in blood haemoglobin (Hb) concentration among moderately underweight ambulatory infants given FS. This was a randomised, controlled, parallel-group, inv...

  9. A novel fortified blended flour, corn-soy blend “plus-plus,” is not inferior to lipid-based ready-to-use supplementary foods for the treatment of moderate acute malnutrition in Malawian children12345

    PubMed Central

    LaGrone, Lacey N; Trehan, Indi; Meuli, Gus J; Wang, Richard J; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Maleta, Kenneth; Manary, Mark J

    2012-01-01

    Background: Children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) are often treated with fortified blended flours, most commonly a corn-soy blend (CSB). However, recovery rates remain <75%, lower than the rate achieved with peanut paste–based ready-to-use supplementary foods (RUSFs). To bridge this gap, a novel CSB recipe fortified with oil and dry skim milk, “CSB++,” has been developed. Objective: In this trial we compared CSB++ with 2 RUSF products for the treatment of MAM to test the hypothesis that the recovery rate achieved with CSB++ will not be >5% worse than that achieved with either RUSF. Design: We conducted a prospective, randomized, investigator-blinded, controlled noninferiority trial involving rural Malawian children aged 6–59 mo with MAM. Children received 75 kcal CSB++ · kg−1 · d−1, locally produced soy RUSF, or an imported soy/whey RUSF for ≤12 wk. Results: The recovery rate for CSB++ (n = 763 of 888; 85.9%) was similar to that for soy RUSF (795 of 806, 87.7%; risk difference: −1.82%; 95% CI: −4.95%, 1.30%) and soy/whey RUSF (807 of 918, 87.9%; risk difference: −1.99%; 95% CI: −5.10%, 1.13%). On average, children who received CSB++ required 2 d longer to recover, and the rate of weight gain was less than that with either RUSF, although height gain was the same among all 3 foods studied. Conclusions: A novel, locally produced, fortified blended flour (CSB++) was not inferior to a locally produced soy RUSF and an imported soy/whey RUSF in facilitating recovery from MAM. The recovery rate observed for CSB++ was higher than that for any other fortified blended flour tested previously. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00998517. PMID:22170366

  10. Trial of ready-to-use supplemental food and corn-soy blend in pregnant Malawian women with moderate malnutrition: A randomized controlled clinical trial

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Malnutrition during pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa is associated with poor birth outcomes. This study compared maternal and offspring anthropometry for moderately malnourished pregnant women receiving ready-to-use supplemental food (RUSF), a fortified corn-soy blend (CSB+) with a daily multiple mi...

  11. Growth and change in blood haemoglobin concentration among underweight Malawian infants receiving fortified spreads for 12 weeks: a preliminary trial.

    PubMed

    Kuusipalo, Heli; Maleta, Kenneth; Briend, André; Manary, Mark; Ashorn, Per

    2006-10-01

    Fortified spreads (FSs) have proven effective in the rehabilitation of severely malnourished children. We examined acceptability, growth and change in blood haemoglobin (Hb) concentration among moderately underweight ambulatory infants given FS. This was a randomised, controlled, parallel-group, investigator-blind clinical trial in rural Malawi. Six- to 17-month-old underweight infants (weight for age < -2), whose weight was greater than 5.5 kg and weight-for-height z score greater than -3 received for 12 weeks at home 1 of 8 food supplementation schemes: nothing, 5, 25, 50, or 75 g/day milk-based FS or 25, 50, or 75 g/day soy-based FS. Outcome measures included change in weight, length and blood Hb concentration. A total of 126 infants started and 125 completed the intervention. All infants accepted the spread well, and no intolerance was recorded. Average weight and length gains were higher among infants receiving daily 25 to 75 g FS than among those receiving only 0 to 5 g FS. Mean Hb concentration remained unchanged among unsupplemented controls but increased by 10 to 17 g/L among infants receiving any FS. All average gains were largest among infants receiving 50 g of FS daily: mean difference (95% confidence interval) in the 12-week gain between infants in 50 g milk-based FS group and the unsupplemented group was 290 g (range, -130 to 700 g), 0.9 cm (range, -0.3 to 2.2 cm), and 17 g/L (range, 0 to 34 g/L) for weight, length and blood Hb concentration, respectively. In soy- vs milk-based FS groups, average outcomes were comparable. Supplementation with 25 to 75 g/day of highly fortified spread is feasible and may promote growth and alleviate anaemia among moderately malnourished infants. Further trials should test this hypothesis.

  12. A survey of foodstuffs fortified with vitamins available on the market in Warsaw.

    PubMed

    Sicińska, Ewa; Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Masalska, Katarzyna; Wronowski, Sylwester

    2013-01-01

    Foodstuffs fortified with vitamins and/or minerals are nowadays continually being developed, leading to an increasing diversity of these products being available on the market. This contributes to increased consumption of added nutrients, which can be an effective tool for improving public health. To identify and characterise products fortified with vitamins, available on the Warsaw foodstuff market, which can thereby be used as a source of information for the assessment of dietary micronutrient intake. Data were gathered using the information provided on labels from foodstuff products found in 14 Warsaw supermarkets during March to October 2012. There were 588 products found to be fortified with vitamins. The number of vitamins added ranged from one in 193 products to twelve in 14 products. The group of vitamins used for enrichment consisted of: A, D, E, B1, B2, B6, B12, C, niacin, pantothenic acid, folic acid and biotin. Juices, non-alcoholic beverages (29.4%) and cereal products (18.9%) constituted the largest product groups. In addition, fortified vitamins were also significantly present in sweets (15.8%), instant beverages and desserts (13.6%), milk products, fat spreads and soy products. The most frequently added vitamins were: vitamin C (58% products), vitamin B6 (46%) and B12 (45%), whilst the least frequently added was biotin (16%). The highest content of vitamins A and D were seen in fat spreads, whereas the highest levels of B vitamins, vitamin C and E were observed in certain sweets. The wide range of fortified products available can serve to increase vitamin intake in many population groups, especially in children and teenagers. In order that consumers can make informed choices in buying these product types, appropriate education is necessary to raise public awareness of the health issues involved.

  13. Vitamin D concentrations in fortified foods and dietary supplements intended for infants: Implications for vitamin D intake.

    PubMed

    Verkaik-Kloosterman, Janneke; Seves, S Marije; Ocké, Marga C

    2017-04-15

    Due to potential overages to cover losses during shelf life, the actual vitamin D concentration of fortified foods and dietary supplements may deviate from the label. In this pilot study the vitamin D concentrations of fortified foods (n=29; follow-on formula, baby porridge, curd cheese dessert) and dietary supplements (n=15), both specifically intended for infants, were analytically determined. Compared to the declared values, the vitamin D content ranged from 50% to 153% for fortified foods and from 8% to 177% for supplements. In general, both instant follow-on formula and oil-based supplements had a measured vitamin D content similar to or higher than the labelled value. Ready-to-eat baby porridge was the only category in which all measured vitamin D concentrations were below the declared value (74-81%). The use of label information for fortified foods and dietary supplements may result in invalid estimations of vitamin D intake distributions of infants; both under- and overestimation may occur. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. An energy-dense complementary food is associated with a modest increase in weight gain when compared with a fortified porridge in Malawian children aged 6-18 months

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Poor complementary feeding practices are associated with stunting and growth faltering throughout the developing world. The objective was to compare the effect of using peanut-/soy-based fortified spread (FS) and corn porridge fortified with fish powder (FP) as complementary foods on growth in rural...

  15. Use of Highly Fortified Products among US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Rebecca B; Dwyer, Johanna T; Bailey, Regan L; Saldanha, Leila; French, Steven

    2015-01-01

    It is complicated to ascertain the composition and prevalence of the use of highly fortified food and supplement products (HFPs) because HFP foods and HFP supplements have different labeling requirements. However, HFPs (energy bars, energy drinks, sports drinks, protein bars, energy shots, and fortified foods/beverages) are popular in the United States. A web-based survey balanced to reflect US census data was used to describe their use in a sample of 2,355 US adults >18 yr in 2011 and trends in their use from 2005. In 2011, 33% of adults reported using HFP; use was significantly higher among males, African Americans, Hispanics, and more highly educated individuals (e.g. some college or more) and those <45 yr compared to non-users. Multiple product use was common. Of users, 46% consumed sports drinks, 37% fortified foods/beverages, 32% protein bars, 27% energy drinks, 24% energy bars, and 12% energy shots. For those HFP products as a group, prevalence of use was 36% (n=2039) in 2005, 35% in 2009 (n=2010), and 30% in 2011 (n=2355). Although use was significantly lower in 2011 than in 2005 especially among females, non-Hispanics, and those with high school education or less (P≤0.05). HFP, particularly energy and sports drinks, continue to be widely used by many U.S. adults. PMID:26823624

  16. Biscuits fortified with micro-encapsulated shrimp oil: characteristics and storage stability.

    PubMed

    Takeungwongtrakul, Sirima; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2017-04-01

    Characteristics and storage stability of biscuits fortified with micro-encapsulated shrimp oil (MSO) were determined. The addition of MSO increased spread ratio, whilst decreased the thickness of biscuit. The highest hardness of biscuit was obtained with addition of 9 or 12% MSO. Biscuit surface showed higher redness and yellowness when MSO was incorporated ( p  < 0.05). The addition of MSO up to 6% had no adverse effect on biscuit quality and acceptability. When biscuits added with 6% MSO were stored under different illumination conditions (light and dark), lipid oxidation in all samples increased throughout the storage of 12 days. Light accelerated lipid oxidation of biscuits as evidenced by the increases in both peroxide values and abundance of volatile compounds. No marked change in EPA, DHA and astaxanthin contents were noticeable in biscuit fortified with MSO after 12 days of storage. Therefore, the biscuit could be fortified with MSO up to 6% and must be stored in dark to assure its oxidative stability.

  17. Growth, efficacy, and safety of feeding an iron-fortified human milk fortifier.

    PubMed

    Berseth, Carol Lynn; Van Aerde, John E; Gross, Steven; Stolz, Suzanne I; Harris, Cheryl L; Hansen, James W

    2004-12-01

    study day 28, fewer HMF-T infants (n = 12) required a blood transfusion than did HMF-C infants (n = 20). Although the higher levels of iron in the HMF-T fortifier (1.44 mg vs 0.35 mg for HMF-C per 4 packets of powdered fortifier) did not prevent anemia per se, it did reduce the frequency of one of the most serious outcomes of anemia: the need for a blood transfusion. There was no statistically significant difference between fortifier groups in regard to feeding tolerance. Rates of suspected sepsis (26% HMF-T vs 31% HMF-C) and confirmed sepsis (5% HMF-T, 7% HMF-C) were low as were the rates of suspected necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC; 6% HMF-T and 5% HMF-C) and confirmed Bell's stage 2 or more NEC (1% HMF-T and 1% HMF-C). There were no statistically significant differences between the study fortifier groups in regard to the incidence of confirmed and suspected sepsis and NEC. Both human milk fortifiers studied are safe, are well tolerated, and facilitate comparable good growth; however, using the iron-fortified product may reduce the need for blood transfusions in VLBW infants. The similar low rates of suspected and confirmed NEC and sepsis seen in both fortifier groups in this study refutes the premise that the inclusion of iron in fortifiers will increase the incidence of sepsis and NEC. Indeed, the incidence for NEC and sepsis for both groups in this study was lower than is reported for VLBW infants and similar to that seen for infants who are fed human milk.

  18. Parental Influences on Dairy Intake in Children, and Their Role in Child Calcium-Fortified Food Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Beth H.; Chung, Kimberly R.; Reckase, Mark; Schoemer, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To understand how parental influences on dairy food intake relate to early adolescent children's use of calcium-fortified food. Design: Content analysis of qualitative interviews to identify parental influences on dairy intake; calcium-fortified food survey to identify children as either calcium-fortified food users or nonusers. Setting…

  19. Quality Improvement of Cheese Spread

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-25

    is a popular component used in the U.S. military feeding program in Meal , Ready to-Eat (MRE) rations. Currently, the military requires a 3-yr shelf...Rations, Cheese Spread, CORANET, Meal , Ready-to-Eat (MRE), Operational Rations, Unclassified U U U U 33 Lana Zivanovic 865-974-0844 ii Table of...program in Meal , Ready- to-Eat (MRE) rations. Currently, the military requires a 3-yr shelf life if stored at 80°F. However, due to product deployment

  20. Quality of ready to serve tilapia fish curry with PUFA in retortable pouches.

    PubMed

    Dhanapal, K; Reddy, G V S; Nayak, B B; Basu, S; Shashidhar, K; Venkateshwarlu, G; Chouksey, M K

    2010-09-01

    Studies on the physical, chemical, and microbiological qualities of fresh tilapia meat revealed its suitability for the preparation of ready to eat fish curry packed in retort pouches. Studies on the fatty acid profile of tilapia meat suggest fortification with polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) to increase the nutritional value. Based on the commercial sterility, sensory evaluation, color, and texture profile analysis F(0) value of 6.94 and cook value of 107.24, with a total process time of 50.24 min at 116 °C was satisfactory for the development of tilapia fish curry in retort pouches. Thermally processed ready to eat south Indian type tilapia fish curry fortified with PUFA was developed and its keeping quality studied at ambient temperature. During storage, a slight increase in the fat content of fish meat was observed, with no significant change in the contents of moisture, protein, and ash. The thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of fish curry significantly increased during storage. Fish curry fortified with 1% cod liver oil and fish curry without fortification (control) did not show any significant difference in the levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), during thermal processing and storage. Sensory analysis revealed that fortification of fish curry with cod liver oil had no impact on the quality. Tilapia fish curry processed at 116 °C and F(0) value of 7.0 (with or without fortification of cod liver oil) was fit for consumption, even after a period of 1-y storage in retort pouch. Tilapia is a lean variety of fish with white flesh and therefore an ideal choice as raw material for the development of ready to serve fish products such as fish curry in retort pouches for both domestic and international markets. Ready to eat thermal processed (116 °C and F(0) value of 7.0) south Indian type tilapia fish curry enriched with PUFA and packed in retort pouch was acceptable for consumption even after a storage period of 1 y at ambient

  1. [Survey of the present-day supply of fortified food products in Germany].

    PubMed

    Kersting, M; Hansen, C; Schöch, G

    1995-12-01

    A survey and critical evaluation of the present-day supply of fortified common food products on the German market is presented concerning products, nutrients and amounts for fortification. The data were collected from the original food labels by personal informations from the manufacturers (40 asked, 68% answered) and by a local market survey in Dortmund (spring 1994). A total of 288 fortified food products (78 manufacturers) were found out of 6 different food products (78 manufacturers) were found out of 6 different food categories (manufacturers/products): beverages (26/95), sweets (24/57), cereals (5/53), milk products (7/35), powdered instant beverages (10/31), ready-to-eat meals (6/17). Sugar was added to 56% of the fortified products. A total of 10 vitamins (E, B1, B2, B6, B12, C, niacin, folate, biotin, pantothenic acid) and 7 minerals (Na, K, Cl, Ca, P, Mg, Fe) were used for fortification. The number of nutrients used for fortification in single products ranged from 1 (94 products) to 16 (3 products). The amounts used for fortification per average portion varied considerably among the different products and the different nutrients in the food categories. In a considerable number of cases, amounts for fortification of more than 100% (maximum 660%) of the recommended daily dose of a nutrient (EC-directive for nutrition labelling) have been observed. Relatively to the contribution of a portion to meet the energy requirement, the fortification of cereals and milk-products (about 30%) as well as of sweets (about 10%) could be rated as acceptable whereas the fortification of beverages (about 50-100%) was overdone. The present-day supply of fortified food is extremely heterogenous from the qualitative and quantitative point of view. Therefore, it is rather difficult for the consumer to reach an overall nutrient intake that is in accordance with the recommendations. The specific requirements of children, who are a preferred group for food advertising, are not at

  2. The role of fortified foods and nutritional supplements in increasing vitamin D intake in Irish preschool children.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Áine; Browne, Fiona; Kiely, Mairead; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert

    2017-04-01

    There are limited data on the contribution of fortified foods and nutritional supplements to intakes of vitamin D in young children. Our objective was to examine the intake, adequacy, risk of excessive intake and sources of dietary vitamin D. The nationally representative cross-sectional dietary survey of young children (aged 1-4 years) (n 500) was used to evaluate vitamin D intake and quantify the contribution of the base diet, fortified foods and nutritional supplements to total intake. Median (IQR) intakes of vitamin D were generally low in this young population, ranging from 2.0 (1.9) to 2.5 (4.9) µg/day. Ninety-three and 78 % of children had intakes below 10 and 5 µg/day, respectively. While vitamin D supplement users (17 %) had the highest intakes [6.7 (6.4) µg/day] (P < 0.001), 74 % had intakes below 10 µg/day. Vitamin D-fortified foods, consumed by 77 % of children [2.2 (2.0) µg/day], made nutritionally significant contributions to intake [0.8 (1.6) µg/day], particularly in younger children [1.5 (4.6) µg/day]. Children who did not use nutritional supplements or fortified foods had significantly (P < 0.001) lower intakes of vitamin D than the other groups [1.0 (0.8) µg/day]. Our analyses show the importance of milk and yoghurt, meat and fortified ready-to-eat cereals as sources of vitamin D in this age group. The use of nutritional supplements or fortified foods at current levels does not represent a risk of intakes exceeding the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) tolerable upper intake level (UL) (50 µg/day), as intakes did not exceed or even approach the UL (P95: 22 % of UL). Intakes of vitamin D in preschool children in Ireland are generally low. Nutritional supplements and fortified foods make significant contributions to intakes of vitamin D, without risk of unacceptably high intakes. Though supplements are effective in raising intakes of vitamin D in users, uptake is low (17 %). Food fortification may represent a

  3. Fortifying fresh human milk with commercial powdered human milk fortifiers does not affect bacterial growth during 6 hours at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Telang, Sucheta; Berseth, Carol Lynn; Ferguson, Paul W; Kinder, Julie M; DeRoin, Mark; Petschow, Bryon W

    2005-10-01

    To evaluate the growth of resident aerobic mesophilic flora and added Enterobacter sakazakii in fresh, unfortified human milk; fresh human milk fortified with two commercial powdered fortifiers differing in iron content; and infant formula prepared from powder. Eight mothers provided preterm breast milk samples. Breast milk samples were divided into three aliquots: unfortified, fortified with fortifier containing 1.44 mg iron/14 kcal, and fortified with fortifier containing 0.4 mg iron/14 kcal. Aliquots of formula were prepared. Breast milk and formula aliquots were divided into two test samples. Half were inoculated with low amounts of E sakazakii; half were not. All test samples were maintained at room temperature (22 degrees C), serially diluted, and plated onto agars after 0, 2, 4, and 6 hours. Plates were incubated at 35 degrees C and enumerated. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance. P<.05 was considered significant. There were no differences in colony counts of aerobic bacteria among uninoculated or among inoculated human milk samples at any time; counts did not increase significantly over 6 hours. There were no differences in colony counts of E sakazakii among inoculated human milk samples at any time; counts did not increase significantly over 6 hours. Aerobic bacteria and E sakazakii colony counts from infant formula did not increase significantly over 6 hours. During 6 hours at 22 degrees C, fresh human milk and formula had negligible bacterial growth; fortifying human milk with powdered fortifiers did not affect bacterial growth.

  4. Vitamin-Fortified Snack Food May Lead Consumers to Make Poor Dietary Decisions.

    PubMed

    Verrill, Linda; Wood, Dallas; Cates, Sheryl; Lando, Amy; Zhang, Yuanting

    2017-03-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) fortification policy discourages the fortification of certain foods, including sugars and snack foods such as cookies, candies, cakes, chips, and carbonated beverages, yet manufacturers sometimes add vitamins and minerals to snack foods. To assess whether vitamin-fortified snack foods affect consumers' information-seeking, purchase decisions, and product-related health perceptions. For this experimental study, participants were randomly assigned to study conditions to compare products that varied in product type, nutrition profile, and fortification and nutrient claim status. Data were collected via an online consumer panel. US adults aged 18 years and older were randomly selected from Research Now's e-panel online household panel. Data were collected during fall 2014 (N=5,076). Participants were randomly assigned to one of 24 conditions: two products (vegetable chip/potato chip), two nutrition profiles (healthier/less healthy), two fortification scenarios (not fortified/fortified), and three nutrient claim conditions (two no claim/one with claim). The design was not balanced; claims were not shown on products that were not vitamin fortified. Outcome measures were information-seeking (viewed the Nutrition Facts label), purchase decisions, perception of product healthfulness, and correct selection of product with the healthier nutrient profile. Logistic regression was used to test all models. Analyses was adjusted for general label use, consumes product, health status, age, sex, level of education, presence of children in the household, and race/ethnicity. When the snack food carried a nutrient claim for vitamin fortification, participants were 1) less likely to look for nutrition information on the Nutrition Facts label, 2) more likely to select the product for purchase, 3) more likely to perceive the product as healthier, and 4) less likely to correctly choose the healthier product. Snack foods that have been vitamin-fortified

  5. Consumption of fortified food between 1985 and 1996 in 2- to 14-year-old German children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sichert-Hellert, W; Kersting, M; Schöch, G

    1999-01-01

    Since the 1980s, fortified food plays an increasing role in food marketing in Germany. However, there is a lack of data concerning fortified food consumption. We therefore evaluated dietary information of the DONALD Study. A total of 2251 3-days weighed records between 1986 and 1996 from 637 different subjects aged between 2 and 14 years (mean: 6.6 years) were evaluated. Food products were defined as fortified if enriched at least with one of the following nutrients: vitamin A (including provitamin A carotenoids), E, B1, B2, B6, C, niacin, folate, calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron or phosphate. Products were grouped in 'Diary products', 'Cereals', 'Beverages', 'Instant Beverages', 'Sweets/biscuits', 'Fats/oils', and 'Beikost' (i.e. dietetic food intended for infants and young children under 4 years). Over the last 11 years almost all children and adolescents consumed fortified food products. Excluding the food group 'Fats/oils' the proportion of consumers of fortified food increased by about 20% between 1986 and 1996. During the same period the consumption rate increased up to five-fold for the food group 'Beverages' and fourfold for 'Cereals'. Since 1988, a relatively constant consumption ratio of 62-68 different fortified products per 100 consumers has been found. 'Beverages' showed the highest food-group-specific diversity. In Germany, vitamins are more often used than minerals to fortify food, whereas vitamin C is the most frequent added nutrient. We found some interesting time trends in the use of vitamins and minerals for fortification with a continuous increase in the use of vitamin C and E. Only vitamin A showed a decrease in use during the study period. Finally, we found a decreasing number of consumers of all fortified products at the end of the study period.

  6. Starting school healthy and ready to learn: using social indicators to improve school readiness in Los Angeles County.

    PubMed

    Wold, Cheryl; Nicholas, Will

    2007-10-01

    School readiness is an important public health outcome, determined by a set of interdependent health and developmental trajectories and influenced by a child's family, school, and community environments. The same factors that influence school readiness also influence educational success and health throughout life. A California cigarette tax ballot initiative (Proposition 10) created new resources for children aged 0 to 5 years and their families statewide through county-level First 5 commissions, including First 5 LA in Los Angeles County. An opportunity to define and promote school readiness indicators was facilitated by collaborative relationships with a strong emphasis on data among First 5 LA, the Children's Planning Council, and the Los Angeles County Public Health Department, and other child-serving organizations. A workgroup developed school readiness goals and indicators based on recommendations of the National Education Goals Panel and five key domains of child well-being: 1) good health, 2) safety and survival, 3) economic well-being, 4) social and emotional well-being, and 5) education/workforce readiness. The Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors and First 5 LA Commission adopted the school readiness indicators. First 5 LA incorporated the indicators into the results-based accountability framework for its strategic plan and developed a community-oriented report designed to educate and spur school readiness-oriented action. The Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors approved a countywide consensus-building plan designed to engage key stakeholders in the use of the indicators for planning, evaluation, and community-building activities. School readiness indicators in Los Angeles County represent an important step forward for public health practice, namely, the successful blending of an expanded role for assessment with the ecological model.

  7. Household Coverage of Fortified Staple Food Commodities in Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Aaron, Grant J; Sodani, Prahlad R; Sankar, Rajan; Fairhurst, John; Siling, Katja; Guevarra, Ernest; Norris, Alison; Myatt, Mark

    2016-01-01

    A spatially representative statewide survey was conducted in Rajasthan, India to assess household coverage of atta wheat flour, edible oil, and salt. An even distribution of primary sampling units were selected based on their proximity to centroids on a hexagonal grid laid over the survey area. A sample of n = 18 households from each of m = 252 primary sampling units PSUs was taken. Demographic data on all members of these households were collected, and a broader dataset was collected about a single caregiver and a child in the first 2 years of life. Data were collected on demographic and socioeconomic status; education; housing conditions; recent infant and child mortality; water, sanitation, and hygiene practices; food security; child health; infant and young child feeding practices; maternal dietary diversity; coverage of fortified staples; and maternal and child anthropometry. Data were collected from 4,627 households and the same number of caregiver/child pairs. Atta wheat flour was widely consumed across the state (83%); however, only about 7% of the atta wheat flour was classified as fortifiable, and only about 6% was actually fortified (mostly inadequately). For oil, almost 90% of edible oil consumed by households in the survey was classified as fortifiable, but only about 24% was fortified. For salt, coverage was high, with almost 85% of households using fortified salt and 66% of households using adequately fortified salt. Iodized salt coverage was also high; however, rural and poor population groups were less likely to be reached by the intervention. Voluntary fortification of atta wheat flour and edible oil lacked sufficient industry consolidation to cover significant portions of the population. It is crucial that appropriate delivery channels are utilized to effectively deliver essential micronutrients to at-risk population groups. Government distribution systems are likely the best means to accomplish this goal.

  8. Effectiveness of iron-fortified infant cereal in prevention of iron deficiency anemia.

    PubMed

    Walter, T; Dallman, P R; Pizarro, F; Velozo, L; Peña, G; Bartholmey, S J; Hertrampf, E; Olivares, M; Letelier, A; Arredondo, M

    1993-05-01

    Iron deficiency continues to be a common problem among infants throughout the world. Iron-fortified formula is effective in preventing iron deficiency but the benefit of iron-fortified cereal is controversial. We compared iron-fortified rice cereal to unfortified rice cereal in infants who were exclusively breast-fed for more than 4 months and to iron-fortified formula in infants who were weaned to formula before 4 months of age. The design was double blind in respect to the presence or absence of fortification iron in the cereal or formula and included 515 infants who were followed on the protocol from 4 to 15 months of age. Rice cereal was fortified with 55 mg of electrolytic iron per 100 g of dry cereal and infant formula with 12 mg of ferrous sulfate per 100 g of dry powder, levels approximating those in use in the United States. Measures of iron status were obtained at 8, 12, and 15 months. Infants with hemoglobin levels of < 105 g/L were excluded from the study and treated. Consumption of cereal reached plateaus at means of about 30 g/d after 6 months of age in the formula-fed groups and 26 g/d after 8 months in the breast-fed groups; these amounts are higher than the 19-g/d mean intake by the 73% of infants who consume such cereal in the United States. Among infants weaned to formula before 4 months, the cumulative percentages of infants excluded for anemia by 15 months were 8%, 24%, and 4%, respectively, in the fortified cereal, unfortified cereal and formula, and fortified formula groups (P < .01 unfortified vs either fortified group; the difference between the two fortified groups was not significant). In infants breast-fed for more than 4 months, the corresponding values were 13% and 27%, respectively, in the fortified and unfortified cereal groups (P < .05). Mean hemoglobin level and other iron status measures were in accord with these findings. Iron-fortified infant rice cereal can contribute substantially to preventing iron deficiency anemia.

  9. Growth is similar in premature infants fed human milk fortified with a human milk or bovine milk-based fortifier

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Preterm infants require fortification of human milk (HM) to provide adequate nutrients for growth. A human milk fortifier (HMF) made from donor human milk has recently been introduced. However, limited data are available comparing the growth outcomes of this product with current fortifiers. We evalu...

  10. The use of fortified soil-clay as on-site system for domestic wastewater purification.

    PubMed

    Oladoja, N A; Ademoroti, C M A

    2006-02-01

    The quest for simple, low-cost and high-performance decentralized wastewater treatment system for domestic application in developing nations necessitated this study. Clay samples collected from different deposits in Nigeria were characterized by studying the mineralogical and geochemical composition using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), respectively. Three major clay minerals of kaolinite, illite and smectite were identified. The geochemical studies showed the abundance of SiO2, Al2O3 and H2O+ in each of the clay samples. Performance efficiency studies were conducted to determine the best combination ratio of pebbles/soil-clay. Soil-clay fortified by pebbles in combination ratios of 1:3 (i.e. pebbles:soil-clay = 1:3 (w/w) showed the optimum water purification, while the combination 3:1 gave the least. The flow rate studies showed that the wastewater had a longer residence time in non-fortified soil-clay than in fortified soil-clay. Two modes of treatment methods were employed-single and double column treatment methods (SCT and DCT). The two methods gave effluents of good quality characteristics, but those from the DCT were of better quality. The quality of effluents also varies from one clay type to another. The quality of effluents from media containing smectite clay mineral was better than those from other columns. Repeated usage of the fortified clay column showed a decrease of pH, TS and DO, and an increase of COD when monitored over a period of 10 days.

  11. Equity in access to fortified maize flour and corn meal

    PubMed Central

    Zamora, Gerardo; De-Regil, Luz Maria

    2014-01-01

    Mass fortification of maize flour and corn meal with a single or multiple micronutrients is a public health intervention that aims to improve vitamin and mineral intake, micronutrient nutritional status, health, and development of the general population. Micronutrient malnutrition is unevenly distributed among population groups and is importantly determined by social factors, such as living conditions, socioeconomic position, gender, cultural norms, health systems, and the socioeconomic and political context in which people access food. Efforts trying to make fortified foods accessible to the population groups that most need them require acknowledgment of the role of these determinants. Using a perspective of social determinants of health, this article presents a conceptual framework to approach equity in access to fortified maize flour and corn meal, and provides nonexhaustive examples that illustrate the different levels included in the framework. Key monitoring areas and issues to consider in order to expand and guarantee a more equitable access to maize flour and corn meal are described. PMID:24329609

  12. Micronutrient Fortified Condiments and Noodles to Reduce Anemia in Children and Adults--A Literature Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hess, Sascha; Tecklenburg, Linda; Eichler, Klaus

    2016-02-15

    Micronutrient deficiencies impose a considerable burden of disease on many middle and low income countries. Several strategies have been shown to be effective in improving micronutrient deficiencies. However, the impact of fortified condiments as well as fortified noodles is less well documented. We aimed to investigate existing evidence on the impact of micronutrient fortified condiments and noodles on hemoglobin, anemia, and functional outcomes in children and adults (age: 5 to 50 years). We conducted a literature review in electronic databases. In addition, we screened the homepages of relevant organizations and journals. We included randomized controlled trials (RCT). Of 1046 retrieved studies, 14 RCT provided data for the meta-analysis. Micronutrient fortification of condiments and noodles increased hemoglobin concentrations by 0.74 g/dL (95%-confidence intervals (95%-CI): 0.56 to 0.93; 12 studies) and 0.3 g/dL (95%-CI: 0.12 to 0.48; 1 study), respectively. Micronutrient fortification also led to a reduced risk of having anemia (risk ratio 0.59 (95%-CI 0.44 to 0.80)). Ferritin concentrations increased with fortified condiments. Functional outcomes were rarely assessed and showed mixed results. The use of micronutrient fortified condiments can be a strategy to reduce anemia in children and adults due to micronutrient deficiencies. The effect of fortified noodles seems to be smaller.

  13. Micronutrient Fortified Condiments and Noodles to Reduce Anemia in Children and Adults—A Literature Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Sascha; Tecklenburg, Linda; Eichler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies impose a considerable burden of disease on many middle and low income countries. Several strategies have been shown to be effective in improving micronutrient deficiencies. However, the impact of fortified condiments as well as fortified noodles is less well documented. We aimed to investigate existing evidence on the impact of micronutrient fortified condiments and noodles on hemoglobin, anemia, and functional outcomes in children and adults (age: 5 to 50 years). We conducted a literature review in electronic databases. In addition, we screened the homepages of relevant organizations and journals. We included randomized controlled trials (RCT). Of 1046 retrieved studies, 14 RCT provided data for the meta-analysis. Micronutrient fortification of condiments and noodles increased hemoglobin concentrations by 0.74 g/dL (95%-confidence intervals (95%-CI): 0.56 to 0.93; 12 studies) and 0.3 g/dL (95%-CI: 0.12 to 0.48; 1 study), respectively. Micronutrient fortification also led to a reduced risk of having anemia (risk ratio 0.59 (95%-CI 0.44 to 0.80)). Ferritin concentrations increased with fortified condiments. Functional outcomes were rarely assessed and showed mixed results. The use of micronutrient fortified condiments can be a strategy to reduce anemia in children and adults due to micronutrient deficiencies. The effect of fortified noodles seems to be smaller. PMID:26891319

  14. Effect of NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce on zinc absorption in children.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Wu, Jinghuan; Ren, Tongxiang; Wang, Rui; Li, Weidong; Piao, Jianhua; Wang, Jun; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2015-03-01

    NaFeEDTA has been applied in many foods as an iron fortificant and is used to prevent iron deficiency in Fe-depleted populations. In China, soy sauce is fortified with NaFeEDTA to control iron deficiency. However, it is unclear whether Fe-fortified soy sauce affects zinc absorption. To investigate whether NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce affects zinc absorption in children, sixty children were enrolled in this study and randomly assigned to three groups (10 male children and 10 female children in each group). All children received daily 3 mg of (67)Zn and 1.2 mg of dysprosium orally, while the children in the three groups were supplemented with NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce (6 mg Fe, NaFeEDTA group), FeSO₄-fortified soy sauce (6 mg Fe, FeSO₄ group), and no iron-fortified soy sauce (control group), respectively. Fecal samples were collected during the experimental period and analyzed for the Zn content, (67)Zn isotope ratio and dysprosium content. The Fe intake from NaFeEDTA-fortified and FeSO₄-fortified groups was significantly higher than that in the control group (P < 0.0001). The daily total Zn intake was not significantly different among the three groups. There were no significant differences in fractional Zn absorption (FZA) (P = 0.3895), dysprosium recovery (P = 0.7498) and Zn absorption (P = 0.5940) among the three groups. Therefore, NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce does not affect Zn bioavailability in children.

  15. Ready to Go: Using the EXPLORE Test to Increase 8th Grade Readiness for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochford, Joseph A.; O'Neill, Adrienne; Gelb, Adele

    2010-01-01

    During the 2009-10 academic year, 1,444 8th grade students in the Canton City, Plain and Marlington Local School Districts (hereafter called Stark students) took the EXPLORE Test as part of a pilot project, "Ready to Go: Increasing Eighth Grade Readiness," sponsored by the Stark Education Partnership with funding from the Ohio College…

  16. The Use of Multinutrient Human Milk Fortifiers in Preterm Infants: A Systematic Review of Unanswered Questions.

    PubMed

    Mimouni, Francis B; Nathan, Natalie; Ziegler, Ekhard E; Lubetzky, Ronit; Mandel, Dror

    2017-03-01

    There is evidence that multinutrient fortification of human milk increases in-hospital growth of preterm infants, but fortification has not been shown to improve long-term growth and neurodevelopmental outcome. We aimed to ascertain whether randomized controlled trials have determined the effect of early versus late introduction of fortifiers on growth and/or other outcomes, and have compared the efficacy/adverse effects of human milk-based versus cow milk-based fortifiers. We conclude that there is little evidence that early introduction of human milk fortification affects important outcomes, and limited evidence that a bovine fortifier places the infant at a higher risk of NEC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Relative Bioavailability of Iron in Bangladeshi Traditional Meals Prepared with Iron-Fortified Lentil Dal

    PubMed Central

    Podder, Rajib; M. DellaValle, Diane; T. Tyler, Robert; P. Glahn, Raymond; Tako, Elad; Vandenberg, Albert

    2018-01-01

    Due to low Fe bioavailability and low consumption per meal, lentil must be fortified to contribute significant bioavailable Fe in the Bangladeshi diet. Moreover, since red lentil is dehulled prior to consumption, an opportunity exists at this point to fortify lentil with Fe. Thus, in the present study, lentil was Fe-fortified (using a fortificant Fe concentration of 2800 µg g−1) and used in 30 traditional Bangladeshi meals with broad differences in concentrations of iron, phytic acid (PA), and relative Fe bioavailability (RFeB%). Fortification with NaFeEDTA increased the iron concentration in lentil from 60 to 439 µg g−1 and resulted in a 79% increase in the amount of available Fe as estimated by Caco-2 cell ferritin formation. Phytic acid levels were reduced from 6.2 to 4.6 mg g−1 when fortified lentil was added, thereby reducing the PA:Fe molar ratio from 8.8 to 0.9. This effect was presumably due to dephytinization of fortified lentil during the fortification process. A significant (p ≤ 0.01) Pearson correlation was observed between Fe concentration and RFeB% and between RFeB% and PA:Fe molar ratio in meals with fortified lentil, but not for the meal with unfortified lentil. In conclusion, fortified lentil can contribute significant bioavailable Fe to populations at risk of Fe deficiency. PMID:29543712

  18. Relative Bioavailability of Iron in Bangladeshi Traditional Meals Prepared with Iron-Fortified Lentil Dal.

    PubMed

    Podder, Rajib; M DellaValle, Diane; T Tyler, Robert; P Glahn, Raymond; Tako, Elad; Vandenberg, Albert

    2018-03-15

    Due to low Fe bioavailability and low consumption per meal, lentil must be fortified to contribute significant bioavailable Fe in the Bangladeshi diet. Moreover, since red lentil is dehulled prior to consumption, an opportunity exists at this point to fortify lentil with Fe. Thus, in the present study, lentil was Fe-fortified (using a fortificant Fe concentration of 2800 µg g -1 ) and used in 30 traditional Bangladeshi meals with broad differences in concentrations of iron, phytic acid (PA), and relative Fe bioavailability (RFeB%). Fortification with NaFeEDTA increased the iron concentration in lentil from 60 to 439 µg g -1 and resulted in a 79% increase in the amount of available Fe as estimated by Caco-2 cell ferritin formation. Phytic acid levels were reduced from 6.2 to 4.6 mg g -1 when fortified lentil was added, thereby reducing the PA:Fe molar ratio from 8.8 to 0.9. This effect was presumably due to dephytinization of fortified lentil during the fortification process. A significant ( p ≤ 0.01) Pearson correlation was observed between Fe concentration and RFeB% and between RFeB% and PA:Fe molar ratio in meals with fortified lentil, but not for the meal with unfortified lentil. In conclusion, fortified lentil can contribute significant bioavailable Fe to populations at risk of Fe deficiency.

  19. Investigation of Food Acceptability and Feeding Practices for Lipid Nutrient Supplements and Blended Flours Used to Treat Moderate Malnutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Richard J.; Trehan, Indi; LaGrone, Lacey N.; Weisz, Ariana J.; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie M.; Maleta, Kenneth M.; Manary, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine acceptability and feeding practices associated with different supplementary food items and identify practices associated with weight gain. Methods: Caregivers (n = 409) whose children had been enrolled in a trial comparing a fortified corn-soy blended flour (CSB++), soy ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF), and soy/whey…

  20. Highly Concentrated Preterm Formula as an Alternative to Powdered Human Milk Fortifier: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Willeitner, Andrea; Anderson, Michael; Lewis, Jami

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the study was to assess clinical feasibility and tolerance of concentrated preterm formula at 30 kcal/oz (CPF30) to fortify human milk to a caloric density of 24 kcal/oz, compared to conventional powdered human milk fortifier (PHMF). Very low birth weight neonates were stratified by birth weight and randomized to receive human milk fortification using CPF30 or PHMF. Infants were monitored from first introduction of human milk fortification, until fortified feeds were well tolerated. Primary outcome was weight gain; secondary outcomes included other measures of feeding intolerance (residual gastric aspirates, feeds held, prokinetic therapy), sepsis, and death. The clinical and study personnel were blinded to the intervention. No significant differences in weight gain or other measures of feeding tolerance were demonstrated between CPF30 and PHMF. Macronutrient intake was similar between both groups. Infants with a birth weight of ≥ 1000 g who received CPF30, experienced fewer days NPO (nil per os; nothing per mouth) and a trend toward lower incidence of NEC, compared with those who received PHMF.. The amount of human milk consumed was significantly lower in the CPF30 group. Both fortifiers were similarly well tolerated. Fortification of human milk with CPF30 is a safe and feasible alternative to conventional PHMF.

  1. Stability and retention of micronutrients in fortified rice prepared using different cooking methods.

    PubMed

    Wieringa, Frank T; Laillou, Arnaud; Guyondet, Christophe; Jallier, Vincent; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Berger, Jacques

    2014-09-01

    Fortified rice holds great potential for bringing essential micronutrients to a large part of the world population. However, it is unknown whether differences in cooking methods or in production of rice premix affect the final amount of micronutrient consumed. This paper presents a study that quantified the losses of five different micronutrients (vitamin A, iron, zinc, folic acid, and vitamin B12) in fortified rice that was produced using three different techniques (hot extrusion, cold extrusion, and coating) during cooking and five different cooking methods (absorption method with or without soaking, washing before cooking, cooking in excess water, and frying rice before cooking). Fortified rice premix from six different producers (two for each technique) was mixed with normal rice in a 1:100 ratio. Each sample was prepared in triplicate, using the five different cooking methods, and retention of iron, zinc, vitamin A, vitamin B12, and folic acid was determined. It was found that the overall retention of iron, zinc, vitamin B12, and folic acid was between 75% and 100% and was unaffected by cooking method, while the retention of vitamin A was significantly affected by cooking method, with retention ranging from 0% (excess water) to 80% (soaking), depending on the cooking method and producer of the rice premix. No systematic differences between the different production methods were observed. We conclude that different cooking methods of rice as used in different regions of the world do not lead to a major loss of most micronutrients, with the exception of vitamin A. The factors involved in protecting vitamin A against losses during cooking need to be identified. All production techniques of rice premix yielded similar results, showing that coating is not inferior to extrusion techniques. Standard overages (50%) for vitamin B12 and folic acid are too high. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. Predictors of Osteopathic Medical Students' Readiness to Use Health Information Technology.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Robin J; Iqbal, Hassan; Rana, Arif M; Rana, Zaid; Kane, Michael N

    2017-12-01

    The advent of health information technology (HIT) tools can affect the practice of modern medicine in many ways, ideally by improving quality of care and efficiency and reducing medical errors. Future physicians will play a key role in the successful implementation of HIT. However, osteopathic medical students' willingness to learn, adopt, and use technology in a health care setting is not well understood. To understand osteopathic medical students' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding HIT and to identify factors that may be related to their readiness to use HIT. Using a cross-sectional approach, quantitative surveys were collected from students attending a large osteopathic medical school. Multivariate regression modeling was used to determine whether knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and personal characteristics were associated with students' readiness to use HIT in future clinical practice. Six hundred four students responded to at least 70% of the survey and were included in the analysis. Multivariate modeling successfully explained the 26% of variance in predicting students' readiness to use HIT (F8,506=22.6, P<.001, R2=0.263). Greater self-efficacy, openness to change (in academic/work settings), favorable attitudes toward HIT use, mobile technology use, younger age, being male, and prior exposure to technology were associated with readiness to use HIT. Understanding students' level of HIT readiness may help guide medical education intervention efforts to better prepare future osteopathic physicians for HIT engagement and use. Innovative approaches to HIT education in medical school curricula that include biomedical informatics may be necessary.

  3. Child, family, and community characteristics associated with school readiness in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Lansford, Jennifer E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated demographic differences in school readiness within Jordan, a particularly interesting context because of wide-spread national reform currently sweeping the education system in Jordan. Teacher reports and researcher direct assessments of the school readiness of a national sample of 4,681 Jordanian first grade children were used to describe the levels of school readiness of children with respect to seven demographic characteristics. Higher levels of school readiness were associated with male gender, higher family income, higher paternal education, higher maternal education, smaller family size, fewer siblings, and urban residence. Taken together, the findings highlight the importance of Jordanian education reform, one aim of which is to improve the school readiness of all children by implementing public kindergartens, especially in poor, rural areas. PMID:21132066

  4. Preparation of calcium- and magnesium-fortified potato starches with altered pasting properties.

    PubMed

    Noda, Takahiro; Takigawa, Shigenobu; Matsuura-Endo, Chie; Ishiguro, Koji; Nagasawa, Koichi; Jinno, Masahiro

    2014-09-15

    Calcium- and magnesium-fortified potato starches were prepared by immersion in various concentrations of CaCl2 and MgCl2 aqueous solutions, respectively. The pasting properties, i.e., peak viscosity and breakdown, of all the starches obtained above were analyzed using a Rapid Visco Analyzer. Furthermore, the gelatinization properties and in vitro digestibility of the representative calcium- and magnesium-fortified starches were tested. The maximum calcium content of the fortified potato starches was as high as 686 ppm with the addition of a high-concentration CaCl2 solution, while the calcium content of the control potato starch was 99 ppm. The magnesium content increased from 89 to 421 ppm by treatment of the potato starch with an MgCl2 solution. Markedly lower values of peak viscosity and breakdown were observed in calcium- and magnesium-fortified potato starches than in the control potato starch. However, the gelatinization temperature and enthalpy as well as resistant starch content of calcium- and magnesium-fortified potato starches were similar to those of the control potato starch. It is concluded that potato starches with altered pasting properties can be easily manufactured by the use of solutions containing high levels of calcium and magnesium.

  5. Studies on processing, consumer survey and storage stability of a ready-to-reconstitute fish cutlet mix.

    PubMed

    Shaviklo, G Reza; Thorkelsson, Gudjon; Sveinsdottir, Kolbrun; Pourreza, Fatemeh

    2013-10-01

    A convenience ready-to-reconstitute cutlet mix containing 30% fish protein powder was developed to improve the nutritional quality of the product. Consumer survey was based on the home use test (HUT) method. The acceptance of the fish cutlet mix (FCM) was studied using a 9-point hedonic scale ranging from 1 (extremely dislike) to 9 (extremely like). Product's characteristics and stability were studied during 6 months of storage at 27 ± 2 °C. The FCM packed in a polyethylene bag and cardboard box was stable during the storage period. There were no changes in colour, moisture gain and water activity, and TBARS values remained low. The FCM was accepted by the consumers in the study (n = 85). The average liking was high (7.5 ± 1.3) and it was influenced by frequency of fish and chicken consumption, educational level and household size. People who ate fish once a week liked the product more than other consumers. Also those with higher educational level and bigger household size. The results in this paper are important information for companies planning to develop ready-to-eat products fortified with fish proteins. The products could be means of increasing fish consumption in countries/areas where there is no tradition of consuming fresh or frozen fish.

  6. The concept of readiness to change.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Cindy C; Gottlieb, Laurie N

    2003-04-01

    Readiness is associated with change, yet there is little understanding of this construct. The purpose of this study was to examine readiness; its referents, associated factors and the resulting consequences. In the course of nursing five clients living with multiple sclerosis over a 7-month period using a Reflective Practice Model, data were systematically gathered using open-ended and then more focused questioning. Data collected during 42 client encounters (28 face-to-face encounters; 14 telephone contacts) were analysed using Chinn and Kramer's concept analysis technique. Findings. The concept of readiness was inductively derived. Readiness is both a state and a process. Before clients can create change they need to become ready to change. A number of factors trigger readiness. These include when: (a) clients perceive that a health concern is not going to resolve, (b) a change in a client's physical condition takes on new significance, (c) clients feel better able to manage their stress, (d) clients have sufficient energy, (e) clients perceive that they have adequate support in undertaking change. When one or more of these factors is present clients become ready to consider change. The process of readiness involves recognizing the need to change, weighing the costs and benefits and, when benefits outweigh costs, planning for change. The desire to change and to take action determines clients' degree of readiness. When they experience a high degree of readiness they report less anger, less depression, and view their condition in a more positive light. In contrast, when they experience a low degree of readiness they report feeling depressed, afraid and vulnerable in the face of change. Nursing has an important role to play in creating conditions to support change. To fulfil this role, nurses need to be able to assess readiness for change and the factors that enable it and then to intervene in ways that facilitate readiness.

  7. Human-Based Human Milk Fortifier as Rescue Therapy in Very Low Birth Weight Infants Demonstrating Intolerance to Bovine-Based Human Milk Fortifier.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Amanjot; Fast, Sharla; Bonnar, Kari; Baier, Ronald John; Narvey, Michael

    2017-11-01

    To describe the results of utilizing a human milk-based human milk fortifier (HMHMF) as rescue therapy to meet nutritional requirements in very low birth weight and preterm infants demonstrating feeding intolerance to bovine-based human milk fortifier (BHMF) in the Canadian Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) setting. At two Level III NICUs in Winnipeg, MB, Canada, a rescue protocol was implemented to provide HMHMF for infants demonstrating intolerance to BHMF. To qualify for rescue, infants were required to experience two episodes of significant gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms associated with fortification with BHMF. A case series report was conducted retrospectively examining the success of rescue therapy, growth rates, protein, and calorie intakes before and after initiation of HMHMF in seven infants. Seven infants (birth weight 723 ± 247 g, gestation 25.3 ± 3.4 weeks) were treated with rescue fortification with HMHMF. All infants were transitioned off parenteral nutrition (PN) without relapse of GI symptoms. Growth rate, protein, and calorie intakes improved with the use of HMHMF. Very low birth weight and preterm infants with GI intolerance to BHMF were successfully rescued with use of HMHMF. Improvements in growth were achieved without need for supplementation with PN through achievement of sufficient enteral calorie and protein intakes.

  8. Kindergarten Readiness: Using Brigance Data to Prepare Students for School Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shires, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    This study utilizes the Brigance screener historical data to make a prediction of which prior settings students will come to kindergarten not-ready. It also uses prior settings data to look at subcategories of the composite score to inform an intervention plan to combat kindergarten not-ready scores. The research concluded that there is a…

  9. Sodium pyrophosphate enhances iron bioavailability from bouillon cubes fortified with ferric pyrophosphate.

    PubMed

    Cercamondi, Colin I; Duchateau, Guus S M J E; Harika, Rajwinder K; van den Berg, Robin; Murray, Peter; Koppenol, Wieneke P; Zeder, Christophe; Zimmermann, Michael B; Moretti, Diego

    2016-08-01

    Fe fortification of centrally manufactured and frequently consumed condiments such as bouillon cubes could help prevent Fe deficiency in developing countries. However, Fe compounds that do not cause sensory changes in the fortified product, such as ferric pyrophosphate (FePP), exhibit low absorption in humans. Tetra sodium pyrophosphate (NaPP) can form soluble complexes with Fe, which could increase Fe bioavailability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate Fe bioavailability from bouillon cubes fortified with either FePP only, FePP+NaPP, ferrous sulphate (FeSO4) only, or FeSO4+NaPP. We first conducted in vitro studies using a protocol of simulated digestion to assess the dialysable and ionic Fe, and the cellular ferritin response in a Caco-2 cell model. Second, Fe absorption from bouillon prepared from intrinsically labelled cubes (2·5 mg stable Fe isotopes/cube) was assessed in twenty-four Fe-deficient women, by measuring Fe incorporation into erythrocytes 2 weeks after consumption. Fe bioavailability in humans increased by 46 % (P<0·005) when comparing bouillons fortified with FePP only (4·4 %) and bouillons fortified with FePP+NaPP (6·4 %). Fe absorption from bouillons fortified with FeSO4 only and with FeSO4+NaPP was 33·8 and 27·8 %, respectively (NS). The outcome from the human study is in agreement with the dialysable Fe from the in vitro experiments. Our findings suggest that the addition of NaPP could be a promising strategy to increase Fe absorption from FePP-fortified bouillon cubes, and if confirmed by further research, for other fortified foods with complex food matrices as well.

  10. Using Biowin, Bayes, and batteries to predict ready biodegradability.

    PubMed

    Boethling, Robert S; Lynch, David G; Jaworska, Joanna S; Tunkel, Jay L; Thom, Gary C; Webb, Simon

    2004-04-01

    Whether or not a given chemical substance is readily biodegradable is an important piece of information in risk screening for both new and existing chemicals. Despite the relatively low cost of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development tests, data are often unavailable and biodegradability must be estimated. In this paper, we focus on the predictive value of selected Biowin models and model batteries using Bayesian analysis. Posterior probabilities, calculated based on performance with the model training sets using Bayes' theorem, were closely matched by actual performance with an expanded set of 374 premanufacture notice (PMN) substances. Further analysis suggested that a simple battery consisting of Biowin3 (survey ultimate biodegradation model) and Biowin5 (Ministry of International Trade and Industry [MITI] linear model) would have enhanced predictive power in comparison to individual models. Application of the battery to PMN substances showed that performance matched expectation. This approach significantly reduced both false positives for ready biodegradability and the overall misclassification rate. Similar results were obtained for a set of 63 pharmaceuticals using a battery consisting of Biowin3 and Biowin6 (MITI nonlinear model). Biodegradation data for PMNs tested in multiple ready tests or both inherent and ready biodegradation tests yielded additional insights that may be useful in risk screening.

  11. [Guidelines for multivitamin administration in fortified human milk prepared for preterm infants].

    PubMed

    Rigourd, V; Dridi Brahim, I; Smii, S; Razafimahefa, H; Quetin, F; Leroy, E; Pichon, C; Giuseppi, A; Berthier, L; Pommeret, B; Serreau, R

    2017-02-01

    To reach nutritional standards, human milk has to have 2g/dL of protein. In 2013, Lafeber stated that when human milk is fortified up to 2g/dL, it may increase its osmolality up to 500 mOsm/kg. He also warned that care must be taken when adding a drug or vitamins to human milk. We studied, for the first time, the impact of adding multivitamins (ADEC) on human fortified milk osmolality. The osmolality of 36 pasteurized, fortified human milk samples was measured. The amount of milk required as a solvent to maintain osmolality below 500 mOsm/kg was then determined. The osmolality of 2mL of fortified human milk reached up to 750 mOsm/kg when the multivitamins ADEC was added. The osmolality decreased proportionately as the solution was diluted and if vitamins are added in two half-doses each time. It is only with 20mL of milk that the osmolality lowers to its initial rate of 430 mOsm/kg. The stronger the milk's fortification is, the greater impact it has on the milk's osmolality. New nutritional recommendations for premature infants are needed. In the meantime, when the fortified milk intake is under 20mL, it is preferable to extend parenteral intakes with fat-soluble vitamins or reduce doses of vitamins in milk. Also, we should use enriched human milk as a fortifier and be cautious with indiscriminate fortification or when adding drugs and electrolyte solutions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Instant noodles made with fortified wheat flour to improve micronutrient intake in Asia: a review of simulation, nutrient retention and sensory studies.

    PubMed

    Bronder, Kayla L; Zimmerman, Sarah L; van den Wijngaart, Annoek; Codling, Karen; Johns, Kirsten Ag; Pachón, Helena

    2017-03-01

    Consumption of foods made with wheat flour, particularly instant noodles, is increasing in Asia. Given this trend, fortifying wheat flour with vitamins and minerals may improve micronutrient intake in the region. The objective of this review was to understand what is known about fortifying wheat flour used to make instant noodles. A literature review of seven databases was performed using the search terms "noodle" and ("Asian" or "instant"). Grey literature was requested through a food fortification listserv. Articles were title screened first for relevance and duplicity, with exclusion criteria applied during the second round of abstract-level screening. This review considered studies examining simulation, retention, sensory, bioavailability, efficacy, and effectiveness of instant noodles made with fortified wheat flour. Fourteen relevant documents were reviewed for simulation (n=1), retention (n=11), and sensory studies (n=3). The documents revealed that instant noodles produced from fortified wheat flour have potential to improve nutrient intakes, have high retention of most nutrients, and provoke no or minimal changes in sensory characteristics. The available literature indicates that using fortified wheat flour for instant noodle production results in retention of the added nutrients, except thiamin, with no significant sensory change to the final product. Given the rising consumption of instant noodles, production of this item with fortified wheat flour has potential to improve nutrient intakes in Asia. This review provides a resource for the design of a wheat flour fortification program in countries where a large proportion of wheat flour is consumed as instant noodles.

  13. First Responder Readiness: A Systems Approach to Readiness Assessment Using Model Based Vulnerability Analysis Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    to come—if it be not to come, it will be now—if it be not now, yet it will come—the readiness is all. . .” --- Shakespeare , Hamlet , 5.2.215-219...BLANK 1 I. READINESS OVERVIEW A. INTRODUCTION “ Hamlet : . . . There is a special providence in the fall of a sparrow. If it be now ‘tis not

  14. Properties of ice-cream fortified with zinc and Lactobacillus casei.

    PubMed

    Gheisari, Hamid R; Ahadi, Leila; Khezli, Sanaz; Dehnavi, Tayebeh

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the possible effects of zinc on physicochemical properties of ice cream and the survival of Lactobacillus casei during a 90 days storage at -18°C was investigated. Samples were divided into four experimental groups as follows: control, zinc fortified ice cream, probiotic ice cream, zinc fortified and probiotic ice cream. The physicochemical, texture, organoleptic properties and the survival of probiotics, were investigated. Results showed that the addition of zinc did not affect the textural properties of ice creams. Viscosity and pH were independently decreased in all groups in the presence of zinc. A significant increase in the lipid oxidation rate especially in the zinc fortified group was also observed. The probiotic counts were maintained above the least advised quantities (106 cfu/g) which were subsequently reduced following the three months of storage. In the zinc fortified samples, the counts were higher compared to the other groups with no zinc addition. The addition of probiotics and zinc had no significant effect on the sensory properties of ice cream. As a final conclusion, the commercial production of zinc fortified ice cream is recommended.

  15. Effects of fortified lysine on the amino acid profile and sensory qualities of deep-fried and dried noodles.

    PubMed

    Polpuech, C; Chavasit, V; Srichakwal, P; Paniangvait, P

    2011-08-01

    Lysine fortification of wheat flour has been used toward reducing protein energy malnutrition in developing countries. The feasibility of fortifying instant noodles with lysine was evaluated based on sensory qualities and the residual lysine content. Fifty grams of deep-fried and dried instant noodles were fortified with 0.23 and 0.21 g lysine, respectively. The production temperatures used for deep-frying were 165-175 degrees C and for drying, 80-105 degrees C; these are the temperatures used in the industrial production of both kinds of noodles. Lysine fortification was then performed at the local factories using the commercial production lines and packaging for both types of instant noodles. Both fortified and unfortified deep-fried and dried instant noodles were stored at 50 degrees C under fluorescent light for 2 and 4 months, respectively. The fortified products were tested for residual lysine content and sensory qualities as compared with unfortified noodles. The results show fortified products from the tested processing temperatures were all accepted. After storage, significant losses of lysine were not found in both types of noodles analysed. The lysine-fortified noodles had amino acid scores of 102% and 122%, respectively. After 2 months, the sensory quality of fortified deep-fried noodles was still acceptable; however, the dried noodles turned to an unacceptable dark colour. This study shows that it is feasible to fortify deep-fried instant noodles with lysine, though lysine fortification exhibited an undesirable colour in the dried instant noodles after storage.

  16. Low bioaccessibility of vitamin D2 from yeast-fortified bread compared to crystalline D2 bread and D3 from fluid milks.

    PubMed

    Lipkie, Tristan E; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Weaver, Connie M

    2016-11-09

    The assessment of the efficacy of dietary and supplemental vitamin D tends to be confounded by differences in the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D response between vitamin D 2 and vitamin D 3 . Serum response differences from these vitamers may be due to differences in bioavailability. To address this specifically, the bioaccessibility was assessed for vitamin D 2 from breads fortified with UV-treated yeast, and a benchmark against staple vitamin D 3 fortified foods including bovine milks and infant formula, as well as crystalline vitamin D 2 fortified bread. Fortified foods were subjected to a three-stage static in vitro digestion model, and vitamin D was analyzed by HPLC-MS. Vitamin D bioaccessibility was significantly greater from bovine milks and infant formula (71-85%) than from yeast-fortified sandwich breads (6-7%). Bioaccessibility was not different between whole wheat and white wheat bread (p > 0.05), but was ∼4× lower from yeast-fortified bread than from crystalline vitamin D 2 fortified bread (p < 0.05). Intact yeast cells were observed in the digesta of yeast fortified bread. These results indicate that the low bioavailability of yeast D 2 in comparison to other vitamin D 2 sources is likely due to entrapment within a less digestible yeast matrix and not only to metabolic differences between vitamins D 2 and D 3 .

  17. Efficacy of highly bioavailable zinc from fortified water: a randomized controlled trial in rural Beninese children.

    PubMed

    Galetti, Valeria; Kujinga, Prosper; Mitchikpè, Comlan Evariste S; Zeder, Christophe; Tay, Fabian; Tossou, Félicien; Hounhouigan, Joseph D; Zimmermann, Michael B; Moretti, Diego

    2015-11-01

    Zinc deficiency and contaminated water are major contributors to diarrhea in developing countries. Food fortification with zinc has not shown clear benefits, possibly because of low zinc absorption from inhibitory food matrices. We used a novel point-of-use water ultrafiltration device configured with glass zinc plates to produce zinc-fortified, potable water. The objective was to determine zinc bioavailability from filtered water and the efficacy of zinc-fortified water in improving zinc status. In a crossover balanced study, we measured fractional zinc absorption (FAZ) from the zinc-fortified water in 18 healthy Swiss adults using zinc stable isotopes and compared it with zinc-fortified maize porridge. We conducted a 20-wk double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) in 277 Beninese school children from rural settings who were randomly assigned to receive a daily portion of zinc-fortified filtered water delivering 2.8 mg Zn (Zn+filter), nonfortified filtered water (Filter), or nonfortified nonfiltered water (Pump) from the local improved supply, acting as the control group. The main outcome was plasma zinc concentration (PZn), and the 3 groups were compared by using mixed-effects models. Secondary outcomes were prevalence of zinc deficiency, diarrhea prevalence, and growth. Geometric mean (-SD, +SD) FAZ was 7-fold higher from fortified water (65.9%; 42.2, 102.4) than from fortified maize (9.1%; 6.0, 13.7; P < 0.001). In the RCT, a significant time-by-treatment effect on PZn (P = 0.026) and on zinc deficiency (P = 0.032) was found; PZn in the Zn+filter group was significantly higher than in the Filter (P = 0.006) and Pump (P = 0.025) groups. We detected no effect on diarrhea or growth, but our study did not have the duration and power to detect such effects. Consumption of filtered water fortified with a low dose of highly bioavailable zinc is an effective intervention in children from rural African settings. Large community-based trials are needed to assess the

  18. 21 CFR 131.127 - Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D... and Cream § 131.127 Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D. (a) Description. Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D conforms to the standard of identity for nonfat dry milk, except that...

  19. 21 CFR 131.127 - Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D... and Cream § 131.127 Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D. (a) Description. Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D conforms to the standard of identity for nonfat dry milk, except that...

  20. Pilot study on growth parameters and nutritional biochemical markers in very low birth weight preterm infants fed human milk fortified with either human milk fortifier or post discharge formula.

    PubMed

    Khorana, Meera; Jiamsajjamongkhon, Chanin

    2014-06-01

    Nutrition is an important aspect in the care of very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants. Human milk fortified with human milk fortifiers (HMF) is best for enteral feeding of premature infants. HMF is expensive and not easily available in Thailand. Post discharge formula (PDF) has been routinely used to fortify human milk at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health (QSNICH) but there is lack of supportive data regarding efficacy and safety. To study and compare anthropometrics, biochemical markers and complications in VLBW infants fed human milk fortified with either HMF or PDF. This was a prospective, randomized pilot study conducted in the neonatal unit of QSNICH from 1 March 2010 to 28 February 2011. Very low birth weight neonates, whose mothers had adequate breast milk within 96 hours of birth, were enrolled in the study and received parenteral nutrition and enteral feeding as per protocol. Once the babies were feeding 100 cc/kg/day of human milk, they were randomly divided into two groups: the human milk fortified group (HMF group) and the post discharge formula fortified group (PDF group). Body weight was recorded daily while head circumference and length were recorded weekly. Hematocrit, Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, electrolytes (including phosphorus and calcium), alkaline phosphatase and albumin were checked at the beginning of the study (feeding 100 cc/kg/day), 3 weeks later and when on full oral breast feeding or reached a weight of 2,000 grams, which ever came first. Thirty-eight infants were enrolled in the study but eventually only 33 remained (18 in HMF group, 15 in PDF group). Both groups had similar baseline demographic data, nutritional management, postnatal morbidities and length of stay. There were no statistically significant differences in growth parameters and serum biochemical markers between the groups. Definite NEC was not different between the groups. Other complications of prematurity including osteopenia of

  1. Effect of soil fortified by polyurethane foam on septic tank effluent treatment.

    PubMed

    Nie, J Y; Zhu, N W; Lin, K M; Song, F Y

    2011-01-01

    Fortified soil was made up of a mixture at a mass ratio 4/1000-6/1000 of sponge and natural soil according to the results of column experiment. The fortified soil had bigger porosity and higher hydraulic conductivity than the natural soil. The columns packed with 900 mm of the fortified soil endured a flow rate equivalent to 100 L/m(2)/d of septic tank effluent and the average chemical oxygen demand, nitrogen, and phosphorus removal rates were around 92%, 75% and 96%, respectively. After 100 weeks of operation, the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the fortified soil kept higher than 0.2 m/d. The bigger porosity of sponge improved the effective porosity, and the bigger specific surface area of sponge acted as an ideal support for biomat growth and ensured the sewage treatment performance of the fortified soil. The comparable performance was due to a similar and sufficient degree of soil clogging genesis coupled with bioprocesses that effectively purified the septic tank effluent given the adequate retention times.

  2. Continuous feedings of fortified human milk lead to nutrient losses of fat, calcium, and phosphorous

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Substantial losses of nutrients may occur during tube (gavage) feeding of fortified human milk. Our objective was to compare the losses of key macronutrients and minerals based on method of fortification, and gavage feeding method. We used clinically available gavage feeding systems and measured pre...

  3. Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside and Cyanogenic Glycosides in Gluten-free Bread Fortified with Flaxseed Meal.

    PubMed

    Shim, Youn Young; Olivia, Clara M; Liu, Jun; Boonen, Rineke; Shen, Jianheng; Reaney, Martin J T

    2016-12-21

    Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) meal contains cyanogenic glycosides (CGs) and the lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (1). Gluten-free (GF) doughs and baked goods were produced with added flaxseed meal (20%, w/w) then 1, and CGs were determined in fortified flour, dough, and bread with storage (0, 1, 2, and 4 weeks) at different temperatures (-18, 4, and 22-23 °C). 1 was present in flour, dough, and GF bread after baking. 1 was stable with extensive storage (up to 4 weeks) and was not affected by storage temperature. CGs in flaxseed meal and fortified GF samples were analyzed by 1 H NMR of the cyanohydrins. Linamarin and/or linustatin were the primary CGs in both flaxseed meal and fortified flour. CGs decreased with storage in dough fortified with flaxseed meal or GF bread after baking. GF bakery food products fortified with flaxseed meal had reduced CGs but remained a good source of dietary 1.

  4. Getting Ready: The 2010-2011 Maryland School Readiness Report. Children Entering School Ready to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Department of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report was developed in partnership with Ready At Five. It lays out the critical importance of children starting school fully prepared to succeed in kindergarten. Most importantly, the report shares what everyone has learned from the 2010-2011 Maryland Model for School Readiness (MMSR) data about the school readiness of Maryland's children:…

  5. Quality attributes of bread fortified with staghorn sumac extract.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sunan; Zhu, Fan

    2018-02-01

    Staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina) is rich in polyphenols and may be used as an innovative ingredient in maintaining and enhancing food quality. In this report, aqueous extracts of sumac fruit powder were added up to 10% in wheat bread formulation. The extract concentration-dependently delayed the mold growth (up to 5 log reduction in 7-day storage) and the staling of bread. Adding sumac extracts dose-dependently increased the total phenolic and anthocyanin contents of the breads. Minimal changes were observed in loaf volume, water activity, moisture content, texture (cohesiveness, springiness, and adhesive), and aroma of breads containing extracts of less than 4%. Overall, sumac addition altered several quality attributes of bread, including hardness, color, and sensory acceptance in appearance, flavor, and texture. Sumac holds potential as a natural preservative and an antistaling agent in bread formulation. The rising healthy food market demands bakery products fortified with novel functional ingredients. Staghorn sumac is an emerging healthy food ingredient that has attracted much research attention recently. This study provides a scientific basis to develop bread fortified with sumac-derived functional ingredients. The results pointed out the feasibility of making sumac-fortified breads with enhanced phenolic content, increased shelf life, and acceptable sensory profile. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. 21 CFR 139.117 - Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.117 Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein. (a)(1... nonfat milk”. (3) When, in conformity with paragraph (d) (1) or (2) of this section, two or more... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein...

  7. 21 CFR 139.117 - Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.117 Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein. (a)(1... nonfat milk”. (3) When, in conformity with paragraph (d) (1) or (2) of this section, two or more... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein...

  8. 21 CFR 139.117 - Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.117 Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein. (a)(1... nonfat milk”. (3) When, in conformity with paragraph (d) (1) or (2) of this section, two or more... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein...

  9. Growth and activity of Bulgarian yogurt starter culture in iron-fortified milk.

    PubMed

    Simova, Emilina; Ivanov, Galin; Simov, Zhelyazko

    2008-10-01

    Bulgarian yogurts were manufactured and fortified with 8, 15 and 27 mg of iron kg(-1) of yogurt. The growth and acidifying activity of the starter culture bacteria Streptococcus thermophilus 13a and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2-11 were monitored during milk fermentation and over 15 days of yogurt storage at 4 degrees C. Fortifying milk with iron did not affect significantly the growth of the starter culture during manufacture and storage of yogurt. Counts of yogurt bacteria at the end of fermentation of iron-fortified milks were between 2.1 x 10(10) and 4.6 x 10(10) CFU ml(-1), which were not significantly different from numbers in unfortified yogurts. In all batches of yogurt, the viable cell counts of S. thermophilus 13a were approximately three times higher than those of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2-11. Greater decrease in viable cell count over 15 days of storage was observed for S. thermophilus 13a compared to L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2-11. Intensive accumulation of lactic acid was observed during incubation of milk and all batches reached pH 4.5 +/- 0.1 after 3.0 h. At the end of fermentation process, lactic acid concentrations in iron-fortified yogurts were between 6.9 +/- 0.4 and 7.3 +/- 0.5 g l(-1). The acidifying activity of starter culture bacteria in the control and iron-fortified milks was similar. There was no increase in oxidized, metallic and bitter off-flavors in iron-fortified yogurts compared to the control. Iron-fortified yogurts did not differ significantly in their sensorial, chemical and microbiological characteristics with unfortified yogurt, suggesting that yogurt is a suitable vehicle for iron fortification and that the ferrous lactate is an appropriate iron source for yogurt fortification.

  10. Vitamin A--fortified vegetable oil exported from Malaysia and Indonesia can significantly contribute to vitamin A intake worldwide.

    PubMed

    Laillou, Arnaud; Panagides, Dora; Garrett, Greg S; Moench-Pfanner, Regina

    2013-06-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem worldwide, affecting approximately 190 million preschool-aged children and 19.1 million pregnant women. Fortification of vegetable oils with vitamin A is an effective, low-cost technology to improve vitamin A intake. To examine the potential contribution of fortification of vegetable oils with vitamin A in Indonesia and Malaysia to increasing vitamin A consumption in these two countries and in countries to which oil is exported. Detailed interviews were administered and a desk review was conducted. We also estimated potential vitamin A intakes from fortified vegetable oil. Malaysia and Indonesia are two of the largest producers and exporters of vegetable oil. Fortification of vegetable oil in both countries has the potential to be used as a tool for control of vitamin A deficiency. Both countries have the capacity to export fortified vegetable oil. Vegetable oil fortified at a level of 45 IU/g could provide 18.8% of the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for an Ethiopian woman, 30.9% and 46.9% of the EAR for a Bangladeshi child and woman, respectively, and 17.5% of the EAR for a Cambodian woman. Although concerns about obesity are valid, fortification of existing vegetable oil supplies does not promote overconsumption of oil but rather promotes consumption of vegetable oil of higher nutrient quality. Fortifying vegetable oil on a large scale in Malaysia and Indonesia can reach millions of people globally, including children less than 5 years old. The levels of fortification used are far from reaching the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL). Vegetable oil fortification has the potential to become a global public health intervention strategy.

  11. Strategies to limit colour changes when fortifying food products with iron.

    PubMed

    Habeych, Edwin; van Kogelenberg, Violet; Sagalowicz, Laurent; Michel, Martin; Galaffu, Nicola

    2016-10-01

    Iron, vitamin A, zinc and iodine have been recognized to be the micronutrients with the largest deficiencies worldwide. Among these, iron is highly reactive and may lead to negatively perceived organoleptic changes in products such as dull colour and off-taste. The colour change originated in fortified fruit-containing food products was confirmed to be the result of the complexation of iron and polyphenols. Phenolic compounds with two or more vicinal hydroxy benzyl moieties in their structure, such as catechols and pyrogallols were investigated for their ability to give bathochromic shift phenomena when mixed with iron salts. Furthermore, strategies for limiting colour development were based on: 1) pH adjustment; 2) saturation of polyphenols with unreactive divalent metal ions; 3) suppression of iron reactivity through complexation. Some of these strategies showed a significant improvement in colour stability, with the best results achieved by the latter. The findings in model systems gave a good insight of the mechanisms involved in colour changes, and results were transferable to iron fortified banana puree. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Safe, Healthy and Ready to Succeed: Arizona School Readiness Key Performance Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Migliore, Donna E.

    2006-01-01

    "Safe, Healthy and Ready to Succeed: Arizona School Readiness Key Performance Indicators" presents a set of baseline measurements that gauge how well a statewide system of school readiness supports is addressing issues that affect Arizona children's readiness for school. The Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) measure the system, rather…

  13. Calcium, zinc, and iron bioavailabilities from a commercial human milk fortifier: a comparison study.

    PubMed

    Etcheverry, P; Wallingford, J C; Miller, D D; Glahn, R P

    2004-11-01

    Adding human milk fortifiers (HMF) to human milk (HM) is one way of overcoming the nutrient deficits found in the latter. In this study, the bioavailabilities of calcium, zinc, and iron in S-26/SMA HMF added to HM were compared with those in HM fortified with various bovine milk proteins: alpha-lactalbumin, colostrum, caseinate, casein phosphopeptides, and whey protein concentrate. The bioavailability of each mineral was assessed using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture model. Calcium and zinc uptake by the cells was traced with radioisotopes; iron uptake was assessed via cell ferritin levels. Samples were prepared on an equal protein content basis and with added calcium, but no zinc or iron was added. Results revealed that calcium uptake from HM + S-26/SMA was not different from any of the HM fortified with the bovine milk proteins, except for unfortified HM and HM + colostrum in which calcium uptake was significantly lower (-89 and -38%, respectively). Uptake of zinc and iron were significantly higher for HM + S-26/SMA than for the other HM + fortifiers.

  14. Relative bioavailability of 13C5-folic acid in pectin-coated folate fortified rice in humans using stable isotope techniques.

    PubMed

    de Ambrosis, A; Vishnumohan, S; Paterson, J; Haber, P; Arcot, J

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to measure the relative bioavailability of labeled pteroylglutamic acid (13C5-PteGlu) from a pectin-coated fortified rice in vivo to measure any effect of the edible coating on folic acid bioavailability. Healthy volunteers (N=26) aged 18-39 years received three test meals in three randomized short-term cross-over trials: Trial 1: aqueous 400 μg 13C5-PteGlu, Trial 2: 200 g cooked white rice+400 μg 13C5-PteGlu,Trial 3: 200 g fortified cooked white rice with pectin-coated premix containing 400 μg 13C5-PteGlu. Blood samples were drawn at 0,1,2,5 and 8 h postprandial. The concentration of 13C5-5 methyl-tetrahydrofolate appearing in plasma was quantified using high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS)/MS. For 24 h before baseline estimation and during the area under the curve (AUC) study, the subjects were placed on a low folate diet (∼100 μg/day). The relative bioavailability of the folic acid following Trial 3 was measured by comparing the 13C5-5 methyl-tetrahydrofuran (THF) AUC with Trials 1 and 2. The bioavailability of folic acid in a pectin-coated rice premix was 68.7% (range 47-105) and 86.5% (range 65-115) in uncoated fortified rice relative to aqueous folic acid. This study is the first demonstration of the bioavailability of folate in pectin-coated fortified rice in humans.

  15. Efficacy and Stability studies of microbial folate fortified fruit juices prepared using probiotic microorganism.

    PubMed

    Deep, S; Ojha, S; Kundu, S

    2017-07-31

    Folate, natural form of water soluble vitamin folic acid, is significant for humans as involved in most important metabolic reactions i.e. nucleotide synthesis and amino acid inter conversions. Thus its deficiency causes neural tube defects in newborns and cardiovascular diseases, and cancers. Humans cannot synthesize folate de novo so consumption through diet is essential. Natural food sources, supplements and fortified food products are the choices available to complete the Daily recommended intake. However microbial fortification using probiotics recently gained wide attention due to dual advantage of natural food matrix with enhanced folate content along with the probiotics benefits. Current study was focused on the microbial fortification of fruit juices and their efficacy and stability studies. Freshly filtered orange and tomato juice was prepared and inoculated with Streptococcus thermophilus NCIM 2904. Incubation was done at 40°C and samples were collected at different time interval. Folate extraction was done using human plasma and content was measured by microbiological assay using Lactobacillus casei NCIM No. 2364. Efficacy and stability studies were carried out to ensure the quality of juices to be consumed in terms of folate content, viable cell count and pH after 4 weeks of storage at low temperature. Positive results were observed as folate content was quite stable whereas viable cell count was also found to be significant till some time without adding any preservatives. The results indicated that fortified fruit juices could be used as probiotic beverages with enhanced folate content.

  16. On the use of the optothermal window technique for the determination of iron (II) content in fortified commercial milk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, S. L.; Dias, C. M. F.; Lima, J. A. P.; Massunaga, M. S. O.; da Silva, M. G.; Vargas, H.

    2003-01-01

    This work reports on the use of the optothermal window and a well-proven phenanthroline colorimetry method for determination of iron (II) content in a commercial fortified milk. Initially, iron (II) in distilled water was determined using a series of calibration samples with ferrous sulfate acting as the source of iron (II). In the following phase, this calibration methodology was applied to commercial milk as the sample matrix. The phenanthroline colorimetry [American Public Health Association, Washington, DC (1998)] was chosen in an attempt to achieve proper selectivity (i.e., to obtain the absorption band, the wavelength of which is centered near the radiation wavelength available for our experiments: Excitation wavelength at a 514-nm line of a 20-mW tunable Ar ion laser). Finally, samples of commercially available fortified milk were analyzed in an attempt to access Fe (II) content.

  17. Changes in time-trends of nutrient intake from fortified and non-fortified food in German children and adolescents--15 year results of the DONALD study. Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study.

    PubMed

    Sichert-Hellert, W; Kersting, M; Manz, F

    2001-04-01

    Although fortified products have played an increasing role in food marketing since the 1980s in Germany, data as to the consumption of fortified food is sparse. To assess long-term data on changes in fortified food supply or consumption patterns, nutrient intake, and time trends in the DONALD Study (Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study). Between 1985 and 2000 consumption of nutrient intake (total and from fortified foods) was evaluated and time trends in energy and nutrient intake were assessed on the basis of 3-day weighed dietary records (n = 4193) of 2-14 year-old males (n = 383) and females (n = 404) enrolled in the DONALD Study. Nutrient intake was expressed as percentage of the current German recommendations. Food products were defined as fortified if enriched with at least one of the following nutrients: Vitamin A or provitamin A carotenoids (summarised as Vitamin A), Vitamins E, B1, B2, B6, C, niacin, folate, calcium or iron. Nutrient supplements and medicine were excluded from this evaluation. Time trends were analysed using linear and non-linear regression models (PROC MIXED, SAS 6.12). In percent of German references [3], non-fortified food contributed to folate intake by 20-30%, to Vitamin E by about 40%, to Vitamin B1 by 50-65%, to Vitamin A, C, B2, calcium, iron by about 65-95%, and to Vitamin B6 and niacin intake by 100% and more. Fortified food alone provided no more than 5% of calcium intake, about 10-20% of iron, Vitamin A and folate intake, up to 40-50% of Vitamin C, B1, B2, E, niacin and up to 80% of Vitamin B6 intake. During the 15 year period of the DONALD Study with total food, we only found a significant linear time trend for Vitamin C, whereas significant non-linear time trends were found for calcium, Vitamin E, B1, B2, B6, niacin and folate. In the latter there was a uniform increase until 1994 and a decrease thereafter. For iron and Vitamin A no significant time trend could be identified. Only iron and

  18. Growth and survival of Enterobacter sakazakii in human breast milk with and without fortifiers as compared to powdered infant formula.

    PubMed

    Lenati, Raquel F; O'Connor, Deborah L; Hébert, Karine C; Farber, Jeffrey M; Pagotto, Franco J

    2008-02-29

    Enterobacter sakazakii infections often involve debilitated neonates consuming contaminated reconstituted powdered infant formula. There is the possibility that expressed human breast milk can become contaminated with E. sakazakii in the hospital or home setting and through the use of contaminated breast milk fortifiers. In addition, although breast milk has been shown to have some antimicrobial effects, this has not been extensively researched in regards to E. sakazakii. Thus, we examined the survival and growth of 9 strains of E. sakazakii in breast milk, human breast milk with fortifiers and powdered infant formula at 10, 23 and 37 degrees C. The average generation times for clinical, food and environmental isolates in breast milk were 0.94+/-0.04, 0.75+/-0.04 and 0.84+/-0.04 h at 23 degrees C; and 0.51+/-0.03, 0.33+/-0.03 and 0.42+/-0.03 h at 37 degrees C, respectively. E. sakazakii was able to survive up to 12 days in breast milk with fortifiers at 10 degrees C. However, its average generation times among replicates and isolate sources ranged from 11.97+/-3.82 to 27.08+/-4.54 h in breast milk at 10 degrees C. Interestingly, average generation times in breast milk with fortifiers at 23 degrees C (0.83+/-0.05, 0.93+/-0.06 and 0.96+/-0.06 h) and 37 degrees C (0.41+/-0.04, 0.51+/-0.05 and 0.54+/-0.05 h) were longer than in powdered infant formula and breast milk at the same temperatures, indicating that human breast milk fortifiers may have an inhibitory effect on the growth of E. sakazakii. However, the intrinsically ascribed antimicrobial properties of breast milk do not appear to inhibit the growth of this foodborne pathogen in-vitro.

  19. Beyond signal functions in global obstetric care: Using a clinical cascade to measure emergency obstetric readiness

    PubMed Central

    Dettinger, Julia; Calkins, Kimberly; Kibore, Minnie; Gachuno, Onesmus; Walker, Dilys

    2018-01-01

    Background Globally, the rate of reduction in delivery-associated maternal and perinatal mortality has been slow compared to improvements in post-delivery mortality in children under five. Improving clinical readiness for basic obstetric emergencies is crucial for reducing facility-based maternal deaths. Emergency readiness is commonly assessed using tracers derived from the maternal signal functions model. Objective-method We compare emergency readiness using the signal functions model and a novel clinical cascade. The cascades model readiness as the proportion of facilities with resources to identify the emergency (stage 1), treat it (stage 2) and monitor-modify therapy (stage 3). Data were collected from 44 Kenyan clinics as part of an implementation trial. Findings Although most facilities (77.0%) stock maternal signal function tracer drugs, far fewer have resources to practically identify and treat emergencies. In hypertensive emergencies for example, 38.6% of facilities have resources to identify the emergency (Stage 1 readiness, including sphygmomanometer, stethoscope, urine collection device, protein test). 6.8% have the resources to treat the emergency (Stage 2, consumables (IV Kit, fluids), durable goods (IV pole) and drugs (magnesium sulfate and hydralazine). No facilities could monitor or modify therapy (Stage 3). Across five maternal emergencies, the signal functions overestimate readiness by 54.5%. A consistent, step-wise pattern of readiness loss across signal functions and care stage emerged and was profoundly consistent at 33.0%. Significance Comparing estimates from the maternal signal functions and cascades illustrates four themes. First, signal functions overestimate practical readiness by 55%. Second, the cascade’s intuitive indicators can support cross-sector health system or program planners to more precisely measure and improve emergency care. Third, adding few variables to existing readiness inventories permits step-wise modeling of

  20. Palatability and chemical safety of apple juice fortified with pomegranate peel extract.

    PubMed

    Altunkaya, Arzu; Hedegaard, Rikke V; Harholt, Jesper; Brimer, Leon; Gökmen, Vural; Skibsted, Leif H

    2013-10-01

    Pomegranate peel extract (PPE), a by-product of the pomegranate juice industry with potential health effects, was explored for use to fortify reconstituted apple juice in the concentration range 0.5 to 2.0% (w/w). Radical scavenging and antioxidative capacities of the fortified apple juices were evaluated using (i) electron spin resonance (ESR) to quantify their ability to scavenge the stable radical Fremy's salt and (ii) the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay and compared to apple juice without fortification as control. The highest antioxidative capacity was found in the apple juice fortified with the highest percentage of pomegranate peel extract, while the optimal sensory quality was found by addition of 0.5 g PPE per 100 mL. The Artemia salina assay was used as a fast screening method for evaluating overall toxicity, and showed little toxicity with up to 1.0 g per 100 mL addition of PPE, but increasing toxicity at higher concentrations. Accordingly, it is important to balance addition of PPE, when used for enrichment of apple juice in order to obtain a healthier product, without compromising the sensorial quality or toxicological safety of the apple juice. Concentrations between 0.5 and 1.0 g PPE per 100 mL seem to be acceptable.

  1. Impact of fortified blended food aid products on nutritional status of infants and young children in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Expósito, Ana B; Klein, Barbara P

    2009-12-01

    Fortified blended foods were developed in the 1960s to improve the nutritional status of children suffering from malnutrition. The present review was conducted to examine the impact that fortified blended foods used in humanitarian relief programs have had on the health and nutritional status of infants and young children with moderate malnutrition, or at risk of undernutrition, in developing countries. Published articles were identified using electronic databases and general Web searches. Search terms included commodity types and names and terms related to food assistance and fortification programs. Positive effects on recovery from moderate acute malnutrition and weight gain were observed when fortified blended foods were distributed as dietary supplements. Prevention of severe micronutrient deficiencies in populations reliant on food aid has been reported, but measurements of micronutrient status have rarely been conducted. Evidence of the efficacy of fortified blended foods for improving nutritional outcomes is currently limited and weak.

  2. Human milk fortifier with high versus standard protein content for promoting growth of preterm infants: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tian-Tian; Dang, Dan; Lv, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Teng-Fei; Du, Jin-Feng; Wu, Hui

    2015-06-01

    To compare the growth of preterm infants fed standard protein-fortified human milk with that containing human milk fortifier (HMF) with a higher-than-standard protein content. Published articles reporting randomized controlled trials and prospective observational intervention studies listed on the PubMed®, Embase®, CINAHL and Cochrane Library databases were searched using the keywords 'fortifier', 'human milk', 'breastfeeding', 'breast milk' and 'human milk fortifier'. The mean difference with 95% confidence intervals was used to compare the effect of HMF with a higher-than-standard protein content on infant growth characteristics. Five studies with 352 infants with birth weight ≤ 1750 g and a gestational age ≤ 34 weeks who were fed human milk were included in this meta-analysis. Infants in the experimental groups given human milk with higher-than-standard protein fortifier achieved significantly greater weight and length at the end of the study, and greater weight gain, length gain, and head circumference gain, compared with control groups fed human milk with the standard HMF. HMF with a higher-than-standard protein content can improve preterm infant growth compared with standard HMF. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  3. In vitro calcium availability in bakery products fortified with tuna bone powder as a natural calcium source.

    PubMed

    Nemati, Mahnaz; Kamilah, Hanisah; Huda, Nurul; Ariffin, Fazilah

    2015-08-01

    Avoidance of dairy products due to lactose intolerance can lead to insufficiency of calcium (Ca) in the body. In an approach to address this problem, tuna bone powder (TBP) was formulated as a calcium supplement to fortify bakery products. In a study, TBP recovered by alkaline treatment contained 38.16 g/100 g of calcium and 23.31 g/100 g of phosphorus. The ratio of Ca:P that was close to 2:1 was hence comparable to that in human bones. The availability of calcium in TBP was 53.93%, which was significantly higher than most calcium salts, tricalcium phosphate (TCP) being the exception. In vitro availability of calcium in TBP-fortified cookies or TCP-fortified cookies were comparable at 38.9% and 39.5%, respectively. These values were higher than the readings from TBP-fortified bread (36.7%) or TCP-fortified bread (37.4%). Sensory evaluation of bakery products containing TBP or TCP elicited comparable scores for the two additives from test panels. Hence, TBP could be used in the production of high calcium bakery products that would enjoy consumer acceptance.

  4. A ready-to-use duplex qPCR to detect Leishmania infantum DNA in naturally infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Rampazzo, Rita de Cássia Pontello; Solcà, Manuela da Silva; Santos, Liliane Celestino Sales; Pereira, Lais de Novaes; Guedes, José Carlos Oliveira; Veras, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares; Fraga, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé; Krieger, Marco Aurélio; Costa, Alexandre Dias Tavares

    2017-11-15

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a systemic disease caused by Leishmania infantum. A precise CVL diagnosis would allow for a faster and more specific treatment. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) is a sensitive and specific technique that can diagnose CVL and also monitor parasite load in the animal during the course of the infection or treatment. The aim of this study was to develop a ready-to-use (gelified and freezer-free) duplex qPCR for the identification of infected animals. We combined a new qPCR protocol that detects the canine 18S rRNA gene with an existing protocol for L. infantum kDNA detection, creating a duplex qPCR. This duplex method was then developed into a ready-to-use format. The performance of the duplex and singleplex reactions were compared in the traditional format (liquid and freezer-stored). Furthermore, the duplex qPCR performance was compared between the ready-to-use and traditional formats. The singleplex and new duplex qPCR exhibited the same detection limit in the traditional format (0.1 parasites/reaction). The ready-to-use format showed a detection limit of 1 parasite/reaction without affecting the reaction efficiency. The performance of the new qPCR protocol in the two formats was assessed using canine tissue samples from 82 dogs in an endemic CVL area that were previously characterized by standard serological and parasitological protocols. Splenic aspirates provided a higher rate of positivity (92.9%) followed by skin (50%) and blood (35.7%). The reported detection limits were observed for all tissues studied. Our results show that the amplification of L. infantum kDNA and canine DNA in a single tube, using either the traditional or ready-to-use format, exhibited the same diagnostic performance as amplification of the parasite kDNA alone. The detection of the host gene strengthens the qPCR results by confirming the presence and quality of DNA in the samples and the absence of polymerase inhibitors. The ready-to-use duplex qPCR format

  5. Effects of soaking and acidification on physicochemical properties of calcium-fortified rice.

    PubMed

    Sirisoontaralak, Porntip; Limboon, Pailin; Jatuwong, Sujitra; Chavanalikit, Arusa

    2016-06-01

    Calcium-fortified rice was prepared by soaking milled rice in calcium lactate solution, steaming and drying, and physicochemical properties were determined to evaluate effects of calcium concentration (0, 30, 50 g L(-1) ), soaking temperature (ambient temperature, 40 °C, 60 °C) and acidification. Calcium-fortified rice had less lightness. More total solid loss was observed, especially at high soaking temperature. Harder texture was detected with increased calcium concentration. Calcium fortification lowered pasting viscosity of milled rice. Panelists accepted all fortified rice; however, only rice soaked at 50 g L(-1) concentration could be claimed as a good source of calcium. Increasing of soaking temperature induced more penetration of calcium to rice kernels but calcium was lost more easily after washing. With addition of acetic acid to the soaking solution, enriched calcium content was comparable to that of high soaking temperature but with better retention after washing and calcium solubility was improved. Acid induced reduction of lightness and cooked rice hardness but increased total solid loss and pasting viscosity. Although the taste of acetic acid remained, panelists still accepted the fortified rice. Calcium-fortified rice (190.47-194.3 mg 100 g(-1) ) could be successfully produced by soaking milled rice in 50 g L(-1) calcium lactate solution at 40 °C or at ambient temperature with acidification. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Experimental study showed that adding fortifier and extra-hydrolysed proteins to preterm infant mothers' milk increased osmolality.

    PubMed

    Rosas, R; Sanz, M P; Fernández-Calle, P; Alcaide, M J; Montes, M T; Pastrana, N; Segovia, C; Omeñaca, F; Sáenz de Pipaón, M

    2016-12-01

    Measuring milk osmolality after adjustable fortification is clinically relevant, as values exceeding recommended safety thresholds might result in gastrointestinal consequences. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of four fortification levels and storage time on the osmolality of human milk. This was an experimental study using 71 spare samples of fresh breastmilk collected from 31 mothers of preterm infants. Osmolality was measured before and after adding commercial human milk fortifier containing dextrinomaltose and hydrolysed proteins at four different concentrations. Measurements were performed at various points during the 23 hours after fortification. The mean basal osmolality of the 71 human milk samples was 296 ± 14 milliosmoles (mOsm)/kg, and these remained stable over a period of 23 hours. Just after fortification, the four fortified formulas showed higher osmolalities than the nonfortified human milk, ranging between 384 ± 14 and 486 ± 15 mOsm/kg, respectively (p < 0.01). This osmolality increased significantly from 20 minutes to 23 hours after fortification (p < 0.05). Adding fortifier and extra-hydrolysed proteins to human preterm milk increased osmolality, and these osmolality levels also increased with time. We recommend evaluating the risk of hyperosmolality when a higher fortification level is needed, to avoid gastrointestinal problems. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Exposure to antimony from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) trays used in ready-to-eat meals.

    PubMed

    Haldimann, M; Blanc, A; Dudler, V

    2007-08-01

    Antimony residues, a result of the use of a polycondensation catalyst in the production of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) oven-proof trays, were analysed in ready-to-eat meals. The toxicity of antimony has raised concerns about consumer safety; therefore, the migration of small fractions of these residues into ready meals and foods as a result of cooking directly in the PET trays was studied. A straightforward approach of measuring real samples was selected to obtain accurate exposure data. Background antimony concentration was determined separately from a series of lunch meals, which ranged from not detectable to 3.4 microg kg(-1). Microwave and conventional oven-cooking caused a distinct increase in the concentration of antimony in food and ready meals of 0-17 and 8-38 microg kg(-1), respectively, depending, to a certain extent, on the industrial preparations. The migrated quantities of antimony corresponded to 3-13 microg. For comparison, PET roasting bags and ready-made dough products in PET baking dishes were also evaluated. About half of the products prepared at a temperature of 180 degrees C exceeded the specific migration limit set for food contact material by the European Commission. However, the migrated amounts of antimony relative to the accepted tolerable daily intake (TDI) show that exposure from this type of food is currently not of toxicological concern.

  8. Review of fortified food and beverage products for pregnant and lactating women and their impact on nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhenyu; Huffman, Sandra L

    2011-10-01

    Fortified beverages and supplementary foods, when given during pregnancy, have been shown to have positive effects on preventing maternal anaemia and iron deficiency. Studies show that use of micronutrient fortified supplementary foods, especially those containing milk and/or essential fatty acids during pregnancy, increase mean birthweight by around 60-73 g. A few studies have also shown that fortified supplementary foods have impacts on increasing birth length and reducing preterm delivery. Fortification levels have ranged generally from 50% to 100% of the recommended nutrient intake (RNI). Iron, zinc, copper, iodine, selenium, vitamins A, D, E, C, B1, B2, B6, and B12, folic acid, niacin and pantothenic acid are important nutrients that have been included in fortified beverages and supplemental foods for pregnant and lactating women. While calcium has been shown to reduce the risk of pre-eclampsia and maternal mortality, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and manganese can have negative impacts on organoleptic properties, so many products tested have not included these nutrients or have done so in a limited way. Fortified food supplements containing milk and essential fatty acids offer benefits to improving maternal status and pregnancy outcome. Fortified beverages containing only multiple micronutrients have been shown to reduce micronutrient deficiencies such as anaemia and iron deficiency. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Using Readiness Tests To Route Kindergarten Students: The Snarled Intersection of Psychometrics, Policy, and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellwein, Mary Catherine; And Others

    The validity of inferences drawn from readiness tests used to place children in a regular or a 2-year kindergarten program was investigated. Data from nine school districts in Virginia were used in the study. The study explored technical characteristics of four commonly used readiness tests: the Brigance Kindergarten and First Grade Screen, the…

  10. The clients’ readiness to use mental health care services: Experiences and perceptions from Iranian context

    PubMed Central

    Alavi, Mousa; Irajpour, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Background: Underutilization of mental health care services has been a challenge for the health care providers for many years. This challenge could be met in part by improving the clients’ readiness to use such services. This study aimed to introduce the important aspects of the clients’ readiness to use mental health services in the Iranian context. Materials and Methods: A thematic analysis of in-depth interviews was undertaken using a constant comparative approach. Participants (11 health professionals consisting of 3 physicians, 7 nurses, 1 psychologist, and 5 patients/their family members) were recruited from educational hospitals affiliated with Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran. The credibility and trustworthiness was grounded on four aspects: factual value, applicability, consistency, and neutrality. Results: The study findings uncovered two important aspects of the clients’ readiness for utilizing mental health care services. These are described through two themes and related sub-themes: “The clients’ awareness” implies the cognitive aspect of readiness and “the clients’ attitudes” implies the psychological aspect of readiness, both of which have perceived to cultivate a fertile context through which the clients could access and use the mental health services more easily. Conclusions: For the health care system in Isfahan, Iran to be successful in delivering mental health services, training programs directed to prepare service users should be considered. Improving the clients’ favorable attitudes and awareness should be considered. PMID:24554948

  11. The clients' readiness to use mental health care services: Experiences and perceptions from Iranian context.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Mousa; Irajpour, Alireza

    2013-11-01

    Underutilization of mental health care services has been a challenge for the health care providers for many years. This challenge could be met in part by improving the clients' readiness to use such services. This study aimed to introduce the important aspects of the clients' readiness to use mental health services in the Iranian context. A thematic analysis of in-depth interviews was undertaken using a constant comparative approach. Participants (11 health professionals consisting of 3 physicians, 7 nurses, 1 psychologist, and 5 patients/their family members) were recruited from educational hospitals affiliated with Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran. The credibility and trustworthiness was grounded on four aspects: factual value, applicability, consistency, and neutrality. The study findings uncovered two important aspects of the clients' readiness for utilizing mental health care services. These are described through two themes and related sub-themes: "The clients' awareness" implies the cognitive aspect of readiness and "the clients' attitudes" implies the psychological aspect of readiness, both of which have perceived to cultivate a fertile context through which the clients could access and use the mental health services more easily. For the health care system in Isfahan, Iran to be successful in delivering mental health services, training programs directed to prepare service users should be considered. Improving the clients' favorable attitudes and awareness should be considered.

  12. Zinc Absorption from Fortified Milk Powder in Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Rosa O; Hambidge, Michael; Baker, Mark; Salgado, Sergio A; Ruiz, Joaquín; García, Hugo S; Calderón de la Barca, Ana M

    2015-11-01

    Zinc (Zn) is essential for development, growth, and reproduction. The Mexican government subsidizes micronutrient-fortified milk for risk groups, with positive effect on the targeted groups' plasma Zn level, inferring a good absorption is achieved although it has not being measured. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of micronutrient-fortified milk intake during 27 days on Zn absorption in adolescent girls from northwest Mexico. Therefore, Zn absorption was evaluated in 14 healthy adolescent girls (14.1 years old) with adequate plasma Zn levels, before and after 27 days of fortified Zn milk intake. Fractional Zn absorption (FZA) was calculated from urinary ratios of stable isotopic Zn tracers administered orally and intravenously on days 0 and 27, and total absorbed Zn (TZA) was calculated. At the beginning, Zn intake was 6.8 ± 0.85 mg/d (mean ± SE), and 50 % of the adolescent girls did not achieve their requirement (7.3 mg/d). Additionally, FZA was negatively correlated with Zn intake (r =-0.61, p = 0.02), while TZA (1.06 mg/d) was insufficient to cover the physiologic requirements of adolescent girls (3.02 mg/d). At the end of the intervention, all the girls reached the Zn intake recommendation and TZA, 3.09 mg/d, which was enough to meet the physiological requirement for 57 % of the adolescent girls. Therefore, the low Zn intake and the Zn status of adolescent girls were positively impacted by Zn-fortified milk intake and its good absorption rate.

  13. Effect of selected spices on chemical and sensory markers in fortified rye-buckwheat cakes.

    PubMed

    Przygodzka, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Henryk; Ciesarová, Zuzana; Kukurová, Kristina; Lamparski, Grzegorz

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the effect of selected spices on chemical and sensorial markers in cakes formulated on rye and light buckwheat flour fortified with spices. Among collection of spices, rye-buckwheat cakes fortified individually with cloves, nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon, vanilla, and spice mix revealed the highest sensory characteristics and overall quality. Cakes fortified with cloves, allspice, and spice mix showed the highest antioxidant capacity, total phenolics, rutin, and almost threefold higher available lysine contents. The reduced furosine content as well as free and total fluorescent intermediatory compounds were observed as compared to nonfortified cakes. The FAST index was significantly lowered in all cakes enriched with spices, especially with cloves, allspice, and mix. In contrast, browning index increased in compare to cakes without spices. It can be suggested that clove, allspice, vanilla, and spice mix should be used for production of safety and good quality cakes.

  14. Relative bioavailability of iron in Bangledeshi traditional meals prepared with iron-fortified lentil dal

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Due to low Fe bioavailability and low consumption per meal, lentil must be fortified to contribute significant bioavailable Fe in the Bangladeshi diet. Moreover, since red lentil is dehulled prior to consumption, opportunity exists at this point to fortify lentil with Fe. Thus, in the present study...

  15. The Role of Family Experiences for Adolescents' Readiness to Use and Participate in Illegal Political Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glatz, Terese; Dahl, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    This study used reactance theory as a starting point to explain what role a perceived undemocratic and controlling family has for adolescents' readiness to use illegal political activity. Additionally, we examined whether adolescents' readiness to use illegal political means was related to actual political behaviour, which has been lacking in…

  16. Fortifying baladi bread in Egypt: reaching more than 50 million people through the subsidy program.

    PubMed

    Elhakim, Nadine; Laillou, Arnaud; El Nakeeb, Anwar; Yacoub, Rukia; Shehata, Magdy

    2012-12-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies, especially iron-deficiency anemia, are a public health problem in Egypt, where anemia rates almost doubled in the years from 2000 to 2005. In 2008, the Government of Egypt began implementation of a 5-year national program to fortify with iron and folic acid the wheat flour used in baking subsidized baladi bread, the staple food consumed by a majority of low- income groups. To project the achievements of this national Wheat Flour Fortification Program. This paper describes the program, estimates the production of fortified flour and consumption of fortified bread, and identifies program challenges and sustainability issues. Through the national Wheat Flour Fortification Program, ferrous sulfate and folic acid are now added to all wheat flour produced under the national Food Subsidy Program. Up to 50 million Egyptians nationwide are now consuming quality-assured fortified baladi bread on a daily basis. In 2011, 6.5 million MT of fortified wheat flour was produced by 143 participating public- and private-sector mills. Political changes in Egypt in 2011 did not seem to affect the program; the new leadership in the Ministry of Supply and Internal Trade remains committed to fortification of wheat flour. The daily intake of approximately 12 mg of iron and 600 microg of folic acid through the consumption of baladi bread suggests that the impact of the program on the prevention and reduction of iron and folate deficiencies among the Egyptian population could be significant; the results of an end-line survey are pending.

  17. Bioavailability of Zinc in Wistar Rats Fed with Rice Fortified with Zinc Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Della Lucia, Ceres Mattos; Santos, Laura Luiza Menezes; Rodrigues, Kellen Cristina da Cruz; Rodrigues, Vivian Cristina da Cruz; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Pinheiro Sant’Ana, Helena Maria

    2014-01-01

    The study of zinc bioavailability in foods is important because this mineral intake does not meet the recommended doses for some population groups. Also, the presence of dietary factors that reduce zinc absorption contributes to its deficiency. Rice fortified with micronutrients (Ultra Rice®) is a viable alternative for fortification since this cereal is already inserted into the population habit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioavailability of zinc (Zn) in rice fortified with zinc oxide. During 42 days, rats were divided into four groups and fed with diets containing two different sources of Zn (test diet: UR® fortified with zinc oxide, or control diet: zinc carbonate (ZnCO3)), supplying 50% or 100%, respectively, of the recommendations of this mineral for animals. Weight gain, food intake, feed efficiency ratio, weight, thickness and length of femur; retention of zinc, calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) in the femur and the concentrations of Zn in femur, plasma and erythrocytes were evaluated. Control diet showed higher weight gain, feed efficiency ratio, retention of Zn and Zn concentration in the femur (p < 0.05). However, no differences were observed (p > 0.05) for dietary intake, length and thickness of the femur, erythrocyte and plasmatic Zn between groups. Although rice fortified with zinc oxide showed a lower bioavailability compared to ZnCO3, this food can be a viable alternative to be used as a vehicle for fortification. PMID:24932657

  18. Effect of processing on folic acid fortified Baladi bread and its possible effect on the prevention of colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Omar, Rasha M; Ismail, Hanaa M; El-Lateef, Bothyna M Abd; Yousef, Mokhtar I; Gomaa, Naglaa F; Sheta, Manal

    2009-07-01

    This paper studied the possible effect of folic acid in fortified Baladi bread on the prevention of colon cancer development in rats. Wheat flour samples (82% extraction rate) and soy bean flour were analyzed to determine their folic acid contents using the High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Unfortified and folic acid fortified Baladi breads were prepared. Samples from each step of bread preparation were analyzed for folic acid concentration. Protein, fat, ash, fibers and carbohydrates percentages were also determined. Rats were divided into five groups, four of them were injected subcutaneously with dimethylhydrazine (DMH). After 15 weeks, the rats were sacrificed for pathological examination. Results showed that the folic acid content in wheat flour (82% extraction rate) was found to be highly significantly lower than that in soybean flour. After baking, folic acid content in all breads was found to decrease significantly. The highest protein and fat contents were found in soybean flour fortified Baladi bread. The colons of rats of groups 3 (fed 5% soy flour fortified Baladi bread) and 5 (fed Baladi bread fortified with 5% soy flour+8 mg folic acid/kg wheat flour) were the mostly affected by DMH injection as premalignant changes were observed.

  19. Effect of fortified milk on growth and nutritional status in young children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Misa; Harb, Tracy; David, Michael; Davies, Peter Sw; Hill, Rebecca J

    2017-05-01

    Adequate nutrition is critical for optimal growth and development. However, young children may be at risk of nutrient deficiencies when transitioning to weaning foods for a variety of reasons. Supplementation with fortified milk may provide potentially lacking essential nutrients, but effects on growth and nutritional status are yet to be established. Five databases were searched for randomised controlled trials using fortified milk against control milk in young children. Outcomes were growth, body composition and/or biochemical markers. Pooled differences in means were calculated for continuous outcomes and odds ratios for binary outcomes. Randomised controlled trials set in any country. Otherwise healthy children aged 6-47 months. Fifteen articles met the eligibility criteria. Fortification varied from Fe, Zn, vitamins, essential fatty acids, to pre- and/or probiotics. Frequently reported outcomes were weight, height and Fe status. Studies varied in geographical location, sample size and duration. Fortified milk had minimal effects on weight gain (mean difference=0·17 kg; 95 % CI 0·02, 0·31 kg) compared with control milk. The risk of anaemia was reduced in fortified milk groups (OR=0·32; 95 % CI 0·15, 0·66) compared with control groups. There were no significant effects on height gain, changes in body composition or Hb concentration. Fortified milk is an effective source of complementary nutrition to supplement children in need when consumed in appropriate amounts in addition to a normal diet. Due to compositional differences, further research on fortified milk is warranted before making global recommendations on benefits for growth and nutritional outcomes in young children.

  20. Children Entering School Ready to Learn: 2010-2011 Maryland Model for School Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The report shares what everyone has learned from the 2010-2011 Maryland Model for School Readiness (MMSR) data about the school readiness of Maryland's children: statewide, by subgroups, and for each of Maryland's 24 local jurisdictions. Some of the highlights are: (1) The percentage of Maryland kindergarteners fully ready to start school…

  1. Antioxidant activity of yogurt made from milk characterized by different casein haplotypes and fortified with chestnut and sulla honeys.

    PubMed

    Perna, Annamaria; Intaglietta, Immacolata; Simonetti, Amalia; Gambacorta, Emilio

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of yogurt made from milk characterized by different casein (CN) haplotypes (αs1-, β-, κ-CN) and fortified with chestnut and sulla honeys. The CN haplotype was determined by isoelectric focusing, whereas antioxidant activity of yogurt was measured using 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and ferric-reducing antioxidant power. The statistical analysis showed a significant effect of the studied factors. The results showed that chestnut honey presented the highest phenolic acid and flavonoid contents, which are closely associated with its high antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of fortified yogurt samples was affected both by different CN haplotypes and by type of honey added. Yogurts fortified with chestnut honey showed higher antioxidant activity than those fortified with sulla honey. The different behavior observed among the fortified yogurts led us to hypothesize that the effects of protein-polyphenol complex on antioxidant activity are interactive. The results suggest that milk proteins polymorphism and polyphenols play different roles in affecting the bioavailability and the antioxidant activity of yogurt. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Common Core Literacy Lesson Plans: Ready-to-Use Resources, 9-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    Schools nationwide are transitioning to the Common Core--our advice to you: Be prepared, but don't go it alone! Our new book, "Common Core Literacy Lesson Plans: Ready-to-Use Resources, 9-12," shows you that teaching the Common Core State Standards in high school doesn't have to be intimidating! This easy-to-use guide meets the particular needs of…

  3. Common Core Literacy Lesson Plans: Ready-to-Use Resources, 6-8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    Schools nationwide are transitioning to the Common Core--our advice to you: Don't go it alone! Our new book, "Common Core Literacy Lesson Plans: Ready-to-Use Resources, 6-8," shows you that teaching the Common Core State Standards in the middle grades doesn't have to be intimidating! This easy-to-use guide meets the particular needs of middle…

  4. Common Core Literacy Lesson Plans: Ready-to-Use Resources, K-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    Schools nationwide are transitioning to the Common Core--our advice to you: Don't go it alone! Our new book, "Common Core Literacy Lesson Plans: Ready-to-Use Resources, K-5," shows you that teaching the Common Core State Standards in the elementary grades doesn't have to be intimidating! This easy-to-use guide provides model lesson plans for…

  5. Storage, preparation, and usage of fortified food aid among Guatemalan, Ugandan, and Malawian beneficiaries: a field study report.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Jonathan P; Brodegard, William C; Pike, Oscar A; Steele, Frost M; Dunn, Michael L

    2008-09-01

    An important consideration in determining the ability of fortified food-aid commodities to meet the nutritional needs of beneficiaries is the manner in which commodities are utilized and prepared and the degree to which micronutrient losses occur during handling and cooking by the beneficiaries. A field study was conducted in Uganda, Malawi, and Guatemala to obtain data on storage, preparation, and usage of fortified blended foods provided by the US Agency for International Development. Interview and observational data on the use of corn-soy blend, cornmeal, soy-fortified cornmeal, soy-fortified bulgur, and fortified vegetable oil were collected from more than 100 households and two wet-feeding sites (where food is prepared and served by staff on-site) in 32 villages. Storage practices by beneficiaries appeared to be appropriate, and all commodities observed were free from off-flavors and odors. Cooking water was typically obtained from boreholes or open wells with a pH range of 4.7 to 7.7 Food preparation usually took place in covered areas with the use of an aluminum or clay pot over a wood-fueled fire. Thin or thick porridges were the most common dishes prepared from cereal-based products, with concentration ranges of 10% to 31% (wt/ wt) in water. Cooking times for porridges ranged from 5 to 53 minutes, with a mean of 26 minutes. Tortillas and beverages were other preparations commonly observed in Guatemala. Vegetable oil was typically used for pan frying. Cooking fuel could be saved and nutritional quality probably improved if relief agencies emphasized shorter cooking times. These data can be used to simulate preparation methods in the laboratory for assessment of the nutritional impact of cooking.

  6. Ready-to-use supplementary food increases fat mass and BMI in Haitian school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Iannotti, Lora L; Henretty, Nicole M; Delnatus, Jacques Raymond; Previl, Windy; Stehl, Tom; Vorkoper, Susan; Bodden, Jaime; Maust, Amanda; Smidt, Rachel; Nash, Marilyn L; Tamimie, Courtney A; Owen, Bridget C; Wolff, Patricia B

    2015-04-01

    In Haiti and other countries, large-scale investments in school feeding programs have been made with marginal evidence of nutrition outcomes. We aimed to examine the effectiveness of a fortified ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF), Mamba, on reduced anemia and improved body composition in school-aged children compared to an unfortified cereal bar, Tablet Yo, and control groups. A cluster, randomized trial with children ages 3-13 y (n = 1167) was conducted in the north of Haiti. Six schools were matched and randomized to the control group, Tablet Yo group (42 g, 165 kcal), or Mamba group (50 g, 260 kcal, and >75% of the RDA for critical micronutrients). Children in the supplementation groups received the snack daily for 100 d, and all were followed longitudinally for hemoglobin concentrations, anthropometry, and bioelectrical impedance measures: baseline (December 2012), midline (March 2013), and endline (June 2013). Parent surveys were conducted at baseline and endline to examine secondary outcomes of morbidities and dietary intakes. Longitudinal regression modeling using generalized least squares and logit with random effects tested the main effects. At baseline,14.0% of children were stunted, 14.5% underweight, 9.1% thin, and 73% anemic. Fat mass percentage (mean ± SD) was 8.1% ± 4.3% for boys and 12.5% ± 4.4% for girls. In longitudinal modeling, Mamba supplementation increased body mass index z score (regression coefficient ± SEE) 0.25 ± 0.06, fat mass 0.45 ± 0.14 kg, and percentage fat mass 1.28% ± 0.27% compared with control at each time point (P < 0.001). Among boys, Mamba increased fat mass (regression coefficient ± SEE) 0.73 ± 0.19 kg and fat-free mass 0.62 ± 0.34 kg compared with control (P < 0.001). Mamba reduced the odds of developing anemia by 28% compared to control (adjusted OR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.91; P < 0.001). No treatment effect was found for hemoglobin concentration. To our knowledge, this is the first study to give evidence of

  7. Hospital Characteristics are Associated With Readiness to Attain Stage 2 Meaningful Use of Electronic Health Records.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungyeon; Ohsfeldt, Robert L; Gamm, Larry D; Radcliff, Tiffany A; Jiang, Luohua

    2017-06-01

    To examine the difference between rural and urban hospitals as to their overall level of readiness for stage 2 meaningful use of electronic health records (EHRs) and to identify other key factors that affect their readiness for stage 2 meaningful use. A conceptual framework based on the theory of organizational readiness for change was used in a cross-sectional multivariate analysis using 2,083 samples drawn from the HIMSS Analytics survey conducted with US hospitals in 2013. Rural hospitals were less likely to be ready for stage 2 meaningful use compared to urban hospitals in the United States (OR = 0.49) in our final model. Hospitals' past experience with an information exchange initiative, staff size in the information system department, and the Chief Information Officer (CIO)'s responsibility for health information management were identified as the most critical organizational contextual factors that were associated with hospitals' readiness for stage 2. Rural hospitals lag behind urban hospitals in EHR adoption, which will hinder the interoperability of EHRs among providers across the nation. The identification of critical factors that relate to the adoption of EHR systems provides insights into possible organizational change efforts that can help hospitals to succeed in attaining meaningful use requirements. Rural hospitals have increasingly limited resources, which have resulted in a struggle for these facilities to attain meaningful use. Given increasing closures among rural hospitals, it is all the more important that EHR development focus on advancing rural hospital quality of care and linkages with patients and other organizations supporting the care of their patients. © 2016 National Rural Health Association.

  8. Using Interdisciplinary Research Methods to Revise and Strengthen the NWS TsunamiReadyTM Community Recognition Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, C.; Gregg, C. E.; Ritchie, L.; Stephen, M.; Farnham, C.; Fraser, S. A.; Gill, D.; Horan, J.; Houghton, B. F.; Johnson, V.; Johnston, D.

    2013-12-01

    The National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) partnered with the National Weather Service (NWS) in early 2000 to create the TsunamiReadyTM Community Recognition program. TsunamiReadyTM, modeled after the older NWS StormReadyTM program, is designed to help cities, towns, counties, universities and other large sites in coastal areas reduce the potential for disastrous tsunami-related consequences. To achieve TsunamiReadyTM recognition, communities must meet certain criteria aimed at better preparing a community for tsunami, including specific actions within the following categories: communications and coordination, tsunami warning reception, local warning dissemination, community preparedness, and administration. Using multidisciplinary research methods and strategies from Public Health; Psychology; Political, Social and Physical Sciences and Evaluation, our research team is working directly with a purposive sample of community stakeholders in collaboration and feedback focus group sessions. Invitation to participate is based on a variety of factors including but not limited to an individual's role as a formal or informal community leader (e.g., in business, government, civic organizations), or their organization or agency affiliation to emergency management and response. Community organizing and qualitative research methods are being used to elicit discussion regarding TsunamiReadyTM requirements and the division of requirements based on some aspect of tsunami hazard, vulnerability and risk, such as proximity to active or passive plate margins or subduction zone generated tsunamis versus earthquake-landslide generated tsunamis . The primary aim of this research is to use social science to revise and refine the NWS TsunamiReadyTM Guidelines in an effort to better prepare communities to reduce risk to tsunamis.

  9. Effect of fortified complementary food supplementation on child growth in rural Bangladesh: a cluster-randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Christian, Parul; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Mehra, Sucheta; Wu, Lee; Mitra, Maithilee; Ali, Hasmot; Merrill, Rebecca D; Choudhury, Nuzhat; Parveen, Monira; Fuli, Rachel D; Hossain, Md Iqbal; Islam, Md Munirul; Klemm, Rolf; Schulze, Kerry; Labrique, Alain; de Pee, Saskia; Ahmed, Tahmeed; West, Keith P

    2015-12-01

    Growth faltering in the first 2 years of life is high in South Asia where prevalence of stunting is estimated at 40-50%. Although nutrition counselling has shown modest benefits, few intervention trials of food supplementation exist showing improvements in growth and prevention of stunting. A cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted in rural Bangladesh to test the effect of two local, ready-to-use foods (chickpea and rice-lentil based) and a fortified blended food (wheat-soy-blend++, WSB++) compared with Plumpy'doz, all with nutrition counselling vs nutrition counselling alone (control) on outcomes of linear growth (length and length-for-age z-score, LAZ), stunting (LAZ < -2), weight-for-length z-score (WLZ) and wasting (WLZ < -2) in children 6-18 months of age. Children (n = 5536) were enrolled at 6 months of age and, in the food groups, provided with one of the allocated supplements daily for a year. Growth deceleration occurred from 6 to 18 months of age but deceleration in LAZ was lower (by 0.02-0.04/month) in the Plumpy'doz (P = 0.02), rice-lentil (< 0.01), and chickpea (< 0.01) groups relative to control, whereas WLZ decline was lower only in Plumpy'doz and chickpea groups. WSB++ did not impact on these outcomes. The prevalence of stunting was 44% at 18 months in the control group, but lower by 5-6% (P ≤ 0.01) in those receiving Plumpy'doz and chickpea. Mean length and LAZ at 18 months were higher by 0.27-0.30 cm and 0.07-0.10 (all P < 0.05), respectively, in all four food groups relative to the control. In rural Bangladesh, small amounts of daily fortified complementary foods, provided for a year in addition to nutrition counselling, modestly increased linear growth and reduced stunting at 18 months of age. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  10. Effect of fortified complementary food supplementation on child growth in rural Bangladesh: a cluster-randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Parul; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Mehra, Sucheta; Wu, Lee; Mitra, Maithilee; Ali, Hasmot; Merrill, Rebecca D; Choudhury, Nuzhat; Parveen, Monira; Fuli, Rachel D; Hossain, Md Iqbal; Islam, Md Munirul; Klemm, Rolf; Schulze, Kerry; Labrique, Alain; de Pee, Saskia; Ahmed, Tahmeed; West, Keith P

    2015-01-01

    Background: Growth faltering in the first 2 years of life is high in South Asia where prevalence of stunting is estimated at 40–50%. Although nutrition counselling has shown modest benefits, few intervention trials of food supplementation exist showing improvements in growth and prevention of stunting. Methods: A cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted in rural Bangladesh to test the effect of two local, ready-to-use foods (chickpea and rice-lentil based) and a fortified blended food (wheat-soy-blend++, WSB++) compared with Plumpy’doz, all with nutrition counselling vs nutrition counselling alone (control) on outcomes of linear growth (length and length-for-age z-score, LAZ), stunting (LAZ < −2), weight-for-length z-score (WLZ) and wasting (WLZ < −2) in children 6–18 months of age. Children (n = 5536) were enrolled at 6 months of age and, in the food groups, provided with one of the allocated supplements daily for a year. Results: Growth deceleration occurred from 6 to 18 months of age but deceleration in LAZ was lower (by 0.02–0.04/month) in the Plumpy’doz (P = 0.02), rice-lentil (< 0.01), and chickpea (< 0.01) groups relative to control, whereas WLZ decline was lower only in Plumpy’doz and chickpea groups. WSB++ did not impact on these outcomes. The prevalence of stunting was 44% at 18 months in the control group, but lower by 5–6% (P ≤ 0.01) in those receiving Plumpy’doz and chickpea. Mean length and LAZ at 18 months were higher by 0.27–0.30 cm and 0.07–0.10 (all P < 0.05), respectively, in all four food groups relative to the control. Conclusions: In rural Bangladesh, small amounts of daily fortified complementary foods, provided for a year in addition to nutrition counselling, modestly increased linear growth and reduced stunting at 18 months of age. PMID:26275453

  11. [Impact of fortified milk on the iron and zinc levels in Mexican preschool children].

    PubMed

    Grijalva-Haro, María Isabel; Chavarria, Elsa Yolanda; Artalejo, Elizabeth; Nieblas, Amparo; Ponce, José Antonio; Robles-Sardin, Alma E

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a national program of consumption of fortified milk "Liconsa" on the nutritional status of iron and zinc in pre-school children (3-5 y). The study was conducted in 77 healthy children of both genders. 54 of them consumed Liconsa fortified milk (GCLFL) and 23 consumed no fortified milk (GR). Iron status was determined by measuring hemoglobin and ferritin and zinc status by serum zinc. The consumption of milk was on free demand and it was estimated at baseline and 6 mo after. Through 24-h recall of measured consumption of iron and zinc in the total diet. Descriptive statistics, Student's t test for independent samples and chi-square test for differences in proportions. Children who consumed fortified milk showed an increase of hemoglobin and ferritin levels [1.13 g/dL (p < 0.05) and 5.83 μg/L (p < 0.05) respectively]. Additionally, a decrease was found of the prevalence of low iron stores from 20.4 to 4.1% (p < 0.05). The serum zinc level showed an increase of 45.2 μg/dL (p < 0.05). At the end of the study no child showed a micronutrient deficiency. Children who did not consume fortified milk Liconsa showed no significant change in their serum iron and zinc values. The average consumption of milk powder Liconsa was 22.7 ± 14.5 g, providing 2.5 mg of daily iron and zinc. Supplied diet 9.2 ± 3.4 mg of iron and 6.9 ± 3 mg of zinc. The consumption of fortified milk had a beneficial effect on the serum levels of iron and zinc in children's social welfare program Liconsa. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  12. Using Language-Experience to Teach Diagnostically at the Reading Readiness Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, K. Eleanor

    When used diagnostically at the readiness level, language-experience becomes an effective way to meet individual differences and to differentiate instruction in a group setting. For a 5- or 6-year old, school should be an exciting, happy, purposeful place, and language-experience lends itself well to such a setting. The first steps are to…

  13. Impact of fortified versus unfortified lipid-based supplements on morbidity and nutritional status: A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial in ill Gambian children

    PubMed Central

    Drammeh, Saikou; Hasan, Jahid; Ceesay, Kabiru; Sinjanka, Edrisa; Beyai, Sainey; Dondeh, Bai Lamin; Fulford, Anthony J.; Moore, Sophie E.; Prentice, Andrew M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Multiple micronutrients (MMN) are commonly prescribed in pediatric primary healthcare in sub-Saharan Africa to improve nutritional status and appetite without evidence for their effectiveness or international clinical guidelines. Community-wide MMN supplementation has shown limited and heterogeneous impact on growth and morbidity. Short-term ready-to-use therapeutic foods in acutely sick children in a hospital setting also had limited efficacy regarding subsequent growth. The effectiveness of MMN in improving morbidity or growth in sick children presenting for primary care has not been assessed. Methods and findings We undertook a double-blind randomised controlled trial of small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) fortified with 23 micronutrients in children aged 6 months (mo) to 5 years (y) presenting with an illness at a rural primary healthcare centre in The Gambia. Primary outcomes were repeat clinic presentations and growth over 24 wk. Participants were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 3 interventions: (1) supplementation with micronutrient-fortified SQ-LNS for 12 wk (MMN-12), (2) supplementation with micronutrient-fortified SQ-LNS for 6 wk followed by unfortified SQ-LNS for 6 wk (MMN-6), or (3) supplementation with unfortified SQ-LNS for 12 wk (MMN-0) to be consumed in daily portions. Treatment masking used 16 letters per 6-wk block in the randomisation process. Blinded intention-to-treat analysis based on a prespecified statistical analysis plan included all participants eligible and correctly enrolled. Between December 2009 and June 2011, 1,101 children (age 6–60 mo, mean 25.5 mo) were enrolled, and 1,085 were assessed (MMN-0 = 361, MMN-6 = 362, MMN-12 = 362). MMN supplementation was associated with a small increase in height-for-age z-scores 24 wk after recruitment (effect size for MMN groups combined: 0.084 SD/24 wk, 95% CI: 0.005, 0.168; p = 0.037; equivalent to 2–5 mm depending on age). No significant difference in

  14. Calcium absorption from fortified ice cream formulations compared with calcium absorption from milk.

    PubMed

    van der Hee, Regine M; Miret, Silvia; Slettenaar, Marieke; Duchateau, Guus S M J E; Rietveld, Anton G; Wilkinson, Joy E; Quail, Patricia J; Berry, Mark J; Dainty, Jack R; Teucher, Birgit; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J

    2009-05-01

    Optimal bone mass in early adulthood is achieved through appropriate diet and lifestyle, thereby protecting against osteoporosis and risk of bone fracture in later life. Calcium and vitamin D are essential to build adequate bones, but calcium intakes of many population groups do not meet dietary reference values. In addition, changes in dietary patterns are exacerbating the problem, thereby emphasizing the important role of calcium-rich food products. We have designed a calcium-fortified ice cream formulation that is lower in fat than regular ice cream and could provide a useful source of additional dietary calcium. Calcium absorption from two different ice cream formulations was determined in young adults and compared with milk. Sixteen healthy volunteers (25 to 45 years of age), recruited from the general public of The Netherlands, participated in a randomized, reference-controlled, double-blind cross-over study in which two test products and milk were consumed with a light standard breakfast on three separate occasions: a standard portion of ice cream (60 g) fortified with milk minerals and containing a low level (3%) of butter fat, ice cream (60 g) fortified with milk minerals and containing a typical level (9%) of coconut oil, and reduced-fat milk (1.7% milk fat) (200 mL). Calcium absorption was measured by the dual-label stable isotope technique. Effects on calcium absorption were evaluated by analysis of variance. Fractional absorption of calcium from the 3% butterfat ice cream, 9% coconut oil ice cream, and milk was 26%+/-8%, 28%+/-5%, and 31%+/-9%, respectively, and did not differ significantly (P=0.159). Results indicate that calcium bioavailability in the two calcium-fortified ice cream formulations used in this study is as high as milk, indicating that ice cream may be a good vehicle for delivery of calcium.

  15. Calcium Absorption from Fortified Ice Cream Formulations Compared with Calcium Absorption from Milk

    PubMed Central

    van der Hee, Regine M.; Miret, Silvia; Slettenaar, Marieke; Duchateau, Guus S.M.J.E.; Rietveld, Anton G.; Wilkinson, Joy E.; Quail, Patricia J.; Berry, Mark J.; Dainty, Jack R.; Teucher, Birgit; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Optimal bone mass in early adulthood is achieved through appropriate diet and lifestyle, thereby protecting against osteoporosis and risk of bone fracture in later life. Calcium and vitamin D are essential to build adequate bones, but calcium intakes of many population groups do not meet dietary reference values. In addition, changes in dietary patterns are exacerbating the problem, thereby emphasizing the important role of calcium-rich food products. We have designed a calcium-fortified ice cream formulation that is lower in fat than regular ice cream and could provide a useful source of additional dietary calcium. Calcium absorption from two different ice cream formulations was determined in young adults and compared with milk. Subjects/setting Sixteen healthy volunteers (25 to 45 years of age), recruited from the general public of The Netherlands, participated in a randomized, reference-controlled, double-blind cross-over study in which two test products and milk were consumed with a light standard breakfast on three separate occasions: a standard portion of ice cream (60 g) fortified with milk minerals and containing a low level (3%) of butter fat, ice cream (60 g) fortified with milk minerals and containing a typical level (9%) of coconut oil, and reduced-fat milk (1.7% milk fat) (200 mL). Calcium absorption was measured by the dual-label stable isotope technique. Statistical analysis Effects on calcium absorption were evaluated by analysis of variance. Results Fractional absorption of calcium from the 3% butterfat ice cream, 9% coconut oil ice cream, and milk was 26%±8%, 28%±5%, and 31%±9%, respectively, and did not differ significantly (P=0.159). Conclusions Results indicate that calcium bioavailability in the two calcium-fortified ice cream formulations used in this study is as high as milk, indicating that ice cream may be a good vehicle for delivery of calcium. PMID:19394469

  16. Impact of Daily versus Weekly Supply of Locally Produced Ready-to-Use Food on Growth of Moderately Wasted Children on Nias Island, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Purwestri, Ratna Chrismiari; Scherbaum, Veronika; Inayati, Dyah Ayu; Wirawan, Nia Novita; Suryantan, Julia; Bloem, Maurice Alexander; Pangaribuan, Rosnani Verba; Stuetz, Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Volker; Qaim, Matin; Biesalski, Hans Konrad; Bellows, Anne Camilla

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the outcomes of daily (semi-urban areas) and weekly (remote rural regions) programs for moderately wasted children supplemented with locally produced ready-to-use foods in the form of fortified cereal/nut/legume-based biscuits on Nias Island, Indonesia (RUF-Nias biscuit). Thirty-four children in daily and twenty children in weekly programs aged ≥6 to <60 months with weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) ≥ −3 to < −2 SD were recruited (October 2007–June 2008) on Nias and admitted into existing nutrition centers in the Church World Service project area. Individual discharge criterion was WHZ ≥ −1.5 SD. Weight gain of the children in daily and weekly programs was 3.9 ± 3.8 and 2.0 ± 2.0 g/kg/day, respectively. A higher proportion of children in daily than weekly programs reached target WHZ (76% vs. 35%, P = 0.004). Weight gain at program discharge/closure was highly predicted (R 2 = 0.228, P < 0.001) by compliance to RUF biscuits: high vs. low compliance resulted in a 1.33 (95% CI 0.16 to 1.53) g/kg/day higher weight gain. Compliance and admission in daily programs were significant factors in reducing the risk of not reaching the discharge criterion. However, mothers complained more frequently about time constraints in the daily relative to weekly programs. PMID:24959543

  17. [Protocol for peripheral parenteral nutrition management ready to use in surgical patients].

    PubMed

    Pinzón Espitia, Olga Lucia; Varón Vega, Martha Liliana

    2014-10-03

    Patients undergoing elective surgery, require a comprehensive clinical treatment that tends to maintain or prevent deterioration of nutritional status and promote clinical outcomes, and in turn improve the safety of parenteral nutrition therapy through optimization of technology, as a option aimed at minimizing risk and lower operating costs in institutions providing health services. To review the literature in order to study the requirements and recommendations of peripheral parenteral nutritional support and / or complementary ready to use in people undergoing surgery. Data synthesis after reviewing the relevant literature, to allow the protocol design. The search was conducted in the following databases: PubMed, Medline, Embase and ScienceDirect. Peripheral parenteral nutrition is a ready to use alternative nutritional support that improves the contribution Protein-Energy and demonstrate improvements in patient safety, decrease costs and increase patient satisfaction. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. Coverage and Consumption of Micronutrient Powders, Fortified Staples, and Iodized Salt Among Children Aged 6 to 23 Months in Selected Neighborhoods of Nairobi County, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Leyvraz, Magali; David-Kigaru, Dorcus M; Macharia-Mutie, Catherine; Aaron, Grant J; Roefs, Marlene; Tumilowicz, Alison

    2018-03-01

    Intake of micronutrient-rich foods among children aged 6 to 23 months in Nairobi is low. This study aimed to assess existing coverage and utilization of micronutrient powders (MNPs), fortified staples, and iodized salt among children aged 6 to 23 months prior to implementation of an MNP program. A cross-sectional survey among caregivers of children aged 6 to 23 months (n = 618) was implemented in 7 neighborhoods within Nairobi County, representing the implementation area of the new MNP program. Results for MNP coverage and utilization showed 28.5% of all caregivers were aware of MNP, 18.5% had ever received MNP for their child, and 10.8% had fed MNP to their child in the previous 7 days. Effective coverage (ie, the child had been given the MNP at least 3 times in the previous 7 days) was 5.8%. Effective coverage of infants and young children with poor feeding practices was significantly lower as compared to those with non-poor feeding practices (coverage ratio, 0.34; confidence interval, 0.12-0.70). Most households purchased iodized salt (96.9%), fortified oil (61.0%), and fortified maize flour (93.9%). An estimated 23.9% of vitamin A requirements of children (6-23 months) were provided from fortified oil and 50.7% of iron from fortified maize flour. Most households consumed processed milk (81%). Coverage of MNPs in the surveyed neighborhoods was low. Coverage of fortified salt, oil, and maize flour was high and provided significant amount of micronutrients to children. Processed milk has potential as a vehicle for food fortification.

  19. Are ACOs ready to be accountable for medication use?

    PubMed

    Dubois, Robert W; Feldman, Marv; Lustig, Adam; Kotzbauer, Greg; Penso, Jerry; Pope, Scott D; Westrich, Kimberly D

    2014-01-01

    Accountable care organizations (ACOs) have the potential to lower costs and improve quality through incentives and coordinated care. However, the design brings with it many new challenges. One such challenge is the optimal use of pharmaceuticals. Most ACOs have not yet focused on this integral facet of care, even though medications are a critical component to achieving the lower costs and improved quality that are anticipated with this new model. To evaluate whether ACOs are prepared to maximize the value of medications for achieving quality benchmarks and cost offsets. During the fall of 2012, an electronic readiness self-assessment was developed using a portion of the questions and question methodology from the National Survey of Accountable Care Organizations, along with original questions developed by the authors. The assessment was tested and subsequently revised based on feedback from pilot testing with 5 ACO representatives. The revised assessment was distributed via e-mail to a convenience sample (n=175) of ACO members of the American Medical Group Association, Brookings-Dartmouth ACO Learning Network, and Premier Healthcare Alliance. The self-assessment was completed by 46 ACO representatives (26% response rate). ACOs reported high readiness to manage medications in a few areas, such as transmitting prescriptions electronically (70%), being able to integrate medical and pharmacy data into a single database (54%), and having a formulary in place that encourages generic use when appropriate (50%). However, many areas have substantial room for improvement with few ACOs reporting high readiness. Some notable areas include being able to quantify the cost offsets and hence demonstrate the value of appropriate medication use (7%), notifying a physician when a prescription has been filled (9%), having protocols in place to avoid medication duplication and polypharmacy (17%), and having quality metrics in place for a broad diversity of conditions (22%). Developing

  20. Development of complementary feeding recommendations for 12-23-month-old children from low and middle socio-economic status in West Java, Indonesia: contribution of fortified foods towards meeting the nutrient requirement.

    PubMed

    Fahmida, Umi; Santika, Otte

    2016-07-01

    Inadequate nutrient intake as part of a complementary feeding diet is attributable to poor feeding practices and poor access to nutritious foods. Household socio-economic situation (SES) has an influence on food expenditure and access to locally available, nutrient-dense foods and fortified foods. This study aimed to develop and compare complementary feeding recommendations (CFR) for 12-23-month-old children in different SES and evaluate the contribution of fortified foods in meeting nutrient requirements. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in low and medium SES households (n 114/group) in urban Bandung district, West Java province, Indonesia. Food pattern, portion size and affordability were assessed, and CFR were developed for the low SES (LSES) and middle SES (MSES) using a linear programming (LP) approach; two models - with and without fortified foods - were run using LP, and the contribution of fortified foods in the final CFR was identified. Milk products, fortified biscuits and manufactured infant cereals were the most locally available and consumed fortified foods in the market. With the inclusion of fortified foods, problem nutrients were thiamin in LSES and folate and thiamin in MSES groups. Without fortified foods, more problem nutrients were identified in LSES, that is, Ca, Fe, Zn, niacin and thiamin. As MSES consumed more fortified foods, removing fortified foods was not possible, because most of the micronutrient-dense foods were removed from their food basket. There were comparable nutrient adequacy and problem nutrients between LSES and MSES when fortified foods were included. Exclusion of fortified foods in LSES was associated with more problem nutrients in the complementary feeding diet.

  1. Multinutrient-fortified juices improve vitamin D and vitamin E status in children: A randomized controlled trial

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Provision of fortified juices may provide a convenient and palatable method to maintain and increase blood fat soluble vitamins. We sought to determine if children consuming orange juice (OJ) fortified with calcium (Ca) and combinations of vitamins D, E and A could increase serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D...

  2. Physicochemical Properties of Flaxseed Fortified Extruded Bean Snack.

    PubMed

    Vadukapuram, Naveen; Hall, Clifford; Tulbek, Mehmet; Niehaus, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Milled flaxseed was incorporated (0-20%) into a combination of bean-corn flours and extruded in a twin screw extruder using corn curl method. Physicochemical parameters such as water activity, color, expansion ratio, bulk density, lipid content, and peroxide values of extruded snack were analyzed. Scanning electron micrographs were taken. Peroxide values and propanal contents were measured over four months of storage. Rancidity scores of extruded snack were measured using a trained panel. As expected, omega-3 fatty acids and bulk density increased with increasing flaxseed fortification levels. Extrudates with more flaxseed had decreased lightness values and expansion ratios. However, only the 15 and 20% flaxseed containing extrudates had expansion ratios that were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) different from the control. In general, no significant difference (P > 0.05) in water activity values was observed in the flaxseed fortified extrudates, except in the navy-corn based extrudates. Peroxide values increased with increased flaxseed levels and over a storage period. However, propanal values did not change significantly in the 5-10% flaxseed fortified extrudates but increased in extrudates with higher levels of flaxseed. Rancidity scores were correlated with peroxide values and did not increase significantly during storage under nitrogen flushed conditions.

  3. Physicochemical Properties of Flaxseed Fortified Extruded Bean Snack

    PubMed Central

    Vadukapuram, Naveen; Hall, Clifford

    2014-01-01

    Milled flaxseed was incorporated (0–20%) into a combination of bean-corn flours and extruded in a twin screw extruder using corn curl method. Physicochemical parameters such as water activity, color, expansion ratio, bulk density, lipid content, and peroxide values of extruded snack were analyzed. Scanning electron micrographs were taken. Peroxide values and propanal contents were measured over four months of storage. Rancidity scores of extruded snack were measured using a trained panel. As expected, omega-3 fatty acids and bulk density increased with increasing flaxseed fortification levels. Extrudates with more flaxseed had decreased lightness values and expansion ratios. However, only the 15 and 20% flaxseed containing extrudates had expansion ratios that were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) different from the control. In general, no significant difference (P > 0.05) in water activity values was observed in the flaxseed fortified extrudates, except in the navy-corn based extrudates. Peroxide values increased with increased flaxseed levels and over a storage period. However, propanal values did not change significantly in the 5–10% flaxseed fortified extrudates but increased in extrudates with higher levels of flaxseed. Rancidity scores were correlated with peroxide values and did not increase significantly during storage under nitrogen flushed conditions. PMID:26904633

  4. Relationship of microbial communities and suppressiveness of Trichoderma fortified composts for pepper seedlings infected by Phytophthora nicotianae.

    PubMed

    Ros, Margarita; Raut, Iulia; Santisima-Trinidad, Ana Belén; Pascual, Jose Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The understanding of the dynamic of soil-borne diseases is related to the microbial composition of the rhizosphere which is the key to progress in the field of biological control. Trichoderma spp. is commonly used as a biological control agent. The use of next generation sequencing approaches and quantitative PCR are two successful approaches to assess the effect of using compost as substrate fortified with two Trichoderma strains (Trichoderma harzianum or Trichoderma asperellum) on bacterial and fungal communities in pepper rhizosphere infected with Phytophthora nicotianae. The results showed changes in the bacterial rhizosphere community not attributed to the Trichoderma strain, but to the pathogen infection, while, fungi were not affected by pathogen infection and depended on the type of substrate. The Trichoderma asperellum fortified compost was the most effective combination against the pathogen. This could indicate that the effect of fortified composts is greater than compost itself and the biocontrol effect should be attributed to the Trichoderma strains rather than the compost microbiota, although some microorganisms could help with the biocontrol effect.

  5. Relationship of microbial communities and suppressiveness of Trichoderma fortified composts for pepper seedlings infected by Phytophthora nicotianae

    PubMed Central

    Ros, Margarita; Raut, Iulia; Santisima-Trinidad, Ana Belén; Pascual, Jose Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The understanding of the dynamic of soil-borne diseases is related to the microbial composition of the rhizosphere which is the key to progress in the field of biological control. Trichoderma spp. is commonly used as a biological control agent. The use of next generation sequencing approaches and quantitative PCR are two successful approaches to assess the effect of using compost as substrate fortified with two Trichoderma strains (Trichoderma harzianum or Trichoderma asperellum) on bacterial and fungal communities in pepper rhizosphere infected with Phytophthora nicotianae. The results showed changes in the bacterial rhizosphere community not attributed to the Trichoderma strain, but to the pathogen infection, while, fungi were not affected by pathogen infection and depended on the type of substrate. The Trichoderma asperellum fortified compost was the most effective combination against the pathogen. This could indicate that the effect of fortified composts is greater than compost itself and the biocontrol effect should be attributed to the Trichoderma strains rather than the compost microbiota, although some microorganisms could help with the biocontrol effect. PMID:28346470

  6. An efficient intensity-based ready-to-use X-ray image stitcher.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junchen; Zhang, Xiaohui; Sun, Zhen; Yuan, Fuzhen

    2018-06-14

    The limited field of view of the X-ray image intensifier makes it difficult to cover a large target area with a single X-ray image. X-ray image stitching techniques have been proposed to produce a panoramic X-ray image. This paper presents an efficient intensity-based X-ray image stitcher, which does not rely on accurate C-arm motion control or auxiliary devices and hence is ready to use in clinic. The stitcher consumes sequentially captured X-ray images with overlap areas and automatically produces a panoramic image. The gradient information for optimization of image alignment is obtained using a back-propagation scheme so that it is convenient to adopt various image warping models. The proposed stitcher has the following advantages over existing methods: (1) no additional hardware modification or auxiliary markers are needed; (2) it is robust against feature-based approaches; (3) arbitrary warping models and shapes of the region of interest are supported; (4) seamless stitching is achieved using multi-band blending. Experiments have been performed to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method. The proposed X-ray image stitcher is efficient, accurate and ready to use in clinic. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Physicochemical properties of surimi gels fortified with dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Debusca, Alicia; Tahergorabi, Reza; Beamer, Sarah K; Matak, Kristen E; Jaczynski, Jacek

    2014-04-01

    Although dietary fiber provides health benefits, most Western populations have insufficient intake. Surimi seafood is not currently fortified with dietary fiber, nor have the effects of fiber fortification on physicochemical properties of surimi been thoroughly studied. In the present study, Alaska pollock surimi was fortified with 0-8 g/100 g of long-chain powdered cellulose as a source of dietary fiber. The protein/water concentrations in surimi were kept constant by adding an inert filler, silicon dioxide in inverse concentrations to the fiber fortification. Fiber-fortified surimi gels were set at 90 °C. The objectives were to determine (1) textural and colour properties; (2) heat-induced gelation (dynamic rheology); and (3) protein endothermic transitions (differential scanning calorimetry) of surimi formulated with constant protein/water, but variable fiber content. Fiber fortification up to 6 g/100 g improved (P<0.05) texture and colour although some decline occurred with 8 g/100g of fiber. Dynamic rheology correlated with texture and showed large increase in gel elasticity, indicating enhanced thermal gelation of surimi. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that fiber fortification did not interfere with thermal transitions of surimi myosin and actin. Long-chain fiber probably traps water physically, which is stabilized by chemical bonding with protein within surimi gel matrix. Based on the present study, it is suggested that the fiber-protein interaction is mediated by water and is physicochemical in nature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical properties and sensory quality of ice cream fortified with fish protein.

    PubMed

    Shaviklo, Gholam Reza; Thorkelsson, Gudjon; Sveinsdottir, Kolbrun; Rafipour, Fereidon

    2011-05-01

    Fish protein powder is a functional ingredient that can be used for enhancing the nutritional value of food products. In this study the effect of fortification with different levels of fish protein powder (FP) on chemical properties and sensory quality of Persian ice cream with 0, 30 and 50 g kg(-1) FP during storage at - 18 °C for 4 months was investigated. Ice creams fortified with 50 and 30 g kg(-1) FP had significantly higher protein and solid-non-fat content than ice cream with 0% FP or 83, 69 and 51 g kg(-1) protein and 215, 204 and 181 g kg(-1) solid non-fat, respectively. All products had the same levels of fat, lactose, acidity and pH. They had similar sensory quality after production except for colour, but sensory properties of fortified samples changed significantly after 2 months of storage. Colour faded, cohesiveness decreased, sandiness/coarseness increased, sweetness decreased and fish flavour and off-odour increased. The control ice cream scored highest for additives odour and flavour. Development of ice cream fortified with fish protein powder could be an effective way to enhance nutritional and functional value of ice cream. But studies on storage stability, consumers' acceptance and attitudes are recommended if companies are planning to do so. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Variables Affecting Readiness to Benefit from Career Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, James P., Jr.; McClain, Mary-Catherine; Musch, Elisabeth; Reardon, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    This article identifies and briefly describes the broad range of variables that may influence clients' readiness to benefit from career interventions. The article also discusses consequences of low readiness for effective use of career interventions and addresses implications for practice as well as for future research. Variables contributing to…

  10. Cost-effectiveness of milk powder fortified with potassium to decrease blood pressure and prevent cardiovascular events among the adult population in China: a Markov model

    PubMed Central

    Dainelli, Livia; Xu, Tingting; Li, Min; Zimmermann, Diane; Fang, Hai; Wu, Yangfeng; Detzel, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Objective To model the long-term cost-effectiveness of consuming milk powder fortified with potassium to decrease systolic blood pressure (SBP) and prevent cardiovascular events. Design A best case scenario analysis using a Markov model was conducted. Participants 8.67% of 50–79 year olds who regularly consume milk in China, including individuals with and without a prior diagnosis of hypertension. Intervention The model simulated the potential impact of a daily intake of two servings of milk powder fortified with potassium (+700 mg/day) vs the consumption of a milk powder without potassium fortification, assuming a market price equal to 0.99 international dollars (intl$; the consumption of a milk powder without potassium fortification, assuming a market price equal to intl$0.99 for the latter and to intl$1.12 for the first (+13.13%). Both deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the robustness of the results. Main outcome measures Estimates of the incidence of cardiovascular events and subsequent mortality in China were derived from the literature as well as the effect of increasing potassium intake on blood pressure. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was used to determine the cost-effectiveness of a milk powder fortified with potassium taking into consideration the direct medical costs associated with the cardiovascular events, loss of working days and health utilities impact. Results With an ICER equal to int$4711.56 per QALY (quality-adjusted life year) in the best case scenario and assuming 100% compliance, the daily consumption of a milk powder fortified with potassium shown to be a cost-effective approach to decrease SBP and reduce cardiovascular events in China. Healthcare savings due to prevention would amount to intl$8.41 billion. Sensitivity analyses showed the robustness of the results. Conclusion Together with other preventive interventions, the consumption of a milk powder fortified with

  11. Using motivational interviewing in the community pharmacy to increase adult immunization readiness: A pilot evaluation.

    PubMed

    Brackett, Amber; Butler, Michell; Chapman, Liza

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether the use of motivational interviewing (MI) in the community pharmacy improves immunization readiness and rates for hepatitis B, hepatitis A/B combination, herpes zoster, pneumococcal, and tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis immunizations. Kroger Pharmacy. Grocery store pharmacies located in the Atlanta, GA, metropolitan area offering a variety of patient care services, including medication therapy management and immunizations. Patients were identified during workflow, and MI encounters were initiated to those eligible to receive hepatitis A/B combination, hepatitis B, herpes zoster, pneumococcal and/or tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccines. Following each encounter, pharmacists completed patient demographic information and responses to 5-point Likert scale questions assessing patient readiness to receive immunizations at the beginning and end of the encounter, and if follow-up occurred, 5-point Likert scale questions assessing pharmacists' perception of using MI. Immunization rates at the intervention site did not significantly increase due to the small sample size and other project limitations. Patient readiness to receive immunizations improved from the beginning to the end of the MI encounter and was statistically significant for hepatitis B (P = 0.001) and pneumococcal (P = 0.033) vaccines. Pharmacists agreed MI was an effective tool to discuss immunizations, agreed they could communicate more effectively about immunizations, and agreed MI could be incorporated into the community pharmacy workflow. Motivational interviewing may be a useful tool for community pharmacists to use in discussing immunizations. Larger studies need to be completed to determine the impact MI could have on immunization readiness and rates in the community pharmacy.

  12. Fortified extract of red berry, Ginkgo biloba, and white willow bark in experimental early diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Bucolo, Claudio; Marrazzo, Giuseppina; Platania, Chiara Bianca Maria; Drago, Filippo; Leggio, Gian Marco; Salomone, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a complex condition where inflammation and oxidative stress represent crucial pathways in the pathogenesis of the disease. Aim of the study was to investigate the effects of a fortified extract of red berries, Ginkgo biloba and white willow bark containing carnosine and α-lipoic acid in early retinal and plasma changes of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by a single streptozotocin injection in Sprague Dawley rats. Diabetics and nondiabetic (control) rats were treated daily with the fortified extract for the ten days. Retina samples were collected and analyzed for their TNF-α and VEGF content. Moreover, plasma oxidative stress was evaluated by thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS). Increased TNF-α and VEGF levels were observed in the retina of diabetic rats. Treatment with the fortified extract significantly lowered retinal cytokine levels and suppressed diabetes-related lipid peroxidation. These data demonstrate that the fortified extract attenuates the degree of retinal inflammation and plasma lipid peroxidation preserving the retina in early diabetic rats.

  13. Serum and erythrocyte folate status of New Zealand women of childbearing age following a countrywide voluntary programme by the baking industry to fortify bread with folic acid.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, Kathryn E; Williams, Sheila M; Mann, Jim I; Oey, Indrawati; Aitchison, Cindy; Parnell, Winsome; Fleming, Liz; Brown, Rachel C; Skeaff, C Murray

    2016-11-01

    To estimate the folate status of New Zealand women of childbearing age following the introduction, in 2010, of a new voluntary folic acid fortification of bread programme. The 2011 Folate and Women's Health Survey was a cross-sectional survey of women aged 18-44 years carried out in 2011. The survey used a stratified random sampling technique with the Electoral Roll as the sampling frame. Women were asked about consumption of folic-acid-fortified breads and breakfast cereals in a telephone interview. During a clinic visit, blood was collected for serum and erythrocyte folate measurement by microbiological assay. A North Island (Wellington) and South Island (Dunedin) city centre in New Zealand. Two hundred and eighty-eight women, of whom 278 completed a clinic visit. Geometric mean serum and erythrocyte folate concentrations were 30 nmol/l and 996 nmol/l, respectively. Folate status was 30-40 % higher compared with women of childbearing age sampled as part of a national survey in 2008/09, prior to the introduction of the voluntary folic acid bread fortification programme. In the 2011 Folate and Women's Health Survey, reported consumption of fortified bread and fortified breakfast cereal in the past week was associated with 25 % (P=0·01) and 15 % (P=0·04) higher serum folate concentrations, respectively. Serum and erythrocyte folate concentrations have increased in New Zealand women of childbearing age since the number of folic-acid-fortified breads was increased voluntarily in 2010. Consumption of fortified breads and breakfast cereals was associated with a higher folate status.

  14. Sensory Acceptability of Iron-Fortified Red Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) Dal.

    PubMed

    Podder, Rajib; Khan, Shaan M; Tar'an, Bunyamin; Tyler, Robert T; Henry, Carol J; Jalal, Chowdhury; Shand, Phyllis J; Vandenberg, Albert

    2018-03-01

    Panelists in Saskatoon, Canada (n = 45) and Dhaka, Bangladesh (n = 98) participated in sensory evaluations of the sensory properties of both cooked and uncooked dehulled red lentil dal fortified with FeSO 4 ·7H 2 O, NaFeEDTA or FeSO 4 ·H 2 O at fortificant Fe concentrations of 800, 1,600 (both cooked and uncooked), or 2,800 ppm. Appearance, odor, and overall acceptability of cooked and uncooked samples were rated using a 9-point hedonic scale (1 = dislike extremely to 9 = like extremely). Taste and texture were rated for the cooked samples prepared as typical south Asian lentil meals. Significant differences in sensory quality were observed among all uncooked and cooked samples at both locations. Overall, scores for all sensory attributes and acceptability of uncooked lentil decreased with increasing concentration of Fe in the fortificant; however, Fe fortification (particularly with NaFeEDTA) had small effects on acceptability. Panelists from Saskatoon provided a wider range of scores than those from Bangladesh for all attributes of cooked lentil. Overall, sensory evaluation of Fe fortification using NaFeEDTA minimally affected consumer perception of color, taste, texture, odor, and overall acceptability of cooked lentil. Reliability estimates (Cronbach's alpha [CA]) indicated that consumer scores were generally consistent for all attributes of all lentil samples (mean CA > 0.80). NaFeEDTA was found to be the most suitable Fe fortificant for lentil based on consumer acceptability. Consumption of 45 to 50 g of NaFeEDTA-fortified lentil (fortificant Fe concentration of 1,600 ppm) per day meets the estimated average requirements (EARs) of Fe for humans (10.8 to 29.4 mg). Iron fortification of dehulled lentil dal may change organoleptic attributes that can influence consumer acceptability. Sensory evaluation by consumers helps to determine the effect on appearance, odor, taste, texture, and overall acceptability of fortified lentils. In this study, consumer

  15. Cost-effectiveness of milk powder fortified with potassium to decrease blood pressure and prevent cardiovascular events among the adult population in China: a Markov model.

    PubMed

    Dainelli, Livia; Xu, Tingting; Li, Min; Zimmermann, Diane; Fang, Hai; Wu, Yangfeng; Detzel, Patrick

    2017-09-25

    To model the long-term cost-effectiveness of consuming milk powder fortified with potassium to decrease systolic blood pressure (SBP) and prevent cardiovascular events. A best case scenario analysis using a Markov model was conducted. 8.67% of 50-79 year olds who regularly consume milk in China, including individuals with and without a prior diagnosis of hypertension. The model simulated the potential impact of a daily intake of two servings of milk powder fortified with potassium (+700 mg/day) vs the consumption of a milk powder without potassium fortification, assuming a market price equal to 0.99 international dollars (intl$; the consumption of a milk powder without potassium fortification, assuming a market price equal to intl$0.99 for the latter and to intl$1.12 for the first (+13.13%). Both deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the robustness of the results. Estimates of the incidence of cardiovascular events and subsequent mortality in China were derived from the literature as well as the effect of increasing potassium intake on blood pressure. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was used to determine the cost-effectiveness of a milk powder fortified with potassium taking into consideration the direct medical costs associated with the cardiovascular events, loss of working days and health utilities impact. With an ICER equal to int$4711.56 per QALY (quality-adjusted life year) in the best case scenario and assuming 100% compliance, the daily consumption of a milk powder fortified with potassium shown to be a cost-effective approach to decrease SBP and reduce cardiovascular events in China. Healthcare savings due to prevention would amount to intl$8.41 billion. Sensitivity analyses showed the robustness of the results. Together with other preventive interventions, the consumption of a milk powder fortified with potassium could represent a cost-effective strategy to attenuate the rapid rise in

  16. Management of Ready-to-Use Parenteral Nutrition in Newborns: Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Mena, Karen Daniela Romero; Espitia, Olga Lucia Pinzón; Vergara, José Alejandro Daza

    2018-04-27

    Parenteral support has increased the possibility of neonatal recovery. However, complications associated with its use have been documented. One commercial method developed to decrease the complications of this type of support is the ready-to-use parenteral nutrition (PN), a 3-chamber bag that provides a complete nutrient mix. This systematic review seeks, through the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses methodology, to establish the benefits in newborns. Seven databases and gray literature were used. The search was limited to publications from 2007-2017 and to articles written in English, Spanish, and Portuguese. Articles that did not meet the inclusion criteria and studies with low quality evaluated with the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network guidelines, which were without information about the study or analytical methods, were excluded. A total of 24,193 articles were obtained, which were initially evaluated by title and abstract according to the inclusion criteria. A total of 24,167 articles were discarded, obtaining 27 eligible for follow-up evaluation. After a detailed evaluation of the full text, 13 articles were selected. It was found that ready-to-use PN has the potential benefit to reduce the risks for infections, provide an adequate supply of nutrients, generate growth within the expected range, provide ease of use, decrease prescription errors, and potentially reduce costs. It is necessary to evaluate the short- and long-term impact of its use. © 2018 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  17. Associated factors of readiness to change in young adult risky drinkers.

    PubMed

    Alley, Ebon S; Velasquez, Mary M; von Sternberg, Kirk

    2018-01-01

    Readiness to change alcohol use has been associated with a number of predictors including emotional distress, drinking severity, and consequence severity, as well as with static demographic factors such as gender and race/ethnicity. To examine the relationships among these variables and readiness to change alcohol use in young adults. Structural equation modeling was used to test pathways of readiness to change in 1,256 young adult patients (78% male/22% female) ages 18-29 who were provided screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment (SBIRT) as part of a Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Treatment Capacity Expansion Project. The strongest relationships were between emotional distress, drinking severity, and consequence severity with readiness to change. Results indicated that participants with more severe alcohol problems demonstrated higher levels of readiness to change alcohol use and therefore, may be more amenable to behavior change. Additionally, females, Hispanic/Latino, and Black non-Hispanic (Black) participants demonstrated higher levels of readiness to change when compared to other groups. These results lend support to the concept that young adults are using alcohol to modulate their emotions. Furthermore, resultant severity of consequences from drinking may play an important role in their readiness to change risky drinking. This may be especially true for females, who reported greater emotional distress, and for Hispanic/Latinos and Blacks, who reported greater drinking severity with greater emotional distress. Caregivers may be better equipped to address young adult alcohol use with this added understanding.

  18. Corn-Soy-Blend Fortified with Phosphorus to Prevent Refeeding Hypophosphatemia in Undernourished Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Hother, Anne-Louise; Lykke, Mikkel; Martinussen, Torben; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard; Mølgaard, Christian; Sangild, Per Torp; Briend, André; Hansen, Christian Fink; Friis, Henrik; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Thymann, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Background Phosphorus (P) levels in refeeding diets are very important as undernourished children are at risk of hypophosphatemia during refeeding. For this reason, conventional corn-soy-blends (CSB) have been reformulated by the World Food Programme to obtain a mono-calcium-phosphate fortified product (CSB+) and a product further fortified with skim milk powder (CBS++). Methods Using a piglet model of undernourished children, we hypothesized that feeding of CSB+, CSB++ or CSB+ with added whey permeate (CSB+/wp) would help to prevent refeeding hypophosphatemia. Pigs were weaned at 4 weeks of age and undernutrition was induced with a nutritionally inadequate pure maize diet for 7 weeks, after which they were refed for 3 weeks with either CSB+ (n = 10), CSB++ (n = 10) or CSB+/wp (n = 10). For reference, a fourth group continued on the maize diet (REF, n = 10). Results Following induction of undernutrition, body weight and length were 29±5% and 67±4% (means±SD) of values in age-matched pigs fed a nutritionally adequate diet, and the mean serum P level was 1.77±0.34 mmol/l. During the first week of refeeding, P levels in the CSB+ pigs decreased to 55% of values before refeeding (P < 0.05) while values in the CSB++ and CSB+/wp pigs were able to maintain their plasma phosphate at a similar level as before refeeding. Conclusion We conclude that fortification of CSB with only monocalcium-phosphate does not prevent hypophosphatemia. Dairy products like skim milk powder or whey permeate may represent relevant sources of phosphorus during refeeding. The content and form of phosphorus in such diets need to be carefully evaluated, and the undernourished piglet may be used to test the efficacy of such diets. PMID:28081252

  19. Corn-Soy-Blend Fortified with Phosphorus to Prevent Refeeding Hypophosphatemia in Undernourished Piglets.

    PubMed

    Hother, Anne-Louise; Lykke, Mikkel; Martinussen, Torben; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard; Mølgaard, Christian; Sangild, Per Torp; Briend, André; Hansen, Christian Fink; Friis, Henrik; Michaelsen, Kim F; Thymann, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) levels in refeeding diets are very important as undernourished children are at risk of hypophosphatemia during refeeding. For this reason, conventional corn-soy-blends (CSB) have been reformulated by the World Food Programme to obtain a mono-calcium-phosphate fortified product (CSB+) and a product further fortified with skim milk powder (CBS++). Using a piglet model of undernourished children, we hypothesized that feeding of CSB+, CSB++ or CSB+ with added whey permeate (CSB+/wp) would help to prevent refeeding hypophosphatemia. Pigs were weaned at 4 weeks of age and undernutrition was induced with a nutritionally inadequate pure maize diet for 7 weeks, after which they were refed for 3 weeks with either CSB+ (n = 10), CSB++ (n = 10) or CSB+/wp (n = 10). For reference, a fourth group continued on the maize diet (REF, n = 10). Following induction of undernutrition, body weight and length were 29±5% and 67±4% (means±SD) of values in age-matched pigs fed a nutritionally adequate diet, and the mean serum P level was 1.77±0.34 mmol/l. During the first week of refeeding, P levels in the CSB+ pigs decreased to 55% of values before refeeding (P < 0.05) while values in the CSB++ and CSB+/wp pigs were able to maintain their plasma phosphate at a similar level as before refeeding. We conclude that fortification of CSB with only monocalcium-phosphate does not prevent hypophosphatemia. Dairy products like skim milk powder or whey permeate may represent relevant sources of phosphorus during refeeding. The content and form of phosphorus in such diets need to be carefully evaluated, and the undernourished piglet may be used to test the efficacy of such diets.

  20. Readiness Matters! 2014-2015 Kindergarten Readiness Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Maryland's demanding new Kindergarten Readiness Assessment was administered statewide for the first time. Its results are revealing and sobering. Many states do not even check in any systematic way on their children's readiness for kindergarten, and in previous years, Maryland used metrics based on modest expectations, outdated standards, and…

  1. In vitro evaluation of iron solubility and dialyzability of various iron fortificants and of iron-fortified milk products targeted for infants and toddlers.

    PubMed

    Kapsokefalou, Maria; Alexandropoulou, Isidora; Komaitis, Michail; Politis, Ioannis

    2005-06-01

    The objectives of the present study were: to compare the solubility and dialyzability of various iron fortificants (iron pyrophosphate, ferrous bis-glycinate, ferrous gluconate, ferrous lactate, ferrous sulfate) added, in the presence of ascorbic acid, to pasteurized milk samples produced under laboratory conditions; and to compare the solubility and dialyzability of iron in commercial pasteurized, UHT and condensed milk products available in the Greek market fortified with various vitamins and minerals including iron and targeted towards infants (6-12 months old) and toddlers. Iron solubility and dialyzability were determined using a simulated gastrointestinal digestive system. Ferrous dialyzable iron (molecular weight lower than 8000) was used as an index for prediction of iron bioavailability. Ferrous dialyzable iron in pasteurized milk samples fortified with iron pyrophosphate, ferrous lactate and ferrous bis-glycinate was higher (P < 0.05) than that in milk samples fortified with ferrous sulfate and ferrous gluconate. In commercial liquid pasteurized or UHT milk products, formation of ferrous dialyzable iron in products fortified with ferrous lactate was not different (P > 0.05) from those fortified with ferrous sulfate. Ferrous dialyzable iron in four condensed commercial milk products was higher (P < 0.05) than the corresponding values of the liquid UHT milk samples fortified with the same fortificant (ferrous sulfate). Ferrous dialyzable iron was higher (P < 0.05) in products targeted for infants compared with those targeted for toddlers. In conclusion, the type of iron source, milk processing and the overall product composition affect formation of ferrous dialyzable iron and may determine the success and effectiveness of iron fortification of milk.

  2. Post-targeting strategy for ready-to-use targeted nanodelivery post cargo loading.

    PubMed

    Zhu, J Y; Hu, J J; Zhang, M K; Yu, W Y; Zheng, D W; Wang, X Q; Feng, J; Zhang, X Z

    2017-12-14

    Based on boronate formation, this study reports a post-targeting methodology capable of readily installing versatile targeting modules onto a cargo-loaded nanoplatform in aqueous mediums. This permits the targeted nanodelivery of broad-spectrum therapeutics (drug/gene) in a ready-to-use manner while overcoming the PEGylation-dilemma that frequently occurs in conventional targeting approaches.

  3. Public health impact and economic evaluation of vitamin D-fortified dairy products for fracture prevention in France.

    PubMed

    Hiligsmann, M; Burlet, N; Fardellone, P; Al-Daghri, N; Reginster, J-Y

    2017-03-01

    The recommended intake of vitamin D-fortified dairy products can substantially decrease the burden of osteoporotic fractures and seems an economically beneficial strategy in the general French population aged over 60 years. This study aims to assess the public health and economic impact of vitamin D-fortified dairy products in the general French population aged over 60 years. We estimated the lifetime health impacts expressed in number of fractures prevented, life years gained, and quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained of the recommended intake of dairy products in the general French population over 60 years for 1 year (2015). A validated microsimulation model was used to simulate three age cohorts for both women and men (60-69, 70-79, and >80 years). The incremental cost per QALY gained of vitamin D-fortified dairy products compared to the absence of appropriate intake was estimated in different populations, assuming the cost of two dairy products per day in base case. The total lifetime number of fractures decreased by 64,932 for the recommended intake of dairy products in the general population over 60 years, of which 46,472 and 18,460 occurred in women and men, respectively. In particular, 15,087 and 4413 hip fractures could be prevented in women and men. Vitamin D-fortified dairy products also resulted in 32,569 QALYs and 29,169 life years gained. The cost per QALY gained of appropriate dairy intake was estimated at €58,244 and fall below a threshold of €30,000 per QALY gained in women over 70 years and in men over 80 years. Vitamin D-fortified dairy products have the potential to substantially reduce the burden of osteoporotic fractures in France and seem an economically beneficial strategy, especially in the general population aged above 70 years.

  4. Higher bioavailability of iron from whole wheat bread compared with iron-fortified white breads in caco-2 cell model: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Nikooyeh, Bahareh; Neyestani, Tirang R

    2017-06-01

    Bread, as the staple food of Iranians, with average per capita consumption of 300 g d -1 , could potentially be a good vehicle for many fortificants, including iron. In this study, iron bioavailability from flat breads (three fortified and one whole wheat unfortified) was investigated using in vitro simulation of gastrointestinal digestion and absorption in a caco-2 cell model. Despite having a lower ferritin/protein ratio in comparison with fortified breads, whole wheat bread showed higher iron bioavailability than the other three types of bread. Assuming iron bioavailability from the ferrous sulfate supplement used as standard was about 10%, the estimated bioavailability of iron from the test breads was calculated as 5.0-8.0%. Whole wheat bread (∼8%), as compared with the fortified breads (∼5-6.5%), had higher iron bioavailability. Iron from unfortified whole wheat bread is more bioavailable than from three types of iron-fortified breads. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Growth and metabolic responses in preterm infants fed fortified human milk or a preterm formula.

    PubMed

    Warner, J T; Linton, H R; Dunstan, F D; Cartlidge, P H

    1998-06-01

    Preterm infants fed human milk have been shown to grow poorly and develop mineral deficiencies that may lead to osteopenia. This study has investigated the efficacy of a human milk fortifier made up of glucose polymers, a mixture of bovine milk protein fractions and free amino acids, minerals and vitamins designed to improve these nutritional deficiencies. Growth and bone mineral deficiencies were compared in 38 preterm infants fed fortified mother's milk and 21 preterm infants fed a preterm formula until they reached 1800 g; all had a birthweight below 1600 g. Weight gain was similar in each group with a mean (SD) increase of 19.6 (3.5) g/kg/day in the fortified group and 19.9 (4.1) g/kg/day in the preterm formula group. There were also no significant differences in linear growth, head circumference, skin fold thickness or mid-arm circumference. Serum phosphate, alkaline phosphatase and plasma urea concentrations were similar and there was no clinical evidence of osteopenia. These results indicate that the growth and metabolic disadvantages associated with feeding human milk to preterm infants are ameliorated by the addition of a milk fortifier that increases the calorific, protein and mineral content of breast milk.

  6. Developing a strawberry yogurt fortified with marine fish oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fortified dairy products appeal to a wide variety of consumers and have the potential to increase sales in the yogurt industry and contribute to boost the intake of omega-3 fatty acids. The objectives of this study were to develop a strawberry yogurt containing microencapsulated salmon oil (2% w/v) ...

  7. Are you ready? Exploring readiness to engage in exercise among people living with HIV and multimorbidity in Toronto, Canada: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Simonik, Alya; Vader, Kyle; Ellis, Denine; Kesbian, Dirouhi; Leung, Priscilla; Jachyra, Patrick; Chan Carusone, Soo; O'Brien, Kelly K

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Our aim was to explore readiness to engage in exercise among people living with HIV and multimorbidity. Design We conducted a descriptive qualitative study using face-to-face semistructured interviews with adults living with HIV. Setting We recruited adults (18 years or older) who self-identified as living with HIV and 2 or more additional health-related conditions from a specialty hospital in Toronto, Canada. Participants 14 participants with a median age of 50 years and median number of 9 concurrent health-related conditions participated in the study. The majority of participants were men (64%) with an undetectable viral load (71%). Outcome measures We asked participants to describe their readiness to engage in exercise and explored how contextual factors influenced their readiness. We analysed interview transcripts using thematic analysis. Results We developed a framework to describe readiness to engage in exercise and the interplay of factors and their influence on readiness among adults with HIV and multimorbidity. Readiness was described as a diverse, dynamic and fluctuating spectrum ranging from not thinking about exercise to routinely engaging in daily exercise. Readiness was influenced by the complex and episodic nature of HIV and multimorbidity comprised of physical impairments, mental health challenges and uncertainty from HIV and concurrent health conditions. This key factor created a context within which 4 additional subfactors (social supports, perceptions and beliefs, past experience with exercise, and accessibility) may further hinder or facilitate an individual's position along the spectrum of readiness to exercise. Conclusions Readiness to engage in exercise among people living with HIV is a dynamic and fluctuating construct that may be influenced by the episodic nature of HIV and multimorbidity and 4 subfactors. Strategies to facilitate readiness to exercise should consider the interplay of these factors in order to enhance

  8. Ready-to-Use Tissue Construct for Military Bone and Cartilage Trauma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    times. We hypothesize that our Ready-to-Use constructs can successfully restore 3 cm critical size segmental defects in dog tibiae. We will examine the...defects) of the grant. The approved IACUC protocol permits 3 pilot dogs for Aim 1 and 3 pilot dogs for Aim 2. Several minor modifications to the...original IACUC protocol were required which are provided in the Appendix. All the pilot dogs were to receive scaffolds composed of 90% poly-caprolactone

  9. College-Readiness Program Hard to Gauge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Stubbornly high college remediation rates have revealed a painful equation: High school completion does not equal college readiness. That disconnection has prompted national leaders to focus like never before on figuring out how to ensure that high school graduates are truly ready to succeed in college. In that quest, a California program is often…

  10. Use of Community Readiness Model to Develop and Evaluate a Pilot Culinary Training Program for School Nutrition Staff.

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, Deana A; Blevins, Priscilla; Carl, Lillian; Brown, Barbara; Betts, Nancy M; Poe, Tiffany

    2018-02-01

    Use the Community Readiness Model (CRM) to develop and evaluate a contextually appropriate pilot culinary training program for school nutrition staff members. Mixed methods to guide intervention development. Six school districts in rural and urban areas of a southwestern state. School nutrition staff (n = 36; female; <1 to >20 years' experience). Pre- and post-training assessments used the CRM. Findings from the pre-assessment were used to develop the pilot culinary training intervention. Readiness to integrate new food preparation methods into existing practices. The researchers used t and Wilcoxon tests to compare overall readiness and dimension scores (P ≤ .05). Thematic analysis was used to identify themes from the discussion component of the assessments. Overall readiness increased from vague awareness to preparation (P = .02). Improved dimensions were knowledge of efforts (P = .004), leadership (P = .05), and knowledge of issues (P = .04). Themes included barriers, leadership, and motivation. The CRM was useful for developing and evaluating a contextually appropriate and effective culinary training program for school nutrition staff. Future efforts should address the provision of additional resources such as on-site chefs, small equipment grants, and engaging school stakeholders. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Quality and Consumer Acceptance of Berry Fruit Pomace-Fortified Specialty Mustard.

    PubMed

    Davis, Lissa; Jung, Jooyeoun; Colonna, Ann; Hasenbeck, Aimee; Gouw, Virginia; Zhao, Yanyun

    2018-06-15

    Blueberry pomace (BP) and cranberry pomace (CP) are good sources of dietary fiber and phenolics. This study aimed to develop berry fruit pomace (FP)-fortified specialty mustard with elevated bioactive compounds and ascertain consumer acceptance of a new product. Wet BP and CP were ground and incorporated into Dijon-style mustard at concentrations of 15%, 20%, and 25% (w/w). Total dietary fiber (TDF), total phenolic content (TPC), and radical scavenging activity (RSA) were evaluated for samples obtained from both chemical extraction (CE) and simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGD). Physicochemical properties and consumer acceptance were also examined. Increasing concentrations of BP or CP significantly increased TDF of mustards from both CE (AOAC methods) and SGD, with the highest values from 25% fortifications. TDF from AOAC ranged from 26.86% to 40.16% for BP and from 26.86% to 38.42% for CP, while TDF from SGD ranged from 31.02% to 42.68% for BP and 31.02% to 63.65% for CP. From CE, no significant variation of TPC was found, but RSA significantly increased with increasing concentration of BP and CP. TPC from SGD was higher than that from CE, where TPC decreased with increasing concentration of BP or CP. RSA from SGD was lower than that from CE. Sensory scores of pomace-fortified samples were significantly lower than the control; however, informed panelists scored BP-fortified mustard significantly higher on appearance and color liking than uninformed panelists. This study demonstrated that with proper marketing, the utilization of FP in condiments is a viable option for potential health benefits. This research is applicable to multiple areas of the food industry. Juice manufacturers or other companies that process raw agricultural produce can use this research as another way to repurpose biowaste, and companies making specialty condiments can use this research to inform future product development. General considerations discussed regarding the use of berry

  12. Stop Trying to Make Kids "Ready" for Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretti-Frontczak, Kristie

    2014-01-01

    The author of this article asks: What is readiness for kindergarten? How do we know when a child is ready? Unfortunately, as with many topics in education reform and improvement, policy makers ignore the complex questions about readiness and instead focus narrowly on select variables. The focus for kindergarten readiness is on select literacy and…

  13. The Readiness for Integrated Care Questionnaire (RICQ): An instrument to assess readiness to integrate behavioral health and primary care.

    PubMed

    Scott, Victoria C; Kenworthy, Tara; Godly-Reynolds, Erin; Bastien, Gilberte; Scaccia, Jonathan; McMickens, Courtney; Rachel, Sharon; Cooper, Sayon; Wrenn, Glenda; Wandersman, Abraham

    2017-01-01

    Integration of behavioral health and primary care services is a promising approach for reducing health disparities. The growing national emphasis on care coordination has mobilized efforts to integrate behavioral health and primary care services across the United States. These efforts align with broader health care system goals of improving health care quality, health equity, utilization efficiency, and patient outcomes. Drawing from our work on a multiyear integrated care initiative (Integrated Care Leadership Program; ICLP) and an implementation science heuristic for organizational readiness (Readiness = Motivation x General Capacity and Innovation-Specific Capacity; R = MC2), this article describes the development and implementation of a tool to assess organizational readiness for integrated care, referred to as the Readiness for Integrated Care Questionnaire (RICQ). The tool was piloted with 11 health care practices that serve vulnerable, underprivileged populations. Initial results from the RICQ revealed that participating practices were generally high in motivation, innovation-specific capacities, and general capacities at the start of ICLP. Additionally, analyses indicated that practices particularly needed support with increasing staff capacities (general knowledge and skills), improving access to and use of resources, and simplifying the steps in integrating care so the effort appears less daunting and difficult to health care team members. We discuss insights from the initial use of RICQ and practical implications of the new tool for driving integrated care efforts that can contribute to health equity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Can protein-fortified pasta serve as a meat substitute?

    PubMed

    Bingham, C J; Tsay, R; Babayan, V K; Blackburn, G L

    1982-01-01

    A seventeen-day metabolic balance study was conducted with 13 healthy adult subjects to test the protein utilization of a meat-based diet and a protein-fortified pasta diet in an isonitrogenous, isocaloric inpatient study (averaging 112 gm of protein, and 2,500 cal). Intakes of calories, protein, fat, and carbohydrates, as well as ratios of meat protein or protein-fortified pasta protein (PEP), were controlled throughout the diets. The study was comprised of three experimental periods: a seven-day meat-protein control period, representing the typical american diet (TAD), averaging 18% protein, 40% fat, and 42% carbohydrate, a seven-day protein-enriched pasta control period (PEP), averaging 18% protein, 29% fat, and 53% carbohydrates, and a three-day PEP period composed of varied recipes, averaging 18% protein, 29% fat, and 53% carbohydrates. The subjects who consumed both the TAD and PEP diets achieved nitrogen balance (2.5 gN +/- 0.7 on the TAD, 2 gN +/- 0 on PEP with the PEP diet resulting in a decrease in plasma cholesterol (32 mg/dl, P less than .005), and a decrease in systolic (5.25 mm/Hg P less than .025) and diastolic blood pressure (5 mm/Hg, P less than .05), which was associated with an increase in urinary sodium excretion (19 +/- 17 mEq/day, P less than .025). In this study, it was determined that protein-fortified pasta may serve as a meat alternative. The PEP diet, which includes a beneficial change in fat/carbohydrate ratio, can alter lipid profiles, blood pressure, and sodium excretion, thus leading to improved health status and a decrease in cardiac risk factors.

  15. Stability of lutein in wholegrain bakery products naturally high in lutein or fortified with free lutein.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M; Young, J Christopher; Akhtar, Humayoun; Rabalski, Iwona

    2010-09-22

    Lutein is a yellow pigment found in common foods that promotes the health of eyes and skin and is associated with reduced risk of age-related macular degeneration and cataracts. In the present study, selected high-lutein wheat and corn were milled into wholegrain flours by two mills to improve flour uniformity. The high-lutein and lutein-fortified wholegrain flours were processed into breads, cookies, and muffins to study lutein stability during baking and subsequent storage. Lutein and its isomers were separated, identified, and quantified by LC-UV/vis and LC-MS following extraction with water-saturated 1-butanol. Baking resulted in a significant reduction in all-trans-lutein and the formation of cis-lutein and cis-zeaxanthin isomers. Subsequent storage at ambient temperature had a slight impact on the content of all-trans-lutein. Effects of processing were more pronounced in lutein-fortified products, and the degradation rate of lutein was influenced by concentration and baking recipe. Fortified cookies and muffins showed greater lutein reduction compared with bread. Despite the significant reduction in lutein, the fortified bakery products still possessed reasonable amounts per serving that would enhance daily intake and consumption of wholegrain foods.

  16. 2013-2014 Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies Items Designated as Fortified

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) is used to convert food and beverages consumed in What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA, NHANES) into gram amounts and determine their nutrient values. The file of Items Designated as Fortified in F...

  17. Spreading to localized targets in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ye; Ma, Long; Zeng, An; Wang, Wen-Xu

    2016-12-01

    As an important type of dynamics on complex networks, spreading is widely used to model many real processes such as the epidemic contagion and information propagation. One of the most significant research questions in spreading is to rank the spreading ability of nodes in the network. To this end, substantial effort has been made and a variety of effective methods have been proposed. These methods usually define the spreading ability of a node as the number of finally infected nodes given that the spreading is initialized from the node. However, in many real cases such as advertising and news propagation, the spreading only aims to cover a specific group of nodes. Therefore, it is necessary to study the spreading ability of nodes towards localized targets in complex networks. In this paper, we propose a reversed local path algorithm for this problem. Simulation results show that our method outperforms the existing methods in identifying the influential nodes with respect to these localized targets. Moreover, the influential spreaders identified by our method can effectively avoid infecting the non-target nodes in the spreading process.

  18. Quantification of Hepatitis C Virus Cell-to-Cell Spread Using a Stochastic Modeling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Danyelle N.; Perelson, Alan S.; Dahari, Harel

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT It has been proposed that viral cell-to-cell transmission plays a role in establishing and maintaining chronic infections. Thus, understanding the mechanisms and kinetics of cell-to-cell spread is fundamental to elucidating the dynamics of infection and may provide insight into factors that determine chronicity. Because hepatitis C virus (HCV) spreads from cell to cell and has a chronicity rate of up to 80% in exposed individuals, we examined the dynamics of HCV cell-to-cell spread in vitro and quantified the effect of inhibiting individual host factors. Using a multidisciplinary approach, we performed HCV spread assays and assessed the appropriateness of different stochastic models for describing HCV focus expansion. To evaluate the effect of blocking specific host cell factors on HCV cell-to-cell transmission, assays were performed in the presence of blocking antibodies and/or small-molecule inhibitors targeting different cellular HCV entry factors. In all experiments, HCV-positive cells were identified by immunohistochemical staining and the number of HCV-positive cells per focus was assessed to determine focus size. We found that HCV focus expansion can best be explained by mathematical models assuming focus size-dependent growth. Consistent with previous reports suggesting that some factors impact HCV cell-to-cell spread to different extents, modeling results estimate a hierarchy of efficacies for blocking HCV cell-to-cell spread when targeting different host factors (e.g., CLDN1 > NPC1L1 > TfR1). This approach can be adapted to describe focus expansion dynamics under a variety of experimental conditions as a means to quantify cell-to-cell transmission and assess the impact of cellular factors, viral factors, and antivirals. IMPORTANCE The ability of viruses to efficiently spread by direct cell-to-cell transmission is thought to play an important role in the establishment and maintenance of viral persistence. As such, elucidating the dynamics of cell-to

  19. Relating Resources to Personnel Readiness. Use of Army Strength Management Models,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    far from the resources. In fact, they do not consider them. What they do consider is the historical performance of response variables, using a...hierarchy is the readiness of the force or the ability of the overall force to perform a given mission successfully. A force is composed of units...at the unit level. SORTS pro- duces unit "C-levels" that characterize the proportion of the wartime mission the unit can perform .5 Separate ratings

  20. Effect of emulsifier and viscosity on oil separation in ready-to-use therapeutic food

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oil separation is a common food quality problem in ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF), the shelf-stable, peanut-based food used to treat severe acute malnutrition in home settings. Our objective was to evaluate the effect on oil separation of three emulsifiers at different concentrations in RUTF. ...

  1. Are They Ready to Teach? Student Teachers' Readiness for the Job with Reference to Teacher Competence Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohamed, Zulaikha; Valcke, Martin; De Wever, Bram

    2017-01-01

    This is the first report in a series of studies concerning student teachers' readiness-for-the-job, defined by a framework of 11 international teacher competences (ITCs). Attaining readiness-for-the-job is connected to four characteristics of teacher education, namely; (1) employing the ITCs in day-to-day teaching in initial teacher education, (2)…

  2. The spread of substance use and delinquency between adolescent twins.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Brett; Hartl, Amy C; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2017-02-01

    This investigation examines the spread of problem behaviors (substance use and delinquency) between twin siblings. A sample of 628 twins (151 male twin pairs and 163 female twin pairs) drawn from the Quebec Newborn Twin Study completed inventories describing delinquency and substance use at ages 13, 14, and 15. A 3-wave longitudinal actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) identified avenues whereby problem behaviors spread from one twin to another. Problems did not spread directly between twins across domains. Instead, 2 indirect pathways were identified: (a) Problems first spread interindividually (between twins) within a behavioral domain, then spread intraindividually (within twins) across behavioral domains (e.g., Twin A delinquency → Twin B delinquency → Twin B substance use); and (b) problems first spread intraindividually (within twins) across behavioral domains, then spread interindividually (between twins) within a behavioral domain (e.g., Twin A delinquency → Twin A substance use → Twin B substance use). Controls for genetic effects, gene-environment correlations, friend substance use and delinquency, and parenting behaviors increase confidence in the conclusion that twin siblings uniquely contribute to the spread of problem behaviors during adolescence. Twin sibling influence is a risk factor for illicit substance use, both because substance use by one twin predicts substance use by the other twin, but also because delinquency in one twin predicts delinquency in the other twin, which then gives rise to greater substance use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Use of hygiene protocols to control the spread of viruses in a hotel.

    PubMed

    Sifuentes, Laura Y; Koenig, David W; Phillips, Ronnie L; Reynolds, Kelly A; Gerba, Charles P

    2014-09-01

    The goals of this study were to observe the spread of viruses in a hotel setting and to assess the effectiveness of a hygiene intervention in reducing their spread. Selected fomites in one hotel room were inoculated with bacteriophage ϕx-174, and fomites in a conference center within the same hotel were inoculated using bacteriophage MS2. Cleaning of the contaminated room resulted in the spread of viruses to other rooms by the housekeeping staff. Furthermore, viruses were transferred by hotel guests to the conference center and a communal kitchen area. Additionally, conference attendees transferred viruses from the conference center to their hotel rooms and a communal kitchen area. This study demonstrated how viruses can be spread throughout a hotel setting by both housekeepers and guests. A hygiene intervention, which included providing hand hygiene products and facial tissues to the guests and disinfecting solutions with disposable wipes to the housekeeping staff, was successful in reducing the spread of viruses between the hotel guest rooms and conference center. The hygiene intervention resulted in significantly reduced transfer of the ϕx-174 between the contaminated hotel room and other hotel rooms, communal areas, and the conference center (p = 0.02).

  4. The Tissue Distribution of Lutein in Laying Hens Fed Lutein Fortified Chlorella and Production of Chicken Eggs Enriched with Lutein.

    PubMed

    An, Byoung-Ki; Jeon, Jin-Young; Kang, Chang-Won; Kim, Jin-Man; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the dietary effects of conventional or lutein fortified chlorella on lutein absorptions, the tissue distributions and the changes in lutein content of eggs in laying hens. In Exp 1, a total of one hundred and fifty, 70 wk-old Hy-Line brown layers were divided into three groups with five replicates and fed with each experiment diet (control diet, diet with 1% conventional chlorella or lutein fortified chlorella) for 2 wk, respectively. The egg production in groups fed diets containing both chlorella powders were higher than that of the control group (p<0.01). With chlorella supplementations, the yolk color significantly increased, although there were no significant differences in the eggshell qualities. The lutein contents of serum, liver and growing oocytes were greatly increased by feeding conventional or lutein fortified chlorella (p<0.01). In Exp. 2, a total of ninety 60 wk-old Hy-Line brown layers were assigned into three groups with three replicates per group (10 birds per replicate). The birds were fed with one of three experimental diets (0, 0.1 or 0.2% lutein fortified chlorella) for 2 wk, respectively. The egg production was not affected by dietary treatments. The egg weight in the group fed with diet containing 0.2% of lutein fortified chlorella was higher than that of the control (p<0.05). As the dietary chlorella levels increased, the daily egg mass linearly increased, although not significantly. The yolk colors in groups fed diets containing lutein fortified chlorella were dramatically increased as compared to the control (p<0.001). The lutein in chicken eggs significantly increased when fed with 0.2% of lutein fortified chlorella (p<0.01). These results suggested that the dietary lutein derived from chlorella was readily absorbed into the serum and absorbed by the liver with growing oocyte for commercial laying hens. Particularly, the lutein fortified chlorella was a valuable natural source for the

  5. Using a Computer Simulation to Improve Psychological Readiness for Job Interviewing in Unemployed Individuals of Pre-Retirement Age.

    PubMed

    Aysina, Rimma M; Efremova, Galina I; Maksimenko, Zhanna A; Nikiforov, Mikhail V

    2017-05-01

    Unemployed individuals of pre-retirement age face significant challenges in finding a new job. This may be partly due to their lack of psychological readiness to go through a job interview. We view psychological readiness as one of the psychological attitude components. It is an active conscious readiness to interact with a certain aspect of reality, based on previously acquired experience. It includes a persons' special competence to manage their activities and cope with anxiety. We created Job Interview Simulation Training (JIST) - a computer-based simulator, which allowed unemployed job seekers to practice interviewing repeatedly in a stress-free environment. We hypothesized that completion of JIST would be related to increase in pre-retirement job seekers' psychological readiness for job interviewing in real life. Participants were randomized into control (n = 18) and experimental (n = 21) conditions. Both groups completed pre- and post-intervention job interview role-plays and self-reporting forms of psychological readiness for job interviewing. JIST consisted of 5 sessions of a simulated job interview, and the experimental group found it easy to use and navigate as well as helpful to prepare for interviewing. After finishing JIST-sessions the experimental group had significant decrease in heart rate during the post-intervention role-play and demonstrated significant increase in their self-rated psychological readiness, whereas the control group did not have changes in these variables. Future research may help clarify whether JIST is related to an increase in re-employment of pre-retirement job seekers.

  6. Development and Pilot Test of the Workplace Readiness Questionnaire, a Theory-Based Instrument to Measure Small Workplaces' Readiness to Implement Wellness Programs.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Peggy A; Helfrich, Christian D; Chan, K Gary; Allen, Claire L; Hammerback, Kristen; Kohn, Marlana J; Parrish, Amanda T; Weiner, Bryan J; Harris, Jeffrey R

    2017-01-01

    To develop a theory-based questionnaire to assess readiness for change in small workplaces adopting wellness programs. In developing our scale, we first tested items via "think-aloud" interviews. We tested the revised items in a cross-sectional quantitative telephone survey. The study setting comprised small workplaces (20-250 employees) in low-wage industries. Decision-makers representing small workplaces in King County, Washington (think-aloud interviews, n = 9), and the United States (telephone survey, n = 201) served as study subjects. We generated items for each construct in Weiner's theory of organizational readiness for change. We also measured workplace characteristics and current implementation of workplace wellness programs. We assessed reliability by coefficient alpha for each of the readiness questionnaire subscales. We tested the association of all subscales with employers' current implementation of wellness policies, programs, and communications, and conducted a path analysis to test the associations in the theory of organizational readiness to change. Each of the readiness subscales exhibited acceptable internal reliability (coefficient alpha range, .75-.88) and was positively associated with wellness program implementation ( p < .05). The path analysis was consistent with the theory of organizational readiness to change, except change efficacy did not predict change-related effort. We developed a new questionnaire to assess small workplaces' readiness to adopt and implement evidence-based wellness programs. Our findings also provide empirical validation of Weiner's theory of readiness for change.

  7. Nutritional adequacy of a novel human milk fortifier from donkey milk in feeding preterm infants: study protocol of a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Coscia, Alessandra; Bertino, Enrico; Tonetto, Paola; Peila, Chiara; Cresi, Francesco; Arslanoglu, Sertac; Moro, Guido E; Spada, Elena; Milani, Silvano; Giribaldi, Marzia; Antoniazzi, Sara; Conti, Amedeo; Cavallarin, Laura

    2018-01-09

    Fortification of human milk is a standard practice for feeding very low birth weight infants. However, preterm infants often still experience suboptimal growth and feeding intolerance. New fortification strategies and different commercially available fortifiers have been developed. Commercially available fortifiers are constituted by a blend of ingredients from different sources, including plant oils and bovine milk proteins, thus presenting remarkable differences in the quality of macronutrients with respect to human milk. Based on the consideration that donkey milk has been suggested as a valid alternative for children allergic to cow's milk proteins, due to its biochemical similarity to human milk, we hypothesized that donkey milk could be a suitable ingredient for developing an innovative human milk fortifier. The aim of the study is to evaluate feeding tolerance, growth and clinical short and long-term outcomes in a population of preterm infants fed with a novel multi-component fortifier and a protein concentrate derived from donkey milk, in comparison to an analogous population fed with traditional fortifier and protein supplement containing bovine milk proteins. The study has been designed as a randomized, controlled, single-blind clinical trial. Infants born <1500 g and <32 weeks of gestational age were randomized to receive for 21 days either a combination of control bovine milk-based multicomponent fortifier and protein supplement, or a combination of a novel multicomponent fortifier and protein supplement derived from donkey milk. The fortification protocol followed is the same for the two groups, and the two diets were designed to be isoproteic and isocaloric. Weight, length and head circumference are measured; feeding tolerance is assessed by a standardized protocol. The occurrence of sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis and adverse effects are monitored. This is the first clinical study investigating the use of a human milk fortifier derived from

  8. Numerical investigation of a jet in ground effect using the fortified Navier-Stokes scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandalsem, William R.; Steger, Joseph L.

    1988-01-01

    One of the flows inherent in VSTOL operations, the jet in ground effect with a crossflow, is studied using the Fortified Navier-Stokes (FNS) scheme. Through comparison of the simulation results and the experimental data, and through the variation of the flow parameters (in the simulation) a number of interesting characteristics of the flow have been observed. For example, it appears that the forward penetration of the ground vortex is a strong inverse function of the level of mixing in the ground vortex. Also, an effort has been made to isolate issues which require additional work in order to improve the numerical simulation of the jet in ground effect flow. The FNS approach simplifies the simulation of a single jet in ground effect, but it will be even more effective in applications to more complex topologies.

  9. Development of an instrument to assess readiness to recover in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Rieger, E; Touyz, S; Schotte, D; Beumont, P; Russell, J; Clarke, S; Kohn, M; Griffiths, R

    2000-12-01

    The degree to which patients with anorexia nervosa demonstrate readiness to recover from their illness has received scant theoretical or empirical attention. Investigating the prevalence and degree of amotivation for recovery in anorexia nervosa, its role in outcome, and the effectiveness of interventions designed to enhance readiness to recover necessitates the existence of a reliable and valid measure of motivational issues relevant to the disorder. The present study aimed to develop and evaluate an instrument for assessing readiness to recover in anorexia nervosa, namely, the Anorexia Nervosa Stages of Change Questionnaire (ANSOCQ), a 23-item self-report questionnaire based on Prochaska and DiClemente's stages of change model. Seventy-one inpatients with anorexia nervosa participated in the study. On several occasions during their admission, participants completed the ANSOCQ as well as questionnaires assessing readiness to recover, anorexic symptomatology, general distress, and social desirability. The ANSOCQ demonstrated good internal consistency (.90) and 1-week test-retest reliability (.89). Various aspects of validity were also supported, such as significant relationships with other instruments assessing readiness to recover and the prediction of weight gain during different periods of treatment. The results suggest that the ANSOCQ is a psychometrically sound instrument that may prove useful in investigating the role of readiness to recover in anorexia nervosa. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  10. A comprehensive linear programming tool to optimize formulations of ready-to-use therapeutic foods: An application to Ethiopia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) is the standard of care for children suffering from noncomplicated severe acute malnutrition (SAM). The objective was to develop a comprehensive linear programming (LP) tool to create novel RUTF formulations for Ethiopia. A systematic approach that surveyed inter...

  11. Not Yet Ready to Quit? | Smokefree 60+

    Cancer.gov

    Maybe you’ve tried to quit before and started up again. Maybe you just aren’t ready to quit. We understand. For now, consider looking over the rest of the site for ideas for when you are ready. Reasons preventing you from quitting

  12. Severity of Acute Illness is Associated with Baseline Readiness to Change in Medical Intensive Care Unit Patients with Unhealthy Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Brendan J.; Smart, Alexandra; House, Robert; Douglas, Ivor; Burnham, Ellen L.; Moss, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Unhealthy alcohol use predisposes to multiple conditions that frequently result in critical illness and is present in up to one-third of patients admitted to a medical intensive care unit (ICU). We sought to determine the baseline readiness to change in medical ICU patients with unhealthy alcohol use and hypothesized that the severity of acute illness would be independently associated with higher scores on readiness to change scales. We further sought to determine whether this effect is modified by the severity of unhealthy alcohol use. Materials and Methods We performed a cross-sectional observational study of current regular drinkers in three medical ICUs. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test was used to differentiate low risk and unhealthy alcohol use and further categorize patients into risky alcohol use or an alcohol use disorder. The severity of a patient’s acute illness was assessed by calculating the Acute Physiology and Chronic Healthy Evaluation II score at the time of admission to the medical ICU. Readiness to change was assessed using standardized questionnaires. Results Of 101 medical ICU patients who were enrolled, 65 met the criteria for unhealthy alcohol use. The association between the severity of acute illness and readiness to change depended on the instrument used. A higher severity of illness measured by APACHEII score was an independent predictor of readiness to change as assessed by the Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale (Taking Action scale) (p< 0.01). When a visual analog scale was used to assess readiness to change, there was a significant association with severity of acute illness (p < 0.01) that was modified by the severity of unhealthy alcohol use (p = 0.04 for interaction term). Conclusion Medical ICU patients represent a population where brief interventions require further study. Studies of brief intervention should account for the severity of acute illness and the severity of unhealthy

  13. Severity of acute illness is associated with baseline readiness to change in medical intensive care unit patients with unhealthy alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Clark, Brendan J; Smart, Alexandra; House, Robert; Douglas, Ivor; Burnham, Ellen L; Moss, Marc

    2012-03-01

    Unhealthy alcohol use predisposes to multiple conditions that frequently result in critical illness and is present in up to one-third of patients admitted to a medical intensive care unit (ICU). We sought to determine the baseline readiness to change in medical ICU patients with unhealthy alcohol use and hypothesized that the severity of acute illness would be independently associated with higher scores on readiness to change scales. We further sought to determine whether this effect is modified by the severity of unhealthy alcohol use. We performed a cross-sectional observational study of current regular drinkers in 3 medical ICUs. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test was used to differentiate low-risk and unhealthy alcohol use and further categorize patients into risky alcohol use or an alcohol use disorder. The severity of a patient's acute illness was assessed by calculating the Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score at the time of admission to the medical ICU. Readiness to change was assessed using standardized questionnaires. Of 101 medical ICU patients who were enrolled, 65 met the criteria for unhealthy alcohol use. The association between the severity of acute illness and readiness to change depended on the instrument used. A higher severity of illness measured by APACHE II score was an independent predictor of readiness to change as assessed by the Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale (Taking Action scale; p < 0.01). When a visual analog scale was used to assess readiness to change, there was a significant association with severity of acute illness (p < 0.01) that was modified by the severity of unhealthy alcohol use (p = 0.04 for interaction term). Medical ICU patients represent a population where brief interventions require further study. Studies of brief intervention should account for the severity of acute illness and the severity of unhealthy alcohol use as potential effect modifiers

  14. High-oleic ready-to-use therapeutic food maintains docosahexaenoic acid status in severe malnutrition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) is the preferred treatment for uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition. It contains large amounts of linoleic acid and little a-linolenic acid, which may reduce the availability of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) to the recovering child...

  15. Human Milk Fortifiers Do Not Meet the Current Recommendation for Nutrients in Very Low Birth Weight Infants.

    PubMed

    Koo, Winston; Tice, Hilary

    2017-06-01

    Use of multinutrient fortifiers is standard of care for small preterm infants fed exclusively human milk. However, adequacy of human milk fortifiers (HMFs) to meet the recommended intake for macronutrients and micronutrients is now known. Nutrient content of human milk fortified according to manufacturer's recommendations was compared at isocaloric levels for 1 human milk-based (HMF-A), 2 bovine milk protein-based (HMF-B, HMF-C), and 2 preterm infant formulas (PTF-B, PTF-C). In addition, 4 multivitamin supplements were compared. At 130 kcal/kg, intake of macronutrients was similar to the recommendation, although deficient and excess intake of micronutrient occurred with all fortifiers. Four to 9 micronutrients were absent in HMF or PTF (biotin, choline, inositol, carnitine, taurine, molybdenum, iodine, selenium, or chromium). For the remainder, HMF resulted in deficient intake for 1-13 micronutrients, occurring most frequently with HMF-A. Excess micronutrients (3-15 at <50% and 1-3 at 109%-437%) occurred with all HMF and most frequently with HMF-B and HMF-C. At 150 kcal/kg, deficient intake improved but generally remained below recommendation, while excess intake became exaggerated. PTF and multivitamin formulations do not fully compensate for the deficiencies and can result in extremely high micronutrient intake. At the recommended energy intake for very low birth weight infants, many micronutrients are absent or are present in grossly inadequate amounts, and several micronutrients are in excess. Reformulation of HMF is urgently needed since PTF or multivitamin supplement only partially corrects some deficiencies while providing some nutrients in excess. ( JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. XXXX;xx:xx-xx).

  16. Stability of iodine in salt fortified with iodine and iron.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Srinivasaiyengar; Karmarkar, Madhu G; Krupadanam, Muddepaka; Brahmam, Ginnela N V; Rao, Mendhu Vishnuvardhana; Vijayaraghavan, Kamasamudram; Sivakumar, Bhattriprolu

    2007-03-01

    Determining the stability of iodine in fortified salt can be difficult under certain conditions. Current methods are sometimes unreliable in the presence of iron. To test the new method to more accurately estimate iodine content in double-fortified salt (DFS) fortified with iodine and iron by using orthophosphoric acid instead of sulfuric acid in the titration procedure. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study was carried out on DFS and iodized salt produced by the dry-mixing method. DFS and iodized salt were packed and sealed in color-coded, 0.5-kg, low-density polyethylene pouches, and 25 of these pouches were further packed and sealed in color-coded, double-lined, high-density polyethylene bags and transported by road in closed, light-protected containers to the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD), Delhi; the National Institute of Nutrition (NIN), Hyderabad; and the Orissa Unit of the National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau (NNMB), Bhubaneswar. The iodine content of DFS and iodized salt stored under normal room conditions in these places was measured by the modified method every month on the same prescribed dates during the first 6 months and also after 15 months. The iodine content of DFS and iodized salt stored under simulated household conditions was also measured in the first 3 months. After the color code was broken at the end of the study, it was found that the DFS and iodized salt stored at Bhubaneswar, Delhi, and Hyderabad retained more or less the same initial iodine content (30-40 ppm) during the first 6 months, and the stability was not affected after 15 months. The proportion of salt samples having more than 30 ppm iodine was 100% in DFS and iodized salt throughout the study period. Daily opening and closing of salt pouches under simulated household conditions did not result in any iodine loss. The DFS and iodized salt prepared by the dry-mixing method and stored at normal room conditions had excellent iodine

  17. Supplementary feeding with locally-produced Ready-to-Use Food (RUF) for mildly wasted children on Nias Island, Indonesia: comparison of daily and weekly program outcomes.

    PubMed

    Purwestri, Ratna C; Scherbaum, Veronika; Inayati, Dyah A; Wirawan, Nia N; Suryantan, Julia; Bloem, Maurice A; Pangaribuan, Rosnani V; Stuetz, Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Volker; Qaim, Matin; Biesalski, Hans K; Bellows, Anne C

    2012-01-01

    Ready-to-Use Foods (RUFs) in the form of fortified cereal/nut/legume-based biscuits (±500 kcal and 8-10% protein per 100 g) were tested among mildly wasted children from October 2007 to June 2008, and were labelled as RUF-Nias biscuits. This study reports on a comparison of supplementary feeding program outcomes of mildly wasted children with weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) >=-2 to <-1.5 SD aged >=6 to <60 months old given locally produced RUF-Nias biscuits within daily (in semi-urban areas) and weekly (in rural remote regions) distribution and supervision program settings. In the Church World Service project area, all eligible children were recruited continuously from monthly community-based screening programs and admitted into existing nutrition centers managed by the community on Nias Island, Indonesia. Individual discharge criterion of the programs was WHZ >=-1.5 SD. Of the index children admitted in daily programs (n=51), 80.4% reached target WHZ, which was higher than in weekly programs (72.9%; n=48) by a similar length of stay of about 6 weeks. Weight gain of the children in daily programs was higher (3.1±3.6 g/kg body weight/day) than in weekly programs (2.0±2.1 g/kg body weight/day), and they achieved significantly higher WHZ at discharge. However, the majority of caretakers preferred weekly programs due to lower time constraints. Locally produced RUF in the form of biscuits for treatment of mild wasting among children demonstrated promising results both in daily and weekly community-based intervention programs.

  18. Development and pilot-test of the Workplace Readiness Questionnaire, a theory-based instrument to measure small workplaces’ readiness to implement wellness programs

    PubMed Central

    Hannon, Peggy A.; Helfrich, Christian D.; Chan, K. Gary; Allen, Claire L.; Hammerback, Kristen; Kohn, Marlana J.; Parrish, Amanda T.; Weiner, Bryan J.; Harris, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop a theory-based questionnaire to assess readiness for change in small workplaces adopting wellness programs. Design In developing our scale, we first tested items via “think-aloud” interviews. We tested the revised items in a cross-sectional quantitative telephone survey. Setting Small workplaces (20–250 employees) in low-wage industries. Subjects Decision-makers representing small workplaces in King County, Washington (think-aloud interviews, n=9) and the United States (telephone survey, n=201). Measures We generated items for each construct in Weiner’s theory of organizational readiness for change. We also measured workplace characteristics and current implementation of workplace wellness programs. Analysis We assessed reliability by coefficient alpha for each of the readiness questionnaire subscales. We tested the association of all subscales with employers’ current implementation of wellness policies, programs, and communications, and conducted a path analysis to test the associations in the theory of organizational readiness to change. Results Each of the readiness subscales exhibited acceptable internal reliability (coefficient alpha range = .75–.88) and was positively associated with wellness program implementation (p <.05). The path analysis was consistent with the theory of organizational readiness to change, except change efficacy did not predict change-related effort. Conclusion We developed a new questionnaire to assess small workplaces’ readiness to adopt and implement evidence-based wellness programs. Our findings also provide empirical validation of Weiner’s theory of readiness for change. PMID:26389975

  19. Physicochemical, nutritional, and sensory qualities of wine grape pomace fortified baked goods.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rebecca; Tseng, Angela; Cavender, George; Ross, Andrew; Zhao, Yanyun

    2014-09-01

    Wine grape pomace (WGP) as a source of antioxidant dietary fiber (DF) was used to fortify baked goods, including breads, muffins, and brownies. Pinot Noir WGP (RWGP) and Pinot Grigio WGP (WWGP) substituted wheat flour at concentration of 5%, 10%, and 15% for bread, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% RWGP for brownies, and 5%, 10%, and 15% RWGP or 10%, 15%, and 20% WWGP for muffins. The finished products were evaluated for total phenolic content (TPC), radical scavenging activity (RSA), and total DF, as well as physicochemical and sensory properties. WGP flour blends were also tested for solvent retention capacity (SRC). The highest TPC and RSA values for bread and muffins were achieved in 15% RWGP fortified samples with TPC and RSA values of 68.32 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/serving and 80.70 AAE mg/serving, respectively for bread, and 2164 mg GAE/serving and 1526 mg AAE/serving, respectively for muffins. Brownies fortified with 10% RWGP had the highest RSA value (115.52 mg AAE/serving) while the control had the highest TPC value (1152 mg GAE/serving). Breads and muffins with 15% RWGP and brownies with 25% RWGP had the highest amount of DF (6.33, 12.32, and 7.73 g/serving, respectively). Sensory evaluation concluded that there is no difference in overall liking of 5% and 10% RWGP breads and muffins or 15% and 20% WGP brownies compared to the controls. This study demonstrated that WGP is a viable functional ingredient in bakery goods to increase TPC, RSA, and DF in consumer's diets. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Comparison of topical fixed-combination fortified vancomycin-amikacin (VA solution) to conventional separate therapy in the treatment of bacterial corneal ulcer.

    PubMed

    Chiang, C-C; Lin, J-M; Chen, W-L; Chiu, Y-T; Tsai, Y-Y

    2009-02-01

    In an in vitro study, fixed-combination fortified vancomycin and amikacin ophthalmic solutions (VA solution) had the same potency and stable physical properties as the separate components. In this retrospective clinical study, we evaluated the efficacy of the topical VA solution in the treatment of bacterial corneal ulcer and comparison with separate topical fortified vancomycin and amikacin. Separate topical fortified eye drops was used prior to January 2004 and switched to the VA solution afterwards in the treatment of bacterial corneal ulcer. The medical records of 223 patients diagnosed with bacterial corneal ulcers between January 2002 and December 2005 were reviewed retrospectively. There were 122 patients in the VA group and 101 in the separate group. Cure was defined as complete healing of the ulcer accompanied by a nonprogressive stromal infiltrate on two consecutive visits. No significant difference was found between the VA and separate therapy group. The mean treatment duration was 15.4 days in the VA group and 16.1 days in the separate therapy group. The average hospital stay was 5.4 days (VA) and 7.2 days (separate antibiotics). Stromal infiltration regressed significantly without further expansion in both groups. All corneal ulcers completely re-epithelialized without complications related to drugs. VA solution provided similar efficacy to the conventional separate therapy in the treatment of bacterial corneal ulcers; however, it is more convenient and tolerable, promotes patient's compliance, avoids the washout effect, and reduces nurse utilization. Hence, VA solution is a good alternative to separate therapy.

  1. Vitamin D, Breast Cancer, and Bone Health

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    Margarine, fortified 1 Tbs 60 15 Pudding prepared with fortified milk 0.5 cup 50 10 Ready-to- eat cereals, fortified 0.75-1 cup 40 10 Liver, beef ...Baum M. Retrospective analysis of time to recurrence in the ATAC trial according to hormone receptor status: an hypothesis-generating study. J Clin...NTx Cross-linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen PR Partial response PTH Parathyroid hormone RR Response rate SAE Serious adverse event SD

  2. Spreading properties of cosmetic emollients: Use of synthetic skin surface to elucidate structural effect.

    PubMed

    Douguet, Marine; Picard, Céline; Savary, Géraldine; Merlaud, Fabien; Loubat-Bouleuc, Nathalie; Grisel, Michel

    2017-06-01

    The study focuses on the impact of structural and physicochemical properties of emollients on their spreadability. Fifty-three emollients, among which esters, silicones, vegetable and mineral oils, have been characterized. Their viscosity, surface tension, density and spreadability have been measured. Vitro-skin ® , an artificial skin substitute, was used as an artificial porous substrate to measure spreadability. Two different methods have been selected to characterize spreadability, namely contact angle and spreading value. Dynamic contact angle measurements showed that emollient spreadability is first governed by spontaneous spreading and that, in a second phase, absorption and migration into the porous substrate becomes the driver of the extension of the spreading area. Statistical analysis of physicochemical and spreading value data revealed that viscosity has a major impact on the spreading behavior of emollients whatever their chemical type. A special emphasis was placed on the ester family in which chemical diversity is very wide. The results highlighted a difference between "high viscosity esters" for which viscosity is the main factor impacting spreadability and "low viscosity esters" for which structural variations (mono/diester, saturated/unsaturated chain, linear/branched chain) have to be considered in addition to viscosity. Linear regressions were used to express spreading value as a function of viscosity for each of the four emollient families tested (esters, silicones, vegetable and mineral oils). These regressions allowed the development of reliable predictive models as a powerful tool for formulators to forecast spreadability of emollients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Using a Computer Simulation to Improve Psychological Readiness for Job Interviewing in Unemployed Individuals of Pre-Retirement Age

    PubMed Central

    Aysina, Rimma M.; Efremova, Galina I.; Maksimenko, Zhanna A.; Nikiforov, Mikhail V.

    2017-01-01

    Unemployed individuals of pre-retirement age face significant challenges in finding a new job. This may be partly due to their lack of psychological readiness to go through a job interview. We view psychological readiness as one of the psychological attitude components. It is an active conscious readiness to interact with a certain aspect of reality, based on previously acquired experience. It includes a persons’ special competence to manage their activities and cope with anxiety. We created Job Interview Simulation Training (JIST) – a computer-based simulator, which allowed unemployed job seekers to practice interviewing repeatedly in a stress-free environment. We hypothesized that completion of JIST would be related to increase in pre-retirement job seekers’ psychological readiness for job interviewing in real life. Participants were randomized into control (n = 18) and experimental (n = 21) conditions. Both groups completed pre- and post-intervention job interview role-plays and self-reporting forms of psychological readiness for job interviewing. JIST consisted of 5 sessions of a simulated job interview, and the experimental group found it easy to use and navigate as well as helpful to prepare for interviewing. After finishing JIST-sessions the experimental group had significant decrease in heart rate during the post-intervention role-play and demonstrated significant increase in their self-rated psychological readiness, whereas the control group did not have changes in these variables. Future research may help clarify whether JIST is related to an increase in re-employment of pre-retirement job seekers. PMID:28580025

  4. Using Motivational Interviewing to Impact Readiness of RNs to Return to the Classroom.

    PubMed

    Phifer, Lynne; Robeano, Karen; Ivey, Angela; Blood-Siegfried, Jane

    2018-06-01

    Supporting nurses with associate degrees in nursing (ADNs) to return to school is challenging for nurse executives. Strategies include tuition reimbursement, scholarships, and flexible scheduling. Despite these measures, it is anticipated that we will fall short of a goal of 80% bachelor's degree-prepared nurses by 2020. The aim of this project was to increase ADN-prepared RN readiness to return to school through motivational interviewing.

  5. Using the Gravity Model to Estimate the Spatial Spread of Vector-Borne Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Barrios, José Miguel; Verstraeten, Willem W.; Maes, Piet; Aerts, Jean-Marie; Farifteh, Jamshid; Coppin, Pol

    2012-01-01

    The gravity models are commonly used spatial interaction models. They have been widely applied in a large set of domains dealing with interactions amongst spatial entities. The spread of vector-borne diseases is also related to the intensity of interaction between spatial entities, namely, the physical habitat of pathogens’ vectors and/or hosts, and urban areas, thus humans. This study implements the concept behind gravity models in the spatial spread of two vector-borne diseases, nephropathia epidemica and Lyme borreliosis, based on current knowledge on the transmission mechanism of these diseases. Two sources of information on vegetated systems were tested: the CORINE land cover map and MODIS NDVI. The size of vegetated areas near urban centers and a local indicator of occupation-related exposure were found significant predictors of disease risk. Both the land cover map and the space-borne dataset were suited yet not equivalent input sources to locate and measure vegetated areas of importance for disease spread. The overall results point at the compatibility of the gravity model concept and the spatial spread of vector-borne diseases. PMID:23202882

  6. Using the gravity model to estimate the spatial spread of vector-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Barrios, José Miguel; Verstraeten, Willem W; Maes, Piet; Aerts, Jean-Marie; Farifteh, Jamshid; Coppin, Pol

    2012-11-30

    The gravity models are commonly used spatial interaction models. They have been widely applied in a large set of domains dealing with interactions amongst spatial entities. The spread of vector-borne diseases is also related to the intensity of interaction between spatial entities, namely, the physical habitat of pathogens’ vectors and/or hosts, and urban areas, thus humans. This study implements the concept behind gravity models in the spatial spread of two vector-borne diseases, nephropathia epidemica and Lyme borreliosis, based on current knowledge on the transmission mechanism of these diseases. Two sources of information on vegetated systems were tested: the CORINE land cover map and MODIS NDVI. The size of vegetated areas near urban centers and a local indicator of occupation-related exposure were found significant predictors of disease risk. Both the land cover map and the space-borne dataset were suited yet not equivalent input sources to locate and measure vegetated areas of importance for disease spread. The overall results point at the compatibility of the gravity model concept and the spatial spread of vector-borne diseases.

  7. Acceptability of locally produced ready-to-use therapeutic foods in Ethiopia, Ghana, Pakistan and India

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Successful treatment of severe acute malnutrition has been achieved with ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF), but only 15% of children with severe acute malnutrition receive RUTF. The objective of this study was to determine whether new formulations of RUTF produced using locally available ingredie...

  8. Effect of human milk fortifiers on bacterial growth in human milk.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Myla S; Codipilly, Champa N; Potak, Debra C; Schanler, Richard J

    2005-10-01

    As a component in human milk fortifiers (HMF), iron may equilibrate with human milk for as long as 24 hours, bind important bacteriostatic proteins, and potentially affect the host defense properties of human milk. We compared bacterial growth in human milk prepared with each of two HMF differing in their content of iron. Samples of human milk obtained from mothers of premature infants were divided and mixed with one of two HMF and maintained at refrigerator temperature. Refrigerated milk samples were removed at 0, 24, and 72 hours for determination of total bacterial colony counts (TBCC). TBCC did not differ between groups but declined from 0 to 72 hours, p<0.001. These data suggest that differences in iron content, or other nutrients in HMF, do not affect bacterial growth in human milk. Storage of fortified human milk at refrigerator temperature for 72 hours results in decreased bacterial growth. As a component in human milk fortifiers (HMF), iron may equilibrate with human milk for as long as 24 hours, bind important bacteriostatic proteins, and potentially affect the host defense properties of human milk. We compared bacterial growth in human milk prepared with each of two HMF differing in their content of iron. Samples of human milk obtained from mothers of premature infants were divided and mixed with one of two HMF and maintained at refrigerator temperature. Refrigerated milk samples were removed at 0, 24, and 72 hours for determination of total bacterial colony counts (TBCC).

  9. Magnolia officinalis L. Fortified Gum Improves Resistance of Oral Epithelial Cells Against Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Walker, Jessica; Imboeck, Julia Maria; Walker, Joel Michael; Maitra, Amarnath; Haririan, Hady; Rausch-Fan, Xiaohui; Dodds, Michael; Inui, Taichi; Somoza, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory diseases of the periodontal tissues are known health problems worldwide. Therefore, anti-inflammatory active compounds are used in oral care products to reduce long-term inflammation. In addition to inducing inflammation, pathogen attack leads to an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may lead to oxidative damage of macromolecules. Magnolia officinalis L. bark extract (MBE) has been shown to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential in vitro. In the present study, the influence of MBE-fortified chewing gum on the resistance against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation and oxidative stress of oral epithelial cells was investigated in a four-armed parallel designed human intervention trial with 40 healthy volunteers. Ex vivo stimulation of oral epithelial cells with LPS from Porphyromonas gingivalis for 6[Formula: see text]h increased the mRNA expression and release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1[Formula: see text], IL-[Formula: see text], IL-8, MIP-1[Formula: see text], and TNF[Formula: see text]. Chewing MBE-fortified gum for 10[Formula: see text]min reduced the ex vivo LPS-induced increase of IL-8 release by 43.8 [Formula: see text] 17.1% at the beginning of the intervention. In addition, after the two-week intervention with MBE-fortified chewing gum, LPS-stimulated TNF[Formula: see text] release was attenuated by 73.4 [Formula: see text] 12.0% compared to chewing regular control gum. This increased resistance against LPS-induced inflammation suggests that MBE possesses anti-inflammatory activity in vivo when added to chewing gum. In contrast, the conditions used to stimulate an immune response of oral epithelial cells failed to induce oxidative stress, measured by catalase activity, or oxidative DNA damage.

  10. Getting Ready for Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... acid from food, like fortified bread, breakfast cereal, pasta and products made from a kind of flour ... foods , like fruits, vegetables, whole-grain bread and pasta, and lean meat and chicken. Limit sweets, salty ...

  11. Fucoxanthin bioavailability from fucoxanthin-fortified milk: In vivo and in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Mok, Il-Kyoon; Lee, Jae Kwon; Kim, Jeong Hwa; Pan, Cheol-Ho; Kim, Sang Min

    2018-08-30

    Our previous study reported the improved stability of fucoxanthin (FX) fortified in whole milk (WM) and skimmed milk (SM). In this study, in vivo and in vitro FX bioavailability were investigated using FX-fortified milk (FX-SM and FX-WM) and microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum biomass (Pt-powder). Organ tissue accumulation of FX and its metabolites (FXOH: fucoxanthinol, AXA: amarouciaxanthin A) after repeated oral administration was in the following order: FX-SM > FX-WM > Pt-powder. In vivo pharmacokinetic study with a single oral administration also demonstrated that the absorption of FXOH and AXA was the highest for FX-SM. To reinforce the in vivo results, in vitro-simulated digestion and Caco-2 cell uptake assays were performed, which revealed that FX-SM showed the highest FX bioaccessibility (release from food matrices) and cellular uptake efficiency of FX and FXOH. In conclusion, skimmed milk was validated as an excellent food matrix for FX application in terms of stability and bioavailability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Optimization of mold wheat bread fortified with soy flour, pea flour and whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Erben, Melina; Osella, Carlos A

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of replacing a selected wheat flour for defatted soy flour, pea flour and whey protein concentrate on both dough rheological characteristics and the performance and nutritional quality of bread. A mixture design was used to analyze the combination of the ingredients. The optimization process suggested that a mixture containing 88.8% of wheat flour, 8.2% of defatted soy flour, 0.0% of pea flour and 3.0% of whey protein concentrate could be a good combination to achieve the best fortified-bread nutritional quality. The fortified bread resulted in high protein concentration, with an increase in dietary fiber content and higher calcium levels compared with those of control (wheat flour 100%). Regarding protein quality, available lysine content was significantly higher, thus contributing with the essential amino acid requirement.

  13. Pathways to School Readiness: Executive Functioning Predicts Academic and Social-Emotional Aspects of School Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Trisha D.; Hund, Alycia M.; Hesson-McInnis, Matthew S.; Roman, Zachary J.

    2017-01-01

    The current study specified the extent to which hot and cool aspects of executive functioning predicted academic and social-emotional indicators of school readiness. It was unique in focusing on positive aspects of social-emotional readiness, rather than problem behaviors. One hundred four 3-5-year-old children completed tasks measuring executive…

  14. Pathways to Mathematics College Readiness in Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvernail, David L; Batista, Ida A.; Sloan, James E.; Stump, Erika K.; Johnson, Amy F.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the pathways to being college ready in mathematics. Students who enter high school already having demonstrated mathematics proficiency on a standardized test in the 8th grade have already taken a significant step towards being college ready. The best scenario is to enter high school proficient in mathematics…

  15. Readiness Matters! The 2015-2016 Kindergarten Readiness Assessment Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Department of Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    As part of Maryland's ongoing commitment to early learning and school readiness, a comprehensive new Kindergarten Readiness Assessment (KRA) was administered for the second time. This assessment is part of the new Ready for Kindergarten: Maryland's Early Childhood Comprehensive Assessment System (R4K) that was developed to align to the state's…

  16. Calcium absorption from apple and orange juice fortified with calcium citrate malate (CCM).

    PubMed

    Andon, M B; Peacock, M; Kanerva, R L; De Castro, J A

    1996-06-01

    Determine calcium (Ca) absorption from Ca fortified orange and apple juice. Absorbability was assessed by measuring 45Ca absorption in healthy women (mean age 57 years, n = 57/group) and whole body 47Ca retention in adult female beagle dogs (n = 6/group) and young adult male rats (n = 6/group). Women received 6.24 mmol (250 mg) Ca as calcium citrate malate fortified orange juice (CCM-OJ) or apple juice (CCM-AJ). Dogs received 3.12 mmol (125 mg) Ca as CCM-OJ or CCM-AJ. Rats were administered 0.15 mmol (6 mg) Ca as either milk, CCM-OJ, or CCM-AJ. Additional 47Ca whole body retention experiments in rats measured the effects of differences in the carbohydrate and organic acid contents of the juices on Ca absorption. Mean +/- SEM percent Ca fractional absorption was greater (p < 0.003) in women who consumed CCM-AJ (42 +/- 2%) than those who consumed CCM-OJ (36 +/- 1%). Ca retention in dogs was 15 +/- 1% for CCM-OJ and 29 +/- 2% for CCM-AJ (p < 0.001). Ca retention was significantly different (p < 0.05) in rats administered milk (42 +/- 2%), CCM-OJ (52 +/- 2%), or CCM-AJ (61 +/- 2%). By manipulating the carbohydrate and organic acid concentrations of test solutions to mimic the composition of Ca fortified juices, we found that the greater fructose and lower organic acid content of apple juice accounted for its greater Ca absorbability. CCM fortified versions of orange and apple juice have high Ca absorbability and are potentially important vehicles for increasing dietary Ca intake. The greater Ca absorption from CCM-AJ compared with CCM-OJ is accounted for by differences in the carbohydrate and organic acid content of the juices. These data suggest that by modifying common beverage ingredients, products with even greater Ca absorbability could be formulated.

  17. Use of the Nanofitin Alternative Scaffold as a GFP-Ready Fusion Tag

    PubMed Central

    Huet, Simon; Gorre, Harmony; Perrocheau, Anaëlle; Picot, Justine; Cinier, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    With the continuous diversification of recombinant DNA technologies, the possibilities for new tailor-made protein engineering have extended on an on-going basis. Among these strategies, the use of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a fusion domain has been widely adopted for cellular imaging and protein localization. Following the lead of the direct head-to-tail fusion of GFP, we proposed to provide additional features to recombinant proteins by genetic fusion of artificially derived binders. Thus, we reported a GFP-ready fusion tag consisting of a small and robust fusion-friendly anti-GFP Nanofitin binding domain as a proof-of-concept. While limiting steric effects on the carrier, the GFP-ready tag allows the capture of GFP or its blue (BFP), cyan (CFP) and yellow (YFP) alternatives. Here, we described the generation of the GFP-ready tag from the selection of a Nanofitin variant binding to the GFP and its spectral variants with a nanomolar affinity, while displaying a remarkable folding stability, as demonstrated by its full resistance upon thermal sterilization process or the full chemical synthesis of Nanofitins. To illustrate the potential of the Nanofitin-based tag as a fusion partner, we compared the expression level in Escherichia coli and activity profile of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) constructs, fused to a SUMO or GFP-ready tag. Very similar expression levels were found with the two fusion technologies. Both domains of the GFP-ready tagged TNFα were proved fully active in ELISA and interferometry binding assays, allowing the simultaneous capture by an anti-TNFα antibody and binding to the GFP, and its spectral mutants. The GFP-ready tag was also shown inert in a L929 cell based assay, demonstrating the potent TNFα mediated apoptosis induction by the GFP-ready tagged TNFα. Eventually, we proposed the GFP-ready tag as a versatile capture and labeling system in addition to expected applications of anti-GFP Nanofitins (as

  18. Use of the Nanofitin Alternative Scaffold as a GFP-Ready Fusion Tag.

    PubMed

    Huet, Simon; Gorre, Harmony; Perrocheau, Anaëlle; Picot, Justine; Cinier, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    With the continuous diversification of recombinant DNA technologies, the possibilities for new tailor-made protein engineering have extended on an on-going basis. Among these strategies, the use of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a fusion domain has been widely adopted for cellular imaging and protein localization. Following the lead of the direct head-to-tail fusion of GFP, we proposed to provide additional features to recombinant proteins by genetic fusion of artificially derived binders. Thus, we reported a GFP-ready fusion tag consisting of a small and robust fusion-friendly anti-GFP Nanofitin binding domain as a proof-of-concept. While limiting steric effects on the carrier, the GFP-ready tag allows the capture of GFP or its blue (BFP), cyan (CFP) and yellow (YFP) alternatives. Here, we described the generation of the GFP-ready tag from the selection of a Nanofitin variant binding to the GFP and its spectral variants with a nanomolar affinity, while displaying a remarkable folding stability, as demonstrated by its full resistance upon thermal sterilization process or the full chemical synthesis of Nanofitins. To illustrate the potential of the Nanofitin-based tag as a fusion partner, we compared the expression level in Escherichia coli and activity profile of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) constructs, fused to a SUMO or GFP-ready tag. Very similar expression levels were found with the two fusion technologies. Both domains of the GFP-ready tagged TNFα were proved fully active in ELISA and interferometry binding assays, allowing the simultaneous capture by an anti-TNFα antibody and binding to the GFP, and its spectral mutants. The GFP-ready tag was also shown inert in a L929 cell based assay, demonstrating the potent TNFα mediated apoptosis induction by the GFP-ready tagged TNFα. Eventually, we proposed the GFP-ready tag as a versatile capture and labeling system in addition to expected applications of anti-GFP Nanofitins (as

  19. THE USE OF MODELED ATMOSPHERIC WIND TRAJECTORIES TO DETERMINE POTENTIAL DOWNWIND GENE FLOW; A CASE STUDY USING GM-BENTGRASS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The down-wind dispersal of pollen and the airborne spread of seed are affected by the size, shape and weight of the particles and by the strength, buoyancy and direction of surface winds. An atmospheric model (HYSPLIT model: www.arl.noaa.gov\\ready.html) was used to reconstruct w...

  20. Using a health informatics system to assess effect of a federal cigarette tax increase on readiness to quit among low-income smokers, Louisiana, 2009.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Tung-Sung; Moody-Thomas, Sarah; Horswell, Ronald; Yi, Yong; Celestin, Michael D; Jones, Krysten D

    2014-04-04

    Health informatics systems are a proven tool for tobacco control interventions. To address the needs of low-income groups, the Tobacco Control Initiative was established in partnership with the Louisiana State University Health Care Services Division to provide cost-effective tobacco use cessation services through the health informatics system in the state public hospital system. In this study we used a Web-based, result-reporting application to monitor and assess the effect of the 2009 federal cigarette tax increase. We assessed readiness to quit tobacco use before and after a cigarette tax increase among low-income tobacco users who were outpatients in a public hospital system. Overall, there was an increase in readiness to quit, from 22% during the first week of February to 33% during the first week of April, when the tax went into effect. Smokers who were female, 31 or older, African American, and assessed at a clinic visit in April were more likely to report readiness to quit than were men, those aged 30 or younger, those who were white, and those who were assessed at a clinic visit in February. A health informatics system that efficiently tracks trends in readiness to quit can be used in combination with other strategies and thus optimize efforts to control tobacco use. Our data suggest that a cigarette tax increase affects smokers' readiness to quit and provides an opportunity to intervene at the most beneficial time.

  1. Ready or Not: Recognizing and Preparing College-Ready Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Sheree E.; Wilson, Tonia J.; Dole, Janice A.

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that many students entering postsecondary education are unprepared for college reading demands. This article highlights college reading readiness according to four essential reading skills. We illustrate these skills by featuring vignettes of high school seniors who are college-ready and not college-ready. Then we contextualize the…

  2. What It Takes To Support School Readiness: Building Collaborative Partnerships. Program Services Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Glyn

    This guide is intended to help collaborative groups work together more effectively to promote children's readiness for school and provides useful information on the many factors that affect school readiness. The guide notes North Carolina's definition of school readiness as the condition of children as they enter school, based on five…

  3. Cognitive-Affective Predictors of Women's Readiness to End Domestic Violence Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shurman, Lauren A.; Rodriguez, Christina M.

    2006-01-01

    A model of women's readiness to terminate an abusive relationship was examined, using cognitive and emotional factors to predict readiness to change as conceptualized in the transtheoretical model. Factors previously identified in the domestic violence literature were selected to represent cognitive predictors (attribution and attachment style)…

  4. Ready-to-use foods for management of moderate acute malnutrition: Considerations for scaling up production and use in programs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ready-to-use foods are one of the available strategies for the treatment of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM), but challenges remain in the use of these products in programs at scale. This paper focuses on two challenges: the need for cheaper formulations using locally available ingredients that are...

  5. Live birth after artificial oocyte activation using a ready-to-use ionophore: a prospective multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Ebner, Thomas; Montag, Markus; Montag, M; Van der Ven, K; Van der Ven, H; Ebner, T; Shebl, O; Oppelt, P; Hirchenhain, J; Krüssel, J; Maxrath, B; Gnoth, C; Friol, K; Tigges, J; Wünsch, E; Luckhaus, J; Beerkotte, A; Weiss, D; Grunwald, K; Struller, D; Etien, C

    2015-04-01

    Artificial oocyte activation has been proposed as a suitable means to overcome the problem of failed or impaired fertilization after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). In a multicentre setting artificial oocyte activation was applied to 101 patients who were diagnosed with fertilization abnormalities (e.g. less than 50% fertilized oocytes) in a previous conventional ICSI cycle. Female gametes were activated for 15 min immediately after ICSI using a ready-to-use Ca(2+)-ionophore solution (A23187). Fertilization, pregnancy and live birth rates were compared with the preceding cycle without activation. The fertilization rate of 48% in the study cycles was significantly higher compared with the 25% in the control cycles (P < 0.001). Further splitting of the historical control group into failed (0%), low (1-30%) and moderate fertilization rate (31-50%) showed that all groups significantly benefitted (P < 0.001) in the ionophore cycle. Fewer patients had their embryo transfer cancelled compared with their previous treatments (1/101 versus 15/101). In total, 99% of the patients had an improved outcome with A23187 application resulting in a 28% live birth rate (35 babies). These data suggest that artificial oocyte activation using a ready-to-use compound is an efficient method. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Whole grains, refined grains and fortified refined grains: What's the difference?

    PubMed

    Slavin, J L

    2000-09-01

    Dietary guidance universally supports the importance of grains in the diet. The United States Department of Agriculture pyramid suggests that Americans consume from six to 11 servings of grains per day, with three of these servings being whole grain products. Whole grain contains the bran, germ and endosperm, while refined grain includes only endosperm. Both refined and whole grains can be fortified with nutrients to improve the nutrient profile of the product. Most grains consumed in developed countries are subjected to some type of processing to optimize flavor and provide shelf-stable products. Grains provide important sources of dietary fibre, plant protein, phytochemicals and needed vitamins and minerals. Additionally, in the United States grains have been chosen as the best vehicle to fortify our diets with vitamins and minerals that are typically in short supply. These nutrients include iron, thiamin, niacin, riboflavin and, more recently, folic acid and calcium. Grains contain antioxidants, including vitamins, trace minerals and non-nutrients such as phenolic acids, lignans and phytic acid, which are thought to protect against cardiovascular disease and cancer. Additionally, grains are our most dependable source of phytoestrogens, plant compounds known to protect against cancers such as breast and prostate. Grains are rich sources of oligosaccharides and resistant starch, carbohydrates that function like dietary fibre and enhance the intestinal environment and help improve immune function. Epidemiological studies find that whole grains are more protective than refined grains in the prevention of chronic disease, although instruments to define intake of refined, whole and fortified grains are limited. Nutritional guidance should support whole grain products over refined, with fortification of nutrients improving the nutrient profile of both refined and whole grain products.

  7. Are school children ready to donate blood?

    PubMed

    Thaver, Danyal Hasan; Masud, Nazish; Ashraf, Mariam

    2014-01-01

    Voluntary non-remunerated blood donors are considered the best among all different types of blood donors for improving the supply of safe blood. Though safe blood transfusion services have improved in Pakistan, but efforts are still required to optimize blood banks and improve recruitment of voluntary donors, such as senior school/college going students as a source of safe blood. This study looks into the awareness of senior school children concerning blood related issues including blood donation. This cross-sectional descriptive study enrolled 106 senior school students of private schools. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaire. Although 90% of the students considered blood as an important entity for saving lives still 56.8% had never thought of donating blood. Respondents had good knowledge regarding the possible spread of HIV/AIDS, and Hepatitis B and C through unsafe transfusions. Possible hindrances to donating blood included fear of needles, fear of acquiring disease, lack of knowledge regarding where to donate blood and lack of trust on blood banks. More than half of the students believed that blood should be bought from professional blood donors. Senior school going children are not ready to donate blood. Lack of knowledge and prevailing misconceptions regarding blood transfusions need to be addressed and mechanisms to motivate and mobilize youth for becoming voluntary blood donors need to be established.

  8. Imitative or Iconoclastic? How Young Children Use Ready-Made Images in Digital Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakr, Mona; Connelly, Vincent; Wild, Mary

    2018-01-01

    Digital art-making tends to foreground the inclusion of ready-made images in children's art. While some lament children's use of such images, suggesting that they constrain creativity and expression, others have argued that ready-made digital materials offer children the opportunity to create innovative and potentially iconoclastic artefacts…

  9. Possibilities to use tank-mix adjuvants for better fungicide spreading on triticale ears.

    PubMed

    Ryckaert, Bert; Spanoghe, Pieter; Heremans, Betty; Haesaert, Geert; Steurbaut, Walter

    2008-09-10

    Tank-mix adjuvants can increase the overall performance of plant protection products. Their most important ways of action are the improved retention, spreading, wetting, and penetration of the pesticide on the target and the reduction of fine droplets. In this paper, deposition and spreading of the systemic fungicide propiconazole on triticale ears were quantified. A better deposition and spreading of fungicide on the ear may be a possible help for the Fusarium problem in triticale, wheat, and other cereals. Triticale ears were applied with propiconazole in combination with 11 different tank-mix adjuvants. Vegetable oil, alcohol ethoxylates, lactate ester, trisiloxanes, and an amphoteric molecule were included in this experiment. When no tank-mix adjuvant was used, the lower part of the ear was reached five times less by the propiconazole spray than the upper part of the ear. When the tank-mix adjuvant was combined with the propiconazole formulation, an increase in residue on both the upper and the lower part of the ear was observed. A higher residue on the upper half of the ear means a better deposition, while a higher residue on the lower part of the ear is related to a better downward spreading over the grains and the needles of the ear. The combination of those two observations makes it interesting to use tank-mix adjuvants for the prevention of mycotoxin-producing Fusarium species. The advantages are emphasized even more when cost effectiveness was calculated. The use of a proper tank-mix adjuvant can result in 40% lower cost per application per hectare.

  10. 21 CFR 139.117 - Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein. 139.117 Section 139.117 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MACARONI AND NOODLE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  11. The effect of iron-fortified complementary food and intermittent preventive treatment of malaria on anaemia in 12- to 36-month-old children: a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Glinz, Dominik; Hurrell, Richard F; Ouattara, Mamadou; Zimmermann, Michael B; Brittenham, Gary M; Adiossan, Lukas G; Righetti, Aurélie A; Seifert, Burkhardt; Diakité, Victorine G; Utzinger, Jürg; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Wegmüller, Rita

    2015-09-17

    Iron deficiency (ID) and malaria co-exist in tropical regions and both contribute to high rates of anaemia in young children. It is unclear whether iron fortification combined with intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) of malaria would be an efficacious strategy for reducing anaemia in young children. A 9-month cluster-randomised, single-blinded, placebo-controlled intervention trial was carried out in children aged 12-36 months in south-central Côte d'Ivoire, an area of intense and perennial malaria transmission. The study groups were: group 1: normal diet and IPT-placebo (n = 125); group 2: consumption of porridge, an iron-fortified complementary food (CF) with optimised composition providing 2 mg iron as NaFeEDTA and 3.8 mg iron as ferrous fumarate 6 days per week (CF-FeFum) and IPT-placebo (n = 126); group 3: IPT of malaria at 3-month intervals, using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and amodiaquine and no dietary intervention (n = 127); group 4: both CF-FeFum and IPT (n = 124); and group 5: consumption of porridge, an iron-fortified CF with the composition currently on the Ivorian market providing 2 mg iron as NaFeEDTA and 3.8 mg iron as ferric pyrophosphate 6 days per week (CF-FePP) and IPT-placebo (n = 127). The primary outcome was haemoglobin (Hb) concentration. Linear and logistic regression mixed-effect models were used for the comparison of the five study groups, and a 2 × 2 factorial analysis was used to assess treatment interactions of CF-FeFum and IPT (study groups 1-4). After 9 months, the Hb concentration increased in all groups to a similar extent with no statistically significant difference between groups. In the 2 × 2 factorial analysis after 9 months, no treatment interaction was found on Hb (P = 0.89). The adjusted differences in Hb were 0.24 g/dl (95 % CI -0.10 to 0.59; P = 0.16) in children receiving IPT and -0.08 g/dl (95 % CI -0.42 to 0.26; P = 0.65) in children receiving CF-FeFum. At baseline, anaemia (Hb

  12. The Viability of Readiness Assessment in Contributing to Improved Career Services: Response to Jepsen (2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, James P., Jr.; Peterson, Gary W.; Reardon, Robert C.; Lenz, Janet G.

    2000-01-01

    Responds to Jepsen's (this issue [2000]) commentary on Sampson et al.'s theory-based approach to using readiness assessment to improve career services. Three topics are included: the reliability and utility of using readiness assessment measures; verbal ability and the use of cognitive information-processing theory in practice; and the potential…

  13. Metrics: Are We Ready to Teach This System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koble, Ronald L.

    1976-01-01

    A survey conducted to study the attitudes of industrial arts teachers toward conversion to metric measurement and their readiness to teach this system revealed that, despite some background and experience with metrics, 88 percent felt they were not ready to teach a lesson. (BP)

  14. Children Are Ready to Learn, but Are We? The Role of Adult Relations in School Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abo-Zena, Mona M.; New, Rebecca Staples

    2012-01-01

    Contrary to the concept of school readiness as achieving a particular set of attributes considered essential for educational success, this article is grounded in the assumption that all children are ready to learn, but what they are expected to learn varies widely from one cultural setting and historic period to another. The authors challenge the…

  15. Liquid human milk fortifier significantly improves docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid status in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Berseth, C L; Harris, C L; Wampler, J L; Hoffman, D R; Diersen-Schade, D A

    2014-09-01

    We report the fatty acid composition of mother׳s own human milk from one of the largest US cohorts of lactating mothers of preterm infants. Milk fatty acid data were used as a proxy for intake at enrollment in infants (n=150) who received human milk with a powder human milk fortifier (HMF; Control) or liquid HMF [LHMF; provided additional 12mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), 20mg arachidonic acid (ARA)/100mL human milk]. Mothers provided milk samples (n=129) and reported maternal DHA consumption (n=128). Infant blood samples were drawn at study completion (Study Day 28). Human milk and infant PPL fatty acids were analyzed using capillary column gas chromatography. DHA and ARA were within ranges previously published for US term and preterm human milk. Compared to Control HMF (providing no DHA or ARA), human milk fortified with LHMF significantly increased infant PPL DHA and ARA and improved preterm infant DHA and ARA status. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Conventional foods, followed by dietary supplements and fortified foods, are the key sources of vitamin D, vitamin B6, and selenium intake in Dutch participants of the NU-AGE study.

    PubMed

    Berendsen, Agnes A M; van Lieshout, Lilou E L M; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; Matthys, Christophe; Péter, Szabolcs; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2016-10-01

    With aging, energy needs decrease, necessitating a more nutrient-dense diet to meet nutritional needs. To bridge this gap, the use of nutrient-dense foods, fortified foods, and dietary supplements can be important. This observational study aims to describe current micronutrient intakes of Dutch elderly and to identify the contribution of nutrient-dense foods, fortified foods, and dietary supplements to the intake of micronutrients that are often inadequately consumed in Dutch elderly. Data of 245 Dutch volunteers from the NU-AGE study aged 65 to 80 years were used. Dietary intake was assessed by means of 7-day food records, and dietary supplement use was recorded with an additional questionnaire. Information on fortified foods was obtained from the Dutch Food Composition Table 2011. Nutrient density of foods was evaluated using the Nutrient Rich Food 9.3 score. The percentages of participants not meeting their average requirement were high for vitamin D (99%), selenium (41%), and vitamin B6 (54%) based on conventional foods and also when taking into account fortified foods (98%, 41%, and 27%, respectively) and vitamin and mineral supplements (87%, 36%, and 20%, respectively). Conventional foods were the main source of vitamin D, vitamin B6, and selenium intake (42%, 45%, and 82%, respectively), followed by vitamin and mineral supplements (41%, 44%, and 18%) and fortified foods (17%, 11%, and 1%). Foods with the highest nutrient density contributed most to total vitamin B6 intake only. To optimize nutrient intakes of elderly, combinations of natural food sources, fortified foods, and dietary supplements should be considered. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Improving media message interpretation processing skills to promote healthy decision making about substance use: the effects of the middle school media ready curriculum.

    PubMed

    Kupersmidt, Janis B; Scull, Tracy M; Benson, Jessica W

    2012-01-01

    The Media Ready Program was designed as a middle school, media literacy education, preventive intervention program to improve adolescents' media literacy skills and reduce their intention to use alcohol or tobacco products. In a short-term efficacy trial, schools in North Carolina were randomly assigned to conditions (Media Ready: n = 214; control: n = 198). Boys in the Media Ready group reported significantly less intention to use alcohol in the future than did boys in the control group. Also, students in the Media Ready group who had used tobacco in the past reported significantly less intention to use tobacco in the future than did students in the control group who had previously used tobacco. Multilevel multiple mediation analyses suggest that the set of logical analysis Message Interpretation Processing variables mediated the program's effect on students' intentions to use alcohol or tobacco in the future.

  18. Readiness to Change in Adolescents Screening Positive for Substance Use in Urban Primary Care Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Jack; McGeehan, Jennifer; Kelleher, Kelly J.

    2010-01-01

    Primary care physicians often perceive patients as unlikely to decrease their substance use and suggest this reluctance to change diminishes their willingness to screen and intervene. The literature on readiness to change has primarily focused on adults, and the available studies on adolescents have largely included hospitalized and/or…

  19. Is School Community Readiness Related to Physical Activity before and after the Ready for Recess Intervention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehlers, Diane K.; Huberty, Jennifer L.; Beseler, Cheryl L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine: (i) the effect of schools' baseline community readiness (CR) on youth physical activity (PA) at recess prior to the Ready for Recess intervention; (ii) if changes in PA due to the intervention were explained by baseline CR and (iii) if specific components of the intervention altered an association…

  20. [Methods quantitative for determination of water-soluble vitamins in premixes and fortified food products by micellar electrokinetic chromatography on short end of the capillary].

    PubMed

    Bogachuk, M N; Bessonov, V V; Perederiaev, O I

    2011-01-01

    It was purposed new technique by micellar electrokinetic chromatography on short end of the capillary (capillary electrophoresis system Agilent 3D CE, DAD, quartz capillary HPCE stndrd cap 56 cm, 50 microm, 50 mM borate buffer pH=9,3, 100 mM sodium dodecil sulfate) for simultaneous determination of water-soluble vitamins (B1, B2, B6, B12, PP, B5, B9, C, B8) in fortified food products and premixes. It was observed on 6 samples of vitamin premixes and 28 samples of fortified food products using this technique. Our findings are consistent with the results of research on certain vitamins, conducted by other methods. The developed technique can be used in analysis of water-soluble vitamins in premixes and fortified food products.

  1. Is Your School Ready?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2005-01-01

    The Ready School, a concept endorsed by the National Education Goals Panel, focuses on getting schools ready for children to supplement the traditional approach of getting children ready for school. The author cites 10 qualities associated with Ready Schools and describes the eight-dimension Ready School Assessment project now being tested by the…

  2. Determinants of readiness to adopt mHealth in a rural community of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khatun, Fatema; Heywood, Anita E; Ray, Pradeep K; Hanifi, S M A; Bhuiya, Abbas; Liaw, Siaw-Teng

    2015-10-01

    Evidence in favor of mHealth for healthcare delivery in settings where trained health workforce is limited or unavailable is accumulating. With rapid growth in access to mobile phones and an acute shortage of health workforce in Bangladesh, mHealth initiatives are increasing with more than 20 current initiatives in place. "Readiness" is a crucial prerequisite to the successful implementation of telehealth programs. However, systematic assessment of the community readiness for mHealth-based services in the country is lacking. We report on a recent study describing the influence of community readiness for mHealth of a rural Bangladesh community. A conceptual framework for mHealth readiness was developed, which included three categories: technological, motivational and resource readiness. This guided the questionnaire development for the survey conducted in the Chakaria sub-district of Bangladesh from November 2012 to April 2013. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine ownership of mobile phones, use of the technology, and knowledge regarding awareness of mHealth services as predictors of the community readiness to adopt mHealth. A total of 4915 randomly selected household members aged 18 years and over completed the survey. The data explained the sub-categories of the readiness dimensions. In terms of access, 45% of respondents owned a mobile phone with ownership higher among males, younger participants and those in the highest socioeconomic quintiles. Results related to technological readiness showed that among mobile phone owners, 50% were aware of SMS but only sending and receiving SMS. Only 37% generally read the received SMS. Only 5% of respondents used the internet capabilities on their phone and 25% used voice messages. The majority (73%) of the participants were interested in joining mHealth programs in the future. Multivariate analysis showed that ownership of a mobile phone (aOR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.5), younger age (aOR 2.6, 95% CI 2.1-3.3), males

  3. Preschool Children's School Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekdogan, Serpil; Akgül, Esra

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine preschool teachers' perspectives about children's school readiness. Qualitative and quantitative research methods were used in the study as a mixed method research. Data, in the quantitative aspects of the research, were collected through the use of "School Readiness Form" developed by Boz (2004)…

  4. Forum Guide to College and Career Ready Data. NFES 2015-157

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Forum on Education Statistics, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The National Forum on Education Statistics (Forum) organized the College and Career Ready (CCR) Working Group to explore how state and local education agencies (SEAs and LEAs) can use data to support college and career readiness initiatives. The working group determined that high-quality data in integrated K12, postsecondary, and workforce data…

  5. Fire spread estimation on forest wildfire using ensemble kalman filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syarifah, Wardatus; Apriliani, Erna

    2018-04-01

    Wildfire is one of the most frequent disasters in the world, for example forest wildfire, causing population of forest decrease. Forest wildfire, whether naturally occurring or prescribed, are potential risks for ecosystems and human settlements. These risks can be managed by monitoring the weather, prescribing fires to limit available fuel, and creating firebreaks. With computer simulations we can predict and explore how fires may spread. The model of fire spread on forest wildfire was established to determine the fire properties. The fire spread model is prepared based on the equation of the diffusion reaction model. There are many methods to estimate the spread of fire. The Kalman Filter Ensemble Method is a modified estimation method of the Kalman Filter algorithm that can be used to estimate linear and non-linear system models. In this research will apply Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) method to estimate the spread of fire on forest wildfire. Before applying the EnKF method, the fire spread model will be discreted using finite difference method. At the end, the analysis obtained illustrated by numerical simulation using software. The simulation results show that the Ensemble Kalman Filter method is closer to the system model when the ensemble value is greater, while the covariance value of the system model and the smaller the measurement.

  6. Readiness To Learn Project: End of Year Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armijo, Eduardo J.; Yount, Darrell E.

    This report outlines the Quillayute Valley Child and Family Consortium's End of Year Readiness to Learn program activities, including outcomes through May 1995. The program was established in part by the Washington State Readiness to Learn Initiative, designed to help children benefit from schooling by enabling schools and social services…

  7. Ready, Set, Change! Development and usability testing of an online readiness for change decision support tool for healthcare organizations.

    PubMed

    Timmings, Caitlyn; Khan, Sobia; Moore, Julia E; Marquez, Christine; Pyka, Kasha; Straus, Sharon E

    2016-02-24

    To address challenges related to selecting a valid, reliable, and appropriate readiness assessment measure in practice, we developed an online decision support tool to aid frontline implementers in healthcare settings in this process. The focus of this paper is to describe a multi-step, end-user driven approach to developing this tool for use during the planning stages of implementation. A multi-phase, end-user driven approach was used to develop and test the usability of a readiness decision support tool. First, readiness assessment measures that are valid, reliable, and appropriate for healthcare settings were identified from a systematic review. Second, a mapping exercise was performed to categorize individual items of included measures according to key readiness constructs from an existing framework. Third, a modified Delphi process was used to collect stakeholder ratings of the included measures on domains of feasibility, relevance, and likelihood to recommend. Fourth, two versions of a decision support tool prototype were developed and evaluated for usability. Nine valid and reliable readiness assessment measures were included in the decision support tool. The mapping exercise revealed that of the nine measures, most measures (78 %) focused on assessing readiness for change at the organizational versus the individual level, and that four measures (44 %) represented all constructs of organizational readiness. During the modified Delphi process, stakeholders rated most measures as feasible and relevant for use in practice, and reported that they would be likely to recommend use of most measures. Using data from the mapping exercise and stakeholder panel, an algorithm was developed to link users to a measure based on characteristics of their organizational setting and their readiness for change assessment priorities. Usability testing yielded recommendations that were used to refine the Ready, Set, Change! decision support tool . Ready, Set, Change! decision

  8. Developing food supplements for moderately malnourished children: Lessons learned from ready-to-use therapeutic foods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTFs) are solid foods that were developed by changing the formulation of the existing liquid diet, F-100, recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for the rapid catch-up phase of the treatment of children suffering from severe acute malnutrition (SAM). The ...

  9. Rice University: Innovation to Increase Student College Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gigliotti, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    "College readiness" means that a student can enter a college classroom without remediation and successfully complete entry-level college requirements (Conley, 2012). In order for students to be considered college ready, they must acquire skills, content knowledge, and behaviors before leaving high school. Research on high-school performance…

  10. E-health readiness assessment framework in iran.

    PubMed

    Rezai-Rad, M; Vaezi, R; Nattagh, F

    2012-01-01

    Concept of e-readiness is used in many areas such as e-business, e-commerce, e-government, and e-banking. In terms of healthcare, e-readiness is a rather new concept, and is propounded under the title of E-healthcare. E-health readiness refers to the readiness of communities and healthcare institutions for the expected changes brought by programs related to Information and Communications Technology (lCT). The present research is conducted aiming at designing E-health Readiness Assessment Framework (EHRAF) in Iran. The e-health readiness assessment framework was designed based on reviewing literature on e-readiness assessment models and opinions of ICT and health experts. In the next step, Delphi method was used to develop and test the designed framework. Three questionnaires developed to test and modify the model while determining weights of the indices; afterward they were either sent to experts through email or delivered to them in face. The designed framework approved with 4 dimensions, 11 constituents and 58 indices. Technical readiness had the highest importance coefficient (0.256099), and the other dimensions were of the next levels of coefficient importance: core readiness (0.25520), social communication readiness (0.244658), and engagement readiness (0.244039). The framework presents the movement route and investment priorities in e-health in Iran. The proposed framework is a good instrument for measuring the e-readiness in health centers in Iran, and for identifying strengths and weaknesses of these centers to access ICT and its implementation for more effectiveness and for analyzing digital divide between them, as well.

  11. E-Health Readiness Assessment Framework in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rezai-Rad, M; Vaezi, R; Nattagh, F

    2012-01-01

    Background: Concept of e-readiness is used in many areas such as e-business, e-commerce, e-government, and e-banking. In terms of healthcare, e-readiness is a rather new concept, and is propounded under the title of E-healthcare. E-health readiness refers to the readiness of communities and healthcare institutions for the expected changes brought by programs related to Information and Communications Technology (lCT). The present research is conducted aiming at designing E-health Readiness Assessment Framework (EHRAF) in Iran. Methods: The e-health readiness assessment framework was designed based on reviewing literature on e-readiness assessment models and opinions of ICT and health experts. In the next step, Delphi method was used to develop and test the designed framework. Three questionnaires developed to test and modify the model while determining weights of the indices; afterward they were either sent to experts through email or delivered to them in face. Results: The designed framework approved with 4 dimensions, 11 constituents and 58 indices. Technical readiness had the highest importance coefficient (0.256099), and the other dimensions were of the next levels of coefficient importance: core readiness (0.25520), social communication readiness (0.244658), and engagement readiness (0.244039). Conclusion: The framework presents the movement route and investment priorities in e-health in Iran. The proposed framework is a good instrument for measuring the e-readiness in health centers in Iran, and for identifying strengths and weaknesses of these centers to access ICT and its implementation for more effectiveness and for analyzing digital divide between them, as well. PMID:23304661

  12. Using the Rasch Model to Determine Equivalence of Forms In the Trilingual Lollipop Readiness Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, W. Steve; Chew, Alex L.; Crownover, Carol; Wilkerson, Judy R.

    2007-01-01

    Determining the cross-cultural equivalence of multilingual tests is a challenge that is more complex than simple horizontal equating of test forms. This study examines the functioning of a trilingual test of preschool readiness to determine the equivalence. Different forms of the test have previously been examined using classical statistical…

  13. Promoting community readiness for physical activity among older adults in Germany--protocol of the ready to change intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Brand, Tilman; Gansefort, Dirk; Rothgang, Heinz; Röseler, Sabine; Meyer, Jochen; Zeeb, Hajo

    2016-02-01

    Healthy ageing is an important concern for many societies facing the challenge of an ageing population. Physical activity (PA) is a major contributor to healthy ageing; however insufficient PA levels are prevalent in old age in Germany. Community capacity building and community involvement are often recommended as key strategies to improve equitable access to prevention and health promotion. However, evidence for the effectiveness of these strategies is scarce. This study aims to assess the community readiness for PA promotion in local environments and to analyse the utility of strategies to increase community readiness for reaching vulnerable groups. We designed a mixed method intervention trial comprising three study modules. The first module includes an assessment of community readiness for PA interventions in older adults. The assessment is carried out in a sample of 24 municipalities in the Northwest of Germany using structured key informant interviews. In the second module, eight municipalities with the low community readiness are selected from the sample and randomly assigned to one of two study groups: active enhancement of community readiness (intervention) versus no enhancement (control). After enhancing community readiness in the active enhancement group, older adults in both study groups will be recruited for participation in a PA intervention. Participation rates are compared between the study groups to evaluate the effects of the intervention. In addition, a cost-effectiveness analysis is carried out calculating recruitment costs per person reached in the two study groups. In the third module, qualitative interviews are conducted with participants and non-participants of the PA intervention exploring reasons for participation or non-participation. This study offers the potential to contribute to the evidence base of reaching vulnerable older adults for PA interventions and provide ideas on how to reduce participation barriers. Its findings will inform

  14. Study of medieval fortified settlements destruction under natural and anthropogenic factors using remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gainullin, I. I.; Khomyakov, P. V.; Usmanov, B. M.

    2018-01-01

    Archaeological monuments are an essential part of the cultural landscape. Modern condition of archaeological monuments of the Republic of Tatarstan is discussed in this article. Fortified settlements, with the system of defensive fortifications were selected as the objects of study, as they are easily identified by remote sensing data. Due to the fact, that most of monuments are located on the small rivers banks, the first task of our study was to assess the risk of their destruction by natural processes. The second objective was to evaluate the role of the human factor in archaeological sites destruction. One of the main used methods is archival and modern remote sensing data analysis that also made able to correct the form of study settlements in comparison with existing plans as well as their size and location in the landscape. The results of research will help to identify trends in monuments state and to quantify the risks of their destruction.

  15. Problem Internet Overuse Behaviors in College Students: Readiness-to-Change and Receptivity to Treatment.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Jennifer E; Li, Wen; Snyder, Susan M; Howard, Matthew O

    2016-01-01

    This mixed methods study explores college students' readiness-to-change and receptivity to treatment for problem Internet overuse behaviors. Focus groups were conducted with 27 college students who self-identified as Internet over-users, and had experienced biopsychosocial problems related to Internet overuse. Participants completed standardized questionnaires assessing their Internet use and sociodemographic forms. Focus groups explored readiness to change problem Internet overuse behaviors and receptivity to treatment. Similar to college students with other addictive behaviors, students with problem Internet overuse fall along a continuum vis-à-vis readiness-to-change their behaviors. Over half of the participants were receptive to treatment for their problem Internet overuse behaviors.

  16. Clostridium difficile in Ready-to-Eat Salads, Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Bakri, Marwah M.; Brown, Derek J.; Butcher, John P.

    2009-01-01

    Of 40 ready-to-eat salads, 3 (7.5%) were positive for Clostridium difficile by PCR. Two isolates were PCR ribotype 017 (toxin A–, B+), and 1 was PCR ribotype 001. Isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and metronidazole but variably resistant to other antimicrobial drugs. Ready-to-eat salads may be potential sources for virulent C. difficile. PMID:19402979

  17. EXTRACTION METHODS FOR RECOVERY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM FORTIFIED DRY SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recovery of 8 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from dry soils, each fortified at 800 ng/g soil, was studied in relation to the extraction method and time of extraction. Extraction procedures studied on desiccator-dried soils were modifications of EPA low-and high-level purge-and...

  18. Evidence based practice readiness: A concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Jessica D; Welton, John M

    2018-01-15

    To analyse and define the concept "evidence based practice readiness" in nurses. Evidence based practice readiness is a term commonly used in health literature, but without a clear understanding of what readiness means. Concept analysis is needed to define the meaning of evidence based practice readiness. A concept analysis was conducted using Walker and Avant's method to clarify the defining attributes of evidence based practice readiness as well as antecedents and consequences. A Boolean search of PubMed and Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature was conducted and limited to those published after the year 2000. Eleven articles met the inclusion criteria for this analysis. Evidence based practice readiness incorporates personal and organisational readiness. Antecedents include the ability to recognize the need for evidence based practice, ability to access and interpret evidence based practice, and a supportive environment. The concept analysis demonstrates the complexity of the concept and its implications for nursing practice. The four pillars of evidence based practice readiness: nursing, training, equipping and leadership support are necessary to achieve evidence based practice readiness. Nurse managers are in the position to address all elements of evidence based practice readiness. Creating an environment that fosters evidence based practice can improve patient outcomes, decreased health care cost, increase nurses' job satisfaction and decrease nursing turnover. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Evaluation of spatio-temporal Bayesian models for the spread of infectious diseases in oil palm.

    PubMed

    Denis, Marie; Cochard, Benoît; Syahputra, Indra; de Franqueville, Hubert; Tisné, Sébastien

    2018-02-01

    In the field of epidemiology, studies are often focused on mapping diseases in relation to time and space. Hierarchical modeling is a common flexible and effective tool for modeling problems related to disease spread. In the context of oil palm plantations infected by the fungal pathogen Ganoderma boninense, we propose and compare two spatio-temporal hierarchical Bayesian models addressing the lack of information on propagation modes and transmission vectors. We investigate two alternative process models to study the unobserved mechanism driving the infection process. The models help gain insight into the spatio-temporal dynamic of the infection by identifying a genetic component in the disease spread and by highlighting a spatial component acting at the end of the experiment. In this challenging context, we propose models that provide assumptions on the unobserved mechanism driving the infection process while making short-term predictions using ready-to-use software. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Linking Ready Kids to Ready Schools: A View from Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    W. K. Kellogg Foundation, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Pennsylvania is one of a handful of states that are leading the way in ensuring children receive a continuum of care starting at birth and extending throughout childhood so that they can move seamlessly from home to child care to preschool to school, and then from grade to grade. That means children have to be ready for school. It also means that…

  1. Fortified Settlements of the 9th and 10th Centuries ad in Central Europe: Structure, Function and Symbolism

    PubMed Central

    Herold, Hajnalka

    2012-01-01

    THE STRUCTURE, FUNCTION(S) and symbolism of early medieval (9th–10th centuries ad) fortified settlements from central Europe, in particular today’s Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic and Slovakia, are examined in this paper. It offers an overview of the current state of research together with new insights based on analysis of the site of Gars-Thunau in Lower Austria. Special emphasis is given to the position of the fortified sites in the landscape, to the elements of the built environment and their spatial organisation, as well as to graves within the fortified area. The region under study was situated on the SE border of the Carolingian (and later the Ottonian) Empire, with some of the discussed sites lying in the territory of the ‘Great Moravian Empire’ in the 9th and 10th centuries. These sites can therefore provide important comparative data for researchers working in other parts of the Carolingian Empire and neighbouring regions. PMID:23564981

  2. HIV prevention in single, urban women: condom-use readiness.

    PubMed

    Morrison-Beedy, D; Lewis, B P

    2001-01-01

    To understand women's readiness to use condoms and their perceived pros and cons for condom use. Comparative, descriptive design guided by the Transtheoretical Model. Data were collected at two urban primary health care centers in western New York. 364 single urban women with steady (main) or other (casual, concurrent, multiple, new) sexual partners. Most participants were young (mean age of 27 years), economically disadvantaged women of color. Each participant completed an anonymous questionnaire that included items for the stage of change algorithm, decisional balance of the pros and cons of condom use, sexual history, and HIV risk information. Most women were in the early stages of change (not intending to use condoms), but those with other partners were further along in the stages of change for condom use than those with steady partners. The pros or advantages of condom use differed for these women depending on partner type. The change in the balance between the pros and cons occurred as theoretically predicted for women with steady and other partners. Effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions for women may be enhanced if they are tailored to both readiness to change and partner type.

  3. Effect of a fish oil and arginine-fortified diet in thermally injured patients.

    PubMed

    Wibbenmeyer, Lucy A; Mitchell, Melanie A; Newel, Ingrid M; Faucher, Lee D; Amelon, Margery J; Ruffin, Timothy O; Lewis, Robert D; Latenser, Barbara A; Kealey, Patrick G

    2006-01-01

    Burn injury induces a hypercatabolic inflammatory state, predisposing burn patients to malnutrition, poor wound healing, and infectious complications. We conducted this study to determine what effect a diet fortified with fish oil and arginine (FAD) would have on wound healing in a thermally injured population. Twenty-three thermally injured patients were enrolled in this randomized double blind enteral feeding study from July 2002 to August 2004. All study patients received isonitrogenous enteral intragastric feeding within 48 hours of admission. Patients were randomized to our standard diet (STD, ProBalance with Promix, Probalance from Nestlé, Glendale, CA; ProMix R.D., Navaco Laboratories, Phoenix, AZ) or a diet fortified with fish oil and arginine (FAD, Crucial, Nestlé Nutrition Glendale, CA) Diets were advanced as tolerated to meet 100% of estimated needs. The primary endpoint of the study was time to heal the first donor site. There were no statistical differences between the study groups with respect to baseline characteristics. Both diets were well tolerated, and there were no differences in the daily total kilocalories or protein intake per kilogram between the two diet groups throughout the study. Although nonsignificant, the patients in the FAD group showed a slightly faster healing time than those in the STD group (10.8 +/- 2.7 days vs 12.3 +/- 5.2 days, respectively). This trend was further accelerated when those with body surface area burns less than 30% were examined (patients with body surface area burns <30% in the FAD healed in 9.0 +/- 1.7 vs corresponding patients in the standard group who healed in 12.2 +/- 6.2, P = .63). Patients in the FAD group trended to more infections and more adverse complications. The adverse complications were predominantly associated with inhalation injuries. The role of fortified enteral diets in the outcomes of thermally injured patients deserves further study. Such a future study should be conducted in a

  4. How Satellites Have Contributed to Building a Weather Ready Nation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapenta, W.

    2017-12-01

    NOAA's primary mission since its inception has been to reduce the loss of life and property, as well as disruptions from, high impact weather and water-related events. In recent years, significant societal losses resulting even from well forecast extreme events have shifted attention from the forecast alone toward ensuring societal response is equal to the risks that exist for communities, businesses and the public. The responses relate to decisions ranging from coastal communities planning years in advance to mitigate impacts from rising sea level, to immediate lifesaving decisions such as a family seeking adequate shelter during a tornado warning. NOAA is committed to building a "Weather-Ready Nation" where communities are prepared for and respond appropriately to these events. The Weather-Ready Nation (WRN) strategic priority is building community resilience in the face of increasing vulnerability to extreme weather, water, climate and environmental threats. To build a Weather-Ready Nation, NOAA is enhancing Impact-Based Decision Support Services (IDSS), transitioning science and technology advances into forecast operations, applying social science research to improve the communication and usefulness of information, and expanding its dissemination efforts to achieve far-reaching readiness, responsiveness and resilience. These four components of Weather-Ready Nation are helping ensure NOAA data, products and services are fully utilized to minimize societal impacts from extreme events. Satellite data and satellite products have been important elements of the national Weather Service (NWS) operations for more than 40 years. When one examines the uses of satellite data specific to the internal forecast and warning operations of NWS, two main applications are evident. The first is the use of satellite data in numerical weather prediction models; the second is the use of satellite imagery and derived products for mesoscale and short-range weather warning and

  5. Readiness to change as a moderator of outcome in transdiagnostic treatment

    PubMed Central

    BOSWELL, JAMES F.; SAUER, SHANNON E.; GALLAGHER, MATTHEW W.; DELGADO, NICOLE; BARLOW, DAVID H.

    2012-01-01

    Initial symptom severity is a client characteristic associated with psychotherapy outcome, although this relationship is not well-understood. Readiness to change is a factor that may influence this relationship. This study tested readiness as a moderator of the relationship between initial severity and symptom change. Data were derived from an RCT examining the efficacy of a transdiagnostic CBT treatment. Readiness was assessed with the URICA, and symptom and functioning outcomes were assessed. Multiple regression models indicated that severity was associated with less overall change, yet readiness moderated this relationship. At higher levels of readiness, the effect of initial severity on outcome was essentially reversed; for clients with higher initial readiness, higher levels of severity were associated with greater change. PMID:22607634

  6. Effect of NaFeEDTA-Fortified Soy Sauce on Anemia Prevalence in China: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Huo, Jun Sheng; Yin, Ji Yong; Sun, Jing; Huang, Jian; Lu, Zhen Xin; Regina, Moench-Pfanner; Chen, Jun Shi; Chen, Chun Ming

    2015-11-01

    To assess the effect of sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetate (NaFeEDTA)-fortified soy sauce on anemia prevalence in the Chinese population. A systematic review was performed to identify potential studies by searching the electronic databases of PubMed, Cochrane Library, WHO Library, HighWire, CNKI, and other sources. The selection criteria included randomized controlled trials that compared the efficacy of NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce with that of non-fortified soy sauce. Anemia rates and hemoglobin levels were the outcomes of interest. Inclusion decisions, quality assessment, and data extraction were performed by two reviewers independently. A total of 16 studies met the inclusion criteria for anemia rate analysis, of which 12 studies met the inclusion criteria for hemoglobin analysis. All included studies assessed the effect of NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce on anemia rates and hemoglobin concentrations. After the intervention, the hemoglobin concentration increased and anemia rates decreased significantly as compared with the non-fortified soy sauce groups. For anemia rates, data from 16 studies could be pooled, and the pooled estimate odds ratio was 0.25 (95% CI 0.19-0.35). For hemoglobin concentrations, data from 12 studies could be pooled, and the pooled weighted mean difference was 8.81 g/L (95% CI 5.96-11.67). NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce has a positive effect on anemia control and prevention in the at-risk population. Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  7. What Are the Costs of Trauma Center Readiness? Defining and Standardizing Readiness Costs for Trauma Centers Statewide.

    PubMed

    Ashley, Dennis W; Mullins, Robert F; Dente, Christopher J; Garlow, Laura; Medeiros, Regina S; Atkins, Elizabeth V; Solomon, Gina; Abston, Dena; Ferdinand, Colville H

    2017-09-01

    Trauma center readiness costs are incurred to maintain essential infrastructure and capacity to provide emergent services on a 24/7 basis. These costs are not captured by traditional hospital cost accounting, and no national consensus exists on appropriate definitions for each cost. Therefore, in 2010, stakeholders from all Level I and II trauma centers developed a survey tool standardizing and defining trauma center readiness costs. The survey tool underwent minor revisions to provide further clarity, and the survey was repeated in 2013. The purpose of this study was to provide a follow-up analysis of readiness costs for Georgia's Level I and Level II trauma centers. Using the American College of Surgeons Resources for Optimal Care of the Injured Patient guidelines, four readiness cost categories were identified: Administrative, Clinical Medical Staff, Operating Room, and Education/Outreach. Through conference calls, webinars and face-to-face meetings with financial officers, trauma medical directors, and program managers from all trauma centers, standardized definitions for reporting readiness costs within each category were developed. This resulted in a survey tool for centers to report their individual readiness costs for one year. The total readiness cost for all Level I trauma centers was $34,105,318 (avg $6,821,064) and all Level II trauma centers was $20,998,019 (avg $2,333,113). Methodology to standardize and define readiness costs for all trauma centers within the state was developed. Average costs for Level I and Level II trauma centers were identified. This model may be used to help other states define and standardize their trauma readiness costs.

  8. Consumption of ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) among Malaysian children and association with socio-demographics and nutrient intakes - findings from the MyBreakfast study.

    PubMed

    Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib; Nurliyana, Abdul Razak; Norimah, A Karim; Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan B; Tan, Sue Yee; Appukutty, Mahenderan; Hopkins, Sinead; Thielecke, Frank; Ong, Moi Kim; Ning, Celia; Tee, E Siong

    2017-01-01

    Background : The association between different types of breakfast meals and nutrient intakes has been studied to a lesser extent. Objective : This study compared nutrient intakes at breakfast and throughout the day between Malaysian children who consumed ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) and those who did not. Methods : Anthropometric and dietary data for 1955 children aged 6-12 years from the MyBreakfast study were used in the analysis. Results : Overall, 18% of the children consumed RTEC at breakfast on at least one of the recall days. RTEC consumption was associated with younger age, urban areas, higher income and education level of parents. Among consumers, RTEC contributed 10% and 15% to daily intakes of calcium and iron respectively and ≥20% to daily intakes of vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin and niacin. RTEC consumers had significantly higher mean intakes of vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, calcium, iron and sugar but lower intakes of fat and sodium than non-RTEC consumers at breakfast and for the total day. Conclusion : Consumption of fortified RTEC at breakfast was associated with lower fat and sodium intakes and higher intakes of several micronutrients both at breakfast and for the total day. However, total sugar intakes appeared to be higher.

  9. Ready or Not...? Teen Sexuality and the Troubling Discourse of Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashcraft, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I explore how talk about being "ready" or "not ready" for sex shapes teen and adult understandings of sexuality. I argue that this "discourse of readiness" poses serious threats to teens' identity development, sexual decision making, and educators efforts to help them through these processes. To illustrate, I draw from my…

  10. Consumer behaviors towards ready-to-eat foods based on food-related lifestyles in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Hyun-Joo; Chae, Mi-Jin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine consumers' behaviors toward ready-to-eat foods and to develop ready-to-eat food market segmentation in Korea. The food-related lifestyle and purchase behaviors of ready-to-eat foods were evaluated using 410 ready-to-eat food consumers in the Republic of Korea. Four factors were extracted by exploratory factor analysis (health-orientation, taste-orientation, convenience-orientation, and tradition-orientation) to explain the ready-to eat food consumers' food-related lifestyles. The results of cluster analysis indicated that "tradition seekers" and "convenience seekers" should be regarded as the target segments. Chi-square tests and t-tests of the subdivided groups showed there were significant differences across marital status, education level, family type, eating-out expenditure, place of purchase, and reason for purchase. In conclusion, the tradition seekers consumed more ready-to-eat foods from discount marts or specialty stores and ate them between meals more often than the convenience seekers. In contrast, the convenience seekers purchased more ready-to-eat foods at convenience stores and ate them as meals more often than the tradition seekers. These findings suggest that ready-to-eat food market segmentation based on food-related lifestyles can be applied to develop proper marketing strategies. PMID:20827350

  11. Consumer behaviors towards ready-to-eat foods based on food-related lifestyles in Korea.

    PubMed

    Bae, Hyun-Joo; Chae, Mi-Jin; Ryu, Kisang

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine consumers' behaviors toward ready-to-eat foods and to develop ready-to-eat food market segmentation in Korea. The food-related lifestyle and purchase behaviors of ready-to-eat foods were evaluated using 410 ready-to-eat food consumers in the Republic of Korea. Four factors were extracted by exploratory factor analysis (health-orientation, taste-orientation, convenience-orientation, and tradition-orientation) to explain the ready-to eat food consumers' food-related lifestyles. The results of cluster analysis indicated that "tradition seekers" and "convenience seekers" should be regarded as the target segments. Chi-square tests and t-tests of the subdivided groups showed there were significant differences across marital status, education level, family type, eating-out expenditure, place of purchase, and reason for purchase. In conclusion, the tradition seekers consumed more ready-to-eat foods from discount marts or specialty stores and ate them between meals more often than the convenience seekers. In contrast, the convenience seekers purchased more ready-to-eat foods at convenience stores and ate them as meals more often than the tradition seekers. These findings suggest that ready-to-eat food market segmentation based on food-related lifestyles can be applied to develop proper marketing strategies.

  12. Spreading Speed of Magnetopause Reconnection X-Lines Using Ground-Satellite Coordination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Ying; Walsh, Brian M.; Nishimura, Yukitoshi; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Ruohoniemi, J. Michael; McWilliams, Kathryn A.; Nishitani, Nozomu

    2018-01-01

    Conceptual and numerical models predict that magnetic reconnection starts at a localized region and then spreads out of the reconnection plane. At the Earth's magnetopause this spreading would occur primarily in local time along the boundary. Different simulations have found the spreading to occur at different speeds such as the Alfvén speed and speed of the current carriers. We use conjugate Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) spacecraft and Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) radar measurements to observationally determine the X-line spreading speed at the magnetopause. THEMIS probes the reconnection parameters locally, and SuperDARN tracks the reconnection development remotely. Spreading speeds under different magnetopause boundary conditions are obtained and compared with model predictions. We find that while spreading under weak guide field could be explained by either the current carriers or the Alfvén waves, spreading under strong guide field is consistent only with the current carriers.

  13. [Determination of folate content in ready-to-eat food products].

    PubMed

    Fajardo Martín, Violeta; Alonso-Aperte, Elena; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2013-01-01

    In the last years, the consumption of ready-to-eat foods has become an increasing part of the current Spanish diet. Accordingly, the nutritional composition of these food categories should be investigated in order to estimate its contribution to vitamin and nutrient intakes, in particular its folate content. The broad lack of folate data in food composition tables and databases justifies this approach. The aim of this work was to screen the current availability and to supply new folate data in ready-to-eat commercial products in the Spanish market. Seventeen ready-to-eat foods, including mainly vegetable ingredients, were analysed for total folate content using a validated method that relies on Lactobacillus casei ssp. rhamnosus chloramphenicol-resistant folate dependent growth. The accuracy of the analytical procedure was checked using a certified reference material and by a recovery test. Mean TF content ranged from 13.6 to 103.8 μg/100 g in different food matrices on a fresh weight basis. Higher TF quantity was found for vegetable hamburguers, recipes including chickpeas, peas or artichockes. Selected precooked products were also analysed after a soft heat treatment as recommended by the manufacter before its consumption. No significant differences were found in the folate content after processing. The coefficient of variation for the duplicates of the same product was less than 15%. Folate content in ready-to-eat products indicates the potential to considerably increase folate intake by choosing folate-rich foods. There have been no previous reports on folate data in chilled ready-to-eat meals. The present data will assist dietary studies to estimate and evaluate the adequacy of population folate intakes. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  14. Findings from an online behavioural weight management programme provided with or without a fortified diet beverage.

    PubMed

    Haddock, C Keith; Poston, Walker S C; Lagrotte, Caitlin; Klotz, Alicia A; Oliver, Tracy L; Vander Veur, Stephanie S; Foster, Gary D; Jebb, Susan A; Moore, Carmel; Roberts, Susan A; Reeves, Rebecca S; Bolton, Mary Pat; Foreyt, John P

    2014-01-28

    The present multi-centre randomised weight-loss trial evaluated the efficacy of a low-intensity 12-week online behavioural modification programme, with or without a fortified diet beverage using a 2 × 2 factorial design. A total of 572 participants were randomised to: (1) an online basic lifestyle information (OBLI) intervention, consisting of one online informational class about tips for weight management; (2) an online behavioural weight management (OBWM) intervention, entailing 12 weekly online classes focused on weight-loss behaviour modification; (3) an OBLI intervention plus a fortified diet cola beverage (BEV) containing green tea extract (total catechin 167 mg), soluble fibre dextrin (10 g) and caffeine (100 mg) (OBLI+BEV); (4) OBWM+BEV. Assessments included height, weight, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-derived body composition, and waist circumference (WC). Attrition was 15·7 %. Intention-to-treat (ITT) models demonstrated a main effect for type of Internet programme, with those assigned to the OBWM condition losing significantly more weight (F= 7·174; P= 0·008) and fat mass (F= 4·491; P= 0·035) than those assigned to the OBLI condition. However, there was no significant main effect for the OBWM condition on body fat percentage (F= 2·906; P= 0·089) or WC (F= 3·351; P= 0·068), and no significant main effect for beverage use or significant interactions between factors in ITT models. A 12-week, low-intensity behaviourally based online programme produced a greater weight loss than a basic information website. The addition of a fortified diet beverage had no additional impact.

  15. Micronutrient-Fortified Milk and Academic Performance among Chinese Middle School Students: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoqin; Hui, Zhaozhao; Dai, Xiaoling; Terry, Paul D.; Zhang, Yue; Ma, Mei; Wang, Mingxu; Deng, Fu; Gu, Wei; Lei, Shuangyan; Li, Ling; Ma, Mingyue; Zhang, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Many children suffer from nutritional deficiencies that may negatively affect their academic performance. This cluster-randomized controlled trial aimed to test the effects of micronutrient-fortified milk in Chinese students. Participants received either micronutrient-fortified (n = 177) or unfortified (n = 183) milk for six months. Academic performance, motivation, and learning strategies were estimated by end-of-term tests and the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire. Blood samples were analyzed for micronutrients. In total, 296 students (82.2%) completed this study. Compared with the control group, students in the intervention group reported higher scores in several academic subjects (p < 0.05), including languages, mathematics, ethics, and physical performance at the end of follow-up. Students in the intervention group showed greater self-efficacy and use of cognitive strategies in learning, and reported less test anxiety (p < 0.001). Moreover, vitamin B2 deficiency (odds ratio (OR) = 0.18, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.11~0.30) and iron deficiency (OR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.14~0.81) were less likely in the students of the intervention group, whereas vitamin D, vitamin B12, and selenium deficiencies were not significantly different. “Cognitive strategy” had a partial mediating effect on the test scores of English (95% CI: 1.26~3.79) and Chinese (95% CI: 0.53~2.21). Our findings suggest that micronutrient-fortified milk may improve students’ academic performance, motivation, and learning strategies. PMID:28257107

  16. Topical minoxidil fortified with finasteride: An account of maintenance of hair density after replacing oral finasteride.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekar, B S; Nandhini, T; Vasanth, Vani; Sriram, Rashmi; Navale, Shreya

    2015-01-01

    Finasteride acts by reducing dihydrotestosterone levels, thereby inhibiting miniaturization of hair follicles in patients with androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Oral finasteride is associated with side effects such as decreased libido, sexual dysfunction, and gynecomastia. The aim of the following study is to assess the efficacy of maintaining hair growth with 5% topical minoxidil fortified with 0.1% finasteride in patients with AGA after initial treatment with 5% topical minoxidil and oral finasteride for two years. A retrospective assessment was done in 50 male patients aged 20-40 years with AGA. All the patients had been initially treated with topical minoxidil and oral finasteride for a period of two years, after which the oral finasteride was replaced with topical minoxidil fortified with finasteride. Five of 50 patients had discontinued the treatment for a period of 8-12 months and were then resumed with only topical minoxidil fortified with finasteride. The patients' case sheets and photographs were reviewed by independent observers and the efficacy of minoxidil-finasteride combination was assessed. Of the 45 patients who underwent a continuous treatment for AGA, 84.44% maintained a good hair density with topical minoxidil-finasteride combinatio. Of the five patients who discontinued oral finasteride for 8-12 months, four demonstrated good improvement in hair density when treatment was resumed with topical minoxidil-finasteride combination. Topical finasteride can be considered for hair density maintenance after initial improvement with oral finasteride, thereby obviating the indefinite use of oral finasteride.

  17. Measuring consumers' interest in instant fortified pearl millet products: a field experiment in Touba, Senegal.

    PubMed

    De Groote, Hugo; Kariuki, Sarah W; Traore, Djibril; Taylor, John Rn; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2018-04-01

    In Africa, food-processing industries are emerging fast, especially for cereals. New low-cost extrusion cookers give small enterprises an opportunity to enter the market for processed cereal products, in particular instant, fortified and flavoured mixes. Before engaging in the marketing of these products, consumers' interest needs to be assessed. This study used a combination of affective tests and experimental auctions with 200 consumers in Touba, Senegal, to evaluate four new products with conventional pearl millet flour as the control: instant pearl millet flour, instant pearl millet flour with added dry mango and carrot powder (naturally fortified), and the previous products with added conventional chemical micronutrient fortificants. During affective tests, consumers made little distinction between the five products in appearance, aroma, taste and overall appreciation. The experimental auctions showed that, without providing additional information on the products, there was no difference in 'willingness to pay' (WTP) between them. However, after that information is provided, consumers were willing to pay a modest premium for instant flour, and a large premium for added mango and carrot extract and for added micronutrients, but were not willing to pay a premium if those micronutrients came from natural sources. Income increased overall WTP, while education increased WTP for instant flour. There is a potential market in low-income African countries for instant and fortified cereal food products, but likely in the higher income and education groups. The increased cost needs to be compared to the premiums consumers are willing to pay. In the next step, the new and promising products could be tested in pilot markets, with target consumers. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. A Comparison of the Concurrent and Predictive Validity of Three Measures of Readiness to Change Alcohol Use in a Clinical Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maisto, Stephen A.; Krenek, Marketa; Chung, Tammy; Martin, Christopher S.; Clark, Duncan; Cornelius, Jack

    2011-01-01

    The authors compared 3 measures of readiness to change alcohol use commonly used in clinical research and practice with adolescents: the Readiness Ruler, the SOCRATES (subscales of Recognition and Taking Steps), and a Staging Algorithm. The analysis sample consisted of 161 male and female adolescents presenting for intensive outpatient…

  19. Subjective social status and readiness to quit among homeless smokers.

    PubMed

    Garey, Lorra; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Kendzor, Darla E; Zvolensky, Michael J; Businelle, Michael S

    2015-03-01

    To explore the predictive value of subjective social status (SSS-US and SSS-Community) on readiness to quit among 245 homeless smokers. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted (stratified by sex). Higher SSS-US (p = .02) and SSS-Community (p < .001) predicted greater readiness to quit in the total sample. These relationships upheld for men (p's <. 01), but only SSS-Community predicted readiness to quit for women (p = .02). Higher SSS is associated with greater readiness to quit among homeless smokers. SSS-Community may be a more relevant index of SSS for women relative to SSS-US. Results suggest SSS may be a factor that contributes to smoking, disease, and health disparities.

  20. The impact of substance abusers' readiness to change on psychological and behavioral functioning.

    PubMed

    Hile, M G; Adkins, R E

    1998-01-01

    Heather and Rollnick's (1993) Readiness to Change Questionnaire directly measures the first three stages of behavior change: precontemplative, contemplative, and action. As part of the St. Louis Target Cities project, an automated assessment procedure was developed to assess individuals seeking substance-abuse services on a variety of dimensions, including readiness to change. This paper describes relationships among the Readiness to Change scales, client self-reports, staff evaluations of psychological symptoms, and other intake assessment measures used in the St. Louis project.

  1. Individualized protein fortification of human milk for preterm infants: comparison of ultrafiltrated human milk protein and a bovine whey fortifier.

    PubMed

    Polberger, S; Räihä, N C; Juvonen, P; Moro, G E; Minoli, I; Warm, A

    1999-09-01

    To improve the nutritional management of pre-term infants, a new individualized human milk fortification system based on presupplementation milk protein analyses was evaluated. In an open, prospective, randomized multicenter study, 32 healthy preterm infants (birth weights, 920-1750 g) were enrolled at a mean of 21 days of age (range, 9-36 days) when tolerating exclusive enteral feedings of 150 ml/kg per day. All infants were fed human milk and were randomly allocated to fortification with a bovine whey protein fortifier (n = 16) or ultrafiltrated human milk protein (n = 16). All human milk was analyzed for protein content before fortification with the goal of a daily protein intake of 3.5 g/kg. During the study period (mean, 24 days) daily aliquots of the fortified milk were obtained for subsequent analyses of the protein content. Both fortifiers were well tolerated, and growth gain in weight, length, and head circumference, as well as final preprandial concentrations of serum urea, transthyretin, transferrin, and albumin were similar in both groups. The ultimate estimated protein intake was equivalent in both groups (mean 3.1+/-0.1 g/kg per day). Serum amino acid profiles were similar in both feeding groups, except for threonine (significantly higher in the bovine fortifier group) and proline and ornithine (significantly higher in the human milk protein group). Protein analyses of the milk before individual fortification provides a new tool for an individualized feeding system of the preterm infant. The bovine whey protein fortifier attained biochemical and growth results similar to those found in infants fed human milk protein exclusively with the corresponding protein intakes.

  2. Evaluation readiness: improved evaluation planning using a data inventory framework.

    PubMed

    Cohen, A B; Hall, K C; Cohodes, D R

    1985-01-01

    Factors intrinsic to many programs, such as ambiguously stated objectives, inadequately defined performance measures, and incomplete or unreliable databases, often conspire to limit the evaluability of these programs. Current evaluation planning approaches are somewhat constrained in their ability to overcome these obstacles and to achieve full preparedness for evaluation. In this paper, the concept of evaluation readiness is introduced as a complement to other evaluation planning approaches, most notably that of evaluability assessment. The basic products of evaluation readiness--the formal program definition and the data inventory framework--are described, along with a guide for assuring more timely and appropriate evaluation response capability to support the decision making needs of program managers. The utility of evaluation readiness for program planning, as well as for effective management, is also discussed.

  3. e-Health readiness assessment factors and measuring tools: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Yusif, Salifu; Hafeez-Baig, Abdul; Soar, Jeffrey

    2017-11-01

    The evolving, adoption and high failure nature of health information technology (HIT)/IS/T systems requires effective readiness assessment to avert increasing failures while increasing system benefits. However, literature on HIT readiness assessment is myriad and fragmented. This review bares the contours of the available literature concluding in a set of manageable and usable recommendations for policymakers, researchers, individuals and organizations intending to assess readiness for any HIT implementation. Identify studies, analyze readiness factors and offer recommendations. Published articles 1995-2016 were searched using Medline/PubMed, Cinahl, Web of Science, PsychInfo, ProQuest. Studies were included if they were assessing IS/T/mHealth readiness in the context of HIT. Articles not written in English were excluded. Themes that emerged in the process of the data synthesis were thematically analysed and interpreted. Analyzed themes were found across 63 articles. In accordance with their prevalence of use, they included but not limited to "Technological readiness", 30 (46%); "Core/Need/Motivational readiness", 23 (37%); "Acceptance and use readiness", 19 (29%); "Organizational readiness", 20 (21%); "IT skills/Training/Learning readiness" (18%), "Engagement readiness", 16 (24%) and "Societal readiness" (14%). Despite their prevalence in use, "Technological readiness", "Motivational readiness" and "Engagement readiness" all had myriad and unreliable measuring tools. Core readiness had relatively reliable measuring tools, which repeatedly been used in various readiness assessment studies CONCLUSION: Thus, there is the need for reliable measuring tools for even the most commonly used readiness assessment factors/constructs: Core readiness, Engagement and buy-ins readiness, Technological readiness and IT Skills readiness as this could serve as an immediate step in conducting effective/reliable e-Health readiness assessment, which could lead to reduced HIT

  4. Diet Quality and Adequacy of Nutrients in Preschool Children: Should Rice Fortified with Micronutrients Be Included in School Meals?

    PubMed Central

    Della Lucia, Ceres M.; Rodrigues, Kellen Cristina C.; Rodrigues, Vivian Cristina C.; Santos, Laura Luiza M.; Cardoso, Leandro M.; Martino, Hércia S. D.; Franceschini, Sylvia C. C.; Pinheiro-Sant’Ana, Helena Maria

    2016-01-01

    Feeding is indicative of the nutritional status of children, however micronutrient deficiency is common in this age group. We evaluated the impact of inclusion of rice (Ultra Rice® (UR®)) fortified with iron, zinc, thiamin and folic acid on laboratory measurements and the nutrient intake of children. Ninety-nine preschoolers (2–6 years; 42.6% male) from two preschools participated, one of which received UR® added to polished rice as part of school meals (test preschool) and the other received only polished rice (control preschool). Biochemical evaluations were performed before and after four months of intervention. Feeding was assessed by direct weighing of food, complemented by 24-h recalls, and the diet was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) adapted to the Brazilian reality. The fortified rice improved the levels of zinc (p < 0.001), thiamine (p < 0.001), folic acid (p = 0.003), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (p < 0.001) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p < 0.001). The inadequacy percentages of thiamine, folic acid and iron were lower among preschoolers from the test preschool. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of using UR® on laboratory measurements of children. The inadequate intake of thiamine, folic acid and iron was also reduced, making the fortified rice an interesting strategy in school feeding programs. PMID:27187464

  5. M-Readiness Assessment Model Development and Validation: Investigation of Readiness Index and Factors Affecting Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakhsh, Muhammad; Mahmood, Amjad; Sangi, Nazir Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    It is important for distance learning institutions to be well prepared before designing and implementing any new technology based learning system to justify the investment and minimize failure risk. It can be achieved by systematically assessing the readiness of all stakeholders. This paper first proposes an m-readiness assessment process and…

  6. Spread spectrum communication link using surface wave devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunsinger, B. J.; Fugit, B. B.

    1971-01-01

    A fast lock-up, 8-MHz bandwidth 8,000 bit per second data rate spread spectrum communication link breadboard is described that is implemented using surface wave devices as the primary signal generators and signal processing elements. It uses surface wave tapped delay lines in the transmitter to generate the signals and in the receiver to detect them. The breadboard provides a measured processing gain for Gaussian noise of 31.5 dB which is within one dB of the theoretical optimum. This development demonstrates that spread spectrum receivers implemented with surface wave devices have sensitivities and complexities comparable to those of serial correlation receivers, but synchronization search times which are two to three orders of magnitude smaller.

  7. [Effectiveness of social mobilization and social marketing in promoting NaFeEDTA-fortified soya sauce in adult women].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Chen, Junshi; Zhan, Siyan; Sun, Jing; Li, Liming

    2011-05-01

    To assess the effectiveness of social mobilization and social marketing in promoting NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce in an iron deficient population. This study was an uncontrolled, community-based, before-after study, which was implemented in three counties of Shijiazhuang Municipality. The intervention was a social mobilization and social marketing strategy. Adult women older than 20 years of age participated in the evaluation protocol. The main outcomes included KAP relevant to IDA. Cross-sectional samples were used to assess the outcomes at baseline and 1 year later. Knowledge and attitudes of adult women had changed positively, and the percentage of women who had adopted NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce increased from 8.9% to 36.6% (P < 0.001). Social mobilization and social marketing had a positive impact on the KAP of adult women in the iron deficient population.

  8. Consumption of ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) among Malaysian children and association with socio-demographics and nutrient intakes – findings from the MyBreakfast study

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib; Nurliyana, Abdul Razak; Norimah, A. Karim; Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan B.; Tan, Sue Yee; Appukutty, Mahenderan; Hopkins, Sinead; Thielecke, Frank; Ong, Moi Kim; Ning, Celia; Tee, E. Siong

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The association between different types of breakfast meals and nutrient intakes has been studied to a lesser extent. Objective: This study compared nutrient intakes at breakfast and throughout the day between Malaysian children who consumed ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) and those who did not. Methods: Anthropometric and dietary data for 1955 children aged 6–12 years from the MyBreakfast study were used in the analysis. Results: Overall, 18% of the children consumed RTEC at breakfast on at least one of the recall days. RTEC consumption was associated with younger age, urban areas, higher income and education level of parents. Among consumers, RTEC contributed 10% and 15% to daily intakes of calcium and iron respectively and ≥20% to daily intakes of vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin and niacin. RTEC consumers had significantly higher mean intakes of vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, calcium, iron and sugar but lower intakes of fat and sodium than non-RTEC consumers at breakfast and for the total day. Conclusion: Consumption of fortified RTEC at breakfast was associated with lower fat and sodium intakes and higher intakes of several micronutrients both at breakfast and for the total day. However, total sugar intakes appeared to be higher. PMID:28469545

  9. Using time reversal to detect entanglement and spreading of quantum information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaerttner, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Characterizing and understanding the states of interacting quantum systems and their non-equilibrium dynamics is the goal of quantum simulation. For this it is crucial to find experimentally feasible means for quantifying how entanglement and correlation build up and spread. The ability of analog quantum simulators to reverse the unitary dynamics of quantum many-body systems provides new tools in this quest. One such tool is the multiple-quantum coherence (MQC) spectrum previously used in NMR spectroscopy which can now be studied in so far inaccessible parameter regimes near zero temperature in highly controllable environments. I present recent progress in relating the MQC spectrum to established entanglement witnesses such as quantum Fisher information. Recognizing the MQC as out-of-time-order correlation functions, which quantify the spreading, or scrambling, of quantum information, allows us to establish a connection between these quantities and multi-partite entanglement. I will show recent experimental results obtained with a trapped ion quantum simulator and a spinor BEC illustrating the power of time reversal protocols. Supported by: JILA-NSF-PFC-1125844, NSF-PHY-1521080, ARO, AFOSR, AFOSR-MURI, DARPA, NIST.

  10. Revealing the dependence of cell spreading kinetics on its spreading morphology using microcontact printed fibronectin patterns

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cheng-Kuang; Donald, Athene

    2015-01-01

    Since the dawn of in vitro cell cultures, how cells interact and proliferate within a given external environment has always been an important issue in the study of cell biology. It is now well known that mammalian cells typically exhibit a three-phase sigmoid spreading on encountering a substrate. To further this understanding, we examined the influence of cell shape towards the second rapid expansion phase of spreading. Specifically, 3T3 fibroblasts were seeded onto silicon elastomer films made from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and micro-contact printed with fibronectin stripes of various dimensions. PDMS is adopted in our study for its biocompatibility, its ease in producing very smooth surfaces, and in the fabrication of micro-contact printing stamps. The substrate patterns are compared with respect to their influence on cell spreading over time. Our studies reveal, during the early rapid expansion phase, 3T3 fibroblasts are found to spread radially following a law; meanwhile, they proliferated in a lengthwise fashion on the striped patterns, following a law. We account for the observed differences in kinetics through a simple geometric analysis which predicted similar trends. In particular, a t2 law for radial spreading cells, and a t1 law for lengthwise spreading cells. PMID:25551146

  11. Complementary molecular and elemental detection of speciated thioarsenicals using ESI-MS in combination with a xenon-based collision-cell ICP-MS with application to fortified NIST freeze-dried urine.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Jenny L; Conklin, Sean D; Gallawa, Christina M; Kubachka, Kevin M; Young, Andrea R; Creed, Patricia A; Caruso, Joseph A; Creed, John T

    2008-04-01

    The simultaneous detection of arsenic and sulfur in thioarsenicals was achieved using xenon-based collision-cell inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry (MS) in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography. In an attempt to minimize the (16)O(16)O(+) interference at m/z 32, both sample introduction and collision-cell experimental parameters were optimized. Low flow rates (0.25 mL/min) and a high methanol concentration (8%) in the mobile phase produced a fourfold decrease in the m/z 32 background. A plasma sampling depth change from 3 to 7 mm produced a twofold decrease in background at m/z 32, with a corresponding fourfold increase in the signal associated with a high ionization surrogate for sulfur. The quadrupole bias and the octopole bias were used as a kinetic energy discriminator between background and analyte ions, but a variety of tuning conditions produced similar (less than twofold change) detection limits for sulfur ((32)S). A 34-fold improvement in the (32)S detection limit was achieved using xenon instead of helium as a collision gas. The optimized xenon-based collision cell ICP mass spectrometer was then used with electrospray ionization MS to provide elemental and molecular-based information for the analysis of a fortified sample of NIST freeze-dried urine. The 3sigma detection limits, based on peak height for dimethylthioarsinic acid (DMTA) and trimethylarsine sulfide (TMAS), were 15 and 12 ng/g, respectively. Finally, the peak area reproducibilities (percentage relative standard deviation) of a 5-ppm fortified sample of NIST freeze dried urine for DMTA and TMAS were 7.4 and 5.4%, respectively.

  12. Partnership readiness for community-based participatory research

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Jeannette O.; Newman, Susan D.; Meadows, Otha; Cox, Melissa J.; Bunting, Shelia

    2012-01-01

    The use of a dyadic lens to assess and leverage academic and community partners’ readiness to conduct community-based participatory research (CBPR) has not been systematically investigated. With a lack of readiness to conduct CBPR, the partnership and its products are vulnerable. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the dimensions and key indicators necessary for academic and community partnership readiness to conduct CBPR. Key informant interviews and focus groups (n = 36 participants) were conducted with academic and community participants who had experiences with CBPR partnerships. A ‘framework analysis' approach was used to analyze the data and generate a new model, CBPR Partnership Readiness Model. Antecedents of CBPR partnership readiness are a catalyst and mutual interest. The major dimensions of the CBPR Partnership Readiness Model are (i) goodness of fit, (ii) capacity, and (iii) operations. Preferred outcomes are sustainable partnership and product, mutual growth, policy and social and health impact on the community. CBPR partnership readiness is an iterative and dynamic process, partnership and issue specific, influenced by a range of environmental and contextual factors, amenable to change and essential for sustainability and promotion of health and social change in the community. PMID:20837654

  13. Assessing and improving organizational readiness to implement substance use disorder treatment in primary care: findings from the SUMMIT study.

    PubMed

    Ober, Allison J; Watkins, Katherine E; Hunter, Sarah B; Ewing, Brett; Lamp, Karen; Lind, Mimi; Becker, Kirsten; Heinzerling, Keith; Osilla, Karen C; Diamant, Allison L; Setodji, Claude M

    2017-12-21

    Millions of people with substance use disorders (SUDs) need, but do not receive, treatment. Delivering SUD treatment in primary care settings could increase access to treatment because most people visit their primary care doctors at least once a year, but evidence-based SUD treatments are underutilized in primary care settings. We used an organizational readiness intervention comprised of a cluster of implementation strategies to prepare a federally qualified health center to deliver SUD screening and evidence-based treatments (extended-release injectable naltrexone (XR-NTX) for alcohol use disorders, buprenorphine/naloxone (BUP/NX) for opioid use disorders and a brief motivational interviewing/cognitive behavioral -based psychotherapy for both disorders). This article reports the effects of the intervention on key implementation outcomes. To assess changes in organizational readiness we conducted pre- and post-intervention surveys with prescribing medical providers, behavioral health providers and general clinic staff (N = 69). We report on changes in implementation outcomes: acceptability, perceptions of appropriateness and feasibility, and intention to adopt the evidence-based treatments. We used Wilcoxon signed rank tests to analyze pre- to post-intervention changes. After 18 months, prescribing medical providers agreed more that XR-NTX was easier to use for patients with alcohol use disorders than before the intervention, but their opinions about the effectiveness and ease of use of BUP/NX for patients with opioid use disorders did not improve. Prescribing medical providers also felt more strongly after the intervention that XR-NTX for alcohol use disorders was compatible with current practices. Opinions of general clinic staff about the appropriateness of SUD treatment in primary care improved significantly. Consistent with implementation theory, we found that an organizational readiness implementation intervention enhanced perceptions in some domains of

  14. Are You Ready: The Perceptions of Middle School Counselors on Preparing Students to Be College and Career Ready

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Gerilyn

    2017-01-01

    This research examined, through a qualitative approach, the perceptions of middle school counselors and resources to prepare middle school students to be college and career ready. In the past, there has been a limited amount of research that has been completed on middle school students in the area of college and career readiness, most research has…

  15. Field trial of GABA-fortified rice plants and oral administration of milled rice in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Kowaka, Emi; Shimajiri, Yasuka; Kawakami, Kouhei; Tongu, Miki; Akama, Kazuhito

    2015-06-01

    Hypertension is one of the most critical risk factors accompanying cardiovascular diseases. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-protein amino acid that functions as a major neurotransmitter in mammals and also as a blood-pressure lowering agent. We previously produced GABA-fortified rice lines of a popular Japonica rice cultivar 'Koshihikari' by genetic manipulation of GABA shunt-related genes. In the study reported here, we grew these same novel rice lines in a field trial and administered the milled rice orally to rats. The yield parameters of the transgenic rice plants were almost unchanged compared to those of untransformed cv. 'Koshihikari' plants, while the rice grains of the transgenic plants contained a high GABA content (3.5 g GABA/kg brown rice; 0.75-0.85 GABA g/kg milled rice) in a greenhouse trial. Oral administration of a diet containing 2.5% GABA-fortified rice, with a daily intake for 8 weeks, had an approximately 20 mmHg anti-hypertensive effect in spontaneous hypertensive rats but not in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats. These results suggest that GABA-fortified rice may be applicable as a staple food to control or prevent hypertension.

  16. Autonomous motivation is not enough: the role of compensatory health beliefs for the readiness to change stair and elevator use.

    PubMed

    Radtke, Theda; Rackow, Pamela

    2014-11-28

    Compensatory health beliefs (CHBs) are beliefs that an unhealthy behavior can be compensated with a healthy behavior. In line with the CHBs model, the aim of this study was twofold. First, the study investigated the relationship between autonomous motivation and CHBs that physical inactivity can be compensated by taking the stairs instead of the elevator. Second, the study focused on the associations between CHBs and readiness to use the stairs more often and stair and elevator use. Thus, a cross-sectional online questionnaire was designed that was filled out by 135 participants. Path analysis showed that individuals with stronger autonomous motivation to use the stairs strongly agreed that sedentary behavior could be compensated by taking the stairs instead of the elevator. Moreover, CHBs were positively related to readiness to change behavior, but not to self-reported stair and elevator use. Even though future research is necessary to replicate these findings, autonomous motivation seems to have a positive impact on CHBs which, in turn, might boost an intended behavior change. Thus, promoting possible compensation of physical inactivity might foster the readiness to change the unhealthy behavior.

  17. Autonomous Motivation Is Not Enough: The Role of Compensatory Health Beliefs for the Readiness to Change Stair and Elevator Use

    PubMed Central

    Radtke, Theda; Rackow, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    Compensatory health beliefs (CHBs) are beliefs that an unhealthy behavior can be compensated with a healthy behavior. In line with the CHBs model, the aim of this study was twofold. First, the study investigated the relationship between autonomous motivation and CHBs that physical inactivity can be compensated by taking the stairs instead of the elevator. Second, the study focused on the associations between CHBs and readiness to use the stairs more often and stair and elevator use. Thus, a cross-sectional online questionnaire was designed that was filled out by 135 participants. Path analysis showed that individuals with stronger autonomous motivation to use the stairs strongly agreed that sedentary behavior could be compensated by taking the stairs instead of the elevator. Moreover, CHBs were positively related to readiness to change behavior, but not to self-reported stair and elevator use. Even though future research is necessary to replicate these findings, autonomous motivation seems to have a positive impact on CHBs which, in turn, might boost an intended behavior change. Thus, promoting possible compensation of physical inactivity might foster the readiness to change the unhealthy behavior. PMID:25464134

  18. Effects of calcium-fortified ice cream on markers of bone health.

    PubMed

    Ferrar, L; van der Hee, R M; Berry, M; Watson, C; Miret, S; Wilkinson, J; Bradburn, M; Eastell, R

    2011-10-01

    Premenopausal women with low calcium intakes consumed calcium-fortified ice cream daily for 28 days. Bone markers, NTX, CTX and PTH decreased significantly by 7 days, with some evidence of a calcium dose-dependent effect. Bone marker responses were observed within 1 h of consuming ice cream. Body weight remained constant over 28 days. Dietary calcium is important for lifelong bone health. Milk is a good source of bioavailable calcium, but consumption has declined among young adults. The aims were to determine whether calcium-fortified ice cream, a palatable source of calcium, produces significant, sustainable changes in bone turnover markers and parathyroid hormone (PTH) in premenopausal women with calcium intake below recommended UK levels. Eighty women, ages 20-39 years (calcium intake <750 mg/day) were randomised to consume lower saturated fat/sugar ice cream containing 96, 244, 459 or 676 mg calcium daily for 28 days. Urinary NTX/Cr, serum CTX, PINP, 1,25D and PTH were measured (baseline, days 1, 7 and 28). Acute changes in CTX and PTH were measured over 5 h (n = 29 women). There were significant mean decreases by 7 days in NTX/Cr, CTX, PTH and 1,25D and increases in PINP (one sample t tests), with a significant dose-dependent effect on CTX analysis of covariance. Only CTX remained suppressed at 28 days. Serum CTX and PTH decreased within 1 h. Body weight did not change significantly between baseline and 28 days. Daily consumption of calcium-fortified ice cream by premenopausal women may significantly reduce levels of the bone resorption marker serum CTX, without stimulating weight gain. The ice cream could be incorporated into the diet to replace low-calcium snacks and thus help individuals with habitually low calcium intakes to meet recommended intakes. The 244 mg calcium preparation would provide more than a quarter of the UK daily recommended nutrient intake for premenopausal women.

  19. Necessary School Readiness Skills for Kindergarten Success According to Jordanian Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu Taleb, Tagreed Fathi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the necessity levels of children's school readiness skills held by Jordanian kindergarten teachers. The sample consisted of 347 teachers drawn from the public and private kindergarten education sectors. The school readiness data collection instrument included seven readiness domains with a total of 39…

  20. Readiness for Change. White Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Caitlin

    2012-01-01

    This white paper by ICF International's Caitlin Howley discusses commonalities and differences among various understandings of readiness and highlights conceptualizations of readiness for change in selected change models. How leaders can use such theories to best to prepare their organizations--and the people enlivening them--for new ways of…

  1. Determining transition readiness in congenital heart disease: Assessing the utility of the Transition Readiness Questionnaire

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Transition Readiness Assessment Questionnaire (TRAQ) is a tool commonly used to assess transition readiness in adolescents with chronic diseases. It was previously validated in youth with special health care needs (YSHCN), but no patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) were included in the ...

  2. A semi-analytical method to estimate the effective slip length of spreading spherical-cap shaped droplets using Cox theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wörner, M.; Cai, X.; Alla, H.; Yue, P.

    2018-03-01

    The Cox–Voinov law on dynamic spreading relates the difference between the cubic values of the apparent contact angle (θ) and the equilibrium contact angle to the instantaneous contact line speed (U). Comparing spreading results with this hydrodynamic wetting theory requires accurate data of θ and U during the entire process. We consider the case when gravitational forces are negligible, so that the shape of the spreading drop can be closely approximated by a spherical cap. Using geometrical dependencies, we transform the general Cox law in a semi-analytical relation for the temporal evolution of the spreading radius. Evaluating this relation numerically shows that the spreading curve becomes independent from the gas viscosity when the latter is less than about 1% of the drop viscosity. Since inertia may invalidate the made assumptions in the initial stage of spreading, a quantitative criterion for the time when the spherical-cap assumption is reasonable is derived utilizing phase-field simulations on the spreading of partially wetting droplets. The developed theory allows us to compare experimental/computational spreading curves for spherical-cap shaped droplets with Cox theory without the need for instantaneous data of θ and U. Furthermore, the fitting of Cox theory enables us to estimate the effective slip length. This is potentially useful for establishing relationships between slip length and parameters in numerical methods for moving contact lines.

  3. Multiple micronutrient-fortified rice affects physical performance and plasma vitamin B-12 and homocysteine concentrations of Indian school children.

    PubMed

    Thankachan, Prashanth; Rah, Jee Hyun; Thomas, Tinku; Selvam, Sumithra; Amalrajan, Vani; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Steiger, Georg; Kurpad, Anura V

    2012-05-01

    Fortifying rice with multiple micronutrients could be a promising strategy for combat micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries. We determined the efficacy of extruded rice grains fortified with multiple micronutrients on the prevalence of anemia, micronutrient status, and physical and cognitive performance in 6- to 12-y-old, low-income school children in Bangalore, India. In a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, 258 children were assigned to 1 of 3 intervention groups to receive rice-based lunch meals fortified with multiple micronutrients with either low-iron (6.25 mg) or high-iron (12.5 mg) concentrations or identical meals with unfortified rice. The meals were provided 6 d/wk for 6 mo. Anthropometric, biochemical, physical performance, and cognitive assessments were taken at baseline and endpoint. At baseline, study groups were comparable, with 61% of the children being anemic. However, only <10% were deficient in iron, vitamin A, and zinc. After 6 mo, plasma vitamin B-12 and homocysteine concentrations (both P < 0.001) as well as physical performance (P < 0.05) significantly improved in the intervention arms. No between-group differences were observed in hemoglobin concentration, anemia, and deficiencies of other micronutrients or cognitive function after 6 mo, but paired analyses revealed a small reduction in anemia prevalence in children in the low-iron group. The fortified rice was efficacious in improving vitamin B-12 status and physical performance in Indian school children.

  4. Changing Community Readiness To Prevent The Abuse Of Inhalants And Other Harmful Legal Products In Alaska1

    PubMed Central

    Ogilvie, Kristen A.; Moore, Roland S.; Ogilvie, Diane C.; Johnson, Knowlton W.; Collins, David A.; Shamblen, Stephen R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents results from an application of the Community Readiness Model (CRM) as part of a multi-stage community mobilization strategy to engage community leaders, retailers, parents, and school personnel in preventing youth use of inhalants and other harmful legal products in rural Alaska. The CRM is designed to assess readiness to address a single social problem, based on a limited set of key informant interviews. In this study, researchers conducted 32 baseline and 34 post-intervention community readiness assessment interviews in four rural Alaskan communities. These interviews with key informants from the communities were coded and analyzed using CRM methods to yield readiness scores for each community. The aggregate results were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM), and the individual community scores were analyzed in the context of the overall study. Significant positive changes in community readiness were found across six readiness dimensions as well as for the overall readiness score. Variation in the degree of changes in readiness across the four communities is attributed to differences in the intervention’s implementation. The implications of these results include the potential for CRM assessments to serve as an integral component of a community mobilization strategy and also to offer meaningful feedback to communities participating in prevention research. PMID:18392927

  5. "Ready To Learn" Transmedia Demonstration Station Study: A Report to the CPB-PBS "Ready to Learn Initiative"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasnik, Shelley; Llorente, Carlin

    2012-01-01

    The 2012 Transmedia Demonstration Stations program study is part of the multiyear CPB-PBS "Ready To Learn" summative evaluation initiative by Education Development Center, Inc., (EDC) and SRI International (SRI). Through a series of related studies, the authors are documenting, and, whenever possible, measuring the impact of PBS KIDS…

  6. Production technology readiness assessment of surfactant in the research center for Chemistry-Indonesian Institute of Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiawan, Arief Ameir Rahman; Sulaswatty, Anny

    2017-11-01

    The common problem faced by the institution working on research, innovation and technology development is lack of quantitative measures to determine the technology readiness of research. No common communication language between R & D Institutions and industry about the level of preparedness of a research resulting a barrier to technology diffusion interaction. This lack of connection between R & D institutes with industry may lead to "sluggishness" occurs in innovating. For such circumstance, assessing technology readiness of research is very important. One of wide spread methods for the assessment is Technology Readiness Level (TRL, also known as Technometer), which is introduced by NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). TRL is a general guide that provides an overview of maturity level of a technology. This study aims to identify and demonstrate the implementation of TRL to assess a number of surfactant researches in the Research Center for Chemistry, Indonesian Institute of Sciences. According to the assessment, it has been obtained the surfactant recommended for further development towards commercialization of R & D results, i.e. Glycerol Mono Stearate (GMS), which has reached the level of TRL 7.

  7. Ultrasonic Multiple-Access Ranging System Using Spread Spectrum and MEMS Technology for Indoor Localization

    PubMed Central

    Segers, Laurent; Tiete, Jelmer; Braeken, An; Touhafi, Abdellah

    2014-01-01

    Indoor localization of persons and objects poses a great engineering challenge. Previously developed localization systems demonstrate the use of wideband techniques in ultrasound ranging systems. Direct sequence and frequency hopping spread spectrum ultrasound signals have been proven to achieve a high level of accuracy. A novel ranging method using the frequency hopping spread spectrum with finite impulse response filtering will be investigated and compared against the direct sequence spread spectrum. In the first setup, distances are estimated in a single-access environment, while in the second setup, two senders and one receiver are used. During the experiments, the micro-electromechanical systems are used as ultrasonic sensors, while the senders were implemented using field programmable gate arrays. Results show that in a single-access environment, the direct sequence spread spectrum method offers slightly better accuracy and precision performance compared to the frequency hopping spread spectrum. When two senders are used, measurements point out that the frequency hopping spread spectrum is more robust to near-far effects than the direct sequence spread spectrum. PMID:24553084

  8. Improving performance of DS-CDMA systems using chaotic complex Bernoulli spreading codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farzan Sabahi, Mohammad; Dehghanfard, Ali

    2014-12-01

    The most important goal of spreading spectrum communication system is to protect communication signals against interference and exploitation of information by unintended listeners. In fact, low probability of detection and low probability of intercept are two important parameters to increase the performance of the system. In Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DS-CDMA) systems, these properties are achieved by multiplying the data information in spreading sequences. Chaotic sequences, with their particular properties, have numerous applications in constructing spreading codes. Using one-dimensional Bernoulli chaotic sequence as spreading code is proposed in literature previously. The main feature of this sequence is its negative auto-correlation at lag of 1, which with proper design, leads to increase in efficiency of the communication system based on these codes. On the other hand, employing the complex chaotic sequences as spreading sequence also has been discussed in several papers. In this paper, use of two-dimensional Bernoulli chaotic sequences is proposed as spreading codes. The performance of a multi-user synchronous and asynchronous DS-CDMA system will be evaluated by applying these sequences under Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) and fading channel. Simulation results indicate improvement of the performance in comparison with conventional spreading codes like Gold codes as well as similar complex chaotic spreading sequences. Similar to one-dimensional Bernoulli chaotic sequences, the proposed sequences also have negative auto-correlation. Besides, construction of complex sequences with lower average cross-correlation is possible with the proposed method.

  9. A Latina/o Campus Community's Readiness to Address Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Ramos, Zully A.; Oswald, Ramona F.; Buki, Lydia P.

    2015-01-01

    In response to the call for new and innovative methods of assessing campus climate (Worthington, 2008), the current study is the first to examine the readiness of a Latina/o campus community to address lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) concerns. Using the Community Readiness Model, data were collected through individual interviews with a total of…

  10. New Methodologies for the Documentation of Fortified Architecture in the State of Ruins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallavollita, F.; Ugolini, A.

    2017-05-01

    Fortresses and castles are important symbols of social and cultural identity providing tangible evidence of cultural unity in Europe. They are items for which it is always difficult to outline a credible prospect of reuse, their old raison d'être- namely the military, political and economic purposes for which they were built- having been lost. In recent years a Research Unit of the University of Bologna composed of architects from different disciplines has conducted a series of studies on fortified heritage in the Emilia Romagna region (and not only) often characterized by buildings in ruins. The purpose of this study is mainly to document a legacy, which has already been studied in depth by historians, and previously lacked reliable architectural surveys for the definition of a credible as well as sustainable conservation project. Our contribution will focus on different techniques and methods used for the survey of these architectures, the characteristics of which- in the past- have made an effective survey of these buildings difficult, if not impossible. The survey of a ruin requires, much more than the evaluation of an intact building, reading skills and an interpretation of architectural spaces to better manage the stages of documentation and data processing. Through a series of case studies of fortified buildings in ruins, we intend to describe the reasons that guided the choice of the methods and tools used and to highlight the potentials and the limits of these choices in financial terms.

  11. Propellant Readiness Level: A Methodological Approach to Propellant Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bossard, John A.; Rhys, Noah O.

    2010-01-01

    A methodological approach to defining propellant characterization is presented. The method is based on the well-established Technology Readiness Level nomenclature. This approach establishes the Propellant Readiness Level as a metric for ascertaining the readiness of a propellant or a propellant combination by evaluating the following set of propellant characteristics: thermodynamic data, toxicity, applications, combustion data, heat transfer data, material compatibility, analytical prediction modeling, injector/chamber geometry, pressurization, ignition, combustion stability, system storability, qualification testing, and flight capability. The methodology is meant to be applicable to all propellants or propellant combinations; liquid, solid, and gaseous propellants as well as monopropellants and propellant combinations are equally served. The functionality of the proposed approach is tested through the evaluation and comparison of an example set of hydrocarbon fuels.

  12. Possibility to Use Mobile Learning to Promote World Heritage Site Preservation Awareness in Luang Prabang, Lao Pdr: a Readiness Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poong, Y. S.; Yamaguchi, S.; Takada, J.

    2013-07-01

    This paper elucidates the current state of mobile technology readiness among young adults in higher education institution based on surveys and interviews. Although Lao PDR is ranked as low category in the ICT Index by International Telecommunication Union (ITU), findings show that there exists high level of readiness among the young adults. Recommendations for future research are developed to guide the development of mobile learning application with the aim to promote World Heritage Site preservation awareness.

  13. Improving protein mass and cumulative body weight gain of local chicken fed ration fortified with a combination of Lactobacillus sp. and dahlia inulin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahyuni, H. I.; Suthama, N.; Mangisah, I.; Krismiyanto, L.

    2018-01-01

    The research aimed to evaluate meat calcium and protein content of local chicken fed diet fortified with a combination of Lactobacillus sp and Dahlia Inulin. One hundred and twenty birds of 4 months old local chicken with average body weight of 1001 g were assigned in a completely randomized design with 4 treatments and 5 replications. The treatments were the farmer formulated ration (FF) and the improved ration (IR), fortified with 1.2% inulin and 1.2 ml Lactobacillus sp. (FFIL and IRIL). Parameters were calcium retention, protein coefficient digestibility, meat calcium and protein mass, and cumulative body weight gain. The results showed that all parameters were significantly affected by dietary treatments. The improved ration resulted in higher calcium retention and protein coefficient digestibility than the farmer formulated ration when fed by both with and without fortification of dahlia inulin and Lactobacillus sp. Meat protein mass of chicken fed by both FR and IR fortified with dahlia inulin and Lactobacillus sp. showed higher value than chicken fed by unfortified FR and IR. Cumulative body weight gain of chicken fed by both FR and IR fortified with dahlia inulin and Lactobacillus sp. also showed higher value than chicken fed by without fortification. In conclusion, both FR and IR fortified with dahlia inulin and Lactobacillus sp. improved meat protein mass and cumulative body weight gain, especially the farmer formulated ration was pronouncedly improved by fortification of Lactobacillus sp. and dahlia inulin.

  14. Spreading of Neutrophils: From Activation to Migration

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Kheya; Aranda-Espinoza, Helim; Smith, Lee; Janmey, Paul; Hammer, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Neutrophils rely on rapid changes in morphology to ward off invaders. Time-resolved dynamics of spreading human neutrophils after activation by the chemoattractant fMLF (formyl methionyl leucyl phenylalanine) was observed by RICM (reflection interference contrast microscopy). An image-processing algorithm was developed to identify the changes in the overall cell shape and the zones of close contact with the substrate. We show that in the case of neutrophils, cell spreading immediately after exposure of fMLF is anisotropic and directional. The dependence of spreading area, A, of the cell as a function of time, t, shows several distinct regimes, each of which can be fitted as power laws (A ∼ tb). The different spreading regimes correspond to distinct values of the exponent b and are related to the adhesion state of the cell. Treatment with cytochalasin-B eliminated the anisotropy in the spreading. PMID:17012330

  15. Medical Readiness of the Reserve Component.

    PubMed

    Brauner, Marygail K; Jackson, Timothy; Gayton, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The reserve components (RCs) of the U.S. military must ensure that reservists are not only properly equipped and trained, but also medically ready to serve. Medical readiness means that service members are free from health-related conditions, including dental conditions, that could limit their ability to carry out their duties. Medically ready reservists require less medical and dental support in theater and fewer medical evacuations from theater, both of which save money and free assets for other purposes. This article identifies existing medical readiness requirements, quantifies the current status of RC medical readiness, identifies obstacles to achieving compliance, and suggests options for improving medical readiness in a cost-effective manner. The authors find that time and expense are the major barriers to the RCs achieving their overall goals for medical readiness. Recommendations include standardizing medical readiness criteria across services, improving data reporting and archiving processes, providing incentives to individuals and units to achieve medical readiness, and continuing to extend TRICARE coverage to reservists prior to deployment.

  16. Rapeseed oil fortified with micronutrients reduces atherosclerosis risk factors in rats fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Micronutrients polyphenols, tocopherols and phytosterols in rapeseed exert potential benefit to cardiovascular system, but most of these micronutrients are removed by the refining process. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of rapeseed oil fortified with these micronutrients on the atherosclerosis risk factors in rats fed a high-fat diet. Methods The rodent diet contained 20% fat whose source was refined rapeseed oil (RRO) or fortified refined rapeseed oil with low, middle and high quantities of these micronutrients (L-, M- and H-FRRO). Forty male SD rats were divided into four groups. One group received RRO diet and other groups received L-, M- and H-FRRO diet for 10 weeks. Results Micronutrients supplementation significantly increased plasma antioxidant defense capacities, as evaluated by the significant elevation in the activities of GPx, CAT and SOD as well as the level of GSH, and the significant decline in lipid peroxidation. These micronutrients also reduced the plasma contents of TG, TC and LDL-C and increased the ratio of HDL-C/LDL-C. In addition, in parallel with the enhancement of these micronutrients, plasma levels of IL-6 and CRP declined remarkably. Conclusion Rapeseed oil fortified with micronutrients polyphenols, tocopherols and phytosterols may contribute to prevent atherogenesis by ameliorating plasma oxidative stress, lipid profile and inflammation. PMID:21663699

  17. Fortified Iodine Milk Improves Iodine Status and Cognitive Abilities in Schoolchildren Aged 7-9 Years Living in a Rural Mountainous Area of Morocco.

    PubMed

    Zahrou, Fatima Ezzahra; Azlaf, Mehdi; El Menchawy, Imane; El Mzibri, Mohamed; El Kari, Khalid; El Hamdouchi, Asmaa; Mouzouni, Fatima-Zahra; Barkat, Amina; Aguenaou, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Iodine is required for the production of the thyroid hormones essential for the growth and development of the brain. All forms of iodine deficiency (ID) affect the mental development of the child. Our study aims to assess the impact of ID on the intellectual development of Moroccan schoolchildren and to evaluate the effect of consumption of fortified milk on reducing ID. In a double-blind controlled trial conducted on schoolchildren, children were divided into two groups to receive fortified milk (30% of cover of RDI iodine) or nonfortified milk for 9 months. Urinary iodine was analyzed using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction, a dynamic cognitive test using Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices to assess learning potential was performed at baseline and end line, and anthropometric assessment was done only at baseline. The study included schoolchildren who were severely iodine deficient. The prevalence of malnutrition was high in both groups; in this study, we found improvements in iodine status and in cognitive abilities among Moroccan schoolchildren. Our study showed that the consumption of fortified milk led to a clear improvement in iodine status and also appeared to have a favorable effect on the cognitive ability of Moroccan schoolchildren in a rural mountainous region.

  18. Disease Prediction Models and Operational Readiness

    PubMed Central

    Corley, Courtney D.; Pullum, Laura L.; Hartley, David M.; Benedum, Corey; Noonan, Christine; Rabinowitz, Peter M.; Lancaster, Mary J.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this manuscript is to present a systematic review of biosurveillance models that operate on select agents and can forecast the occurrence of a disease event. We define a disease event to be a biological event with focus on the One Health paradigm. These events are characterized by evidence of infection and or disease condition. We reviewed models that attempted to predict a disease event, not merely its transmission dynamics and we considered models involving pathogens of concern as determined by the US National Select Agent Registry (as of June 2011). We searched commercial and government databases and harvested Google search results for eligible models, using terms and phrases provided by public health analysts relating to biosurveillance, remote sensing, risk assessments, spatial epidemiology, and ecological niche modeling. After removal of duplications and extraneous material, a core collection of 6,524 items was established, and these publications along with their abstracts are presented in a semantic wiki at http://BioCat.pnnl.gov. As a result, we systematically reviewed 44 papers, and the results are presented in this analysis. We identified 44 models, classified as one or more of the following: event prediction (4), spatial (26), ecological niche (28), diagnostic or clinical (6), spread or response (9), and reviews (3). The model parameters (e.g., etiology, climatic, spatial, cultural) and data sources (e.g., remote sensing, non-governmental organizations, expert opinion, epidemiological) were recorded and reviewed. A component of this review is the identification of verification and validation (V&V) methods applied to each model, if any V&V method was reported. All models were classified as either having undergone Some Verification or Validation method, or No Verification or Validation. We close by outlining an initial set of operational readiness level guidelines for disease prediction models based upon established Technology Readiness

  19. Readiness to Change among a Group of Heavy-Drinking College Students: Correlates of Readiness and a Comparison of Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, T. Robert; Walters, Scott T.; Leahy, Matthew M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Although several multi-item scales assess readiness to change alcohol consumption, some researchers have proposed that a small number of single-item rulers may assess readiness nearly as well. Participants: In fall 2006 and spring 2007, the authors assessed 279 participants who reported at least 1 heavy drinking episode in the 2 weeks…

  20. Ready to Set a Quit Date?

    Cancer.gov

    Congratulations on taking the first step toward a healthier, new lifestyle! Pick a date within the next two weeks to quit. That will give you enough time to get ready. But it's not so long that you will lose your drive to quit.

  1. Drinking and Dating: Examining the Link between Relationship Satisfaction, Hazardous Drinking, and Readiness-to-Change in College Dating Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Khaddouma, Alexander; Shorey, Ryan C.; Brasfield, Hope; Febres, Jeniimarie; Zapor, Heather; Elmquist, Joanna; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of relationship satisfaction on readiness-to-change alcohol use and the influence of hazardous drinking on readiness-to-change relationship issues in college student dating relationships. A sample of 219 college students in a current dating relationship (aged 18–25) completed self-report measures of dating relationship satisfaction, alcohol use, readiness-to-change alcohol use, and readiness-to-change relationship issues via an online survey from August to December 2011. Participants were grouped on the basis of their scores on measures of alcohol use (hazardous drinkers vs. nonhazardous drinkers) and relationship satisfaction (high vs. low). Results indicated that alcohol use was negatively correlated with relationship satisfaction. Furthermore, hazardous drinkers with high relationship satisfaction indicated more readiness-to-change alcohol use than hazardous drinkers with low relationship satisfaction. Alcohol problems were not related to readiness-to-change relationship issues. These findings indicate that highly satisfied dating relationships during college may positively influence readiness-to-change heavy drinking habits among college students. PMID:26997754

  2. On becoming ready to pursue a goal you don't know you have: Effects of nonconscious goals on evaluative readiness

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Melissa J.

    2010-01-01

    Findings showed that the nonconscious activation of a goal in memory led to increased positive implicit attitudes toward stimuli that could facilitate the goal. This evaluative readiness to pursue the nonconscious goal emerged even when participants were consciously unaware of the goal-relevant stimuli themselves. The effect emerged the most strongly for those with some skill at the goal, and for those for whom the goal was most currently important. The effect of implicit goal activation on implicit attitudes emerged in both an immediate condition as well as a delay condition, suggesting that a goal rather than a non-motivational construct was activated. Participants' implicit attitudes toward a nonconscious goal also predicted their goal-relevant behavior. These findings suggest that people can become evaluatively ready to pursue a goal whenever it has been activated -- a readiness that apparently does not require conscious awareness or deliberation about either the goal or the goal-relevant stimuli. Theoretical implications of this type of implicit goal readiness are discussed. PMID:19025283

  3. Bioavailability and Safety of Vitamin D3 from Pizza Baked with Fortified Mozzarella Cheese: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Al-Khalidi, Banaz; Chiu, Winnie; Rousseau, Dérick; Vieth, Reinhold

    2015-09-01

    To assess the bioavailability and safety of vitamin D3 from fortified mozzarella cheese baked on pizza. In a randomized, double-blind trial, 96 apparently healthy, ethnically diverse adults were randomized to consume 200 IU or 28 000 IU vitamin D3 fortified mozzarella cheese with pizza once weekly for a total of 8 weeks. Blood and urine samples were collected at baseline (week 1) and final (week 10) visits for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and other biochemical measures. The primary outcome compared serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D between groups at 10 weeks. The secondary outcome evaluated the safety of vitamin D dosing protocol as measured by serum and urine calcium, phosphate, creatinine, and serum parathyroid hormone (PTH). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D increased by 5.1 ± 11 nmol/L in the low-dose group (n = 47; P = 0.003), and by 73 ± 22 nmol/L in the high-dose group (n = 49; P < 0.0001). None of the subjects in either group developed any adverse events during the supplementation protocol. Serum PTH significantly decreased in the high-dose group only (P < 0.05). Vitamin D3 is safe and bioavailable from fortified mozzarella cheese baked on pizza.

  4. Using gaming simulation to evaluate bioterrorism and emergency readiness education.

    PubMed

    Olson, Debra K; Scheller, Amy; Larson, Susan; Lindeke, Linda; Edwardson, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    We performed an outcome evaluation of the impact of public health preparedness training as a group comparison posttest design to determine the differences in the way individuals who had participated in training performed in a simulated emergency. The Experimental Group 1 included students who had graduated from or were currently enrolled in the bioterrorism and emergency readiness (BT/ER) curriculum at the University of Minnesota School of Public Health. The comparison groups included individuals who had access to the Internet and were aware of the 2006 online simulation Disaster in Franklin County: A Public Health Simulation. The evaluation process employed surveys and the gaming simulation as sources for primary data. Participants in the BT/ER curriculum (p=0.0001) and other participants completing at least 45 hours of training in the past year (p=0.0001) demonstrated higher effectiveness scores (accuracy of chosen responses within the simulation) than participants who did not report significant amounts of training. This evaluation research demonstrated that training is significantly associated with better performance in a simulated emergency using gaming technology.

  5. Long-term study of volatile organic compound recovery from ampulated, dry, fortified soils

    SciTech Connect

    Minnich, M.M.; Zimmerman, J.H.; Schumacher, B.A.

    1997-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the stability and extractability of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when fortified on dry soils and stored in sealed ampules. Two desiccator-dried soils were fortified with benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA), trichloroethene (TCE), tetrachloroethene (PCE), and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (TTCA) at 800 ng each VOC/g soil. The fortified soil was portioned into ampules, sealed, and stored in the dark at 25{degrees}C for up to 56 wk. Replicate ampules were analyzed after 2 d and 2,4,8,13,34, and 56 wk by two extraction procedures modified from the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (USEPA`s) low- and high-level purge-and-trap procedures (SW-846 Methodsmore » 5030/8021). The modified procedure (1-h methanol extraction at 25{degree}C prior to purge-and-trap analysis) yielded significantly higher recoveries of all compounds on both soils as compared with the low-level procedure, with the exception of benzene on the Charleston soil. Moreover, when measured by the high-level procedure, concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and o-xylene (BTEX) remained relatively unchanged during the 56-wk study. Results indicate that the 1-h, 25{degrees}C methanol extraction was sufficient for extraction of the BTEX compounds from these soils. For the chlorinated compounds, regression analysis demonstrated significant trends of changing concentrations over time. Recoveries of TCA decreased at a rate of 3 and 4 ng/g/week and recoveries of TTCA decreased at rates of 8 and 17 ng/g/week on the Hayesville and Charleston soils, respectively. PCE concentrations did not show any significant concentration changes, while TCE concentrations increased at 6 and 7 ng/g/week for the Hayesville and Charleston soils, respectively. 19 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.« less

  6. Readiness of communities to engage with childhood obesity prevention initiatives in disadvantaged areas of Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Cyril, Sheila; Polonsky, Michael; Green, Julie; Agho, Kingsley; Renzaho, Andre

    2017-07-01

    Objective Disadvantaged communities bear a disproportionate burden of childhood obesity and show low participation in childhood obesity prevention initiatives. This study aims to examine the level of readiness of disadvantaged communities to engage with childhood obesity prevention initiatives. Methods Using the community readiness model, 95 semi-structured interviews were conducted among communities in four disadvantaged areas of Victoria, Australia. Community readiness analysis and paired t-tests were performed to assess the readiness levels of disadvantaged communities to engage with childhood obesity prevention initiatives. Results The results showed that disadvantaged communities demonstrated low levels of readiness (readiness score=4/9, 44%) to engage with the existing childhood obesity prevention initiatives, lacked knowledge of childhood obesity and its prevention, and reported facing challenges in initiating and sustaining participation in obesity prevention initiatives. Conclusion This study highlights the need to improve community readiness by addressing low obesity-related literacy levels among disadvantaged communities and by facilitating the capacity-building of bicultural workers to deliver obesity prevention messages to these communities. Integrating these needs into existing Australian health policy and practice is of paramount importance for reducing obesity-related disparities currently prevailing in Australia. What is known about the topic? Childhood obesity prevalence is plateauing in developed countries including Australia; however, obesity-related inequalities continue to exist in Australia especially among communities living in disadvantaged areas, which experience poor engagement in childhood obesity prevention initiatives. Studies in the USA have found that assessing disadvantaged communities' readiness to participate in health programs is a critical initial step in reducing the disproportionate obesity burden among these communities

  7. Examining Trauma and Readiness to Change among Women in a Community Re-Entry Program.

    PubMed

    Killian, Michael; Cimino, Andrea N; Mendoza, Natasha S; Shively, Randy; Kunz, Kami

    2018-03-21

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and co-occurring substance use disorders (SUDs) are common among women who are incarcerated. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between trauma and readiness to change substance use behaviors. This study used data from 103 participants enrolled in a residential re-entry program for women with SUDs and trauma history. Women reporting clinically elevated Trauma Symptom Inventory (TSI) subscale scores were compared to those without elevated scores on the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA) readiness to change instrument. Primary analyses included t-tests and ANCOVA to control for age and ethnicity. In general, women with clinically elevated trauma scores also reported greater readiness to change. The analyses revealed significant differences on the URICA Readiness to Change scores between women who had elevated Defensive Avoidance and Impaired Self-Reference according to the TSI. Results approached significance for women who had elevated TSI subscale scores for Sexual Concerns and Dissociation. These results point to a need to further understand links between trauma and readiness to change, particularly, the role of posttraumatic growth and psychological distress. This study has implications for social workers and clinicians delivering evidence-based treatment. Women who had high trauma symptoms were more willing to address change. Findings also suggest a need to tailor interventions to include motivational components that are also trauma-informed.

  8. Stability of omega-3 fatty acids in fortified surimi seafoods during chilled storage.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Mateos, Miriam; Boyd, Leon; Lanier, Tyre

    2004-12-29

    Physical, chemical, and sensory properties of cooked surimi seafood gels (crab analogue) fortified with omega-3 fatty acids (FA) were monitored during chilled storage. Three sources of stabilized omega-3 FA (fish oil concentrate, menhaden oil, and a purified marine oil) were each incorporated into gels to an omega-3 FA content of 1.5 or 2.5%, w/w. Omega-3 FA stability, development of off-flavors, and changes in color and texture were monitored during chilled storage for 2 months. Gels with fish oil concentrate developed fishy flavor and aroma within 30 days and were eliminated from the study. Gels containing menhaden oil and purified marine oil exhibited little change in sensory properties or oxidation products throughout 2 months of storage. Relative polyene index values (ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids) indicated that the omega-3 FA were stable at both levels of addition. Omega-3 fortified gels were whiter than control gels, and gel texture was modified when menhaden and purified oils were added but not significantly affected by the level of omega-3 addition.

  9. Readiness for Antiretroviral Therapy: Implications for Linking HIV-Infected Individuals to Care and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Maughan-Brown, Brendan; Smith, Philip; Kuo, Caroline; Harrison, Abigail; Lurie, Mark N; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Galárraga, Omar

    2018-03-01

    Using survey data collected immediately after referral for ART (N = 87), this study examined ART-readiness among individuals (18 years and older) attending a mobile health clinic in South Africa. Most participants reported being very ready (84%) and motivated (85%) to start ART, but only 72% were assessed as ready for ART on all measures. Treatment readiness was lower among individuals who did not think they would test HIV-positive (aOR 0.26, p < 0.05) and among individuals who reported being in good health (aOR 0.44, p < 0.1). In contrast, higher readiness was associated with better ART knowledge (aOR 4.31, p < 0.05) and knowing someone who had experienced positive health effects from ART (aOR 2.65, p < 0.05). Results indicate that post-test counselling will need to be designed to deal with surprise at HIV diagnosis, and that health messaging needs to be carefully crafted to support uptake of ART among HIV-positive but healthy individuals. Further research is needed on effective post-test counselling approaches and effective framing of health messaging to increase awareness of the multiple positive benefits of early ART initiation and corresponding readiness to engage in treatment.

  10. Predicting Achievement in Grades Three through Ten Using the Metropolitan Readiness Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, L. David; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Assessed correlations between 415 first graders' scores on the Metropolitan Readiness Test (MRT), and their scores on standardized achievement tests in mathematics and reading in grades 3, 6, 9, and 10. Concluded that the MRT has potential for contributing to readiness decisions in early grades. (MM)

  11. Using a network model to assess risk of forest pest spread via recreational travel

    Treesearch

    Frank H. Koch; Denys Yemshanov; Robert A. Haack; Roger D. Magarey

    2014-01-01

    Long-distance dispersal pathways, which frequently relate to human activities, facilitate the spread of alien species. One pathway of concern in North America is the possible spread of forest pests in firewood carried by visitors to campgrounds or recreational facilities. We present a network model depicting the movement of campers and, by extension, potentially...

  12. Smoking Cessation for Smokers Not Ready to Quit: Meta-analysis and Cost-effectiveness Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ayesha; Kaplan, Cameron M; Derefinko, Karen J; Klesges, Robert C

    2018-06-11

    To provide a systematic review and cost-effectiveness analysis on smoking interventions targeting smokers not ready to quit, a population that makes up approximately 32% of current smokers. Twenty-two studies on pharmacological, behavioral, and combination smoking-cessation interventions targeting smokers not ready to quit (defined as those who reported they were not ready to quit at the time of the study) published between 2000 and 2017 were analyzed. The effectiveness (measured by the number needed to treat) and cost effectiveness (measured by costs per quit) of interventions were calculated. All data collection and analyses were performed in 2017. Smoking interventions targeting smokers not ready to quit can be as effective as similar interventions for smokers ready to quit; however, costs of intervening on this group may be higher for some intervention types. The most cost-effective interventions identified for this group were those using varenicline and those using behavioral interventions. Updating clinical recommendations to provide cessation interventions for this group is recommended. Further research on development of cost-effective treatments and effective strategies for recruitment and outreach for this group are needed. Additional studies may allow for more nuanced comparisons of treatment types among this group. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Asynchronous, Decentralized DS-CDMA Using Feedback-Controlled Spreading Sequences for Time-Dispersive Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyatake, Teruhiko; Chiba, Kazuki; Hamamura, Masanori; Tachikawa, Shin'ichi

    We propose a novel asynchronous direct-sequence codedivision multiple access (DS-CDMA) using feedback-controlled spreading sequences (FCSSs) (FCSS/DS-CDMA). At the receiver of FCSS/DS-CDMA, the code-orthogonalizing filter (COF) produces a spreading sequence, and the receiver returns the spreading sequence to the transmitter. Then the transmitter uses the spreading sequence as its updated version. The performance of FCSS/DS-CDMA is evaluated over time-dispersive channels. The results indicate that FCSS/DS-CDMA greatly suppresses both the intersymbol interference (ISI) and multiple access interference (MAI) over time-invariant channels. FCSS/DS-CDMA is applicable to the decentralized multiple access.

  14. Social Marketing Improved the Consumption of Iron-Fortified Soy Sauce among Women in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Xinying; Guo, Yan; Wang, Sisun; Sun, Jing

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To test the feasibility and effectiveness of social marketing on the improvement of women's knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding iron-fortified soy sauce (FeSS). Design: A community-based intervention was conducted among 4 groups, experimental rural (E[subscript R]), control rural (C[subscript R]), experimental urban…

  15. The Brand's PREACH Model: Predicting Readiness to Engage African American Churches in Health.

    PubMed

    Brand, Dorine J; Alston, Reginald J

    2017-09-01

    Despite many attempts to reduce health disparities, health professionals face obstacles in improving poor health outcomes within the African American (AA) community. To promote change for improved health measures, it is important to implement culturally tailored programming through a trusted institution, such as the AA church. While churches have the potential to play an important role in positively impacting health among AAs, it is unclear what attributes are necessary to predict success or failure for health promotion within these institutions. The purpose of this study was to create a model, the Brand's PREACH ( Predicting Readiness to Engage African American Churches in Health) Model, to predict the readiness of AA churches to engage in health promotion programming. Thirty-six semistructured key informant interviews were conducted with 12 pastors, 12 health leaders, and 12 congregants to gain information on the relationship between church infrastructure (physical structure, personnel, funding, and social/cultural support), readiness, and health promotion programming. The findings revealed that church infrastructure has an association with and will predict the readiness of a church to engage in health promotion programming. The ability to identify readiness early on will be useful for developing, implementing, and evaluating faith-based interventions, in partnership with churches, which is a key factor for sustainable and effective programs.

  16. Ready-to-use foods for management of moderate acute malnutrition: considerations for scaling up production and use in programs.

    PubMed

    Osendarp, Saskia; Rogers, Beatrice; Ryan, Kelsey; Manary, Mark; Akomo, Peter; Bahwere, Paluku; Belete, Hilina; Zeilani, Mamane; Islam, Munirul; Dibari, Filippo; De Pee, Saskia

    2015-03-01

    Ready-to-use foods are one of the available strategies for the treatment of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM), but challenges remain in the use of these products in programs at scale. This paper focuses on two challenges: the need for cheaper formulations using locally available ingredients that are processed in a safe, reliable, and financially sustainable local production facility; and the effective use of these products in large-scale community-based programs. Linear programming tools can be used successfully to design local compositions that are in line with international guidelines, low in cost, and acceptable, and the efficacy of these local formulations in the treatment of MAM was recently demonstrated in Malawi. The production of local formulations for programs at scale relies on the existence of a reliable and efficient local production facility. Technical assistance may be required in the development of sustainable business models at an early stage in the process, taking into account the stringent product quality and safety criteria and the required investments. The use of ready-to-use products, as of any food supplement, in programs at scale will be affected by the practice of household sharing and diversion of these products for other uses. Additional measures can be considered to account for sharing. These products designed for the treatment and prevention of MAM are to be used in community-based programs and should therefore be used in conjunction with other interventions and designed so that they do not replace the intake of other foods and breastmilk. Remaining challenges and implications for the (operations) research agenda are discussed.

  17. Suppressing disease spreading by using information diffusion on multiplex networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Quan-Hui; Cai, Shi-Min; Tang, Ming; Braunstein, Lidia A; Stanley, H Eugene

    2016-07-06

    Although there is always an interplay between the dynamics of information diffusion and disease spreading, the empirical research on the systemic coevolution mechanisms connecting these two spreading dynamics is still lacking. Here we investigate the coevolution mechanisms and dynamics between information and disease spreading by utilizing real data and a proposed spreading model on multiplex network. Our empirical analysis finds asymmetrical interactions between the information and disease spreading dynamics. Our results obtained from both the theoretical framework and extensive stochastic numerical simulations suggest that an information outbreak can be triggered in a communication network by its own spreading dynamics or by a disease outbreak on a contact network, but that the disease threshold is not affected by information spreading. Our key finding is that there is an optimal information transmission rate that markedly suppresses the disease spreading. We find that the time evolution of the dynamics in the proposed model qualitatively agrees with the real-world spreading processes at the optimal information transmission rate.

  18. [Folic acid fortified foods available in Spain: types of products, level of fortification and target population groups].

    PubMed

    Samaniego Vaesken, M L; Alonso-Aperte, E; Varela-Moreiras, G

    2009-01-01

    Folic acid is a potentially relevant factor in the prevention of a number of pathologies (congenital abnormalities, cardiovascular disease, colorectal cancer and neurocognitive decline). This has led to the introduction of different strategies in order to increase folate intake: nutritional education, pharmacological supplementation and mandatory or voluntary fortification of staple foods with folic acid. In Spain there is a growing number of folic acid fortified products on a voluntary basis, but there is also a lack of reliable data to assess their impact on the population's dietary folate intakes. To gather a better knowledge of folic acid food fortification practices in Spain. A Food Composition Database was developed using data from a market study. Also, previously published data of unfortified staple foods from Food Composition Tables was reviewed. The Database included 260 folic acid fortified food items and it was periodically updated. Food groups included were primarily "Cereals and derivatives" (52%) followed by "Dairy products". Most of these foodstuffs lacked a target population for their consumption (37%) or were aimed at "Weight control" (28%) and "Children" (23%), but only 2% targeted women at a reproductive age. Number of unfortified foods included was 690. Fortification levels declared by manufacturers ranged between 15 and 430% of the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for folic acid per 100 g/ml, and simultaneous addition of B6 and B12 vitamins was observed in 75% of the products. Currently, Spain market offers a significant number of folic acid fortified products on a voluntary basis and at a level > or = 15% of the RDA per 100 g/ml or serving declared by manufacturers.

  19. Omega-3 fatty acids enriched chocolate spreads using soybean and coconut oils.

    PubMed

    Jeyarani, T; Banerjee, T; Ravi, R; Krishna, A G Gopala

    2015-02-01

    Chocolate spreads were developed by incorporating two different soybean oil margarines, fat phases prepared using 85 % soybean oil (M1) and 1:1 blend of soybean oil and coconut oil (M2) with commercial palm stearin. Eight formulations were tried by varying skim milk powder (SMP)/fluid skimmed milk (FSM), type of fats (M1, M2, a commercial margarine and a table spread), sugar and cocoa powder and their quality characteristics were compared with a commercial hazelnut cocoa spread. The moisture and fat content were 5-6.1 % and 31.4-32.8 % for formulations with SMP and 21.5-24.7 % and 15.6-21.4 % respectively for those with FSM. Rheological studies of FSM spreads showed higher G″ value (loss modulus) than G' (storage modulus) indicating better spreadability. Descriptive sensory analysis revealed that the products had acceptability score of 8.3 to 10.5 (maximum score: 15). Fat extracted from spreads prepared using M1 and M2 was found to contain 43.9 and 22.3 % linoleic acid and 2.1 and 4.4 % linolenic acid respectively, were free from trans fat while the commercial hazelnut spread had 9.8 % linoleic acid but did not contain linolenic acid. Hence, the developed chocolate spreads have the potential to overcome ω-3 deficiency, ω-6/ω-3 imbalance and to enhance the health standard of people.

  20. Evaluating Community Readiness to Implement Environmental and Policy-Based Alcohol Abuse Prevention Strategies in Wisconsin

    PubMed Central

    Paltzer, Jason; Black, Penny; Moberg, D. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background Matching evidence-based alcohol prevention strategies with a community’s readiness to support those strategies is the basis for the Tri-Ethnic Community Readiness Model (CRM). The purpose of this evaluation was to assess the association of a community’s readiness to address alcohol abuse in their community with the implementation of environmental and policy-based strategies. Methods Twenty-one substance abuse prevention coalitions in Wisconsin participated in a pre-post intervention group-only evaluation using the CRM. As part of a Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) grant, all grantees were obligated by the Wisconsin Department of Health Services to implement environmental and policy-based strategies focused on one of three priority areas: young adult binge drinking, underage drinking, and alcohol-related motor-vehicle injuries and fatalities. Results At baseline, all communities (n=21) scored at or below a Stage 4 (on a scale of 1–9) readiness level (“preparedness”). The mean change in community readiness over the three-year period (2009–2011) was significant, but was less than one complete CRM stage (0.77, p=<0.001; 95% CI: 0.49, 1.05). Conclusion These findings suggest that implementation of environmental and policy-based strategies may improve a community’s progression in perceived readiness to address alcohol abuse regardless of the community’s baseline level of readiness to address alcohol abuse. Recommendation An assessment specific for measuring community readiness for policy-related strategies should be developed. The assessment would include community-level factors (e.g. community climate) for implementing policy-related prevention strategies, and not assume a linear readiness model. PMID:25346555

  1. Improving ready biodegradability testing of fatty amine derivatives.

    PubMed

    van Ginkel, C G; Gancet, C; Hirschen, M; Galobardes, M; Lemaire, Ph; Rosenblom, J

    2008-09-01

    This study assesses the biodegradation potential of a number of fatty amine derivatives in tests following the OECD guidelines for ready biodegradability. A number of methods are used to reduce toxicity and improve the bioavailability of the fatty amine derivatives in these tests. Alkyl-1,3-diaminopropanes and octadecyltrimethylammonium chloride are toxic to microorganisms at concentrations used in OECD ready biodegradability tests. The concentration of these fatty amine derivatives in the aqueous phase can be reduced by reacting humic, or lignosulphonic acids with the derivatives or through the addition of silica gel to the test bottles. Using these non-biodegradable substances, ready biodegradability test results were obtained with tallow-1,3-diaminopropane and octadecyltrimethylammonium chloride. Demonstration of the ready biodegradability of the water-insoluble dioctadecylamine under the prescribed standard conditions is almost impossible due to the limited bioavailability of this compound. However, ready biodegradability results were achieved by using very low initial test substance concentrations and by introducing an organic phase. The contents of the bottles used to assess the biodegradability of dioctadecylamine were always mixed. False negative biodegradability results obtained with the fatty amine derivatives studied are the result of toxic effects and/or limited bioavailability. The aids investigated therefore improve ready biodegradability testing.

  2. Dyadic violence and readiness to change among male intimate partner violence offenders.

    PubMed

    Crane, Cory A; Schlauch, Robert C; Eckhardt, Christopher I

    2015-12-10

    Although readiness to change is associated with mandated partner violence treatment compliance and subsequent violent behaviour among male offenders (e.g. Scott and Wolfe, 2003; Eckhardt et al., 2004), our understanding of the factors associated with pretreatment change remains limited. Offender research indicates that individual and dyadic violent behaviour are highly variable and that such variability may provide insight into levels of pretreatment change (Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart, 1994; Archer, 2002). We sought to examine the associations between indicators of change and individual as well as dyadic violence frequency in a sample of male partner violence offenders. To determine whether severity and perceived concordance in the use of violence among male offenders and their female partners influenced readiness to change at pretreatment, 82 recently adjudicated male perpetrators of intimate partner violence were recruited into the current study and administered measures of readiness to change violent behaviour (Revised Safe at Home Scale; Begun et al., 2008) as well as partner violence experiences (Revised Conflict Tactics Scale; Straus et al., 1996). Analyses revealed an interaction between offender-reported male and female violence in the prediction of pretreatment readiness to change such that greater male violence was associated with greater readiness to change among males who reported that their female partners perpetrated low, but not high, levels of violence. Consistently, greater female violence was associated with lower readiness to change only among the most violent male offenders. Results provide support for the assertion that the most violent offenders may be the most resistant to partner violence intervention efforts, particularly when they perceive themselves to be victims as well. Enhanced motivational and couples programming may facilitate treatment engagement among the high-risk group of male offenders who report concordant relationship

  3. Dyadic Violence and Readiness to Change among Male Intimate Partner Violence Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Cory A.; Schlauch, Robert C.; Eckhardt, Christopher I.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although readiness to change is associated with mandated partner violence treatment compliance and subsequent violent behavior among male offenders (e.g., Eckhardt et al., 2004; Scott & Wolfe, 2003), our understanding of the factors associated with pretreatment change remains limited. Offender research indicates that individual and dyadic violent behavior are highly variable and that such variability may provide insight into levels of pretreatment change (Archer, 2002; Holtzworth-Monroe & Stuart, 1994). Aims/Hypotheses We sought to examine the associations between indicators of change and individual as well as dyadic violence frequency in a sample of male partner violence offenders. Method To determine whether severity and perceived concordance in the use of violence among male offenders and their female partners influenced readiness to change at pretreatment, 82 recently adjudicated male perpetrators of intimate partner violence were recruited into the current study and administered measures of readiness to change violent behavior (Revised Safe at Home Scale; Begun et al., 2008) as well as partner violence experiences (Revised Conflict Tactics Scale; Straus et al., 1996). Results Analyses revealed an interaction between offender-reported male and female violence in the prediction of pretreatment readiness to change such that greater male violence was associated with greater readiness to change among males who reported that their female partners perpetrated low, but not high, levels of violence. Consistently, greater female violence was associated with lower readiness to change only among the most violent male offenders. Conclusions and Implications for Clinical Practice Results provide support for the assertion that the most violent offenders may be the most resistant to partner violence intervention efforts, particularly when they perceive themselves to be victims as well. Enhanced motivational and couples programming may facilitate treatment

  4. Efficacy of a microencapsulated iron pyrophosphate-fortified fruit juice: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in Spanish iron-deficient women.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Rojo, Ruth; Pérez-Granados, Ana M; Toxqui, Laura; González-Vizcayno, Carmen; Delgado, Marco A; Vaquero, M Pilar

    2011-06-01

    Fe-deficiency anaemia is a worldwide health problem. We studied the influence of consuming an Fe-fortified fruit juice on Fe status in menstruating women. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 16 weeks of duration was performed. Subjects were randomised into two groups: the P group (n 58) or the F group (n 64), and consumed, as a supplement to their usual diet, 500 ml/d of a placebo fruit juice or an Fe-fortified fruit juice, respectively. The Fe-fortified fruit juice, containing microencapsulated iron pyrophosphate, provided 18 mg Fe/d (100 % of the RDA). At baseline and monthly, dietary intake, body weight and Fe parameters were determined: total erythrocytes, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), red blood cell distribution width (RDW), Hb, serum Fe, serum ferritin, serum transferrin, transferrin saturation, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP). The fruit juice consumption involved increased intake of carbohydrates and vitamin C, and increased BMI within normal limits. Ferritin was higher in the F group after week 4 (P < 0·05) and became 80 % higher than in the P group after week 16 (P < 0·001), and transferrin decreased in the F group compared with the P group after week 4 (P < 0·001). RDW was higher at weeks 4 and 8 in the F group compared with the P group (P < 0·05). Transferrin saturation increased after week 8, and haematocrit, MCV and Hb increased after week 12, in the F group compared with the P group. Serum Fe did not change. sTfR and ZnPP decreased in the F group at week 16 (P < 0·05). Iron pyrophosphate-fortified fruit juice improves Fe status and may be used to prevent Fe-deficiency anaemia.

  5. Efficacy of a multi micronutrient-fortified drink in improving iron and micronutrient status among schoolchildren with low iron stores in India: A randomised, double-masked placebo-controlled trial

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A multiple micronutrient-fortified drink could be an effective strategy to combating micronutrient deficiencies in school-going children. Our objective was to assess the efficacy of a multiple micronutrient-fortified drink in reducing iron deficiency (ID), ID anemia (IDA), anemia and improving micro...

  6. Assessment of readiness to quit tobacco among patients with oral potentially malignant disorders using transtheoretical model

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amit; Tiwari, Akanksha; Gadiyar, Akshatha; Gaunkar, Ridhima B.; Kamat, Amita Kenkre

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is a disease of addiction and a behavior choice. It is valuable to understand the psychosocial dimension of disease. OBJECTIVES: The research aimed to assess the (I) behavioral determinants and pattern of tobacco use (II) readiness to quit tobacco among patients with oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) using transtheoretical model (TTM) approach visiting the dental college in Goa, India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted among 300 patients over 3 months. Information about sociodemographics, determinants including age and reason of onset, behavioral stages, and the presence of OPMDs was collected using specially designed pro forma. Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed using SPSS 18.0. RESULTS: Smokeless form of tobacco 199 (66.34%) was most prevalent followed by smoking 79 (26.33%) and dual tobacco use 22 (07.33%) in males. Majority belonged to low socioeconomic class. Peer influence was the most-cited reason. Around 1/3rd of the participants had OPMDs associated with tobacco use. Significant association was observed between the presence of OPMDs and TTM behavioral stages. Patients with OPMDs are more motivated for tobacco cessation (odd's ratio = 2.30, P = 0.002), that is, they are more in preparation and action stages. CONCLUSION: The findings reflect that smokeless tobacco use is more prevalent in males with low level of education and socioeconomic class. Readiness to quit tobacco increases among patients with OPMDs using TTM. PMID:29417069

  7. Effectiveness of ready-to-use therapeutic food compared to a corn/soy-blend-based pre-mix for the treatment of childhood moderate acute malnutrition in Niger.

    PubMed

    Nackers, Fabienne; Broillet, France; Oumarou, Diakité; Djibo, Ali; Gaboulaud, Valérie; Guerin, Philippe J; Rusch, Barbara; Grais, Rebecca F; Captier, Valérie

    2010-12-01

    Standard nutritional treatment of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) relies on fortified blended flours though their importance to treat this condition is a matter of discussion. With the newly introduced World Health Organization growth standards, more children at an early stage of malnutrition will be treated following the dietary protocols as for severe acute malnutrition, including ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF). We compared the effectiveness of RUTF and a corn/soy-blend (CSB)-based pre-mix for the treatment of MAM in the supplementary feeding programmes (SFPs) supported by Médecins Sans Frontières, located in the Zinder region (south of Niger). Children measuring 65 to <110 cm, newly admitted with MAM [weight-for-height (WHM%) between 70% and <80% of the NCHS median] were randomly allocated to receive either RUTF (Plumpy'Nut®, 1000 kcal day(-1)) or a CSB pre-mix (1231 kcal day(-1)). Other interventions were similar in both groups (e.g. weekly family ration and ration at discharge). Children were followed weekly up to recovery (WHM% ≥ 85% for 2 consecutive weeks). In total, 215 children were recruited in the RUTF group and 236 children in the CSB pre-mix group with an overall recovery rate of 79.1 and 64.4%, respectively (p < 0.001). There was no evidence for a difference between death, defaulter and non-responder rates. More transfers to the inpatient Therapeutic Feeding Centre (I-TFC) were observed in the CSB pre-mix group (19.1%) compared to the RUTF group (9.3%) (p = 0.003). The average weight gain up to discharge was 1.08 g kg(-1) day(-1) higher in the RUTF group [95% confidence interval: 0.46-1.70] and the length of stay was 2 weeks shorter in the RUTF group (p < 0.001). For the treatment of childhood MAM in Niger, RUTF resulted in a higher weight gain, a higher recovery rate, a shorter length of stay and a lower transfer rate to the I-TFC compared to a CSB pre-mix. This might have important implications on the efficacy and the quality of SFPs.

  8. Use of olive leaves (whether or not fortified with sodium selenate) in rabbit feeding: Effect on performance, carcass and meat characteristics, and estimated indexes of fatty acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Mattioli, Simona; Machado Duarte, Joana Margarida; Castellini, Cesare; D'Amato, Roberto; Regni, Luca; Proietti, Primo; Businelli, Daniela; Cotozzolo, Elisa; Rodrigues, Miguel; Dal Bosco, Alessandro

    2018-09-01

    Sixty New Zealand White weaned rabbits were divided into three groups and subjected to different dietary treatments: a standard diet for the control (C), a standard feed supplemented with 10% of plain olive leaves (OL) and a standard feed supplemented with 10% of selenium-fortified olive leaves (100 mg/L of foliar spray sodium selenate solution; SeOL). The productive performance was recorded at the time of slaughter (after 35 days); the carcass and meat traits were determined and estimated indexes of fatty acid metabolism were calculated. No significant differences were found on the rabbit productive performance and the physical-chemical characteristics of the meat. Both group of rabbits on the enriched diet showed leaner and thinner carcasses and a higher meat concentration of oleic acid. The estimated index of Δ5 + Δ6-desaturase, starting from n-6 fatty acids, was lower in both groups supplemented with leaves. The use of selenium-fortified olive leaves, positively affected the lipid oxidative stability of rabbit meat. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Beam-energy-spread minimization using cell-timing optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, C. R.; Ekdahl, C.; Schulze, M.

    2012-04-01

    Beam energy spread, and related beam motion, increase the difficulty in tuning for multipulse radiographic experiments at the dual-axis radiographic hydrodynamic test facility’s axis-II linear induction accelerator (LIA). In this article, we describe an optimization method to reduce the energy spread by adjusting the timing of the cell voltages (both unloaded and loaded), either advancing or retarding, such that the injector voltage and summed cell voltages in the LIA result in a flatter energy profile. We developed a nonlinear optimization routine which accepts as inputs the 74 cell-voltage, injector voltage, and beam current waveforms. It optimizes cell timing per user-selected groups of cells and outputs timing adjustments, one for each of the selected groups. To verify the theory, we acquired and present data for both unloaded and loaded cell-timing optimizations. For the unloaded cells, the preoptimization baseline energy spread was reduced by 34% and 31% for two shots as compared to baseline. For the loaded-cell case, the measured energy spread was reduced by 49% compared to baseline.

  10. Use of aptitude to understand bachelor of science in nursing student attrition and readiness for the National Council Licensure Examination-Registered Nurse.

    PubMed

    Newton, Sarah E; Moore, Gary

    2009-01-01

    Attrition is a serious issue among Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) students with attrition rates around 50% nationwide. To help minimize BSN student attrition, many nursing programs use commercially available standardized nursing aptitude tests as adjuncts to scholastic aptitude data, usually operationalized as pre-nursing grade point average, to select students for admission. Little is known regarding the usefulness of scholastic and nursing aptitude data for predicting long-term retention in a BSN program and readiness for the National Council Licensure Examination-Registered Nurse (NCLEX-RN). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to describe the relationships among scholastic aptitude, nursing aptitude, BSN student attrition prior to the final semester of the curriculum, and BSN student readiness for the NCLEX-RN. This study's findings, along with other findings in the literature, suggest the need for a parsimonious explanatory model of BSN student attrition that can be used to guide admission and progression policies, and ensure that students ready for the NCLEX-RN are the ones graduating from BSN programs.

  11. Stability of Vitamin A, Iron and Zinc in Fortified Rice during Storage and Its Impact on Future National Standards and Programs—Case Study in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Kuong, Khov; Laillou, Arnaud; Chea, Chantum; Chamnan, Chhoun; Berger, Jacques; Wieringa, Frank T.

    2016-01-01

    Fortified rice holds great potential for bringing essential micronutrients to a large part of the world population. The present study quantified the losses of three different micronutrients (vitamin A, iron, zinc) in fortified rice that were produced using three different techniques (hot extrusion, cold extrusion, and coating) and stored at two different environments (25 ± 5 °C at a humidity of 60% and 40 ± 5 °C at a humidity of 75%) for up to one year. Fortified rice premix from the different techniques was mixed with normal rice in a 1:100 ratio. Each sample was analyzed in triplicate. The study confirmed the high stability of iron and zinc during storage while the retention of vitamin A was significantly affected by storage and the type of techniques used to make rice premix. Losses for iron and zinc were typically <10% for any type of rice premix. After 12 months at mild conditions (25 °C and humidity of 60%), losses for vitamin A ranged from 20% for cold extrusion, 30% for hot extruded rice 77% for coated rice premix. At higher temperatures and humidity, losses of vitamin A were 40%–50% for extruded premix and 93% for coated premix after 6 months. We conclude that storage does lead to a major loss of vitamin A and question whether rice is a suitable food vehicle to fortify with vitamin A. For Cambodia, fortification of rice with iron and zinc could be an effective strategy to improve the micronutrient status of the population if no other food vehicles are available. PMID:26784227

  12. Tolerance Testing for Cooked Porridge made from a Sorghum Based Fortified Blended Food.

    PubMed

    Chanadang, Sirichat; Chambers, Edgar Iv; Alavi, Sajid

    2016-05-01

    Products that will be prepared by consumers must be tolerant to various cooking procedures that those consumers may use. Fortified blended foods (FBFs) are used as a source of nutrition for disaster or famine relief in developing countries. Many FBFs are served as porridge and may have a wide of solids content, cooking times and variations in added ingredients. Sorghum is being examined as a potential alternative to wheat and corn based FBF products. This study was intended to evaluate the tolerance to preparation variations for porridge made as a FBF intended for food aid. Whole Sorghum Soy Blend (WSSB), a fortified, extruded, ground cooked cereal was selected as the FBF for this study. Descriptive sensory analysis and Bostwick flow rate measurements were performed to evaluate the tolerance of porridge products made from variations in ingredients and cooking procedures. The results showed that most sensory properties were only marginally affected although some expected large differences in a few sensory properties were found when solids content varied (that is, thickness, adhesiveness) or fruit (banana flavor) was added. Moreover, Bostwick flow rate was a reasonable indicator of thickness characteristics of porridges in some cases, but not in others. Tolerance testing showed that the sensory properties of WSSB had high tolerance to variations in cooking procedures, which means that the product can be modified during preparation by consumers without having a major impact on most sensory properties other than ones they intended to change such as thickness, sweetness, or fruit flavor. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. The psychometric properties of the Readiness and Motivation Questionnaire: a symptom-specific measure of readiness for change in the eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Geller, Josie; Brown, Krista E; Srikameswaran, Suja; Piper, William; Dunn, Erin C

    2013-09-01

    Readiness for change, as assessed by the readiness and motivation interview (RMI), predicts a number of clinical outcome variables in eating disorders including enrollment in intensive treatment, symptom change, dropout, and relapse. Although clinically useful, the training and administration of the RMI is time consuming. The purpose of this research was to (a) develop a self-report, symptom-specific version of the RMI, the readiness and motivation questionnaire (RMQ), that can be used to assess readiness for change across all eating disorder diagnoses and (b) establish its psychometric properties. The RMQ provides stage of change, internality, and confidence scores for each of 4 eating disorder symptom domains (restriction, bingeing, and cognitive and compensatory behaviors). Individuals (N = 244) with current eating disorder diagnoses completed the RMQ and measures of convergent, discriminant, and criterion validity. Similar to the RMI scores, readiness scores on the RMQ differed according to symptom domain. Regarding criterion validity, RMQ scores were significantly associated with ratings of anticipated difficulty of recovery activities and completion of recovery activities. The RMQ contributed significant unique variance to anticipated difficulty of recovery activities, beyond those accounted for by the RMI and a questionnaire measure of global readiness. The RMQ is thus an acceptable alternative to the RMI, providing global and domain-specific readiness information when time or cost prohibits use of an interview.

  14. Effects of beta-carotene fortified synbiotic food on metabolic control of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A double-blind randomized cross-over controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Asemi, Zatollah; Alizadeh, Sabihe-Alsadat; Ahmad, Khorshidi; Goli, Mohammad; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the beneficial effects of beta-carotene fortified synbiotic food intake on metabolic status in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial was conducted among 51 patients with T2DM. Individuals were randomly assigned to take either a beta-carotene fortified synbiotic (n = 51) or control food (n = 51) for 6 weeks. The beta-carotene fortified synbiotic was containing Lactobacillus sporogenes (1 × 10(7) CFU), 0.1 g inulin and 0.05 g beta-carotene. Control food (the same substance without probiotic, inulin and beta-carotene) was packed in identical 9-g packages. Patients were requested to use the beta-carotene fortified synbiotic and control foods three times a day. Beta-carotene fortified synbiotic food consumption resulted in a significant decrease in insulin (-1.00 ± 7.90 vs. +3.68 ± 6.91 μIU/mL, P = 0.002), HOMA-IR (-0.73 ± 3.96 vs. +1.82 ± vbnm4.09, P = 0.002), HOMA-B (-0.52 ± 19.75 vs. +8.71 ± 17.15, P = 0.01), triglycerides (-2.86 ± 49.53 vs. +20.14 ± 50.10 mg/dL, P = 0.02), VLDL-cholesterol levels (-0.57 ± 9.90 vs. +4.03 ± 10.02 mg/dL, P = 0.02) and total-/HDL-cholesterol ratio (-0.01 ± 1.08 vs. +0.64 ± 0.81, P = 0.001) compared to the control food. In addition, beta-carotene fortified synbiotic food consumption led to elevated plasma nitric oxide (NO) (+6.83 ± 16.14 vs. -3.76 ± 16.47 μmol/L, P = 0.001) and glutathione (GSH) (+36.58 ± 296.71 vs. -92.04 ± 243.05 μmol/L, P = 0.01). Beta-carotene fortified synbiotic food intake in patients with T2DM for 6 weeks had favorable effects on insulin, HOMA-IR, HOMA-B, triglycerides, VLDL-cholesterol, total-/HDL-cholesterol ratio, NO and GSH levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  15. Are ready-to-eat salads ready to eat? An outbreak of Salmonella Coeln linked to imported, mixed, pre-washed and bagged salad, Norway, November 2013.

    PubMed

    Vestrheim, D F; Lange, H; Nygård, K; Borgen, K; Wester, A L; Kvarme, M L; Vold, L

    2016-06-01

    We investigated a nationwide outbreak of Salmonella Coeln in Norway, including 26 cases identified between 20 October 2013 and 4 January 2014. We performed a matched case-control study, environmental investigation and detailed traceback of food purchases to identify the source of the outbreak. In the case-control study, cases were found to be more likely than controls to have consumed a ready-to-eat salad mix (matched odds ratio 20, 95% confidence interval 2·7-∞). By traceback of purchases one brand of ready-to-eat salad was indicated, but all environmental samples were negative for Salmonella. This outbreak underlines that pre-washed and bagged salads carry a risk of infection despite thorough cleaning procedures by the importer. To further reduce the risk of infection by consumption of ready-to-eat salads product quality should be ensured by importers. Outbreaks linked to salads reinforce the importance of implementation of appropriate food safety management systems, including good practices in lettuce production.

  16. Micronutrients-fortified rapeseed oil improves hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Intake of high-fat diet is associated with increased fatty livers. Hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress are key pathophysiological mechanisms in this disease. Micronutrients polyphenols, tocopherols and phytosterols in rapeseed exert potential benefit to hepatoprotection, but most of these micronutrients are removed by the traditional refining process. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether rapeseed oil fortified with these micronutrients can decrease hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress induced by high-fat diet. Sprague–Dawley rats received rodent diet contained 20% fat whose source was refined rapeseed oil (RRO) or fortified RRO with low, middle and high quantities of these micronutrients for 10 weeks. Intake of RRO caused a remarkable hepatic steatosis. Micronutrients supplementation was effective in reducing steatosis as well as total triglyceride and total cholesterol contents in liver. These micronutrients also significantly increased hepatic antioxidant defense capacities, as evaluated by the significant elevation in the activities of SOD and GPx as well as the level of GSH, and the significant decline in lipid peroxidation. These findings suggest that rapeseed oil fortified with micronutrients polyphenols, tocopherols and phytosterols may contribute to prevent fatty livers such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by ameliorating hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress. PMID:23510587

  17. Cold Extrusion but Not Coating Affects Iron Bioavailability from Fortified Rice in Young Women and Is Associated with Modifications in Starch Microstructure and Mineral Retention during Cooking.

    PubMed

    Hackl, Laura; Speich, Cornelia; Zeder, Christophe; Sánchez-Ferrer, Antoni; Adelmann, Horst; de Pee, Saskia; Tay, Fabian; Zimmermann, Michael B; Moretti, Diego

    2017-12-01

    Background: Rice can be fortified with the use of hot or cold extrusion or coating, but the nutritional qualities of the resulting rice grains have never been directly compared. Objective: Using fortified rice produced by coating or hot or cold extrusion, we compared 1 ) iron and zinc absorption with the use of stable isotopes, 2 ) iron and zinc retention during cooking, and 3 ) starch microstructure. Methods: We conducted 2 studies in young women: in study 1 [ n = 19; mean ± SD age: 26.2 ± 3.4 y; body mass index (BMI; in kg/m 2 ): 21.3 ± 1.6], we compared the fractional iron absorption (FAFe) from rice meals containing isotopically labeled ferric prophosphate ( 57 FePP), zinc oxide (ZnO), citric acid, and micronutrients fortified through hot extrusion (HER1) with rice meals fortified through cold extrusion containing 57 FePP, ZnO, citric acid, and micronutrients (CER); in study 2 ( n = 22; age: 24 ± 4 y; BMI: 21.2 ± 1.3), we compared FAFe and fractional zinc absorption (FAZn) from rice meals fortified through hot extrusion (HER2) compared with rice meals fortified through coating containing 57 FePP, ZnO, a citric acid and trisodium cirate mixture (CA/TSC), and micronutrients (COR) relative to rice meals extrinsically fortified with ferrous sulfate (reference). Rice types HER1 and CER contained citric acid, whereas types HER2 and COR contained CA/TSC. We assessed retention during standardized cooking experiments and characterized the rice starch microstructure. Results: FAFe (95% CI) was greater from CER [2.2% (1.4%, 3.4%)] than from HER1 [1.2% (0.7%, 2.0%)] ( P = 0.036). There was no difference in FAFe between HER2 [5.1% (3.7%, 7.1%)] and COR [4.0% (2.9%, 5.4%)] ( P = 0.14), but FAFe from COR was lower than that from the reference meal [6.6% (4.9%, 9.0%)] ( P = 0.003), and the geometric mean FAZn (95% CI) did not differ between HER2 [9.5% (7.9%, 11.6%)] and COR [9.6% (8.7%, 10.7%)] ( P = 0.92). Cooking in a rice-to-water ratio of 1:2 resulted in iron and zinc

  18. MASW on the standard seismic prospective scale using full spread recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Białas, Sebastian; Majdański, Mariusz; Trzeciak, Maciej; Gałczyński, Edward; Maksym, Andrzej

    2015-04-01

    The Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) is one of seismic survey methods that use the dispersion curve of surface waves in order to describe the stiffness of the surface. Is is used mainly for geotechnical engineering scale with total length of spread between 5 - 450 m and spread offset between 1 - 100 m, the hummer is the seismic source on this surveys. The standard procedure of MASW survey is: data acquisition, dispersion analysis and inversion of extracting dispersion curve to obtain the closest theoretical curve. The final result includes share-wave velocity (Vs) values at different depth along the surveyed lines. The main goal of this work is to expand this engineering method to the bigger scale with the length of standard prospecting spread of 20 km using 4.5 Hz version of vertical component geophones. The standard vibroseis and explosive method are used as the seismic source. The acquisition were conducted on the full spread all the time during each single shoot. The seismic data acquisition used for this analysis were carried out on the Braniewo 2014 project in north of Poland. The results achieved during standard MASW procedure says that this method can be used on much bigger scale as well. The different methodology of this analysis requires only much stronger seismic source.

  19. Readiness for Meaningful Use of Health Information Technology and Patient Centered Medical Home Recognition Survey Results

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Peter; Sharac, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Objective Determine the factors that impact HIT use and MU readiness for community health centers (CHCs). Background The HITECH Act allocates funds to Medicaid and Medicare providers to encourage the adoption of electronic health records (EHR), in an effort to improve health care quality and patient outcomes, and to reduce health care costs. Methods We surveyed CHCs on their Readiness for Meaningful Use (MU) of Health Information Technology (HIT) and Patient Centered Medical Home (PCMH) Recognition, then we combined responses with 2009 Uniform Data System data to determine which factors impact use of HIT and MU readiness. Results Nearly 70% of CHCs had full or partial EHR adoption at the time of survey. Results are presented for centers with EHR adoption, by the length of time that their EHR systems have been in operation. PMID:24834365

  20. Surface Imprints: Advantageous Application of Ready2use Materials for Bacterial Quartz-Crystal Microbalance Sensors.

    PubMed

    Poller, Anna-Maria; Spieker, Eva; Lieberzeit, Peter A; Preininger, Claudia

    2017-01-11

    Four different materials (two ab initio synthesized polyurethanes; ready-to-use: Epon1002F and poly(vinyl alcohol)/N-methyl-4(4'-formylstyryl)pyridinium methosulfate acetal) for the generation of Escherichia coli surface imprints are compared in this work. The use of commercially available, ready-to-use materials instead of self-synthesized polymers represents an innovative and convenient way of molecular imprint fabrication. This was herein investigated for large, biological templates. Fully synthesized imprint materials (polyurethanes) were developed and optimized regarding their OH excess and the use of catalyst in the polymerization reaction. No to low OH excess (0-10%) and a noncatalyzed synthesis were determined to be superior for the imprinting of the Gram-negative bacteria. Imprints were characterized using atomic force microscopy, with Epon1002F yielding the most distinguished imprints, along with a smooth surface. The imprints were afterward tested as plastic antibody coatings in a mass-sensitive quartz-crystal microbalance measurement. Dilutions of E. coli suspensions, down to a limit of detection of 1.4 × 10 7 CFU/mL, were successfully measured. Best results were obtained with Epon1002F and self-synthesized, stoichiometric polyurethane. Since ready-to-use Epon1002F was superior in terms of signal intensities and sensitivity, it can advantageously replace self-synthesized polymers for the generation of imprinted sensor surfaces. Easy day-to-day reproducibility and further shortening of imprint fabrication time are other advantages of employing the ready-to-use material instead of conventionally synthesized polymers.

  1. Factors related to nursing students' readiness to enter working life - A scoping literature review.

    PubMed

    Järvinen, Tiina; Eklöf, Niina; Salminen, Leena

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this scoping literature review was to identify the factors related to nursing students' readiness to enter working life. The literature search was carried out in autumn 2017 in PubMed and CINAHL databases. The studies selected for this review (n = 17) were analyzed thematically with inductive content analysis. Four subthemes that were combined into two main factors related to nursing students' readiness to enter working life were found. The main factors found were 1) educational factors and 2) personal factors. Educational factors consisted of professional competence and clinical practice, while personal factors consisted of nursing students' background and feelings. Some nursing students tend to feel insecure about entering working life as a newly graduated nurse. This literature review also supports the importance of clinical practice periods in nursing education and for readiness for working life. Nurse education needs to ensure clinical practice periods which support nursing students' professional growth. Further research is needed on how the factors related to nursing students' readiness to enter working life correlate with each other. Particularly, the association between competence, readiness and positive feelings towards graduation needs further investigation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Getting your home ready - after the hospital

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000432.htm Getting your home ready - after the hospital To use the sharing ... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Getting your home ready after you have been in the hospital ...

  3. Iron bioavailability in Wistar rats fed with fortified rice by Ultra Rice technology with or without addition of yacon flour (Smallanthus sonchifolius).

    PubMed

    Della Lucia, Ceres M; Vaz Tostes, Maria das Graças; Silveira, Carlos Mário M; Bordalo, Lívia A; Rodrigues, Fabiana C; Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Helena Maria; Martino, Hércia S D; Costa, Neuza Maria B

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate iron (Fe) bioavailability in Wistar rats fed with rice fortified with micronized ferric pyrophosphate (FP) by Ultra Rice (UR) technology with or without addition of yacon flour as a source of 7.5% of fructooligosaccharides (FOS). Diets were supplied with 12 mg iron/kg from the following sources: ferrous sulfate (FS - control diet), fortified rice with micronized ferric pyrophosphate (Ultra Rice) (UR diet), ferrous sulfate + yacon flour (FS + Y diet) or Ultra Rice + yacon flour (UR + Y diet). Blood samples were collected at the end of depletion and repletion stages for determination of hemoglobin concentration and calculation of the relative biological value (RBV). Also, the content of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) (acetic, propionic and butyric acids) from animals' stools and caecum weight were determined. The UR diet showed high iron bioavailability (RBV = 84.7%). However, the addition of yacon flour in the diet containing fortified rice (UR + Y diet) decreased RBV (63.1%) significantly below the other three groups (p < 0.05). Groups that received yacon flour showed higher acetic acid values compared to those who did not. In conclusion, fortified UR with micronized ferric pyrophosphate showed high iron bioavailability but the addition of yacon flour at 7.5% FOS reduced iron bioavailability despite increased caecum weight and SCFA concentration.

  4. Chicken surimi fortified by omega-3 fatty acid addition: manufacturing and quality properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao-Lun; Chou, Chung-Hsi; Yu, Yu-Shan; Hsu, Chin-Lin; Wang, Sheng-Yao; Ko, Yi-Feng; Chen, Yi-Chen

    2016-03-30

    The meat of spent hens is hard to use owing to its small amount and poor quality. A washing process to remove sarcoplasmic proteins and other impurities can prolong the shelf life of surimi-like products. Owing to the benefits of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs), functional foods fortified with ω-3 PUFAs are increasingly being marketed. Hence, in this study, ω-3 FA-fortified chicken surimi was manufactured, and how to ameliorate its lipid peroxidation during frozen storage was investigated. A 0.10% (w/v) solution of sodium chloride (NaCl) instead of distilled water in the third washing step decreased (P < 0.05) myofibrillar protein loss and moisture content of spent hen breast protein recoveries. Oil droplets in fish, flaxseed or soybean oil-added chicken surimi were well distributed. Moreover, flaxseed oil addition increased (P < 0.05) total ω-3 FAs and ω-3/ω-6 FA ratio, while only fish oil provided long-chain PUFAs. Oil addition decreased (P < 0.05) hardness and gumminess of chicken surimi, while flaxseed oil resulted in more (P < 0.05) yellow surimi than fish and soybean oil. Fish oil-added samples showed higher (P < 0.05) lipid oxidation than flaxseed or soybean oil-added samples under -15 to -10 °C storage, but α-tocopherol addition ameliorated it. A novel semi-manufactured chicken surimi product with nutritional benefits could be developed by fortification with fish or flaxseed oil. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Lumbar plexus block using high-pressure injection leads to contralateral and epidural spread.

    PubMed

    Gadsden, Jeff C; Lindenmuth, Danielle M; Hadzic, Admir; Xu, Daquan; Somasundarum, Lakshmanasamy; Flisinski, Kamil A

    2008-10-01

    The main advantage of lumbar plexus block over neuraxial anesthesia is unilateral blockade; however, the relatively common occurrence of bilateral spread (up to 27%) makes this advantage unpredictable. The authors hypothesized that high injection pressures during lumbar plexus block carry a higher risk of bilateral or neuraxial anesthesia. Eighty patients undergoing knee arthroscopy (age 18-65 yr; American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II) during a standard, nerve stimulator-guided lumbar plexus block using 35 ml mepivacaine, 1.5%, were scheduled to be studied. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either a low-pressure (< 15 psi) or a high-pressure (> 20 psi) injection, as assessed by an inline injection pressure monitor (BSmart; Concert Medical LLC, Norwell, MA). The block success rate and the presence of bilateral sensory and/or motor blockade were assessed. An interim analysis was performed at n = 20 after an unexpectedly high number of patients had neuraxial spread, necessitating early termination of the study. Five of 10 patients (50%) in the high-pressure group had a neuraxial block with a dermatomal sensory level T10 or higher. In contrast, no patient in the low-pressure group (n = 10) had evidence of neuraxial spread. Moreover, 6 patients (60%) in the high-pressure group demonstrated bilateral sensory blockade in the femoral distribution, whereas no patient in the low-pressure group had evidence of a bilateral femoral block. Injection of local anesthetic with high injection pressure (> 20 psi) during lumbar plexus block commonly results in unwanted bilateral blockade and is associated with high risk of neuraxial blockade.

  6. Development of a New ReadiStep™ Scale Linked to the PSAT/NMSQT® Scale. Research Report 2013-4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, YoungKoung; Hendrickson, Amy; Patel, Priyank; Melican, Gerald; Sweeney, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the procedure for revising the ReadiStep™ score scale using the field trial data, and to provide technical information about the development of the new ReadiStep scale score. In doing so, this report briefly introduces the three assessments--ReadiStep, PSAT/NMSQT®, and SAT®--in the College Board Pathway…

  7. Spread of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in the community through ready-to-eat sandwiches in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Yaici, Lydia; Haenni, Marisa; Métayer, Véronique; Saras, Estelle; Mesbah Zekar, Ferielle; Ayad, Meriem; Touati, Abdelaziz; Madec, Jean-Yves

    2017-03-20

    The spread of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases (ESBLs) or AmpC β-Lactamases (AmpC) encoding genes in healthy human populations is of major concern. The role of the food chain has been questioned since numerous studies reported surface contamination of retail meat or crude vegetables with ESBL/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL/AmpC-E). Nonetheless, these food products are intended to be cooked or washed before consumption so that the risk of human transfer might be low. Here, the presence of ESBL/AmpC-E was investigated in ready-to-eat (RTE) sandwiches purchased in the street in the city of Bejaia, Algeria. Thirty ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli (n=18), K. pneumoniae (n=11) and K. oxytoca (n=1) were recovered from 21 sandwiches purchased in 14 of the 100 shops that were visited (14%). Twenty-four isolates (13 E. coli, 10 K. pneumoniae, 1 K. oxytoca) produced one or two ESBLs, while 5 E. coli and 1 K. pneumoniae isolates produced an AmpC. Among those, 12 E. coli harbored bla CTX-M-1 (n=7), bla CTX-M-15 (n=3), bla CTX-M-14 (n=1) or bla CTX-M-2 (n=1) and one E. coli co-harbored the bla CTX-M-15 and bla SHV-2 genes. The 10 K. pneumoniae displayed bla CTX-M-15 (n=7), bla SHV-2 (n=3), bla SHV-12 (n=1) or bla CTX-M-1 (n=1), including two isolates presenting a bla CTX-M-15 /bla SHV-2 or bla CTX-M-1 /bla SHV-2 combination. The K. oxytoca harbored the bla SHV-2 gene, and one K. pneumoniae and four E. coli displayed bla DHA and bla CMY-2 , respectively. Most isolates (26/30, n=87%) also possessed the aac(6')-Ib-cr gene. Identical ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli or K. pneumoniae clones were detected at different places across the city. This may reflect cross-contamination through poor handling practices, contaminated equipment, common ingredients or environmental factors. Of note, the emergent ST405 K. pneumoniae human clone was identified as a CTX-M-15 producer. This study highlights the presence of ESBL/AmpC-E in RTE sandwiches, which are a source of direct transfer to the

  8. The Role of Executive Control and Readiness to Change in Problematic Drinkers with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disability.

    PubMed

    van Duijvenbode, Neomi; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert P L M; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2017-09-01

    Problematic alcohol use is associated with neuropsychological consequences, including cognitive biases. The goal of the study was to explore the moderating role of executive control and readiness to change on the relationship between alcohol use and cognitive biases in light and problematic drinkers with and without mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID). Participants (N = 112) performed the visual dot probe task to measure the strength of the cognitive biases. Executive control was measured using two computerised tasks for working memory capacity (Corsi block-tapping task) and inhibitory control (Go/No-go task). Readiness to change was measured using the Readiness to Change Questionnaire. No cognitive biases or executive dysfunctions were found in problematic drinkers. Working memory capacity and inhibitory control were impaired among individuals with MBID, irrespective of severity of alcohol use-related problems. Executive control and readiness to change did not moderate the relationship between alcohol use and cognitive biases. The results fail to support the dual-process models of addiction, but results need to be treated with caution given the problematic psychometric qualities of the visual dot probe task. Implementing a neurocognitive assessment and protocols in the treatment of substance use disorders seems premature. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Thriving public-private partnership to fortify cooking oil in the West African Economic and Monetary Union (UEMOA) to control vitamin A deficiency: Faire Tache d'Huile en Afrique de l'Ouest.

    PubMed

    Sablah, Mawuli; Klopp, Jennifer; Steinberg, Douglas; Touaoro, Zaoro; Laillou, Arnaud; Baker, Shawn

    2012-12-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, more than 42% of children are at risk for vitamin A deficiency, and control of vitamin A deficiency will prevent more than 600,000 child deaths annually. In the West African Economic and Monetary Union (UEMOA), an estimated 54.3% of preschool-age children are vitamin A deficient and 13% of pregnant women have night blindness. To project the achievements of this West African coalition. This article documents the achievements, challenges, and lessons learned associated with the development of a public-private partnership to fortify vegetable oil in West Africa through project reports and industry assessments. National-level food consumption surveys identified cooking oil as a key vehicle for vitamin A. Stakeholders therefore advocated for the production of fortified vegetable oil at large scale, supported industrial assessments, and reinforced the capacity of cooking oil industries to implement vitamin A fortification through effective coordination of public and private partnerships tied with standards, regulations, and social marketing. Strong alliances for food fortification were established at the regional and national levels. Stakeholders also developed policies, adopted directives, built capacity, implemented social marketing, and monitored quality enforcement systems to sustain fortification for maximum public health impact. The synergy created resulted from the unique and complementary core competencies of all the partners under effective coordination. The initiative began with the 8 UEMOA member countries and now includes all 15 countries of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), plus Cameroon, Tanzania, and Mozambique, forming a sub-Saharan Africa-wide initiative on food fortification. All members of the Professional Association of Cooking Oil Industries of the West African Economic and Monetary Union (AIFO-UEMOA) now fortify edible oil with vitamin A. Through multisector cooperation, an estimated 70% of the population

  10. Understanding Readiness: An Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Arthur R.

    Readiness to learn occurs when a child has achieved cumulative learning of component subskills and the developmental maturity necessary to integrate these subskills into the desired skill. Readiness is relative, however, not only to the skill, but also to the technique of instruction. Thus, readiness for learning a particular skill by different…

  11. The FORGE AHEAD clinical readiness consultation tool: a validated tool to assess clinical readiness for chronic disease care mobilization in Canada's First Nations.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Mariam Naqshbandi; Mequanint, Selam; Paquette-Warren, Jann; Bailie, Ross; Chirila, Alexandra; Dyck, Roland; Green, Michael; Hanley, Anthony; Tompkins, Jordan; Harris, Stewart

    2017-03-23

    Given the astounding rates of diabetes and related complications, and the barriers to providing care present in Indigenous communities in Canada, intervention strategies that take into account contextual factors such as readiness to mobilize are needed to maximize improvements and increase the likelihood of success and sustainment. As part of the national FORGE AHEAD Program, we sought to develop, test and validate a clinical readiness consultation tool aimed at assessing the readiness of clinical teams working on-reserve in First Nations communities to participate in quality improvement (QI) to enhance diabetes care in Canada. A literature review was conducted to identify existing readiness tools. The ABCD - SAT was adapted using a consensus approach that emphasized a community-based participatory approach and prioritized the knowledge and wisdom held by community members. The tool was piloted with a group of 16 people from 7 provinces and 11 partnering communities to assess language use, clarity, relevance, format, and ease of completion using examples. Internal reliability analysis and convergence validity were conducted with data from 53 clinical team members from 11 First Nations communities (3-5 per community) who have participated in the FORGE AHEAD program. The 27-page Clinical Readiness Consultation Tool (CRCT) consists of five main components, 21 sub-components, and 74 items that are aligned with the Expanded Chronic Care Model. Five-point Likert scale feedback from the pilot ranged from 3.25 to 4.5. Length of the tool was reported as a drawback but respondents noted that all the items were needed to provide a comprehensive picture of the healthcare system. Results for internal consistency showed that all sub-components except for two were within acceptable ranges (0.77-0.93). The Team Structure and Function sub-component scale had a moderately significant positive correlation with the validated Team Climate Inventory, r = 0.45, p < 0.05. The

  12. Wyoming Early Childhood Readiness Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming State Dept. of Education, Cheyenne.

    Because children entering kindergarten come with a variety of preschool and home experiences, and accordingly, with varying levels of school readiness, the Wyoming Early Childhood Readiness Standards have been developed to provide a more consistent definition of school readiness. The goal for the Standards is to provide early childhood educators…

  13. The Application of the Haddon Matrix to Public Health Readiness and Response Planning

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Daniel J.; Balicer, Ran D.; Blodgett, David; Fews, Ayanna L.; Parker, Cindy L.; Links, Jonathan M.

    2005-01-01

    State and local health departments continue to face unprecedented challenges in preparing for, recognizing, and responding to threats to the public’s health. The attacks of 11 September 2001 and the ensuing anthrax mailings of 2001 highlighted the public health readiness and response hurdles posed by intentionally caused injury and illness. At the same time, recent natural disasters have highlighted the need for comparable public health readiness and response capabilities. Public health readiness and response activities can be conceptualized similarly for intentional attacks, natural disasters, and human-caused accidents. Consistent with this view, the federal government has adopted the all-hazards response model as its fundamental paradigm. Adoption of this paradigm provides powerful improvements in efficiency and efficacy, because it reduces the need to create a complex family of situation-specific preparedness and response activities. However, in practice, public health preparedness requires additional models and tools to provide a framework to better understand and prioritize emergency readiness and response needs, as well as to facilitate solutions; this is particularly true at the local health department level. Here, we propose to extend the use of the Haddon matrix—a conceptual model used for more than two decades in injury prevention and response strategies—for this purpose. PMID:15866764

  14. Soft, fortified ice-cream for head and neck cancer patients: a useful first step in nutritional and swallowing difficulties associated with multi-modal management.

    PubMed

    Trinidade, Aaron; Martinelli, Katrina; Andreou, Zenon; Kothari, Prasad

    2012-04-01

    Patients with head and neck cancer have complex swallowing and nutritional concerns. Most patients are malnourished, and treatment modalities within the aerodigestive tract have profound effects on future swallowing and nutrition. The objective of this study is to investigate whether the introduction of fortified soft ice-cream to post-operative head and neck cancer patients would increase compliance with oral-feeding regimes. Using a questionnaire study, an ice-cream machine that produces fortified soft ice-cream was introduced onto our ward, and 30 patients were asked to fill out questionnaires based on their experience in addition to their oral-feeding regime. Results indicate that overall patient satisfaction and compliance with oral-feeding regimes increased: 77% felt that the taste was excellent and also felt that it was easy to eat; 60% felt that it eased the symptoms associated with their symptoms, in particular its cold temperature. We conclude from the results that the inability of patients undergoing multi-modal treatment for upper aerodigestive tract cancer to enjoy normal foods and its effects on their quality of life is underestimated. Providing a food to that is palatable, familiar and acceptable as it is safe and nutritionally sound can increase compliance with oral-feeding regimes. The ice-cream was safe to use in the early post-operative period, especially soothing in patients undergoing upper aerodigestive radiotherapy and high in protein and calorific content. Our practice may have wider benefits, including patients with oral and oropharyngeal infections, the elderly and patients with neurological dysphagia resulting from stroke.

  15. Smart sliding hook as a ready to use auxillary in orthodontist׳s inventory.

    PubMed

    Modi, Palash; Aggarwal, Sakshi; Bhatia, Preetinder; Modi, Palak

    2016-12-01

    Orthodontic treatment often requires extraction or distalization for gaining space. With both treatment modalities, emphasis has always been given to the simplicity and effectiveness of the treatment, time required for each visit, cost and minimum requirement of the inventory. To accomplish this, various appliances and auxiliaries have been designed in the past of which sliding jigs are commonly used. They pose various clinical problems of which time to fabricate them for each patient is one as they cannot be stored in a prefabricated form. Hence a versatile smart sliding hook is introduced as a ready to use auxillary which is biomechanically efficient, convenient to patients, economical, time saving, easy to fabricate and can be prefabricated making it clinically very helpful for orthodontists in day to day practice. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Promotion of Early School Readiness Using Pediatric Primary Care as an Innovative Platform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendelsohn, Alan L.; Cates, Carolyn Brockmeyer; Weisleder, Adriana; Berkule, Samantha B.; Dreyer, Benard P.

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric health care represents an innovative platform for implementation of low-cost, population-wide, preventive interventions to improve school readiness. This article describes the Video Interaction Project, a targeted intervention in the pediatric primary care setting designed to enhance parenting skills and boost school readiness. The…

  17. 21 CFR 131.127 - Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... concentrated fruit and fruit juice. (ii) Natural and artificial food flavorings. (d) Methods of analysis. The... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D. 131.127 Section 131.127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  18. 21 CFR 131.127 - Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... concentrated fruit and fruit juice. (ii) Natural and artificial food flavorings. (d) Methods of analysis. The... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D. 131.127 Section 131.127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  19. 21 CFR 131.127 - Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... concentrated fruit and fruit juice. (ii) Natural and artificial food flavorings. (d) Methods of analysis. The... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D. 131.127 Section 131.127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  20. Career Readiness: Has Its Time Finally Come?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, the Association for Career and Technical Education (ACTE) released a "What Is Career Ready?" definition. As the career-readiness definition explains, there is much overlap between "college readiness" and "career readiness," but academic preparedness for college alone is not enough to be truly career-ready.…

  1. Family Routines and School Readiness during the Transition to Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferretti, Larissa K.; Bub, Kristen L.

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: Using data from 3,250 participants in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort, we used structural equation modeling to investigate whether family routines (e.g., bedtime routine, reading routine) established in preschool predict children's school readiness (i.e., academic skills, social-emotional skills, and…

  2. Factors Affecting Nursing Students' Readiness and Perceptions Toward the Use of Mobile Technologies for Learning.

    PubMed

    Zayim, Nese; Ozel, Deniz

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the current usage of mobile devices, preferences of mobile learning environments and examine the readiness of nursing students in a public university. In order to investigate preferences and attitudes with respect to mobile technology use in nursing education, 387 students at a state university have been surveyed. It has been observed that while students preferred their current portable laptops, those in higher classes were more inclined to favor mobile phones. The common problems of battery life and high cost of communication, both in smartphones and tablet systems, suggest that hardware quality and financial constraints seem to be two main factors in determining these technologies. While more than half of students expressed readiness for mobile learning, one quarter indicated indecision. Through multivariate regression analysis, readiness to use mobile learning can be described in terms of perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, personal innovativeness, self-management of learning, perceived device limitation, and availability. Class level, perceived ease of use, personal innovativeness, and self-management of learning explain intention to use mobile learning. Findings obtained from these results can provide guidance in the development and application of mobile learning systems.

  3. Healthy Eating for Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... protein such as lean meat, poultry, seafood, eggs, beans or peas,nuts and seeds. Two cups of ... red meat, chicken, turkey, pork, fish, kale, spinach, beans, lentils and some fortified ready-to-eat cereals. ...

  4. Gallic acid as a protective antioxidant against anthocyanin degradation and color loss in vitamin-C fortified cranberry juice.

    PubMed

    Roidoung, Sunisa; Dolan, Kirk D; Siddiq, Muhammad

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate different antioxidants for anthocyanin (ACY) retention in vitamin C fortified cranberry juice and assess its quality. Cranberry juice was fortified with 40-80mg/100mL vitamin C and added hesperidin, catechin, and gallic acid at different concentrations. Juice was pasteurized at 85°C for 1min and stored at 23°C for 16days. ACYs, vitamin C, color intensity, and browning index (BI) were evaluated at 2-day intervals. Gallic acid was found to be the most effective antioxidant against ACYs degradation and significantly (p<0.05) increased red color intensity by 37% and ACY concentration by 41%, compared to the control. After 16-day storage, the BI of gallic acid-added juice was significantly lower (0.80 vs 1.00) than the control juice. The outcome of this research provided a potential solution of using gallic acid to preserve a health-beneficial component (ACYs), and endogenous red color in cranberry juice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Study of wheat breakfast rolls fortified with folic acid. The effect on folate status in women during a 3-month intervention.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Madelene; Witthöft, Cornelia M; Bruce, Ake; Jägerstad, Margaretha

    2002-12-01

    Folate has come into focus due to its protective role against child birth defects such as neural tube defects (NTD). Swedish authorities recommend all fertile women to increase their folate intake to 400 microg/day by eating folate-rich foods. Because not all women follow these recommendations, there is a discussion today about whether Sweden should introduce folic acid fortification in wheat flour and sifted rye flour. This decision needs knowledge about the bioavailability of folic acid from fortified foods. To investigate effects of two folic acid fortification levels on folate status in healthy female volunteers and to study the folic acid stability during the baking procedure and storage of the fortified breakfast rolls. Twenty-nine healthy women were recruited. Folic acid-fortified wheat breakfast rolls were baked with the purpose to contain 200 microg folic acid/roll (roll L) and 400 microg folic acid/roll (roll H). Fourteen women were given one roll/day of roll L (group L) and 15 one roll/day of roll H (group H) during 12 weeks of intervention. Fasting venous blood samples were collected on days 0, 30, 60 and 90. Serum homocysteine concentrations were determined using an immunoassay. Serum and erythrocyte folate concentrations were analysed using a protein-binding assay with fluorescent quantification. The folic acid concentration in the breakfast rolls was analysed by HPLC on days 0, 30, 60 and 90. Total folate concentration was measured with microbiological assay on day 45. Group L Group L had initially an average erythrocyte folate concentration of 577 +/- 93 nmol/L. After 90 days of intervention, an increase of 20 % (p < 0.05) was observed. At day 0, mean serum folate concentrations were 16.9 +/- 4.3 nmol/L. The mean serum folate concentrations increased by 30 % (p < 0.001) after 90 days. At day 0, mean serum homocysteine concentrations were 9.1 +/- 2.0 micromol/L, which decreased by 20 % (p < 0.01) after 30 days. Group H Group H had an initial

  6. Double-blind randomized controlled trial of rolls fortified with microencapsulated iron.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Teresa Negreira Navarro; Taddei, José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo; Palma, Domingos; Ancona-Lopez, Fábio; Braga, Josefina Aparecida Pellegrini

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of the fortification of rolls with microencapsulated iron sulfate with sodium alginate on the hemoglobin levels in preschoolers as compared to controls. Double-blind randomized controlled trial comprised of children aged 2 to 6 years with initial hemoglobin exceeding 9 g/dL from four not-for-profit daycares randomly selected in the city of São Paulo - Brazil. Children of 2 daycares (n = 88) received rolls with fortified wheat flour as the exposed group (EC) and children of 2 daycares (n = 85) received rolls without fortification as the control group (CG) over a 24-week period. Rolls with 4 mg iron each were offered once a day, five days a week. Hemoglobin concentrations were determined in capillary blood by HemoCue® at three moments of trial: baseline (Ml), after 12 and 24 weeks of intervention (M2, M3). Hemoglobin concentration presented significant increase up to M3 in EG (11.7-12.5-12.6 g/dL) and in CG (11.1-12.4-12.3 g/dL) with higher elevations in children initially with anemia. There was significant reduction in the occurrence of anemia from 22% to 9% in EG and from 47% to 8.2% in CG at M3. Rolls fortified with microencapsulated iron sulfate were well tolerated, increased hemoglobin levels and reduced the occurrence of anemia, but with no difference compared to the control group.

  7. Hospitals’ readiness to implement clinical governance

    PubMed Central

    Ebadi Fardazar, Farbod; Safari, Hossein; Habibi, Farhad; Akbari Haghighi, Feyzollah; Rezapour, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Quality of health services is one of the most important factors for delivery of these services. Regarding the importance and vital role of quality in the health sector, a concept known as "Clinical Governance" (CG) has been introduced into the health area which aims to enhance quality of health services. Thus, this study aimed to assess private and public hospitals’ readiness to implement CG in Iran. Methods: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out in 2012. Four hundred thirty participants including doctors, nurses, diagnostic departments personnel, and support staff were chosen randomly from four hospitals (equally divided into private and public hospitals). Clinical Governance Climate Questionnaire (CGCQ) was used for data collection. Finally, data were entered into the SPSS 18 and were analyzed using statistical methods. Results: Among the CG dimensions, "organizational learning" and "planned and integrated quality improvement program" scored the highest and the lowest respectively for both types of hospitals. Hospitals demonstrated the worst condition with regard to the latter dimension. Furthermore, both types of hospitals had positive picture regarding "training and development opportunities". Private hospitals scored better than public ones in all dimensions but there was only a significant difference in "proactive risk management" dimension between both types of hospitals (P< 0.05). Conclusion: Hospitals’ readiness for CG implementation was "average or weak". In order to implement CG successfully, it is essential to have a quality-centered culture, a culture specified by less paperwork, more self-sufficiency, and flexibility in hospitals’ affairs as well as centring on shared vision and goals with an emphasis on continuous improvement and innovation. PMID:25674566

  8. Using Positive Behavior Support Procedures in Head Start Classrooms to Improve School Readiness: A Group Training and Behavioral Coaching Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feil, Edward G.; Walker, Hill; Severson, Herbert; Golly, Annemieke; Seeley, John R.; Small, Jason W.

    2009-01-01

    Social-emotional competence is an important determinant of school readiness. School readiness, in turn, sets the stage for school success. There is clear longitudinal evidence that school success, attachment and bonding to the schooling process, and full engagement of schooling can, in combination, operate as a protective factor against a host of…

  9. Predicting consumers' intention to consume ready-to-eat meals. The role of moral attitude.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Nina Veflen; Sijtsema, Siet J; Hall, Gunnar

    2010-12-01

    This study investigates the usefulness of integrating moral attitude into the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) model when predicting intention to consume ready-to-eat (RTE) meals. Questionnaire data were gathered in three countries: Norway (N = 112), The Netherlands (N = 99), and Finland (N = 134) in spring 2009. A stepwise hierarchical regression was conducted, and the analyses showed that moral attitude is an important predictor of RTE-meal consumption. The feeling of moral obligation, operationalised as a negative feeling of guilt, had a negative effect on peoples' intention to consume ready meals in all the three countries tested, and the explained variance (R²) for TPB increased when moral was added as an explanatory factor. However, although the test showed significant results for the effect of attitude towards behavior and moral in all countries, non-significant results were observed for the effect of subjective norm in both The Netherlands and Norway when moral attitude was included to the TPB-model, indicating cultural differences in the social pressure towards ready meal consumption. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ready-to-Recruit” or “Ready-to-Consent” Populations?: Informed Consent and the Limits of Subject Autonomy

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jill A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper queries the pharmaceutical industry’s concept of “ready-to-recruit” populations by examining its recruitment strategies for clinical trials and the types of human subjects who participate in these drug studies. The argument is that the pharmaceutical industry has profited from a system comprised of what can more aptly be characterized as ready-to-consent populations, meaning populations who do not have better alternatives than participation in clinical trials. Further, through qualitative research, this paper aims to highlight some of the limitations of current U.S. federal regulation and to show how these limits signal problems that are not normally discussed in the medical ethics literature about research on human subjects. It does this by examining the impotence of informed consent – both as a concept and as a practice – in light of recruitment strategies and the structural reasons motivating individuals to participate in clinical trials. PMID:21359125

  11. A Study of Students' Readiness to Learn Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Marilyn P.; Madison, Bernard; West, Richard D.

    2015-01-01

    The Calculus Concept Readiness (CCR) instrument assesses foundational understandings and reasoning abilities that have been documented to be essential for learning calculus. The CCR Taxonomy describes the understandings and reasoning abilities assessed by CCR. The CCR is a 25-item multiple-choice instrument that can be used as a placement test for…

  12. Factors influencing nurses' readiness to care for hospitalised older people.

    PubMed

    Baumbusch, Jennifer; Leblanc, Marie-Eve; Shaw, Maureen; Kjorven, Mary

    2016-06-01

    To gain a better understanding of nurses' perspectives on factors that influence their readiness to provide appropriate care for hospitalised older people. Hospitals have consistently been criticised for failing to address the unique, complex needs of older people. Research suggests that multiple issues have led to this situation, including a lack of educational preparation for nurses, limited attention to environmental factors, and an absence of organisational preparedness that ensures hospitals are adapted to meet the needs of older people. An exploratory, qualitative approach was used. Forty-one Registered Nurses participated (24 point-of-care nurses; 17 organisational leaders). Six focus groups and one individual interview were conducted. Thematic data analysis was employed to generate the main study findings. An overarching theme of 'Poor Fit' emerged. While participants identified the shifting needs of patients towards more complex and relational care, the broader organisational and societal contexts were, largely, unchanging. This resulted in nurses recognising the factors needed to be ready to care for older patients and their families, but working in hospitals that were not suited to these needs. The findings identify factors at the point-of-care, the organisational level, and in broader societal attitudes that shape nurses' readiness to care for hospitalised older people. However, many of these factors are modifiable and care for older people could be improved through quality improvement initiatives and nursing leadership. This study offers insight into ways to re-imagine nursing care that can be responsive to older people's complex needs in hospitals. With a growing contingent of hospitalised older people, it is imperative that nurses, who comprise the largest workforce in this setting, be included in the planning and delivery of healthcare services to ensure readiness to meet the needs of this population. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Getting beyond "Gut Feeling": Understanding How Mentors Judge Readiness to Teach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ell, Fiona; Haigh, Mavis

    2015-01-01

    Assessing whether or not a teacher candidate is ready to take their own class is a high-stakes decision that requires consideration of multiple, often competing, sources of information. Three research instruments were designed to explore how mentors judge readiness to teach during final practicum placements. This article describes the three…

  14. Readiness for hospital discharge: A concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Galvin, Eileen Catherine; Wills, Teresa; Coffey, Alice

    2017-11-01

    To report on an analysis on the concept of 'readiness for hospital discharge'. No uniform operational definition of 'readiness for hospital discharge' exists in the literature; therefore, a concept analysis is required to clarify the concept and identify an up-to-date understanding of readiness for hospital discharge. Clarity of the concept will identify all uses of the concept; provide conceptual clarity, an operational definition and direction for further research. Literature review and concept analysis. A review of literature was conducted in 2016. Databases searched were: Academic Search Complete, CINAHL Plus with Full Text, PsycARTICLES, Psychology and Behavioural Sciences Collection, PsycINFO, Social Sciences Full Text (H.W. Wilson) and SocINDEX with Full Text. No date limits were applied. Identification of the attributes, antecedents and consequences of readiness for hospital discharge led to an operational definition of the concept. The following attributes belonging to 'readiness for hospital discharge' were extracted from the literature: physical stability, adequate support, psychological ability, and adequate information and knowledge. This analysis contributes to the advancement of knowledge in the area of hospital discharge, by proposing an operational definition of readiness for hospital discharge, derived from the literature. A better understanding of the phenomenon will assist healthcare professionals to recognize, measure and implement interventions where necessary, to ensure patients are ready for hospital discharge and assist in the advancement of knowledge for all professionals involved in patient discharge from hospital. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Multidose formulation of ready-to-use 177Lu-PSMA-617 in a centralized radiopharmacy set-up.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sudipta; Vimalnath, K V; Chakravarty, Rubel; Sarma, H D; Dash, Ashutosh

    2018-04-26

    Lutetium-177-labeled PSMA inhibitor has emerged as a promising modality for targeted therapy of prostate carcinoma. A protocol for regular multidose formulation of ready-to-use 177 Lu-PSMA-617 has been developed based on detailed and systematic radiochemical investigations. The formulation meets the requirements of clinical use and can be shipped to nuclear medicine centres for administration up to 4 days from the date of formulation. The reported protocol would be useful toward facilitating widespread clinical utilization of 177 Lu-PSMA-617 in the management of prostate cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Regulatory Monitoring of Fortified Foods: Identifying Barriers and Good Practices

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Laura A; Vossenaar, Marieke; Garrett, Greg S

    2015-01-01

    While fortification of staple foods and condiments has gained enormous global traction, poor performance persists throughout many aspects of implementation, most notably around the critical element of regulatory monitoring, which is essential for ensuring foods meet national fortification standards. Where coverage of fortified foods is high, limited nutritional impact of fortification programs largely exists due to regulatory monitoring that insufficiently identifies and holds producers accountable for underfortified products. Based on quality assurance data from 20 national fortification programs in 12 countries, we estimate that less than half of the samples are adequately fortified against relevant national standards. In this paper, we outline key findings from a literature review, key informant interviews with 11 fortification experts, and semi-quantitative surveys with 39 individuals from regulatory agencies and the food fortification industry in 17 countries on the perceived effectiveness of regulatory monitoring systems and barriers to compliance against national fortification standards. Findings highlight that regulatory agencies and industry disagree on the value that enforcement mechanisms have in ensuring compliance against standards. Perceived political risk of enforcement and poorly resourced inspectorate capacity appear to adversely reinforce each other within an environment of unclear legislation to create a major hurdle for improving overall compliance of fortification programs against national standards. Budget constraints affect the ability of regulatory agencies to create a well-trained inspector cadre and improve the detection and enforcement of non-compliant and underfortified products. Recommendations to improve fortification compliance include improving technical capacity; ensuring sustained leadership, accountability, and funding in both the private and the public sectors; and removing political barriers to ensure consistent detection of

  17. Refinement of a Conceptual Model for Adolescent Readiness to Engage in End-of-Life Discussions.

    PubMed

    Bell, Cynthia J; Zimet, Gregory D; Hinds, Pamela S; Broome, Marion E; McDaniel, Anna M; Mays, Rose M; Champion, Victoria L

    Adolescents living with incurable cancer require ongoing support to process grief, emotions, and information as disease progresses including treatment options (phase 1 clinical trials and/or hospice/palliative care). Little is known about how adolescents become ready for such discussions. The purpose of this study was to explore the process of adolescent readiness for end-of-life preparedness discussions, generating a theoretical understanding for guiding clinical conversations when curative options are limited. We explored 2 in-depth cases across time using case-study methodology. An à priori conceptual model based on current end-of-life research guided data collection and analysis. Multiple sources including in-depth adolescent interviews generated data collection on model constructs. Analysis followed a logical sequence establishing a chain of evidence linking raw data to study conclusions. Synthesis and data triangulation across cases and time led to theoretical generalizations. Initially, we proposed a linear process of readiness with 3 domains: a cognitive domain (awareness), an emotional domain (acceptance), and a behavioral domain (willingness), which preceded preparedness. Findings led to conceptual model refinement showing readiness is a dynamic internal process that interacts with preparedness. Current awareness context facilitates the type of preparedness discussions (cognitive or emotional). Furthermore, social constraint inhibits discussions. Data support theoretical understanding of the dynamism of readiness. Future research that validates adolescent conceptualization will ensure age-appropriate readiness representation. Understanding the dynamic process of readiness for engaging in end-of-life preparedness provides clinician insight for guiding discussions that facilitate shared decision making and promote quality of life for adolescents and their families.

  18. Universal School Readiness Screening at Kindergarten Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quirk, Matthew; Dowdy, Erin; Dever, Bridget; Carnazzo, Katherine; Bolton, Courtney

    2018-01-01

    Researchers examined the concurrent and predictive validity of a brief (12-item) teacher-rated school readiness screener, the Kindergarten Student Entrance Profile (KSEP), using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to examine associations between (N = 78) children's social-emotional (SE) and cognitive (COG) readiness with…

  19. State College and Career Readiness Initiative: Statewide Transitional Courses for College Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barger, Kenna; Murray, Renee; Smith, Janie

    2011-01-01

    Through the "Strengthening Statewide College/Career Readiness Initiative" (SSCRI), Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) has collaborated with states on state policy goals and actions needed to improve high school students' academic readiness for postsecondary study and reduce the need for remedial work. SREB created and implemented…

  20. Oral feeding readiness assessment in premature infants.

    PubMed

    Gennattasio, Annmarie; Perri, Elizabeth A; Baranek, Donna; Rohan, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Oral feeding readiness is a complex concept. More evidence is needed on how to approach beginning oral feedings in premature hospitalized infants. This article provides a review of literature related to oral feeding readiness in the premature infant and strategies for promoting safe and efficient progression to full oral intake. Oral feeding readiness assessment tools, clinical pathways, and feeding advancement protocols have been developed to assist with oral feeding initiation and progression. Recognition and support of oral feeding readiness may decrease length of hospital stay and have a positive impact on reducing healthcare costs. Supporting effective cue-based oral feeding through use of rigorous assessment or evidence-based care guidelines can also optimize the hospital experience for infants and caregivers, which, in turn, can promote attachment and parent satisfaction.

  1. [Chronic pain patients' readiness to change after multimodal treatment. Short- and long-term effects].

    PubMed

    Küchler, A; Sabatowski, R; Kaiser, U

    2012-12-01

    , significant short- and long-term improvements were evident. For single outcome parameters, positive associations with the stages of readiness to change were found. The results indicate that the outpatient pain management program favorably affects patients' motivation and general quality of life. This effect also seems to be stable over a long period of time. As not all patients show an improvement in stage of readiness to change, the question arises whether the reason of the differences might lie within the patients' and whether specific interventions for motivation might be useful to enhance motivation before starting treatment.

  2. Preparing Global-Ready Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Lotta; Brown, Jennifer S.

    2017-01-01

    To produce global-ready students who can thrive and compete in an interconnected world, we must prepare global-ready teachers. This article shares how one teacher preparation program focuses on literacy, technology, and globalization, while offering relevant K-12 applications.

  3. Keeping Naval Guns Ready

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    Keeping Naval Guns Ready David L. Rogers Rogers is the Deputy Department Head, Systems Integration Department, Naval Surface Warfare Center Indian...maritime routes and the global economy. This protection depends on keeping these forward naval ships ready, par- ticularly their guns and ammunition...the weapons of choice for counter- ing a multitude of threats. That gun readiness is assured with responsive technical support. It is done fast, and

  4. [Food fortified with vitamins: the history and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Kodentsova, V M; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Sokol'nikov, A A

    2012-01-01

    The recommended daily intakes of vitamins in different countries have been compared. The data on consumption of vitamins and vitamin status are submitted. It is noted that since 2008 the values of recommended daily intakes of vitamin-antioxidants C and E and folate in Russia as in other countries has been significantly increased. The recommended vitamin D consumption in Russia has been increased 2-3-fold as in most European countries and USA, while vitamin A recommended intake, on the contrary, has been reduced by 10%. Monitoring of vitamin status of various groups of adult population (by vitamin serum blood level evaluation) during the period since 2003 to 2011 has shown that that since 2003 deficiency of B group vitamins takes place in 10-47% of surveyed, vitamin D insufficiency was detected in 20.7% of adults. Thus the deficiency of these micronutrients has been determined much more often than the deficit of vitamins E and C (2.8-11%). The key causes of vitamin deficiency among the population in current conditions have been discussed. The main ways of increasing of diet vitamin value by means of fortified foods usage or/and vitamin and mineral complexes intake have been considered. The effective and safe levels of food enrichment have been examined. Harmonized with the EU documents and Codex Alimentarius acting sanitary rules and regulations which govern the enrichment of food products of mass consumption with vitamins and minerals have been commented upon. The history of food enrichment (fortification) with vitamins and salt iodization in our country and abroad has been described. Basing on the experience of several countries in which the mandatory enrichment of regularly consumed food products (flour, breakfast cereals) had compensated inadequate intake of vitamin D, group B, iodine and iron to a large extent, the conclusion on the feasibility and health benefits of fortified foods intake has been done.

  5. Contribution entrepreneurial knowledge, skills competence, and self-efficacy to student entrepreneurship readiness of multimedia expertise at vocational high school in Malang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islami, Pio Arfianova Ftirizky; Elmunsyah, Hakkun; Muladi

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to determine the contribution of entrepreneurship knowledge, skills competence, and self-efficacy to entrepreneurship readiness. The design used in this research using a quantitative approach and knowledge test techniques using regression analysis. The number of samples in this study as many as 181 students. The results showed that there was a significant contribution between entrepreneurship knowledge to entrepreneurship readiness. There is also a significant contribution between the skills competence to entrepreneurship readiness and there is a significant contribution between self-efficacy to entrepreneurship readiness. Futhermore, there is a significant contribution simultaneously between entrepreneurship knowledge, skill competence; self-efficacy to entrepreneurship readiness.

  6. 9 CFR 381.169 - Ready-to-cook poultry products to which solutions are added.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ready-to-cook poultry products to which solutions are added. 381.169 Section 381.169 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... Definitions and Standards of Identity or Composition § 381.169 Ready-to-cook poultry products to which...

  7. Spread spectrum mobile communication experiment using ETS-V satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikegami, Tetsushi; Suzuki, Ryutaro; Kadowaki, Naoto; Taira, Shinichi; Sato, Nobuyasu

    1990-01-01

    The spread spectrum technique is attractive for application to mobile satellite communications, because of its random access capability, immunity to inter-system interference, and robustness to overloading. A novel direct sequence spread spectrum communication equipment is developed for land mobile satellite applications. The equipment is developed based on a matched filter technique to improve the initial acquisition performance. The data rate is 2.4 kilobits per sec. and the PN clock rate is 2.4552 mega-Hz. This equipment also has a function of measuring the multipath delay profile of land mobile satellite channel, making use of a correlation property of a PN code. This paper gives an outline of the equipment and the field test results with ETS-V satellite.

  8. Strategies to Build Readiness in Community Mobilization Efforts for Implementation in a Multi-Year Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative.

    PubMed

    Bhuiya, Nazmim; House, L Duane; Desmarais, Jeffrey; Fletcher, Erica; Conlin, Maeve; Perez-McAdoo, Sarah; Waggett, Jessica; Tendulkar, Shalini A

    2017-03-01

    This paper describes an assessment of community readiness to implement a community-wide teen pregnancy prevention initiative, Youth First, and presents strategies used to enhance this readiness as informed by the assessment. Twenty-five community stakeholder interviews were conducted to assess four domains of readiness: (1) attitudes, perception, and knowledge of teen pregnancy; (2) perceived level of readiness; (3) resources, existing and current efforts; and (4) leadership. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed to identify key themes. Stakeholders acknowledged teen pregnancy as an issue but lacked contextual information. They also perceived the community as ready to address the issue and recognized some organizations already championing efforts. However, many key players were not involved, and ongoing data collection to assess teen pregnancy and prevention efforts was limited. Though many stakeholders were ready to engage in teen pregnancy prevention efforts, they required additional information and training to appropriately address the issue. In response to the assessment findings, several strategies were applied to address readiness and build Youth First partners' capacity to implement the community-wide initiative. Thus, to successfully implement community-wide prevention efforts, it is valuable to assess the level of community readiness to address health issues. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Characteristics and nutritional value of whole wheat cracker fortified with tuna bone bio-calcium powder.

    PubMed

    Benjakul, Soottawat; Karnjanapratum, Supatra

    2018-09-01

    Whole wheat cracker fortified with tuna bone bio-calcium (Bio-Ca) powder was developed as health-promoting food rich in calcium. Fortification with different levels of Bi-Ca, over the range of 0-50% of whole wheat flour (w/w) on quality and sensory properties of crackers, were determined. Color, thickness, weight and textural properties of crackers varied with the different levels of Bio-Ca powder added, but it was found that up to 30% could be added without detrimental effect on sensory properties. Scanning electron microscopic images showed that the developed crackers were less porous and had a denser structure, compared to the control. Based on scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic (SEM-EDX), the cracker containing Bio-Ca powder had calcium and phosphorous distribution with higher intensity, compared to the control. The fortified crackers were rich in calcium and phosphorous with higher protein content but lower fat, carbohydrate, cholesterol and energy value, compared to the control. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Understanding Treatment Readiness in Recently Assessed, Pre-Treatment Substance Abusers

    PubMed Central

    Rapp, Richard C.; Xu, Jiangmin; Carr, Carey A.; Timothy Lane, D.; Redko, Cristina; Wang, Jichuan; Carlson, Robert G.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to more fully understand readiness for treatment in a pre-treatment sample of 446 substance abusers. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to: (1) examine the relationships between readiness factors identified in the Pre-Treatment Readiness Scale; and (2) identify the effects of predisposing, illness, and inhibiting determinants on the factors. As with in-treatment samples, Problem Recognition was found to influence Treatment Readiness, although through a different intervening factor, Desire for Change rather than Desire for Help. A fourth factor, Treatment Reluctance, was also influenced by the Desire for Change factor. Fixed characteristics such as age and gender had minimal influences on readiness factors, as did inhibiting characteristics that reflected recent functioning. Illness characteristics including drug severity and perceived treatment barriers had a more robust influence on readiness factors. This study provides an increased understanding of readiness for treatment among pre-treatment substance abusers and also supported the construct validity of the Pre-Treatment Readiness Scale. PMID:19274847

  11. Antimicrobial resistance in diarrheagenic Escherichia coli from ready-to-eat foods.

    PubMed

    Lima, Cíntia Matos; Souza, Ingrid Evelyn Gomes Lima; Dos Santos Alves, Taila; Leite, Clícia Capibaribe; Evangelista-Barreto, Norma Suely; de Castro Almeida, Rogeria Comastri

    2017-10-01

    Certain subgroups of Escherichia coli have congenital or acquired virulence properties that allow them to cause a wide spectrum of disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of diarrheagenic E. coli strains in ready-to-eat (RTE) foods produced in institutional, commercial and hotel restaurants in Salvador, Brazil. The presence of virulent isolates and antimicrobial resistance were evaluated. Four hundred forty-six samples were collected and grouped into cereals and vegetables, meat-based preparations, cooked salads, raw salads, garnishes, soups and sauces, desserts and juices. E. coli were detected using the most probable number method, the presence of virulence factors in isolates was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, and antibiotic resistance was analyzed using the disc diffusion method. In total, 15 isolates (3.1%) of E. coli were recovered; raw salads had the highest detection rate, 1.4%, followed by cooked salads, 0.8%; meat-based preparations, 0.4%; and cereals and vegetables, 0.4%. PCR assays showed that none of the isolates had the virulence genes cnf1, cnf2, eae , sta, lt1, stx1, stx2 or cdtB . The isolates showed resistance to nine antibiotics of the 15 tested, and the highest levels of resistance were found for sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, tetracycline, ampicillin, and chloramphenicol (13.3% of isolates for each antibiotic). One isolate from cooked salad had plasmid-mediated multidrug resistance to tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin and chloramphenicol. These results suggest that RTE foods, especially raw salads, can be reservoirs of E. coli and facilitate the spread of antibiotic resistance genes to the gastrointestinal microbiota of humans.

  12. 33 CFR 150.531 - How many fire pumps must be kept ready for use at all times?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How many fire pumps must be kept ready for use at all times? 150.531 Section 150.531 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Specialty Equipment Miscellaneous Operations § 150.531 How many fire pumps must be kept ready for use at all...

  13. Assessment of Psychological Readiness Situation of Students Starting to Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halmatov, Medera

    2018-01-01

    There are important responsibilities expected from primary school students. The most important of these are the learning of reading, writing and arithmetic. There is a "psychological readiness" aspect besides reading, writing and arithmetic in order to be ready for the school. In this study, among the first-grade students, those who were…

  14. Fractional sodium excretion, urinary osmolality and specific gravity in preterm infants fed with fortified donor human milk.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Atsuko; Rugolo, Ligia M S S; Miranda, Antero F M; Trindade, Cleide E P

    2006-01-01

    This research was performed with the objective of investigating the renal effects on premature newborn infants of fortifying banked donor human milk. Clinical intervention trial, of the before-and-after type, involving 28 premature newborn infants split into two groups by postconceptional age at the start of the study: GI < 34 weeks (n = 14) and GII >or= 34 weeks (n = 14), and assessed at three sample points: S1, on unfortified donor human milk, S2, after 3 days, and S3, after 10-13 days on fortified donor human milk. Nutrient intake, weight gain, fractional sodium excretion, urinary osmolality and specific density were compared with two-way ANOVA for repeated measures. Fluids, energy and sodium intakes were similar for both groups, and weight gain was satisfactory. Among the preterms with < 34 weeks postconceptional age, serum sodium was lower at the end of the study and the fractional sodium excretion was elevated at the start and at the end of the study (S1 = 2.11+/-1.05; S2 = 1.25+/-0.64; S3 = 1.62+/-0.88), with a significant difference in relation to GII (S1 = 1.34+/-0.94; S2 = 0.90+/-0.54; S3 = 0.91+/-0.82). Osmolality and urinary specific density were normal, with no differences between groups or collection dates. No adverse effects on the renal function of these preterms were detected as a result of being fed fortified donor human milk.

  15. Validity of the Bracken School Readiness Assessment for Predicting First Grade Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panter, Janet E.; Bracken, Bruce A.

    2009-01-01

    The Bracken School Readiness Assessment (BSRA) was administered to all kindergarten students enrolled in two rural elementary schools in the fall of 2004. Eight months later, the reading portion of the Metropolitan Readiness Tests, 6th Edition (MRT-6) was administered. Teachers were asked to indicate whether they had concerns about each student's…

  16. Optimizing Hybrid Spreading in Metapopulations

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Changwang; Zhou, Shi; Miller, Joel C.; Cox, Ingemar J.; Chain, Benjamin M.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemic spreading phenomena are ubiquitous in nature and society. Examples include the spreading of diseases, information, and computer viruses. Epidemics can spread by local spreading, where infected nodes can only infect a limited set of direct target nodes and global spreading, where an infected node can infect every other node. In reality, many epidemics spread using a hybrid mixture of both types of spreading. In this study we develop a theoretical framework for studying hybrid epidemics, and examine the optimum balance between spreading mechanisms in terms of achieving the maximum outbreak size. We show the existence of critically hybrid epidemics where neither spreading mechanism alone can cause a noticeable spread but a combination of the two spreading mechanisms would produce an enormous outbreak. Our results provide new strategies for maximising beneficial epidemics and estimating the worst outcome of damaging hybrid epidemics. PMID:25923411

  17. Optimizing hybrid spreading in metapopulations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Changwang; Zhou, Shi; Miller, Joel C; Cox, Ingemar J; Chain, Benjamin M

    2015-04-29

    Epidemic spreading phenomena are ubiquitous in nature and society. Examples include the spreading of diseases, information, and computer viruses. Epidemics can spread by local spreading, where infected nodes can only infect a limited set of direct target nodes and global spreading, where an infected node can infect every other node. In reality, many epidemics spread using a hybrid mixture of both types of spreading. In this study we develop a theoretical framework for studying hybrid epidemics, and examine the optimum balance between spreading mechanisms in terms of achieving the maximum outbreak size. We show the existence of critically hybrid epidemics where neither spreading mechanism alone can cause a noticeable spread but a combination of the two spreading mechanisms would produce an enormous outbreak. Our results provide new strategies for maximising beneficial epidemics and estimating the worst outcome of damaging hybrid epidemics.

  18. The impact of training interventions on organizational readiness to support innovations in juvenile justice offices.

    PubMed

    Taxman, Faye S; Henderson, Craig; Young, Doug; Farrell, Jill

    2014-03-01

    Clinical trials on technology transfer models are rare, even with the interest in advancing the uptake of evidence-based practices in social service agencies. This article presents the results from a trial examining different transfer strategies to assist juvenile justice caseworkers in using screening, assessment, and case planning practices to address mental health and substance use needs. Study findings examine factors that promote organizational readiness. A clinical trial was conducted examining the impact of three post-training strategies: an external coach to build the social network of the justice office (build social climate), an external coach to educate staff (build skills and knowledge), and a control condition consisting of traditional management directives (directives to staff of agency priorities). All groups were exposed to a 1 day refresher course in motivational interviewing. The social network and skill building groups also attended an intensive 3-day training followed by three on-site booster sessions over a 12 month period of time. Twelve juvenile justice offices (with their 231 juvenile justice staff) were assigned to one of three conditions. The study examined the impact of different transfer conditions on organizational readiness to implement the innovation of screening, assessment, and referral strategies. External coaching targeting the social climate of the justice office to support innovations improved organizational readiness to change, regardless of office size. Coaching that targeted either the social climate or staff knowledge and skills both improved organizational readiness for change compared to management directives, but social climate coaching resulted in greater improvements in receptivity to change. No individual level features of case workers (e.g., age, gender, years of experience) significantly predicted organizational readiness to change. Unexpectedly, the skill and knowledge building approach did not perform any better

  19. Logic system aids in evaluation of project readiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maris, S. J.; Obrien, T. J.

    1966-01-01

    Measurement Operational Readiness Requirements /MORR/ assignments logic is used for determining the readiness of a complex project to go forward as planned. The system used logic network which assigns qualities to all important criteria in a project and establishes a logical sequence of measurements to determine what the conditions are.

  20. Process contributions to the intermodel spread in amplified Arctic warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeke, R.; Taylor, P. C.

    2016-12-01

    The Arctic is warming at a rate more than twice the global average. This robust climate system response to an external forcing is referred to as Arctic Amplification (AA). While Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) climate models simulate AA, the largest intermodel spread in projected warming is also found in the Arctic. Quantifying the amount of polar warming relative to global warming influences how society adapts to climate change; a 2°C increase in global mean temperature would result in a polar warming between 4-8°C according to the intermodel spread in CMIP5 simulations. A trove of previous work has considered AA diagnostically using variations in the surface energy budget to attribute the intermodel spread in AA to an assortment of feedbacks—surface albedo, cloud, surface turbulent flux, and atmospheric and oceanic energy transport. We consider a systems-thinking approach treating AA as a process that evolves over time. We hypothesize that two specific components of the AA process are most important and influence the intermodel spread. (1) The inability of the Arctic system to effectively remove excess heat sourced from natural variability. The change in the efficiency of the `Arctic air conditioner' is thought to be due to thinner and less extensive sea ice and the resulting ice albedo feedback. (2) The process through which energy is stored in the ocean and exchanged with the atmosphere within the context of the sea ice annual cycle is also important. This study uses CMIP5 simulations from the historical and RCP8.5 (Representative Concentration Pathway; an emission scenario with forcing increasing to 8.5 W m-2 by 2100) to analyze how the AA process operates in present and future climate. The intermodel spread in these processes and the influence on the spread in AA are discussed. This approach identifies models that more realistically simulate the AA process and will aid in narrowing intermodel spread in Arctic surface temperature

  1. Smoking cessation: barriers to success and readiness to change.

    PubMed

    Guirguis, Alexander B; Ray, Shaunta M; Zingone, Michelle M; Airee, Anita; Franks, Andrea S; Keenum, Amy J

    2010-10-01

    Smoking cessation interventions should be individualized based on patient history and readiness for change. The objective of this study was to assess stages of change and key components of smoking and cessation history among a sample of primary care patients. A telephone survey of current or recent smokers identified smoking status, stage of change, motivation, concerns, relapse history, pharmacotherapy, and social support. Of 150 participants, most were within precontemplation (22.7 percent) or contemplation (44.0 percent) stages of change; 14.0 percent were in preparation, 4.7 percent in action, and 14.7 percent in maintenance. The primary motivation for quitting was to improve general health (42.3 percent). The most common cessation-related concerns were: breaking the habit, stress, and weight gain. Pharmacotherapy was discontinued due to adverse events in 31.5 percent of users. Intratreatment social support was reported by 17.5 percent. The most common reasons for relapse were falling back into the habit (36 percent), stressful situations (27 percent), and being around other smokers (25 percent). Targeted interventions are needed for patients in either precontemplation or contemplation stages. Counseling should focus on helping patients resolve barriers to cessation and reasons for relapse, particularly stress and weight management. Pharmacotherapy should be utilized when patients are ready to quit. Increased intratreatment social support and counseling appear warranted to support behavior change and appropriate medication use.

  2. The Developmental Approach to School Readiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogletree, Earl J.

    In the United States, a psychometric psychology dominates the thinking of educators. For traditional, political, and social reasons, developmental psychology rarely informs educational practices. This is the case even though studies show that the inducing of cognitive learning before a child is ready will reduce the child's learning potential and…

  3. Analysis of Initial Cell Spreading Using Mechanistic Contact Formulations for a Deformable Cell Model

    PubMed Central

    Odenthal, Tim; Smeets, Bart; Van Liedekerke, Paul; Tijskens, Engelbert; Van Oosterwyck, Hans; Ramon, Herman

    2013-01-01

    Adhesion governs to a large extent the mechanical interaction between a cell and its microenvironment. As initial cell spreading is purely adhesion driven, understanding this phenomenon leads to profound insight in both cell adhesion and cell-substrate interaction. It has been found that across a wide variety of cell types, initial spreading behavior universally follows the same power laws. The simplest cell type providing this scaling of the radius of the spreading area with time are modified red blood cells (RBCs), whose elastic responses are well characterized. Using a mechanistic description of the contact interaction between a cell and its substrate in combination with a deformable RBC model, we are now able to investigate in detail the mechanisms behind this universal power law. The presented model suggests that the initial slope of the spreading curve with time results from a purely geometrical effect facilitated mainly by dissipation upon contact. Later on, the spreading rate decreases due to increasing tension and dissipation in the cell's cortex as the cell spreads more and more. To reproduce this observed initial spreading, no irreversible deformations are required. Since the model created in this effort is extensible to more complex cell types and can cope with arbitrarily shaped, smooth mechanical microenvironments of the cells, it can be useful for a wide range of investigations where forces at the cell boundary play a decisive role. PMID:24146605

  4. Are We Ready to Recommend a College Readiness Index? A Reply to Gaertner and McClarty (2015)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazowski, Rory A.; Barron, Kenneth E.; Kosovich, Jeff J.; Hulleman, Chris S.

    2016-01-01

    In an article published in "Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice," Gaertner and McClarty (2015) discuss a college readiness index based, in part, on nonacademic or noncognitive factors measured in middle school. Such an index is laudable as it incorporates important constructs beyond academic achievement measures that may be…

  5. Designing a supply chain of ready-mix concrete using Voronoi diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozniewski, E.; Orlowski, M.; Orlowski, Z.

    2017-10-01

    Voronoi diagrams are used to solve scientific and practical problems in many fields. In this paper Voronoi diagrams have been applied to logistic problems in construction, more specifically in the design of the ready-mix concrete supply chain. Apart from the Voronoi diagram, the so-called time-distance circle (circle of range), which in metric space terminology is simply a sphere, appears useful. It was introduced to solve the problem of supplying concrete-related goods.

  6. Dry cereals fortified with electrolytic iron or ferrous fumarate are equally effective in breast-fed infants.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Ekhard E; Fomon, Samuel J; Nelson, Steven E; Jeter, Janice M; Theuer, Richard C

    2011-02-01

    Precooked, instant (dry) infant cereals in the US are fortified with electrolytic iron, a source of low reactivity and suspected low bioavailability. Iron from ferrous fumarate is presumed to be more available. In this study, we compared a dry infant rice cereal (Cereal L) fortified with electrolytic iron (54.5 mg iron/100 g cereal) to a similar cereal (Cereal M) fortified with ferrous fumarate (52.2 mg Fe/100 g) for efficacy in maintaining iron status and preventing iron deficiency (ID) in breast-fed infants. Ascorbic acid was included in both cereals. In this prospective, randomized double-blind trial, exclusively breast-fed infants were enrolled at 1 mo and iron status was determined periodically. At 4 mo, 3 infants had ID anemia and were excluded. Ninety-five infants were randomized at 4 mo, and 69 (36 Cereal L, 33 Cereal M) completed the intervention at 9 mo. From 4 to 9 mo, they consumed daily one of the study cereals. With each cereal, 2 infants had mild ID, a prevalence of 4.2%, but no infant developed ID anemia. There were no differences in iron status between study groups. Iron intake from the study cereals was (mean ± SD) 1.21 ± 0.31 mg⋅kg(-1)⋅d(-1) from Cereal L and 1.07 ± 0.40 mg⋅kg(-1)⋅d(-1) from Cereal M. Eleven infants had low birth iron endowment (plasma ferritin < 55 μg/L at 2 mo) and 54% of these infants had ID with or without anemia by 4 mo. We conclude that electrolytic iron and ferrous fumarate were equally efficacious as fortificants of this infant cereal.

  7. Strategic leadership will be essential for dietitian eHealth readiness: A qualitative study exploring dietitian perspectives of eHealth readiness.

    PubMed

    Maunder, Kirsty; Walton, Karen; Williams, Peter; Ferguson, Maree; Beck, Eleanor

    2018-05-16

    To explore dietitians' perspectives on the eHealth readiness of Australian dietitians, and to identify strategies to improve eHealth readiness of the profession. Dietitians who met the criteria for nutrition informatics experts participated in semi-structured interviews between June 2016 and March 2017. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis using coding was undertaken until consensus was reached by the researchers regarding key themes, topics and exemplar quotes. Interviews with 10 nutrition informatics experts revealed 25 discussion topics grouped into four main themes: benefits of eHealth for dietitians; risks of dietitians not being involved in eHealth; dietitians are not ready for eHealth; and strategies to improve eHealth readiness. The strategies identified for improving eHealth readiness included: collaboration and representation, education, offering of incentives and mentoring, as well as development of a national strategy, organisational leaders, nutrition informatics champions and a supportive environment. These findings suggest that dietitians may not be ready for eHealth. Strategic leadership and the actioning of other identified strategies will be imperative to preparing dietitians for eHealth to ensure the profession can practice effectively in the digital age, optimise nutrition care and support research for eHealth. If dietitians do not engage in eHealth, others may take their place, or dietitians may be forced to use eHealth in ways that are not the most effective for practice or maximising patient outcomes. © 2018 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  8. The Life Course Implications of Ready to Use Therapeutic Food for Children in Low-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Bazzano, Alessandra N.; Potts, Kaitlin S.; Bazzano, Lydia A.; Mason, John B.

    2017-01-01

    The development of ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) for the treatment of uncomplicated cases of severe acute malnutrition in young children from 6 months to 5 years old has greatly improved survival through the ability to treat large numbers of malnourished children in the community setting rather than at health facilities during emergencies. This success has led to a surge in demand for RUTF in low income countries that are frequently food insecure due to environmental factors such as cyclical drought. Worldwide production capacity for the supply of RUTF has increased dramatically through the expansion and development of new manufacturing facilities in both low and high income countries, and new business ventures dedicated to ready-to-use foods have emerged not only for emergencies, but increasingly, for supplementing caloric intake of pregnant women and young children not experiencing acute undernutrition. Due to the lack of evidence on the long term health impact these products may have, in the midst of global nutrition transitions toward obesity and metabolic dysfunction, the increased use of manufactured, commercial products for treatment and prevention of undernutrition is of great concern. Using a framework built on the life course health development perspective, the current research presents several drawbacks and limitations of RUTF for nutrition of mothers and young children, especially in non-emergency situations. Recommendations follow for potential strategies to limit the use of these products to the treatment of acute undernutrition only, study the longer term health impacts of RUTF, prevent conflict of interests arising for social enterprises, and where possible, ensure that whole foods are supported for life-long health and nutrition, as well as environmental sustainability. PMID:28398257

  9. The Life Course Implications of Ready to Use Therapeutic Food for Children in Low-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Bazzano, Alessandra N; Potts, Kaitlin S; Bazzano, Lydia A; Mason, John B

    2017-04-11

    The development of ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) for the treatment of uncomplicated cases of severe acute malnutrition in young children from 6 months to 5 years old has greatly improved survival through the ability to treat large numbers of malnourished children in the community setting rather than at health facilities during emergencies. This success has led to a surge in demand for RUTF in low income countries that are frequently food insecure due to environmental factors such as cyclical drought. Worldwide production capacity for the supply of RUTF has increased dramatically through the expansion and development of new manufacturing facilities in both low and high income countries, and new business ventures dedicated to ready-to-use foods have emerged not only for emergencies, but increasingly, for supplementing caloric intake of pregnant women and young children not experiencing acute undernutrition. Due to the lack of evidence on the long term health impact these products may have, in the midst of global nutrition transitions toward obesity and metabolic dysfunction, the increased use of manufactured, commercial products for treatment and prevention of undernutrition is of great concern. Using a framework built on the life course health development perspective, the current research presents several drawbacks and limitations of RUTF for nutrition of mothers and young children, especially in non-emergency situations. Recommendations follow for potential strategies to limit the use of these products to the treatment of acute undernutrition only, study the longer term health impacts of RUTF, prevent conflict of interests arising for social enterprises, and where possible, ensure that whole foods are supported for life-long health and nutrition, as well as environmental sustainability.

  10. Measuring School Readiness: Conceptual and Practical Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Kyle L.

    2006-01-01

    Recent interest and investment in early childhood education as a means of promoting children's school readiness has prompted the need for clear definitions of school readiness. Traditionally school readiness has been viewed within a maturationist frame, based on a chronological set-point, which led to the emergence of readiness testing. Following…

  11. Using Model Point Spread Functions to Identifying Binary Brown Dwarf Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matt, Kyle; Stephens, Denise C.; Lunsford, Leanne T.

    2017-01-01

    A Brown Dwarf (BD) is a celestial object that is not massive enough to undergo hydrogen fusion in its core. BDs can form in pairs called binaries. Due to the great distances between Earth and these BDs, they act as point sources of light and the angular separation between binary BDs can be small enough to appear as a single, unresolved object in images, according to Rayleigh Criterion. It is not currently possible to resolve some of these objects into separate light sources. Stephens and Noll (2006) developed a method that used model point spread functions (PSFs) to identify binary Trans-Neptunian Objects, we will use this method to identify binary BD systems in the Hubble Space Telescope archive. This method works by comparing model PSFs of single and binary sources to the observed PSFs. We also use a method to compare model spectral data for single and binary fits to determine the best parameter values for each component of the system. We describe these methods, its challenges and other possible uses in this poster.

  12. Assessing the School Readiness of Children in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Hassan, Suha M; Lansford, Jennifer E

    2009-01-01

    In 2003, Jordan initiated a period of education reform, one component of which was an effort to improve readiness for first grade by opening public kindergartens. This study had three goals: (a) To describe the school readiness of Jordanian children; (b) To compare the first grade readiness of children who had and had not attended kindergarten; and (c) To compare the 2004 and 2007 readiness of children in areas that instituted kindergartens during that time period. Trained observers directly assessed 4,681 children's readiness, and teachers reported on children's social skills and behavioral readiness. At least 80% of children were rated as being almost or fully ready for first grade in each domain assessed. Children who had attended kindergarten were more ready for first grade than were children who had not attended kindergarten. In communities with newly established kindergartens, children were more ready for first grade in 2007 than in 2004.

  13. Low-cost, ready-to-use therapeutic foods can be designed using locally available commodities with the aid of linear programming.

    PubMed

    Dibari, Filippo; Diop, El Hadji I; Collins, Steven; Seal, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    According to the United Nations (UN), 25 million children <5 y of age are currently affected by severe acute malnutrition and need to be treated using special nutritional products such as ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTF). Improved formulations are in demand, but a standardized approach for RUTF design has not yet been described. A method relying on linear programming (LP) analysis was developed and piloted in the design of a RUTF prototype for the treatment of wasting in East African children and adults. The LP objective function and decision variables consisted of the lowest formulation price and the weights of the chosen commodities (soy, sorghum, maize, oil, and sugar), respectively. The LP constraints were based on current UN recommendations for the macronutrient content of therapeutic food and included palatability, texture, and maximum food ingredient weight criteria. Nonlinear constraints for nutrient ratios were converted to linear equations to allow their use in LP. The formulation was considered accurate if laboratory results confirmed an energy density difference <10% and a protein or lipid difference <5 g · 100 g(-1) compared to the LP formulation estimates. With this test prototype, the differences were 7%, and 2.3 and -1.0 g · 100 g(-1), respectively, and the formulation accuracy was considered good. LP can contribute to the design of ready-to-use foods (therapeutic, supplementary, or complementary), targeting different forms of malnutrition, while using commodities that are cheaper, regionally available, and meet local cultural preferences. However, as with all prototype feeding products for medical use, composition analysis, safety, acceptability, and clinical effectiveness trials must be conducted to validate the formulation.

  14. Towards Data-Driven Simulations of Wildfire Spread using Ensemble-based Data Assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochoux, M. C.; Bart, J.; Ricci, S. M.; Cuenot, B.; Trouvé, A.; Duchaine, F.; Morel, T.

    2012-12-01

    Real-time predictions of a propagating wildfire remain a challenging task because the problem involves both multi-physics and multi-scales. The propagation speed of wildfires, also called the rate of spread (ROS), is indeed determined by complex interactions between pyrolysis, combustion and flow dynamics, atmospheric dynamics occurring at vegetation, topographical and meteorological scales. Current operational fire spread models are mainly based on a semi-empirical parameterization of the ROS in terms of vegetation, topographical and meteorological properties. For the fire spread simulation to be predictive and compatible with operational applications, the uncertainty on the ROS model should be reduced. As recent progress made in remote sensing technology provides new ways to monitor the fire front position, a promising approach to overcome the difficulties found in wildfire spread simulations is to integrate fire modeling and fire sensing technologies using data assimilation (DA). For this purpose we have developed a prototype data-driven wildfire spread simulator in order to provide optimal estimates of poorly known model parameters [*]. The data-driven simulation capability is adapted for more realistic wildfire spread : it considers a regional-scale fire spread model that is informed by observations of the fire front location. An Ensemble Kalman Filter algorithm (EnKF) based on a parallel computing platform (OpenPALM) was implemented in order to perform a multi-parameter sequential estimation where wind magnitude and direction are in addition to vegetation properties (see attached figure). The EnKF algorithm shows its good ability to track a small-scale grassland fire experiment and ensures a good accounting for the sensitivity of the simulation outcomes to the control parameters. As a conclusion, it was shown that data assimilation is a promising approach to more accurately forecast time-varying wildfire spread conditions as new airborne-like observations of

  15. Application of single-vial ready-for-use formulation of 111In- or 177Lu-labelled somatostatin analogs.

    PubMed

    de Blois, Erik; Chan, Ho Sze; de Zanger, Rory; Konijnenberg, Mark; Breeman, Wouter A P

    2014-02-01

    For the sake of safety it would be desirable to store and transport the ready-for-use liquid formulation (diagnostics and therapeutics) of radiolabelled peptides. The use of ethanol, in combination with a mixture of gentisic- and ascorbic acid, has superior effects on stabilizing radiolabelled somatostatin analogs. As a consequence, (111)In- and (177)Lu-labelled somatostatin analogs can be stored and transported in a single-vial ready-for-use liquid formulation up to 7 days after radiolabelling. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Neuroscience Perspectives on Disparities in School Readiness and Cognitive Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Kimberly G.; Tottenham, Nim; Casey, B. J.

    2005-01-01

    This article allows readers to look at racial and ethnic disparities in school readiness from a neuroscience perspective. Although researchers have traditionally measured gaps in school readiness using broad achievement tests, they can now assess readiness in terms of more specific brain-based cognitive functions. Three neurocognitive…

  17. College Readiness for All?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Frederick M.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, American education has enthusiastically adopted the mantra of "college readiness for all." What's not to like about that? Frederick Hess says that although he considers college readiness an admirable goal, he has serious reservations about advocates, funders, and policymakers imposing this norm across all schools. His…

  18. Spread-spectrum multiple access using wideband noncoherent MFSK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ha, Tri T.; Pratt, Timothy; Maggenti, Mark A.

    1987-01-01

    Two spread-spectrum multiple access systems which use wideband M-ary frequency shift keying (FSK) (MFSK) as the primary modulation are presented. A bit error rate performance analysis is presented and system throughput is calculated for sample C band and Ku band satellite systems. Sample link analyses are included to illustrate power and adjacent satellite interference considerations in practical multiple access systems.

  19. Physical properties of a frozen yogurt fortified with a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objectives of this study were to develop and evaluate a frozen yogurt (FY) fortified with a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil (NPRBO). A nano-emulsion with a droplet size range of 150-300 nm was produced by sonication followed by ultra-shear homogenization. The nano-emulsion was mi...

  20. Ready for All Destinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boykin, Wesley; Dougherty, Chrys; Lummus-Robinson, Mary

    2010-01-01

    The intensifying attention to college and career readiness of late poses many challenges for public education, but it also presents opportunities for innovative changes in the quality and type of education provided to students. To take full advantage, educators must have a clear answer to this question: What does college and career readiness mean…

  1. Estimation of kinetic parameters of anthocyanins and color degradation in vitamin C fortified cranberry juice during storage.

    PubMed

    Roidoung, Sunisa; Dolan, Kirk D; Siddiq, Muhammad

    2017-04-01

    Color degradation in cranberry juice during storage is the most common consumer complaint. To enhance nutritional quality, juice is typically fortified with vitamin C. This study determined effect of gallic acid, a natural antioxidant, for the preservation of anthocyanins (ACYs) and color, and estimated kinetics of ACYs and color degradation. Juice, fortified with 40-80mg/100mL vitamin C and 0-320mg/100mL gallic acid, was pasteurized at 85°C for 1min and stored at 23°C for 16days. Total monomeric anthocyanins and red color intensity were evaluated spectrophotometrically and data were used to determine degradation rate constants (k values) and order of reaction (n) of ACYs and color. Due to high correlation, k and n could not be estimated simultaneously. To overcome this difficulty, both n and k were held at different constant values in separate analyses to allow accurate estimation of each. Parameters n and k were modeled empirically as functions of vitamin C, and of vitamin C and gallic acid, respectively. Reaction order n ranged from 1.2 to 4.4, and decreased with increasing vitamin C concentration. The final model offers an effective tool that could be used for predicting ACYs and color retention in cranberry juice during storage. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Multidimensional model to assess the readiness of Saudi Arabia to implement evidence based child maltreatment prevention programs at a large scale.

    PubMed

    Almuneef, Maha A; Qayad, Mohamed; Noor, Ismail K; Al-Eissa, Majid A; Albuhairan, Fadia S; Inam, Sarah; Mikton, Christopher

    2014-03-01

    There has been increased awareness of child maltreatment in Saudi Arabia recently. This study assessed the readiness for implementing large-scale evidence-based child maltreatment prevention programs in Saudi Arabia. Key informants, who were key decision makers and senior managers in the field of child maltreatment, were invited to participate in the study. A multidimensional tool, developed by WHO and collaborators from several middle and low income countries, was used to assess 10 dimensions of readiness. A group of experts also gave an objective assessment of the 10 dimensions and key informants' and experts' scores were compared. On a scale of 100, the key informants gave a readiness score of 43% for Saudi Arabia to implement large-scale, evidence-based CM prevention programs, and experts gave an overall readiness score of 40%. Both the key informants and experts agreed that 4 of the dimensions (attitudes toward child maltreatment prevention, institutional links and resources, material resources, and human and technical resources) had low readiness scores (<5) each and three dimensions (knowledge of child maltreatment prevention, scientific data on child maltreatment prevention, and will to address child maltreatment problem) had high readiness scores (≥5) each. There was significant disagreement between key informants and experts on the remaining 3 dimensions. Overall, Saudi Arabia has a moderate/fair readiness to implement large-scale child maltreatment prevention programs. Capacity building; strengthening of material resources; and improving institutional links, collaborations, and attitudes toward the child maltreatment problem are required to improve the country's readiness to implement such programs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Readiness of Wait-Listed Black Patients to Pursue Live Donor Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigue, James R.; Paek, Matthew J.; Egbuna, Ogo; Waterman, Amy D.; Schold, Jesse D.; Pavlakis, Martha; Mandelbrot, Didier A.

    2015-01-01

    Context For adults with end-stage kidney disease, live donor kidney transplantation (LDKT) yields superior outcomes over long-term dialysis and deceased donor kidney transplantation. However, blacks receive LDKT at a much lower rate than adults of any other race or ethnicity. Objective To examine the LDKT readiness stage of blacks on the transplant waiting list and its association with LDKT knowledge, concerns, and willingness. Design Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a randomized controlled trial to improve knowledge and reduce concerns about LDKT. Patients and Setting One hundred fifty-two black patients on the kidney transplant waiting list at a single transplant center in the northeastern United States. Main Outcomes LDKT readiness stage, knowledge, concerns, and willingness to talk to others about living donation. Results Sixty percent of patients were not considering or not yet ready to pursue LDKT, while only 11% had taken action to talk to family members or friends about the possibility of living kidney donation. Patients in later stages of LDKT readiness (i.e., had talked to others about donation or were preparing to do so) had significantly more knowledge (p<0.001), fewer concerns (p=0.002), and more willingness (p=0.001) to talk to others about living donation than those in earlier readiness stages. Conclusions The large percentage of blacks who are in the earlier stages of LDKT readiness may account for the low rate of LDKT in this patient population at our transplant center. Innovative and tailored LDKT educational strategies for black patients are needed to help reduce racial disparities in LDKT. PMID:25488559

  4. School-readiness profiles of children with language impairment: linkages to home and classroom experiences.

    PubMed

    Pentimonti, Jill M; Justice, Laura M; Kaderavek, Joan N

    2014-01-01

    This study represents an effort to advance our understanding of the nature of school readiness among children with language impairment (LI), a population of children acknowledged to be at risk of poor academic achievement. The academic, social-emotional, and behavioural competencies with which children arrive at kindergarten affect the nature of their future educational experiences, and their overall academic achievement. To examine whether there are reliable profiles that characterize children with LI just prior to kindergarten entrance, and the extent to which profile membership is associated with characteristics of children's homes and preschool experiences. Questions addressed were twofold: (1) To what extent are there reliable profiles of children with LI with respect to their school readiness? (2) To what extent is children's profile membership associated with characteristics of their homes and preschool classrooms? Participants were 136 children with LI from early childhood special education classrooms. We utilized latent class analysis (LCA) to classify individuals into profiles based on individual responses on school readiness measures. We then used multilevel hierarchical generalized linear models to examine the relations between profile membership and children's home/classroom experiences. LCA analyses revealed that a four-profile solution was the most appropriate fit for the data and that classroom experiences were predictive of these profiles, such that children in classrooms with more instructional/emotional support were more likely to be placed in profiles characterized by higher school readiness skills. These results suggest that the school readiness profiles of young children with LI are associated with the quality of children's classroom experiences, and that high-quality classroom experiences can be influential for ensuring that young children with LI arrive in kindergarten ready to learn. © 2014 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  5. Getting Closer to Countdown: Spacecraft Undergoes Readiness Tests

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-07-19

    It no easy task getting NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter ready for launch. Workers stabilize the crane holding one of the enormous billboard-sized solar panels temporarily removed from the spacecraft prior to rigorous testing.

  6. Really Writing! Ready-To-Use Writing Process Activities for the Elementary Grades. 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunflower, Cherlyn

    2005-01-01

    The second edition of "Really Writing!" provides 40 real-life writing activities designed to capture the attention of young authors (grades 2 through 6) who are just learning the composing process. This book is also a resource for teaching advanced writers who are ready to experiment with a variety of writing and speaking genres. Each of the…

  7. [Spread of spinal anesthesia with 3 different hyperbaric solutions used in Japan].

    PubMed

    Masuda, R; Yokoyama, K; Inoue, T

    1998-12-01

    We studied the spread of spinal anesthesia with 3 different hyperbaric solutions commercially available in Japan. Percamin-S [0.3% dibucaine in 5% hyperbaric saline] (P), Neo-Percamin.S [0.24% dibucaine with 0.12% T-caine in 9.5% glucose] (N) and 0.5% Tetcaine [tetracaine] in 10% glucose (T) were studied. Two ml of each solution was administered intrathecally using a 25 gauge Quincke needle. Patients (n = 90) were allocated to one of 9 groups receiving 2 ml of P, N or T at L 2-3, L 3-4 or L 4-5 interspace. Both N and T produced significantly higher spread of analgesia than P at any of L 3-4 and L 4-5 interspaces. P and N have the same specific gravity, even though significant differences were found in spread of segmental analgesia. Local anesthesic agents and solvent solutions themselves are considered to influence the spread of spinal anesthesia as the specific gravity of hyperbaric solution does.

  8. Readiness to Change as a Predictor of Treatment Engagement and Outcome for Partner Violent Men.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Ana I; Murphy, Christopher M

    2018-05-01

    Resistance to change has been long recognized as a barrier to successful intervention for partner violent individuals. Using archival data from a community-based intimate partner violence (IPV) intervention program, the current study investigated readiness to change as a predictor of treatment engagement and outcome in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for IPV, and examined whether court referral status, antisocial personality characteristics, and borderline personality characteristics moderate these associations. During program intake, male IPV perpetrators ( N = 195) provided structured interview data on demographics and referral source, and self-report data on readiness to change, borderline personality traits, and antisocial personality traits. During group CBT, participants and their therapists completed measures of the working alliance, and the therapists completed ratings of compliance with behavior change homework assignments. Criminal recidivism data were gathered from public records for 2 years after scheduled completion of treatment. Readiness to change significantly predicted client ratings of the working alliance, but not therapist ratings of the working alliance, CBT homework compliance, or criminal recidivism. Court referral status moderated predictive associations between readiness to change and working alliance ratings, and borderline and antisocial characteristics moderated predictive associations between readiness to change and working alliance as well as criminal recidivism. Interestingly, readiness to change is a stronger predictor of positive treatment response for court- versus self-referred individuals and for those with either very low or very high levels of borderline and antisocial characteristics. Hence, strategies to enhance motivation to change may be particularly be important for IPV perpetrators with these characteristics.

  9. Mechanistic movement models to understand epidemic spread.

    PubMed

    Fofana, Abdou Moutalab; Hurford, Amy

    2017-05-05

    An overlooked aspect of disease ecology is considering how and why animals come into contact with one and other resulting in disease transmission. Mathematical models of disease spread frequently assume mass-action transmission, justified by stating that susceptible and infectious hosts mix readily, and foregoing any detailed description of host movement. Numerous recent studies have recorded, analysed and modelled animal movement. These movement models describe how animals move with respect to resources, conspecifics and previous movement directions and have been used to understand the conditions for the occurrence and the spread of infectious diseases when hosts perform a type of movement. Here, we summarize the effect of the different types of movement on the threshold conditions for disease spread. We identify gaps in the literature and suggest several promising directions for future research. The mechanistic inclusion of movement in epidemic models may be beneficial for the following two reasons. Firstly, the estimation of the transmission coefficient in an epidemic model is possible because animal movement data can be used to estimate the rate of contacts between conspecifics. Secondly, unsuccessful transmission events, where a susceptible host contacts an infectious host but does not become infected can be quantified. Following an outbreak, this enables disease ecologists to identify 'near misses' and to explore possible alternative epidemic outcomes given shifts in ecological or immunological parameters.This article is part of the themed issue 'Opening the black box: re-examining the ecology and evolution of parasite transmission'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. What are the characteristics of 'sexually ready' adolescents? Exploring the sexual readiness of youth in urban poor Accra.

    PubMed

    Biney, Adriana A E; Dodoo, F Nii-Amoo

    2016-01-05

    Adolescent sexual activity, especially among the urban poor, remains a challenge. Despite numerous interventions and programs to address the negative consequences arising from early and frequent sexual activity among youth in sub-Saharan Africa, including Ghana, only slight progress has been made. A plausible explanation is that our understanding of what adolescents think about sex and about their own sexuality is poor. In that sense, examining how adolescents in urban poor communities think about their sexual readiness, and identifying characteristics associated with that sexual self-concept dimension, should deepen our understanding of this topical issue. A total of 196 male and female adolescents, ages 12 to 19, were surveyed in the 2011 RIPS Urban Health and Poverty Project in Accra, Ghana. The youth responded to three statements which determined their levels of sexual readiness. Other background characteristics were also obtained enabling the assessment of the correlates of their preparedness to engage in sex. The data were analyzed using ordered logistic regression models. Overall, the majority of respondents did not consider themselves ready for sex. Multivariate analyses indicated that sexual experience, exposure to pornographic movies, gender, ethnicity and household wealth were significantly linked to their readiness for sex. Sexual readiness is related to sexual activity as well as other characteristics of the adolescents, suggesting the need to consider these factors in the design of programs and interventions to curb early sex. The subject of sexual readiness has to be investigated further to ensure adolescents do not identify with any negative effects of this sexual self-view.

  11. Concept of economic readiness levels assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuniaristanto, Sutopo, W.; Widiyanto, A.; Putri, A. S.

    2017-11-01

    This research aims to build a concept of Economic Readiness Level (ERL) assessment for incubation center. ERL concept is arranged by considering both market and business aspects. Every aspect is divided into four phases and each of them consists of some indicators. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is used to develop the ERL in calculating the weight of every single aspect and indicator. Interval scale between 0 and 4 is also applied in indicator assessment. In order to calculate ERL, score in every indicator and the weight of both the aspect and indicator are considered. ERL value is able to show in detail the innovative product readiness level from economic sight, market and business aspect. There are four levels in Economic Readiness Level scheme which are investigation, feasibility, planning and introduction.

  12. Measurement of nanoscale molten polymer droplet spreading using atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soleymaniha, Mohammadreza; Felts, Jonathan R.

    2018-03-01

    We present a technique for measuring molten polymer spreading dynamics with nanometer scale spatial resolution at elevated temperatures using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The experimental setup is used to measure the spreading dynamics of polystyrene droplets with 2 μm diameters at 115-175 °C on sapphire, silicon oxide, and mica. Custom image processing algorithms determine the droplet height, radius, volume, and contact angle of each AFM image over time to calculate the droplet spreading dynamics. The contact angle evolution follows a power law with time with experimentally determined values of -0.29 ± 0.01, -0.08 ± 0.02, and -0.21 ± 0.01 for sapphire, silicon oxide, and mica, respectively. The non-zero steady state contact angles result in a slower evolution of contact angle with time consistent with theories combining molecular kinetic and hydrodynamic models. Monitoring the cantilever phase provides additional information about the local mechanics of the droplet surface. We observe local crystallinity on the molten droplet surface, where crystalline structures appear to nucleate at the contact line and migrate toward the top of the droplet. Increasing the temperature from 115 °C to 175 °C reduced surface crystallinity from 35% to 12%, consistent with increasingly energetically favorable amorphous phase as the temperature approaches the melting temperature. This platform provides a way to measure spreading dynamics of extremely small volumes of heterogeneously complex fluids not possible through other means.

  13. Effects of Ready-to-Eat-Cereals on Key Nutritional and Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Priebe, Marion G.; McMonagle, Jolene R.

    2016-01-01

    Background In many countries breakfast cereals are an important component of breakfast. This systematic review assesses the contribution of consumption of ready-to eat cereal (RTEC) to the recommended nutrient intake. Furthermore, the effects of RTEC consumption on key health parameters are investigated as well as health promoting properties of RTEC. Method The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL have been searched up till 16th of June 2015. Randomized controlled trials were excluded if RTEC were used during hypocaloric diets, if RTEC were eaten at other times than breakfast and if breakfasts included other products than RTEC, milk and fruit. Observational studies were excluded when “breakfast cereals” were not defined or their definition included cooked cereals. From cross-sectional studies only data concerning energy and nutrient intake as well as micronutrient status were used. Results From 4727 identified citations 64 publications met the inclusion criteria of which 32 were cross-sectional studies, eight prospective studies and 24 randomized controlled trials. Consumption of RTEC is associated with a healthier dietary pattern, concerning intake of carbohydrates, dietary fiber, fat and micronutrients, however total sugar intake is higher. Persons consuming RTEC frequently (≥ 5 times/week) have a lower risk of inadequate micronutrient intake especially for vitamin A, calcium, folate, vitamin B 6, magnesium and zinc. Evidence from prospective studies suggests that whole grain RTEC may have beneficial effects on hypertension and type 2 diabetes. Consumption of RTEC with soluble fiber helps to reduce LDL cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic men and RTEC fortified with folate can reduce plasma homocysteine. Discussion One of the review’s strengths is its thorough ex/inclusion of studies. Limitations are that results of observational studies were based on self-reported data and that many studies were funded by food

  14. The utility of single-item readiness screeners in middle school.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Crystal G; Herman, Keith C; Huang, Francis L; Stormont, Melissa; Grossman, Caroline; Eddy, Colleen; Reinke, Wendy M

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the benefit of utilizing one-item academic and one-item behavior readiness teacher-rated screeners at the beginning of the school year to predict end-of-school year outcomes for middle school students. The Middle School Academic and Behavior Readiness (M-ABR) screeners were developed to provide an efficient and effective way to assess readiness in students. Participants included 889 students in 62 middle school classrooms in an urban Missouri school district. Concurrent validity with the M-ABR items and other indicators of readiness in the fall were evaluated using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients, with the academic readiness item having medium to strong correlations with other baseline academic indicators (r=±0.56 to 0.91) and the behavior readiness item having low to strong correlations with baseline behavior items (r=±0.20 to 0.79). Next, the predictive validity of the M-ABR items was analyzed with hierarchical linear regressions using end-of-year outcomes as the dependent variable. The academic and behavior readiness items demonstrated adequate validity for all outcomes with moderate effects (β=±0.31 to 0.73 for academic outcomes and β=±0.24 to 0.59 for behavioral outcomes) after controlling for baseline demographics. Even after controlling for baseline scores, the M-ABR items predicted unique variance in almost all outcome variables. Four conditional probability indices were calculated to obtain an optimal cut score, to determine ready vs. not ready, for both single-item M-ABR scales. The cut point of "fair" yielded the most acceptable values for the indices. The odd ratios (OR) of experiencing negative outcomes given a "fair" or lower readiness rating (2 or below on the M-ABR screeners) at the beginning of the year were significant and strong for all outcomes (OR=2.29 to OR=14.46), except for internalizing problems. These findings suggest promise for using single readiness items to screen for varying negative end

  15. Organizational readiness for telemedicine: implications for success and failure.

    PubMed

    Jennett, Penny; Yeo, Maryann; Pauls, Monica; Graham, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    The use of telemedicine brings about change in health-care organizations and opens up new possibilities for service delivery. The organizational environment is often crucial in determining whether or not telemedicine applications will be successful. To examine the concept of 'organizational readiness for telemedicine' as a factor to explain why telemedicine initiatives succeed or fail, the results were used of interviews with key informants, conducted in two studies: the Alliance for Building Capacity project and the National Initiative for Telehealth guidelines project. The data indicate that organizational readiness for telemedicine is a multifaceted concept that is related to planning and the workplace environment. A greater understanding of the factors within organizational readiness could help to avoid costly implementation errors. 'Readiness' needs to be systematically assessed and is important for long-term success.

  16. Learnings and Recommendations to Advance 4-H Science Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt-McQuitty, Lynn; Carlos, Ramona; Smith, Martin H.

    2014-01-01

    The case study investigation reported here assessed California 4-H professionals' understanding of the essential components of effective 4-H Science programming as established by the National 4-H Science Mission Mandate. Using the 4-H Science Checklist as the basis for defining 4-H Science Readiness, academic and program staff were surveyed and…

  17. University-District Partnership Research to Understand College Readiness among Baltimore City Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durham, Rachel E.; Bell-Ellwanger, Jennifer; Connolly, Faith; Robinson, Kimberly Howard; Olson, Linda S.; Rone, Tracy

    2015-01-01

    The concept of college readiness is complex because of its many components, and its meaning is further complicated by disparate definitions applied by different postsecondary institutions. The research featured in this study attempts to measure college readiness according to traditional indicators, such as high school GPA and course taking, but…

  18. The Impact of Training Interventions on Organizational Readiness to Support Innovations in Juvenile Justice Offices

    PubMed Central

    Taxman, Faye S.; Henderson, Craig; Young, Doug; Farrell, Jill

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Clinical trials on technology transfer models are rare, even with the interest in advancing the uptake of evidence-based practices in social service agencies. This article presents the results from a trial examining different transfer strategies to assist juvenile justice caseworkers in using screening, assessment, and case planning practices to address mental health and substance use needs. Study findings examine factors that promote organizational readiness. METHODS A clinical trial was conducted examining the mpact of three post-training strategies: an external coach to build the social network of the justice office (build social climate), an external coach to educate staff (build skills and knowledge), and a control condition consisting of traditional management directives (directives to staff of agency priorities). All groups were exposed to a one day refresher course in motivational interviewing. The social network and skill building groups also attended an intensive three-day training followed by three on-site booster sessions over a 12 month period of time. Twelve juvenile justice offices (with their 231 juvenile justice staff) were assigned to one of three conditions. The study examined the impact of different transfer conditions on organizational readiness to implement the innovation of screening, assessment, and referral strategies. RESULTS External coaching targeting the social climate of the justice office to support innovations improved organizational readiness to change, regardless of office size. Coaching that targeted either the social climate or staff knowledge and skills both improved organizational readiness for change compared to management directives, but social climate coaching resulted in greater improvements in receptivity to change. No individual level features of case workers (e.g., age, gender, years of experience) significantly predicted organizational readiness to change. Unexpectedly, the skill and knowledge building

  19. Comments on Landau damping due to synchrotron frequency spread

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    An inductive/space-charge impedance shifts the synchrotron frequency downwards above/below transition, but it is often said that the coherent synchrotron frequency of the bunch is not shifted in the rigid-dipole mode. On the other hand, the incoherent synchrotron frequency due to the sinusoidal rf always spreads in the downward direction. This spread will therefore not be able to cover the coherent synchrotron frequency, implying that there will not be any Landau damping no matter how large the frequency spread is. By studying the dispersion relation, it is shown that the above argument is incorrect, and there will be Landau damping ifmore » there is sufficient frequency spread. The main reason is that the coherent frequency of the rigid-dipole mode will no longer remain unshifted in the presence of a synchrotron frequency spread.« less

  20. The use of whey or skimmed milk powder in fortified blended foods for vulnerable groups.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Camilla; Andersen, Gregers S; Jacobsen, Stine; Mølgaard, Christian; Friis, Henrik; Sangild, Per T; Michaelsen, Kim F

    2008-01-01

    Fortified blended foods (FBF), especially corn soy blend, are used as food aid for millions of people worldwide, especially malnourished individuals and vulnerable groups. There are only a few studies evaluating the effect of FBF on health outcomes, and the potential negative effect of antinutrients has not been examined. Different lines of evidence suggest that dairy proteins have beneficial effects on vulnerable groups. Here we review the evidence on the effects of adding whey or skimmed milk powder to FBF used for malnourished infants and young children or people living with HIV or AIDS. Adding whey or skimmed milk powder to FBF improves the protein quality, allowing a reduction in total amount of protein, which could have potential metabolic advantages. It also allows for a reduced content of soy and cereal and thereby a reduction of potential antinutrients. It is possible that adding milk could improve weight gain, linear growth, and recovery from malnutrition, but this needs to be confirmed. Bioactive factors in whey might have beneficial effects on the immune system and muscle synthesis, but evidence from vulnerable groups is lacking. Milk proteins will improve flavor, which is important for acceptability in vulnerable groups. The most important disadvantage is a considerable increase in price. Adding 10-15% milk powder would double the price, which means that such a product should be used only in well-defined vulnerable groups with special needs. The potential beneficial effects of adding milk protein and lack of evidence in vulnerable groups call for randomized intervention studies.

  1. Relationship of Mobile Learning Readiness to Teacher Proficiency in Classroom Technology Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Rhonda; Knezek, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Mobile learning readiness as a new aspect of technology integration for classroom teachers is confirmed through the findings of this study to be significantly aligned with well-established measures based on older information technologies. The Mobile Learning Readiness Survey (MLRS) generally exhibits the desirable properties of step-wise increases…

  2. Normative Feedback and Adolescent Readiness to Change: A Small Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Douglas C.; Davis, Jordan P.; Ureche, Daniel J.; Tabb, Karen M.

    2015-01-01

    For adolescents with substance use problems, it is unknown whether the provision of normative feedback is a necessary active ingredient in motivational interviewing (MI). This study investigated the impact of normative feedback on adolescents' readiness to change and perceptions of MI quality. Adolescents referred for substance use disorder (SUD)…

  3. Writing Readiness: Perspectives on Learning to Write.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallard, Charles K.

    Writing readiness is defined in this paper as the skills and understandings necessary for minimum success in completing a writing task. The skills discussed are divided into three areas of need: to give students a clear, operational concept of the function and structure of composition that includes the concepts of paragraphs, sentences,…

  4. Project-Based Learning as a Contributing Factor to Graduates' Work Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jollands, Margaret; Jolly, Lesley; Molyneaux, Tom

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores what work readiness means for two cohorts of graduate engineers, one from a traditional curriculum, the second from a largely project-based curriculum. Professional bodies and employers have defined a set of attributes for engineering graduates so that graduates will be "work ready". Problem-based learning (PBL) is…

  5. Process optimization and oxidative stability of omega-3 ice cream fortified with flaxseed oil microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Avinash; Sharma, Vivek; Goyal, Ankit; Singh, A K; Arora, Sumit

    2018-05-01

    Microencapsulated flaxseed oil powder (MFOP) was supplemented for the fortification of α-linolenic acid (ALA, ω-3 fatty acid) in ice cream. Processing parameters were optimized in terms of the stage of homogenization of ice-cream mix, level of fortification (3, 4 and 5%) and flavors (vanilla, butter scotch and strawberry). Data revealed that free fatty acids increased significantly during first 15 days in all the samples and then remained constant. Peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid value first increased up to 30 and 45 days, respectively; and then decreased followed by a gradual increase up to 120 days. Fatty acids profile showed 18.74-21.38% decrease in ALA content in fortified ice creams after 120 days. A serving of 100 g of freshly prepared functional ice cream was able to meet ~ 45% of the RDA (1.4 g ALA/day), which reduced to 35.37-36.56% on the end of storage i.e. 120 days. Overall, it can be concluded that MFOP was oxidative stable in ice-cream throughout the storage, which could be fortified successfully at 4% (w/w) level.

  6. Predicting implementation from organizational readiness for change: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is widespread interest in measuring organizational readiness to implement evidence-based practices in clinical care. However, there are a number of challenges to validating organizational measures, including inferential bias arising from the halo effect and method bias - two threats to validity that, while well-documented by organizational scholars, are often ignored in health services research. We describe a protocol to comprehensively assess the psychometric properties of a previously developed survey, the Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment. Objectives Our objective is to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the psychometric properties of the Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment incorporating methods specifically to address threats from halo effect and method bias. Methods and Design We will conduct three sets of analyses using longitudinal, secondary data from four partner projects, each testing interventions to improve the implementation of an evidence-based clinical practice. Partner projects field the Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment at baseline (n = 208 respondents; 53 facilities), and prospectively assesses the degree to which the evidence-based practice is implemented. We will conduct predictive and concurrent validities using hierarchical linear modeling and multivariate regression, respectively. For predictive validity, the outcome is the change from baseline to follow-up in the use of the evidence-based practice. We will use intra-class correlations derived from hierarchical linear models to assess inter-rater reliability. Two partner projects will also field measures of job satisfaction for convergent and discriminant validity analyses, and will field Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment measures at follow-up for concurrent validity (n = 158 respondents; 33 facilities). Convergent and discriminant validities will test associations between organizational readiness and different aspects of job

  7. Ready for Reuse (RfR) Determinations at Superfund Sites

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A Ready for Reuse (RfR) determination is a redevelopment tool that EPA has created to provide information that a site is “ready for reuse” and will remain protective for that use, so long as any use limitations established by EPA continue to be met.

  8. Readiness, Behavior, and Foundational Mathematics Course Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Kevin; Zelenka, Richard; Buonaguidi, Larry; Beckman, Robert; Casillas, Alex; Crouse, Jill; Allen, Jeff; Hanson, Mary Ann; Acton, Tara; Robbins, Steve

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effects of math readiness and student course behavior (e.g., attendance, participation, homework completion) on knowledge gain and course success using two samples of students enrolled in foundational skills (noncredit-bearing) mathematics courses. As hypothesized, entering student mathematics readiness and course behavior…

  9. The Effects of Consumption of Bread Fortified With Soy Bean Flour on Metabolic Profile in Type 2 Diabetic Women: A Cross-over Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Asma Salari; Entezari, Mohammad Hassan; Iraj, Bijan; Askari, Gholam Reza; Maracy, Mohammad Reza

    2014-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic diseases in the world and has become a major threat for global health. Recent studies reported that the soy has beneficial effects in diabetic mellitus patients. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of soybean flour fortified bread consumption on metabolic profile in type 2 diabetic women. This randomized, cross-over, controlled clinical trial was carried out in 30 type 2 diabetic women. At first, a 2-week run-in period was applied. Then, participants were randomly assigned to either intervention or control groups. Participants in the intervention group were asked to replace 120 g of soybean flour fortified bread with the same amount of their usual bread intake or other cereal products for 6 weeks. After a 4 weeks washout period, participants were crossed over for another 6 weeks. Mean (±standard deviation) age and body mass index of subjects was 45.7 ± 3.8 years and 29.5 ± 3.9 kg/m(2), respectively. The results of our study showed no significant effects of soybean flour fortified bread on metabolic profile. We found a reduction in serum triglycerides (change difference: -3.7, P = 0.82), serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (change difference: -11.2, P = 0.50), insulin (change difference: -3.6, P = 0.7), and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (change differences: -0.57, P = 0.45) after 6 weeks but these changes were not statistically significant. No significant effects of soybean flour fortified bread on serum concentrations of fasting blood sugar, glycated hemoglobin, high-density lipoproteins and total cholesterol levels were found. Six weeks consumption of soybean flour fortified bread among diabetic patients had no significant effects on metabolic profile.

  10. Readiness towards Entrepreneurship Education: Students and Malaysian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Othman, Norasmah; Hashim, Norashidah; Wahid, Hariyaty Ab

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to observe the readiness of students and the internal environment of Malaysian public universities in the implementation of entrepreneurship education. Design/methodology/approach: The authors employed a quantitative approach and the main instrument used to gauge the entrepreneurship readiness among students…

  11. Altitudinal Barrier to the Spread of an Invasive Species: Could the Pyrenean Chain Slow the Natural Spread of the Pinewood Nematode?

    PubMed

    Haran, Julien; Roques, Alain; Bernard, Alexis; Robinet, Christelle; Roux, Géraldine

    2015-01-01

    future pest monitoring and management programs. More generally, such an integrated approach could be used to assess the role of mountain chains in the potential spread of other invasive pests.

  12. Technology readiness assessments: A retrospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankins, John C.

    2009-11-01

    The development of new system capabilities typically depends upon the prior success of advanced technology research and development efforts. These systems developments inevitably face the three major challenges of any project: performance, schedule and budget. Done well, advanced technology programs can substantially reduce the uncertainty in all three of these dimensions of project management. Done poorly, or not at all, and new system developments suffer from cost overruns, schedule delays and the steady erosion of initial performance objectives. It is often critical for senior management to be able to determine which of these two paths is more likely—and to respond accordingly. The challenge for system and technology managers is to be able to make clear, well-documented assessments of technology readiness and risks, and to do so at key points in the life cycle of the program. In the mid 1970s, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) introduced the concept of "technology readiness levels" (TRLs) as a discipline-independent, programmatic figure of merit (FOM) to allow more effective assessment of, and communication regarding the maturity of new technologies. In 1995, the TRL scale was further strengthened by the articulation of the first definitions of each level, along with examples (J. Mankins, Technology readiness levels, A White Paper, NASA, Washington, DC, 1995. [1]). Since then, TRLs have been embraced by the U.S. Congress' General Accountability Office (GAO), adopted by the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), and are being considered for use by numerous other organizations. Overall, the TRLs have proved to be highly effective in communicating the status of new technologies among sometimes diverse organizations. This paper will review the concept of "technology readiness assessments", and provide a retrospective on the history of "TRLs" during the past 30 years. The paper will conclude with observations concerning prospective future

  13. StormReady in a Box: Enhancing NOAA's Presence in Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grondin, N. S.; Franks, C.

    2015-12-01

    The National Weather Service StormReady Supporter program exists to give schools, companies, TV stations, and other facilities the opportunity to earn recognition for their weather preparedness and awareness. Requirements to earn StormReady Supporter status include having a facility warning point, use of NOAA Weather Radios, and weather hazard Emergency Operation Plans. Despite the increasing importance of weather preparedness in schools, only 1.2% of Minnesota schools are deemed StormReady by the National Weather Service. It was determined that the major impedance for schools becoming StormReady Supporters is the lack of time for administrators to engage in anything "extra" beyond their listed duties. As part of a 2015 Hollings Scholar project, the StormReady in a Box concept was developed to remedy this, by empowering teachers and students to take charge and complete the StormReady Supporter application for their school. StormReady in a Box is a project developed for Junior High School students to learn about weather preparedness and to help their school acquire StormReady status. The project was designed to be relevant to the Minnesota State Education Standards in Science, be simple for teachers to do with their students, and most importantly, to be enjoyable for Junior High School age students to do. The project was also designed to enhance critical thinking skills and logical reasoning abilities, as they relate to the StormReady Supporter application. This presentation will present the overall rationale for the undertaking of this project, the creation of, and the logical next steps for the StormReady in a Box project.

  14. Using the Community Readiness Model in Native Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jumper-Thurman, Pamela; Plested, Barbara A.; Edwards, Ruth W.; Helm, Heather M.; Oetting, Eugene R.

    The effects of alcohol and other drug abuse are recognized as a serious problem in U.S. communities. Policy efforts and increased law enforcement have only a minimal impact if prevention strategies are not consistent with the community's level of readiness, are not culturally relevant, and are not community-specific. A model has been developed for…

  15. The Selection and Prevalence of Natural and Fortified Calcium Food Sources in the Diets of Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafferty, Karen; Watson, Patrice; Lappe, Joan M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of calcium-fortified food and dairy food on selected nutrient intakes in the diets of adolescent girls. Design: Randomized controlled trial, secondary analysis. Setting and Participants: Adolescent girls (n = 149) from a midwestern metropolitan area participated in randomized controlled trials of bone physiology…

  16. A theory of organizational readiness for change

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Bryan J

    2009-01-01

    Background Change management experts have emphasized the importance of establishing organizational readiness for change and recommended various strategies for creating it. Although the advice seems reasonable, the scientific basis for it is limited. Unlike individual readiness for change, organizational readiness for change has not been subject to extensive theoretical development or empirical study. In this article, I conceptually define organizational readiness for change and develop a theory of its determinants and outcomes. I focus on the organizational level of analysis because many promising approaches to improving healthcare delivery entail collective behavior change in the form of systems redesign--that is, multiple, simultaneous changes in staffing, work flow, decision making, communication, and reward systems. Discussion Organizational readiness for change is a multi-level, multi-faceted construct. As an organization-level construct, readiness for change refers to organizational members' shared resolve to implement a change (change commitment) and shared belief in their collective capability to do so (change efficacy). Organizational readiness for change varies as a function of how much organizational members value the change and how favorably they appraise three key determinants of implementation capability: task demands, resource availability, and situational factors. When organizational readiness for change is high, organizational members are more likely to initiate change, exert greater effort, exhibit greater persistence, and display more cooperative behavior. The result is more effective implementation. Summary The theory described in this article treats organizational readiness as a shared psychological state in which organizational members feel committed to implementing an organizational change and confident in their collective abilities to do so. This way of thinking about organizational readiness is best suited for examining organizational

  17. Profiling of barrier capacitance and spreading resistance using a transient linearly increasing voltage technique.

    PubMed

    Gaubas, E; Ceponis, T; Kusakovskij, J

    2011-08-01

    A technique for the combined measurement of barrier capacitance and spreading resistance profiles using a linearly increasing voltage pulse is presented. The technique is based on the measurement and analysis of current transients, due to the barrier and diffusion capacitance, and the spreading resistance, between a needle probe and sample. To control the impact of deep traps in the barrier capacitance, a steady state bias illumination with infrared light was employed. Measurements of the spreading resistance and barrier capacitance profiles using a stepwise positioned probe on cross sectioned silicon pin diodes and pnp structures are presented.

  18. A practical implementation science heuristic for organizational readiness: R = MC2

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Brittany S.; Lamont, Andrea; Wandersman, Abraham; Castellow, Jennifer; Katz, Jason; Beidas, Rinad S.

    2015-01-01

    There are many challenges when an innovation (i.e., a program, process, or policy that is new to an organization) is actively introduced into an organization. One critical component for successful implementation is the organization’s readiness for the innovation. In this article, we propose a practical implementation science heuristic, abbreviated as R= MC2. We propose that organizational readiness involves: 1) the motivation to implement an innovation, 2) the general capacities of an organization, and 3) the innovation-specific capacities needed for a particular innovation. Each of these components can be assessed independently and be used formatively. The heuristic can be used by organizations to assess readiness to implement and by training and technical assistance providers to help build organizational readiness. We present an illustration of the heuristic by showing how behavioral health organizations differ in readiness to implement a peer specialist initiative. Implications for research and practice of organizational readiness are discussed. PMID:26668443

  19. Analysis of e-learning implementation readiness based on integrated elr model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adiyarta, K.; Napitupulu, D.; Rahim, R.; Abdullah, D.; Setiawan, MI

    2018-04-01

    E-learning nowadays has become a requirement for institutions to support their learning activities. To adopt e-learning, an institution requires a large strategy and resources for optimal application. Unfortunately, not all institutions that have used e-learning got the desired results or expectations. This study aims to identify the extent of the level of readiness of e-learning implementation in institution X. The degree of institutional readiness will determine the success of future e-learning utilization. In addition, institutional readiness measurement are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies in e-learning development. The research method used is survey with questionnaire designed based on integration of 8 best practice ELR (e-learning readiness) model. The results showed that from 13 factors of integrated ELR model being measured, there are 3 readiness factors included in the category of not ready and needs a lot of work. They are human resource (2.57), technology skill (2.38) and content factors (2.41). In general, e-learning implementation in institutions is in the category of not ready but needs some of work (3.27). Therefore, the institution should consider which factors or areas of ELR factors are considered still not ready and needs improvement in the future.

  20. Understanding how children’s engagement and teachers’ interactions combine to predict school readiness

    PubMed Central

    Williford, Amanda P.; Maier, Michelle F.; Downer, Jason T.; Pianta, Robert C.; Howes, Carolee

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the quality of preschool classroom experiences through the combination of teachers’ interactions at the classroom level and children’s individual patterns of engagement in predicting children’s gains in school readiness. A sample of 605 children and 309 teachers participated. The quality of children’s engagement and teacher interactions was directly observed in the classroom setting, and direct assessments of children’s school readiness skills were obtained in the fall and again in the spring. The quality of teacher interactions was associated with gains across all school readiness skills. The effect of children’s individual classroom engagement on their gains in school readiness skills (specifically phonological awareness and expressive vocabulary) was moderated by classroom level teacher interactions. The results suggest that if teachers provide highly responsive interactions at the classroom level, children may develop more equitable school readiness skills regardless of their individual engagement patterns. PMID:26722137

  1. A Review of Methods and Instruments Used in State and Local School Readiness Evaluations. Issues & Answers. REL 2007-No. 004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Glyn; Scott-Little, Catherine; Amwake, Lynn; Wynn, Lucy

    2007-01-01

    The report provides detailed information about the methods and instruments used to evaluate school readiness initiatives, discusses important considerations in selecting instruments, and provides resources and recommendations that may be helpful to those who are designing and implementing school readiness evaluations. Study results indicate that…

  2. Evaluating Community Readiness to Implement Environmental and Policy-Based Alcohol Abuse Prevention Strategies in Wisconsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paltzer, Jason; Black, Penny; Moberg, D. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Matching evidence-based alcohol prevention strat- egies with a community's readiness to support those strategies is the basis for the Tri-Ethnic Community Readiness Model (CRM). The purpose of this evaluation was to assess the association of a community's readiness to address alcohol abuse in their community with the implementation of…

  3. Understanding the Behaviour of Contamination Spread in Nagarjuna Sagar Reservoir Using Temporal Landsat Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarun Teja, K.; Rajan, K. S.

    2016-06-01

    LANDSAT images are used to identify organic contaminants in water bodies, but, there is no enough evidence in present literature that LANDSAT is also good in identifying a mixture of organic and mineral contaminants such as agricultural waste. The focus of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of LANDSAT imagery to identify organic and mineral contamination (OMC) and to identify spread extent variations of pollution over the season/year in the Nagarjuna Sagar (NS) reservoir using only satellite images. A new band combination is proposed in order to detect OMC, because existing formulae based on band ratio proved to be inadequate in detecting the contamination in NS. Difference in reflectance values of Red and Green channel of an image helps clearly distinguish clear water from OMC water. This procedure was applied over LANDSAT data of the calendar years 2008, 2014 and 2015 to understand the contamination spread pattern through the reservoir. Results show that contamination is following a similar pattern over these calendar years. In January contamination starts at inlets and by May contamination spreads to almost 90% of the reservoir when the total area of water spread is also reduced by half. Contamination spread is low during the monsoonal period of June to September due to heavy inflow and heavy outflow of waters from NS reservoir. Post monsoon NS is contaminated again because of heavy inflow of runoffs from neighboring land use and limited water outflow. This contamination spread pattern matches the agricultural seasons and fertilizer application pattern in this region, indicating that agricultural use of fertilizers could be one of the primary causes of contamination for this waterbody.

  4. A NEW AUTOCLAVE SYSTEM FOR STERILIZING VITAMIN-FORTIFIED, COMMERCIAL RODENT DIETS WITH LOWER NUTRIENT LOSS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    would (a) require less time and (b) not destroy vitamins. Feed contaminated with Bacillus stearothermophilus and B. subtilis was sterilized in high...The study was designed to develop a method for sterilizing vitamin-fortified commercial diets for feeding germ-free and defined-flora rodents that...high-prevacuum autoclaves makes possible a reduction in the time required to sterilize autoclavable, commercial diets. Previous methods have required

  5. Steganography on multiple MP3 files using spread spectrum and Shamir's secret sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoeseph, N. M.; Purnomo, F. A.; Riasti, B. K.; Safiie, M. A.; Hidayat, T. N.

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of steganography is how to hide data into another media. In order to increase security of data, steganography technique is often combined with cryptography. The weakness of this combination technique is the data was centralized. Therefore, a steganography technique is develop by using combination of spread spectrum and secret sharing technique. In steganography with secret sharing, shares of data is created and hidden in several medium. Medium used to concealed shares were MP3 files. Hiding technique used was Spread Spectrum. Secret sharing scheme used was Shamir's Secret Sharing. The result showed that steganography with spread spectrum combined with Shamir's Secret Share using MP3 files as medium produce a technique that could hid data into several cover. To extract and reconstruct the data hidden in stego object, it is needed the amount of stego object which more or equal to its threshold. Furthermore, stego objects were imperceptible and robust.

  6. Association of metabolic acidosis with bovine milk-based human milk fortifiers.

    PubMed

    Cibulskis, C C; Armbrecht, E S

    2015-02-01

    To compare the incidence of metabolic acidosis and feeding intolerance associated with powdered or acidified liquid human milk fortifier (HMF). This retrospective study evaluated infants ⩽ 32 weeks gestational age or ⩽ 1500 g birth weight who received human milk with either powdered or acidified liquid HMF (50 consecutively born infants per group). Primary outcomes tracked were metabolic acidosis (base excess less than -4 mmol l(-1) or bicarbonate less than 18 mmol l(-1)), feeding intolerance (gastric residual > 50% feed volume, > 3 loose stools or emesis per day, abdominal tenderness or distention), necrotizing enterocolitis, late-onset infection, death, length of hospital stay and ability to remain on HMF. Demographics, feeding practices, growth parameters and laboratory data were also collected. Significantly more infants who received acidified liquid HMF developed metabolic acidosis (P < 0.001). Base excess and bicarbonate were both significantly decreased after HMF addition in the liquid HMF group (base excess P = 0.006, bicarbonate P < 0.001). More infants were switched off liquid HMF due to metabolic acidosis or feeding intolerance than those on powdered HMF (P < 0.001). Despite increased protein intake in the liquid HMF group (P = 0.009), both groups had similar enteral caloric intakes with no difference in growth rates between the two groups. There was no significant difference in any of the other primary outcomes. Infants receiving acidified liquid human milk fortifier were more likely to develop metabolic acidosis and to be switched off HMF than those who received powdered HMF. Growth in the liquid HMF group was no different than the powdered group, despite higher protein intake.

  7. Consumers' readiness to eat a plant-based diet.

    PubMed

    Lea, E J; Crawford, D; Worsley, A

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine consumers' readiness to change to a plant-based diet. Mail survey that included questions on readiness to change, eating habits and perceived benefits and barriers to the consumption of a plant-based diet. Victoria, Australia. A total of 415 randomly selected adults. In terms of their readiness to eat a plant-based diet, the majority (58%) of participants were in the precontemplation stage of change, while 14% were in contemplation/preparation, and 28% in action/maintenance. Those in the action/maintenance stage ate more fruit, vegetables, nuts, seeds, whole-meal bread, and cooked cereals than those in earlier stages. There were statistically significant differences in age and vegetarian status between the stages of change, but not for other demographic variables. There were strong differences across the stages of change with regard to perceived benefits and barriers to plant-based diets. For example, those in action/maintenance scored highest for benefit factors associated with well-being, weight, health, convenience and finances, whereas those in the precontemplation stage did not recognise such benefits. These findings can be utilised to help provide appropriate nutrition education and advertising, targeted at specific stages of change. For example, education about how it is possible to obtain iron and protein from a plant-based diet and on the benefits of change, in addition to tips on how to make a gradual, easy transition to a plant-based diet, could help progress precontemplators to later stages. Australian Research Council.

  8. Using Quasi-Experimental Methods to Select Comparisons Schools for an Evaluation of the Northeast Tennessee College and Career Ready Consortium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokher, Christine; Cavalluzzo, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This presentation focuses on the quasi-experimental methods used to select comparison schools for an evaluation of a federal investing in innovation (i3) validation grant. The Northeast Tennessee College and Career Ready Consortium (NETCO) consists of 29 high schools participating in a five-year program to expand students' access to rigorous…

  9. Consensus modeling to develop the farmers' market readiness assessment and decision instrument.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunlye; Dalton, Jarrod; Ngendahimana, David; Bebo, Pat; Davis, Ashley; Remley, Daniel; Smathers, Carol; Freedman, Darcy A

    2017-09-01

    Nutrition-related policy, system, and environmental (PSE) interventions such as farmers' markets have been recommended as effective strategies for promoting healthy diet for chronic disease prevention. Tools are needed to assess community readiness and capacity factors influencing successful farmers' market implementation among diverse practitioners in different community contexts. We describe a multiphase consensus modeling approach used to develop a diagnostic tool for assessing readiness and capacity to implement farmers' market interventions among public health and community nutrition practitioners working with low-income populations in diverse contexts. Modeling methods included the following: phase 1, qualitative study with community stakeholders to explore facilitators and barriers influencing successful implementation of farmers' market interventions in low-income communities; phase 2, development of indicators based on operationalization of qualitative findings; phase 3, assessment of relevance and importance of indicators and themes through consensus conference with expert panel; phase 4, refinement of indicators based on consensus conference; and phase 5, pilot test of the assessment tool. Findings illuminate a range of implementation factors influencing farmers' market PSE interventions and offer guidance for tailoring intervention delivery based on levels of community, practitioner, and organizational readiness and capacity.

  10. 40 CFR 406.90 - Applicability; description of the ready-to-eat cereal subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-to-eat cereal subcategory. 406.90 Section 406.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ready-to-Eat Cereal Subcategory § 406.90 Applicability; description of the ready-to-eat cereal subcategory. The...

  11. Tackling pollution by organic farming is capable of increasing fortified</