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Sample records for real bahia brazil

  1. Environmental impact of uranium mining and ore processing in the Lagoa Real District, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ilson G; Cidu, Rosa; Fanfani, Luca; Pitsch, Helmut; Beaucaire, Catherine; Zuddas, Pierpaolo

    2005-11-15

    Uranium mining and processing at Lagoa Real (Bahia, Brazil) started in 2000. Hydrogeochemical monitoring carried out from 1999 to 2001 revealed generally good quality of the water resources outside and inside the mineralized area. No chemical contamination in waters for domestic uses was observed. Hydrochemical characteristics did not vary significantly after 1 year of U exploitation, as compared to premining conditions. Due to the short time of mining, the results cannot exclude future variations in water quality. Leaching experiments helped to describe processes of ore and waste degradation. Sulfate was identified as an indicator for different types of contamination. Potential hazards related to local climate (hot rainy season) were identified. They indicate that tailings derived from the ore processing, destabilized by sulfuric acid attack, may induce acidification and salinization in the surrounding environment. Another potential source of environmental impact could be linked to local radium-rich mineralization, originating radon emission.

  2. Inequality and School Reform in Bahia, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiter, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    This article compares public and community schools in Salvador, the state capital of Bahia, Brazil. Based on quantitative data analysis and qualitative research conducted on-site during three research trips in 2001, 2003 and 2005, the author finds that Brazil's extreme inequality and the associated concentration of state power in a few hands stand…

  3. Use of new antiretroviral drugs and classes in Bahia, Brazil: a real life experience on salvage therapy of AIDS patients.

    PubMed

    Brites, Carlos; Nóbrega, Isabella; Martins Netto, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy has significantly evolved in the last decade, with an increasing number of new drugs and classes. Currently, even heavily experienced patients can be successfully treated with new regimens. In Brazil, the recent incorporation of some new antiretroviral drugs made it possible to suppress HIV plasma viremia in most treated patients, with significant benefits in terms of quality of life and survival. However, little has been published on outcomes of patients under new drugs-based regimens. We reviewed the safety and efficacy of antiretroviral regimens using recently introduced drugs in Bahia. Our results confirm that patients using darunavir, raltegravir, enfuvirtide, or etravirine presented with a high rate of virological suppression without significant adverse events, after one year of follow-up.

  4. Distinct Zika Virus Lineage in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Naccache, Samia N; Thézé, Julien; Sardi, Silvia I; Somasekar, Sneha; Greninger, Alexander L; Bandeira, Antonio C; Campos, Gubio S; Tauro, Laura B; Faria, Nuno R; Pybus, Oliver G; Chiu, Charles Y

    2016-10-01

    Sequencing of isolates from patients in Bahia, Brazil, where most Zika virus cases in Brazil have been reported, resulted in 11 whole and partial Zika virus genomes. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a well-supported Bahia-specific Zika virus lineage, which indicates sustained Zika virus circulation in Salvador, Bahia's capital city, since mid-2014.

  5. Distinct Zika Virus Lineage in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Naccache, Samia N.; Thézé, Julien; Sardi, Silvia I.; Somasekar, Sneha; Greninger, Alexander L.; Bandeira, Antonio C.; Campos, Gubio S.; Tauro, Laura B.; Faria, Nuno R.; Pybus, Oliver G.

    2016-01-01

    Sequencing of isolates from patients in Bahia, Brazil, where most Zika virus cases in Brazil have been reported, resulted in 11 whole and partial Zika virus genomes. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a well-supported Bahia-specific Zika virus lineage, which indicates sustained Zika virus circulation in Salvador, Bahia’s capital city, since mid-2014. PMID:27448188

  6. Shaded relief of Bahia State, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image is the first to show the full 240-kilometer-wide (150 mile)swath collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area shown is in the state of Bahia in Brazil. The semi-circular mountains along the left side of the image are the Serra Da Jacobin, which rise to 1100 meters (3600 feet) above sea level. The total relief shown is approximately 800 meters (2600 feet). The top part of the image is the Sertao, a semi-arid region, that is subject to severe droughts during El Nino events. A small portion of the San Francisco River, the longest river (1609 kilometers or 1000 miles) entirely within Brazil, cuts across the upper right corner of the image. This river is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, drought and human influences on ecosystems.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C

  7. Agriculture and snakebite in Bahia, Brazil - An ecological study.

    PubMed

    Mise, Yukari F; Lira-da-Silva, Rejâne M; Carvalho, Fernando M

    2016-07-15

    This study investigated the correlation between the incidence of snakebite and indicators of agricultural development in municipal districts of the State of Bahia, Brazil. An ecological study was conducted with the 27,347 cases of snakebite poisoning reported to the Reportable Diseases National Information System in municipalities from the State of Bahia, Brazil, 2000-2009. The unit of analysis was each one of the 417 State municipalities, and the outcome variable was the average annual incidence of snakebite. Data were analyzed by multiple linear regression technique. The average annual incidence of snakebite ranged from zero to 221.96 per 100,000 inhabitants, according to the municipalities. The incidence of snakebite was positively and strongly associated with municipality characteristics: planted areas of cocoa and coffee, and the size of domestic bred chicken and bovine livestocks. It was concluded that several characteristics related to municipal agricultural profile were strongly associated with the incidence of snakebite. PMID:27660860

  8. Decapod crustaceans in fresh waters of southeastern Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Alexandre Oliveira; Coelho, Petrônio Alves; Luz, Joaldo Rocha; dos Santos, José Tiago Almeida; Ferraz, Neyva Ribeiro

    2008-09-01

    A total of 117 species of freshwater decapod crustaceans are known from Brazil. Knowledge regarding the fauna of Decapoda from inland waters in the state of Bahia, northeast Brazil, is incipient. In spite of its wide territory and rich hydrographic net, only 13 species of limnetic decapods have been reported from that state. The objective of this contribution was to survey decapod crustaceans of some hydrographic basins in southeastern Bahia. The material described herein was obtained in samplings conducted between 1997 and 2005. Voucher specimens were deposited in the carcinological collections of the Museu de Zoologia, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, Brazil, and Departamento de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil. A total of 13 species was collected. The carideans were represented by the atyids Atya scabra (Leach, 1815) and Potimirim potimirim (Müller, 1881) and the palaemonids Macrobrachium acanthurus (Wiegmann, 1836), M. amazonicum (Heller, 1862), M. carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758), M. heterochirus (Wiegmann, 1836), M. jelskii (Miers, 1877), M. olfersi (Wiegmann, 1836), and Palaemon (Palaemon) pandaliformis (Stimpson, 1871). The brachyurans were represented by the portunids Callinectes bocourti A. Milne-Edwards, 1879 and C. sapidus Rathbun, 1895, the trichodactylid Trichodactylus fluviatilis Latreille, 1828 and the panopeid Panopeus rugosus A. Milne-Edwards, 1881. Macrobrachium heterochirus represents a new record from Bahia, and M. amazonicum is reported for the first time in southeast Bahia. The occurrence of two extreme different forms of T. fluviatilis was observed. Form A is characterized by the frontal margin of carapace bordered by conspicuous granules, the anterolateral margin provided with developed teeth plus granules, and the posterolateral margin provided with granulation similar to that found on the front. In form B the frontal margin is smooth or has an inconspicuous granulation; the anterolateral margin is

  9. Decapod crustaceans in fresh waters of southeastern Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Alexandre Oliveira; Coelho, Petrônio Alves; Luz, Joaldo Rocha; dos Santos, José Tiago Almeida; Ferraz, Neyva Ribeiro

    2008-09-01

    A total of 117 species of freshwater decapod crustaceans are known from Brazil. Knowledge regarding the fauna of Decapoda from inland waters in the state of Bahia, northeast Brazil, is incipient. In spite of its wide territory and rich hydrographic net, only 13 species of limnetic decapods have been reported from that state. The objective of this contribution was to survey decapod crustaceans of some hydrographic basins in southeastern Bahia. The material described herein was obtained in samplings conducted between 1997 and 2005. Voucher specimens were deposited in the carcinological collections of the Museu de Zoologia, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, Brazil, and Departamento de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil. A total of 13 species was collected. The carideans were represented by the atyids Atya scabra (Leach, 1815) and Potimirim potimirim (Müller, 1881) and the palaemonids Macrobrachium acanthurus (Wiegmann, 1836), M. amazonicum (Heller, 1862), M. carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758), M. heterochirus (Wiegmann, 1836), M. jelskii (Miers, 1877), M. olfersi (Wiegmann, 1836), and Palaemon (Palaemon) pandaliformis (Stimpson, 1871). The brachyurans were represented by the portunids Callinectes bocourti A. Milne-Edwards, 1879 and C. sapidus Rathbun, 1895, the trichodactylid Trichodactylus fluviatilis Latreille, 1828 and the panopeid Panopeus rugosus A. Milne-Edwards, 1881. Macrobrachium heterochirus represents a new record from Bahia, and M. amazonicum is reported for the first time in southeast Bahia. The occurrence of two extreme different forms of T. fluviatilis was observed. Form A is characterized by the frontal margin of carapace bordered by conspicuous granules, the anterolateral margin provided with developed teeth plus granules, and the posterolateral margin provided with granulation similar to that found on the front. In form B the frontal margin is smooth or has an inconspicuous granulation; the anterolateral margin is

  10. New species and new records in Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) of the state of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Galileo, Maria Helena M; Martins, Ubirajara R; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Two new species are described from Bahia (Brazil): Coleoxestiabeckeri (Cerambycini), and Oncioderesobliqua (Onciderini). Nine species are recorded for the first time for Bahia (Brazil). Key to species of Oncioderes Martins & Galileo, 1990 is provided. Coleoxestiabeckeri is included in a previous key. PMID:26312029

  11. New species and new records in Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) of the state of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Galileo, Maria Helena M; Martins, Ubirajara R; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Two new species are described from Bahia (Brazil): Coleoxestiabeckeri (Cerambycini), and Oncioderesobliqua (Onciderini). Nine species are recorded for the first time for Bahia (Brazil). Key to species of Oncioderes Martins & Galileo, 1990 is provided. Coleoxestiabeckeri is included in a previous key.

  12. [Retrospective study on Latrodectus stings in Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lira-da-Silva, R M; Matos, G B; Sampaio, R O; Nunes, T B

    1995-01-01

    This work is a retrospective study of latrodectism in the State of Bahia, Brazil, from August 1980 to July 1990. The data concerning the accidents were obtained from file cards at the Antivenom Information Center of Bahia (AVICB). Latrodectus curacavienis was the ethiologic agent identified in 28% of the arachnid accidents. The major incidence was registered in urban area (57%) affecting men (70%) more than women, with 10 to 29 year-old age group (58%). Local pain (56%), erythematous papula (29%) and light oedema (17%) were the principal local symptoms. Pain in the limbs (29%), tremor and rigidities (29%), sweating (28%), limbs and arms paresthesia (21%) and abdominal pain (17%) were systemic ones. The treatment was mainly symptomatic (67%) and antivenin serum was used in 21% of the cases. After serotherapy, 64% of the patients left the hospital within less than 24 hours.

  13. Screening for Structural Hemoglobin Variants in Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Wellington Santos; de Oliveira, Roberto Ferreira; Ribeiro, Sanzia Bezerra; da Silva, Isabel Batista; de Araújo, Edna Maria; Baptista, Abrahão Fontes

    2016-01-01

    Brazil was the country that received the largest number of Africans during the time of colonization, and Bahia was the Brazilian state that received the largest number of slaves from Africa. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the coverage of the newborn screening program for sickle cell disease in the Recôncavo Baiano region of the state of Bahia, and to show the frequency of the subjects with hemoglobin variants in the 2006–2009 period. Blood samples from neonates in twelve cities in the Recôncavo Baiano region were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. A total of 16,402 children were born in this period, 14,773 of which underwent newborn screening. In this period 1416 children were born carrying hemoglobin variants HbS and HbC. Forty-seven patients—20 HbSS genotype and 27 HbSC genotype—were diagnosed in eleven of the twelve cities surveyed. The proportion of children born with sickle cell disease in the Recôncavo Baiano region was 1/314, which was higher than the 1/650 rate for the state of Bahia. The data presented in this study confirm the high frequency of sickle cell disease in Recôncavo Baiano, demonstrating the need to create a referral center for the care of patients with sickle cell diseases in the region. PMID:26901212

  14. Documenting Architectural Heritage in Bahia, Brazil, Using Spherical Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Amorim, A. L.; Fangi, G.; Malinverni, E. S.

    2013-07-01

    The Cultural Heritage disappears at a rate higher than we are able, not only, to restore but also to document: human and natural factors, negligence or worst, deliberate demolitions put in danger the collective Architectural Heritage (AH). According to CIPA statements, the recording is important and has to follow some guidelines. The Architectural and Urban Heritage data have to be historically related, critically assessed and analyzed, before to be organized according to a thematic structure and become available for further uses. This paper shows the experiences developed by the Laboratory of Computer Graphics applied to Architecture and Design (LCAD), at the Architecture School of the Federal University of Bahia (FAUFBA), Brazil, in cooperation with the Università Politecnica delle Marche (UNIVPM, DICEA Department), Italy, in documenting architectural heritage. The research set up now has been carried out in the historical sites of Bahia, as Pelourinho neighborhood, a World Heritage by UNESCO. Other historical sites are in the plan of this survey, like the cities of Lençóis and Mucugê in Chapada Diamantina region. The aim is to build a technological platform based on low cost digital technologies and open source tools, such as Panoramic Spherical Photogrammetry, Spatial Database, Geographic Information Systems, Three-dimensional Geometric Modeling, CAD technology, for the collection, validation and dissemination of AH.

  15. Hemoglobinopathies in newborns from Salvador, Bahia, Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Adorno, Elisângela Vitória; Couto, Fábio David; Moura Neto, José Pereira de; Menezes, Joelma Figueiredo; Rêgo, Marco; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão dos; Gonçalves, Marilda Souza

    2005-01-01

    Hemoglobinopathies are hereditary disorders of the hemoglobin molecule with a high prevalence worldwide. Brazil has a prevalence of 0.1 to 0.3% of newborns with sickle cell anemia and 20.0 to 25.0% of heterozygous alpha2 thalassemia among African Brazilians. In the present study, we investigated the presence of variant hemoglobins and alpha2(3.7 Kb) and alpha2 (4.2 Kb) thalassemia in newborns from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Samples of umbilical cord blood from a total of 590 newborns were analyzed, of which 57 (9.8%) were FAS; 36 (6.5%) FAC; one (0.2%) SF; and five (0.9%) FSC. One hundred fourteen (22.2%) newborns had alpha2(3.7 Kb) thalassemia, of whom 101 (19.7%) were heterozygous and 13 (2.5%) homozygous, showing statistical significance for hematological data between newborns with normal alpha genes and alpha2(3.7 Kb) thalassemia carriers. The alpha2(4.2 Kb) thalassemia was not found. Frequencies found in the present study confirm that hemoglobinopathies are a public health problem in Brazil, emphasizing the need for neonatal screening and genetic counseling programs.

  16. Epidemiology of Chikungunya Virus in Bahia, Brazil, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Faria, Nuno; Lourenço, José; Marques de Cerqueira, Erenilde; Maia de Lima, Maricélia; Pybus, Oliver; Carlos Junior Alcantara, Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya is an emerging arbovirus that is characterized into four lineages. One of these, the Asian genotype, has spread rapidly in the Americas after its introduction in the Saint Martin island in October 2013. Unexpectedly, a new lineage, the East-Central-South African genotype, was introduced from Angola in the end of May 2014 in Feira de Santana (FSA), the second largest city in Bahia state, Brazil, where over 5,500 cases have now been reported. Number weekly cases of clinically confirmed CHIKV in FSA were analysed alongside with urban district of residence of CHIKV cases reported between June 2014 and October collected from the municipality's surveillance network. The number of cases per week from June 2014 until September 2015 reveals two distinct transmission waves. The first wave ignited in June and transmission ceased by December 2014. However, a second transmission wave started in January and peaked in May 2015, 8 months after the first wave peak, and this time in phase with Dengue virus and Zika virus transmission, which ceased when minimum temperature dropped to approximately 15°C. We find that shorter travelling times from the district where the outbreak first emerged to other urban districts of FSA were strongly associated with incidence in each district in 2014 (R(2)). PMID:27330849

  17. Three new species of Begonia (Begoniaceae) from Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gregório, Bernarda de Souza; Costa, Jorge Antonio Silva; Rapini, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomic treatment of Begoniaceae for the state of Bahia, Brazil, led to the recognition of three new species of Begonia with narrow distributions, which are described and illustrated here: Begoniadelicata Gregório & J.A.S. Costa, sp. nov. is a herb restricted to the region of the Recôncavo; Begoniaelianeae Gregório & J.A.S. Costa, sp. nov. is a shrub endemic to the Atlantic forest of the southern part of the state; and Begoniapaganuccii Gregório & J.A.S. Costa, sp. nov. is a subshrub known only from the type material, collected in the Piedmont of Paraguaçu. Notes on morphology, comparisons with morphologically similar species, etymology, geographic distribution, habitat and phenological data for each species are also presented. Furthermore, keys are provided as an aid to separating the new species from congeneric species that occur in their surroundings. Due to the sparse knowledge of the new species, there is as yet insufficient data to accurately assess their conservation status.

  18. Three new species of Begonia (Begoniaceae) from Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gregório, Bernarda de Souza; Costa, Jorge Antonio Silva; Rapini, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The taxonomic treatment of Begoniaceae for the state of Bahia, Brazil, led to the recognition of three new species of Begonia with narrow distributions, which are described and illustrated here: Begonia delicata Gregório & J.A.S. Costa, sp. nov. is a herb restricted to the region of the Recôncavo; Begonia elianeae Gregório & J.A.S. Costa, sp. nov. is a shrub endemic to the Atlantic forest of the southern part of the state; and Begonia paganuccii Gregório & J.A.S. Costa, sp. nov. is a subshrub known only from the type material, collected in the Piedmont of Paraguaçu. Notes on morphology, comparisons with morphologically similar species, etymology, geographic distribution, habitat and phenological data for each species are also presented. Furthermore, keys are provided as an aid to separating the new species from congeneric species that occur in their surroundings. Due to the sparse knowledge of the new species, there is as yet insufficient data to accurately assess their conservation status. PMID:25698891

  19. Composition and natural history notes of the coastal snake assemblage from Northern Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Ricardo; Mebert, Konrad; Fonseca, Érica; Rödder, Dennis; Solé, Mirco; Tinôco, Moacir Santos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Information about the snake diversity and their natural history from the Atlantic forest domain in Brazil refer mostly to inland forests than to coastal region. Within the state of Bahia, this knowledge is concentrated to the southeastern coastal stretch. Herein we report on the diversity of snakes from the restinga, ombrophilous forest and anthropogenic environment from the northern Atlantic coast of Bahia. We sampled nine sites for three years and visited four museum collections. Furthermore, we provide anecdotal natural history information, voucher analyses, literature complements, and a key to fascilitate species identification. We report a total of 774 snakes belonging to 50 species and 23 new distribution records for northeastern coast of Bahia, supplemented by new data on feeding and reproduction. The number of detected species is similar to numbers obtained in comparable studies from other Brazilian ecoregions. This study reports and focuses for the first time on all known species of snakes from the northeastern coast of Bahia.

  20. Composition and natural history notes of the coastal snake assemblage from Northern Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Ricardo; Mebert, Konrad; Fonseca, Érica; Rödder, Dennis; Solé, Mirco; Tinôco, Moacir Santos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Information about the snake diversity and their natural history from the Atlantic forest domain in Brazil refer mostly to inland forests than to coastal region. Within the state of Bahia, this knowledge is concentrated to the southeastern coastal stretch. Herein we report on the diversity of snakes from the restinga, ombrophilous forest and anthropogenic environment from the northern Atlantic coast of Bahia. We sampled nine sites for three years and visited four museum collections. Furthermore, we provide anecdotal natural history information, voucher analyses, literature complements, and a key to fascilitate species identification. We report a total of 774 snakes belonging to 50 species and 23 new distribution records for northeastern coast of Bahia, supplemented by new data on feeding and reproduction. The number of detected species is similar to numbers obtained in comparable studies from other Brazilian ecoregions. This study reports and focuses for the first time on all known species of snakes from the northeastern coast of Bahia. PMID:27594800

  1. Composition and natural history notes of the coastal snake assemblage from Northern Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marques, Ricardo; Mebert, Konrad; Fonseca, Érica; Rödder, Dennis; Solé, Mirco; Tinôco, Moacir Santos

    2016-01-01

    Information about the snake diversity and their natural history from the Atlantic forest domain in Brazil refer mostly to inland forests than to coastal region. Within the state of Bahia, this knowledge is concentrated to the southeastern coastal stretch. Herein we report on the diversity of snakes from the restinga, ombrophilous forest and anthropogenic environment from the northern Atlantic coast of Bahia. We sampled nine sites for three years and visited four museum collections. Furthermore, we provide anecdotal natural history information, voucher analyses, literature complements, and a key to fascilitate species identification. We report a total of 774 snakes belonging to 50 species and 23 new distribution records for northeastern coast of Bahia, supplemented by new data on feeding and reproduction. The number of detected species is similar to numbers obtained in comparable studies from other Brazilian ecoregions. This study reports and focuses for the first time on all known species of snakes from the northeastern coast of Bahia. PMID:27594800

  2. Radar image with color as height, Bahia State, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This radar image is the first to show the full 240-kilometer-wide (150 mile)swath collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area shown is in the state of Bahia in Brazil. The semi-circular mountains along the leftside of the image are the Serra Da Jacobin, which rise to 1100 meters (3600 feet) above sea level. The total relief shown is approximately 800 meters (2600 feet). The top part of the image is the Sertao, a semi-arid region, that is subject to severe droughts during El Nino events. A small portion of the San Francisco River, the longest river (1609 kilometers or 1000 miles) entirely within Brazil, cuts across the upper right corner of the image. This river is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, drought and human influences on ecosystems.

    This image combines two types of data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The image brightness corresponds to the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground, while colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. The three dark vertical stripes show the boundaries where four segments of the swath are merged to form the full scanned swath. These will be removed in later processing. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space

  3. Soil classification and carbon storage in cacao agroforestry farming systems of Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information concerning the classification of soils and their properties under cacao agroforestry systems of the Atlantic rain forest biome region in the Southeast of Bahia Brazil is largely unknown. Soil and climatic conditions in this region are favorable for high soil carbon storage. This study is...

  4. Reconnaissance for radioactive rocks in the Paulo Afonso Region, Bahia, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haynes, Donald D.; Mau, Henry

    1958-01-01

    Ground and air traverses were made to the northwest, north and northeast of Paulo Afonso, Bahia, Brazil, covering Precambrian crystalline rocks and sedimentary rocks of the Jatoba series of Jurassic or Cretaceous age. No important radioactivity anomalies were found; samples from the two strongest anomalies had an equivalent uranium-oxide content of 0.002 percent and 0.006 percent.

  5. The Entomophaga grylli (Fresenius) Batko species complex (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales) infecting grasshoppers in Ilheus (Bahia) Brazil: notes and new records

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungi from the Entomophthoraceae (Zygomycotina; Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales) belonging to the Entomophaga grylli species complex have been found in the state of Bahia, Brazil, to affect populations of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) of the species Rhammatocerus brasiliensis Bruner, Rhammatoce...

  6. Stoneflies (Insecta: Plecoptera) from Serra Bonita, Bahia, Brazil: new species and updated records.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Tácio; Lecci, Lucas S; Calor, Adolfo R

    2014-03-13

    There are 176 species representing eight genera and two families of Plecoptera known from Brazil. However, only ten of these species are recorded from the State of Bahia. In this study, an inventory of stoneflies from the southern region of Bahia State, Serra Bonita, including the municipality of Camacan, was undertaken from 2007-2012. Stoneflies were collected using UV light pan traps, Malaise traps, and aerial nets. One new gripopterygid species, Tupiperla bispoi n. sp., is described and illustrated. Four genera representing ten other species are recorded: Gripopteryx cancellata, G. clemira, G. garbei, G. pinima, Paragripopteryx sp., and Tupiperla tessellata (Gripopterygidae), Kempnyia alterosarum, K. gracilenta, K. jatim, and K. neotropica (Perlidae). With the present study, the number of known species of stoneflies recorded from Bahia State is 17, ten of these recorded from the Serra Bonita region.

  7. Photogeologic mapping in central southwest Bahia, using LANDSAT-1 multispectral images. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Ohara, T.

    1981-01-01

    The interpretation of LANDSAT multispectral imagery for geologic mapping of central southwest Bahia, Brazil is described. Surface features such as drainage, topography, vegetation and land use are identified. The area is composed of low grade Precambrian rocks covered by Mezozoic and Cenozoic sediments. The principal mineral prospects of economic value are fluorite and calcareous rocks. Gold, calcite, rock crystal, copper, potassium nitrate and alumina were also identified.

  8. Male sleeping aggregation of multiple Eucerini bee genera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Hipólito, Juliana; de Oliveira, Favízia F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Males of some groups of bees have to find a place outside the nests to sleep, sometimes forming “male sleeping aggregations”. Here we report the first record of “dense” male sleeping aggregation of two different genera of Eucerini bees observed in Bahia, Brazil. We discuss the possible aim of this kind of aggregation as well the plant utilized on aggregate. PMID:25349523

  9. Landsat mapping of rocks associated with copper mineralization, northern Bahia State, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, T. A.; Birnie, R. W.; Zantop, H.

    1983-01-01

    This project has applied Landsat digital data to a study of the geology of a mineralized zone in northern Bahia State, Brazil. The study accomplished two tasks: (1) production of a 1:100,000 geologic map of approximately 3300 sq km and (2) development of a two tiered geobotanical index that exploits increased vegetation density and decreased soil brightness on the mafic rock units.

  10. Clinical tomographic correlations of 220 patients with neurocisticercosis, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Filho, Antônio de Souza; Figuerôa, Luiz Frederico da Silva; Andrade-Souza, Victor Mascarenhas

    2007-02-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a common parasitic disease in our region, presenting diversity of neurological symptoms and signs. The present study has as primary objective an evaluation of the NCC's clinical and epidemiological profile within Bahia State, by means of a prospective study of 220 patients diagnosed from March 1988 to March 1999, with a follow-up of six months. Exams, such as Computed Cranial Tomography Scan (CT), Cerebral Spine Fluid (CSF) and Electroencephalogram (EEG), were accomplished in three distinct moments of these patients' evolution: at starting or diagnostic point (zero time), at after-intervention period (one month after treatment), and at control period (six months after treatment).

  11. New taxa and new records in Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) from the state of Bahia (Brazil) and notes on Meridiotroctes (Acanthoderini).

    PubMed

    Martins, Ubirajara R; Galileo, Maria Helena M; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Twelve new species and two new genera are described from Bahia (Brazil): Ectenessa aurantiaca (Ectenessini); Stizocera lingafelteri (Elaphidiini); Raglicia monnei (Graciliini), new genus and species; Tobipuranga aspera (Heteropsini); Cicatrion unicolor, and Pygmodeon obscurum (Neoibidionini); Neophygopoda agdae (Rhinotragini); Arapari bellus (Trachyderini), new genus and species; Meridiotroctes obliquus (Acanthoderini); Melzerella inopinata (Aerenicini); Ceiupaba poranga, and Desmiphora (Desmiphora) nascimentoi (Desmiphorini). Notes on Meridiotroctes Martins & Galileo, 2007 and Cosmisoma brullei (Mulsant, 1862) are provided. Forty-eight species are recorded for the first time for Bahia (Brazil) including four species which are recorded for the first time for Brazil. PMID:26249859

  12. New taxa and new records in Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) from the state of Bahia (Brazil) and notes on Meridiotroctes (Acanthoderini).

    PubMed

    Martins, Ubirajara R; Galileo, Maria Helena M; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2015-06-17

    Twelve new species and two new genera are described from Bahia (Brazil): Ectenessa aurantiaca (Ectenessini); Stizocera lingafelteri (Elaphidiini); Raglicia monnei (Graciliini), new genus and species; Tobipuranga aspera (Heteropsini); Cicatrion unicolor, and Pygmodeon obscurum (Neoibidionini); Neophygopoda agdae (Rhinotragini); Arapari bellus (Trachyderini), new genus and species; Meridiotroctes obliquus (Acanthoderini); Melzerella inopinata (Aerenicini); Ceiupaba poranga, and Desmiphora (Desmiphora) nascimentoi (Desmiphorini). Notes on Meridiotroctes Martins & Galileo, 2007 and Cosmisoma brullei (Mulsant, 1862) are provided. Forty-eight species are recorded for the first time for Bahia (Brazil) including four species which are recorded for the first time for Brazil.

  13. Epidemiology of canine leishmaniasis in southern Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leça Júnior, Nilo Fernandes; Guedes, Paula Elisa Brandão; Santana, Lailla Nascimento; Almeida, Valter dos Anjos; Carvalho, Fábio Santos; Albuquerque, George Rego; Wenceslau, Amauri Arias; Munhoz, Alexandre Dias; Silva, Fabiana Lessa

    2015-08-01

    Leishmaniosis is a zoonosis caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. American cutaneous leishmaniosis (ACL) is mainly caused by the species L. amazonensis and L. braziliensis, and American visceral leishmaniosis (AVL) is caused by L. infantum chagasi. In addition to their proven roles as reservoirs of AVL, dogs are also suspected by researchers to be reservoirs of ACL due to reports of this infection in domestic environments and of infected dogs in endemic areas. The aim of this study was to detect Leishmania sp. infection in dogs from Vila Operária, Buerarema, Bahia, using parasitological tests, indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Furthermore, this study also aimed to identify risk factors associated with illness in dogs in this locality by conducting an epidemiological survey. For this purpose, 292 dogs were clinically evaluated for the presence of skin lesions, and the dogs that showed these changes were submitted to scarification injury to enable preparation of slides for microscopic study of amastigotes. Subsequently, the dogs underwent blood sampling for serological (IFA) and molecular (PCR) tests. Additionally, the owners of the dogs answered an epidemiological questionnaire to facilitate the identification of risk factors for exposure of dogs to pathogens of ACL. Of the 292 dogs studied, 13 (4.5%) had lesions suggestive of ACL, but with a negative parasitological examination and 147 (50.3%) were seropositive according to the IFA. Of the 273 dogs studied using PCR test, 10 (3.66%) were positive for L. braziliensis, and all samples were negative for L. infantum chagasi. Wastelands in the peridomicile and the presence of light in the household were risk factors associated with ACL. The results show that Vila Operária has asymptomatic dogs with ACL and that the detection sensitivity of the IFA was higher than that of PCR for the infected dogs.

  14. Phytoseiid mites from tropical fruit trees in Bahia State, Brazil (Acari, Phytoseiidae)

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Izabel Vieira; Sá Argolo, Poliane; Júnior, Manoel Guedes Correa Gondim; de Moraes, Gilberto José; Bittencourt, Maria Aparecida Leão; Oliveira, Anibal Ramadan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The cultivation of tropical fruit trees has grown considerably in the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. Some of these have been severely attacked by phytophagous mites, which are usually controlled by the use of chemical pesticides. However, there is today a growing interest for the adoption of less aggressive measures of pest control, as for example the use of predatory mites. Most of the plant-inhabiting predatory mites belong to the family Phytoseiidae. The objective of this paper is to report the phytoseiid species found in an intensive survey conducted on cultivated tropical fruit trees in fifteen localities of the southern coast of Bahia. Measurements of relevant morphological characters are provided for each species, to complement the understanding of the morphological variation of these species. Twenty-nine species of sixteen genera were identified. A key was elaborated to assist in the separation of these species. Fifteen species are reported for the first time in the state, raising to sixty-six the number of species of this family now known from Bahia. Seventy-two percent of the species collected belong to Amblyseiinae, followed by Typhlodrominae (21%) and Phytoseiinae (7%). The most diverse genus was Amblyseius. Amblyseius operculatus De Leon was the most frequent and abundant species. Studies should be conducted to evaluate the possible role of the most common predators as control agents of the phytophagous mites co-occurring with them. PMID:26668542

  15. Spatial study of homicide rates in the state of Bahia, Brazil, 1996-2010

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Tiago Oliveira; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the spatial distribution of homicide mortality in the state of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. METHODS Ecological study of the 15 to 39-year old male population in the state of Bahia in the period 1996-2010. Data from the Mortality Information System, relating to homicide (X85-Y09) and population estimates from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics were used. The existence of spatial correlation, the presence of clusters and critical areas of the event studied were analyzed using Moran’s I Global and Local indices. RESULTS A non-random spatial pattern was observed in the distribution of rates, as was the presence of three clusters, the first in the north health district, the second in the eastern region, and the third cluster included townships in the south and the far south of Bahia. CONCLUSIONS The homicide mortality in the three different critical areas requires further studies that consider the socioeconomic, cultural and environmental characteristics in order to guide specific preventive and interventionist practices. PMID:25119942

  16. Phytoseiid mites from tropical fruit trees in Bahia State, Brazil (Acari, Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    de Souza, Izabel Vieira; Sá Argolo, Poliane; Júnior, Manoel Guedes Correa Gondim; de Moraes, Gilberto José; Bittencourt, Maria Aparecida Leão; Oliveira, Anibal Ramadan

    2015-01-01

    The cultivation of tropical fruit trees has grown considerably in the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. Some of these have been severely attacked by phytophagous mites, which are usually controlled by the use of chemical pesticides. However, there is today a growing interest for the adoption of less aggressive measures of pest control, as for example the use of predatory mites. Most of the plant-inhabiting predatory mites belong to the family Phytoseiidae. The objective of this paper is to report the phytoseiid species found in an intensive survey conducted on cultivated tropical fruit trees in fifteen localities of the southern coast of Bahia. Measurements of relevant morphological characters are provided for each species, to complement the understanding of the morphological variation of these species. Twenty-nine species of sixteen genera were identified. A key was elaborated to assist in the separation of these species. Fifteen species are reported for the first time in the state, raising to sixty-six the number of species of this family now known from Bahia. Seventy-two percent of the species collected belong to Amblyseiinae, followed by Typhlodrominae (21%) and Phytoseiinae (7%). The most diverse genus was Amblyseius. Amblyseius operculatus De Leon was the most frequent and abundant species. Studies should be conducted to evaluate the possible role of the most common predators as control agents of the phytophagous mites co-occurring with them.

  17. A nonbreeding concentration of Roseate and Common Terns in Bahia, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hays, H.; Lima, P.; Monteiro, L.; DiConstanzo, J.; Cormons, G.; Nisbet, I.C.T.; Saliva, J.E.; Spendelow, J.A.; Burger, J.; Pierce, J.; Gochfeld, M.

    1999-01-01

    We report recoveries of banded Roseate (Sterna dougallii) and Common (S. hirundo) Terns netted at Mangue Seco, Bahia, Brazil (11? 27'S, 37? 21'W). Mangue Seco is the first reported South American location where large numbers of Roseate Terns concentrate December-March, and where members of both the North American and Caribbean populations occur together during these months. A Roseate Tern recovered at Mangue Seco sets an age record of 25.6 years for the species. Recoveries at Mangue Seco of Common Terns banded in the Azores (37? -38?N, 25? -29?W) suggest there is a regular transatlantic movement by Common Terns between the two locations.

  18. Three new species of the genus Paraleucilla Dendy, 1892 (Porifera, Calcarea) from the coast of Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Fernanda F; Menegola, Carla; Lanna, Emilio

    2014-02-13

    Three new species of calcareous sponges from the coast of Bahia State, NE Brazil are described. All of them belong to the genus Paraleucilla (Calcaronea, Leucosolenida, Amphoriscidae): P. solangeae sp. nov., P. oca sp. nov., and P. incomposita sp. nov. The number of species recorded from the Bahia coast has thus increased from 10 to 13. Including these new species, there are now 50 calcareous sponge species known from the entire Brazilian coast. Paraleucilla is now composed of 11 species, six of them occurring along the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. The remaining species occur mainly in the Indian Ocean, and also in the Pacific Ocean, Red Sea and Mediterranean Sea. An identification key for all Paraleucilla species is provided. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Professor Solange Peixinho, to acknowledge her contribution to our understanding of the biodiversity of Calcarea from the Bahia coast in Brazil.

  19. Hawksbill × loggerhead sea turtle hybrids at Bahia, Brazil: where do their offspring go?

    PubMed

    Proietti, Maira C; Reisser, Julia; Marins, Luis F; Marcovaldi, Maria A; Soares, Luciano S; Monteiro, Danielle S; Wijeratne, Sarath; Pattiaratchi, Charitha; Secchi, Eduardo R

    2014-01-01

    Hybridization between hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) and loggerhead (Caretta caretta) breeding groups is unusually common in Bahia state, Brazil. Such hybridization is possible because hawksbill and loggerhead nesting activities overlap temporally and spatially along the coast of this state. Nevertheless, the destinations of their offspring are not yet known. This study is the first to identify immature hawksbill × loggerhead hybrids (n = 4) from this rookery by analyzing the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 157 immature turtles morphologically identified as hawksbills. We also compare for the first time modeled dispersal patterns of hawksbill, loggerhead, and hybrid offspring considering hatching season and oceanic phase duration of turtles. Particle movements varied according to season, with a higher proportion of particles dispersing southwards throughout loggerhead and hybrid hatching seasons, and northwards during hawksbill season. Hybrids from Bahia were not present in important hawksbill feeding grounds of Brazil, being detected only at areas more common for loggerheads. The genetic and oceanographic findings of this work indicate that these immature hybrids, which are morphologically similar to hawksbills, could be adopting behavioral traits typical of loggerheads, such as feeding in temperate waters of the western South Atlantic. Understanding the distribution, ecology, and migrations of these hybrids is essential for the development of adequate conservation and management plans.

  20. Hawksbill × loggerhead sea turtle hybrids at Bahia, Brazil: where do their offspring go?

    PubMed Central

    Reisser, Julia; Marins, Luis F.; Marcovaldi, Maria A.; Soares, Luciano S.; Monteiro, Danielle S.; Wijeratne, Sarath; Pattiaratchi, Charitha; Secchi, Eduardo R.

    2014-01-01

    Hybridization between hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) and loggerhead (Caretta caretta) breeding groups is unusually common in Bahia state, Brazil. Such hybridization is possible because hawksbill and loggerhead nesting activities overlap temporally and spatially along the coast of this state. Nevertheless, the destinations of their offspring are not yet known. This study is the first to identify immature hawksbill × loggerhead hybrids (n = 4) from this rookery by analyzing the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 157 immature turtles morphologically identified as hawksbills. We also compare for the first time modeled dispersal patterns of hawksbill, loggerhead, and hybrid offspring considering hatching season and oceanic phase duration of turtles. Particle movements varied according to season, with a higher proportion of particles dispersing southwards throughout loggerhead and hybrid hatching seasons, and northwards during hawksbill season. Hybrids from Bahia were not present in important hawksbill feeding grounds of Brazil, being detected only at areas more common for loggerheads. The genetic and oceanographic findings of this work indicate that these immature hybrids, which are morphologically similar to hawksbills, could be adopting behavioral traits typical of loggerheads, such as feeding in temperate waters of the western South Atlantic. Understanding the distribution, ecology, and migrations of these hybrids is essential for the development of adequate conservation and management plans. PMID:24688839

  1. New species and first records of Macunahyphes Dias, Salles & Molineri, 2005 (Ephemeroptera: Leptohyphidae) from Bahia state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Everlin; Mariano, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Macunahyphes Dias, Salles & Molineri (Leptohyphidae) is described based on male imagos collected in the Michelin Ecological Reserve, Igrapiúna, Bahia state, Brazil, located in a preserved area of Atlantic Forest. The male of the new species can be distinguished from all congeners by the shape of the penes, which have a pair of unusual spines, and are elongated with lateral hook-shaped projections distributed from the base to the middle region. This new species represents the first record for the genus from Bahia State. PMID:26623741

  2. A new species of Chilicola from Bahia, Brazil (Hymenoptera, Colletidae), with a key to the species of the megalostigma group

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Favízia Freitas; Mahlmann, Thiago; Engel, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The bee genus Chilicola Spinola (Xeromelissinae) is recorded from the State of Bahia, Brazil for the first time, based on a new species of the megalostigma group of the subgenus Hylaeosoma Ashmead. Chilicola (Hylaeosoma) kevani sp. n. is described and figured from males collected in Wesceslau Guimarães, Bahia. The species can be distinguished on the basis of coloration, size, integumental sculpturing, and structure of the hidden metasomal sterna and genitalia. A revised key to the species of the megalostigma group is provided. PMID:22287912

  3. Recovery of different waste vegetable oils for biodiesel production: a pilot experience in Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Torres, Ednildo Andrade; Cerqueira, Gilberto S; Tiago, M Ferrer; Quintella, Cristina M; Raboni, Massimo; Torretta, Vincenzo; Urbini, Giordano

    2013-12-01

    In Brazil, and mainly in the State of Bahia, crude vegetable oils are widely used in the preparation of food. Street stalls, restaurants and canteens make a great use of palm oil and soybean oil. There is also some use of castor oil, which is widely cultivated in the Sertão Region (within the State of Bahia), and widely applied in industry. This massive use in food preparation leads to a huge amount of waste oil of different types, which needs either to be properly disposed of, or recovered. At the Laboratorio Energia e Gas-LEN (Energy & Gas lab.) of the Universidade Federal da Bahia, a cycle of experiments were carried out to evaluate the recovery of waste oils for biodiesel production. The experiences were carried out on a laboratory scale and, in a semi-industrial pilot plant using waste oils of different qualities. In the transesterification process, applied waste vegetable oils were reacted with methanol with the support of a basic catalyst, such as NaOH or KOH. The conversion rate settled at between 81% and 85% (in weight). The most suitable molar ratio of waste oils to alcohol was 1:6, and the amount of catalyst required was 0.5% (of the weight of the incoming oil), in the case of NaOH, and 1%, in case of KOH. The quality of the biodiesel produced was tested to determine the final product quality. The parameters analyzed were the acid value, kinematic viscosity, monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, free glycerine, total glycerine, clearness; the conversion yield of the process was also evaluated.

  4. Spigelia genuflexa (Loganiaceae), a new geocarpic species from the Atlantic forest of northeastern Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Popovkin, Alex V.; Mathews, Katherine G.; Santos, José Carlos Mendes; Molina, M. Carmen; Struwe, Lena

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Spigelia L. (Loganiaceae), Spigelia genuflexa Popovkin & Struwe, sp. n., from the Atlantic forest of northeastern Bahia, Brazil, is described, being the first reported geocarpic species in the family. During fruit maturation, the basal infructescences bend down towards the ground, depositing the fruit on the surface (and burying it in soft kinds of ground cover, e.g., moss), whereas the upper ones do so slightly but noticeably. The species is a short-lived annual apparently restricted to sandy-soil habitat of the Atlantic forest of northeastern Bahia, with variable and heterogeneous microenvironment and is known from only two restricted localities. A short review of amphi- and geocarpic species is provided. A discussion of comparative morphology within Spigelia with regards to dwarfism, indumentum, and annual habit is included. A phylogenetic parsimony and Bayesian analysis of ITS sequences from 15 Spigelia species plus 17 outgroups in Loganiaceae confirms its independent taxonomic status: on the basis of sequence similarity and phylogenetic topology it is phylogenetically distinct from all Spigelia species sequenced so far. PMID:22287919

  5. Trypanosoma cruzi strains from triatomine collected in Bahia and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Aline Rimoldi; Mendonça, Vagner José; Alves, Renata Tomé; Martinez, Isabel; de Araújo, Renato Freitas; Mello, Fernanda; da Rosa, João Aristeu

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Collection of triatomines in domestic, peridomestic and sylvatic environments in states of Bahia and Rio Grande do Sul, Northeastern and Southern Brazil respectively, and isolation of Trypanosoma cruzi strains. METHODS First, the captured triatomines were identified using insect identification keys, then their intestinal content was examined by abdominal compression, and the samples containing trypanosomatid forms were inoculated in LIT medium and Swiss mice. RESULTS Six triatomine species were collected in cities in Bahia, namely Panstrongylus geniculatus (01), Triatoma melanocephala (11), T. lenti (94), T. pseudomaculata (02), T. sherlocki (26) and T. sordida (460), and two in cities in Rio Grande do Sul, namely T. circummaculata (11) and T. rubrovaria (115). Out of the specimens examined, T. cruzi was isolated from 28 triatomine divided into four different species: T. melanocephala (one), T. lenti (one), T. rubrovaria (16) and T. sordida (10). Their index of natural infection by T. cruzi was 6.4%. CONCLUSIONS The isolation of T. cruzi strains from triatomines found in domestic and peridomestic areas shows the potential risk of transmission of Chagas disease in the studied cities. The maintenance of those T. cruzi strains in laboratory is intended to promote studies that facilitate the understanding of the parasite-vector-host relationship. PMID:24897051

  6. The dynamics of dengue virus serotype 3 introduction and dispersion in the state of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Melo, Paulo Roberto Santana de; Reis, Eliana Almeida Gomes; Ciuffo, Isolina Allen; Góes, Mônica; Blanton, Ronald Edward; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão dos

    2007-12-01

    By 2002, dengue virus serotype 1 (DENV-1) and DENV-2 had circulated for more than a decade in Brazil. In 2002, the introduction of DENV-3 in the state of Bahia produced a massive epidemic and the first cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever. Based on the standardized frequency, timing and location of viral isolations by the state's Central Laboratory, DENV-3 probably entered Bahia through its capital, Salvador, and then rapidly disseminated to other cities, following the main roads. A linear regression model that included traffic flow, distance from the capital and DENV-1 circulation (r2 = 0.24, p = 0.001) supported this hypothesis. This pattern was not seen for serotypes already in circulation and was not seen for DENV-3 in the following year. Human population density was another important factor in the intensity of viral circulation. Neither DENV-1 nor DENV-2 fit this model for 2001 or 2003. Since the vector has limited flight range and vector densities fail to correlate with intensity of viral circulation, this distribution represents the movement of infected people and to some extent mosquitoes. This pattern may mimic person-to-person spread of a new infection.

  7. [Managing comprehensive care: a case study in a health district in Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Adriano Maia; Giovanella, Ligia

    2016-03-01

    This study analyzed management of comprehensive care in a health district in Bahia State, Brazil, at the political, institutional, organizational, and healthcare practice levels and the challenges for establishing coordinated care between municipalities. The information sources were semi-structured interviews with administrators, focal groups with healthcare professionals and users, institutional documents, and observations. A comprehensive and critical analysis was produced with dialectical hermeneutics as the reference. The results show that the Inter-Administrators Regional Commission was the main regional governance strategy. There is a fragmentation between various points and lack of communications linkage in the network. Private interests and partisan political interference overlook the formally agreed-upon flows and create parallel circuits, turning the right to health into currency for trading favors. Such issues hinder coordination of comprehensive care in the inter-municipal network. PMID:27027458

  8. Evolution of inequalities in mortality in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, 1991/2006.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Shirley Andrade; Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria; Costa, Maria da Conceição Nascimento; Paim, Jairnilson Silva

    2011-01-01

    An ecological study was carried out with the aim of analyzing the evolution of inequalities in mortality in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, between 1991 and 2006. The city was divided into four social strata from 95 geographic Information Zones. The variables used for social stratification were education level and income of heads of households. Crude and age-standardized mortality rates, age specific mortality rates, proportional Infant mortality and the proportional mortality ratio, were calculated for each zone and social strata. Data was obtained from Death Certificates and the Populational Census. Although differences between strata were smaller in 2000 than in 1991, they persist and are still high, ranging from 28.7% to 65.5%. The differences between Information Zones were as much as 575%. The authors discuss the shortcomings of information systems, recommending that health indicators should be estimated by social classes and pointing out the limits and possibilities of the methodology used here.

  9. Back pain in adults living in quilombola territories of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Luis Rogério Cosme Silva; Assunção, Ada Ávila; Lima, Eduardo de Paula

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the factors associated with back pain in adults who live in quilombola territories. METHODS A population-based survey was performed on quilombola communities of Vitória da Conquista, state of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. The sample (n = 750) was established via a raffle of residences. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to investigate sociodemographics and employment characteristics, lifestyle, and health conditions. The outcome was analyzed as a dichotomous variable (Poisson regression). RESULTS The prevalence of back pain was of 39.3%. Age ≥ 30 years and being a smoker were associated with the outcome. The employment status was not related to back pain. CONCLUSIONS The survey identified a high prevalence of back pain in adults. It is suggested to support the restructuring of the local public service in order to outline programs and access to healthy practices, assistance, diagnosis, and treatment of spine problems. PMID:25372165

  10. Characterization of organic matter in a sediment Core near the Mataripe refinery, Bahia-Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Alexandre Barreto; de Souza, José Roberto Bispo; Zucchi, Maria do Rosário; de Azevedo, Antonio Expedito Gomes; de Argollo, Roberto Max

    2016-04-15

    A sediment core was taken from the Todos os Santos Bay, near the Mataripe Bahia-Brazil refinery. The results of dating, (210)Pb and (137)Cs methods, combined with organic indicators, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), n-alkanes and total organic carbon (TOC), showed significant change with the start of production of the oil fields of Aratu, Itaparica and Dom João (1939-1947) and the construction of the Mataripe refinery (1949-1950). This event was marked by a series of significant changes, including an abrupt increase in TOC and the growth of PAH concentrations and the presence Unresolved/Resolved ratio (UR/R)>4 in n-alkanes fraction, which indicated that the contamination was of petrogenic origin. The δ(13)C of specific n-alkanes compounds showed gradual deplete with the depth.

  11. [Overweight and abdominal obesity in adults in aquilombocommunity in Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Soares, Daniela Arruda; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2014-02-01

    This study analyzes nutritional status, estimates the prevalence of overweight and abdominal obesity, and investigates factors associated with these outcomes in a two-stage random sample of adults (> 20 years) in quilombos (communities that descend from African slaves) in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil, in 2011. Among 739 participants, prevalence rates were 31.8% and 10.2% for overweight and obesity, respectively, and 55.7% for increased waist-to-height ratio (> 0.50). Prevalence of overweight was higher among 30-39-year-olds, while abdominal obesity was more frequent among older individuals. Female sex, eating chicken or beef with untrimmed fat, and hypertension were associated with higher odds of overweight and abdominal obesity, while smoking and single marital status were associated with lower odds. The results show high prevalence rates for overweight and abdominal obesity in these very poor and socially isolated communities. Specific preventive and control measures are urgently needed.

  12. [Managing comprehensive care: a case study in a health district in Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Adriano Maia; Giovanella, Ligia

    2016-03-01

    This study analyzed management of comprehensive care in a health district in Bahia State, Brazil, at the political, institutional, organizational, and healthcare practice levels and the challenges for establishing coordinated care between municipalities. The information sources were semi-structured interviews with administrators, focal groups with healthcare professionals and users, institutional documents, and observations. A comprehensive and critical analysis was produced with dialectical hermeneutics as the reference. The results show that the Inter-Administrators Regional Commission was the main regional governance strategy. There is a fragmentation between various points and lack of communications linkage in the network. Private interests and partisan political interference overlook the formally agreed-upon flows and create parallel circuits, turning the right to health into currency for trading favors. Such issues hinder coordination of comprehensive care in the inter-municipal network.

  13. [Inter-sector social mobilization for dengue control in Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lima, Elvira Caires de; Vilasbôas, Ana Luiza Queiroz

    2011-08-01

    Discussions on the health-disease process and health promotion indicate the need to reach beyond the limits of the health sector itself to link knowledge from various fields in order to promote better health conditions for the population. Inter-sector approaches have thus emerged as a new rationale for guiding public policies. This study aimed to analyze the implementation of inter-sector actions in social mobilization for dengue control in Bahia State, Brazil, from 2008 to 2009, using evaluative research. A log frame was developed to define criteria for assessing the degree of implementation of the above-mentioned actions (implemented; partially implemented; not implemented). The results identified political support from government agencies as the main positive factor for inter-sector practices. Barriers included the concentration of responsibilities in a single sector and lack of planning as a work tool. The results emphasize inter-sector linkage as a persistent challenge.

  14. A new species of Amanahyphes Salles & Molineri, 2006 (Ephemeroptera: Leptohyphidae) from Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Molineri, Carlos; Lima, Lucas R C; Knapp, William D; Docio, Loyana

    2015-01-01

    A new species of the previously monotypic genus Amanahyphes Salles & Molineri, 2006 is described based on the male imago, egg and nymph from the state of Bahia, Brazil. Characters and illustrations to distinguish Amanahyphes bahiensis sp. nov. from A. saguassu and all other species in Leptohyphidae are provided. Amanahyphes bahiensis sp. nov. is diagnosed as follows: in the male imago, forewing shaded slightly with brownish at basal third and penes basally fused, distally with diverging lobes, and with a short spine-like projection at midlength on lateral margin; in the nymph, femoral spines long, slender and acuminate, tarsal claws with 10-11 marginal denticles and 2+3 subapical submarginal denticles, gill formula 3/2/2/2. Geographic records of both species are amended and indicated on a map. PMID:26248920

  15. [Biosecurity infrastructure for biological agents in hospitals from the south of Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Penteado, Maridalva de Souza; Oliveira, Tânia Cristina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the biosecurity infrastructure in hospitals located in the South Region of Bahia State, Brazil. That was a descriptive-exploratory study carried out in commissions hospital infections control and institutional prevention commission of accidents about the existence of written norms, the accomplishment of training, the existence of concernments institutional registers to the biosecurity, and the existence of practical attention to the health of the professionals and isolated patients. Hospitals are compared according to the presence of each one of the itens under analysis as its classification, legal-financial issues, etc. It was conclude that the general situation is precarious regarding the presence of the items investigated, that impels to consider the necessity that must take into account an analysis of hospital quality, and also the care of the life of its workers.

  16. Coinfections of Zika and Chikungunya Viruses in Bahia, Brazil, Identified by Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Sardi, Silvia I; Somasekar, Sneha; Naccache, Samia N; Bandeira, Antonio C; Tauro, Laura B; Campos, Gubio S; Chiu, Charles Y

    2016-09-01

    Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) of samples from 15 patients with documented Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in Bahia, Brazil, from April 2015 to January 2016 identified coinfections with chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in 2 of 15 ZIKV-positive cases by PCR (13.3%). While generally nonspecific, the clinical presentation corresponding to these two CHIKV/ZIKV coinfections reflected infection by the virus present at a higher titer. Aside from CHIKV and ZIKV, coinfections of other viral pathogens were not detected. The mNGS approach is promising for differential diagnosis of acute febrile illness and identification of coinfections, although targeted arbovirus screening may be sufficient in the current ZIKV outbreak setting. PMID:27413190

  17. [Biosecurity infrastructure for biological agents in hospitals from the south of Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Penteado, Maridalva de Souza; Oliveira, Tânia Cristina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the biosecurity infrastructure in hospitals located in the South Region of Bahia State, Brazil. That was a descriptive-exploratory study carried out in commissions hospital infections control and institutional prevention commission of accidents about the existence of written norms, the accomplishment of training, the existence of concernments institutional registers to the biosecurity, and the existence of practical attention to the health of the professionals and isolated patients. Hospitals are compared according to the presence of each one of the itens under analysis as its classification, legal-financial issues, etc. It was conclude that the general situation is precarious regarding the presence of the items investigated, that impels to consider the necessity that must take into account an analysis of hospital quality, and also the care of the life of its workers. PMID:21103760

  18. Coinfections of Zika and Chikungunya Viruses in Bahia, Brazil, Identified by Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Sardi, Silvia I; Somasekar, Sneha; Naccache, Samia N; Bandeira, Antonio C; Tauro, Laura B; Campos, Gubio S; Chiu, Charles Y

    2016-09-01

    Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) of samples from 15 patients with documented Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in Bahia, Brazil, from April 2015 to January 2016 identified coinfections with chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in 2 of 15 ZIKV-positive cases by PCR (13.3%). While generally nonspecific, the clinical presentation corresponding to these two CHIKV/ZIKV coinfections reflected infection by the virus present at a higher titer. Aside from CHIKV and ZIKV, coinfections of other viral pathogens were not detected. The mNGS approach is promising for differential diagnosis of acute febrile illness and identification of coinfections, although targeted arbovirus screening may be sufficient in the current ZIKV outbreak setting.

  19. A new heterandrous species of Solanum section Gonatotrichum Bitter (Solanaceae) from Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Giacomin, Leandro L; Stehmann, João Renato

    2011-01-01

    A new species of Solanum from Brazil is described. Solanum evolvuloides Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov. belongs to section Gonatotrichum, a small group assigned to the Brevantherum Clade of the genus Solanum. It resembles Solanum turneroides Chodat, sharing with it heterandry, and Solanum parcistrigosum Bitter, with which it shares a similar habit and pubescence. Despite these similarities, the species can be recognized by its ovate-elliptic to cordiform leaf shape and more membranaceous leaf texture than the other species in the section, and stem, inflorescence axes, and calyx vestiture mainly composed of glandular hairs. Solanum evolvuloides is known to occur only in southeastern of Bahia state, Brazil, and in a preliminary assessment of the IUCN criteria can be considered a threatened species.ResumoUma nova espécie de Solanum é descrita para o Brasil. Solanum evolvuloides Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov. é componente da seção Gonatotrichum, um pequeno grupo associado ao Clado Brevantherum. A espécie é similar a Solanum turneroides, com a qual compartilha a heterandria, e Solanum parcistrigosum, que por sua vez apresenta um hábito e indumento foliar semelhante. Apesar da similaridade, a espécie pode ser facilmente reconhecida pela forma da folha ovada-elíptica a cordiforme e pela texura mais membranácea que as outras espécies da seção, além do indumento do caule, eixo da inflorescência e cálice, constituído em sua maioria por tricomas glandulares pedicelados. Solanum evolvuloides tem sua distribuição conhecida somente para o sudeste do estado da Bahia, Brasil, e é indicada como uma espécie ameaçada de extinção. PMID:22287920

  20. High prevalence of giardiasis and stronglyloidiasis among HIV-infected patients in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Feitosa, G; Bandeira, A C; Sampaio, D P; Badaró, R; Brites, C

    2001-12-01

    Diarrhea due to intestinal microbial infections is a frequent manifestation among HIV-infected patients. It has been postulated that HIV-infected patients may have special types of intestinal infections, and that immune activation from such parasites may affect the progression of HIV disease. To evaluate these associations, the frequency of infections was examined in HIV-infected patients in Bahia, Brazil. To determine the potential impact of the presence of intestinal parasitic infections on HIV disease progression, a retrospective study approach was used. The medical charts of 365 HIV-infected patients who had been treated at the AIDS Clinic of the Federal University of Bahia Hospital were reviewed, and the prevalence of parasites was compared with 5,243 HIV-negative patients who had attended the hospital during the same period of time. Among HIV-infected subjects, CD(4) count, RNA plasma viral load (VL), and number of eosinophils were compared according to their stool examination results. The overall prevalence of each parasite was similar for HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients. However, the prevalence of S. stercoralis (p<10(-7)) and G. lamblia (p=0.005) was greater for HIV-infected subjects. The mean CD(4) count and viral load of HIV patients in our clinic who had stool examinations was 350 cells +/- 340 and 4.4 +/- 1.4 log RNA viral load, respectively. In this patient group there was no clear association between the level of the absolute CD(4) count or the viral load and a specific parasitic infection. The presence of an intestinal parasitic infection was not associated with faster progression of the HIV disease among HIV-infected patients. We conclude that strongyloidiasis and giardiasis are more frequent in HIV-infected patients in Bahia, Brazil. If this association is due to immune dysregulation, as has been proposed elsewhere, it must occur in patients after only minor shifts in CD(4) count from normal levels, or as a result of immune dysfunction not

  1. A new Crossodactylodes Cochran, 1938 (Anura: Leptodactylidae: Paratelmatobiinae) from the highlands of the Atlantic Forests of southern Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Mauro; Recoder, Renato Sousa; Amaro, Renata Cecília; Damasceno, Roberta Pacheco; Cassimiro, José; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut

    2013-01-01

    A new Crossodactylodes is described from Serra das Lontras, in the highlands of the Atlantic Forests of southern Bahia. The new species can be distinguished from all other Crossodactylodes by having Finger I ending in an acute tip, a larger body size, by cranial features, and by molecular data. Like their congeners, the new species live in bromeliads but is widely geographically disjunct, being apparently restricted to the summit of a mountain range in Northeastern Brazil. PMID:26146739

  2. [Use of health services by quilombo communities in southwest Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Gomes, Karine de Oliveira; Reis, Edna Afonso; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland; Cherchiglia, Mariângela Leal

    2013-09-01

    Use of health services is increasing in Brazil as a whole, but geographic and social inequalities persist, especially among minority groups. The aim of this study was to analyze the use of health services by members of quilombos (slavedescendant African-Brazilian communities) in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil. This cross-sectional health survey in 2011 focused on 797 adults (≥ 18 years old) belonging to quilombos. The magnitude of the associations between explanatory variables and use of services was estimated by the prevalence ratio obtained from Poisson regression with 95% confidence interval. Of the total sample, 455 (57.1%) reported having used health services in the 12 months prior to the interview. Higher rates of health services utilization were associated with female gender, non-single conjugal status, fair, poor, or very poor self-rated health, enrolment in the Family Health Program, and referral to a health facility for regular or on-going care. The results showed underutilization of health services by members of quilombos, thus demonstrating the need to improve health services provision for this population group.

  3. Factors associated with food insecurity in households of public school students of Salvador City, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Souza Bittencourt, Liliane; Chaves dos Santos, Sandra Maria; de Jesus Pinto, Elizabete; Aliaga, Marie Agnes; de Cássia Ribeiro-Silva, Rita

    2013-12-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to find out the factors associated with food insecurity (FI) in households of the students aged 6-12 years in public schools of Salvador city, Bahia, Brazil. The study included 1,101 households. Food and nutritional insecurity was measured using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale (BFIS). Data on socioeconomic and demographic characteristics as well as environmental and housing conditions were collected during the interviews conducted with the reference persons. Multivariate polytomous logistic regression was used in assessing factors associated with food insecurity. We detected prevalence of food insecurity in 71.3% of the households. Severe and moderate forms of FI were diagnosed in 37.1% of the households and were associated with: (i) female gender of the reference person in the households (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.47-3.31); (ii) a monthly per-capita income below one-fourth of the minimum wage (US$ 191.73) (OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.68-4.08); (iii) number of residents per bedroom below 3 persons (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.23-2.96); and (iv) inadequate housing conditions (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.12-4.49). Socioeconomic inequalities determine the factors associated with FI of households in Salvador, Bahia. Identifying vulnerabilities is necessary to support public policies in reducing food insecurity in the country. The results of the present study may be used in re-evaluating strategies that may limit the inequalities in school environment.

  4. Factors Associated with Food Insecurity in Households of Public School Students of Salvador City, Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, Liliane de Souza; dos Santos, Sandra Maria Chaves; Pinto, Elizabete de Jesus; Aliaga, Marie Agnès

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to find out the factors associated with food insecurity (FI) in households of the students aged 6-12 years in public schools of Salvador city, Bahia, Brazil. The study included 1,101 households. Food and nutritional insecurity was measured using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale (BFIS). Data on socioeconomic and demographic characteristics as well as environmental and housing conditions were collected during the interviews conducted with the reference persons. Multivariate polytomous logistic regression was used in assessing factors associated with food insecurity. We detected prevalence of food insecurity in 71.3% of the households. Severe and moderate forms of FI were diagnosed in 37.1% of the households and were associated with: (i) female gender of the reference person in the households (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.47-3.31); (ii) a monthly per-capita income below one-fourth of the minimum wage (US$ 191,73) (OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.68-4.08); (iii) number of residents per bedroom below 3 persons (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.23-2.96); and (iv) inadequate housing conditions (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.12-4.49). Socioeconomic inequalities determine the factors associated with FI of households in Salvador, Bahia. Identifying vulnerabilities is necessary to support public policies in reducing food insecurity in the country. The results of the present study may be used in re-evaluating strategies that may limit the inequalities in school environment. PMID:24592588

  5. Detection of Rickettsia bellii and Rickettsia amblyommii in Amblyomma longirostre (Acari: Ixodidae) from Bahia state, Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Douglas; Bezerra, Rodrigo Alves; Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Gaiotto, Fernanda Amato; Giné, Gastón Andrés Fernandez; Albuquerque, George Rego

    2015-01-01

    Studies investigating rickettsial infections in ticks parasitizing wild animals in the Northeast region of Brazil have been confined to the detection of Rickettsia amblyommii in immature stages of Amblyomma longirostre collected from birds in the state of Bahia, and in immatures and females of Amblyomma auricularium collected from the striped hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus semistriatus) and armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus) in the state of Pernambuco. The current study extends the distribution of R. amblyommii (strain Aranha), which was detected in A. longirostre collected from the thin-spined porcupine Chaetomys subspinosus and the hairy dwarf porcupine Coendou insidiosus. In addition, we report the first detection of Rickettsia bellii in adults of A. longirostre collected from C. insidiosus in the state of Bahia. PMID:26413074

  6. Detection of Rickettsia bellii and Rickettsia amblyommii in Amblyomma longirostre (Acari: Ixodidae) from Bahia state, Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Douglas; Bezerra, Rodrigo Alves; Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Gaiotto, Fernanda Amato; Giné, Gastón Andrés Fernandez; Albuquerque, George Rego

    2015-01-01

    Studies investigating rickettsial infections in ticks parasitizing wild animals in the Northeast region of Brazil have been confined to the detection of Rickettsia amblyommii in immature stages of Amblyomma longirostre collected from birds in the state of Bahia, and in immatures and females of Amblyomma auricularium collected from the striped hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus semistriatus) and armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus) in the state of Pernambuco. The current study extends the distribution of R. amblyommii (strain Aranha), which was detected in A. longirostre collected from the thin-spined porcupine Chaetomys subspinosus and the hairy dwarf porcupine Coendou insidiosus. In addition, we report the first detection of Rickettsia bellii in adults of A. longirostre collected from C. insidiosus in the state of Bahia.

  7. Detection of Rickettsia bellii and Rickettsia amblyommii in Amblyomma longirostre (Acari: Ixodidae) from Bahia state, Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, Douglas; Bezerra, Rodrigo Alves; Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Gaiotto, Fernanda Amato; Giné, Gastón Andrés Fernandez; Albuquerque, George Rego

    2015-01-01

    Studies investigating rickettsial infections in ticks parasitizing wild animals in the Northeast region of Brazil have been confined to the detection of Rickettsia amblyommii in immature stages of Amblyomma longirostre collected from birds in the state of Bahia, and in immatures and females of Amblyomma auriculariumcollected from the striped hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus semistriatus) and armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus) in the state of Pernambuco. The current study extends the distribution of R. amblyommii (strain Aranha), which was detected in A. longirostre collected from the thin-spined porcupine Chaetomys subspinosus and the hairy dwarf porcupine Coendou insidiosus. In addition, we report the first detection of Rickettsia bellii in adults of A. longirostre collected from C. insidiosus in the state of Bahia. PMID:26413074

  8. A new species of Chironius Fitzinger, 1826 from the state of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil (Serpentes: Colubridae).

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Daniel Silva; Hamdan, Breno

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new species of Chironius Fitzinger, 1826 from the highlands of Chapada Diamantina, state of Bahia, Brazil. The new species is distinguished from all currently recognized congeners by a unique combination of states of characters on coloration, scale counts, scale ornamentation, and hemipenis. The new species closely resembles Chironius flavolineatus (Jan, 1863) in color pattern, but differs from the later taxon by the presence of two to four posterior temporal scales; cloacal shield entire; six to ten rows of keeled dorsal scales at midbody; ventral scales with posterior dark edges forming conspicuous transverse bars along almost the entire venter; conspicuous dark longitudinal stripes (in "zigzag") in the midventral portion of subcaudals; region of medial constriction of hemipenis slightly covered with spinules separating calyces of apex from spines below region of constriction; and sulcus spermaticus situated on convex face of hemipenis in lateral view. The new species is apparently restricted to Chapada Diamantina, corroborating the biological importance of this region from a conservational perspective.

  9. Ethnotaxonomy of birds by the inhabitants of Pedra Branca Village, Santa Teresinha municipality, Bahia state, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies on popular names of birds help to understand the relationship between human beings and birds and it also contributes to the field of ornithology. Methods This study aims to register the ethnotaxonomy of birds in the village of Pedra Branca, Santa Teresinha municipality, Bahia State, Brazil, by cataloguing and identifying their popular names, besides understanding the ethnoclassification system of local bird species. The ethno-ornithological data were obtained by means of semi-structured open interviews, and projective tests. Results We interviewed 48 residents and, in order to identify species, we chose five informants with a more detailed knowledge on local avifauna. We registered 139 common names, distributed into 108 ethnospecies and 33 synonyms, referring to 117 species. Nomenclatural criteria more frequently used were vocalization and coloring patterns. Following Berlin’s principles of ethnobiological classification, three hierarchical levels were registered: life form, generic and specific, with three types of correspondence between Linnaean and folk classification systems. The bird life form (“pássaro” in Portuguese) was associated only to wild species. Conclusions The ethno-ornithological research in Pedra Branca Village has contributed with new information on popular nomenclature of birds and their etymology, showing that folk knowledge on birds is conveyed within the community. PMID:25012812

  10. Community violence and childhood asthma prevalence in peripheral neighborhoods in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves, Guilherme da Costa; Santos, Darci Neves; Feitosa, Caroline Alves; Barreto, Mauricio Lima

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to identify degrees of exposure to community violence reported by parents and guardians of children from four to 12 years of age and the association with childhood asthma symptoms. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,232 parents/guardians in 24 peripheral neighborhoods in Salvador, the capital of Bahia State, Brazil. The authors investigated asthma symptoms in children and acts of violence in the community. More than 75% of parents/guardians had been exposed to community violence in the previous year, with 20% reporting high levels of exposure. Children that were more exposed to violence showed higher asthma prevalence (28.4%) as compared to non-exposed children (16.4%). Children exposed to maximum levels of violence were nearly twice as likely to present asthma symptoms (adjusted OR = 1.94; 95%CI: 1.12-3.36). The study highlighted the relevance of community violence as a risk factor for asthma and the need for further research to elucidate methodological issues.

  11. Social inequalities and the rise in violent deaths in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil: 2000-2006.

    PubMed

    Viana, Luiz Antonio Chaves; Costa, Maria da Conceição Nascimento; Paim, Jairnilson Silva; Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria

    2011-01-01

    An ecological study was carried out using information zones as units of analysis in order to assess the evolution of socio-spatial inequalities in mortality due to external causes and homicides in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, in 2000 and 2006. The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística--IBGE) and the City Health Department (Secretaria Municipal de Saúde) provided the data sources, and causes of death were reviewed and reclassified based on reports from the Institute of Legal Medicine (Instituto Médico Legal). The information zones were classified into four social strata according to income and schooling. The ratio between mortality rates (inequality ratio) was calculated and confirmed a rise of 98.5% in the homicide rate. In 2000, the risk of death due to external causes and murders in the stratum with the worst living conditions was respectively 1.40 and 1.94 times greater than in the reference stratum. In 2006 these figures were 2.02 and 2.24. The authors discuss the implications for inter-sectoral public policies, based on evidence from the study's findings.

  12. Interflow, overland flow and leaching of natural nutrients on an Alfisol slope of southern Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Oliveira Leite, J.

    1985-09-01

    Two experimental plots for hydrologic studies, 3595 and 7060 m 2, were delimited on a slope of Alfisol planted with cacao in Bahia, Brazil. Volumes of overland flow and interflow were measured daily and samples of collected water were taken monthly for analysis of Ca, Mg, Na, K, N, P and Fe. The highest overland-flow volumes represented 24% and the highest interflow 53% of the rainfall but on the average the volumes of overland flow and interflow were found to represent 1 and 14% of the annual rainfall. The percentage of interflow increases with increasing rainfall. In winter, it is higher than in summer, except during the highest rains observed. The mean annual loss for calcium was 85.8 kg ha -1 yr -1; for magnesium 18.2; potassium 17.0; sodium 23.5; nitrogen 22.1; iron 5.5 and phosphorus 0.9. In relative terms, considering the chemical components of the soils, the K losses are highest, indicating that this element is most leachable. The interflow volumes and the amounts of Na, K, N and P correlated at the 1% significance level in both plots. A general conclusion is that the leaching of nutrients varied with the intensity of the interflow, especially for Na, K, N and P, the leaching of nutrients through overland flow being of less importance.

  13. Giardia duodenalis infection and anthropometric status in preschoolers in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Assis, Ana Marlúcia Oliveira; Prado, Matildes da Silva; Strina, Agostino; Santos, Lenaldo Azevedo dos; Jesus, Sandra Rêgo de; Barreto, Maurício Lima

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the association between Giardia duodenalis infection and anthropometric deficits, as measured by weight-for-age and height-for-age. This cross-sectional study included 629 children from 12 to 48 months of age, selected from 30 geographic areas in the city of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. Poisson regression and linear regression were used for the multivariate statistical analyses. G. duodenalis was diagnosed in 13.5% of the children. The children's breastfeeding duration and living conditions (garbage collection and paved streets or sidewalks) modified the effect of G. duodenalis infection on anthropometric status. Among infected children, there were statistically significant associations between weight deficit and shorter breastfeeding (PR=2.22; 95%CI: 1.56-3.14) and inadequate paving of streets and sidewalks (PR=2.00; 95%CI: 1.37-2.92), while height deficit was associated with deficient public garbage collection (PR=2.21; 95%CI: 1.31-2.51). In the linear regression, the association with the anthropometric indicators remained positive and statistically significant. The child's unhealthy living environment aggravated the negative effect of G. duodenalis infection on anthropometric status, and breastfeeding was a protective factor in the outcome.

  14. Genetic variability in Melipona scutellaris from Recôncavo, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Viana, J L; Francisco, A K; Carvalho, C A L; Waldschmidt, A M

    2013-01-01

    Bees play a key role in pollination and thereby help maintain plant diversity. The stingless bee Melipona scutellaris is an important pollinator in northeastern Brazil because it is endemic to this region. Both deforestation and timber harvesting have reduced the nesting sites for this species, thus reducing its population and range. Genetic studies may help reverse this process by providing important tools for their proper management with a view to conservation of this species. Microsatellite markers have proven to be ideal for mapping genes and population genetic studies. Our aim was to study, using microsatellite markers, the interpopulation genetic variability of M. scutellaris in different parts of the Recôncavo region in Bahia State, Brazil. In all, 95 adult workers from 11 localities in Recôncavo Baiano (Amargosa, Cabaceiras do Paraguaçu, Conceição da Feira, Conceição do Almeida, Domingos Macedo Costa, Governador Mangabeira, Jaguaripe, Jiquiriça, Maragojipe, São Felipe, and Vera Cruz) were analyzed using 10 pairs of microsatellite primers developed for different Meliponini species. The total number of alleles, allele richness, and genetic diversity ranged from 2 to 7 per locus (average = 4.4), 1.00 to 4.88, and 0.0 to 0.850, respectively. The expected and observed heterozygosities varied from 0.0 to 0.76 and 0.0 to 0.84, respectively. No locus showed deviation from the expected frequencies in the chi-square test or linkage disequilibrium. The fixation index, analysis of molecular variance, and unweighted pair-group method using the arithmetic average revealed the effects of human activities on the populations of M. scutellaris, as little genetic structure was detected. PMID:24065683

  15. Areas of natural occurrence of Melipona scutellaris Latreille, 1811 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the state of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves, Rogério M O; Carvalho, Carlos A L; Souza, Bruno A; Santos, Wyratan S

    2012-09-01

    The bee Melipona scutellaris is considered the reared meliponine species with the largest distribution in the North and Northeast regions of Brazil, with records from the state of Rio Grande do Norte down to the state of Bahia. Considering the importance of this species in the generation of income for family agriculture and in the preservation of areas with natural vegetation, this study aimed at providing knowledge on the distribution of natural colonies of M. scutellaris in the state of Bahia. Literature information, interviews with stinglessbee beekeepers, and expeditions were conducted to confirm the natural occurrence of the species. A total of 102 municipalities showed records for M. scutellaris, whose occurrence was observed in areas ranging from sea level up to 1,200-meter height. The occurrence of this species in the state of Bahia is considered to be restricted to municipalities on the coastal area and the Chapada Diamantina with its rainforests. Geographic coordinates, elevation, climate and vegetation data were obtained, which allowed a map to be prepared for the area of occurrence in order to support conservation and management policies for the species.

  16. Plants used in the treatment of leishmanial ulcers due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in an endemic area of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    França, F; Lago, E L; Marsden, P D

    1996-01-01

    This paper records the plants used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (L(V)b) among the rural population of a cocoa-producing coastal area of Bahia state, Brazil. An enquiry conducted among a hundred patients identified 49 plants species used to treat skin ulceration caused by this Leishmania species. The principal plants used are caju-branco (Anacardium occidentale, Anacardiaceae), used by 65% of the population, folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta,Melastomataceae) 39%, alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus, Lamiaceae) 33%, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides, Chenopodiaceae) 31%, erva-de-santa-maria (Solanum americanum, Solanaceae) (25%) and transagem (Plantago major, Plantaginaceae) 2%. PMID:8701041

  17. Occurrence of Prosthenorchis elegans in Free-living Primates from the Atlantic Forest of Southern Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Catenacci, Lilian S; Colosio, Adriana C; Oliveira, Leonardo C; De Vleeschouwer, Kristel M; Munhoz, Alexandre D; Deem, Sharon L; Pinto, Jaqueline M S

    2016-04-28

    Parasite prevalence and abundance are important factors affecting species' conservation. During necropsies on a free-living golden-headed lion tamarin ( Leontopithecus chrysomelas ) and two Wied's marmosets ( Callithrix kuhlii ) in the Atlantic Forest of southern Bahia, Brazil, we collected a large number of adult intestinal parasites that we identified as Prosthenorchis elegans. This parasite is pathogenic for neotropical primates. Prosthenorchis spp. infestation is influenced by diet with increased risk of exposure from ingesting invertebrate intermediate hosts. The biological similarities and sympatric nature of these two nonhuman primates support that they may harbor similar infectious and parasitic agents. PMID:26981688

  18. Plants used in the treatment of leishmanial ulcers due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in an endemic area of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    França, F; Lago, E L; Marsden, P D

    1996-01-01

    This paper records the plants used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (L(V)b) among the rural population of a cocoa-producing coastal area of Bahia state, Brazil. An enquiry conducted among a hundred patients identified 49 plants species used to treat skin ulceration caused by this Leishmania species. The principal plants used are caju-branco (Anacardium occidentale, Anacardiaceae), used by 65% of the population, folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta,Melastomataceae) 39%, alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus, Lamiaceae) 33%, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides, Chenopodiaceae) 31%, erva-de-santa-maria (Solanum americanum, Solanaceae) (25%) and transagem (Plantago major, Plantaginaceae) 2%.

  19. Genetic diversity of Burkholderia (Proteobacteria) species from the Caatinga and Atlantic rainforest biomes in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santini, A C; Santos, H R M; Gross, E; Corrêa, R X

    2013-03-11

    The genus Burkholderia (β-Proteobacteria) currently comprises more than 60 species, including parasites, symbionts and free-living organisms. Several new species of Burkholderia have recently been described showing a great diversity of phenotypes. We examined the diversity of Burkholderia spp in environmental samples collected from Caatinga and Atlantic rainforest biomes of Bahia, Brazil. Legume nodules were collected from five locations, and 16S rDNA and recA genes of the isolated microorganisms were analyzed. Thirty-three contigs of 16S rRNA genes and four contigs of the recA gene related to the genus Burkholderia were obtained. The genetic dissimilarity of the strains ranged from 0 to 2.5% based on 16S rDNA analysis, indicating two main branches: one distinct branch of the dendrogram for the B. cepacia complex and another branch that rendered three major groups, partially reflecting host plants and locations. A dendrogram designed with sequences of this research and those designed with sequences of Burkholderia-type strains and the first hit BLAST had similar topologies. A dendrogram similar to that constructed by analysis of 16S rDNA was obtained using sequences of the fragment of the recA gene. The 16S rDNA sequences enabled sufficient identification of relevant similarities and groupings amongst isolates and the sequences that we obtained. Only 6 of the 33 isolates analyzed via 16S rDNA sequencing showed high similarity with the B. cepacia complex. Thus, over 3/4 of the isolates have potential for biotechnological applications.

  20. Exposure to carbonyl compounds in charcoal production plants in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Albertinho B; Kato, Mina; Rezende, Mariângela M; de P Pereira, Pedro Afonso; de Andrade, Jaílson B

    2013-03-01

    Studies have investigated the exposure levels of carbonyl compounds (CC) in the indoor and outdoor air of homes, vehicles, workplaces, urban and industrial areas, and rural sites. However, an investigation of these emissions and occupational exposure to CC in charcoal production facilities has not been previously conducted. The objective of this study was to measure the atmospheric concentrations of several CC to assess the exposure of workers of two charcoal plants located north of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Stationary and personal samples were collected using Sep-Pak® C18 cartridges that were coated with a 0.2 % acidic solution of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. The quantification of the resulting 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone derivatives was conducted using a high-performance liquid chromatography system with UV detection. In the personal samples, the concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propanone, furfural, and C4 isomers (n-butanal-isobutanal-butanone) ranged from 12 to 139, 38 to 165, 136 to 483, 39 to 114, and 63 to 132 μg m(-3), respectively. In the stationary samples, the concentrations of these CC ranged from 20 to 160, 111 to 284, 328 to 644, 70 to 163, and 100 to 176 μg m(-3), respectively. When compared to the occupational exposure limits for 8 h, the concentrations of formaldehyde were often greater than the levels recommended by the American National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, which indicates a health risk for charcoal workers. These results are the first reported concerning the occupational exposure to CC in charcoal plants.

  1. Carbon Storage in Soil Size Fractions Under Two Cacao Agroforestry Systems in Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela F.; Ramachandran Nair, P. K.; Nair, Vimala D.; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio C.; Baligar, Virupax C.; Machado, Regina C. R.

    2010-02-01

    Shaded perennial agroforestry systems contain relatively high quantities of soil carbon (C) resulting from continuous deposition of plant residues; however, the extent to which the C is sequestered in soil will depend on the extent of physical protection of soil organic C (SOC). The main objective of this study was to characterize SOC storage in relation to soil fraction-size classes in cacao ( Theobroma cacao L.) agroforestry systems (AFSs). Two shaded cacao systems and an adjacent natural forest in reddish-yellow Oxisols in Bahia, Brazil were selected. Soil samples were collected from four depth classes to 1 m depth and separated by wet-sieving into three fraction-size classes (>250 μm, 250-53 μm, and <53 μm)—corresponding to macroaggregate, microaggregate, and silt-and-clay size fractions—and analyzed for C content. The total SOC stock did not vary among systems (mean: 302 Mg/ha). On average, 72% of SOC was in macroaggregate-size, 20% in microaggregate-size, and 8% in silt-and-clay size fractions in soil. Sonication of aggregates showed that occlusion of C in soil aggregates could be a major mechanism of C protection in these soils. Considering the low level of soil disturbances in cacao AFSs, the C contained in the macroaggregate fraction might become stabilized in the soil. The study shows the role of cacao AFSs in mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emission through accumulation and retention of high amounts of organic C in the soils and suggests the potential benefit of this environmental service to the nearly 6 million cacao farmers worldwide.

  2. Carbon storage in soil size fractions under two cacao agroforestry systems in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela F; Ramachandran Nair, P K; Nair, Vimala D; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio C; Baligar, Virupax C; Machado, Regina C R

    2010-02-01

    Shaded perennial agroforestry systems contain relatively high quantities of soil carbon (C) resulting from continuous deposition of plant residues; however, the extent to which the C is sequestered in soil will depend on the extent of physical protection of soil organic C (SOC). The main objective of this study was to characterize SOC storage in relation to soil fraction-size classes in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) agroforestry systems (AFSs). Two shaded cacao systems and an adjacent natural forest in reddish-yellow Oxisols in Bahia, Brazil were selected. Soil samples were collected from four depth classes to 1 m depth and separated by wet-sieving into three fraction-size classes (>250 microm, 250-53 microm, and <53 microm)-corresponding to macroaggregate, microaggregate, and silt-and-clay size fractions-and analyzed for C content. The total SOC stock did not vary among systems (mean: 302 Mg/ha). On average, 72% of SOC was in macroaggregate-size, 20% in microaggregate-size, and 8% in silt-and-clay size fractions in soil. Sonication of aggregates showed that occlusion of C in soil aggregates could be a major mechanism of C protection in these soils. Considering the low level of soil disturbances in cacao AFSs, the C contained in the macroaggregate fraction might become stabilized in the soil. The study shows the role of cacao AFSs in mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emission through accumulation and retention of high amounts of organic C in the soils and suggests the potential benefit of this environmental service to the nearly 6 million cacao farmers worldwide.

  3. Geochemistry of contaminated komatiites from the Umburanas greenstone belt, Bahia State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes Leal, Angela Beatriz de; Santos, André Luis Dias; Bastos Leal, Luiz Rogério; Cunha, José Carlos

    2015-08-01

    The late Archaean Umburanas greenstone belt (UGB) is located in the São Francisco Craton, southwest of Bahia State, Brazil. The lower unit of UGB comprises basal komatiite lavas and tholeiitic basalts intercalated with felsic volcanic rocks. The regional crystalline basement rocks, the Gavião block, predominantly consist of granitic, granodioritic and migmatitic gneiss along with tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) associations. Petrographic studies of UGB komatiites reveal characteristic spinifex igneous texture although primary mineralogy is rarely preserved. Based on textural relationships, komatiites are divided into cumulate, spinifex, and massive types. The MgO content varies in the range 31.5-40.4 wt%. The MgO-SiO2 negative correlation in komatiites suggests olivine fractionation trend. The UGB komatiites are of Al-undepleted type, characterized by Al2O3/TiO2 (21-48) ratio, enriched in highly incompatible LILE relative to moderately incompatible HFSE and distinct negative Nb, Sr and Eu anomalies. Also shows depletion of light rare earths, convex-downward rare earth patterns typically not observed in komatiites world-wide, and primitive mantle normalized Gd/Yb (1.03-1.23) and La/Sm (2.36-4.99) ratios. The negative Eu anomaly is attributed to the circulation of H2O-rich fluid, whereas the negative Nb and Sr anomalies are attributed to contamination from granitic basement rocks of the Gavião block. The UGB komatiites are most likely derived from adiabatic decompressional melting of a mantle plume. The melting took place at liquidus temperatures in the range 1572-1711 °C, which is consistent with mantle-plume origin invoked for several other komatiites in Archaean greenstone belts elsewhere. The melts were more likely generated at a depth shallower than 100 km (pressure < 2.5 GPa) where garnet was absent in the source mineralogy. Geochemical characteristics suggest contamination of primary melts with granitic basement rocks either during ascent of melt

  4. Batkoa apiculata (Thaxter) Humber affecting Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in the municipality of Una, Southern Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surveys for fungal pathogens affecting adult mosquitoes from the genus Anopheles were conducted in flooded and swamp-like natural breeding sites near residences in the center and suburbs of the city of Una as well as the nearby village of Outeiro in southern Bahia. Surveys of 54 mosquito breeding si...

  5. Cabruca its agrobiodiversity potential on small farmers in Southern region of Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cacao Cabruca Agroforestry system of production was developed by farmers in Bahia over 200 years ago. This system consists of planting cacao under the shade of trees in the Atlantic rain forest and has on an average 693 cacao plants and 93 trees per hectare. Even though the local community utili...

  6. [Evaluation of potential drug interactions in primary health care prescriptions in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia (Brazil)].

    PubMed

    Leão, Danyllo Fábio Lessa; de Moura, Cristiano Soares; de Medeiros, Danielle Souto

    2014-01-01

    Drug interactions are risk factors for the occurrence of adverse drug reactions. The risk for drug interactions includes factors related to prescription that are intrinsic to the patient. This study sought to evaluate the potential drug interactions in primary care prescriptions in Vitória da Conquista in the state of Bahia to fill the knowledge gap on this topic in Brazil. Information about several variables derived from the primary health care prescriptions was collected and drug interactions were evaluated based on information from Medscape and Micromedex(R) databases. Polypharmacy frequency and its association with the occurrence of drug interactions were also evaluated. Results revealed a 48,9% frequency of drug interactions, 74,9% of moderate or greater severity, 8,6% of prescriptions in polypharmacy that in the chi-square test showed a positive association with the occurrence of drug interactions (p < 0,001). Prescriptions from primary care in Vitória da Conquista in the state of Bahia showed a high frequency of drug interactions, however it is necessary to analyze other risk factors for their occurrence at this level of health care.

  7. [The physician-patient relationship under the Family Health Program in three municipalities in Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Franco, Anamélia Lins e Silva; Bastos, Ana Cecília de Sousa; Alves, Vânia Sampaio

    2005-01-01

    This study discusses the physician-patient relationship under the Family Health Program (FHP) in Bahia State, Brazil. Assuming that the physician-patient relationship is influenced by macro and micro-contextual factors, we linked health surveillance and the ecological model of human development, both influenced by contextualism. The methodological strategies included: a census of FHP physicians in Bahia and direct observation of consultations by 20 physicians in three municipalities (counties). There were significant differences in the implementation of the FHP in the three municipalities, with an impact on the physician-patient relationship. As for orientation of clinical practice, health surveillance has not been incorporated by the physicians observed in this study. According to the micro-contextual analysis, health problems were frequently not treated in a contextualized way. FHP guidelines, when incorporated by the municipalities, produce differences in care as observed in the physician-patient relationship. The health surveillance approach, reported as a tool for collective work, proves efficient for describing, evaluating, and improving the FHP, and this study concludes that it is a powerful conceptual tool for dealing with the physician-patient relationship. PMID:15692658

  8. Local knowledge of traditional fishermen on economically important crabs (Decapoda: Brachyura) in the city of Conde, Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This article records the traditional knowledge of crab gatherers in the city of Conde, in the North Coast Region of Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil. Methods Data on biological and ecological aspects of economically important brachyuran crustaceans have been obtained from semi-structured interviews and in loco observations conducted from September 2007 to December 2009. A total of 57 fishermen of both genders, aged between 10 and 78 years have been interviewed (individually or collectively) in different contexts; interviewees were asked about aspects such as external morphology, life cycle, trophic ecology, and spatial and temporal distribution of the major economically important brachyuran crustaceans in the region. Seven fishing communities were visited: Siribinha, Sítio do Conde, Poças, Ilha das Ostras, Cobó, Buri and Sempre Viva. Data were analyzed by comparing the information provided by participants with those from the specialized academic literature. Results The results show that artisanal fishermen have a wide ranging and well-grounded knowledge on the ecological and biological aspects of crustaceans. Crab gatherers of Conde know about growth and reproductive behavior of the animals they interact with, especially with regard to the three major biological aspects: “molt”, “walking dance” and “spawning”. Conclusion This knowledge constitutes an important source of information that should be considered in studies of management and sustainable use of fishery resources in the North Coast Region of Bahia State. PMID:22449069

  9. [Labor and health conditions of private school teachers in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Delcor, Núria Serre; Araújo, Tania M; Reis, Eduardo J F B; Porto, Lauro A; Carvalho, Fernando M; Oliveira e Silva, Manuela; Barbalho, Leonardo; de Andrade, Jonathan Moura

    2004-01-01

    The scientific literature on teachers' health is scarce, recent, and focuses predominantly on stress and burnout. This study describes the labor conditions of private school teachers in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil. Information on 250 teachers from the ten largest schools in the municipality was collected through a self-applied questionnaire. The most relevant characteristics of teachers' work, evaluated by the Job Content Questionnaire were: speed of work, creativity at work, and relations with colleagues. The most frequent complaints related to posture, mental strain, and voice problems. Prevalence of minor psychological disorders according to the Self Reporting Questionnaire-20 was 41.5%, strongly associated with long periods of intense concentration on the same job and excessive work. Results suggest an association between the prevalence of minor psychological disorders and certain characteristics of teaching work, emphasizing teachers' exposure to stress.

  10. Frequency and foraging behavior of Apis mellifera in two melon hybrids in Juazeiro, state of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kiill, Lúcia H P; Siqueira, Kátia M M; Coelho, Márcia S; Silva, Tamires A; Gama, Diego R S; Araújo, Diego C S; Pereira Neto, Joaquim

    2014-12-01

    The study was carried out to verify if there are differences in foraging frequency and behavior of Apis mellifera in two melon hybrids (10:00 - 'Yellow melon' and Sancho -'Piel de Sapo') in the municipality of Juazeiro, state of Bahia, Brazil. The frequency, behavior of visitors and the floral resource foraged were registered from 5:00 am to 6:00 pm. There was a significant difference in the frequency of visits when comparing hydrids (F = 103.74, p <0.0001), floral type (F = 47.25, p <0.0001) and resource foraged (F = 239.14, p <0.0001). The flowers of Sancho were more attractive to A. mellifera when compared with hybrid 10:00, which may be correlated to the morphology and floral resources available. This could be solved with scaled planting, avoiding the overlapping of flowering of both types.

  11. Atmospheric concentrations and dry deposition fluxes of particulate trace metals in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de P. Pereira, Pedro A.; Lopes, Wilson A.; Carvalho, Luiz S.; da Rocha, Gisele O.; de Carvalho Bahia, Nei; Loyola, Josiane; Quiterio, Simone L.; Escaleira, Viviane; Arbilla, Graciela; de Andrade, Jailson B.

    Respiratory system is the major route of entry for airborne particulates, being the effect on the human organism dependent on chemical composition of the particles, exposure time and individual susceptibility. Airborne particulate trace metals are considered to represent a health hazard since they may be absorbed into human lung tissues during breathing. Fossil fuel and wood combustion, as well as waste incineration and industrial processes, are the main anthropic sources of metals to the atmosphere. In urban areas, vehicular emissions—and dust resuspension associated to road traffic—become the most important manmade source. This work investigated the atmospheric concentrations of TSP, PM 10 and elements such as iron, manganese, copper and zinc, from three different sites around Salvador Region (Bahia, Brazil), namely: (i) Lapa Bus Station, strongly impacted by heavy-duty diesel vehicles; (ii) Aratu harbor, impacted by an intense movement of goods, including metal ores and concentrates and near industrial centers and; (iii) Bananeira Village located on Maré Island, a non-vehicle-influenced site, with activities such as handcraft work and fishery, although placed near the port. Results have pointed out that TSP concentrations ranged between 16.9 (Bananeira) and 354.0 μg m -3 (Aratu#1), while for PM 10 they ranged between 30.9 and 393.0 μg m -3, both in the Lapa Bus Station. Iron was the major element in both Lapa Station and Aratu (#1 and #2), with average concentrations in the PM 10 samples of 148.9, 79.6 and 205.0 ng m -3, respectively. Zinc, on the other hand, was predominant in samples from Bananeira, with an average concentration of 145.0 ng m -3 in TSP samples, since no PM 10 sample was taken from this site. The main sources of iron in the Lapa Station and Aratu harbor were, respectively, soil resuspension by buses and discharge of solid granaries, as fertilizers and metal ores. On the other hand, zinc and copper in the bus station were mainly from

  12. Facies, Stratigraphic and Depositional Model of the Sediments in the Abrolhos Archipelago (Bahia, BRAZIL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matte, R. R.; Zambonato, E. E.

    2012-04-01

    Located in the Mucuri Basin on the continental shelf of southern Bahia state, northeast Brazil, about 70 km from the city of Caravelas,the Abrolhos archipelago is made up of five islands; Santa Barbara, Redonda, Siriba, Guarita and Sueste. The exhumed sediments in the Abrolhos archipelago are a rare record of the turbidite systems which fill the Brazilian Atlantic Basin, and are probably an unprecedented example of a plataform turbidite system (Dr. Mutti, personal communication). Despite the limited area, the outcrops display a wide facies variation produced by different depositional processes, and also allow for the observation of the layer geometries. Associated with such sedimentary rocks, the Abrolhos Volcanic Complex belongs stratigraphically to the Abrolhos Formation. These igneous rocks were dated by the Ar / Ar method, with ages ranging from 60 to 40 My, placing such Volcanic Complex between the Paleocene and Eocene. The sedimentary section is best exposed in the Santa Barbara and Redonda islands and altogether it is 70 m thick. The measured vertical sections show a good stratigraphic correlation between the rocks of the western portion of the first island and those of Redonda Island. However, there is no correlation between the eastern and western portions of Santa Barbara Island, since they are very likely interrupted by the igneous intrusion and possibly by faulting. The sedimentary stack consists of deposits with alternated regressive and transgressive episodes interpreted as high frequency sequences. The coarse facies, sandstones and conglomerates, with abrupt or erosive bases record regressive phases. On the other hand, finer sandstones and siltstones facies, which are partly bioturbated, correspond to phases of a little sediment supply. In the central and eastern portions of Santa Barbara Island, there is a trend of progradational stacking, while both in the western portion of Santa Barbara and in Redonda islands an agradational trend is observed

  13. A new extinct primate among the Pleistocene megafauna of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Cartelle, C; Hartwig, W C

    1996-01-01

    A nearly complete skeleton of a robust-bodied New World monkey that resembles living spider monkeys was recovered from undisturbed Pleistocene deposits in the Brazilian state of Bahia. The skeleton displays the highly specialized postcranial pattern typical of spider and woolly spider monkeys and shares cranial similarities to the spider monkey exclusively. It is generically distinct on the basis of its robustness (>20 kg) and on the shape of its braincase. This new genus indicates that New World monkeys nearly twice the size of those living today were part of the mammalian biomass of southern Amazonia in the late Pleistocene. The discovery of this specimen expands the known adaptive diversity of New World monkeys and demonstrates that they underwent body size expansion in the terminal Pleistocene, as did many other types of mammals. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 5 PMID:8692827

  14. Partial neutralization of rain by seaspray: the case of Recôncavo, Bahia-Brazil.

    PubMed

    Campos, Vânia P; Costa, Angela Cristina A; Tavares, Tania M

    2007-07-01

    In the Recôncavo of Bahia (located between 12 degrees 33' and 13 degrees 10'S and 38 degrees 00'and 39 degrees 00'W), there are significant discharges of SO(2) and NO(x) due to local, industrial and urban activities. The incoming air masses from the Atlantic Ocean are enriched with seaspray, which neutralizes part of the rain acidity. The extent of seaspray neutralization of rain acidity was quantified in four sites of the region, each with different loads of seaspray. Rain samples were obtained daily at the same time, integrating the precipitation of the previous 24h, using wet-only collectors and analyzed for pH by potentiometry and for sodium by flame photometry. The amount of rain acidity in Recôncavo neutralized by seaspray ranged from <1% up to 88% and depended on the site. On average, neutralization ranged from 5% to 18%.

  15. Prevalence of neck and upper limb musculoskeletal disorders in artisan fisherwomen/shellfish gatherers in Saubara, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Falcão, Ila Rocha; Couto, Maria Carolina Barreto Moreira; Lima, Verônica Maria Cadena; Pena, Paulo Gilvane Lopes; Andrade, Lílian Lessa; Müller, Juliana dos Santos; Alves, Ivone Batista; Viana, Wendel da Silva; Rêgo, Rita de Cássia Franco

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted in an artisanal fishing community. The main health complaints included musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) attributable to working conditions. The present work found a prevalence of neck and distal upper limb MSD among the artisan fisherwomen/shellfish gatherers in Saubara, Bahia, Brazil. This was a cross-sectional cohort epidemiological study involving 209 artisanal fisherwomen/shellfish gatherers. The Brazilian version of the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) and a survey listing physical demands adapted to shellfish gathering were used for the study. The MSD values obtained in some part of the body, neck or shoulder, and distal upper limb were 94.7%, 71.3% and 70.3%, respectively. The shellfish gatherers were found to work long shifts despite the high prevalence of MSD. The factors that cause these women to keep performing such activities include the need to make a living and provide food for their families through the sale and consumption of seafood.

  16. Baseline trace elements in the seagrass Halodule wrightii Aschers (Cymodoceaceae) from Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brito, Geysa B; de Souza, Thaís L; Costa, Fernanda do N; Moura, Carlos W N; Korn, Maria Graças A

    2016-03-15

    Trace elements concentrations (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) were found in samples of Halodule wrightii Aschers (Cymodoceaceae) seagrass from Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). This bay has been impacted by the presence of industrial activity that includes chemical and petrochemical plants as well as an oil refinery and harbor activities located in the north and northeastern area. Samples were collected at 4 stations to evaluate the distribution of element concentrations in this area and under different climatic conditions. The mean concentrations, in mgkg(-1), found in dry tissues for all the studied metals and stations were: As (1.08-5.42), Ba (3.72-32.0), Cd (0.135-1.68), Cr (1.15-10.4), Cu (2.23-13.4), Ni (1.95-9.87), Pb (0.873-5.18), V (3.39-22.4) and Zn (13.1-39.5). Statistical analysis (ANOVA) of the seagrass data showed significant inter-site differences for all elements examined except nickel and vanadium.

  17. [Breastfeeding duration, infant feeding regimes, and factors related to living conditions in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Lucivalda P Magalhães; Assis, Ana Marlúcia O; Gomes, Gecynalda Soares da Silva; Prado, Matildes da S; Barreto, Maurício L

    2005-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to identify breastfeeding duration, infant feeding regimes, and factors related to living conditions among 811 children under 24 months of age in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Data were statistically analyzed by survival analysis, Pearson's chi-square test, and multivariate logistic regression. Median duration of exclusive, predominant, and total breastfeeding was 30.6, 73.0, and 131.5 days, respectively. Exclusive or predominant breastfeeding was discontinued in 83.6% of the subjects. Children with poor living conditions were 2.3 times more likely (95%CI: 1.09-5.01) to receive early supplementary food, whereas the figure for the very poor increased to 2.5 (95%CI: 1.20-5.34). Early exclusive or predominant breastfeeding discontinuation was associated with early pregnancy and poor living conditions of the children and their families. Programs directed towards proper breastfeeding and healthy feeding practices in childhood should consider the social factors associated with early introduction of supplementary foods in this population. PMID:16158158

  18. [Work and psychological distress among public school teachers in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    dos Reis, Eduardo José Farias Borges; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; de Araújo, Tânia Maria; Porto, Lauro Antônio; Silvany Neto, Annibal Muniz

    2005-01-01

    A cross-sectional study with all the teachers in the municipal school system in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil, investigated the association between work content (psychological demand and control over work) and the occurrence of minor psychiatric disorders (MPD) among teachers. The Karasek demand-control model was used to evaluate control over work. The Self-Report Questionnaire-20 was used to evaluate minor psychiatric disorders. MPD prevalence was 55.9% among the 808 teachers studied. Crude prevalence of MPD showed a positive and significant association with psychological demand and a negative and significant association with control over work. MPD prevalence was higher in teachers with highly demanding work, characterized by heavy demand and low control (PR = 1.74; 95%CI: 1.44-2.10), and in those with active work, with heavy demand and low control (PR = 1.35; 95%CI: 1.13-1.61), as compared to teachers with low-demand work (light demand and high control), after adjusting for confounders in a multiple logistic regression model. As a conclusion, teachers' mental health is strongly associated with their work content.

  19. Reproductive cycle of Tagelus plebeius (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the estuary of the Cachoeira River, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ceuta, L O; Boehs, G

    2012-08-01

    This study characterized the reproductive cycle of the stout razor clam Tagelus plebeius in the estuary of the Cachoeira River, Ilhéus, Bahia, northeastern Brazil. Samples of 20 animals per collection were taken biweekly from August 2005 to August 2006. The 480 specimens were measured on the antero-posterior axis (length) and then removed from the shell. After macroscopic analysis, the gonads were fixed in Davidson's solution, processed by routine histology and stained by Harris hematoxylin and eosin. The gonads of both males and females appeared milky white, without sexual dimorphism. Microscopic analyses indicated a M: F ratio of 1.06: 1 and continuous reproduction of T. plebeius in the region. The period from August to October showed the most intense spawning. This study provides another example of continuous reproduction of bivalves in tropical waters, and because this species is a heavily exploited fishery resource in the region, it draws attention to the need for a management plan aimed at reducing harvests.

  20. Baseline trace elements in the seagrass Halodule wrightii Aschers (Cymodoceaceae) from Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brito, Geysa B; de Souza, Thaís L; Costa, Fernanda do N; Moura, Carlos W N; Korn, Maria Graças A

    2016-03-15

    Trace elements concentrations (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) were found in samples of Halodule wrightii Aschers (Cymodoceaceae) seagrass from Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). This bay has been impacted by the presence of industrial activity that includes chemical and petrochemical plants as well as an oil refinery and harbor activities located in the north and northeastern area. Samples were collected at 4 stations to evaluate the distribution of element concentrations in this area and under different climatic conditions. The mean concentrations, in mgkg(-1), found in dry tissues for all the studied metals and stations were: As (1.08-5.42), Ba (3.72-32.0), Cd (0.135-1.68), Cr (1.15-10.4), Cu (2.23-13.4), Ni (1.95-9.87), Pb (0.873-5.18), V (3.39-22.4) and Zn (13.1-39.5). Statistical analysis (ANOVA) of the seagrass data showed significant inter-site differences for all elements examined except nickel and vanadium. PMID:26874749

  1. New record and cytogenetic analysis of Psammolestes tertius Lent & Jurberg, 1965 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) from Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, J; Alevi, K C C; Fonseca, E O L; Souza, O M F; Santos, C G S; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V; da Rosa, J A

    2016-06-20

    This paper reports on the first occurrence of Psammolestes tertius in the Chapada Diamantina region, located in the city of Seabra, Bahia State, in northeastern Brazil. Following an active search, 24 P. tertius specimens were collected from Phacellodomus rufifrons (rufous-fronted thornbird) nests. The insects did not present any symptoms of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi. P. tertius males were cytogenetically analyzed, and the results were compared with those of other specimens from the Brazilian State of Ceará. Triatomines from both locations presented the same cytogenetic characteristics: 22 chromosomes, little variation in the size of the autosomes, Y chromosomes that were larger than the X chromosomes, a chromocenter formed only by the sex chromosomes during prophase, and autosomes lacking constitutive heterochromatin. However, it is important to note that this species shows intraspecific chromosomal variation. In light of the results obtained, it is recommended that more studies be performed to characterize P. tertius. These studies will be particularly helpful in understanding this species in ecological, biological, biogeographical, and phylogenetic terms.

  2. New record and cytogenetic analysis of Psammolestes tertius Lent & Jurberg, 1965 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) from Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, J; Alevi, K C C; Fonseca, E O L; Souza, O M F; Santos, C G S; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V; da Rosa, J A

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the first occurrence of Psammolestes tertius in the Chapada Diamantina region, located in the city of Seabra, Bahia State, in northeastern Brazil. Following an active search, 24 P. tertius specimens were collected from Phacellodomus rufifrons (rufous-fronted thornbird) nests. The insects did not present any symptoms of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi. P. tertius males were cytogenetically analyzed, and the results were compared with those of other specimens from the Brazilian State of Ceará. Triatomines from both locations presented the same cytogenetic characteristics: 22 chromosomes, little variation in the size of the autosomes, Y chromosomes that were larger than the X chromosomes, a chromocenter formed only by the sex chromosomes during prophase, and autosomes lacking constitutive heterochromatin. However, it is important to note that this species shows intraspecific chromosomal variation. In light of the results obtained, it is recommended that more studies be performed to characterize P. tertius. These studies will be particularly helpful in understanding this species in ecological, biological, biogeographical, and phylogenetic terms. PMID:27420943

  3. Fungal communities in gardens of the leafcutter ant Atta cephalotes in forest and cabruca agrosystems of southern Bahia State (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Reis, Bárbara Monique dos Santos; Silva, Aline; Alvarez, Martín Roberto; Oliveira, Tássio Brito de; Rodrigues, Andre

    2015-12-01

    Leaf-cutting ants interact with several fungi in addition to the fungal symbiont they cultivate for food. Here, we assessed alien fungal communities in colonies of Atta cephalotes. Fungus garden fragments were sampled from colonies in the Atlantic Rainforest and in a cabruca agrosystem in the state of Bahia (Brazil) in two distinct periods to evaluate whether differences in nest habitat influence the diversity of fungi in the ant colonies. We recovered a total of 403 alien fungi isolates from 628 garden fragments. The prevalent taxa found in these samples were Escovopsis sp. (26 %), Escovopsioides nivea (24 %), and Trichoderma spirale (10.9 %). Fungal diversity was similar between the colonies sampled in both areas suggesting that ants focus on reducing loads of alien fungi in the fungus gardens instead of avoiding specific fungi. However, fungal taxa composition differed between colonies sampled in the two areas and between the sampling periods. These differences are likely explained by the availability of plant substrates available for foraging over habitats and periods. Ordination analysis further supported that sampling period was the main attribute for community structuring but also revealed that additional factors may explain the structuring of fungal communities in colonies of A. cephalotes. PMID:26615740

  4. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in raw meats and prepared foods in public hospitals in salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Wellington Luis Reis; Ferreira, Jeane dos Santos; Carvalho, Joelza Silva; Cerqueira, Ellayne Souza; Oliveira, Lucimara Cardoso; Almeida, Rogeria Comastri de Castro

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in raw meat and fish and foods prepared from them for patient consumption in public hospitals in Salvador, Bahia, in northeastern Brazil. A total of 114 samples of raw meat and fish (chicken, n = 30; beef, n = 30; pork, n = 24; and fish, n = 30) and 63 samples of prepared foods (made with chicken, n = 15; beef, n = 15; pork, n = 15; and fish, n = 18) were collected from the kitchens of 10 different hospitals. Of the 114 investigated raw meat and fish samples, 28.1% were positive for MRSA, which comprised 23.3% beef, 23.3% chicken, 37.5% pork, and 30% fish samples. Of the prepared foods, 9.5% were positive for MRSA, which comprised 5.6% chicken products, 6.7% pork products, and 22.2% fish products. MRSA contamination was not detected in prepared beef dishes. A statistical analysis showed no association between the presence of MRSA and the type of raw food (P > 0.05). The high prevalence of MRSA among the raw foods tested and the presence of the microorganism in prepared foods emphasizes the necessity of enforcing hygienic practices within hospital kitchens.

  5. [The pollination of Krameria bahiana B.B. Simpson by bees in the Coastal Sand Plains of Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Gimenes, Miriam; Lobão, Cybelle da S

    2006-01-01

    The flowers of K. bahiana mainly produce oil as floral resource for their visitors. Oil collecting bees usually show morphological and behavioral adaptation for their collection. This study focused on the analysis of interactions between the flowers of K. bahiana and their visiting bees, aiming for the efficiency of the pollination, in an area of the Coastal Sand Plains of Bahia State, Brazil. From February/2001 to February/2002 and from May to October/2002 observations were accomplished about the phenology and morphology of the plants and the floral visitors' behavior. The flowers of the inflorescences are zigomorphic, small sized, pink and present a pair of petals modified in epithelial elaiophores, which are responsible for the production of oil. These flowers were visited especially by bees of the genus Centris: C. leprieuri Spinola, C. tarsata Smith, C. trigonoides Lepeletier and C. pulchra Moure, Oliveira & Viana. The bees collected only oil in the flowers, by scratching the elaiophores and then transferring it to scopa located on the tibia and basitarsus of the hind legs. During those actions, the bees often contact the reproductive structures of the flowers, resulting in pollination. C. leprieuri was the most frequent bee during this study, thus considered the effective pollinator. Megachile dentipes Vachal also visited the flowers of K. bahiana, collecting only pollen. However, these bees were considered sporadic pollinators because they were not frequent in the flowers of K. bahiana in the months of observation. PMID:17061790

  6. [Domains of physical activity in slave-descendant communities in Southwest Bahia State, Brazil: a population-based study].

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Vanessa Moraes; Andrade, Amanda Cristina de Souza; César, Cibele Comini; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to describe the prevalence of physical activity (PA) and associated factors in various domains (leisure-time, work, home, and commuting) among quilombolas (descendants of African slaves) in Bahia State, Brazil. This was a cross-sectional study of 797 individuals from 18 to 100 years of age. The study adopted a cutoff point of 150 minutes of PA per week. A hierarchical Poisson model was used. The highest prevalence of PA was at work (42.1%), followed by the home environment (39.3%), commuting (35.5%), and leisure time (13.1%). PA at work was associated with male gender, lower age, higher schooling, and consumption of alcohol and fruits. PA in the household domain was associated with female gender, lower age, marital status (married), and negative self-rated health. In commuting, PA was associated with male gender and lower age bracket, and during leisure time with safety, male gender, lower age, and higher schooling. The study concludes that this slave-descendant community displays a profile of PA that is characteristic of rural groups (more active at work, with little leisure-time activity). The determinants of PA were similar to those seen in urban groups.

  7. The -308 bp TNF gene polymorphism influences tumor necrosis factor expression in leprosy patients in Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Joyce Moura; Rêgo, Jamile Leão; de Lima Santana, Nadja; Braz, Marcos; Jamieson, Sarra E; Vieira, Thaillamar Silva; Magalhães, Thaís Lamêgo; Machado, Paulo Roberto Lima; Blackwell, Jenefer M; Castellucci, Léa C

    2016-04-01

    Leprosy or Hansen's disease is a debilitating chronic granulomatous disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, with high incidence and prevalence in Brazil. The -308 bp G/A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs1800629) in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) gene promoter is a proposed risk factor for leprosy. In Brazil, Northern India, Egypt and Nepal, the common G allele was associated with leprosy. In Eastern India, Thailand and Malawi the minor A allele was the risk factor. Allele A was previously associated with high TNF. We genotyped rs1800629 in 326 leprosy cases from Bahia State, Brazil, including 72 paucibacillary (PB) and 47 multibacillary (MB) without reactions, and 69 reversal reaction (RR) and 78 erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) with reactions. Logistic regression was used to compare patient groups with 331 healthy controls. Relative TNF mRNA was determined in peripheral blood leukocytes by QRTPCR, and serum TNF levels measured by ELISA. We found that TNF mRNA expression was higher (P=0.03) in leprosy patients compared to endemic controls, but did not differ significantly between clinical subgroups. Carriage of the minor A allele was associated (P=0.003) with low TNF mRNA across leprosy patients. Nevertheless, we found no evidence for either allele at this SNP as a risk factor for leprosy per se (OR=1.12, 95% CI 0.79-1.60, P=0.52), PB (OR=0.99, 95% CI 0.54-1.81, P=0.97), MB (OR=0.86, 95% CI 0.40-1.83, P=0.70), RR (OR=1.37, 95% CI 0.79-2.38, P=0.27) or ENL (OR=0.76, 95% CI 0.40-1.45, P=0.42) when compared to endemic controls. Further studies are required to determine whether the influence of the minor A allele on TNF mRNA levels determines response to treatment, particularly in the context of ENL reaction treatment with anti-TNF therapies and RR reactions where treatment with prednisolone is known to reduce TNF levels. Our findings contribute to understanding TNF as an important determinant of leprosy immunopathology in Brazil. PMID:26829382

  8. HTLV-1 in pregnant women from the Southern Bahia, Brazil: a neglected condition despite the high prevalence

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background As the most frequent pathway of vertical transmission of HTLV-1 is breast-feeding, and considering the higher prevalence in women, it is very important to perform screening examinations for anti-HTLV-1 antibodies as part of routine prenatal care. So far, no studies of HTLV-1 seroprevalence in pregnant women in the Southern region of Bahia, Brazil, have been described. Methods Pregnant women were selected at the two regional reference centers for health care from Southern Bahia. A total of 2766 pregnant women attending the antenatal unit between November 2008 and May 2010 have been analyzed. An extra blood sample was drawn during their routine antenatal testing. A standardized questionnaire was applied and all positive plasma samples were tested by ELISA and were confirmed by Western Blot and PCR. Besides that, positive women were contacted and visited. The family members that were present during the visit were asked to be serologically screened to the virus. A prospective study was also carried out and newborns were followed up to two years for evaluation of vertical transmission. Results HTLV prevalence was 1.05% (CI 95%: 0.70-1.50). There was no association of HTLV-1 infection with age, education, income and ethnic differences. The association with marital status was borderline (OR = 7.99; 95% CI 1.07-59.3; p = 0.042). In addition, 43 family members of the HTLV-1 seropositive women have been analyzed and specific reactivity was observed in 32.56%, including two children from previous pregnancy. Conclusion: It is very important to emphasize that the lack of HTLV-1 screening in pregnant women can promote HTLV transmission especially in endemic areas. HTLV screening in this vulnerable population and the promotion of bottle-feeding for children of seropositive mothers could be important cost-effective methods to limit the vertical transmission. Besides that, our data reinforce the need to establish strategies of active surveillance in household and

  9. [Government health planning in the state of Bahia, Brazil: political actors, social interaction and institutional learning].

    PubMed

    Jesus, Washington Luiz Abreu de; Teixeira, Carmen Fontes

    2014-09-01

    This article analyzes the process of government planning in health in the state of Bahia in the 2007-2010 period based on the formulation of the State Health Plan. The benchmark adopted involved adaptation of the theoretical model of the cycle of public policy, including analysis of context, characterization of the actors involved, operations conducted in decision making and the strategic means used. The production of information was through the analysis of documents organized in institutional portfolios and records of the planning process in the organization studied. The analysis of results reveals that the political game included "concessions" and "negotiations" regarding changes in the management and organization of the health system, highlighting the discussion on the problems facing the state management of the Unified Health System (SUS) during the period, and the search for alternatives and solutions to these problems. It also reveals the institutional learning acquired, involving managers and technicians who broadened and reinforced their capacity to analyze and formulate proposals around the government agenda.

  10. The occurrence of microdiamonds in Mesoproterozoic Chapada Diamantina intrusive rocks--Bahia/Brazil.

    PubMed

    Battilani, Gislaine A; Gomes, Newton S; Guerra, Wilson J

    2007-06-01

    The origin of diamonds from Serra do Espinhaço in Diamantina region (State of Minas Gerais) and in Chapada Diamantina, Lençóis region (State of Bahia) remains uncertain, even taking into account the ample research carried out during the last decades. The lack of typical satellite minerals in both districts makes a kimberlitic source for these diamonds uncertain. In mid 18th century the occurrence of a metamorphosed igneous rock composed of martite, sericite and tourmaline was described in Diamantina region and named hematitic phyllite, considered by some researchers as a possible diamond source. Similar rocks were found in Lençóis and examined petrographically and their heavy mineral concentration was investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Petrographic analyses indicated an igneous origin for these rocks and SEM analyses showed the discovery of microdiamonds. Geochronological studies using the Ar/Ar technique in muscovites yielded minimum ages of 1515+/-3 Ma, which may correlate with 1710+/-12 Ma from U-Pb method in igneous zircons from the hematitic phyllites. Both rock types also have the same mineral and chemical composition which leads to the conclusion that the intrusive rocks were protolith of the hematitic phyllites. This first discovery of microdiamonds in intrusive rocks opens the possibility of new investigation models for diamond mineralization in Brazilian Proterozoic terrains. PMID:17625685

  11. The occurrence of microdiamonds in Mesoproterozoic Chapada Diamantina intrusive rocks--Bahia/Brazil.

    PubMed

    Battilani, Gislaine A; Gomes, Newton S; Guerra, Wilson J

    2007-06-01

    The origin of diamonds from Serra do Espinhaço in Diamantina region (State of Minas Gerais) and in Chapada Diamantina, Lençóis region (State of Bahia) remains uncertain, even taking into account the ample research carried out during the last decades. The lack of typical satellite minerals in both districts makes a kimberlitic source for these diamonds uncertain. In mid 18th century the occurrence of a metamorphosed igneous rock composed of martite, sericite and tourmaline was described in Diamantina region and named hematitic phyllite, considered by some researchers as a possible diamond source. Similar rocks were found in Lençóis and examined petrographically and their heavy mineral concentration was investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Petrographic analyses indicated an igneous origin for these rocks and SEM analyses showed the discovery of microdiamonds. Geochronological studies using the Ar/Ar technique in muscovites yielded minimum ages of 1515+/-3 Ma, which may correlate with 1710+/-12 Ma from U-Pb method in igneous zircons from the hematitic phyllites. Both rock types also have the same mineral and chemical composition which leads to the conclusion that the intrusive rocks were protolith of the hematitic phyllites. This first discovery of microdiamonds in intrusive rocks opens the possibility of new investigation models for diamond mineralization in Brazilian Proterozoic terrains.

  12. [Decision-making process and administrative practice: managing the State Health Secretariat in Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Coelho, Thereza Christina Bahia; Paim, Jairnilson Silva

    2005-01-01

    This case study is based on research performed by the Bahia State Health Secretariat (SESAB), aimed at analyzing management practices during the implementation of a State government administrative reform. The institutional agenda shows evidence of limited participation by civil society and technical and operational staff in problem selection and prioritization, resulting from a work process pressured by high-level executive government staff. Decisions regarding "output" (projects, services, and activities) were made under the responsibility of subordinate operational levels and did not appear as issues in the institutional routine. Concerns related to "input" (financial and human resources) consumed most of the high-level efforts, with internal and external negotiations and compromises to assure access to them. Meanwhile the possible "outcome", namely public health status, represents the "occult subject" of the institutional discourse. Information emerges in institutional disputes as a technical "power resource" in its medical, epidemiological, health, and administrative dimensions. The issue of government "representation" and allied interests is based on ideological dispositions and authoritarian practices, thus contradicting the need for management transparency and modernization. PMID:16158142

  13. URINARY BIOMARKERS IN CHARCOAL WORKERS EXPOSED TO WOOD SMOKE IN BAHIA STATE, BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Charcoal is an important source of energy for domestic and industrial use in many countries. In Brazil, the largest producer of charcoal in the world, approximately 350,000 workers are linked to the production and transportation of charcoal. In order to evaluate the occupationa...

  14. A closer look at the "Protopithecus" fossil assemblages: new genus and species from Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Halenar, Lauren B; Rosenberger, Alfred L

    2013-10-01

    The recently extinct large-bodied New World monkey Protopithecus brasiliensis Lund 1836 was named based on a distal humerus and proximal femur found in the Lagoa Santa cave system in the southeastern Brazilian state of Minas Gerais. These bones are from an animal about twice the size of the largest extant platyrrhines. One hundred and seventy-five years later, a nearly complete skeleton was discovered in the Toca da Boa Vista caves in the neighboring state of Bahia and was allocated to the same taxon as it was the first platyrrhine fossil of comparable size found since the originals. Our detailed study of the equivalent elements, however, reveals important morphological differences that do not correspond to intraspecific variation as we know it in related platyrrhine taxa. The presence of both an expanded brachioradialis flange on the humerus and gluteal tuberosity on the femur of the Bahian skeleton distinguishes it from the Lagoa Santa fossil as well as from all other platyrrhines. Further cranial and postcranial evidence suggests a closer relationship of the former with the alouattine Alouatta, while the limited Lund material fits more comfortably with the ateline clade. Therefore, we propose to limit P. brasiliensis Lund to the distal humerus and proximal femur from Lagoa Santa and erect a new genus and species for the skeleton from Toca da Boa Vista. Cartelles coimbrafilhoi was a large-bodied frugivore with a relatively small brain and diverse locomotor repertoire including both suspension and climbing that expands the range of platyrrhine biodiversity beyond the dimensions of the living neotropical primates.

  15. Application of PCR in Serum Samples for Diagnosis of Paracoccidioidomycosis in the Southern Bahia-Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Lucas; de Carvalho, Leila Falcão; Romano, Carla C.

    2012-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) cannot always be diagnosed by conventional means such as direct examination of histopathology or clinical samples, and serological methods, used as an alternative, still have many cases of cross-reactivity. In this scenario, molecular techniques seem to arise as a rapid approach, specific and direct that could be used in the diagnosis of this mycosis. In this study we analyzed 76 serum samples from patients in southern Bahia suspected of having paracoccidioidomycosis using a conventional PCR with primers for the ITS1 ribosomal DNA of P. brasiliensis. Of these 76 patients, 5 were positive for PCM by double immunodiffusion and/or direct examination and histopathology. To test specificity of PCR, we used human DNA and three isolates of P. lutzii (1578, 01 and ED01). Additionally, we analyzed by serial dilutions of DNA the limit of detection of the assay. The test of PCR proved specific, as only a 144 bp fragment of the three isolates of P. lutzii and no human DNA was amplified. Detection limit was 1.1 pg/µL of DNA. Despite the high detection limit and specificity of PCR none of the 76 serum samples were found positive by PCR, but a biopsy specimen obtained from one of the patients with PCM was positive. These results, albeit limited, show that PCR is not effective in detecting DNA of P. brasiliensis or P. lutzii in serum, but could perhaps be used with other types of clinical samples, especially in those instances in which conventional methods fail. PMID:23209853

  16. Impact of the Family Health Program on gastroenteritis in children in Bahia, Northeast Brazil: an analysis of primary care-sensitive conditions.

    PubMed

    Monahan, Laura J; Calip, Gregory S; Novo, Patricia M; Sherstinsky, Mark; Casiano, Mildred; Mota, Eduardo; Dourado, Inês

    2013-09-01

    In seeking to provide universal health care through its primary care-oriented Family Health Program, Brazil has attempted to reduce hospitalization rates for preventable illnesses such as childhood gastroenteritis. We measured rates of Primary Care-sensitive Hospitalizations and evaluated the impact of the Family Health Program on pediatric gastroenteritis trends in high-poverty Northeast Brazil. We analyzed aggregated municipal-level data in time-series between years 1999-2007 from the Brazilian health system payer database and performed qualitative, in-depth key informant interviews with public health experts in municipalities in Bahia. Data were sampled for Bahia's Salvador microregion, a population of approximately 14 million. Gastroenteritis hospitalization rates among children aged less than 5 years were evaluated. Declining hospitalization rates were associated with increasing coverage by the PSF (P = 0.02). After multivariate adjustment for garbage collection, sanitation, and water supply, evidence of this association was no longer significant (P = 0.28). Qualitative analysis confirmed these findings with a framework of health determinants, proximal causes, and health system effects. The PSF, with other public health efforts, was associated with decreasing gastroenteritis hospitalizations in children. Incentives for providers and more patient-centered health delivery may contribute to strengthening the PSF's role in improving primary health care outcomes in Brazil.

  17. Geochemical characterization in karst basin tributaries of the San Franciscan depression: The Corrente River, western Bahia, NE-Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecomte, Karina L.; Bicalho, Cristina C.; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel V.

    2016-08-01

    Karst aquifers are important freshwater resources for the growing population in Brazil. The sandstones of Urucuia plateau and the limestone of Bambui Group constitute important aquifer systems in the western part of Bahia state. The Corrente River provides ∼30% of the total water flow of the São Francisco River and crosses karstified structures. Surface and groundwater samples were collected during the dry period, the beginning of the wet season, and the wet season. The main objective was to define sources and distribution of dissolved elements and to describe the geochemical processes that govern their mobility within the system. Water samples are classified into three groups, depending on the dominant weathering process. When carbonate dissolution governs, waters are bicarbonate-calcium-type; whereas when the atmospheric precipitation signal is present, the samples in siliciclastic terrain are more Cl- - Na+. Groundwaters reflect bicarbonate-mixed-type, with the highest dissolved concentrations. In contrast to the major elements, trace elements, including Rare Earth Elements (REE), show seasonal behavior: their concentrations increase with the beginning of the wet season, due to re-mobilization and release into the solution of adsorbed elements from the system and the atmospheric dust. The total dissolved REE concentration (800-7500 ng L-1) is one order of magnitude more concentrated in karsts than in siliciclastic rocks. Principal component analysis was performed, explaining >77% of the variance. First factor extracted (REE, Y, Th, Al, Fe) explain the washout and enhancement of atmospheric dust weathering throughout the beginning of the wet seasons. The second component comprises variables related to karsts lithology, representing calcite and dolomite dissolution.

  18. Diversity in bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) and social wasp (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Polistinae) community in "campos rupestres", Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva-Pereira, Vivane; Santos, Gilberto M M

    2006-01-01

    Hymenoptera such as bees and social wasps are regular floral visitors in "campos rupestres" vegetation. A community of bees and social wasps was studied during floral visitation in an area of "campos rupestres", at Chapada Diamantina, BA, Brazil, from September 2001 to April 2002. The community was described in relation to diversity, evenness, and dominance rank, considering the individuals abundance (H' = 2.14/ J' = 0.55) and biomass (H' = 2.34/ J' = 0.60). Thirty nine bee (588 individuals/ 15.742 g) and 11 social wasp species (52 individuals/ 2.156 g) were collected, being the first report of social wasps for the Brazilian "campos rupestres". The main species regarding number of individuals were Trigona spinipes (Fabricius), Apis mellifera L., Frieseomelitta francoi (Moure), and Bombus brevivillus Franklin. About 48% of the species were represented by a single individual. There was an inversion in the dominance rank when the species biomass was considered. B. brevivillus, A. mellifera, T spinipes, and other species represented by 15 individuals or less, such as the social wasps Synoeca cyanea (Olivier), Polistes canadensis (L.) and Myschocyttarus drewseni (Saussure), and the bees Eufriesea nigrohirta (Friese), Xylocopa grisescens Lepeletier and Megachile (Pseudocentron) sp.l were the predominant species. The use of biomass in diversity analysis permitted to detect differences in the relative contribution of species in hierarchy dominance. The comparison between bee faunas from different areas indicates a large similarity of the sampled fauna in Palmeiras (Bahia State) with neighboring ecosystems, although with low values of similarity. PMID:17348126

  19. Use of an open-path FTIR sensor at Camacari Petrochemical Complex--Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, Neuza; Couto, Elizabeth d. R.; Kagann, Robert H.

    1995-05-01

    CETREL--Empresa de Protecao Ambiental, is an environmental engineering company, which is owned by the member companies in the Camacari Petrochemical Complex, the largest petrochemical complex in Brazil. CETREL operates a centralized waste treatment plant, treatment and disposal facilities, an incineration unit, groundwater monitoring and air quality monitoring networks. The air monitoring network was designed based on mathematical modeling, and the results showed that the monoitoring of hydrocarbons is important not just within the complex but also at the area surrounding the complex. There are presently no regulations for hydrocarbons in Brazil, however they are monitored due to concerns about health problems arising from human exposure. The network has eight multiparameter monitoring stations, located at the villages nearby, where hydrocarbons are sampled with Summa canisters and subsequently analyzed with a GC/MS, using a Cryogenic trap at the interface. The open-path FTIR is used to monitor at the individual plants and in the areas in between because it is more efficient and costs less than it would to attempt to achieve the same level of coverage using the canisters. Ten locations were selected based on mathematical modeling and knowledge of the likely emission sources. Since August 1993, there have been five different measurement campaigns.

  20. Trace elements distribution in hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) and green turtle (Chelonia mydas) tissues on the northern coast of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Macêdo, Gustavo R; Tarantino, Taiana B; Barbosa, Isa S; Pires, Thaís T; Rostan, Gonzalo; Goldberg, Daphne W; Pinto, Luis Fernando B; Korn, Maria Graças A; Franke, Carlos Roberto

    2015-05-15

    Concentrations of elements (As, Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, V, Zn) were determined in liver, kidneys and bones of Eretmochelys imbricata and Chelonia mydas specimens found stranded along the northern coast of Bahia, Brazil. Results showed that the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn in the liver and kidneys of juvenile C. mydas were the highest found in Brazil. We also observed a significant difference (p<0.05) on the bioaccumulation of trace elements between the two species: Al, Co, Mo, Na and Se in the liver; Al, Cr, Cu, K, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sr and V in the kidneys; and Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr and V in the bones. This study represents the first report on the distribution and concentration of trace elements in E. imbricata in the Brazilian coast. PMID:25796544

  1. Trace elements distribution in hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) and green turtle (Chelonia mydas) tissues on the northern coast of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Macêdo, Gustavo R; Tarantino, Taiana B; Barbosa, Isa S; Pires, Thaís T; Rostan, Gonzalo; Goldberg, Daphne W; Pinto, Luis Fernando B; Korn, Maria Graças A; Franke, Carlos Roberto

    2015-05-15

    Concentrations of elements (As, Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, V, Zn) were determined in liver, kidneys and bones of Eretmochelys imbricata and Chelonia mydas specimens found stranded along the northern coast of Bahia, Brazil. Results showed that the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn in the liver and kidneys of juvenile C. mydas were the highest found in Brazil. We also observed a significant difference (p<0.05) on the bioaccumulation of trace elements between the two species: Al, Co, Mo, Na and Se in the liver; Al, Cr, Cu, K, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sr and V in the kidneys; and Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr and V in the bones. This study represents the first report on the distribution and concentration of trace elements in E. imbricata in the Brazilian coast.

  2. Congenital Chikungunya Virus Infection after an Outbreak in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lyra, Priscila Pinheiro Ribeiro; Campos, Gúbio Soares; Bandeira, Igor Dórea; Sardi, Silvia Ines; Costa, Lilian Ferreira de Moura; Santos, Flávia Rocha; Ribeiro, Carlos Alexandre Santos; Jardim, Alena Maria Barreto; Santiago, Ana Cecília Travassos; de Oliveira, Patrícia Maria Ribeiro; Moreira, Lícia Maria Oliveira

    2016-07-01

    There is little information about the congenital chikungunya virus (CHIKV) transmission. We describe two cases of well-documented congenital CHIKV infection in Salvador-Brazil, where CHIKV has been identified since 2014. The outbreak in the city led to the clinical CHIKV diagnoses of both pregnant women 2 days before delivery. Urine and blood samples from the mothers and newborns were collected and tested for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for Zika, dengue, and CHIKV. Both neonates and mothers had positive urine and serum PCR results for CHIKV. The newborns had significant perinatal complications and were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. The purpose of our case report is to show how severe congenital CHIKV infection can be and the importance to include CHIKV infection in the differential diagnosis of neonatal sepsis when mothers have clinical signs of the disease and live in an affected area. PMID:27555980

  3. Congenital Chikungunya Virus Infection after an Outbreak in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Lyra, Priscila Pinheiro Ribeiro; Campos, Gúbio Soares; Bandeira, Igor Dórea; Sardi, Silvia Ines; Costa, Lilian Ferreira de Moura; Santos, Flávia Rocha; Ribeiro, Carlos Alexandre Santos; Jardim, Alena Maria Barreto; Santiago, Ana Cecília Travassos; de Oliveira, Patrícia Maria Ribeiro; Moreira, Lícia Maria Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    There is little information about the congenital chikungunya virus (CHIKV) transmission. We describe two cases of well-documented congenital CHIKV infection in Salvador-Brazil, where CHIKV has been identified since 2014. The outbreak in the city led to the clinical CHIKV diagnoses of both pregnant women 2 days before delivery. Urine and blood samples from the mothers and newborns were collected and tested for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for Zika, dengue, and CHIKV. Both neonates and mothers had positive urine and serum PCR results for CHIKV. The newborns had significant perinatal complications and were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. The purpose of our case report is to show how severe congenital CHIKV infection can be and the importance to include CHIKV infection in the differential diagnosis of neonatal sepsis when mothers have clinical signs of the disease and live in an affected area. PMID:27555980

  4. Congenital Chikungunya Virus Infection after an Outbreak in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lyra, Priscila Pinheiro Ribeiro; Campos, Gúbio Soares; Bandeira, Igor Dórea; Sardi, Silvia Ines; Costa, Lilian Ferreira de Moura; Santos, Flávia Rocha; Ribeiro, Carlos Alexandre Santos; Jardim, Alena Maria Barreto; Santiago, Ana Cecília Travassos; de Oliveira, Patrícia Maria Ribeiro; Moreira, Lícia Maria Oliveira

    2016-07-01

    There is little information about the congenital chikungunya virus (CHIKV) transmission. We describe two cases of well-documented congenital CHIKV infection in Salvador-Brazil, where CHIKV has been identified since 2014. The outbreak in the city led to the clinical CHIKV diagnoses of both pregnant women 2 days before delivery. Urine and blood samples from the mothers and newborns were collected and tested for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for Zika, dengue, and CHIKV. Both neonates and mothers had positive urine and serum PCR results for CHIKV. The newborns had significant perinatal complications and were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. The purpose of our case report is to show how severe congenital CHIKV infection can be and the importance to include CHIKV infection in the differential diagnosis of neonatal sepsis when mothers have clinical signs of the disease and live in an affected area.

  5. Cadmium concentrations in blood of children living near a lead smelter in Bahia, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Carvalho, F.M.; Tavares, T.M.; Silvany-Neto, A.M.; Lima, M.E.; Alt, F.

    1986-08-01

    A prevalence study of cadmium absorption was carried out among 396 children aged 1 to 9 years living at less than 900 m from a primary lead smelter in Santo Amaro City, northeast Brazil. Geometric mean and geometric standard deviation of cadmium concentrations in blood (CdB) were 0.087 and 2.5 mumole/liter, respectively, ranging from 0.004 to 0.511 units. Ninety-six per cent of these children presented CdB higher than 0.0089 mumole/liter (or 1.0 microgram/liter) which is usually taken as a reference level. Higher CdB levels were significantly associated with shorter distance from child's home to smelter chimney, residence time in the area greater than 7 months, racial groups Light and Medium, and heavy infection by hookworm. The variation in CdB levels was not associated with child's age, nutritional status, iron status, family per capita income, blood lead level, being a child of a lead worker, the habit of pica, and contamination of child's peridomiciliar environment by smelter dross.

  6. [Screening of sexually transmitted diseases in clinical and non-clinical settings in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Codes, José Santiago; Cohen, Deborah Ann; de Melo, Neli Almeida; Teixeira, Guilherme Gonzaga; Leal, Alexandre dos Santos; Silva, Tiago de Jesus; de Oliveira, Miucha Pereira Rios

    2006-02-01

    The objectives were to study: (1) acceptance of STD screening in non-clinical settings for asymptomatic individuals; (2) risk factors and STD prevalence among individuals in non-clinical and clinical settings; and (3) non-clinical screening of asymptomatic populations as a feasible method for STD control. We recruited 139 males and 486 females between 18 and 30 years of age from a family planning clinic, schools, and community centers in low-income neighborhoods. We asked about STD symptoms and STD/HIV risk behaviors and tested the individuals for gonorrhea, Chlamydia, syphilis, and HIV. Except for HIV, women recruited directly from the community had higher STD rates than those who came in for care at the clinic. Screening in non-clinical settings in Brazil is feasible and has a high yield among young adults in low-income communities. Infected participants would likely never have otherwise sought care or been tested or treated. STD control efforts could be implemented in any site that can reach populations at risk and become a routine procedure in health care settings where people report for problems unrelated to STDs.

  7. Speciation analysis of inorganic antimony in sediment samples from São Paulo Estuary, Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Mario Marques; Leao, Danilo Junqueira; Moreira, Ícaro Thiago Andrade; de Oliveira, Olívia Maria Cordeiro; de Souza Queiroz, Antônio Fernando; Ferreira, Sergio Luis Costa

    2015-06-01

    This paper proposes an extraction procedure for the speciation analysis of inorganic antimony in sediment samples using slurry sampling and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. The optimization step of extraction of the species was performed employing a full two-level factorial design (2(3)) and a Box-Behnken matrix where the studied factors in both experiments were: extraction temperature, ultrasonic radiation time, and hydrochloric acid concentration. Using the optimized conditions, antimony species can be extracted in closed system using a 6.0 M hydrochloric acid solution at temperature of 70 °C and an ultrasonic radiation time of 20 min. The determination of antimony is performed in presence of 2.0 M hydrochloric acid solution using HG AAS by external calibration technique with limits of detection and quantification of 5.6 and 19.0 ng L(-1) and a precision expressed as relative standard deviation of 5.6 % for an antimony solution with concentration of 6.0 μg L(-1). The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analysis of two certified reference materials of sediments. For a sample mass of sediment of 0.20 g, the limits of detection and quantification obtained were 0.70 and 2.34 ng g(-1), respectively. During speciation analysis, antimony(III) is determined in presence of citrate, while total antimony is quantified after reduction of antimony(V) to antimony(III) using potassium iodide and ascorbic acid. The method was applied for analysis of six sediment samples collected in São Paulo Estuary (Bahia State, Brazil). The antimony contents obtained varied from 45.3 to 89.1 ng g(-1) for total antimony and of 17.7 to 31.4 ng g(-1) for antimony(III). These values are agreeing with other data reported by the literature for this element in uncontaminated sediment samples.

  8. Distribution of trace elements in tissues of shrimp species Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) from Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, E; Viana, Z C V; Onofre, C R E; Korn, M G A; Santos, V L C S

    2016-02-01

    In this study, concentrations of trace elements in tissues of shrimp species (Litopenaeus vannamei) from farming and zone natural coastal located in the northeastern Brazil were investigated. The elements determination was performed by optical emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP OES). The following ranges of concentrations in the tissues were obtained in µg g-1 dry weight: Al: 13.4-886.5, Cd: 0.93-1.80; Cu: 24.8-152; Fe: 3.2-410.9; Mn: 0.36-24.4; Se: 0.094-9.81 and Zn: 20.3-109.4. The shrimp muscle can be a good iron source (about 88.9 mg-1g dry weight). The distribution of Se concentration in tissues showed much variation between locations, and the concentration levels found in shrimp muscles of wild samples were high, where its levels in 67% of muscle and 50% of others tissues samples exceeded the ANVISA limit, indicating evidence of selenium bioaccumulation. Significant correlation was observed between the following pairs of elements: Fe-Zn (r= -0.70), Mn-Cu (r= -0.74), Se-Cu (r= -0.68), Se-Mn (r= 0.82) in the muscles; Fe-Al (r= 0.99), Mn-Al (r= 0.62), Mn-Fe (r= 0.62), Se-Al (r = 0.88), Se-Fe (r= 0.87), Se-Mn (r= 0.58) in the exoskeleton and Cu-Zn (r = 0.68), Al-Cu (r= 0.88), Fe-Cu (r= 0.95) and Fe-Al (r= 0.97) in the viscera. PMID:26909636

  9. Spatial distribution of proportional infant mortality and certain socioeconomic variables in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Paim, J S; Costa, M da C; Cabral, V; Mota, I A; Neves, R B

    1987-01-01

    The spatial distribution of infant deaths in each zone of the city of Salvador, Brazil, in 1980 was examined and related to selected socioeconomic and health care variables. The spatial distribution of infant mortality (defined as the ratio of infant deaths to total deaths in Salvador) was uneven, ranging from 3.9% in a zone in the center of the old city near the water to 52.5% in an outlying area. There was a direct correlation between proportional infant mortality and low income. The proportion of low-income families was 23.1% in the quartile containing the lowest rates of infant mortality compared with 97.7% in the quartile containing the highest such rates. Also noted was an inverse relationship between proportional infant mortality and water consumption. Similarly, the percentage of substandard housing (shacks) was directly associated with infant mortality, rising from 2% in the 1st quartile (low infant mortality) to 43% in the 4th quartile. There was additionally an inverse correlation between the average number of physicians per inhabitant and proportional infant mortality, with a rate of 5.7/10,000 inhabitants in the 1st quartile compared with 1.8 in the 4th. Overall, analysis of the spatial distribution of infant deaths in Salvador reveals that an especially high proportion of those dying were infants residing in certain zones of the city, most notably outlying neighborhoods and slums. The results further point to an important association between certain socioeconomic and sanitation variables and infant mortality. The fact that the highest correlation coefficient found in the present study was between proportional infant mortality and the percentage of low-income families underscores the significant role that economic structure plays in infant mortality. There is a need both to redefine the urban development model prevailing in Latin America and to reorient the aims of the health sector.

  10. Dengue virus 4 (DENV-4) re-emerges after 30 years in Brazil: cocirculation of DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4 in Bahia.

    PubMed

    Campos, Gubio Soares; Pinho, Aryane Cruz Oliveira; Brandão, Claudio Jose de Freitas; Bandeira, Antonio Carlos; Sardi, Silvia Ines

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is a mosquito-borne viral disease of great concern in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. One important cause of the increase in DF is rapid development and urbanization has led to proliferation of the Aedes aegypti mosquito, the vector responsible for transmission of the illness. Surveillance of dengue virus (DENV) infection in Brazil shows the predominance of DENV-1, DENV-2, and DENV-3 until 2010. This study reports the reappearance of DENV-4 in Brazil for the first time in 30 years. Serum samples were collected from individuals (n = 214) exhibiting fever and muscular pain in Bahia, Brazil, during 2011-2012. These samples were subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)/nested PCR, which revealed that 82% of samples were positive for DENV-4; most were older age groups and exhibited a serological pattern consistent with a primary infection. The cocirculation of multiple DENV serotypes within the same city places the population at risk for a fatal form of the disease. Therefore, with the increasing incidence of severe DF cases, early diagnosis will be a priority for public health efforts in Brazil.

  11. The Declining Cocoa Economy and the Atlantic Forest of Southern Bahia, Brazil: Conservation Attitudes of Cocoa Planters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alger, Keith; Caldas, Marcellus

    1994-01-01

    Causes of the degradation of Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the southeastern cocoa region of the State of Bahia are investigated by means of a survey on cocoa planter's forest conservation attitudes. Policies encouraging private forest conservation, and development of forest-conserving agricultural alternatives for landless poor are recommended. (LZ)

  12. Genetic diversity and structure in natural populations of Maytenus truncata Reiss, 1861, a medicinal plant vulnerable to extractivism in Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Simplicio, R R; Waldschmidt, A M; Amorim, M B; Almeida, B S; Pereira, D G

    2015-12-28

    Maytenus truncata (Celastraceae) is a plant species widely used in the treatment of ulcers and tumors. Despite the intensive harvest of native specimens in the State of Bahia, northeastern Brazil, there is no information about the genetic variability or structure of this species. Therefore, the goal of this study was to estimate the genetic diversity and population structure of M. truncata based on inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers. The samples comprised specimens from Jequié, Contendas do Sincorá, Boa Nova, and Boa Vista do Tupim in the State of Bahia. After selection of eight ISSR primers, the percentage of polymorphic loci was equal to 96.2% and genetic diversity was 0.3581. The Mantel test revealed positive correlation among genetic and geographic distances (r = 0.5462), but it was not significant (r ≥ 0, P = 0.8365). Even though AMOVA revealed that most variation was found within populations (68%), a high structuring was detected among them (ΦST = 0.31, P < 0.001). Both UPGMA and Bayesian analyses indicated that gene flow was higher between Jequié and Contendas do Sincorá, whereas samples from Boa Nova and Boa Vista do Tupim were more isolated. This result is likely because of the population decrease and restriction to gene flow associated with intensive extractivism of populations of this species.

  13. A new species of Hypostomus Lacépède, 1803 (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from rio Itapicuru basin, Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zanata, Angela M; Pitanga, Bruno R

    2016-01-01

    A small-bodied new species of Hypostomus is described from the rio Itapicuru basin, Bahia, Brazil. The new species is distinguished from most congeners mainly by having the lower caudal-fin lobe distinctly longer than the upper lobe and absence of conspicuous dark spots on posterior half of body. It differs particularly from congeners occurring in northeastern coastal Brazilian drainages and the rio São Francisco basin by having the anterior portion of the abdomen completely plated and the posterior portion plated only on a narrow median line, leaving large lateral areas naked, dark spots on anterior portion of trunk similar in size or slightly larger than those on head, absence of conspicuous spots on posterior half of trunk and caudal fin, and absence of keels on head and trunk. PMID:27470717

  14. Social networks of men who have sex with men: a study of recruitment chains using Respondent Driven Sampling in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brignol, Sandra Mara Silva; Dourado, Inês; Amorim, Leila Denise; Miranda, José Garcia Vivas; Kerr, Lígia R F S

    2015-11-01

    Social and sexual contact networks between men who have sex with men (MSM) play an important role in understanding the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In Salvador (Bahia State, Brazil), one of the cities in the survey Behavior, Attitudes, Practices, and Prevalence of HIV and Syphilis among Men Who Have Sex with Men in 10 Brazilian Cities, data were collected in 2008/2009 from a sample of 383 MSM using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS). Network analysis was used to study friendship networks and sexual partner networks. The study also focused on the association between the number of links (degree) and the number of sexual partners, in addition to socio-demographic characteristics. The networks' structure potentially facilitates HIV transmission. However, the same networks can also be used to spread messages on STI/HIV prevention, since the proximity and similarity of MSM in these networks can encourage behavior change and positive attitudes towards prevention.

  15. ["Where there's a woman, there's a Pap smear": the meanings assigned to cervical cancer prevention among women in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Rico, Ana María; Iriart, Jorge Alberto Bernstein

    2013-09-01

    This study focuses on the meanings assigned to practices for cervical cancer prevention among women from low-income neighborhoods in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. This was a qualitative study based on content analysis of semi-structured interviews with 15 women 24 to 68 years of age. The results showed high appreciation of the Pap smear test, performed as part of routine gynecological examination (but without the patient necessarily having biomedical knowledge of its role). Besides accessibility and quality of health services, other factors influence the way the women assign meaning to cervical cancer prevention. Moral values associated with sexuality and gender influence risk perception, adoption of preventive practices, and interpretation of cervical cytology results. The ongoing practice of the Pap smear test is part of the construction of femininity, which is associated with maturity and personal responsibility for self care in a context of medicalization of the female body.

  16. [Household solid waste bagging and collection and their health implications for children living in outlying urban settlements in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Moraes, Luiz Roberto Santos

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the bagging and collection of household solid waste and the health implications for children. The research was conducted in nine human settlements on the outskirts of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. Intestinal nematode infection, predominantly involving Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworms, was used as an epidemiological indicator in 1,893 children from 5 to 14 years of age. The study also included diarrhea incidence and nutritional status as shown by anthropometric indicators in 1,204 children less than 5 years of age. There was a higher prevalence of the three nematodes in children living in households without proper bagging/isolation and collection of household solid waste as compared to those in areas with regular garbage collection and adequate isolation of solid waste. The differences were statistically significant when other socioeconomic, cultural, demographic, and environmental risks factors were considered in the analysis. Similar results were also observed for epidemiological indicators, diarrhea incidence, and nutritional status.

  17. Social networks of men who have sex with men: a study of recruitment chains using Respondent Driven Sampling in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brignol, Sandra Mara Silva; Dourado, Inês; Amorim, Leila Denise; Miranda, José Garcia Vivas; Kerr, Lígia R F S

    2015-11-01

    Social and sexual contact networks between men who have sex with men (MSM) play an important role in understanding the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In Salvador (Bahia State, Brazil), one of the cities in the survey Behavior, Attitudes, Practices, and Prevalence of HIV and Syphilis among Men Who Have Sex with Men in 10 Brazilian Cities, data were collected in 2008/2009 from a sample of 383 MSM using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS). Network analysis was used to study friendship networks and sexual partner networks. The study also focused on the association between the number of links (degree) and the number of sexual partners, in addition to socio-demographic characteristics. The networks' structure potentially facilitates HIV transmission. However, the same networks can also be used to spread messages on STI/HIV prevention, since the proximity and similarity of MSM in these networks can encourage behavior change and positive attitudes towards prevention. PMID:26648372

  18. Constitution of ethnozoological semantic domains: meaning and inclusiveness of the lexeme "insect" for the inhabitants of the county of Pedra Branca, Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos-Fita, Dídac; Costa-Neto, Eraldo M; Schiavetti, Alexandre

    2011-06-01

    This article deals with the sociocultural construction of the 'insect' and 'animal' domains by the inhabitants of the county of Pedra Branca (municipality of Santa Terezinha, Bahia State, Brazil). The fieldwork was performed from September 2006 to July 2007. The data was obtained by means of open-ended interviews of 74 individuals of both genders whose ages ranged from 4 to 89 years old. The results show that the interviewees were unable to say in an accurate and secure way a specific definition for each domain. Depending on how a given animal is culturally interpreted, it could belong to the semantic domain 'animal' or 'insect', being representative of one or another group. However, in practice, such a distinction between these two semantic domains appears as something tenuous and ambiguous. Researchers who carry out biodiversity inventories should pay attention to the ethnocategory 'insect' during their studies, especially if these involve the participation of traditional community representatives.

  19. [Slave-descendent communities in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil: self-rated health and associated factors].

    PubMed

    Kochergin, Clavdia Nicolaevna; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; César, Cibele Comini

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to analyze the prevalence of negative self-rated health and associated factors in the quilombola community (descendants of escaped slaves) in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil. A household survey was conducted with 797 adults in 2011. Data on self-rated health, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, lifestyle, social support, health status, and access to health services were obtained through questionnaires. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed, adjusted for sex and age. Prevalence of negative self-rated health was 12.5%. After statistical modeling, the following variables remained associated with self-rated health: skin color, schooling, adequate consumption of fruits and vegetables, chronic illness, physical limitations, and at least one medical visit in the previous 12 months. Self-rated health was associated with socioeconomic/demographic dimensions, lifestyle, social support, and health status.

  20. [Slave-descendent communities in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil: self-rated health and associated factors].

    PubMed

    Kochergin, Clavdia Nicolaevna; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; César, Cibele Comini

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to analyze the prevalence of negative self-rated health and associated factors in the quilombola community (descendants of escaped slaves) in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil. A household survey was conducted with 797 adults in 2011. Data on self-rated health, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, lifestyle, social support, health status, and access to health services were obtained through questionnaires. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed, adjusted for sex and age. Prevalence of negative self-rated health was 12.5%. After statistical modeling, the following variables remained associated with self-rated health: skin color, schooling, adequate consumption of fruits and vegetables, chronic illness, physical limitations, and at least one medical visit in the previous 12 months. Self-rated health was associated with socioeconomic/demographic dimensions, lifestyle, social support, and health status. PMID:25166945

  1. Genetic Structure and Molecular Diversity of Cacao Plants Established as Local Varieties for More than Two Centuries: The Genetic History of Cacao Plantations in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Elisa S L; Cerqueira-Silva, Carlos Bernard M; Mori, Gustavo M; Ahnert, Dário; Mello, Durval L N; Pires, José Luis; Corrêa, Ronan X; de Souza, Anete P

    2015-01-01

    Bahia is the most important cacao-producing state in Brazil, which is currently the sixth-largest country worldwide to produce cacao seeds. In the eighteenth century, the Comum, Pará and Maranhão varieties of cacao were introduced into southern Bahia, and their descendants, which are called 'Bahian cacao' or local Bahian varieties, have been cultivated for over 200 years. Comum plants have been used to start plantations in African countries and extended as far as countries in South Asia and Oceania. In Brazil, two sets of clones selected from Bahian varieties and their mutants, the Agronomic Institute of East (SIAL) and Bahian Cacao Institute (SIC) series, represent the diversity of Bahian cacao in germplasm banks. Because the genetic diversity of Bahian varieties, which is essential for breeding programs, remains unknown, the objective of this work was to assess the genetic structure and diversity of local Bahian varieties collected from farms and germplasm banks. To this end, 30 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to genotype 279 cacao plants from germplasm and local farms. The results facilitated the identification of 219 cacao plants of Bahian origin, and 51 of these were SIAL or SIC clones. Bahian cacao showed low genetic diversity. It could be verified that SIC and SIAL clones do not represent the true diversity of Bahian cacao, with the greatest amount of diversity found in cacao trees on the farms. Thus, a core collection to aid in prioritizing the plants to be sampled for Bahian cacao diversity is suggested. These results provide information that can be used to conserve Bahian cacao plants and applied in breeding programs to obtain more productive Bahian cacao with superior quality and tolerance to major diseases in tropical cacao plantations worldwide.

  2. Genetic Structure and Molecular Diversity of Cacao Plants Established as Local Varieties for More than Two Centuries: The Genetic History of Cacao Plantations in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Elisa S L; Cerqueira-Silva, Carlos Bernard M; Mori, Gustavo M; Ahnert, Dário; Mello, Durval L N; Pires, José Luis; Corrêa, Ronan X; de Souza, Anete P

    2015-01-01

    Bahia is the most important cacao-producing state in Brazil, which is currently the sixth-largest country worldwide to produce cacao seeds. In the eighteenth century, the Comum, Pará and Maranhão varieties of cacao were introduced into southern Bahia, and their descendants, which are called 'Bahian cacao' or local Bahian varieties, have been cultivated for over 200 years. Comum plants have been used to start plantations in African countries and extended as far as countries in South Asia and Oceania. In Brazil, two sets of clones selected from Bahian varieties and their mutants, the Agronomic Institute of East (SIAL) and Bahian Cacao Institute (SIC) series, represent the diversity of Bahian cacao in germplasm banks. Because the genetic diversity of Bahian varieties, which is essential for breeding programs, remains unknown, the objective of this work was to assess the genetic structure and diversity of local Bahian varieties collected from farms and germplasm banks. To this end, 30 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to genotype 279 cacao plants from germplasm and local farms. The results facilitated the identification of 219 cacao plants of Bahian origin, and 51 of these were SIAL or SIC clones. Bahian cacao showed low genetic diversity. It could be verified that SIC and SIAL clones do not represent the true diversity of Bahian cacao, with the greatest amount of diversity found in cacao trees on the farms. Thus, a core collection to aid in prioritizing the plants to be sampled for Bahian cacao diversity is suggested. These results provide information that can be used to conserve Bahian cacao plants and applied in breeding programs to obtain more productive Bahian cacao with superior quality and tolerance to major diseases in tropical cacao plantations worldwide. PMID:26675449

  3. Genetic Structure and Molecular Diversity of Cacao Plants Established as Local Varieties for More than Two Centuries: The Genetic History of Cacao Plantations in Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Elisa S. L.; Cerqueira-Silva, Carlos Bernard M.; Mori, Gustavo M.; Ahnert, Dário; Mello, Durval L. N.; Pires, José Luis; Corrêa, Ronan X.; de Souza, Anete P.

    2015-01-01

    Bahia is the most important cacao-producing state in Brazil, which is currently the sixth-largest country worldwide to produce cacao seeds. In the eighteenth century, the Comum, Pará and Maranhão varieties of cacao were introduced into southern Bahia, and their descendants, which are called ‘Bahian cacao’ or local Bahian varieties, have been cultivated for over 200 years. Comum plants have been used to start plantations in African countries and extended as far as countries in South Asia and Oceania. In Brazil, two sets of clones selected from Bahian varieties and their mutants, the Agronomic Institute of East (SIAL) and Bahian Cacao Institute (SIC) series, represent the diversity of Bahian cacao in germplasm banks. Because the genetic diversity of Bahian varieties, which is essential for breeding programs, remains unknown, the objective of this work was to assess the genetic structure and diversity of local Bahian varieties collected from farms and germplasm banks. To this end, 30 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to genotype 279 cacao plants from germplasm and local farms. The results facilitated the identification of 219 cacao plants of Bahian origin, and 51 of these were SIAL or SIC clones. Bahian cacao showed low genetic diversity. It could be verified that SIC and SIAL clones do not represent the true diversity of Bahian cacao, with the greatest amount of diversity found in cacao trees on the farms. Thus, a core collection to aid in prioritizing the plants to be sampled for Bahian cacao diversity is suggested. These results provide information that can be used to conserve Bahian cacao plants and applied in breeding programs to obtain more productive Bahian cacao with superior quality and tolerance to major diseases in tropical cacao plantations worldwide. PMID:26675449

  4. Correlation between infection rate of triatominies and Chagas Disease in Southwest of Bahia, Brazil: a warning sign?

    PubMed

    Silveira, Eliezer A DA; Ribeiro, Israel S; Amorim, Miguel S; Rocha, Dalva V; Coutinho, Helder S; Freitas, Leandro M DE; Tomazi, Laize; Silva, Robson A A DA

    2016-07-11

    Chagas disease, caused by the Trypanosoma cruzi, has a wide distribution in South America, and its main method of control is the elimination of triatomines. It is presented here the geographic distribution and the rate of natural infection by T. cruzi of triatomines collected and evaluated from 2008 to 2013 in southwest of Bahia. Triatomines were captured in the intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary areas of five cities located in the southwest of Bahia state, identified, and analyzed for the presence of trypanosomatids in their feces. During the study period the number of patients suspected for acute Chagas disease was recovered from the Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN). 8966 triatomines were captured and identified as belonging to eight species. Twenty-six presented themselves infected, being Triatoma sordida the most abundant and with the highest percentage of infection by T. cruzi. Tremedal was the city with the highest number of cases of acute Chagas' disease reported to SINAN. All cities showed triatomines infected with T. cruzi, so there is considerable risk of vectorial transmission of Chagas disease in the southwestern Bahia state, evidencing the need for vector transmission control programs and preventive surveillance measures.

  5. Correlation between infection rate of triatominies and Chagas Disease in Southwest of Bahia, Brazil: a warning sign?

    PubMed

    Silveira, Eliezer A DA; Ribeiro, Israel S; Amorim, Miguel S; Rocha, Dalva V; Coutinho, Helder S; Freitas, Leandro M DE; Tomazi, Laize; Silva, Robson A A DA

    2016-07-11

    Chagas disease, caused by the Trypanosoma cruzi, has a wide distribution in South America, and its main method of control is the elimination of triatomines. It is presented here the geographic distribution and the rate of natural infection by T. cruzi of triatomines collected and evaluated from 2008 to 2013 in southwest of Bahia. Triatomines were captured in the intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary areas of five cities located in the southwest of Bahia state, identified, and analyzed for the presence of trypanosomatids in their feces. During the study period the number of patients suspected for acute Chagas disease was recovered from the Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN). 8966 triatomines were captured and identified as belonging to eight species. Twenty-six presented themselves infected, being Triatoma sordida the most abundant and with the highest percentage of infection by T. cruzi. Tremedal was the city with the highest number of cases of acute Chagas' disease reported to SINAN. All cities showed triatomines infected with T. cruzi, so there is considerable risk of vectorial transmission of Chagas disease in the southwestern Bahia state, evidencing the need for vector transmission control programs and preventive surveillance measures. PMID:27411071

  6. Dengue type 2 outbreak in the south of the state of Bahia, Brazil: laboratorial and epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, R M; Miagostovich, M P; Schatzmayr, H G; Moraes, G C; Cardoso, M A; Ferreira, J; Cerqueira, V; Pereira, M

    1995-01-01

    During March 1994 cases of a exanthematic acute disease were reported in the municipalities of Itagemirim, Eunápolis and Belmonte, state of Bahia. Dengue fever was confirmed by serology (MAC-ELISA) and by dengue virus type 2 isolation, genotype Jamaica. Signs and symptoms of classic dengue fever were observed with a high percentual of rash (73.8%) and pruritus (50.5%). Major haemorrhagic manifestations were unfrequent and only bleeding gum was reported. Dengue virus activity spreaded rapidly to important tourism counties like Porto Seguro, Ilhéus, Santa Cruz de Cabrália, Prado, Alcobaça and others, representing a risk for the spreading of dengue virus into the country and abroad.

  7. Assessing risk behaviors and prevalence of sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections among female crack cocaine users inSalvador--Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Ceuci L X; Andrade, Tarcisio; Galvão-Castro, Bernardo; Bastos, Francisco I; Reingold, Arthur

    2007-12-01

    Crack cocaine use is associated with risky sexual behaviors and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. We investigated sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics and infection rates in female crack cocaine users from impoverished communities of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. A sample of 125 female crack cocaine users was recruited. Overall, the interviewees had low educational level and high rate of unemployment (close to 90%). One-third (37%) reported having traded sex for money or drugs, and 58% reported that they had not used condoms during intercourse in the last 30 days. The prevalence of infections was low: HIV-1.6%; HCV-2.4%; HBV- 0.8%; HTLV I/II-4.0%; and syphilis-4.0%. The combination of dire poverty and high prevalence of risk behaviors turn such populations a preferential target of initiatives aiming to reduce drug-related harm and promote social development. Low infection rates should not be viewed with complacency, but as a window of opportunity to implement prevention initiatives and reduce social marginalization.

  8. Evaluation of criteria for selecting the spectral attributes of digital LANDSAT MSS imagery for discriminating lithological units in the lower Curaca River Valley, Bahia. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paradella, W. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    The use of spectral attributes criteria was investigated, based on measures of statistical distance of separability between thematic classes in MSS digital LANDSAT imagery, in order to select the best subsets of channels in composite colors for the detection and discrimination of lithological units in the lower valley of Curaca River, State of Bahia, Brazil. Three situations were investigated: (1) selection of the three best channels, considering all of the original bands (channels 4, 5, 6, and 7); (2) selection of the three best bands, considering the six MSS band-ratios (channels 4/5, 4/6. 4/7, 5/6, 5/7, and 6/7); and (3) selection of the three best bands in a hybrid approach (the four original bands and the six ratios). A visual analysis was done on color composite images using the selected sets. Results show that the hybrid product (bands 4, 5/7, and 7 with green, blue, and red respectively) and the Normal Color Composite (bands 4, 5, and 7 with blue, green, and red colors respectively) had the best performance.

  9. [Robbers on board: exposure to violence, insecurity, and other health hazards among mass transportation workers and passengers in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Paes-Machado, Eduardo; Levenstein, Charles

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of violent crime on working conditions, health, and security for bus drivers and ticket takers in the mass transportation system in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The research included 195 interviews with workers, labor union officials, passengers, management, and police. In the last ten years there have been 20,572 robberies in a fleet of 2,400 buses operated by 10,151 workers, with 67 deaths and more than US$500,000 in company losses. Perpetrators are typically poor, unemployed youths, the majority of whom first offenders, seeking easy money primarily for leisure pursuits. The average "take" from such robberies is minimal. The authors observed a pattern of bus robberies as a psychological power game which, for bus workers, apart from physical injuries and fatalities, generates fear, identity conflicts, tense relations with passengers, and labor conflicts involving the recovery of stolen fares and worker and passenger security issues. The article also outlines and evaluates the efficiency of security measures including the use of lethal force by police.

  10. Use of prescribed and non-prescribed medications among children living in poor areas in the city of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Djanilson Barbosa Dos; Barreto, Mauricio Lima; Coelho, Helena Lutescia Luna

    2011-10-01

    A cross-sectional study of children living in poor areas in the city of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, was carried out in 2006 to investigate the prevalence of use of prescribed and non-prescribed medication. This population-based study included 1,382 children aged 4-11 years. The use prescribed and non-prescribed medication during the 15 day period preceding the interview was adopted as the dependent variable. Of the 1,382 children, 663 (48%) had used at least one type of medication in the 15 days prior to the interview: in 267 cases (40.3%), mothers reported that the child had taken prescribed medication, while in 396 cases (59.7%), the child had taken medication that had not been prescribed by a physician. The most commonly prescribed drugs were analgesics (42.3%), systemic antibiotics (21.3%) and antiasthmatic (16.5%). With respect to non-prescribed drugs, the most common were analgesics (65.2%), antitussives (15.7%) and vitamins (9.3%). The results show a high prevalence of the use of non-prescription drugs among poor children, and large drug purchases of drugs by the head of household, highlighting deficiencies in coverage of the health system.

  11. Evaluation of the aggressive potential of marine chloride and sulfate salts on mortars applied as renders in the Metropolitan Region of Salvador--Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Eduardo A L; Campos, Vânia P; da Silva Filho, Luiz C P; Greven, Hélio A

    2009-02-01

    In recent years, growing interest has focused on determining the performance of materials and evaluating the service life of structures exposed to various environmental forces. In this context, the determination of the aggressive potential of marine salts on mortars used as external renders is critical. The present study aimed to evaluate the spatial distribution of marine salts relative to distance from the sea. This was done by monitoring the deposition rate of chlorides and sulfates in wet candle sensors, located at nine stations scattered around the Metropolitan Region of Salvador, state of Bahia, Brazil. The study also determined the effectiveness of water-soluble salts at penetrating three different types of mortars of varying cement content via deposition and diffusion. The methodology employed enabled an evaluation of the efficiency of the monitoring sensors' measurement of the aggressiveness potential of local marine aerosol, and determination of the comparative performance of the three mortars tested, from the standpoint of resistance to salt penetration. The type and amount of salts captured both in solution and in powder samples extracted from the mortars were determined by ion chromatography. The analysis of the various types of mortars tested indicated which types are more resistant to the aggressive potential of the region's marine aerosol and the distance from the shore where local buildings are liable to be most strongly affected.

  12. Radiometric quality and performance of TIMESAT for smoothing moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer enhanced vegetation index time series from western Bahia State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, Elane F.; Sano, Edson E.; Medrado, Euzébio

    2014-01-01

    The launch of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor aboard the Terra and Aqua platforms in 1999 and 2002, respectively, with temporal resolutions of 1 to 2 days opened the possibility of using a longtime series of satellite images to map land use and land cover classes from different regions of the Earth, to study vegetation phenology, and to monitor regional and global climate change, among other applications. The main objectives of this study were twofold: to analyze the radiometric quality of the time series of enhanced vegetation index (EVI) products derived from the Terra MODIS sensor in western Bahia State, Brazil, and to identify the most appropriate filter to smooth MODIS EVI time series of the study area among those available in the public domain, the TIMESAT algorithm. The 2000 to 2011 time period was considered (a total of 276 scenes). The radiometric quality was analyzed based on the pixel reliability data set available in the MOD13Q1 product. The performances of the three smoothing filters available within TIMESAT (double logistic, Savitzky-Golay, and asymmetric Gaussian) were analyzed using the Graybill's F test and Willmott statistics. Five percent of the MODIS pixels from the study area were cloud-affected, almost all of which were from the rainy season. The double logistic filter presented the best performance.

  13. Vulnerability in the context of HIV and syphilis infection in a population of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brignol, Sandra; Dourado, Inês; Amorim, Leila D; Kerr, Lígia Regina Franco Sansigolo

    2015-05-01

    Social, individual, and programmatic vulnerability of men who have sex with men (MSM) in the context of the HIV epidemic and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) is a reality in many countries. The survey Behavior, Attitudes, Practices, and Prevalence of HIV and Syphilis in Men Who Have Sex with Men in 10 Brazilian Cities selected 383 MSM in the city of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, using the respondent driven sampling (RDS) technique. Individual vulnerability early sexual initiation (51%), average of eight sex partners, and unprotected receptive anal sex with casual (32%) and steady partners (45%) and positive rapid tests HIV (6.5%) and syphilis (9%). Social vulnerability young adults (80%), black race/skin color (91%), mean monthly family income of BRL 1,000.00, and personal history of discrimination (57%). Programmatic factors no previous HIV test (63%) and no access to lubricant gel (88%). The study showed a profile of vulnerability and the urgent need for interventions and STI prevention in the MSM population in Salvador, in addition to high prevalence rates for HIV and syphilis. PMID:26083178

  14. [Non-industrial labor, internal conditions and repetitive strain injury: a case study in a shellfish-rearing community on Maré Island, State of Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Pena, Paulo Gilvane Lopes; Freitas, Maria do Carmo Soares de; Cardim, Adryanna

    2011-08-01

    Non-industrial labor is still widespread in Brazil. An appropriate approach ought to consider different social specificities from those of salaried-work relations. The scope was to examine non-industrial work practices, specifically those of extractive shellfishing, and their relation to health conditions in a small-scale fishing community. It focused on the cadences and time contingencies, as well as other working conditions, related to the development of ailments such as repetitive strain injury -RSI. A qualitative-ethnographic study was conducted between 2005 and 2007 in a community of 800 inhabitants, located on Maré Island in the state of Bahia. In a population consisting of fishing households, thirty families were interviewed, observed at work and - in cases of suspected RSI -referred to a specialized health service. The seriousness of the working conditions became evident, especially with respect to RSI. By way of illustration, an average frequency of 10,200 repetitive movements per hour were verified in extractive shellfishing, while the official Brazilian norm (NR17) for a keyboarder establishes a maximum of 8,000 movements per hour. This suggests that women shellfishers ought to be included in repetitive strain injury risk groups.

  15. [Dietary patterns of children under five years of age living in the State capital and other counties of Bahia State, Brazil, 1996 and 1999-2000].

    PubMed

    Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim de; Barreto, Mauricio Lima; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; Oliveira, Valterlinda A; Oliveira, Lucivalda P M; D'Innocenzo, Silvana; Teles, Carlos Antonio Santos; Pereira, Sheila Regina dos Santos; Prado, Matildes da Silva; Assis, Ana Marlúcia Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study included 3,817 preschool children, of whom 1,770 in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, and 2,047 in urban and rural areas from nine other municipalities (counties) in the same State. The study used 24-hour recall and principal components analysis to identify and compare dietary patterns. The sample was stratified by age and area. In the first six months of life, breast milk composed the second and third patterns, with positive loadings for children in all 10 municipalities. For children under 17 months of age, pattern 1 was characterized by cow's milk, flour, and sugar, except in rural areas. Pattern 2 was similar for children aged 6-17 months and consisted of bread/cookies, rice, beans, and meat. For children 18-23 months of age in urban areas, pattern 1 showed negative loadings for sugar, cow's milk, and flour. In children over 24 months of age, fruits were not part of the first pattern. The study showed low consumption of milk and low variety of fruits and vegetables. This food consumption profile indicates the need for early interventions to promote healthy eating habits. PMID:24627012

  16. Opportunistic responses of Diadema antillarum (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) populations following the 1997 98 El Niño event in Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attrill, Martin J.; Kelmo, Francisco

    2007-06-01

    We present results from a seven year (1995-2001) study on the coral reefs in Bahia (Brazil), the reef invertebrate community being severely impacted by the 1997-98 El Niño Southern Oscillation event. Despite local extinction of some taxa, the urchin Diadema antillarum was the only species out of a total of 678 enumerated demonstrating a significant increase in population size following El Niño, indicating a unique response of this species to the stresses associated with these events. Other species of echinoid did not show such a response, most disappearing from the fauna during the two post-El Niño years. The increasing Diadema numbers were most likely due to movement of individuals onto the reef systems from deeper water, exploiting the conditions on the reefs caused by a reduction in competitors and, we speculate, an increase in available space on the reef allowing potential algal settlement to sustain this elevated urchin population. This increased grazing pressure may have prevented algae covering the reef, as seen in other Atlantic reef systems, allowing new coral settlement in 2001.

  17. Geotourism in the "Estrada Real", Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travassos, L. E. P.; Barbosa, F. M. Da C. P.

    2009-04-01

    Many natural landscapes are preserved throughout the World due to their cultural and historical values as well as for their environmental importance. The Way of Saint James of Compostela (Camino de Santiago de Compostela), located in Europe, is a well known example of this. It was the inspiration source for the development of a tourist route in the Brazilian States of Minas Gerais, Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, although it has no pilgrimage connotation. The Estrada Real (literally translated as the Royal Route) is made of a series of roads or routes that were formerly used by the Portuguese colonizers to control the flow of gold, silver, diamonds and other precious stones and minerals. The tourist activities, particularly in the State of Minas Gerais, are experiencing an accelerated growth, benefiting the local and traditional communities economically. The existence of various geomorphological and geological sites in the Estrada Real has also favored the increase of the ecotourism and the Brazilian incipient geotourism. However, the uncontrolled touristic activities can damage the natural environment and some historical heritage sites. This research basically consisted in a preliminary identification of important geomorphosites such as caves and mountains that need to be protected for a rational and sustainable use. Out of the 4,632 known Brazilian caves, approximately 1,655 caves developed in limestone, dolomite, quartzite and granite are located in the State of Minas Gerais. For this reason, the authors strongly recommend that studies on the importance of such geomorphosites should take place in the municipalities of the Estrada Real in order to guide the regional development of tourism and sustainable development. Keywords: ecotourism, Estrada Real, sustainability.

  18. Phytoplankton composition of the water and gastrointestinal tract of the mussel Diplodon enno (Ortmann, 1921) from São Francisco river (Bahia, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Alves, T; Lima, P; Lima, G M S; Cunha, M C C; Ferreira, S; Domingues, B; Machado, J

    2016-06-01

    The knowledge on diet composition of the freshwater mussel Diplodon enno (Ortmann) would aid in its culture and propagation allowing, this way, the replacement of natural endangered populations in Brazil. Microalgae are the main food source for captive mussels and unionids have displayed an ability to sort algae based on the cellular characteristics prior to ingestion. The main objective of the present work is to analyze the phytoplankton composition of the water from and of the gastrointestinal contents of the mussel D. enno, as an initial step for development of a suitable rearing diet. Therefore, water samples and bivalve specimens were collected from S. Francisco River, city of Paulo Afonso, Bahia, Brazil. The microalgal composition found in water and stomach/gut content samples was very diverse being represented by the following divisions: Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, Dinophyta and Heterokontophyta (Diatoms). Concerning the relative abundance of microalgae divisions, it is possible to state, for the water and gastrointestinal contents, that Cyanophyta represents 15% and 14%, Chlorophyta 54% in both, Heterokontophyta 31% and 27% and Dinophyta 0% and 5%, respectively. According to the Brazilian CETESB criteria for phytoplankton species classification, 50% of Cyanophyta and 15% of Chlorophyta species observed in the water samples were classified as "very frequent", as were 68% of Heterokontophyta and 33% of Chlorophyta species in the gut/stomach tract samples. Focusing at a species level, although in the water only Coelastrum sp. and Chroococcus sp. were observed in 100% and 75% of the samples, respectively, in the gastrointestinal tract the species Staurastrum sp., Aulacoseira sp., Scenedesmus sp. and Fragilaria crotonensis occurred in 80% to 100% of the samples. The present results showed that D. enno feeds not only on small chlorophytes microalgae, due to their convenient size that facilitates higher feeding rates, but also on large size diatoms, due to a possible

  19. Mineralogical and textural evidences of melt transfer in a granulite from the Paleoproterozoic Itabuna-Salvador-Curaça belt (Salvador da Bahia, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncalves, Philippe; Santos de Souza, Jailma; Barbosa, Johildo; Bourque, Hugo; Floess, David

    2014-05-01

    In pelitic rocks, the effect of melt transfer (loss and/or gain) on phase relations can be successfully predicted via phase equilibrium modeling and more particularly using pseudosections with bulk composition as a variable (e.g. White et al., 2001). One of the most obvious effect of melt loss is the dehydration of the rock that limits further melting and favors the preservation of peak metamorphic assemblage. However, in most cases, melt loss has a limited effect that can be hardly seen mineralogically. Indeed, composition of phases like garnet, cordierite or plagioclase, that are first-order metamorphic phase, will not be affected significantly by melt loss. Therefore, evidences of melt extraction must be evidenced texturally. The goal of this contribution is to present an example where both mineralogical and textural evidences of melt extraction have been inferred. The studied sample is a pelitic granulite from the Paleoproterozoic Itabuna-Salvador-Curaça belt (Salvador da Bahia, Brazil). It is located in the city of Salvador da Bahia, next to the Farol da Bara. Structurally, it is located in a steeply deeping high strain zone that could have play a major role on the segregation and transfer of melt. The gneissic foliation is marked by a compositional banding with centimer-wide quartzo-feldspathic leucosomes in a garnet-bearing granulite. Leucosomes are almost systematically surrounded by a darker layer that is quartz-undersaturated and enriched in spinel and primatic sillimanite. This silica undersaturation is interpreted as the effect of extreme melt extraction and was modeled using phase diagram section. An interesting feature of the rock is that garnet grain size decreases and the number of garnet grains increases in the melanosome away from the leucosome. Furthermore, the type, amount and shape of inclusions in garnet, chemical composition and zoning in garnet also varies greatly and continuously across the gneissic foliation. Texturally, the presence of

  20. [Missed opportunity for timely diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in Afrodescendant communities in the southwest of the state of Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Souza, Cláudio Lima; Barroso, Sabrina Martins; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland

    2014-06-01

    The scope of this study was to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of missed opportunities for timely diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in Afrodescendant communities in Vitoria da Conquista in the state of Bahia. It involved a population-based cross-sectional study based on a probability sample (n=797), where 548 individuals were eligible for analysis considering the risk criteria: age of 45 years old and above, increased Body Mass Index and hypertension. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus was estimated at 42.6%. Logistic regression indicated the following statistically associated factors: self-assessed good/very good health conditions; not measuring blood pressure and not consulting with a physician in the past twelve months; and poor access to health services. The high prevalence was associated with factors related to low utilization and poor access to health services. Actions for the diagnosis and prevention of diabetes should prioritize populations at risk, including better education and training of family health care teams, and improvement of attendance at health care units. Enhanced integration between primary and secondary health care actions can positively impact early diagnosis, treatment and reduction of potential complications associated with diabetes in this population.

  1. Bird-spiders (Arachnida, Mygalomorphae) as perceived by the inhabitants of the village of Pedra Branca, Bahia State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Neto, Eraldo M Costa

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with the conceptions, knowledge and attitudes of the inhabitants of the county of Pedra Branca, Bahia State, on mygalomorph spiders locally known as 'caranguejeiras' (bird-spiders). It is launched here a new filed within ethnozoology: ethnoarachnology, which is defined as the transdisciplinary study of the relationships between human beings and bird-spiders. Data were collected from February to June 2005 by means of open-ended interviews carried out with 30 individuals, which ages ranged from 13 to 86 years old. It was recorded some traditional knowledge regarding the following items: taxonomy, biology, habitat, ecology, seasonality, and behavior. Results show that bird-spiders are classified as "insects". The most commented aspect of the interaction between bird-spiders and inhabitants of Pedra Branca is related to their dangerousness, since they said these spiders are very venomous and can cause health problems. In general, the traditional zoological knowledge of Pedra Branca's inhabitants concerning these spiders is coherent with the academic knowledge. PMID:17101055

  2. Capture and commercialization of blue land crabs ("guaiamum") Cardisoma guanhumi (Lattreille, 1825) along the coast of Bahia State, Brazil: an ethnoecological approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Blue Land Crab (Cardisoma guanhumi) is one of the most important crustacean species captured and commercialized in Brazil. Although this species is not considered to be threatened with extinction, populations of C. guanhumi are known to be rapidly diminishing due to heavy harvesting pressures and degradation of their natural habitats, highlighting the necessity of developing and implanting management and protection strategies for their populations. There have been no ethnozoological publications that have focused specifically on C. guanhumi, in spite of importance of this type of information for developing efficient management plans of resource utilization. So, the present work describes the ethnoecological aspects of the capture and commercialization of C. guanhumi by a fishing community in northeastern Brazil. Methods Field work was carried out in the municipality of Mucuri, Bahia in Brazil, between the months of January and March/2011 through the use of open semi-structured interviews with all of the crustacean harvesters in city who acknowledged their work in capturing this species, totaling 12 interviewees. The informants were identified through the use of the "snowball" sampling technique. In addition to the interviews themselves, the "guided tour" technique and direct observations was employed. Results According all the interviewees, the C. guanhumi is popularly called "guaiamum" and is collected in "apicum" zones. They recognize sexual dimorphism in the species based on three morphological characteristics and the harvesters also pointed two stages in the reproductive cycle during the year and another phase mentioned by the interviewees was ecdysis. All of the interviewed affirmed that the size and the quantities C. guanhumi stocks in Mucuri have been diminishing. All of the interviewees agreed that the species and other mangrove resources constituted their principal source of income. The harvesters dedicated three to five days a week to collect

  3. Study of the association between the interleukin-1 β c.3954C>T polymorphism and periodontitis in a population sample from Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Mendonça, Samir A.; Teixeira, Fernanda G.; Oliveira, Kamilla M.; Santos, Djanilson B.; Marques, Lucas M.; Amorim, Maise M.; Gestinari, Raquel De S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease characterized by the loss of connective tissue and alveolar bone. Different factors are associated with the onset and prognosis of this disease, both environmental and genetic. The latter particularly relate to molecules secreted as a function of the host immune response, such as pro-inflammatory cytokines. Studies indicate that the polymorphism c. 3954C > T in the interleukin-1 β encoding gene (IL1B) can be considered as an aggravating factor in the periodontitis condition. Aims: This study aimed to evaluate whether there is an association between the IL1B c. 3954C > T gene polymorphism and the prevalence of periodontitis in the population from Vitória da Conquista–Bahia, Brazil. Materials and Methods: A total of 347 subjects (134 cases and 213 controls) who provided epithelial tissue of the oral cavity and saliva samples for DNA extraction and quantification of IL1B, respectively, were selected. Genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism followed by electrophoresis in agarose gel. The evaluation of the cytokine concentration was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistical Analysis: Statistical calculations involved in this work include Chi-square test, Fisher Exact test, Mann–Whitney and Kruskal–Wallis tests. Results: Our findings revealed that: (i) No statistically significant relationship between periodontitis and the polymorphism studied was observed; (ii) no significant difference between the concentrations of IL1B in saliva between the case and control subjects and between the genotypes of these individuals and the concentrations of this cytokine. Conclusions: We conclude that, in the sample evaluated, the IL1B c. 3954C > T polymorphism did not present as an etiological factor for periodontitis. PMID:26097351

  4. Programming the body, planning reproduction, governing life: the '(ir-) rationality' of family planning and the embodiment of social inequalities in Salvador da Bahia (Brazil).

    PubMed

    De Zordo, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines family planning in Brazil as biopolitics and explores how the democratization of the State and of reproductive health services after two decades of military dictatorship (1964-1984) has influenced health professionals' and family planning users' discourses and practices. Do health professionals envisage family planning as a 'right' or do they conceive it, following the old neo-Malthusian rationale, as a 'moral duty' of poor people, whose 'irrational' reproduction jeopardizes the family's and the nation's well being? And how do their patients conceptualize and embody family planning? To answer these questions, this paper draws on 13 months of multi-sited ethnographic research undertaken between 2003 and 2005 in two public family planning services in Salvador da Bahia, where participant observation was undertaken and unstructured interviews were conducted with 11 health professionals and 70 family planning users, mostly low income black women. The paper examines how different bio-political rationalities operate in these services and argues that the old neo-Malthusian rationale and the current, dominant discourse on reproductive rights, gender equality and citizenship coexist. The coalescence of different biopolitical rationalities leads to the double stigmatization of family planning users as 'victims' of social and gender inequalities and as 'irrational' patients, 'irresponsible' mothers and 'bad' citizens if they do not embody the neo-Malthusian and biomedical rationales shaping medical practice. However, these women do not behave as 'docile bodies': they tactically use medical and non-medical contraceptives not only to be good mothers and citizens, but also to enhance themselves and to attain their own goals.

  5. Phytochemical screening, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of extracts prepared from different tissues of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi that occurs in the coast of Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    D’Sousa’ Costa, Cinara Oliveira; Ribeiro, Paulo Roberto; Loureiro, Marta Bruno; Simões, Rafael Conceição; de Castro, Renato Delmondez; Fernandez, Luzimar Gonzaga

    2015-01-01

    Background: Schinus terebinthifolius is widely used in traditional medicine by Brazilian quilombola and indigenous communities for treatment of several diseases. Extracts from different tissues are being used to produce creams to treat cervicitis and cervicovaginitis. However, most studies are limited to the assessment of the essential oils and extracts obtained from the leaves. Objective: The aim was to evaluate antioxidant and antibacterial activities, to assess the phytochemical profile and to quantify total phenolic compounds of various extracts prepared from S. terebinthifolius grown in the coast of Bahia, Brazil. Materials and Methods: Extracts were obtained by hot continuous extraction (soxhlet) and by maceration. Quantification of phenolic compounds was performed using the Folin-Ciocalteu method and antioxidant properties were assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay. Phytochemical screening was performed as described by in the literature and antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) was determined by the microdilution broth assay. Results: Extraction method greatly affected the metabolite profile of the extracts. Antioxidant activity varied between 21.92% and 85.76%, while total phenols ranged between 5.44 and 309.03 mg EAG/g of extract. Leaf extract obtained with soxhlet showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 15.62 μg/mL, while stem extract obtained by maceration was able to inhibit the growth of E. faecalis at 62.5 μg/mL. Stem bark extracts showed a MIC of 500 μg/mL for both extraction methods, while no inhibition was observed for fruit extracts. Conclusion: In general, total phenolic content, antioxidant and antibacterial activities were higher in samples obtained by soxhlet. Our results provide important clues in order to identify alternative sources of bioactive compounds that can be used to develop new drugs. PMID:26246739

  6. Dating and isotopic characteristics (Pb and S) of the Fe oxide Cu Au U REE Igarapé Bahia ore deposit, Carajás mineral province, Pará state, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galarza, Marco Antonio; Macambira, Moacir José B.; Villas, Raimundo Netuno

    2008-05-01

    The Igarapé Bahia ore deposit is located in the Carajás mineral province, southeast of the Amazonian Craton in northern Brazil. The deposit is hosted by the Archean Igarapé Bahia Group, which consists of mafic metavolcanic, metapyroclastic, and metasedimentary rocks, in addition to banded iron-formations and hydrothermal breccias. Mafic dikes cut these lithological varieties. The Cu-Au mineralization is best developed in breccias that lie between the mafic metavolcanic and metapyroclastic/metasedimentary units. Chalcopyrite, pyrite, bornite, and chalcocite are the main sulfides and are associated with Fe-rich chlorite, magnetite, siderite, and subordinate amounts of tourmaline, fluorite, REE-bearing minerals, and calcite. Dating of chalcopyrite from the hydrothermal breccias and metavolcanic, metapyroclastic, and dike rocks by the Pb-Pb method yields ages of 2772 ± 46, 2756 ± 24, 2754 ± 36, and 2777 ± 22 Ma, respectively. A similar age of 2744 ± 12 Ma of gold from the hydrothermal breccia, mafic metavolcanic rocks, and gossan is also obtained and considered the age of the mineralization, contemporaneous with the formation of the volcanosedimentary sequences of the Igarapé Bahia Group (2745-2747 Ma). These geochronological data support a genetic link between the volcanic processes and the Igarapé Bahia Cu-Au mineralization. Pb-Pb analyses of chalcopyrite leachates from the hydrothermal breccias reveal ages of 2385 ± 122 and 2417 ± 120 Ma, which suggest remobilization, likely due to regional tectonic reactivations related to the development of the Carajás and Cinzento strike-slip fault systems. Pb isotopic analyses show highly radiogenic samples that indicate magmas derived from sources in the upper crust enriched in U and Th. δ34S values (-2.1 to +4.2) are consistent with the derivation of sulfides from magmatic fluids, but a submarine environment similar to that of Archean VMS mineralization in which evaporites have been deposited cannot be ruled out.

  7. Phytoplankton composition of the water and gastrointestinal tract of the mussel Diplodon enno (Ortmann, 1921) from São Francisco river (Bahia, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Alves, T; Lima, P; Lima, G M S; Cunha, M C C; Ferreira, S; Domingues, B; Machado, J

    2016-06-01

    The knowledge on diet composition of the freshwater mussel Diplodon enno (Ortmann) would aid in its culture and propagation allowing, this way, the replacement of natural endangered populations in Brazil. Microalgae are the main food source for captive mussels and unionids have displayed an ability to sort algae based on the cellular characteristics prior to ingestion. The main objective of the present work is to analyze the phytoplankton composition of the water from and of the gastrointestinal contents of the mussel D. enno, as an initial step for development of a suitable rearing diet. Therefore, water samples and bivalve specimens were collected from S. Francisco River, city of Paulo Afonso, Bahia, Brazil. The microalgal composition found in water and stomach/gut content samples was very diverse being represented by the following divisions: Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, Dinophyta and Heterokontophyta (Diatoms). Concerning the relative abundance of microalgae divisions, it is possible to state, for the water and gastrointestinal contents, that Cyanophyta represents 15% and 14%, Chlorophyta 54% in both, Heterokontophyta 31% and 27% and Dinophyta 0% and 5%, respectively. According to the Brazilian CETESB criteria for phytoplankton species classification, 50% of Cyanophyta and 15% of Chlorophyta species observed in the water samples were classified as "very frequent", as were 68% of Heterokontophyta and 33% of Chlorophyta species in the gut/stomach tract samples. Focusing at a species level, although in the water only Coelastrum sp. and Chroococcus sp. were observed in 100% and 75% of the samples, respectively, in the gastrointestinal tract the species Staurastrum sp., Aulacoseira sp., Scenedesmus sp. and Fragilaria crotonensis occurred in 80% to 100% of the samples. The present results showed that D. enno feeds not only on small chlorophytes microalgae, due to their convenient size that facilitates higher feeding rates, but also on large size diatoms, due to a possible

  8. Impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall on water quality in the coastal zone of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Roth, F; Lessa, G C; Wild, C; Kikuchi, R K P; Naumann, M S

    2016-05-15

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures of suspended particulate organic matter and seawater biological oxygen demand (BOD) were measured along a coastal transect during summer 2015 to investigate pollution impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall close to Salvador, Brazil. Impacts of untreated sewage discharge were evident at the outfall site by depleted δ(13)Corg and δ(15)N signatures and 4-fold increased BOD rates. Pollution effects of a sewage plume were detectable for more than 6km downstream from the outfall site, as seasonal wind- and tide-driven shelf hydrodynamics facilitated its advective transport into near-shore waters. There, sewage pollution was detectable at recreational beaches by depleted stable isotope signatures and elevated BOD rates at high tides, suggesting high bacterial activity and increased infection risk by human pathogens. These findings indicate the urgent necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in Salvador to achieve acceptable standards for released effluents and coastal zone water quality.

  9. Impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall on water quality in the coastal zone of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Roth, F; Lessa, G C; Wild, C; Kikuchi, R K P; Naumann, M S

    2016-05-15

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures of suspended particulate organic matter and seawater biological oxygen demand (BOD) were measured along a coastal transect during summer 2015 to investigate pollution impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall close to Salvador, Brazil. Impacts of untreated sewage discharge were evident at the outfall site by depleted δ(13)Corg and δ(15)N signatures and 4-fold increased BOD rates. Pollution effects of a sewage plume were detectable for more than 6km downstream from the outfall site, as seasonal wind- and tide-driven shelf hydrodynamics facilitated its advective transport into near-shore waters. There, sewage pollution was detectable at recreational beaches by depleted stable isotope signatures and elevated BOD rates at high tides, suggesting high bacterial activity and increased infection risk by human pathogens. These findings indicate the urgent necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in Salvador to achieve acceptable standards for released effluents and coastal zone water quality. PMID:27038882

  10. The relative contribution of immigration or local increase for persistence of urban schistosomiasis in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Blanton, Ronald E; Barbosa, Lúcio M; Reis, Eliana A; Carmo, Theomira M; Dos Santos, Cláudio R A; Costa, Jackson M; Aminu, Peace T; Blank, Walter A; Reis, Renato Barbosa; Guimarães, Isabel C; Silva, Luciano K; Reis, Mitermayer G

    2015-03-01

    Urbanization is increasing across the globe, and diseases once considered rural can now be found in urban areas due to the migration of populations from rural endemic areas, local transmission within the city, or a combination of factors. We investigated the epidemiologic characteristics of urban immigrants and natives living in a neighborhood of Salvador, Brazil where there is a focus of transmission of Schistosoma mansoni. In a cross-sectional study, all inhabitants from 3 sections of the community were interviewed and examined. In order to determine the degree of parasite differentiation between immigrants and the native born, S. mansoni eggs from stools were genotyped for 15 microsatellite markers. The area received migrants from all over the state, but most infected children had never been outside of the city, and infected snails were present at water contact sites. Other epidemiologic features suggested immigration contributed little to the presence of infection. The intensity and prevalence of infection were the same for immigrants and natives when adjusted for age, and length of immigrant residence in the community was positively associated with prevalence of infection. The population structure of the parasites also supported that the contribution from immigration was small, since the host-to-host differentiation was no greater in the urban parasite population than a rural population with little distant immigration, and there had been little differentiation in the urban population over the past 7 years. Public health efforts should focus on eliminating local transmission, and once eliminated, reintroduction from distant migration is unlikely.

  11. C and N content in density fractions of whole soil and soil size fraction under cacao agroforestry systems and natural forest in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rita, Joice Cleide O; Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela Forestieri; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio Carlos; Polidoro, Jose Carlos; Machado, Regina Cele R; Baligar, Virupax C

    2011-07-01

    Agroforestry systems (AFSs) have an important role in capturing above and below ground soil carbon and play a dominant role in mitigation of atmospheric CO(2). Attempts has been made here to identify soil organic matter fractions in the cacao-AFSs that have different susceptibility to microbial decomposition and further represent the basis of understanding soil C dynamics. The objective of this study was to characterize the organic matter density fractions and soil size fractions in soils of two types of cacao agroforestry systems and to compare with an adjacent natural forest in Bahia, Brazil. The land-use systems studied were: (1) a 30-year-old stand of natural forest with cacao (cacao cabruca), (2) a 30-year-old stand of cacao with Erythrina glauca as shade trees (cacao + erythrina), and (3) an adjacent natural forest without cacao. Soil samples were collected from 0-10 cm depth layer in reddish-yellow Oxisols. Soil samples was separated by wet sieving into five fraction-size classes (>2000 μm, 1000-2000 μm, 250-1000 μm, 53-250 μm, and <53 μm). C and N accumulated in to the light (free- and intra-aggregate density fractions) and heavy fractions of whole soil and soil size fraction were determined. Soil size fraction obtained in cacao AFS soils consisted mainly (65 %) of mega-aggregates (>2000 μm) mixed with macroaggregates (32-34%), and microaggregates (1-1.3%). Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total N content increased with increasing soil size fraction in all land-use systems. Organic C-to-total N ratio was higher in the macroaggregate than in the microaggregate. In general, in natural forest and cacao cabruca the contribution of C and N in the light and heavy fractions was similar. However, in cacao + erythrina the heavy fraction was the most common and contributed 67% of C and 63% of N. Finding of this study shows that the majority of C and N in all three systems studied are found in macroaggregates, particularly in the 250-1000 μm size

  12. Attitudes and local ecological knowledge of experts fishermen in relation to conservation and bycatch of sea turtles (reptilia: testudines), Southern Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of ethnoecological tools to evaluate possible damage and loss of biodiversity related to the populations of species under some degree of threat may represent a first step towards integrating the political management of natural resources and conservation strategies. From this perspective, this study investigates fishermen’s ecological knowledge about sea turtles and attitudes towards the conservation and bycatch in Ilhéus, Southern Bahia, Brazil. Methods Fishermen experts semi-structured interviews were performed using snowball sampling method. The interviews consisted of a series of questions relating to the fishermen’s profile, structure and work equipment, the local ecological knowledge of fishermen about sea turtles and bycatch, a projective test, attitudes towards turtle conservation and beliefs and taboos regarding turtles. Indicators for quantitative comparisons of respondents in terms of their broad knowledge and attitudes towards turtle conservation were created. Correlation analyses were made between indicators of knowledge and attitude as well as the relationship between education level and knowledge and attitudes. Results Thirty experts were interviewed for the study. The local ecological knowledge and attitudes of fishermen towards the conservation of sea turtles were respectively medium (0.43) and moderate (0.69) according to experts (based on Likert scale and Cronbach’s Alpha). Potential areas of spawning were reported from Barra Grande to Una covering the entire coast of Ilhéus. Methods for identifying the animal, behavior, and popular names were described by fishermen. The most recent captures of turtles were attributed to fishing line, but according to the respondents, lobster nets and shrimp traps are more likely to capture turtles. Knowledge and attitudes were weakly inversely correlated (r = −0.38, p = 0.04), and the education level of the respondent showed a positive correlation with positive attitudes

  13. C and N Content in Density Fractions of Whole Soil and Soil Size Fraction Under Cacao Agroforestry Systems and Natural Forest in Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rita, Joice Cleide O.; Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela Forestieri; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio Carlos; Polidoro, Jose Carlos; Machado, Regina Cele R.; Baligar, Virupax C.

    2011-07-01

    Agroforestry systems (AFSs) have an important role in capturing above and below ground soil carbon and play a dominant role in mitigation of atmospheric CO2. Attempts has been made here to identify soil organic matter fractions in the cacao-AFSs that have different susceptibility to microbial decomposition and further represent the basis of understanding soil C dynamics. The objective of this study was to characterize the organic matter density fractions and soil size fractions in soils of two types of cacao agroforestry systems and to compare with an adjacent natural forest in Bahia, Brazil. The land-use systems studied were: (1) a 30-year-old stand of natural forest with cacao (cacao cabruca), (2) a 30-year-old stand of cacao with Erythrina glauca as shade trees (cacao + erythrina), and (3) an adjacent natural forest without cacao. Soil samples were collected from 0-10 cm depth layer in reddish-yellow Oxisols. Soil samples was separated by wet sieving into five fraction-size classes (>2000 μm, 1000-2000 μm, 250-1000 μm, 53-250 μm, and <53 μm). C and N accumulated in to the light (free- and intra-aggregate density fractions) and heavy fractions of whole soil and soil size fraction were determined. Soil size fraction obtained in cacao AFS soils consisted mainly (65 %) of mega-aggregates (>2000 μm) mixed with macroaggregates (32-34%), and microaggregates (1-1.3%). Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total N content increased with increasing soil size fraction in all land-use systems. Organic C-to-total N ratio was higher in the macroaggregate than in the microaggregate. In general, in natural forest and cacao cabruca the contribution of C and N in the light and heavy fractions was similar. However, in cacao + erythrina the heavy fraction was the most common and contributed 67% of C and 63% of N. Finding of this study shows that the majority of C and N in all three systems studied are found in macroaggregates, particularly in the 250-1000 μm size aggregate class

  14. Behaviour of Sotalia guianensis (van Bénéden, 1864) (Cetacea, Delphinidae) and ethnoecological knowledge of artisanal fishermen from Canavieiras, Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Artisanal fishermen, because of their direct and frequent contact with the aquatic environment, possess a wealth of knowledge about the natural history of the fauna of the region in which they live. This knowledge, both practical and theoretical, has been frequently utilized and integrated into academic research. Taking this into consideration, this study discusses the ethnoecological knowledge of artisanal fishermen from a community in Canavieiras, state of Bahia, Brazil regarding the Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis), a typically costal member of the family Delphinidae that is little studied in this region. To this end, the behaviour of S. guianensis in Canavieiras was recorded over one year and the data obtained were compared with fishermen’s reports. A total of 609 hours of behavioural observations of S. guianensis was conducted from a fixed point in alternate morning and afternoon sessions between October 2009 and September 2010. Observations were conducted from a pier (15°40’59”S and 38°56’38”W) situated on the banks of the Pardo River estuary - the region’s main river - at 5.5 m above water level. For ethnoecological data collection, semi-structured interviews were carried out with 26 fishermen in May, June and September 2010 and January 2011 in the fishing community of Atalaia. Occasional boat expeditions were made with the fishermen to compare their reports with direct observations of the behaviour of S. guianensis. The results demonstrate that fishermen possess a body of knowledge about S. guianensis that describes in detail the main behavioural aspects of the species. They reported the presence of S. guianensis in the Pardo River estuary throughout the year and its gregarious behaviour. They cited a relationship between the movement of dolphins and tidal cycles, and their presence in the estuary associated with the search for food. In addition, the fishermen reported that numbers of infants in groups were proportional to group size

  15. Tectonic fabric revealed by AARM of the proterozoic mafic dike swarm in the Salvador city (Bahia State): São Francisco Craton, NE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raposo, M. Irene B.; Berquó, Thelma S.

    2008-04-01

    Magnetic fabric and rock magnetism studies were performed on 25 unmetamorphosed mafic dikes of the Meso-Late Proterozoic (˜1.02 Ga) dike swarm from Salvador (Bahia State, NE Brazil). This area lies in the north-eastern part of the São Francisco Craton, which was dominantly formed/reworked during the Transamazonian orogeny (2.14-1.94 Ga). The dikes crop out along the beaches and in quarries around Salvador city, and cut across both amphibolite dikes and granulites. Their widths range from a few centimeters up to 30 m with an average of ˜4 m, and show two main trends N140-190 and N100-120 with vertical dips. Magnetic fabrics were determined using both anisotropy of low-field magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and anisotropy of anhysteretic remanent magnetization (AARM). The magnetic mineralogy was investigated by many experiments including remanent magnetization measurements at variable low temperatures (10-300 K), Mössbauer spectroscopy, high temperature magnetization curves (25-700 °C) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The rock magnetism study suggests pseudo-single-domain magnetite grains carrying the bulk magnetic susceptibility and AARM fabrics. The magnetite grains found in these dikes are large and we discard the presence of single-domain grains. Its composition is close to stoichiometric with low Ti substitution, and its Verwey transition occurs around 120 K. The main AMS fabric recognized in the swarm is so-called normal, in which the Kmax- Kint plane is parallel to the dike plane and the magnetic foliation pole ( Kmin) is perpendicular to it. This fabric is interpreted as due to magma flow, and analysis of the Kmax inclination permitted to infer that approximately 80% of the dikes were fed by horizontal or sub-horizontal flows ( Kmax < 30°). This interpretation is supported by structural field evidence found in five dikes. In addition, based on the plunge of Kmax, two mantle sources could be inferred; one of them which fed about 80% of the swarm

  16. Evolution of garnet distribution, shape and composition in high-grade pelitic migmatites of Salvador da Bahia, Brazil: insights from LA-ICP-MS trace element mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncalves, Philippe; Raimondo, Tom; Santos de Souza, Jailma

    2016-04-01

    Garnet is a widely used mineral in metamorphic petrology and more particularly for thermobarometric modelling to reconstruct the P-T-t evolution of Earth's crust. This is due to its ubiquity in high grade rocks (T > 450°C), its occurrence in many assemblages of interest for thermobarometry, and mostly to its ability to preserve chemical zoning. Two types of zoning are distinguished: growth and diffusion zoning. Growth zoning reflects crystallisation coeval with changes in P-T conditions or bulk composition. This type of zoning is therefore particularly useful to unravel the P-T evolution of open systems and determine the growth mechanisms involved. However, growth zoning in major elements is commonly altered by processes such as volume diffusion, which is particularly efficient at high temperatures and for elements like Fe or Mg that have high diffusion coefficients. In such cases, information that relates to the environmental conditions of garnet growth is either totally or partially obliterated. To minimise the impact of this process on growth zoning and retain useful information, trace elements are more appropriate because of their lower diffusion coefficients compared to major elements. In this study, the distribution of trace elements in garnet has been imaged using an emerging LA-ICP-MS mapping technique. This is achieved by rastering of the focused laser beam in linear transects, which are then stitched together by post-acquisition processing to form a quantified or semi-quantified image of the trace element distribution, with excellent detection limits (ppb) over a wide isotopic range (7Li to 238U) and minimal sample preparation required. This technique has been applied to high-grade pelitic gneisses and migmatites from the Paleoproterozoic Itabuna-Salvador-Curaça belt (adjacent to the Farol da Bara, Salvador da Bahia, Brazil). Structurally, it is located in a steeply-dipping high strain zone that may have played a major role in the segregation and

  17. U-Pb geochronology of the Lagoa Real uranium district, Brazil: Implications for the age of the uranium mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobato, Lydia Maria; Pimentel, Márcio Martins; Cruz, Simone C. P.; Machado, Nuno; Noce, Carlos Maurício; Alkmim, Fernando Flecha

    2015-03-01

    The Lagoa Real uranium district in Bahia, northeastern Brazil, is the most important uranium province in the country and presently produces this metal in an open-pit mine operated by Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil. Uranium-rich zones are associated with plagioclase (dominantly albite ± oligoclase) -rich rocks, albitites and metasomatized granitic-gneisses, distributed along NNW/SSE striking shear zones. We have used the ID-TIMS U-Pb method to date zircon and titanite grains from the São Timóteo granitoid, and albite-rich rocks from the Lagoa Real district in order to assess the age of granite emplacement, deformation/metamorphism and uranium mineralization. The isotopic data support the following sequence of events (i) 1746 ± 5 Ma - emplacement of the São Timóteo granitoid (U-Pb zircon age) in an extensional setting, coeval with the beginning of the sedimentation of the Espinhaço Supergroup; (ii) 956 ± 59 Ma hydrothermal alteration of the São Timóteo granitoid and emplacement of the uranium mineralization (U-Pb titanite age on an albite-rich sample); (iii) 480 Ma metamorphism, remobilization and Pb loss (U-Pb titanite age for the gneiss sample), during the nucleation of shear zones related to the collision between the São Francisco-Congo and Amazonia paleoplates. The 956 ± 59-Ma mineralization age is apparently associated with the evolution of the Macaúbas-Santo Onofre rift. This age bracket may bear an important exploration implication, and should be included in the diverse age scenario of uranium deposits worldwide.

  18. Checklist of the Cerambycidae (Insecta, Coleoptera) from central Bahia State (Brazil), with the description of two new species and new geographic records.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Francisco E De L; Botero, Juan Pablo; Bravo, Freddy

    2016-01-01

    A list of Cerambycidae species from three municipalities of central Bahia (Milagres, Maracás and Iaçu) is presented. A total of 108 species are registered, 17 of which are new geographical records for the state, are listed, including two new species of Aerenicini (Lamiinae), Suipinima flavumtuberculata sp. nov. and Aereniphaula bandana sp. nov. which are described and illustrated. A key to the species of Suipinima and taxonomic notes on Suipinima eccentrica (Galileo & Martins, 1992) are provided.

  19. Checklist of the Cerambycidae (Insecta, Coleoptera) from central Bahia State (Brazil), with the description of two new species and new geographic records.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Francisco E De L; Botero, Juan Pablo; Bravo, Freddy

    2016-01-01

    A list of Cerambycidae species from three municipalities of central Bahia (Milagres, Maracás and Iaçu) is presented. A total of 108 species are registered, 17 of which are new geographical records for the state, are listed, including two new species of Aerenicini (Lamiinae), Suipinima flavumtuberculata sp. nov. and Aereniphaula bandana sp. nov. which are described and illustrated. A key to the species of Suipinima and taxonomic notes on Suipinima eccentrica (Galileo & Martins, 1992) are provided. PMID:27394886

  20. Triatominae Survey (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) in the South-Central Region of the State of Bahia, Brazil between 2008 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    Mendonça, Vagner José; de Oliveira, Jader; Rimoldi, Aline; Filho, Júlio C. R. Ferreira; de Araújo, Renato Freitas; da Rosa, JoãoAristeu

    2015-01-01

    Triatomine surveillance in rural areas, artificial ecotypes, and natural ecotopes of the cities of Caturama, Ibipitanga, Macaúbas, and Seabra in the south-central region of the Brazilian state of Bahia was carried out between 2008 and 2013. Natural infection by Trypanosoma cruzi was evaluated in the specimens collected to monitor vectors of Chagas disease. A total of 1,357 specimens were collected, and four species were identified: Triatoma sordida (83%), Triatoma lenti (16.4%), Triatoma pseudomaculata (0.5%), and Panstrongylus geniculatus (0.1%). Triatoma sordida was found in four cities, only 0.7% in intradomiciliary environments. Triatoma lenti was found only in Macaúbas; 8.5% were found in intradomiciliary environments, 88.3% in peridomiciliary environments, and 3.1% in sylvatic environments. Natural infection by T. cruzi was 0.5% for T. sordida and 3.1% T. lenti. All of these cases were found in peridomiciliary environments of Macaúbas. As the results show, triatomines were found in intradomiciliary environments in three cities that were surveyed in the south-central region of the state of Bahia. Thus, an epidemiologic survey should be performed to avoid the risk of transmission to the population. PMID:25802433

  1. Triatominae survey (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) in the south-central region of the state of Bahia, Brazil between 2008 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Vagner José; de Oliveira, Jader; Rimoldi, Aline; Filho, Júlio C R Ferreira; de Araújo, Renato Freitas; da Rosa, João Aristeu

    2015-05-01

    Triatomine surveillance in rural areas, artificial ecotypes, and natural ecotopes of the cities of Caturama, Ibipitanga, Macaúbas, and Seabra in the south-central region of the Brazilian state of Bahia was carried out between 2008 and 2013. Natural infection by Trypanosoma cruzi was evaluated in the specimens collected to monitor vectors of Chagas disease. A total of 1,357 specimens were collected, and four species were identified: Triatoma sordida (83%), Triatoma lenti (16.4%), Triatoma pseudomaculata (0.5%), and Panstrongylus geniculatus (0.1%). Triatoma sordida was found in four cities, only 0.7% in intradomiciliary environments. Triatoma lenti was found only in Macaúbas; 8.5% were found in intradomiciliary environments, 88.3% in peridomiciliary environments, and 3.1% in sylvatic environments. Natural infection by T. cruzi was 0.5% for T. sordida and 3.1% T. lenti. All of these cases were found in peridomiciliary environments of Macaúbas. As the results show, triatomines were found in intradomiciliary environments in three cities that were surveyed in the south-central region of the state of Bahia. Thus, an epidemiologic survey should be performed to avoid the risk of transmission to the population.

  2. A new species of Astyanax Baird & Girard (Characiformes: Characidae) from the Rio Paraguaçu basin, Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil, with comments on bony hooks on all fins.

    PubMed

    Camelier, P; Zanata, A M

    2014-02-01

    A new species of Astyanax from the Rio Paraguaçu basin, Bahia, Brazil, is described. This new species is distinguished from its congeners known to occur in Brazilian drainages by the presence of small bony hooks on all fins of mature males. Furthermore, the new species can be diagnosed by its colour pattern, which consists of a unique vertically elongated humeral blotch, a conspicuous dark drop-shaped horizontal blotch over the caudal peduncle, tapering anteriorly and not extending to the median caudal-fin rays, and by the absence of a conspicuous broad dark midlateral stripe. The new species differs further by having the greatest body depth just anterior to the dorsal-fin origin, 32-35 perforated scales in the lateral line and a reduced number of branched anal-fin rays (16-20). Apparently, the new species does not fit into any species complex of Astyanax. The occurrence of bony hooks on all fins of Astyanax is discussed. PMID:24446730

  3. [Combined nutritional indicators and associated factors in the Quilombo population (hinterland settlements founded by people of African origin) in southwestern Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Soares, Daniela Arruda; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2015-03-01

    This study sought to estimate the prevalence of the combination of Body Mass Index (BMI) plus Waist Circumference (WC) and of BMI plus Waist to Height Ratio (WHR) and to investigate associated factors. A two-stage random sample of adults (>20 years) living in former African slaves communities (Quilombos) was taken in Vitória da Conquista in the State of Bahia in 2011. Combined BMI+WHR nutritional risk was defined by the simultaneous presence of BMI > 25.0Kg/m2 or > 27.0Kg/m2, if aged > 60 years and WHR > 0.5. BMI + WC nutritional risk was defined by elevated BMI in addition to WC > 80cm for women, or > 94cm for men. Among the 739 participants, the prevalence of combined nutritional indicators were 35.3% (BMI + WHR) and 26.8% (BMI + WC). Female sex and hypertension increased the chances of a combination of both indicators, while being unmarried decreased the chances. The prevalence of BMI + WHR was higher in the 40-59 year age range and the prevalence of BMI + WC was higher in the 40-49 year age range. Less schooling increased the chances of the combined BMI + WHR indicator and watching television for more than two hours/day increased the chances of the BMI + WC indicator. The high prevalence of combined nutritional indicators indicate the need of diet promotion actions to prevent obesity.

  4. [Childbirth and live newborns of adolescent and young adult mothers in the municipality of Feira de Santana, Bahia State, Brazil, 1998].

    PubMed

    Costa, Maria Conceição O; Santos, Carlos A T; Sobrinho, Carlito Lopes N; Freitas, Juliana O; Ferreira, Karine A S Leão; Silva, Melissa A; Paula, Priscila L B

    2002-01-01

    Data from the Brazilian Ministry of Health and the literature indicate that adolescents may be overrepresented in the prevalence of maternal morbidity and mortality and neonatal complications. This study focused on childbirth and live newborns among adolescent and young adult mothers in the municipality of Feira de Santana, Bahia, identifying risk factors for morbidity and mortality. A cross-sectional cohort study was conducted based on data from the Information System on Live Births (SINASC) in the municipality in 1998, totaling 5,279 live births among adolescent (10 to 19 years) and young adult mothers (20 to 24 years). Variables were age, schooling, prenatal care, gestational care, form of delivery, and birthweight. The authors measured the association between maternal age and the child's birthweight, while controlling potential confounders. Some 21.6% of live births were to adolescent mothers, 51.2% of whom had not finished primary school; there was an association between the 10 to 16-year age bracket and incomplete primary schooling, lack of prenatal care, and low and insufficient birthweight as compared to the other age brackets; there was also a high rate of underrecording in the SINASC. The results suggest the need for specific measures focusing on the reproductive health of adolescents in the municipality.

  5. Severe impact and subsequent recovery of a coral assemblage following the 1997-8 El Niño event: a 17-year study from Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kelmo, Francisco; Attrill, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    The coral reefs of northern Bahia evolved in isolation from other Atlantic systems and under conditions of high environmental stress, particularly high turbidity. We have monitored the scleractinian assemblage of four shallow bank reefs (Praia do Forte, Itacimirim, Guarajuba and Abai) annually for 17 years since 1995, collecting quantitative data on diversity and density of coral colonies. As the sampling period included the 1997-8 El Niño event, the most severe on record, for the first time these results allow a quantitative assessment of the long-term impact of this major environmental stressor on such a coral assemblage. After El Niño, most species showed significantly reduced densities of colonies, this decline occurring for the subsequent two years without evidence of any new settlement until 2001. From 2000 to 2007 the species Porites astreoides went unrecorded. Recovery was slow, and multivariate analysis revealed that assemblages had not returned to the pre-El Niño state until 2011. It therefore took 13 years for full recovery of the coral assemblage to occur, which has consequences for reef systems if such El-Niño events become more frequent in the future.

  6. Isolation, pathogenicity and disinfection of Staphylococcus aureus carried by insects in two public hospitals of Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Pollianna S; Souza, Simone G; Campos, Guilherme B; da Silva, Danilo C C; Sousa, Daniel S; Araújo, Suerda P F; Ferreira, Laiziane P; Santos, Verena M; Amorim, Aline T; Santos, Angelita M O G; Timenetsky, Jorge; Cruz, Mariluze P; Yatsuda, Regiane; Marques, Lucas M

    2014-01-01

    Currently, hospital infection is a serious public health problem, and several factors may influence the occurrence of these infections, including the presence of insects, which are carriers of multidrug-resistant bacterial species. The aim of this study was to isolate staphylococci carried by insects in two public hospitals of Vitoria da Conquista, Bahia and to identify the resistance profile, pathogenicity and efficacy of disinfection of the premises. A total of 91 insects were collected in 21 strategic points of these hospitals, and 32 isolated strains of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated. Based on antibiogram and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration results, 95% of these strains were susceptible to oxacillin. These strains were also evaluated for the presence of resistance genes encoding resistance to oxacillin/methicillin by polymerase chain reaction, but the sample was negative for this gene. Pathogenicity tests were performed in vitro biofilm formation induced by glucose, where it was found that eight (27.58%) strains were classified as biofilm producers and 21 (72.4%) as stronger producers. In addition, we performed PCR for their virulence genes: Sea (enterotoxin A), SEB (B), Sec (C), PVL (Panton-Valentine Leukocidin), ClfA (clumping factor A) and Spa (protein A). Of these, Sea, Spa PVL were positive in 7 (21.8%), 2 (6.3%) and 1 (3.1%) samples, respectively. The analysis of cytokine induction in the inflammatory response of J774 macrophages by isolates from the two hospitals did not show statistical difference at the levels of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1 and IL-10 production. In addition, we verified the antimicrobial activity of disinfecting agents on these strains, quaternary ammonium, 0.5% sodium hypochlorite, 1% sodium hypochlorite, 2% sodium hypochlorite, 2% glutaraldehyde, Lysoform(®), 70% alcohol solution of chlorhexidine digluconate, 2% peracetic acid, and 100% vinegar. Resistance was seen in only for the following two disinfectants: 70% alcohol in 31 (96

  7. Hermaphroditism among dioecious Tagelus plebeius (Lightfoot, 1786) (Mollusca, Psammobiidae) and Iphigenia brasiliana (Lamarck, 1818) (Mollusca, Donacidae) on the Cachoeira River estuary, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ceuta, L O; Boehs, G; Santos, J J B

    2010-02-01

    The samples of Tagelus plebeius and Iphigenia brasiliana were manually collected on the Cachoeira River estuary region (Ilhéus, BA, Brazil) between August 2005 and August 2006, with a periodicity of 15 days, with 20 animals collected/sampled, performing 500 samples from each species. The animals were measured, eviscerated and kept in solution of Davidson and after 24-30 hours, they were transferred to ethanol 70%. The material was processed for routine histology, with paraffin embedding, obtaining 7 microm thick slices, stained with Harris hematoxilin and Eosin (HE). By light microscopy analysis, 2 cases of hermaphroditism (0.4%) in T. plebeius samples and one case (0.2%) in I. brasiliana were registered with predominance of female over male follicles.

  8. Local ecological knowledge of the artisanal fishers on Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein, 1822) (Teleostei: Epinephelidae) on Ilhéus coast – Bahia State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Local Ecological Knowledge (LEK) of traditional fishermen may be the only source of information regarding the conservation of the marine ecosystem and its endangered species. One of these species is Epinephelus itajara, which can exceed 2 m in length and 400 kg weight, is classified by the IUCN as a critically endangered. In Brazil, there is currently a moratorium that prohibits the capture of this specie, and in the northeastern coast, a Marine Protected Area was recently established properly justified by the existence a one spawning aggregation. The scope of the present study was the analysis the LEK of fishers with the goal of contributing to the conservation of E. Itajara. Methods The Knowledge of 24 “experts” was recorded through semi-structured interviews with fishermen selected based on their expertise. LEK regarding some aspects of the life history of E. itajara, such as its morphology, spatial distribution, feeding, breeding and conservation, was systematized. The interviews were conducted in synchronic and diachronic situations. The data analysis followed the model of unity of the various individual skills, while the consistency of the analysis was tested using a matrix of methods employed in comparative cognitive science. Potential reproductive aggregation sites were identified by experts through projective interviews conducted based on a cartographic database and transferred to a geographic information system (GIS). Results The LEK of these specialists in relation to the biological and ecological characteristics of E. itajara showed a high level of detail and a high agreement with the scientific literature. Projective interviews are presented as a promising tool allowing spatialization of the information generated through the registration of LEK. Therefore, the visualization of information from the fishermen, as well as its analysis and comparison with other databases, is simplified, thereby contributing to the decision-making process

  9. Absorbed Dose Rate Due to Intake of Natural Radionuclides by Tilapia Fish (Tilapia nilotica,Linnaeus, 1758) Estimated Near Uranium Mining at Caetité, Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Wagner de S.; Kelecom, Alphonse; Py Júnior, Delcy de Azevedo

    2008-08-01

    The uranium mining at Caetité (Uranium Concentrate Unit—URA) is in its operational phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the URA, a monitoring program is underway. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to act in a pro-active way as expected from a licensing body, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected target organism was the Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). As, in Brazil there are no radiation exposure limits adopted for biota the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5×103 μGy y-1 has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for Tilapia was 2.51×100 μGy y-1, that is less than 0.1% of the dose limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was Ra-226, with 56% of the absorbed dose rate, followed by U-238 with 34% and Th-232 with 9%. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that, in the operational conditions analyzed, natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to biota.

  10. Absorbed Dose Rate Due to Intake of Natural Radionuclides by Tilapia Fish (Tilapia nilotica,Linnaeus, 1758) Estimated Near Uranium Mining at Caetite, Bahia, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, Wagner de S; Kelecom, Alphonse

    2008-08-07

    The uranium mining at Caetite (Uranium Concentrate Unit--URA) is in its operational phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the URA, a monitoring program is underway. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to act in a pro-active way as expected from a licensing body, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected target organism was the Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). As, in Brazil there are no radiation exposure limits adopted for biota the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5x10{sup 3} {mu}Gy y{sup -1} has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for Tilapia was 2.51x10{sup 0} {mu}Gy y{sup -1}, that is less than 0.1% of the dose limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was Ra-226, with 56% of the absorbed dose rate, followed by U-238 with 34% and Th-232 with 9%. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that, in the operational conditions analyzed, natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to biota.

  11. [Evaluation of the National Program of Integrated and Referential Actions (PAIR) to confront the child and adolescents sexual violence, in Feira de Santana, Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Costa, Maria Conceição Oliveira; de Carvalho, Rosely Cabral; de Santana, Marcos Antonio Oliveira; da Silva, Luciano Macêdo Santos; da Silva, Mariana Rocha

    2010-03-01

    In Brazil, sexual violence against children and adolescents is a challenge for the public policies of prevention and intervention. The objective of this article is to present the evaluation of PAIR actions implemented in Feira de Santana city, on political and institutional integration, strength and performance of the Network Care for the violence victims in the period of 2003-2006. It was used a descriptive study with primary data based on interviews with professionals from the Institutions of care (38), Municipal Committee of PAIR (11) and key community informants (78), using quantitative and qualitative analysis. The evaluation of the PAIR capabilities, as the political and institutional integration was deemed appropriate, highlighting the support of state, federal and municipal managers. The processes of training were considered strategic to the individual professional performance with the Network (attitudes, participation). The results of the three segments of the community suggest the need of a social Network integration (Rights and Guardianship Councils), programs of assistance and protection, the work with the media (qualified training and information), involvement of managers and technicians and the continuity of actions, as strategies to face the sexual violence in Feira de Santana.

  12. [Evaluation of the National Program of Integrated and Referential Actions (PAIR) to confront the child and adolescents sexual violence, in Feira de Santana, Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Costa, Maria Conceição Oliveira; de Carvalho, Rosely Cabral; de Santana, Marcos Antonio Oliveira; da Silva, Luciano Macêdo Santos; da Silva, Mariana Rocha

    2010-03-01

    In Brazil, sexual violence against children and adolescents is a challenge for the public policies of prevention and intervention. The objective of this article is to present the evaluation of PAIR actions implemented in Feira de Santana city, on political and institutional integration, strength and performance of the Network Care for the violence victims in the period of 2003-2006. It was used a descriptive study with primary data based on interviews with professionals from the Institutions of care (38), Municipal Committee of PAIR (11) and key community informants (78), using quantitative and qualitative analysis. The evaluation of the PAIR capabilities, as the political and institutional integration was deemed appropriate, highlighting the support of state, federal and municipal managers. The processes of training were considered strategic to the individual professional performance with the Network (attitudes, participation). The results of the three segments of the community suggest the need of a social Network integration (Rights and Guardianship Councils), programs of assistance and protection, the work with the media (qualified training and information), involvement of managers and technicians and the continuity of actions, as strategies to face the sexual violence in Feira de Santana. PMID:20414624

  13. Survival and Prognostic Factors for AIDS and Non-AIDS Patients with Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma in Bahia, Brazil: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Iguaracyra; Brites, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Despite the benefits of HAART, HIV-infected patients are increasingly affected by different malignancies. We compared a 5-year-period survival time and prognostic factors for HIV-1-infected individuals diagnosed with non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) in a nested case-control study, with non-HIV-infected individuals in Salvador, Brazil. Survival time and prognostic factors were compared to HIV-negative patients. 31 cases (versus 63 controls) had a significantly more advanced NHL at diagnosis and lower mean CD4 count (26 cells/mm3) than controls. Mean overall survival (OS) was 35.8 versus 75.4 months, for cases and controls, respectively (P < 0.001), while mean event-free survival time (EFS) was 34.5 months for cases, versus 68.8 for controls (P = 0.002). Higher IPI, increased LDH levels, bone marrow infiltration, lower absolute lymphocyte counts (<1,000 cells/mm3), and type B symptoms were associated with a shorter survival time for cases. Although patients without poorer prognostic factors at baseline had an OS comparable to controls, the mean CD4 cell count for cases was similar for patients with favorable and nonfavorable response to therapy. Our findings suggest that HIV-1 infection is significantly associated with a shorter survival time for patients with NHL, independently of other predictive factors and of disease stage. PMID:24288620

  14. Space Radar Image of Bahia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a color composite image of southern Bahia, Brazil, centered at 15.22 degree south latitude and 39.07 degrees west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 38th orbit of Earth on October 2, 1994. The image covers an area centered over the Una Biological Reserve, one the largest protected areas in northeastern Brazil. The 7,000-hectare reserve is administered by the Brazilian Institute for the Environment and is part of the larger Atlantic coastal forest, a narrow band of rain forest extending along the eastern coast of Brazil. The Atlantic coastal forest of southern Bahia is one of the world's most threatened and diverse ecosystems. Due to widespread settlement, only 2 to 5 percent of the original forest cover remains. Yet the region still contains an astounding variety of plants and animals, including a large number of endemic species. More than half of the region's tree species and 80 percent of its animal species are indigenous and found nowhere else on Earth. The Una Reserve is also the only federally protected habitat for the golden-headed lion tamarin, the yellow-breasted capuchin monkey and many other endangered species. In the past few years, scientists from Brazilian and international conservation organizations have coordinated efforts to study the biological diversity of this region and to develop practical and economically viable options for preserving the remaining primary forests in southern Bahia. The shuttle imaging radar is used in this study to identify various land uses and vegetation types, including remaining patches of primary forest, cabruca forest (cacao planted in the understory of the native forest), secondary forest, pasture and coastal mangrove. Standard remote-sensing technology that relies on light reflected from the forest canopy cannot accurately distinguish between cabruca and undisturbed forest. Optical remote sensing is also

  15. Space Radar Image of Bahia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a color composite image of southern Bahia, Brazil, centered at 15.22 degree south latitude and 39.07 degrees west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 38th orbit of Earth on October 2, 1994. The image covers an area centered over the Una Biological Reserve, one the largest protected areas in northeastern Brazil. The 7,000-hectare reserve is administered by the Brazilian Institute for the Environment and is part of the larger Atlantic coastal forest, a narrow band of rain forest extending along the eastern coast of Brazil. The Atlantic coastal forest of southern Bahia is one of the world's most threatened and diverse ecosystems. Due to widespread settlement, only 2 to 5 percent of the original forest cover remains. Yet the region still contains an astounding variety of plants and animals, including a large number of endemic species. More than half of the region's tree species and 80 percent of its animal species are indigenous and found nowhere else on Earth. The Una Reserve is also the only federally protected habitat for the golden-headed lion tamarin, the yellow-breasted capuchin monkey and many other endangered species. In the past few years, scientists from Brazilian and international conservation organizations have coordinated efforts to study the biological diversity of this region and to develop practical and economically viable options for preserving the remaining primary forests in southern Bahia. The shuttle imaging radar is used in this study to identify various land uses and vegetation types, including remaining patches of primary forest, cabruca forest (cacao planted in the understory of the native forest), secondary forest, pasture and coastal mangrove. Standard remote-sensing technology that relies on light reflected from the forest canopy cannot accurately distinguish between cabruca and undisturbed forest. Optical remote sensing is also

  16. Experimental study of granular convection in (real) two- dimension Brazil-nut effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibowo, H. A. C.; Ain, T. N.; Nugraha, Y. P.; Aji, D. P. P.; Khotimah, S. N.; Viridi, S.

    2016-08-01

    Brazil-nut Effect (BNE) experiment in (real) two-dimension is conducted. Container, bed particles, and intruder are made from the same material, i.e. 2 mm thickness acrylic plate. Dimensionless acceleration r and vibration frequency f are in the range of 2-4 and 13-17 Hz, respectively. It is observed that rise time Trise decreases with the increase of Γ similar to reported by others, but there is a range of f and Γ, where Trise increases with the increase of Γ due to occurrence of Leidenfrost effect, which reduces convection flow of granular particles.

  17. Communications Technology and the Crisis in Education. A Report on the Bahia Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Higher Education in the American Republics, New York, NY.

    A summary of the workshop convened in May 1971 in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil by the Council on Higher Education in the American Republics to assess current applications of communications technology for the improvement of educational systems in Latin America is given in this document. Against a background which includes: 1) technological asymmetry in…

  18. Acute Poisoning in Children in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Mendonça, Dilton; Menezes, Marta Silva; Matos, Marcos Antônio Almeida; Rebouças, Daniel Santos; Filho, Jucelino Nery da Conceição; de Assis, Reginara Souza; Carneiro, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Acute poisoning is a frequent accident in childhood, particularly in children under 4 years of age. This was a descriptive study with data collected from standardized forms of the Poison Control Center and patient record charts. All the cases of acute poisoning in children aged 0 to 14 years during the period 2008 to 2012 were selected. The variables studied comprised characteristics of the events and toxic agents, clinical development, and outcome. A total of 657 cases of acute poisoning, with higher frequency in the age-group from 1 to 4 years (48.7%) and male sex (53.4%), were recorded. The occurrences were accidental in 92% of the cases, and 5.8% were due to suicide attempts. Among the toxic agents, medications (28.5%), venomous animals (19.3%), nonvenomous animals (10%), household cleaning products (9.0%), and raticide agents (8.7%) predominated. The majority of cases were characterized as light (73.5%) and around 18% required hospitalization, and there was low lethality (0.5%). PMID:27335994

  19. Acute Poisoning in Children in Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues Mendonça, Dilton; Menezes, Marta Silva; Matos, Marcos Antônio Almeida; Rebouças, Daniel Santos; Filho, Jucelino Nery da Conceição; de Assis, Reginara Souza; Carneiro, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Acute poisoning is a frequent accident in childhood, particularly in children under 4 years of age. This was a descriptive study with data collected from standardized forms of the Poison Control Center and patient record charts. All the cases of acute poisoning in children aged 0 to 14 years during the period 2008 to 2012 were selected. The variables studied comprised characteristics of the events and toxic agents, clinical development, and outcome. A total of 657 cases of acute poisoning, with higher frequency in the age-group from 1 to 4 years (48.7%) and male sex (53.4%), were recorded. The occurrences were accidental in 92% of the cases, and 5.8% were due to suicide attempts. Among the toxic agents, medications (28.5%), venomous animals (19.3%), nonvenomous animals (10%), household cleaning products (9.0%), and raticide agents (8.7%) predominated. The majority of cases were characterized as light (73.5%) and around 18% required hospitalization, and there was low lethality (0.5%). PMID:27335994

  20. Real scale environmental monitoring of zoonotic protozoa and helminth eggs in biosolid samples in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bonatti, Taís Rondello; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno

    2016-09-01

    Biosolid is the product of the activated sludge treatment system and its final disposition is subject of ongoing discussion as this residue can therefore harbor a great number and variety of pathogens. This study was aimed to (1) monitor the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in biosolid samples from a treatment plant in Campinas, SP, Brazil, (2) observe Giardia cyst wall morphological integrity in treated samples using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and (3) verify the presence and viability of helminth eggs. Cysts were present in 33.3 % of the samples, whereas oocysts were detected in 8.3 %. Viable Ascaris sp. Toxocara sp. and similar to Trichuris sp. eggs were found through the use of Mexican Official Norm. Results demonstrate the difficulties inherent in working with biosolid as factors such as temperature, ionic strength and pH influenced the recovery of cysts and oocysts. Pores and ruptures were not observed in cyst wall visualized by SEM following 45 days of exposure to sunlight, only minimal morphological changes. These observations emphasize both the importance of adequate treatment of sewage sludge and the need to develop appropriate techniques for the detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in this type of sample. This is the first time that a study was done in a real scale for biosolid samples in determining the presence of pathogenic protozoa as Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Brazil, and also observed minimal cyst wall damage after sunlight treatment.

  1. Real scale environmental monitoring of zoonotic protozoa and helminth eggs in biosolid samples in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bonatti, Taís Rondello; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno

    2016-09-01

    Biosolid is the product of the activated sludge treatment system and its final disposition is subject of ongoing discussion as this residue can therefore harbor a great number and variety of pathogens. This study was aimed to (1) monitor the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in biosolid samples from a treatment plant in Campinas, SP, Brazil, (2) observe Giardia cyst wall morphological integrity in treated samples using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and (3) verify the presence and viability of helminth eggs. Cysts were present in 33.3 % of the samples, whereas oocysts were detected in 8.3 %. Viable Ascaris sp. Toxocara sp. and similar to Trichuris sp. eggs were found through the use of Mexican Official Norm. Results demonstrate the difficulties inherent in working with biosolid as factors such as temperature, ionic strength and pH influenced the recovery of cysts and oocysts. Pores and ruptures were not observed in cyst wall visualized by SEM following 45 days of exposure to sunlight, only minimal morphological changes. These observations emphasize both the importance of adequate treatment of sewage sludge and the need to develop appropriate techniques for the detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in this type of sample. This is the first time that a study was done in a real scale for biosolid samples in determining the presence of pathogenic protozoa as Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Brazil, and also observed minimal cyst wall damage after sunlight treatment. PMID:27605758

  2. AN EVALUATION OF THE 7-DAY TOXICITY TEST WITH AMERICAMYSIS BAHIA (FORMERLY MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 7-d test measuring survival, growth, and fecundity of Americamysis bahia formerly Mysidopsis bahia) was developed for estimating the chronic toxicity of effluents and associated receiving waters for National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permits. Currently, this test...

  3. Brazil.

    PubMed

    1985-09-01

    Brazil's population in 1985 was 135 million, with an annual growth rate (1982) of 2.3%. The infant mortality rate (1981) was 92/1000, and life expectancy stood at 62.8 years. 76% of the adult population was literate. Brazil is a federal republic which recognizes 5 political parties. 55% of the population is Portuguese, Italian, German, Japanese, African, or American Indian; 38% is white. Of the work force of 50 million, 35% are engaged in agriculture, 25% work in industry, and 40% are employed in services. Trade union membership totals 6 million. The agricultural sector accounts for 12% of the GDP and 40% of exports. Brazil is largely self-sufficient in terms of food. The GDP was US$218 billion in 1984, with an annual growth rate of 4%. Per capita GDP was US$1645. Brazil's power, transportation, and communications systems have improved greatly in recent years, providing a base for economic development. High inflation rates have been a persistent problem.

  4. Brazil.

    PubMed

    1983-07-01

    Attention in this discussion of Brazil focuses: the history of the country's demographic situation; government's overall approach to population problems; population data systems and development planning; institutional arrangements for the integration of population within development planning; government's view of the importance of population policy in achieving development objectives; population size, growth, and natural increase; fertility; international migration; and spatial distribution. The population of Brazil grew from 17 million in 1900 to about 119 million in 1960, making it the most populous country in the world and 1 of the relatively few countries to have sustained rates of population growth of more than 2% for over a century. The government has not adopted an explicit policy to modify fertility or population growth. Initially this was because of its positive perception of the benefits of population growth and a large population size and, amore recently, because of Brazil's gradual transition to more moderate levels of fertility and population growth. Brazil's main sources of demographic data are its 9 censuses, conducted in 1982, 1890, 1900, 1920, 1940, 1950, 1960, 1970, and most recently in August 1980. A nationwide system of vital registration data are still lacking in many geographic areas, researchers have had to rely on indirect estimation techniques to derive estimates of past trends in fertility and mortality. Population policy has been regarded as a highly sensitive issue by Brazilian officials, and the government remains cautious in regard to population issues. Preliminary results of Brazil's 1980 census indicate a population of 119 million and an annual rate of population growth of 2.1%, continuing the downward trend that was first evident in 1976. The government considers levels and trends of population growth to be satisfactory, and morbidity and mortality to be unacceptable, partly because of a lack of success in reducing the incidence of

  5. [Prevalence of moderate and excessive alcohol consumption and associated factors among residents of Quilombo Communities (hinterland settlements founded by people of African origin) of Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Luiz Gustavo Vieira; Melo, Ana Paula Souto; Cesar, Cibele Comini

    2015-03-01

    The scope of the study was to assess moderate and excessive alcohol consumption and associated factors among residents of Quilombola Communities in Vitória da Conquista in the State of Bahia. It involved a cross-sectional study among 750 individuals aged ≥ 18 years interviewed in 2011 using an adapted version of the National Survey of Health Questionnaire. Alcohol consumption was classified into abstemious, moderate and heavy drinking categories and was analyzed using the multinomial regression model. Consumption was observed among 41.5% of participants (95% CI [37.8, 44.98]); 10.7% being identified in the excessive consumption category and 30.8% in the moderate consumption category. Moderate consumption was inversely associated with age and is more common among whites and mulattoes, the better educated, the gainfully employed and among smokers. Heavy consumption increased with level of education, being more prevalent among those who had at least 8 years of schooling, smokers and the gainfully employed. The study shows that in these communities there are differences in the sociodemographic characteristics among the profiles of alcohol drinkers and these differences should be taken into account when drawing up proposals for the promotion of healthy habits.

  6. Being a Victim of Medical Error in Brazil: An (Un)Real Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Mendonça, Vitor Silva; Custódio, Eda Marconi

    2016-01-01

    Medical error stems from inadequate professional conduct that is capable of producing harm to life or exacerbating the health of another, whether through act or omission. This situation has become increasingly common in Brazil and worldwide. In this study, the aim was to understand what being the victim of medical error is like and to investigate the circumstances imposed on this condition of victims in Brazil. A semi-structured interview was conducted with twelve people who had gone through situations of medical error in their lives, creating a space for narratives of their experiences and deep reflection on the phenomenon. The concept of medical error has a negative connotation, often being associated with the incompetence of a medical professional. Medical error in Brazil is demonstrated by low-quality professional performance and represents the current reality of the country because of the common lack of respect and consideration for patients. Victims often remark on their loss of identity, as their social functions have been interrupted and they do not expect to regain such. It was found, however, little assumption of error in the involved doctors’ discourses and attitudes, which felt a need to judge the medical conduct in an attempt to assert their rights. Medical error in Brazil presents a punitive character and is little discussed in medical and scientific circles. The stigma of medical error is closely connected to the value and cultural judgments of the country, making it difficult to accept, both by victims and professionals. PMID:27403461

  7. Being a Victim of Medical Error in Brazil: An (Un)Real Dilemma.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Vitor Silva; Custódio, Eda Marconi

    2016-06-23

    Medical error stems from inadequate professional conduct that is capable of producing harm to life or exacerbating the health of another, whether through act or omission. This situation has become increasingly common in Brazil and worldwide. In this study, the aim was to understand what being the victim of medical error is like and to investigate the circumstances imposed on this condition of victims in Brazil. A semi-structured interview was conducted with twelve people who had gone through situations of medical error in their lives, creating a space for narratives of their experiences and deep reflection on the phenomenon. The concept of medical error has a negative connotation, often being associated with the incompetence of a medical professional. Medical error in Brazil is demonstrated by low-quality professional performance and represents the current reality of the country because of the common lack of respect and consideration for patients. Victims often remark on their loss of identity, as their social functions have been interrupted and they do not expect to regain such. It was found, however, little assumption of error in the involved doctors' discourses and attitudes, which felt a need to judge the medical conduct in an attempt to assert their rights. Medical error in Brazil presents a punitive character and is little discussed in medical and scientific circles. The stigma of medical error is closely connected to the value and cultural judgments of the country, making it difficult to accept, both by victims and professionals. PMID:27403461

  8. [The protagonist microbe: notes on the communication of bacteriology in the Gazeta Médica da Bahia journal, nineteenth century].

    PubMed

    Malaquias, Anderson Gonçalves

    2016-01-01

    Germ theory, derived particularly from the work of Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch, shook the foundations of medical knowledge in the second half of the nineteenth century and triggered a revolution in the "art of healing." The search for specific microbes for diseases guided the investigations of the researchers converted to the Pasteurian tenets. This paper aims to show what role the Gazeta Médica da Bahia journal played in spreading knowledge about bacteriology to the medical communities in Bahia and throughout Brazil. Some works and reflections by the newspaper's authors at the time are presented, as are some of the controversies that help depict the way germ theory was divulged in Brazil throughout the nineteenth century. PMID:27438732

  9. [Spanish influenza in the Bahia de Todos os Santos: between science rituals and faith rituals].

    PubMed

    de Souza, Christiane Maria Cruz

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to analyze responses of the population to the influenza epidemic that struck Salvador, capital of Bahia state, Brazil, in early September 1918. From this perspective, we discuss the measures taken by health authorities, the defensive actions of ordinary people, and the adoption of religion-based practices to confront a disease hitherto considered benign and seasonal, which appeared with a surprising virulence at an unusual time of year. We used newspapers published in Salvador during the influenza epidemic as a privileged source for this research.

  10. [Health survey in Quilombola communities (descendants of Afro-Brazilian slaves who escaped from slave plantations that existed in Brazil until abolition in 1888) in Vitória da Conquista in the state of Bahia (COMQUISTA Project), Brazil: methodological aspects and descriptive analysis].

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Vanessa Moraes; Medeiros, Danielle Souto de; Gomes, Karine de Oliveira; Souzas, Raquel; Giatti, Luana; Steffens, Ana Paula; Kochergin, Clavdia Nicolaevna; Souza, Cláudio Lima; Moura, Cristiano Soares de; Soares, Daniela Arruda; Santos, Luis Rogério Cosme Silva; Cardoso, Luiz Gustavo Vieira; Oliveira, Márcio Vasconcelos de; Martins, Poliana Cardoso; Neves, Orlando Sílvio Caires; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland

    2014-06-01

    The scope of this article was to present the methodology, preliminary descriptive results and the reliability of the instruments used in the COMQUISTA Project. It involved a cross-sectional study with adults (>18 years) and children (up to 5 years old) of Quilombola communities in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia. Data collection consisted of individual and household interviews, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements. A semi-structured questionnaire adapted from the Brazilian National Health Survey (PNS) was used and the interviews were conducted using handheld computers. 397 housing units were visited and 797 adults and 130 children were interviewed. The demographic profile of the Quilombolas was similar to the Brazilian population with respect to sex and age, however, they had precarious access to basic sanitation and a low socioeconomic status. The analysis of reliability revealed the adequacy of strategies adopted for quality assurance and control in the study. The methodology used was considered adequate to achieve the objectives and can be used in other populations. The results indicate the need for implementing strategies to improve the quality of life and reduce the degree of vulnerability of the Quilombolas.

  11. [Assisted birth in 19th century Bahia].

    PubMed

    Barreto, Maria Renilda Nery

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the traditions of assisted childbirth in the Brazilian state of Bahia in the 19th Century and develops the hypothesis that two obstetrical traditions coexisted in the capital, Salvador, namely the doctor-midwives--who used technical resources and knowledge acquired from obstetrics as a medical specialty--and the traditional midwives, whose know-how was purely of an empirical-sensorial nature. Despite all efforts employed by the doctors to win over the confidence of Bahian families, the midwives continued to be predominant in the art of 'delivering' children and treating female illnesses. The analysis focuses on the social and professional segments that were active in assisted birth; the role of the Bahian College of Medicine (Faculdade de Medicina da Bahia) in the training and certification of midwives and the use of newspapers as a way to legitimize the doctor-midwives; it also discusses the scant coverage of the midwives in these media.

  12. Oral Lesions in Elderly Patients in Referral Centers for Oral Lesions of Bahia

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Sarah; Alves, Técia; Santos, Jean; Oliveira, Márcio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aging population phenomenon is occurring on a global scale; aging affects all of the structures of organisms, including the oral cavity. Objective To estimate the frequency of oral lesions, according to the clinical and histopathologic diagnoses, and to describe the sociodemographic profile of the elderly treated at the referral centers of oral lesions of public universities in Bahia, Brazil. Methods A descriptive epidemiologic study with transverse characteristics was conducted with elderly patients between August 2010 and January 2012. A form was used to collect data. The descriptive analysis consisted of calculating the simple and relative frequencies of sociodemographic variables and oral lesions. Results The population was predominantly black women, and the minority of elderly people were retired. Fibroid (13%) and squamous cell carcinoma (145%) were more prevalent clinical diagnoses, with squamous cell carcinoma (30.7%) and fibrous hyperplasia more prevalent histopathologic diagnoses. Conclusion A prevention policy needs to be implemented to reduce new cases of oral lesions in Bahia, Brazil and to aid in early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of oral lesions. PMID:26491471

  13. 33 CFR 165.771 - Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce... Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico (a) Location. The following area is established as a safety zone... Bahia de Ponce, on approach to or departure from the Puerto de Ponce waterfront facility in Bahia...

  14. Tmesiphantes hypogeus sp. nov. (Araneae, Theraphosidae), the first troglobitic tarantula from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bertani, Rogério; Bichuette, Maria Elina; Pedroso, Denis R

    2013-03-01

    A new species of Tmesiphantes Simon, 1892, is described from sandstone/quartizitic caves of Chapada Diamantina, Bahia State, Brazil. This is the fifth species of the genus and the first record of a troglobitic mygalomorph in Brazil. A key is presented for all Tmesiphantes species. PMID:23460434

  15. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in seabirds from Abrolhos Archipelago, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii is a coccidian parasite that infects almost all warm-blooded animals, including birds. Abrolhos is an archipelago of five islands, located in the Atlantic Ocean, 56 nautical kilometers from the south coast of the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. Part of this archipelago is a Na...

  16. Academic and Diversity Consequences of Affirmative Action in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childs, Porsha; Stromquist, Nelly P.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2001, Brazilian universities have been implementing affirmative-action policies to correct the racial, social and ethnic disparities in university admissions. An examination of the social-inclusion policies at three public universities in Brazil--the University of Brasilia, the Federal University of Bahia and the State University of…

  17. Amphibians of Serra Bonita, southern Bahia: a new hotpoint within Brazil’s Atlantic Forest hotspot

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Iuri Ribeiro; Medeiros, Tadeu Teixeira; Vila Nova, Marcos Ferreira; Solé, Mirco

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We studied the amphibian community of the Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (RPPN) Serra Bonita, an area of 20 km2 with steep altitudinal gradients (200–950 m a.s.l.) located in the municipalities of Camacan and Pau-Brasil, southern Bahia State, Brazil. Data were obtained at 38 sampling sites (including ponds and transects within the forest and in streams), through active and visual and acoustic searches, pitfall traps, and opportunistic encounters. We recorded 80 amphibian species distributed in 15 families: Aromobatidae (1), Brachycephalidae (3), Bufonidae (4), Centrolenidae (2), Ceratophryidae (1), Craugastoridae (7), Eleutherodactylidae (2), Hemiphractidae (2), Hylidae (42), Hylodidae (1), Leptodactylidae (7), Microhylidae (3), Siphonopidae (1), Odontophrynidae (3) and Pipidae (1). Species richness was positively correlated with monthly rainfall. Near 36% of the species were found in strictly forest environments, 15% are endemic to Bahia State and 77.2% are endemic to the Atlantic Forest biome. The large species diversity of this small area, the high degree of endemism and the taxonomic and biogeographic significance turn the Serra Bonita mountain into a hotpoint for amphibians within Brazil’s Atlantic Forest hotspot. PMID:25408616

  18. Carnival or football, is there a real risk for acquiring dengue fever in Brazil during holidays seasons?

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Maíra; Rocha, Filipe; Pessanha, José Eduardo Marques; Mateus, Luis; Stollenwerk, Nico

    2015-02-16

    More than 600,000 football fans, coming from all over the world, were expected to visit Brazil during the FIFA World Cup 2014. International travel can become a public health problem when the visitors start to become sick, needing medical intervention and eventually hospitalization. The occurrence of dengue fever infections in Brazil is persistent and has been increasing since the 1980s, and the health authorities were expected to take preventive measures and to warn the visitors about the risks during the tournament period. Before the World Cup started, studies have been published stating that dengue could be a significant problem in some of the Brazilian cities hosting the games. These conclusions were taken after a brief observation of the available data, analyzing its mean and standard deviation only, or based on seasonal climate forecasts, causing alarm for the world cup in Brazil. Here, with a more careful data analysis, we show that the seasonality of the disease plays a major role in dengue transmission. The density of dengue cases in Brazil is residual during winter in the Southern hemisphere (mid June to mid September) and the fans of football were not likely to get dengue during the tournament period.

  19. Carnival or football, is there a real risk for acquiring dengue fever in Brazil during holidays seasons?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguiar, Maíra; Rocha, Filipe; Pessanha, José Eduardo Marques; Mateus, Luis; Stollenwerk, Nico

    2015-02-01

    More than 600,000 football fans, coming from all over the world, were expected to visit Brazil during the FIFA World Cup 2014. International travel can become a public health problem when the visitors start to become sick, needing medical intervention and eventually hospitalization. The occurrence of dengue fever infections in Brazil is persistent and has been increasing since the 1980s, and the health authorities were expected to take preventive measures and to warn the visitors about the risks during the tournament period. Before the World Cup started, studies have been published stating that dengue could be a significant problem in some of the Brazilian cities hosting the games. These conclusions were taken after a brief observation of the available data, analyzing its mean and standard deviation only, or based on seasonal climate forecasts, causing alarm for the world cup in Brazil. Here, with a more careful data analysis, we show that the seasonality of the disease plays a major role in dengue transmission. The density of dengue cases in Brazil is residual during winter in the Southern hemisphere (mid June to mid September) and the fans of football were not likely to get dengue during the tournament period.

  20. Carnival or football, is there a real risk for acquiring dengue fever in Brazil during holidays seasons?

    PubMed Central

    Aguiar, Maíra; Rocha, Filipe; Pessanha, José Eduardo Marques; Mateus, Luis; Stollenwerk, Nico

    2015-01-01

    More than 600,000 football fans, coming from all over the world, were expected to visit Brazil during the FIFA World Cup 2014. International travel can become a public health problem when the visitors start to become sick, needing medical intervention and eventually hospitalization. The occurrence of dengue fever infections in Brazil is persistent and has been increasing since the 1980s, and the health authorities were expected to take preventive measures and to warn the visitors about the risks during the tournament period. Before the World Cup started, studies have been published stating that dengue could be a significant problem in some of the Brazilian cities hosting the games. These conclusions were taken after a brief observation of the available data, analyzing its mean and standard deviation only, or based on seasonal climate forecasts, causing alarm for the world cup in Brazil. Here, with a more careful data analysis, we show that the seasonality of the disease plays a major role in dengue transmission. The density of dengue cases in Brazil is residual during winter in the Southern hemisphere (mid June to mid September) and the fans of football were not likely to get dengue during the tournament period. PMID:25684648

  1. [Multifactorial analysis of risk factors for low birth weight in Salvador, Bahia].

    PubMed

    Solla, J J; Pereira, R A; Medina, M G; Pinto, L L; Mota, E

    1997-07-01

    This study is a multifactorial analysis of the risk factors for low birthweight in a group of newborns in an urban area of Brazil. A total of 1023 infants born in four maternity units in Salvador, Bahia, between July 1987 and February 1988 were included in the study. The sources of information were clinical histories and interviews with the mothers in the maternity units. The analysis was by means of logistic regression. In the final model the risk factors were the following: maternal age less than 21 years or more than 35; gestational age less than 38 weeks; unfavorable outcome of an earlier pregnancy; interval of 12 months or less since prior birth; tobacco smoking; and hypertension. The population attributable risk values for the risk factors included in the final model are presented. These factors should be used to identify pregnant women at high risk of giving birth to a low-birthweight baby, in order to provide them with more prenatal care.

  2. [Hygiene practices in a street market in the city of Salvador, Bahia State].

    PubMed

    Minnaert, Ana Cláudia de Sá Teles; Freitas, Maria do Carmo Soares

    2010-06-01

    The main objective of this research is to understand the meaning of the practices concerning food hygiene in a street market in Salvador, the capital of Bahia State in Brazil. The ethnographic study presents two main categories for symbolic production related to hygiene practices: cleanliness as order and dirtiness as disorder. These cultural codes make correspondence with the studies of Mary Douglas and Nobert Elias. The codes present particularities to decode everyday life, in which concept and hygiene practices are aspects normalized, in daily activity, for persons who share the space of street market: vendors, consumers, street cleaners and official inspectors. The techno-scientific knowledge and sanitary legislation are strange to the symbolic system of street market vendors. The laws are ineffective and their influence is of little importance in the creation of hygiene practices. Official inspectors' attitudes are coercive and punitive and do not take into account any cultural values when enforcing new hygiene practices.

  3. Seismic Traveltime Tomography Applied to Data from Miranga Field, Reconcavo Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassrei, A.; Rodrigues, V.

    2015-12-01

    The growing global demand for hydrocarbons has tested the limits of oil exploration and exploitation technologies. Within the seismic methods, tomography is an alternative for the high resolution characterization of reservoirs, enabling a more efficient recovery of new as well as mature fields. In this work, seismic traveltime tomography in the transmission mode was applied to real data from the Miranga Field, Reconcavo Basin, State of Bahia, Brazil. This basin represents a landmark of oil exploration in Brazil and has been intensively studied since the 1950s. Today, the Reconcavo Basin is still the principal oil producer in the State of Bahia, but there is a demand for new technologies, especially for mature fields, to improve hydrocarbon recovery. The objective is to estimate the two-dimensional velocity distribution in the region between the two wells. We have used linearized inversion through the Levenberg-Marquardt scheme. The input data in the system are the traveltimes between the sources and the receivers and the distances propagated by each ray connecting such sources and receivers. Both inputs are provided through acoustic forward modeling. The conjugate gradient algorithm with regularization through derivative matrices was used as an inverse procedure. The tomographic inversion is an ill-posed problem because the existence, uniqueness and stability conditions are not completely satisfied. The linear system is regularized by derivative matrices derived to minimize the instability. This regularization procedure has a crucially important parameter called regularization parameter lambda. For the selection of lambda we used L-curve and Theta-curve. The estimated tomograms were consistent with previous geological knowledge of the area and the P-wave velocity range was consistent. The results showed that traveltime tomography is feasible for the characterization of reservoirs with a high rate of vertical change, similar to the Miranga Field.

  4. Inversion of Seismic Cross-hole Data from Dom Joao Field, Reconcavo Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassrei, A.; Oliveira, N. P. D.

    2014-12-01

    Seismic Tomography was incorporated in Reservoir Geophysics with the intention of providing high-resolution images of regions in the Earth's subsurface that are characterized as potential reservoirs. In this work, seismic traveltime tomography in the transmission mode was applied to real data from the Dom Joao Field, Reconcavo Basin, State of Bahia, Brazil. This basin represents a landmark of oil exploration in Brazil and has been intensively studied since the 1950s. Today, the Reconcavo Basin is still the principal oil producer in the State of Bahia, but there is a demand for new technologies, especially for mature fields, to improve hydrocarbon recovery. Acoustic ray tracing for the computation of traveltimes was used for forward modeling, and the conjugate gradient algorithm with regularization through derivative matrices was used as an inverse procedure. The tomographic inversion is an ill-posed problem because the existence, uniqueness and stability conditions are not completely satisfied. Mathematical techniques are commonly used with the intention of providing better conditioning for the numerical solution of such problems. The input data in the system are the traveltimes between the sources and the receivers and the distances propagated by each ray connecting such sources and receivers. Both inputs are provided through acoustic forward modeling. The linear system is regularized by derivative matrices derived to minimize the instability. This regularization procedure has a crucially important parameter called regularization parameter lambda. For the selection of lambda we used the L-module, which is based on the well-known L-curve. The estimated tomograms were consistent with previous geological knowledge of the area and the P-wave velocity range was consistent. The results showed that traveltime tomography is feasible for the characterization of reservoirs with a high rate of vertical change, similar to the Dom Joao Field.

  5. Chikungunya risk for Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; Oliveira, Consuelo Silva; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to show, based on the literature on the subject, the potential for dispersal and establishment of the chikungunya virus in Brazil. The chikungunya virus, a Togaviridae member of the genus Alphavirus, reached the Americas in 2013 and, the following year, more than a million cases were reported. In Brazil, indigenous transmission was registered in Amapa and Bahia States, even during the period of low rainfall, exposing the whole country to the risk of virus spreading. Brazil is historically infested by Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, also dengue vectors. Chikungunya may spread, and it is important to take measures to prevent the virus from becoming endemic in the country. Adequate care for patients with chikungunya fever requires training general practitioners, rheumatologists, nurses, and experts in laboratory diagnosis. Up to November 2014, more than 1,000 cases of the virus were reported in Brazil. There is a need for experimental studies in animal models to understand the dynamics of infection and the pathogenesis as well as to identify pathophysiological mechanisms that may contribute to identifying effective drugs against the virus. Clinical trials are needed to identify the causal relationship between the virus and serious injuries observed in different organs and joints. In the absence of vaccines or effective drugs against the virus, currently the only way to prevent the disease is vector control, which will also reduce the number of cases of dengue fever. PMID:26398876

  6. Chikungunya risk for Brazil.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; Oliveira, Consuelo Silva; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to show, based on the literature on the subject, the potential for dispersal and establishment of the chikungunya virus in Brazil. The chikungunya virus, a Togaviridae member of the genusAlphavirus, reached the Americas in 2013 and, the following year, more than a million cases were reported. In Brazil, indigenous transmission was registered in Amapa and Bahia States, even during the period of low rainfall, exposing the whole country to the risk of virus spreading. Brazil is historically infested by Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, also dengue vectors. Chikungunya may spread, and it is important to take measures to prevent the virus from becoming endemic in the country. Adequate care for patients with chikungunya fever requires training general practitioners, rheumatologists, nurses, and experts in laboratory diagnosis. Up to November 2014, more than 1,000 cases of the virus were reported in Brazil. There is a need for experimental studies in animal models to understand the dynamics of infection and the pathogenesis as well as to identify pathophysiological mechanisms that may contribute to identifying effective drugs against the virus. Clinical trials are needed to identify the causal relationship between the virus and serious injuries observed in different organs and joints. In the absence of vaccines or effective drugs against the virus, currently the only way to prevent the disease is vector control, which will also reduce the number of cases of dengue fever.

  7. 33 CFR 110.74c - Bahia de San Juan, PR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bahia de San Juan, PR. 110.74c... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74c Bahia de San Juan, PR. The waters of San Antonio Channel, Bahia de San Juan, eastward of longitude 66°05′45″ W....

  8. 33 CFR 110.74c - Bahia de San Juan, PR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bahia de San Juan, PR. 110.74c... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74c Bahia de San Juan, PR. The waters of San Antonio Channel, Bahia de San Juan, eastward of longitude 66°05′45″ W....

  9. [Considerations on the Sistema Único de Saúde in the twenty-first century: an interview with Lígia Bahia].

    PubMed

    Bahia, Lígia; Cueto, Marcos; Benchimol, Jaime; Teixeira, Luiz Antonio; Cerqueira, Roberta C

    2014-01-01

    This interview with Lígia Bahia explores evaluations of the first 25 years of Brazil's Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) and analyzes the project's progress, impasses, and missteps. Bahia is critical of both tendencies currently found within SUS: the one that sees the system as aimed at equity and the other posing equality as its goal. She criticizes the ambivalence that various spheres of government have displayed in their decisions regarding large corporate groups and private health insurance plans, which conflict with the ideas of SUS. She evaluates the participation of doctors and other healthcare professionals in the system. Lastly, she analyzes the emergence of identity politics, which are missing from the public health reform project, whose emphasis was on equality.

  10. An evaluation of the seven-day toxicity test with Americamysis bahia (formerly Mysidopsis bahia)

    SciTech Connect

    Lussier, S.M.; Kuhn, A.; Comeleo, R.

    1999-12-01

    The 7-d test measuring survival, growth, and fecundity of Americamysis bahia (formerly Mysidopsis bahia) was developed for estimating the chronic toxicity of effluents and associated receiving waters for National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permits. Currently, this test and its derivatives are also used in toxicity identification evaluation (TIE), risk assessment, and other applications. To evaluate the relative sensitivity of three measurement endpoints (survival, growth, and fecundity), the authors analyzed results from 115 tests with effluents, organic or inorganic chemicals, and receiving waters suspected of being toxic. Controls for 78 of these achieved acceptable survival and growth. Fifty of these 78 tests also achieved acceptable control fecundity. In the 47 tests with significant effects, survival was the most sensitive response in 57%, fecundity in 30%, and growth in 30%. There was little duplication in responses. Improving pretest holding conditions by decreasing the maximum density from {approximately}20 to 10 animals/L and increasing the temperature from {approximately}26 C to a range of 26 to 27 C improved the growth and fecundity in controls. Although the percentage of tests achieving acceptable control survival and growth decreased from 93 to 86%, the percentage achieving acceptable fecundity in controls increased from 60 to 97%. Seasonal differences in fecundity were detected among control groups. Although variable, fecundity is often the most sensitive measure of response. The 7-d mysid test estimates the chronic toxicity of effluents most effectively when all three endpoints are used.

  11. Asian genotypes of dengue virus 4 in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinho, A C O; Sardi, S I; Paula, F L; Peixoto, I B; Brandão, C J; Fernandez, F M C; Campos, G S

    2015-10-01

    Dengue virus, commonly transmitted by mosquitoes, causes a human disease of significant social impact and presents a serious public health problem in Brazil. This report describes the unusual emergence of DENV-4 in northern Brazil after a nearly 30-year-long absence. DENV-4 genotype I is of Asian origin and was identified in the serum of patients receiving treatment at a hospital serving the Salvador area (Brazilian state of Bahia). The identification of dengue virus serotypes through molecular and phylogenetic analysis is essential for predicting disease severity or fatal illness, principally in endemic countries such as Brazil.

  12. Writing, Religion and Revolt in Bahia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goody, Jack

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the impact of writing on culture, especially the psychosocial consequences of literacy as a "technology of the intellect." Describes the role played by writing in both a slave revolt in nineteenth century Brazil and a preliterate African culture. Argues that "literacy" serves too many functions to be used as an all-encompassing…

  13. Salvador Da Bahia: A "Modern" Imperial Rome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Vivian L.

    2004-01-01

    The city of Rome is situated on seven hills along the Tiber River. It developed from a series of small villages into numerous city-states, then to a Republic, and finally into an Empire, which covered several million miles. Thousands of miles away from Rome on another continent is Brazil, which measures 3,268,470 square miles in area. This article…

  14. Yoruba Cosmology and Culture in Brazil: A Study of African Survivals in the New World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Jacob U.

    1979-01-01

    Yoruba cultural, religious, and linguistic traditions have been preserved to a great extent in Brazil, especially in the province of Bahia. Although many Afro-Brazilian religions have historically been considered lower-class, today Candomble and other religious/cultural practices are gaining social acceptance on a national level. (GC)

  15. Amerciamysis bahia Stochastic Matrix Population Model for Laboratory Populations

    EPA Science Inventory

    The population model described here is a stochastic, density-independent matrix model for integrating the effects of toxicants on survival and reproduction of the marine invertebrate, Americamysis bahia. The model was constructed using Microsoft® Excel 2003. The focus of the mode...

  16. Human bocavirus in acute gastroenteritis in children in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Campos, Gubio Soares; Silva Sampaio, Madina Lyve; Menezes, Aline Dorea Luz; Tigre, Dellane Martins; Moura Costa, Lilia Ferreira; Chinalia, Fabio Alexandre; Sardi, Silvia Ines

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological surveillance for Human Bocavirus (HBoV) was conducted on 105 fecal specimens from children with acute gastroenteritis in Bahia, Brazil. Among of a total 105 stool samples, 44 samples were positive for HBoV as detected by nested-PCR. Of the 44 positive samples, co-infections with other enteric viruses (Norovirus, Adenovirus, and Rotavirus) were found in 12 pediatric patients. Mixed infections among HBoV with Norovirus were frequently observed in this population. The phylogenetic analysis identified the presence of HBoV-1, and HBoV 2A species. This study shows that HBoV is another viral pathogen in the etiology of acute gastroenteritis in children in Bahia, Brazil.

  17. Household Survival in the Face of Poverty in Salvador, Brazil: Towards an Integrated Model of Household Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, William P.

    1988-01-01

    Compares the survival strategies of low-income urban households in a squatter settlement in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil with those of such households in other regions. Suggests, uses, and criticizes a simple additive model of survival household activities. Identifies important factors that emerge, and suggests issues for further research. (Author/BJV)

  18. A new genus and species of cricket from the Chapada Diamantina National Park, northeastern Brazil (Grylloidea: Phalangopsidae; Luzarinae).

    PubMed

    Dias, Pedro G B Souza; Mello, Francisco De Assis Ganeo De; Vieira, Lelisberto Baldo

    2016-06-09

    A new genus and species of Luzarinae cricket (Grylloidea, Phalangopsidae) is described from the Chapada Diamantina National Park, Bahia State, northeast Brazil. Sishiniheia diamantina, n. gen. n. sp. is described based in characters of external morphology and male genitalia and is characterized by the reduced FWs, absence of stridulatory file, thick longitudinal venation and the thin, pointed and curved pseudepiphallic arms.

  19. Thirteen new records of ferns from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Salino, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Thirteen fern species are reported for the first time for Brazil. Among the new records, eight are from Acre state (Cyathea subincisa, Cyclodium trianae, Elaphoglossum stenophyllum, Hypoderris brauniana, Pleopeltis stolzei, Thelypteris arcana, Thelypteris comosa, Thelypteris valdepilosa), two are from Pará state (Polypodium flagellare, Tectaria heracleifolia), one from Minas Gerais state (Alsophila salvinii), one from Ceará state (Campyloneurum costatum) and one from Bahia state (Thelypteris rolandii). Part of the species shows a disjunct occurrence or illustrates floristic relations between Brazilian and Andean Mountains or Central American Mountains. PMID:25829857

  20. Hillary Clinton visits Pathfinder projects in Brazil.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    In October 1995, US First Lady Hillary Clinton visited a maternity hospital in Salvador, Brazil, in which a family planning (FP)/reproductive health program has been administered by Pathfinder International since 1981 with funding from USAID. During her tour of the facility, Clinton learned about the high degree of unmet need for FP in the region which results from a lack of sufficient resources to meet demand. Clinton, in turn, praised the state of Bahia for its emphasis on FP in low-income areas.

  1. Hillary Clinton visits Pathfinder projects in Brazil.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    In October 1995, US First Lady Hillary Clinton visited a maternity hospital in Salvador, Brazil, in which a family planning (FP)/reproductive health program has been administered by Pathfinder International since 1981 with funding from USAID. During her tour of the facility, Clinton learned about the high degree of unmet need for FP in the region which results from a lack of sufficient resources to meet demand. Clinton, in turn, praised the state of Bahia for its emphasis on FP in low-income areas. PMID:12179683

  2. [Multifactorial analysis of risk factors for low birth weight in Salvador, Bahia].

    PubMed

    Solla, J J; Pereira, R A; Medina, M G; Pinto, L L; Mota, E

    1997-07-01

    This study is a multifactorial analysis of the risk factors for low birthweight in a group of newborns in an urban area of Brazil. A total of 1023 infants born in four maternity units in Salvador, Bahia, between July 1987 and February 1988 were included in the study. The sources of information were clinical histories and interviews with the mothers in the maternity units. The analysis was by means of logistic regression. In the final model the risk factors were the following: maternal age less than 21 years or more than 35; gestational age less than 38 weeks; unfavorable outcome of an earlier pregnancy; interval of 12 months or less since prior birth; tobacco smoking; and hypertension. The population attributable risk values for the risk factors included in the final model are presented. These factors should be used to identify pregnant women at high risk of giving birth to a low-birthweight baby, in order to provide them with more prenatal care. PMID:9410586

  3. [Evaluation of the capability of decentralized management of epidemiological surveillance in the state of Bahia].

    PubMed

    Santos, Silvone Santa Bárbara da Silva; Melo, Cristina Maria Meira de; Costa, Heloniza Oliveira Gonçalves; Tanaka, Oswaldo Yoshimi; Ramos, Fernanda Mota; Santana, Mário César Carneiro de; Trindade, Bianca Gonzaga

    2012-04-01

    Evaluative research into the capability of decentralized management of epidemiological vigilance (EV) was conducted in the operational, organizational and sustainable dimensions in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The quantitative approach was used in the construction of a baseline, with primary data obtained through an online questionnaire answered by thirty-eight municipal EV managers. In the qualitative approach to analyze the context and assess the management capability of municipalities in two case studies, techniques adapted to the analysis of discursive practices were used. This was done through semi-structured interviews with managers of regional and municipal government, health workers and representatives of the municipal health council. The case studies showed that the municipality with enhanced management capability is that in which the manager has the greatest potential of using the resources of his position, in addition to his ability to control, negotiate and coordinate with other actors. Due to decentralization of EV, considering the shared nature of management between the three spheres of government, there is a marked variation in the management capability of municipalities, determined by social, economic, political inequalities and management mechanisms adopted.

  4. [A dengue epidemic in Ipupiara and Prado, Bahia. A seroepidemiologic survey].

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, P F; Mota, K; Straatmann, A; Santos-Torres, S; da Rosa, A P; Tavares Neto, J

    2000-01-01

    Serologic studies in Brazil have indicated a 25% to 56% prevalence of dengue virus infections. However, these studies were carried out in populations of middle-sized and larger cities. The present study describes two epidemics of classic dengue fever in two small cities in the State of Bahia. The first occurred in 1987, in Ipupiara and was caused by dengue serotype-1 (DEN-1), the second occurred in 1995, in Prado and was caused by dengue serotype-2 (DEN-2). The laboratory diagnosis was made by the hemagglutination-inhibition test. 461 serum samples were collected in 1995 in Ipupiara (district of Chapada Diamantina) out of a population of 3,868 and 228 samples out of a total of 9,126 inhabitants of Prado (in the southernmost coastal region). The seropositivity of the samples was 11.9% (55/461) in Ipupiara and 17.5% (40/228) in Prado. These were no statistically significant differences as to age and sex between seropositive and seronegative individuals of the two cities studied. However, the seropositive cases in Ipupiara indicated a higher percentage (15.9% vs. 9.3%) of residency in or travel to other states of Brazil (p<0.03). Based on these data we estimate the occurrence of 460 and 1,597 cases of infection in Ipupiara and Prado, respectively. In conclusion, dengue virus infections in smaller cities probably have singular characteristics, since they exhibit a lesser prevalence of seropositivity caused by decreased breeding possibilities of Aedes aegypti.

  5. Brazil's mental health adventure.

    PubMed

    Weingarten, Richard

    2003-01-01

    This is an account of my trips to Brazil in 2001 where I worked on a series of mental health projects with Brazilian colleagues. I first got interested in Brazil after I graduated from college when I was a Peace Corps volunteer in Northeast Brazil (Bahia state). After I got out of the Peace Corps I moved to Rio de Janeiro and went to work for United Press International (UPI) in their Rio bureau. I was UPI foreign news correspondent for a year and a half. Those years in Brazil were probably the happiest years of my life. Later on, after I became ill in the U.S., my Brazilian connection played an important role in my recovery. Raised in a Victorian family in a small town in the Midwest, and schooled in a traditional boarding school for boys and then at an all men's college, Brazil's lively Latino culture served as a healthy antidote for my tendency to be reserved and often depressed. My contact with Brazilians and Brazilian culture always beckoned me on. I maintained contact with my friends in Brazil and they stuck by me through my illness years. What seemed like my emotional and intellectual "excess" to me, was easily accepted by my Brazilian friends. I felt much more myself interacting with Brazilians and connected to a larger sense of self I developed in Brazil. I traveled to Brazil at every opportunity and made friends with Brazilians I met in the States. I initiated Portuguese classes at John Carroll University in Cleveland, Ohio in the early 1990s and then was invited to teach Brazilian culture to undergraduates. These appointments and my own resilience moved me past one depression and a dysthymia condition and into the wider community. I regained my confidence as a teacher, a role I had before and during the years of my illness. From this position, I organized a club for Brazilian students studying in the Cleveland area. After this teaching stint, I felt ready to pursue full time employment and began a job search that would eventually land me in New Haven at

  6. Brazil's mental health adventure.

    PubMed

    Weingarten, Richard

    2003-01-01

    This is an account of my trips to Brazil in 2001 where I worked on a series of mental health projects with Brazilian colleagues. I first got interested in Brazil after I graduated from college when I was a Peace Corps volunteer in Northeast Brazil (Bahia state). After I got out of the Peace Corps I moved to Rio de Janeiro and went to work for United Press International (UPI) in their Rio bureau. I was UPI foreign news correspondent for a year and a half. Those years in Brazil were probably the happiest years of my life. Later on, after I became ill in the U.S., my Brazilian connection played an important role in my recovery. Raised in a Victorian family in a small town in the Midwest, and schooled in a traditional boarding school for boys and then at an all men's college, Brazil's lively Latino culture served as a healthy antidote for my tendency to be reserved and often depressed. My contact with Brazilians and Brazilian culture always beckoned me on. I maintained contact with my friends in Brazil and they stuck by me through my illness years. What seemed like my emotional and intellectual "excess" to me, was easily accepted by my Brazilian friends. I felt much more myself interacting with Brazilians and connected to a larger sense of self I developed in Brazil. I traveled to Brazil at every opportunity and made friends with Brazilians I met in the States. I initiated Portuguese classes at John Carroll University in Cleveland, Ohio in the early 1990s and then was invited to teach Brazilian culture to undergraduates. These appointments and my own resilience moved me past one depression and a dysthymia condition and into the wider community. I regained my confidence as a teacher, a role I had before and during the years of my illness. From this position, I organized a club for Brazilian students studying in the Cleveland area. After this teaching stint, I felt ready to pursue full time employment and began a job search that would eventually land me in New Haven at

  7. Uranium deposits of Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    1991-09-01

    Brazil is a country of vast natural resources, including numerous uranium deposits. In support of the country`s nuclear power program, Brazil has developed the most active uranium industry in South America. Brazil has one operating reactor (Angra 1, a 626-MWe PWR), and two under construction. The country`s economic challenges have slowed the progress of its nuclear program. At present, the Pocos de Caldas district is the only active uranium production. In 1990, the Cercado open-pit mine produced approximately 45 metric tons (MT) U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (100 thousand pounds). Brazil`s state-owned uranium production and processing company, Uranio do Brasil, announced it has decided to begin shifting its production from the high-cost and nearly depleted deposits at Pocos de Caldas, to lower-cost reserves at Lagoa Real. Production at Lagoa Real is schedules to begin by 1993. In addition to these two districts, Brazil has many other known uranium deposits, and as a whole, it is estimated that Brazil has over 275,000 MT U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (600 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) in reserves.

  8. A new species of Dendroblatta Rehn, 1916 from northern Brazil (Blattaria: Ectobiidae) collected in wasp nests.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Sonia Maria; Cardoso Da Silva, Leonardo De Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Currently sixteen species of Dendroblatta Rehn, 1916 are known, twelve of them occurring in Brazil. In this paper, one new species, D. spiculata sp. nov., is described from material collected from the Acre and Amazonas states in northern Brazil, in wasp nests. The new species differs from all other members of the genus by the male genitalia pieces. Illustrations of the genital pieces are presented. In Brazil, the genus is now known from the states of Acre, Amazonas, Bahia, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Rio de Janeiro, and Rondônia.

  9. Two new species of the genus Centromacronema Ulmer 1905 (Hydropsychidae: Macronematinae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias, Everton S; Calor, Adolfo R

    2016-07-08

    Centromacronema is an endemic genus from the Neotropics, with distribution ranging from Mexico to southern Brazil. The genus comprises 15 described species, but only two of them have been recorded in Brazil: Centromacronema               auripenne (Rambur 1842) and C. obscurum (Ulmer 1905). Two new species are herein described and illustrated from   Brazil, C. pioneira n. sp. from Serra da Jiboia, Bahia state, including the first description of a female for the genus, and C. poyanawa n. sp. from Serra do Divisor, Acre state.

  10. Tin resources of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Max Gregg

    1974-01-01

    Annual tin production in Brazil, most of it from cassiterite placer deposits in Rondonia Territory, amounts to about 4,000 metric tons (4,400 short tons) of concentrate containing 66 percent tin, much of which is consumed by Brazilian industry. Reserves of cassiterite concentrate in the placers of Rondonia district are estimated at about 160,000 (176,000 short tons) containing 66 percent tin. Extensive undiscovered resources of cassiterite possibly exist in southern Rondonia Territory and to the east of the Territory in northern Mato Grosso, southern Amazonas, and southern Para. Numerous occurrences have been reported in these regions and as far to the east as the headwaters of the Tapajos and the Xingo Rivers. Minor deposits or occurrences of cassiterite (or lode deposits about which there is only minimal information available) are located in Para, Amapa, Paraiba, Rio Grande do Norte, Ceara, Bahia, Minas Gerais, Goias, Sao Paulo, and Rio Grande do Sul. All the lode tin deposits are dated or enclosed in rocks that date as Precambrian B (900 to 1,300 m.y.).

  11. A new species of Scolopocryptops Newport: a troglobitic scolopocryptopine centipede from a remarkable siliciclastic area of eastern Brazil (Scolopendromorpha, Scolopocryptopidae, Scolopocryptopinae).

    PubMed

    Chagas-Jr, Amazonas; Bichuette, Maria Elina

    2015-01-01

    We describe Scolopocryptopstroglocaudatus sp. n., a new troglobitic scolopocryptopine centipede species. The species was found in a remarkable siliciclastic karst area of Eastern Brazil, in three caves of the Chapada da Diamantina, in the state of Bahia. Scolopocryptopstroglocaudatus sp. n. is close to Scolopocryptopsmiersii Newport, 1845 and Scolopocryptopsferrugineusmacrodon (Kraepelin, 1903) but differs from them by troglomorphic features, such as depigmentation, long appendages and a thin cuticle. This new species is the second troglobitic scolopocryptopine described and is the first discovered in Brazil.

  12. Genetic variability in accessions of the acerola germplasm bank of Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moraes Filho, R M; Martins, L S S; Musser, R S; Montarroyos, A V V; Silva, E F

    2013-10-29

    Brazil is the world's largest producer of acerola, Malpighia emarginata (Malpighiaceae); the Northeast is responsible for 60% of the national production. The culture of acerola in Brazil has great genetic variability; plantings have high phenotypic diversity and are not very productive, often originating from propagation by seed. We evaluated the genetic diversity of 42 accessions from the Acerola Active Germplasm Bank of Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. Using 15 RAPD primers, 182 markers were obtained, of which 166 were polymorphic and 16 were monomorphic. We found high genetic variability among the accessions (ĤE = 0.29), with no redundancy. Considering the accessions from the states of Pernambuco, Bahia and Pará as distinct groups, there was greater diversity in accessions from Bahia than from the other two states.

  13. Seroprevalence of HIV, HTLV-I/II and other perinatally-transmitted pathogens in Salvador, Bahia.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, J I; Lopes, M A; Deliège-Vasconcelos, E; Couto-Fernandez, J C; Patel, B N; Barreto, M L; Ferreira Júnior, O C; Galvão-Castro, B

    1995-01-01

    Generation of epidemiological data on perinatally-transmitted infections is a fundamental tool for the formulation of health policies. In Brazil, this information is scarce, particularly in Northeast, the poorest region of the country. In order to gain some insights of the problem we studied the seroprevalence of some perinatally-transmitted infections in 1,024 low income pregnant women in Salvador, Bahia. The prevalences were as follow: HIV-1 (0.10%), HTLV-I/II (0.88%), T.cruzi (2.34%). T.pallidum (3.91%), rubella virus (77.44%). T.gondii IgM (2.87%) and IgG (69.34%), HBs Ag (0.6%) and anti-HBs (7.62%). Rubella virus and T.gondii IgG antibodies were present in more than two thirds of pregnant women but antibodies against other pathogens were present at much lower rates. We found that the prevalence of HTLV-I/II was nine times higher than that found for HIV-1. In some cases such as T.cruzi and hepatitis B infection there was a decrease in the prevalence over the years. On the other hand, there was an increase in the seroprevalence of T.gondii infection. Our data strongly recommend mandatory screening tests for HTLV-I/II, T.gondii (IgM), T.pallidum and rubella virus in prenatal routine for pregnant women in Salvador. Screening test for T.cruzi, hepatitis and HIV-1 is recommended whenever risk factors associated with these infections are suspected. However in areas with high prevalence for these infections, the mandatory screening test in prenatal care should be considered. PMID:8599064

  14. Environmental flow in the River Ondas basin in Bahia, Brazilian Cerrado.

    PubMed

    de Souza Castro, Elis Regina Rodrigues; Moreira, Michel Castro; da Silva, Demetrius David

    2016-01-01

    This paper aimed to estimate the environmental flow of a water basin located in the Brazilian Cerrado using the bidimensional model River2D. The study was carried out in a stretch of the lower portion of the River Ondas in the western part of the state of Bahia, Brazil. To carry out the ecohydrological modeling, the following were used: topobathymetry, hydraulic characterization, the streamflows with the probability of non-exceedances (Q50, Q60, Q70, Q80, Q90, and Q95), and the Habitat Suitability Index for species of the genus Hypostomus. In the River2D, the weighted usable areas (WUAs) pertaining to the streamflows associated with different non-exceedances were simulated for the later construction of optimization and identification matrices of the streamflows that maximize the habitat area throughout the year. For juvenile Hypostomus, WUA increased as streamflow increased, with higher values associated with Q50. For adult specimens, lower WUA values were observed associated with Q50, while higher values were associated with Q95, which shows a preference for lower streamflows. The environmental flows found for the stretch of the River Ondas varied over the course of the year. The lowest environmental flows were observed in September (30.31 m(3) s(-1)) and October (29.98 m(3) s(-1)), while the highest were observed in February (44.22 m(3) s(-1)) and March (43.16 m(3) s(-1)). The environmental flow regime obtained restricts the water availability in the basin, for the purpose of water capture, which shows the importance of ecohydrological studies in forming a basis for water resource management actions.

  15. Environmental flow in the River Ondas basin in Bahia, Brazilian Cerrado.

    PubMed

    de Souza Castro, Elis Regina Rodrigues; Moreira, Michel Castro; da Silva, Demetrius David

    2016-01-01

    This paper aimed to estimate the environmental flow of a water basin located in the Brazilian Cerrado using the bidimensional model River2D. The study was carried out in a stretch of the lower portion of the River Ondas in the western part of the state of Bahia, Brazil. To carry out the ecohydrological modeling, the following were used: topobathymetry, hydraulic characterization, the streamflows with the probability of non-exceedances (Q50, Q60, Q70, Q80, Q90, and Q95), and the Habitat Suitability Index for species of the genus Hypostomus. In the River2D, the weighted usable areas (WUAs) pertaining to the streamflows associated with different non-exceedances were simulated for the later construction of optimization and identification matrices of the streamflows that maximize the habitat area throughout the year. For juvenile Hypostomus, WUA increased as streamflow increased, with higher values associated with Q50. For adult specimens, lower WUA values were observed associated with Q50, while higher values were associated with Q95, which shows a preference for lower streamflows. The environmental flows found for the stretch of the River Ondas varied over the course of the year. The lowest environmental flows were observed in September (30.31 m(3) s(-1)) and October (29.98 m(3) s(-1)), while the highest were observed in February (44.22 m(3) s(-1)) and March (43.16 m(3) s(-1)). The environmental flow regime obtained restricts the water availability in the basin, for the purpose of water capture, which shows the importance of ecohydrological studies in forming a basis for water resource management actions. PMID:26718949

  16. A new species of the Scinax catharinae Group (Anura: Hylidae) from Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Ana Carolina Calijorne; Luna, Maria Celeste; Pombal, José P

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new species of the Scinax catharinae Group from Municipality of Porto Seguro, State of Bahia northeastern Brazil. The new species is mainly characterized by its small size, nuptial pad dark colored, and compound pectoral fold. Additionally, we describe the structure of its nuptial pad and compare it with that of S. agilis. We also briefly discuss its phylogenetic relationships within Scinax. 

  17. Taxonomy of Atopsyche Banks (Trichoptera: Hydrobiosidae) from Brazil: New species, distributional notes and identification key.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Victor; Calor, Adolfo Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Three new species of Atopsyche Banks 1905 are described and illustrated from Brazil: Atopsyche diamantina n. sp., A. kamakan n. sp., and A. muelleri n. sp. New records of A. apurimac Schmid 1989, A. sanctipauli Flint 1974, A. serica Ross 1953, and A. zernyi Flint 1974 are included, as well as the first records to states of Bahia, Goiás, and Rio Grande do Sul. Atopsche rinconi Holzenthal & Cressa 2002 is recorded from Brazil for the first time. An identification key is also provided for species of the genus from Brazil. Moreover additional characters and illustrations of A. sanctipauli and A. zernyi are presented. PMID:27470785

  18. [Serological evidence of the circulation of the Rocio arbovirus (Flaviviridae) in Bahia].

    PubMed

    Straatmann, A; Santos-Torres, S; Vasconcelos, P F; da Rosa, A P; Rodrigues, S G; Tavares-Neto, J

    1997-01-01

    Eight antibody anti-Rocio cases, from four distinct cities in the state of Bahia, are described; six of them being carriers of the antibody IgG (HI and NT) and two IgM (ELISA and NT). The authors comment on the circulation of these arboviruses in the state of Bahia and on the possibility of cross reactions with other antigenically related viruses.

  19. Three new species of Eurypon Gray, 1867 from Northeastern Brazil (Poecilosclerida; Demospongiae; Porifera).

    PubMed

    Santos, George Garcia; França, Fernando; Pinheiro, Ulisses

    2014-12-15

    Three new species of Eurypon from Northeastern Brazil are described: Eurypon clavilectuarium sp. nov.; Eurypon suassunai sp. nov. and Eurypon distyli sp. nov. Samples were collected from the continental shelf of Rio Grande do Norte, Bahia and Paraíba States. While the majority of Atlantic Eurypon species have been described from deep water, two of three new species described in this study were collected from shallow depths. The three new species from Brazil were compared with all other eighteen Eurypon species described from the Atlantic. 

  20. Reproductive cycle of Anomalocardia brasiliana (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Veneridae) in the estuary of the Cachoeira River, Ilhéus, Bahia.

    PubMed

    Luz, J R; Boehs, G

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the reproductive cycle of Anomalocardia brasiliana, typical of the estuarine region of the Cachoeira River, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil. For this purpose, 20 specimens were collected biweekly between August 2005 and August 2006 on an intertidal bank (14º 48' 23" S and 39º 02' 47" W). The animals were measured on the anteroposterior axis (length), examined macroscopically and removed from the shell and fixed in Davidson's solution. Subsequently, the tissues were impregnated in paraffin, cut into 7 mm sections and stained with Harris hematoxylin and eosin (HE). The slides were examined under a light microscope. The water temperature at the site ranged from 24 to 30.5 ºC (mean: 27.4 ºC; SD ± 1.9), salinity from zero to 23 (mean: 13.7; SD ± 7.5) and rainfall from 28.3 mm to 248.8 mm monthly (yearly mean: 130 mm). The sample (n = 478) showed a sex ratio (M: F) of 1: 1.2 (p < 0.05) and no cases of hermaphroditism. There was no sexual dimorphism. Males and females showed reproductive synchrony. The reproductive cycle was continuous, with releases of gametes mainly in spring, summer and autumn. These results are similar to those found in other regions, but there was no reproductive rest period as reported for populations in higher latitudes.

  1. Taxonomic guide and historical review of starfishes in northeastern Brazil (Echinodermata, Asteroidea).

    PubMed

    Gondim, Anne Isabelley; Christoffersen, Martin Lindsey; Pereira Dias, Thelma Lúcia

    2014-01-01

    Presently more than 1900 species of sea stars are recognized, of which 77 are recorded for the coast of Brazil. Although the first starfish record in Brazil was published 363 years ago, our knowledge of this fauna remains unsatisfactory from a systematic and ecological point of view, particularly in the north and northeastern regions of the country. This study provides the first annotated list of sea stars from northeastern Brazil. Material described herein is housed at the collections of the Federal University of Paraíba, Federal University of Sergipe, and the Federal University of Bahia, Museum of Zoology of the University of São Paulo and Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro. Twenty-one species were identified, belonging to 12 genera, 10 families, and 5 orders. Descriptions of species are provided. Three new occurrences were recorded for northeast Brazil: Astropectenalligator, Luidialudwigiscotti, and Mithrodiaclavigera. Highest diversities of Asteroidea were encountered for the states of Bahia (n = 14 spp), Paraíba (n = 12 spp) and Pernambuco (n = 9 spp). No species were recorded for the states of Maranhão and Sergipe. Sandy substrates and depths below 10 m were the least sampled areas over the continental shelf. Herein we provide a first panorama on the fauna of Asteroidea occurring in the northeast region of Brazil, hopefully to function as a basic reference for biodiversity studies in this poorly studied area.

  2. Taxonomic guide and historical review of starfishes in northeastern Brazil (Echinodermata, Asteroidea)

    PubMed Central

    Gondim, Anne Isabelley; Christoffersen, Martin Lindsey; Pereira Dias, Thelma Lúcia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Presently more than 1900 species of sea stars are recognized, of which 77 are recorded for the coast of Brazil. Although the first starfish record in Brazil was published 363 years ago, our knowledge of this fauna remains unsatisfactory from a systematic and ecological point of view, particularly in the north and northeastern regions of the country. This study provides the first annotated list of sea stars from northeastern Brazil. Material described herein is housed at the collections of the Federal University of Paraíba, Federal University of Sergipe, and the Federal University of Bahia, Museum of Zoology of the University of São Paulo and Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro. Twenty-one species were identified, belonging to 12 genera, 10 families, and 5 orders. Descriptions of species are provided. Three new occurrences were recorded for northeast Brazil: Astropecten alligator, Luidia ludwigi scotti, and Mithrodia clavigera. Highest diversities of Asteroidea were encountered for the states of Bahia (n = 14 spp), Paraíba (n = 12 spp) and Pernambuco (n = 9 spp). No species were recorded for the states of Maranhão and Sergipe. Sandy substrates and depths below 10 m were the least sampled areas over the continental shelf. Herein we provide a first panorama on the fauna of Asteroidea occurring in the northeast region of Brazil, hopefully to function as a basic reference for biodiversity studies in this poorly studied area. PMID:25408612

  3. Risk Factors for Asthma in a Helminth Endemic Area in Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Luciana S.; Costa, Daniela M.; Almeida, Maria Cecília F.; Souza, Robson P.; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Araujo, Maria Ilma; Oliveira, Ricardo R.

    2012-01-01

    Protective factors associated with atopy or asthma in rural areas include socioeconomic level, overcrowding, and helminth infection. However, little epidemiological information was originated from schistosomiasis areas. This study aimed to investigate factors associated with asthma in a schistosomiasis endemic area. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on demographics, socioeconomic, and environmental features. The ISAAC questionnaire was used to identify individuals with asthma. Parasitological exam was done in all participants and skin prick test to aeroallergens in all asthmatics. Prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection was 57.4% and Ascaris lumbricoides, 30.8%. Asthma was found in 13.1% of the population, and 35.1% of them had a positive SPT. Active and passive smoking was positively associated with asthma, whereas A. lumbricoides was negatively associated. In a schistosomiasis hyperendemic region, current infection with A. lumbricoides is protective against asthma. However, we cannot rule out the involvement of S. mansoni infection in this process. PMID:22970348

  4. [Quilombo communities in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil: hypertension and associated factors].

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Vanessa Moraes; Andrade, Amanda Cristina de Souza; César, Cibele Comini; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2013-09-01

    The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of hypertension in members of quilombos (slavedescendant African-Brazilian communities) and to evaluate possible associated factors. A population-based survey included 797 individuals 18 years or older. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥ 140mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90mmHg or reported use of antihypertensive medication. We used Poisson regression with robust variance and hierarchical entry of variables. Prevalence of hypertension was 45.4% (95%CI: 41.89-48.85). Factors associated with hypertension were: neighborhood security (distal), age, economic class, education, and physical inactivity (intermediate), and body mass index (proximal). Health promotion is needed in the quilombo communities through action at the individual and population levels. The high prevalence of hypertension highlights the need for broad access to health services for prevention, early diagnosis, and guidelines for adequate management.

  5. Evaluation of soil quality in areas of cocoa cabruca, forest and multicropping in southern Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Atlantic Rain Forest is one of the most complex natural environments of the earth and, linked with this ecosystem, the cacao-cabruca system is agroforestry cultivation with an arrangement including a range of environmental, social and economical benefits and can protect many features of the biod...

  6. Hair zinc levels and nutritional status in urban children from Ilheus, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dorea, J G; Horner, M R; Bezerra, V L; Pereira, M G; Salomon, J B

    1982-02-01

    The mean +/-s.d. hair zinc levels of 45 pre-school and 70 school children, age 1-12 years, were 123 +/- 74 and 103 +/- 74 micrograms/g hair, respectively. The prevalence of zinc levels less than 70 micrograms/g 15 per cent (9 and 19 per cent for pre-school and school children, respectively). Anthropometric measurements showed that 25 per cent suffered from chronic malnutrition. The form of malnutrition manifested was exclusively stunting, ie, low height-for-age in the presence of adequate weight-for-height. No association was found between low hair zinc levels and nutritional status.

  7. Distribution of oxidizable organic c fractions in soils under cacao agroforestry systems in Southern Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agroforestry systems can play a major role in the sequestration of carbon (C) because of their higher input of organic materials to the soil. The importance of organic carbon to the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of soil quality is well recognized. However, total organic carbon measureme...

  8. Distribution of organic C oxidizable fractions in soils under cacao agroforestry systems in southern Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agroforestry systems can play a major role in the sequestration of carbon (C) because of their higher input of organic material to the soil. The importance of organic carbon to the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of soil quality is well recognized. However, total organic carbon measuremen...

  9. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira Marques, Cibele Dantas; Ribeiro Silva, Rita de Cássia; Machado, Maria Ester C; Portela de Santana, Mônica Leila; Castro de Andrade Cairo, Romilda; Pinto, Elizabete de Jesus; Oliveira Reis Maciel, Leonardo; Rodrigues Silva, Luciana

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Un estudio transversal se llevó a cabo con 1477 estudiantes de primaria matriculados en las escuelas públicas de Salvador, Bahía, Brasil, para evaluar la prevalencia del sobrepeso y la obesidad. Métodos: La muestra se determinó por la técnica de muestreo por conglomerados en dos etapas para la selección de escuelas y clases. Más tarde, posteriori error se calculó. Los estudiantes fueron clasificados como sobrepeso u obesos de acuerdo con la clasificación de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, 2007. Ellos también fueron clasificados de acuerdo a la edad, la etapa de maduración sexual, y la presencia de obesidad abdominal. Resultados: En general, el 9,3% de los estudiantes tenían sobrepeso y el 6,4% eran obesos, por lo tanto, el 15,7% de los alumnos se considera que tienen exceso de peso (sobrepeso + obesidad), con un intervalo de confianza del 95%. De la población total estudiada el 12,9% presentaron obesidad abdominal, esta condición se observa en el 13% de su peso normal. Se encontró asociación entre el sobrepeso y la edad < 14 AÑOs (p = 0,030) y obesidad abdominal (p = 0,001). Conclusiones: Los programas de intervención deben ser implementados para prevenir y tratar la obesidad en la infancia y la adolescencia. Además, los profesionales que trabajan con las personas en este grupo de edad deben ser sensibles a este problema. La necesidad de estandarizar los indicadores antropométricos utilizados en los diferentes estudios se enfatiza también.

  10. Genetic characterisation of Langerin gene in human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected women from Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Giselle Calasans de Souza; Jesus, Jaqueline Goes; Rego, Filipe Ferreira de Almeida; Santos, Edson Souza; Galvão-Castro, Bernardo; Gonçalves, Marilda de Souza; Alcantara, Luiz Carlos Júnior

    2014-01-01

    Studies on human genetic variations are a useful source of knowledge about human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection. The Langerin protein, found at the surface of Langerhans cells, has an important protective role in HIV-1 infection. Differences in Langerin function due to host genetic factors could influence susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. To verify the frequency of mutations in the Langerin gene, 118 samples from HIV-1-infected women and 99 samples from HIV-1-uninfected individuals were selected for sequencing of the promoter and carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD)-encoding regions of the Langerin gene. Langerin promoter analysis revealed two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one mutation in both studied groups, which created new binding sites for certain transcription factors, such as NFAT5, HOXB9.01 and STAT6.01, according to MatInspector software analysis. Three SNPs were observed in the CRD-encoding region in HIV-1-infected and uninfected individuals: p.K313I, c.941C>T and c.983C>T. This study shows that mutations in the Langerin gene are present in the analysed populations at different genotypic and allelic frequencies. Further studies should be conducted to verify the role of these mutations in HIV-1 susceptibility. PMID:24676666

  11. [Workplace violence in the healthcare sector: the experience of State health employees in Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Silva, Iracema Viterbo; Aquino, Estela M L; Pinto, Isabela Cardoso de Matos

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of self-reported violence suffered by healthcare workers, using a cross-sectional design with a sample of 679 State health employees through face-to-face interviews and a questionnaire. Of the respondents, 25.9% (95%CI: 22.6%-29.2%) reported having suffered at least one form of violence, with verbal aggression as the most frequent (19.4%). Women aged 25-39 suffered 80% more violence than older women (OR = 1.8; 95%CI: 1.1-3.0). Female physicians were the most frequently affected group (OR = 2.5; 95%CI: 1.2-12.5). Among men, a nearly fourfold increase in healthcare workplace violence was associated with age 25 to 39 years (OR = 3.9; 95%CI: 1.9-16.4) and nurse assistants or nurse technicians (PR = 3.9; 95%CI: 1.1-13.2). This study can help raise awareness concerning healthcare workplace violence and support policies for health workers' care, with repercussions on quality of care for health services users.

  12. Geotectonic setting and metallogeny of the northern São Francisco craton, Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, João Batista Guimarães; da Silva, Maria da Glória; Misi, Aroldo; Cruz, Simone Cerqueira Pereira; da Silva Sá, José Haroldo

    2010-11-01

    This paper aims at establishing a tectonic and temporal framework to characterize the metallogenic processes that contributed to the origin of the mineral provinces in the northern São Francisco Craton. Many Archean mineralizations (eg. massive sulfide zinc, lead, zinc and copper, besides magnesite-talc, iron-titanium-vanadium, iron, chromite and manganese) were generated before the assembly of the Craton. Deposits of chromite, nickel, gold and emerald were produced during the Paleoproterozoic orogenic cycle, when the Craton was amalgamated into the Atlantica paleocontinent. An extension event is recorded in the Neoproterozoic, during the breakup of Rodinia, associated with deposits of phosphorite and uranium. Kimberlite diamond and gold mineralization were generated during the Brasiliano orogenic cycle, coeval with the amalgamation of West Gondwana. A long-lasting and rather uniform crustal stress is recorded in the area during the Cambrian period. Resetting of the isotopic and magnetic systems that affected the Neoproterozoic sediments of the Irecê Basin at about 520 Ma was attributed to the regional-scale fluid migration and mineralization in the aftermath of the Brasiliano orogenic cycle.

  13. Factors Associated with Resistance to Schistosoma mansoni Infection in an Endemic Area of Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Ricardo R.; Figueiredo, Joanemile P.; Cardoso, Luciana S.; Jabar, Rafael L.; Souza, Robson P.; Wells, Martin T.; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Fitzgerald, Daniel W.; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Araújo, Maria Ilma; Glesby, Marshall J.

    2012-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of factors associated with resistance to Schistosoma mansoni infection in endemic areas might facilitate more effective schistosomiasis control. We conducted a cross-sectional study of persons resistant to schistosomiasis and found no association between socioeconomic status and resistance to infection. Mononuclear cells of resistant subjects produced higher levels of interleukin-5 (IL-5), IL-13 and interferon-γ upon stimulation with soluble egg antigen (SEA) compared with infected persons. When stimulated with Sm21.6 or Sm22.6, levels of IL-10 were higher in cell culture of resistant persons. Levels of IgE against soluble adult worm antigen (SWAP) and against interleukin-4–inducing principle from S. mansoni eggs (IPSE) and levels of IgG4 against SWAP, SEA, and Sm22.6 were lower in the resistant group compared with the susceptible group. Our data suggest that socioeconomic status could not fully explain resistance to S. mansoni infection observed in the studied area. However, a mixture of Th1 and Th2 immune responses and low levels of specific IgG4 against parasite antigens could be mediating resistance to infection. PMID:22302866

  14. Photometric Observations of 2006 VV2 in the State of Bahia-Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betzler, Alberto Silva; Ferreira, Diogo Henrique; Dos Santos, Tarcio Henrique Ribeiro; Novaes, Alberto Brum

    2008-03-01

    The near-Earth asteroid 2006 VV2 was observed on April 1, 2, and 9, 2007, UT. A synodic period of 2.359 ± 0.002 h and lightcurve amplitude of 0.34 ± 0.02 mag were determined, with a V-R color index 0.64 ± 0.07.

  15. Environmental impact reduction through ecological planning at Bahia Magdalena, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Malagrino, Giovanni; Lagunas, Magdalena; Rubio, Alfredo Ortega

    2008-03-01

    For analyzing basic marine and coastal characteristics we selected the potential sites where shrimp culture could be developed in a large coastal zone, Bahia Magdalena, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Based on our analysis, 6 sites were preselected and field stages of work were then developed to assess the precise suitability of each site in order to develop the proposed aquaculture activities. In ranking the suitability we were able to recommend the most appropriate places to develop shrimp culture in this region. Also, knowing the exact biological, physico-chemical and social environment, we determined the best species to cultivate, the recommended total area and the methodology to be used to lessen the environmental impact and to obtain the maximum profitability Our methodology could be used not only to select appropriate sites for shrimp culture in other coastal lagoons, but it also could be applied to assess the suitability in a quick and accurate way, of any other production activity in coastal zones. PMID:18831370

  16. Taxonomy of recent Adeonidae (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata) from Brazil, with the description of four new species.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Ana C S; Souza, Facelucia B C; Sanner, Joann; Vieira, Leandro M

    2015-09-09

    Here we present the taxonomy of the cheilostome genera Adeonellopsis MacGillivray, 1886 and Reptadeonella Busk, 1884 in Brazil. Of the six species previously reported in Brazilian waters, we include redescriptions of Adeonellopsis subsulcata (Smitt, 1873), Reptadeonella bipartita (Canu & Bassler, 1928) and Reptadeonella costulata (Canu & Bassler, 1928). Four new species of Reptadeonella are described: Reptadeonella aspera n. sp., Reptadeonella brasiliensis n. sp. (previously misidentified as Reptadeonella violacea), Reptadeonella cucullata n. sp. and Reptadeonella leilae n. sp. Reptadeonella aspera n. sp., from Bahia State, is characterized by rugose frontal calcification, a tubular peristome, small suboral avicularium and elliptical spiramen. Reptadeonella brasiliensis n. sp. is the commonest intertidal species in NE Brazil; it is distinguished from other Brazilian Reptadeonella in having a nodular peristome, large subperistomial areolar pore and zooids with one or two frontal pores frequently replaced by a suboral avicularium and crescentic spiramen. Reptadeonella cucullata n. sp., from Espírito Santo and Bahia states, has a hood-like peristome, large subperistomial areolar pore, suboral avicularium with curved mandible and denticulate spiramen. Reptadeonella leilae n. sp., described from Bahia State, has a frontal shield with small granules, tubular peristome, semilunar to semicircular subperistomial areolar pore and circular spiramen. Diagnostic characters of Reptadeonella species are discussed.

  17. Taxonomy of recent Adeonidae (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata) from Brazil, with the description of four new species.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Ana C S; Souza, Facelucia B C; Sanner, Joann; Vieira, Leandro M

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the taxonomy of the cheilostome genera Adeonellopsis MacGillivray, 1886 and Reptadeonella Busk, 1884 in Brazil. Of the six species previously reported in Brazilian waters, we include redescriptions of Adeonellopsis subsulcata (Smitt, 1873), Reptadeonella bipartita (Canu & Bassler, 1928) and Reptadeonella costulata (Canu & Bassler, 1928). Four new species of Reptadeonella are described: Reptadeonella aspera n. sp., Reptadeonella brasiliensis n. sp. (previously misidentified as Reptadeonella violacea), Reptadeonella cucullata n. sp. and Reptadeonella leilae n. sp. Reptadeonella aspera n. sp., from Bahia State, is characterized by rugose frontal calcification, a tubular peristome, small suboral avicularium and elliptical spiramen. Reptadeonella brasiliensis n. sp. is the commonest intertidal species in NE Brazil; it is distinguished from other Brazilian Reptadeonella in having a nodular peristome, large subperistomial areolar pore and zooids with one or two frontal pores frequently replaced by a suboral avicularium and crescentic spiramen. Reptadeonella cucullata n. sp., from Espírito Santo and Bahia states, has a hood-like peristome, large subperistomial areolar pore, suboral avicularium with curved mandible and denticulate spiramen. Reptadeonella leilae n. sp., described from Bahia State, has a frontal shield with small granules, tubular peristome, semilunar to semicircular subperistomial areolar pore and circular spiramen. Diagnostic characters of Reptadeonella species are discussed. PMID:26623902

  18. The complete nucleotide sequence of a new bipartite begomovirus from Brazil infecting Abutilon.

    PubMed

    Paprotka, T; Metzler, V; Jeske, H

    2010-05-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of Abutilon mosaic Brazil virus (AbMBV), a new bipartite begomovirus from Bahia, Brazil, is described and analyzed phylogenetically. Its DNA A is most closely related to those of Sida-infecting begomoviruses from Brazil and forms a phylogenetic cluster with pepper- and Euphorbia-infecting begomoviruses from Central America. The DNA B component forms a cluster with different Sida- and okra-infecting begomoviruses from Brazil. Both components are distinct from those of the classical Abutilon mosaic virus originating from the West Indies. AbMBV is transmissible to Nicotiana benthamiana and Malva parviflora by biolistics of rolling-circle amplification products and induces characteristic mosaic and vein-clearing symptoms in M. parviflora.

  19. Marine debris contamination along undeveloped tropical beaches from northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Isaac R; Friedrich, Ana Cláudia; Ivar do Sul, Juliana Assunção

    2009-01-01

    We hypothesize that floating debris leaving polluted coastal bays accumulate on nearby pristine beaches. We examined composition, quantities and distribution of marine debris along approximately 150 km of relatively undeveloped, tropical beaches in Costa do Dendê (Bahia, Brazil). The study site is located south of Salvador City, the largest urban settlement from NE Brazil. Strong spatial variations were observed. Plastics accounted for 76% of the sampled items, followed by styrofoam (14%). Small plastic fragments resultant from the breakdown of larger items are ubiquitous all over the area. Because the dominant littoral drift in Bahia is southward, average beach debris densities (9.1 items/m) along Costa do Dendê were threefold higher than densities previously observed north of Salvador City. River-dominated and stable beaches had higher debris quantities than unstable, erosional beaches. Areas immediately south of the major regional embayments (Camamu and Todos os Santos) were the preferential accumulation sites, indicating that rivers draining populous areas are the major source of debris to the study site. Our results provide baseline information for future assessments. Management actions should focus on input prevention at the hydrographic basin level rather than on cleaning services on beaches.

  20. Photoenhanced toxicity of weathered oil to Mysidopsis bahia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cleveland, L.; Little, E.E.; Calfee, R.D.; Barron, M.G.

    2000-01-01

    The toxicity of a water-accommodated fraction (WAF) prepared from weathered oil was assessed in a 7-day static renewal test with Mysidopsis bahia. Weathered oil was collected from the 5 x monitoring well at the Guadalupe oil field. Solar ultraviolet and visible light intensities were measured in various habitats in the vicinity of the weathered oil sample collection site, and the resultant measurements were used to produce laboratory light treatments that were representative of the on-site quality and intensity of natural solar radiation. Each of five WAF dilutions and a control without WAF was tested under three different simulated solar radiation intensities. During the test, survival and growth of the mysids, irradiance, and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations in the test treatments were measured. Significant increases (P ??? 0.05) in mortality occurred among mysids exposed to 0.57 and 1.30 mg TPH/l and the effects were potentiated as irradiance increased. Seven-day LC50 (0.92-0.42 mg TPH/l) and LC20 (0.58-0.15 mg TPH/l) values decreased as the simulated solar irradiance increased. Calculated EC20 and EC50 values for mysid growth indicate that surviving mysids exposed to 0.1-1.0 mg TPH/l would incur significant reductions (P ??? 0.05) in productivity (biomass). Results of the present study indicate that effects elicited through the interaction of WAF of weathered oil and solar radiation will substantially increase the toxicity of weathered oil. Further, the photomediated effects of petroleum compounds measured as TPH on mysid survival and growth demonstrate a need to consider the interactions of ultraviolet light and contaminant to avoid under estimating toxicity that might occur in the environment. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  1. Cost-effective control of plant disease when epidemiological knowledge is incomplete: modelling Bahia bark scaling of citrus.

    PubMed

    Cunniffe, Nik J; Laranjeira, Francisco F; Neri, Franco M; DeSimone, R Erik; Gilligan, Christopher A

    2014-08-01

    A spatially-explicit, stochastic model is developed for Bahia bark scaling, a threat to citrus production in north-eastern Brazil, and is used to assess epidemiological principles underlying the cost-effectiveness of disease control strategies. The model is fitted via Markov chain Monte Carlo with data augmentation to snapshots of disease spread derived from a previously-reported multi-year experiment. Goodness-of-fit tests strongly supported the fit of the model, even though the detailed etiology of the disease is unknown and was not explicitly included in the model. Key epidemiological parameters including the infection rate, incubation period and scale of dispersal are estimated from the spread data. This allows us to scale-up the experimental results to predict the effect of the level of initial inoculum on disease progression in a typically-sized citrus grove. The efficacies of two cultural control measures are assessed: altering the spacing of host plants, and roguing symptomatic trees. Reducing planting density can slow disease spread significantly if the distance between hosts is sufficiently large. However, low density groves have fewer plants per hectare. The optimum density of productive plants is therefore recovered at an intermediate host spacing. Roguing, even when detection of symptomatic plants is imperfect, can lead to very effective control. However, scouting for disease symptoms incurs a cost. We use the model to balance the cost of scouting against the number of plants lost to disease, and show how to determine a roguing schedule that optimises profit. The trade-offs underlying the two optima we identify-the optimal host spacing and the optimal roguing schedule-are applicable to many pathosystems. Our work demonstrates how a carefully parameterised mathematical model can be used to find these optima. It also illustrates how mathematical models can be used in even this most challenging of situations in which the underlying epidemiology is ill

  2. Cost-Effective Control of Plant Disease When Epidemiological Knowledge Is Incomplete: Modelling Bahia Bark Scaling of Citrus

    PubMed Central

    Neri, Franco M.; DeSimone, R. Erik; Gilligan, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    A spatially-explicit, stochastic model is developed for Bahia bark scaling, a threat to citrus production in north-eastern Brazil, and is used to assess epidemiological principles underlying the cost-effectiveness of disease control strategies. The model is fitted via Markov chain Monte Carlo with data augmentation to snapshots of disease spread derived from a previously-reported multi-year experiment. Goodness-of-fit tests strongly supported the fit of the model, even though the detailed etiology of the disease is unknown and was not explicitly included in the model. Key epidemiological parameters including the infection rate, incubation period and scale of dispersal are estimated from the spread data. This allows us to scale-up the experimental results to predict the effect of the level of initial inoculum on disease progression in a typically-sized citrus grove. The efficacies of two cultural control measures are assessed: altering the spacing of host plants, and roguing symptomatic trees. Reducing planting density can slow disease spread significantly if the distance between hosts is sufficiently large. However, low density groves have fewer plants per hectare. The optimum density of productive plants is therefore recovered at an intermediate host spacing. Roguing, even when detection of symptomatic plants is imperfect, can lead to very effective control. However, scouting for disease symptoms incurs a cost. We use the model to balance the cost of scouting against the number of plants lost to disease, and show how to determine a roguing schedule that optimises profit. The trade-offs underlying the two optima we identify—the optimal host spacing and the optimal roguing schedule—are applicable to many pathosystems. Our work demonstrates how a carefully parameterised mathematical model can be used to find these optima. It also illustrates how mathematical models can be used in even this most challenging of situations in which the underlying epidemiology is ill

  3. Cost-effective control of plant disease when epidemiological knowledge is incomplete: modelling Bahia bark scaling of citrus.

    PubMed

    Cunniffe, Nik J; Laranjeira, Francisco F; Neri, Franco M; DeSimone, R Erik; Gilligan, Christopher A

    2014-08-01

    A spatially-explicit, stochastic model is developed for Bahia bark scaling, a threat to citrus production in north-eastern Brazil, and is used to assess epidemiological principles underlying the cost-effectiveness of disease control strategies. The model is fitted via Markov chain Monte Carlo with data augmentation to snapshots of disease spread derived from a previously-reported multi-year experiment. Goodness-of-fit tests strongly supported the fit of the model, even though the detailed etiology of the disease is unknown and was not explicitly included in the model. Key epidemiological parameters including the infection rate, incubation period and scale of dispersal are estimated from the spread data. This allows us to scale-up the experimental results to predict the effect of the level of initial inoculum on disease progression in a typically-sized citrus grove. The efficacies of two cultural control measures are assessed: altering the spacing of host plants, and roguing symptomatic trees. Reducing planting density can slow disease spread significantly if the distance between hosts is sufficiently large. However, low density groves have fewer plants per hectare. The optimum density of productive plants is therefore recovered at an intermediate host spacing. Roguing, even when detection of symptomatic plants is imperfect, can lead to very effective control. However, scouting for disease symptoms incurs a cost. We use the model to balance the cost of scouting against the number of plants lost to disease, and show how to determine a roguing schedule that optimises profit. The trade-offs underlying the two optima we identify-the optimal host spacing and the optimal roguing schedule-are applicable to many pathosystems. Our work demonstrates how a carefully parameterised mathematical model can be used to find these optima. It also illustrates how mathematical models can be used in even this most challenging of situations in which the underlying epidemiology is ill-understood.

  4. New species, additions and a key to the Brazilian species of the Geminata clade of Solanum L. (Solanaceae) in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Sandra; Stehmann, João Renato; Giacomin, Leandro L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two additions and four new species are described from Brazil for the large Geminata clade (Solanum: Solanaceae) bringing the total diversity in the group to 149 species, with 44 of these occurring in Brazil. New species are described from Brazil: Solanum amorimii S.Knapp & Giacomin, sp. nov. from Bahia and adjacent Minas Gerais states, Solanum filirhachis Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov. from Espirito Santo, Solanum psilophyllum Stehmann & Giacomin, sp. nov. from Minas Gerais and Solanum verticillatum S.Knapp & Stehmann, sp. nov. from São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais. Modern character-rich descriptions and lectotypifications are provided for Solanum apiahyense Witasek and Solanum lacteum Vell. All are illustrated, mapped and assessed for conservation status. We also provide a brief analysis of the diversity and endemism of the Geminata clade in Brazil and a key to all 44 Brazilian species. PMID:25878553

  5. New species, additions and a key to the Brazilian species of the Geminata clade of Solanum L. (Solanaceae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Sandra; Stehmann, João Renato; Giacomin, Leandro L

    2015-01-01

    Two additions and four new species are described from Brazil for the large Geminata clade (Solanum: Solanaceae) bringing the total diversity in the group to 149 species, with 44 of these occurring in Brazil. New species are described from Brazil: Solanumamorimii S.Knapp & Giacomin, sp. nov. from Bahia and adjacent Minas Gerais states, Solanumfilirhachis Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov. from Espirito Santo, Solanumpsilophyllum Stehmann & Giacomin, sp. nov. from Minas Gerais and Solanumverticillatum S.Knapp & Stehmann, sp. nov. from São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais. Modern character-rich descriptions and lectotypifications are provided for Solanumapiahyense Witasek and Solanumlacteum Vell. All are illustrated, mapped and assessed for conservation status. We also provide a brief analysis of the diversity and endemism of the Geminata clade in Brazil and a key to all 44 Brazilian species.

  6. Habitat structural effect on squamata fauna of the restinga ecosystem in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias, Eduardo J R; Rocha, Carlos F D

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we surveyed data on richness and composition of squamatan reptiles and habitat structural effect in nine areas of restinga ecosystem in the State of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. The "restinga" ecosystems are coastal sand dune habitats on the coast of Brazil. Our main hypothesis is that the Squamata fauna composition along these restinga areas would be modulated by habitat structural. After 90 days of field sampling we recorded approximately 5% of reptile species known in Brazil. The composition of Squamata assemblages varied mainly based on the presence or absence of lizards of the genera Ameivula and Tropidurus. Our data showed that habitat structure consistently affected the composition of local Squamata fauna, especially lizards.

  7. Zika virus in Brazil and the danger of infestation by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Marcondes, Carlos Brisola; Ximenes, Maria de Fátima Freire de Melo

    2016-02-01

    Zika virus, already widely distributed in Africa and Asia, was recently reported in two Northeastern Brazilian: State of Bahia and State of Rio Grande do Norte, and one Southeastern: State of São Paulo. This finding adds a potentially noxious virus to a list of several other viruses that are widely transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus in Brazil. The pathology and epidemiology, including the distribution and vectors associated with Zika virus, are reviewed. This review is focused on viruses transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes, including dengue, Chikungunya, Zika, Mayaro, and yellow fever virus, to emphasize the risks of occurrence for these arboviruses in Brazil and neighboring countries. Other species of Aedes (Stegomyia) are discussed, emphasizing their involvement in arbovirus transmission and the possibility of adaptation to environments modified by human activities and introduction in Brazil.

  8. Spotlight: Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carter, M

    1996-08-01

    Brazil is South America's largest country and home to nearly half of the continent's people. Despite solid economic growth, Brazil has one of the world's widest income disparities. In the early 1990s, nearly 40% of urban and 66% of rural Brazilians lived in poverty. The streets of Brazil's cities are home to a large population of street children. Although it is difficult to estimate, 10 million children and youths may be either homeless or making a meager living off of the streets. Street children may be linked to prostitution and drugs and be the targets or perpetrators of violence. Child labor is an issue in Brazil. Today an estimated 30% of rural children and 9% of urban children ages 10-13 work in the formal economy. In some rural areas, 60% of workers are ages 5-17. Child labor also contributes to Brazil's relatively low educational attainment levels. UNICEF estimates that around 1990 only 1/3 of all Brazilian children continued on to secondary school, compared to 74% and 47%, respectively, for the Latin America and Caribbean regions. Immunization rates among Brazil's children are rising but still lag slightly behind regional averages. The mortality rate for children under age 5 decreased dramatically from 181 deaths for every 1000 live births in 1960 to 61/1000 in 1994. During the same time period, the average number of children born to a woman during her lifetime dropped from 6.2 to 2.8. This fertility decline is related in part to increased access to and acceptance of family planning. Contraceptive prevalence, including traditional and modern methods, is around 66%, with female sterilization and the pill being the most popular methods. Brazil's abortion rates are high, despite laws limiting access to abortion services. One estimate suggests that about 30% of all pregnancies are terminated through abortion each year.

  9. “Shark is the man!”: ethnoknowledge of Brazil’s South Bahia fishermen regarding shark behaviors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fishermen’s knowledge is a source of indispensable information in decision-making processes related to efforts to stimulate the management and conservation of fishing resources, especially in developing countries. This study analyzed the knowledge of fishermen from three municipal areas of Bahia in northeast Brazil regarding the behavior repertoire of sharks and the possible influence that these perceptions may have on the inclination to preserve these animals. This is a pioneering study on the ethnobiological aspects of elasmobranchs in Brazil. Methods Open, semi-structured interviews with shark fishing specialists were conducted between September 2011 and October 2012. The interviews addressed the fishermen’s profile, fishing techniques and knowledge about sharks, focusing on the behaviours exhibited by sharks. The data were analysed with quantitative approach and conducted with the use of descriptive statistical techniques. Results Sixty-five fishermen were interviewed. They descend from the rafting subculture of Brazil’s northeast, which has historically been disregarded by public policies addressing the management and conservation of fishing resources. The fishing fleet involved in shark fishing includes rafts, fishing boats and lobster boats equipped with fishing lines, gillnets, longlines and “esperas”. The informers classified sharks’ behaviour repertoire into 19 ethological categories, related especially to feeding, reproduction, and social and migratory behaviours. Because they identify sharks as predators, the detailed recognition of the behaviours exhibited is crucial both for an efficient catch and to avoid accidents. Therefore, this knowledge is doubly adaptive as it contributes to safer, more lucrative fishing. A feeling of respect for sharks predominates, since informers recognize the ecological role of these animals in marine ecosystems, attributing them the status of leader (or “the man”) in the sea. Conclusions This

  10. The Half-Graben Structure of Bahia de Banderas, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, R.

    2007-05-01

    Bahia de Banderas contains important records of the detachment and initial separation of Baja California from mainland Mexico; however, its relief and structure are poorly known. The structure has been identified with a canyon associated with a fault striking E-W, named Banderas fault; it has also been proposed that the canyon may be a graben but no structural model was presented. To help in the description of its relief, a digital elevation model of the bay is constructed with individual soundings, ships soundings from 1970 to date, and satellite- derived depths, which shows an irregular topography of the canyon along the fault. The deepest portion of the bay reaches 1600 m; the south flank of the canyon dips at angles ranging from 15° to 22°, while the north flank ranges from 5° to 9°. This asymmetry between the flanks first suggested that the structure of the canyon might be that of a half-graben. A model is presented based on previous developments for half-graben structures of the fault growth type with reverse drag geometry; the model is based on the lengthening of the fault through seismically induced slip events; a seismic study of the area reported elsewhere complements the model and shows that the region is active. For Banderas canyon the footwall corresponds to the south flank, and the hanging wall corresponds to the north flank, including the shallow platform to the north of the bay. A fault length of 63 km is inferred and pertinent parameters are derived for the model calculations. Theoretical profiles are superposed and compared to actual topographic profiles of the canyon, concluding that the model describes well the central part of the structure, within 14 km of its mid-point in either direction, reproducing with less accuracy the geometries at the ends of the active portion of the fault, which is attributed to the perturbing effects of additional faults acting on those regions. The model allows for calculations of the age of the half

  11. Dentistry in Brazil: its history and current trends.

    PubMed

    Saliba, Nemre Adas; Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba; Garbin, Cléa Adas Saliba; Diniz, Diego Garcia

    2009-02-01

    The objectives of this article are to provide a short history of dentistry and dental education in Brazil and to analyze the nature of its development to date. The databases consulted are those provided by the Brazilian Federal Council of Dentistry, Brazilian Ministry of Health, Brazilian Ministry of Education, National Institute of Studies and Educational Research Anísio Teixeira, and Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Formal dental education in Brazil started in the late nineteenth century with the creation of courses annexed to existing schools of medicine in Rio de Janeiro and Bahia. Today, there are 191 institutions of higher education nationwide granting degrees in dentistry (137 private [71.7 percent] and fifty-four public [28.3 percent]), with a total of 17,157 student positions offered annually. These schools graduate around 10,000 professionals per year-one of the highest rates in the world. Both the distribution of schools of dentistry and of dentists varies among the regions of the country, with the greatest concentrations in major metropolitan centers with high population density, resulting in limited coverage in the more deprived regions. A review of epidemiological data for oral health and distribution of dentists in Brazil indicates that there is a lack of systematic planning for the allocation of the dental workforce and a lack of consideration of regional needs in the development of dental training programs in Brazil today. PMID:19234079

  12. A new species of Scolopocryptops Newport: a troglobitic scolopocryptopine centipede from a remarkable siliciclastic area of eastern Brazil (Scolopendromorpha, Scolopocryptopidae, Scolopocryptopinae)

    PubMed Central

    Chagas-Jr, Amazonas; Bichuette, Maria Elina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We describe Scolopocryptops troglocaudatus sp. n., a new troglobitic scolopocryptopine centipede species. The species was found in a remarkable siliciclastic karst area of Eastern Brazil, in three caves of the Chapada da Diamantina, in the state of Bahia. Scolopocryptops troglocaudatus sp. n. is close to Scolopocryptops miersii Newport, 1845 and Scolopocryptops ferrugineus macrodon (Kraepelin, 1903) but differs from them by troglomorphic features, such as depigmentation, long appendages and a thin cuticle. This new species is the second troglobitic scolopocryptopine described and is the first discovered in Brazil. PMID:25829851

  13. A new species of Scolopocryptops Newport: a troglobitic scolopocryptopine centipede from a remarkable siliciclastic area of eastern Brazil (Scolopendromorpha, Scolopocryptopidae, Scolopocryptopinae).

    PubMed

    Chagas-Jr, Amazonas; Bichuette, Maria Elina

    2015-01-01

    We describe Scolopocryptopstroglocaudatus sp. n., a new troglobitic scolopocryptopine centipede species. The species was found in a remarkable siliciclastic karst area of Eastern Brazil, in three caves of the Chapada da Diamantina, in the state of Bahia. Scolopocryptopstroglocaudatus sp. n. is close to Scolopocryptopsmiersii Newport, 1845 and Scolopocryptopsferrugineusmacrodon (Kraepelin, 1903) but differs from them by troglomorphic features, such as depigmentation, long appendages and a thin cuticle. This new species is the second troglobitic scolopocryptopine described and is the first discovered in Brazil. PMID:25829851

  14. [Polyplacophoran communities (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) at Bahia de La Paz, Baja California Sur, México].

    PubMed

    García Ríos, Cedar I; Alvarez Ruiz, Migdalia

    2007-03-01

    Eight species of polyplacophorans have been reported from La Bahia de la Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico. We add Lepidochitona beanii, Chaetopleura lurida, Stenoplax limaciformis, S. mariposa, Lepidozona clathrata, L. serrata and Acanthochitona arragonites, increasing the known number of species to 15. Ordination analysis of five chiton communities at the site suggests a correlation of wave exposure to species composition and diversity: communities with intermediate wave exposure have more species (richness) and higher diversity (Shannon's index).

  15. [Polyplacophoran communities (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) at Bahia de La Paz, Baja California Sur, México].

    PubMed

    García Ríos, Cedar I; Alvarez Ruiz, Migdalia

    2007-03-01

    Eight species of polyplacophorans have been reported from La Bahia de la Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico. We add Lepidochitona beanii, Chaetopleura lurida, Stenoplax limaciformis, S. mariposa, Lepidozona clathrata, L. serrata and Acanthochitona arragonites, increasing the known number of species to 15. Ordination analysis of five chiton communities at the site suggests a correlation of wave exposure to species composition and diversity: communities with intermediate wave exposure have more species (richness) and higher diversity (Shannon's index). PMID:18457125

  16. The role of calcium and sodium in toxicity of an effluent to mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia)

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, E.R.; Stekoll, M.S.

    2000-01-01

    The source of acute toxicity of an aged gold mill effluent to juvenile mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia [Americamysis bahia]) was identified. Effluent osmolality was equivalent to that of 12 ppt seawater. At five effluent concentrations ranging from 4 to 100% (v/v), using 12 ppt seawater for dilution, the onset of responses was most rapid at 37% effluent. Simulated effluent was created by adding Na{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, K{sup +}, Cl{sup {minus}}, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} to distilled water at concentrations equal to those measured in the effluent. The unusual finding of a more rapid onset of responses at 37% than at 100% effluent was duplicated with simulated effluent, demonstrating that responses of M. bahia to effluent were attributable to one or more of the six ions that were included in simulated effluent. Proportionally, excess Ca{sup 2+} and Na{sup +} concentrations in effluent and in simulated effluent, along with the results of the previous experiments, demonstrated that excess Ca{sup 2+} was the sole source of effluent toxicity and that Na{sup +} deficiency, relative to the proportion in seawater, reduced Ca{sup 2+} toxicity.

  17. [On the founders of the Institute of Mathematics and Physics, University of Bahia].

    PubMed

    Dias, A L

    The reduced number of female students of mathematics at the University of Bahia School of Philosophy (Faculdade de Filosofia, Universidade da Bahia - FF/UBa) is quite surprising. To date, they are concentrated in areas traditionally viewed as feminine whereas men predominate in the mathematical fields. I have examined interview data from a few women who graduated in mathematics and went on to teach at the University of Bahia School of Mathematics (Faculdade de Filosofia - FF) and at the Institute of Mathematics and Physics (Instituto de Matemática e Física - IMF), where they were soon to outnumber men and constitute the majority of the mathematics teaching staff. In this study, I have investigated the course of their careers over time: from their early student days, through their time as teaching assistants and professors, and finally as founders of the Institute of Mathematics and Physics, in 1960. Special reference is made to Martha Maria de Souza Dantas, organizer of the I Brazilian Conference on Mathematics Teaching, an event which has provided the groundwork for what was to become the Institute (IMF); and to Arlete Cerqueira Lima, the mastermind behind its creation.

  18. [Health services accessibility in a city of Northeast Brazil].

    PubMed

    Cunha, Alcione Brasileiro Oliveira; Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria

    2010-04-01

    In order to analyze the implementation of measures targeting accessibility to primary health care in a municipality (county) in the State of Bahia, Brazil, a single case study was performed with two levels of analysis: system and services organization. The data were obtained from semi-structured interviews, observation of routine care, and document analysis. Of the four health units analyzed, three showed intermediate-level implementation of measures targeting accessibility. The Family Health Units showed better performance, due to measures for patient reception and referral to specialized services, but they revealed problems with scheduling of appointments. Despite having defined primary care as the portal of entry into the system and the implementation of a help desk for setting appointments with specialists, there are persistent organizational barriers in the municipality. A specific policy is recommended to improve accessibility, aimed at organization of the services supply in order to change the health care model. PMID:20512213

  19. Central Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) true-color image was acquired on October 19, 2000, over a region in Brazil large enough to show much of the country's diverse landscape. Spanning some 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles), Brazil is by far the largest South American nation--both in terms of land and population. The region known as the Amazon Basin lies to the northwest (upper left) and extends well beyond the northern and western edges of this scene. Typically, from this perspective Amazonia appears as a lush, dark green carpet due to the thick canopy of vegetation growing there. Some of the Amazon Basin is visible in this image, but much is obscured by clouds (bright white pixels), as is the Amazon River. This region is home to countless plant and animal species and some 150,000 native South Americans. The clusters of square and rectangular patterns toward the center of the image (light green or reddish-brown pixels) are where people have cleared away trees and vegetation to make room for development and agriculture. Toward the western side of the scene there is considerable haze and smoke from widespread biomass burning in parts of Brazil and Bolivia, which shares its eastern border with Brazil. Toward the east in this image is the highland, or 'cerrado,' region, which is more sparsely vegetated and has a somewhat drier climate than the Amazon Basin. The capital city, Brasilia, lies within this region just southwest of the Geral de Goias Mountains (orangish pixels running north-south). There are two large water reservoirs visible in this scene--the Sobradinho Reservoir about 800 km (500 miles) northeast of Brasilia, and the Paranaiba about 500 km (300 miles) southwest of Brasilia. MODIS flies aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. Image courtesy Brian Montgomery, Reto Stockli, and Robert Simmon, based on data from the MODIS Science Team.

  20. A new species of Leptodactylus Fitzinger (Anura, Leptodactylidae, Leptodactylinae) from montane rock fields of the Chapada Diamantina, northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    De Carvalho, Thiago Ribeiro; Leite Felife Sa Fortes; Pezzuti, Tiago Leite

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a new species of the Leptodactylusfuscus group on the basis of adult morphology and advertisement call, occurring restricted to montane rock fields of the Chapada Diamantina, northern portion of the Espinhaço Range, central State of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. In addition, we re-describe the advertisement call ofL. camaquara from its type locality. Leptodactylus oreomantis sp. nov. represents the first species of the genus occurring restricted to montane rock fields of the Chapada Diamantina, northeastern Brazil, whereas the other three species of the L. fuscus group assumed to be restricted to montane field environments (L. camaquara, L. cunicularius, and L. tapiti) occur in association with mountain ranges of southeastern or central Brazil.

  1. Real Earthquakes, Real Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schomburg, Aaron

    2003-01-01

    One teacher took her class on a year long earthquake expedition. The goal was to monitor the occurrences of real earthquakes during the year and mark their locations with push pins on a wall-sized world map in the hallway outside the science room. The purpose of the project was to create a detailed picture of the earthquakes that occurred…

  2. Genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from chickens from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Velmurugan, G V; Chockalingam, A; Pena, H F J; de Oliveira, L Nunes; Leifer, C A; Gennari, S M; Bahia Oliveira, L M G; Su, C

    2008-11-01

    Until recently, Toxoplasma gondii was considered clonal with very little genetic variability. Recent studies indicate that T. gondii isolates from Brazil are genetically and biologically different from T. gondii isolates from USA and Europe. In the present study, we retyped 151 free range chicken isolates from Brazil including 117 newly isolated samples from 11 geographically areas (Alagoas, Bahia, Ceará, Maranhão, Paraná, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, São Paulo, Sergipe, and Rondonia) and 34 previously reported isolates from the very north (Pará) and the very south (Rio Grande do Sul). Ten PCR-RFLP markers including SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico were used to genotype all isolates. Overall analysis of 151 T. gondii isolates revealed 58 genotypes. Half (29/58) of these genotypes had single isolate and the other half of the genotypes were characterized with two or more isolates. Only 1 of 151 isolates was clonal Type I strain and 5 were clonal Type III strains. Two isolates had mixed infections. Clonal Type II strain was absent. One strain was Type II at all loci, except BTUB. The results confirm high genetic diversity of T. gondii isolates from Brazil.

  3. Delivering genetic education and genetic counseling for rare diseases in rural Brazil.

    PubMed

    Acosta, A X; Abé-Sandes, K; Giugliani, R; Bittles, A H

    2013-12-01

    Brazil is the largest country in Latin America, with an ethnically diverse, Portuguese-speaking and predominantly Roman Catholic population of some 194 million. Universal health care is provided under the Federal Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde) but, as in many other middle and low income countries, access to medical genetics services is limited in rural and remote regions of the country. Since there is no formally recognized Genetic Counseling profession, genetic counseling is provided by physicians, trained either in medical genetics or a related clinical discipline. A comprehensive medical genetics program has been established in Monte Santo, an inland rural community located in the state of Bahia in Northeast Brazil, with high prevalences of a number of autosomal recessive genetic disorders, including non-syndromic deafness, phenyketonuria, congenital hypothyroidism and mucopolysaccharidosis VI (Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome). Genetic education, counseling and treatment are locally provided, with a neonatal screening program for MPSVI currently under trial. PMID:23338802

  4. Taxonomic distinctness and conservation of a new high biodiversity subterranean area in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gallão, Jonas E; Bichuette, Maria Elina

    2015-03-01

    Subterranean environments, even though they do not possess a primary production (photosynthesis), may present high biodiversity, faunistic originality, endemism, phylogenetic isolations and unique ecological and/or evolution events, in addition to rare taxa. Studies investigating the biological diversity in Neotropical caves are relatively rare and recent, and most of them have been conducted in Brazil. We sampled caves from the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil, and through sampling sufficiency tests and richness estimators, we demonstrate that the normatization for the Brazilian cave laws is not adequate for its conservation and that only α diversity index is not enough to verify faunistic patterns. We suggest that a phylogenetic diversity index be more robust and accurate for conservation purposes, particularly the Taxonomic Distinctness index. Moreover, we propose that the sandstone complex caves from Chapada Diamantina National Park need to be classified as being of high subterranean biodiversity in a global scope. PMID:25673471

  5. First record of Parakosa flexipes (Acari: Chirodiscidae) parasitizing a free-tailed bat (Chiroptera: Molossidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Luiz Antonio Costa; Silva, Roberta Mariano; Melo, Vanessa Lazaro

    2012-01-01

    The present study reports the occurrence of Parakosa flexipes (Pinichpongse) (Chirodiscidae) for the first time in Brazil, along with its infection sites on Molossus rufus E. Geoffroy. Thirty-eight bats were caught using mist nets that were placed near a house at the Mars Center for Cocoa Science in the state of Bahia, of which 14 (37%) were parasitized by P. flexipes. Parakosa flexipes was observed parasitizing M. rufus on hairs that were evidently longer than others distributed over the bat's body, where up to three parasites could be spotted on a single hair.

  6. [Adoption of information and communication technologies in the dialysis clinics of Bahia State].

    PubMed

    Mota, Fábio Batista; Ferreira Júnior, Hamilton de Moura

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the adoption and use of information and communication technologies within private dialysis clinics in Bahia State. A case study was developed with companies by applying, to clinics' managerial teams, a research questionnaire adapted from RedeSist and from PINTEC. The sample included 20 companies, listed by CNES of the Ministry of Health, and obtained a positive usage rate data of 60%. The collected quantitative information was analyzed by interviewees' answer frequency distribution. Conclusion indicates that the adoption of information and communication technologies by the clinics is not directly related to their access to these technologies but to the under usage of their economical potential.

  7. Detection and genetic diversity of a heliothine invader (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from north and northeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mastrangelo, T; Paulo, D F; Bergamo, L W; Morais, E G F; Silva, M; Bezerra-Silva, G; Azeredo-Espin, A M L

    2014-06-01

    The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), was recently introduced in Brazil. During the 2012-2013 harvest, producers reported reduced yields up to 35% on major crops. The economic losses reached US$ 1 billion only in western Bahia, triggering a phytosanitary crisis. The deficiencies in existing taxonomic keys to deal with the morphologically indistinct larvae of H. armigera and the native Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) constrained the detection of new incursions of this heliothine invader. This study explored the identity of heliothine larvae that were found infesting soybean- and corn-growing areas from Roraima state, northern Brazil, through sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. The inter- and intraspecies sequence variations of DNA barcodes in H. armigera and H. zea were analyzed. The genetic diversity and population structure of the specimens from Roraima and two populations from Piauí and Bahia states, northeastern Brazil, were assessed by adding the cytochrome c oxidase subunit II gene to the analysis. Owing to the lack of studies on genetic introgression for the two species, the suitability of using three different nuclear genes to distinguish the two species was also investigated. The results showed strong evidence that the heliothine larvae from north and northeast of Brazil are conspecific with H. armigera, suggesting that this invasive moth has already crossed the Amazon basin. Surveys in the north of South America should start as soon as possible to monitor the entry or spread of this moth in the Caribbean, Central America, and the United States. PMID:25026655

  8. Measurement of acute toxicity to Mysidopsis bahia using DaphniaQuant{reg_sign} instrument and protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Blankemeyer, J.T.; Nguyen, T.; Burks, S.L.

    1994-12-31

    DaphniaQuant{reg_sign} uses a fluorescent dye to permeate the cells of aquatic organisms. The technique has been used on frog embryos, fish embryos, and bovine erythrocytes. Two wavelengths of light are used to excite the fluorescent dye, Di-4-ANEPPS. The blue excitation wavelength measures the cell membrane potential while the yellow excitation wavelength measures the amount of dye loaded into the organisms. The authors applied the technique to the shrimp, Mysidopsis bahia, used in marine toxicity testing. The authors used from 1 to 10 shrimp, loaded into a 3 ml spectrofluorometry plastic cuvette. The fluorescent dye, Di-4-ANEPPS, was mixed with the 3 ml of ASW in the cuvette at a final Di-4ANEPPS concentration of 10{sub {minus}6} M. After a thirty minute incubation, the fluorescence of Di-4-ANEPPS was measured in the DaphniaQuant{reg_sign} instrument. A similar protocol was used to test various concentrations of standard assay chemicals and effluents. The test chemical was mixed with ASW and Di-4-ANEPPS and incubated with the shrimp for thirty minutes. After thirty minutes, the fluorescence was measured and compared to the fluorescence of the control shrimp. The authors found that the fluorescence from a single shrimp was detectable and gave similar toxicity data as did the replicates using 10 shrimp. They conclude that the DaphniaQuant{reg_sign} assay can be successfully adapted to marine organisms, particularly Mysidopsis bahia.

  9. Bioavailability and Natural Pollution of Heavy Metals in Bahia de Magdalena, Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, W.; O'Shea, B.

    2012-12-01

    In the pristine environment of Bahia de Magdalena, Baja California, elevated concentrations of heavy metals have been reported in the biota within the bay, such as sea grasses, blue crabs, and marine turtles. While the hypothesized source of these metals has emphasized anthropogenic inputs from a local fish cannery, geologic enrichment of metals from natural ophiolite formations in the Puerto Magdalena region may be an increasingly feasible source. Total (XRF) chromium and nickel concentrations (max 4,450 ppm and 2,396 ppm, respectively) in rock and soil are orders of magnitude higher than average concentrations in the crust and the beach sands directly impacted by waste discharge from the cannery (mean Cr, 55ppm and mean Ni 17ppm at cannery). Bioavailable (HNO3 acid extracted) metals differ between rock and soil versus cannery-impacted sites. Most notably, Ni is very bioavailable (mean 70% total Ni extracted) in pristine ophiolite areas, but almost completely unavailable at cannery-impacted sites. In contrast, Zn is slightly more bioavailable at the impacted cannery site (mean 55% Zn extracted) than the ophiolite rocks (mean 45% Zn extracted). In addition, these results suggest that while metals, such as Cu, Fe, and Mn, have been previously studied in the biota of the bay, other heavy metals such as Ni and Cr should be included in future biological studies within Bahia de Magdalena.

  10. Agrarian Social Movements and the Making of Agrodiesel Moral Territories in Northeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzi, Maya

    In response to widespread concerns about the socio-ecological impacts of agrofuel production and development, particularly for food security, efforts have been made internationally to implement more sustainable forms of producing agrofuels. Brazil's National Program for the Production and Use of Agrodiesel (PNPB), launched in 2004, is one such attempt. Promoted as a socially and environmentally responsible program, the PNPB was made possible through unprecedented alliances between the 'postneoliberal' Brazilian state, the agribusiness sector, and social movements such as the Rural Trade Union's Movement (MSTTR) and the Landless Rural Workers' Movement (MST). In this research, I critically analyze the unexpected engagement of social movements in the making of agrodiesel territories in semi-arid Bahia, Northeastern Brazil by examining the territorial and moral processes and practices that underlie the production of castor bean (mamona) for agrodiesel. The methodology adopted comprised participant observation, informal and semi-structured interviews (n=74) with leaders and members of the MST and the MSTTR in the territories of the Chapada Diamantina and Irece, in central Bahia. Interviews were also conducted with representatives of family farming cooperatives, government institutions, and agrodiesel companies (Petrobras) in the two study areas and in Salvador, capital of Bahia. Research methods also included the collection and critical discourse analysis of archival and other secondary data sources from public and private institutions. Drawing mainly from cultural geography and political ecology literatures, I argue that social movement leaders enable the making of agrodiesel territories mainly through their role as 'agrodiesel gatekeepers'---as legal interveners, managers, and caregivers. Family farmers tend to enable agrodiesel territorial expansion and to disrupt agrodiesel territorial management by not complying with moral prescriptions of loyalty. I see farmers

  11. Natural Breeding Places for Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a Semiarid Region of Bahia State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Sangiorgi, Bruno; Miranda, Daniel Neves; Oliveira, Diego Ferreira; Santos, Edivaldo Passos; Gomes, Fernanda Regis; Santos, Edna Oliveira; Barral, Aldina; Miranda, José Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Few microhabitats have been previously identified as natural breeding places for phlebotomine sand flies so far, and little is known about the influence of climate variables in their density. The present study was conducted in a dry region with a semiarid climate, where visceral leishmaniasis occurs in humans and dogs. The occurrence of breeding places in specific microhabitats was investigated in soil samples collected from five houses, which were also the location used for sampling of adults. All the microhabitats sampled by our study were identified as natural breeding places due to the occurrence of immature forms of sand flies. On a weekly basis, the number of adult sand flies captured was positively correlated with the mean temperature from preceding weeks. These results, in addition to promoting an advance in the knowledge of sand flies biology, may furnish a tool for optimizing the control of the sand flies, by indicating the most suitable periods and microhabitats for the application of insecticides. PMID:22529861

  12. Topographic and hydrographic survey data for the São Francisco River near Torrinha, Bahia, Brazil, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fosness, Ryan L.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.

    2015-10-21

    This report presents the surveying techniques and data-processing methods used to collect, process, and disseminate topographic and hydrographic data. All standard and non‑standard data-collection methods, techniques, and data process methods were documented. Additional discussion describes the quality-assurance and quality-control elements used in this study, along with the limitations for the Torrinha-Itacoatiara study reach data. The topographic and hydrographic geospatial data are published along with associated metadata.

  13. The advertisement call of Bokermannohyla flavopicta Leite, Pezzuti & Garcia, 2012 (Anura: Hylidae) from the mountains of Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Pedro Carvalho; Thompson, Julia Resende; Leite, Felipe Sá Fortes; Garcia, Paulo Christiano De Anchietta

    2016-01-01

    Bokermannohyla Faivovich, Haddad, Garcia, Frost, Campbell & Wheeler (2005) is a Brazilian treefrog genus currently composed of 32 species (Brandão et al. 2012; Leite et al. 2012; Frost 2015). The genus comprehends four, putatively monophyletic, species groups: B. circumdata, B. claresignata, B. martinsi, and B. pseudopseudis (sensu Faivovich et al. 2005). The B. pseudopseudis group includes nine species: B. alvarengai (Bokermann 1956), B. flavopicta Leite et al. 2012, B. ibitiguara (Cardoso 1983), B. itapoty Lugli & Haddad 2006a, B. oxente Lugli & Haddad 2006b, B. pseudopseudis (Miranda-Ribeiro 1937), B. sagarana Leite et al. 2011, B. sapiranga Brandão et al. 2012, and B. saxicola (Bokermann 1964). PMID:27395500

  14. Natural breeding places for phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: psychodidae) in a semiarid region of bahia state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sangiorgi, Bruno; Miranda, Daniel Neves; Oliveira, Diego Ferreira; Santos, Edivaldo Passos; Gomes, Fernanda Regis; Santos, Edna Oliveira; Barral, Aldina; Miranda, José Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Few microhabitats have been previously identified as natural breeding places for phlebotomine sand flies so far, and little is known about the influence of climate variables in their density. The present study was conducted in a dry region with a semiarid climate, where visceral leishmaniasis occurs in humans and dogs. The occurrence of breeding places in specific microhabitats was investigated in soil samples collected from five houses, which were also the location used for sampling of adults. All the microhabitats sampled by our study were identified as natural breeding places due to the occurrence of immature forms of sand flies. On a weekly basis, the number of adult sand flies captured was positively correlated with the mean temperature from preceding weeks. These results, in addition to promoting an advance in the knowledge of sand flies biology, may furnish a tool for optimizing the control of the sand flies, by indicating the most suitable periods and microhabitats for the application of insecticides.

  15. Age constraints on felsic intrusions, metamorphism and gold mineralisation in the Palaeoproterozoic Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt, NE Bahia State, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mello, E.F.; Xavier, R.P.; McNaughton, N.J.; Hagemann, S.G.; Fletcher, I.; Snee, L.

    2006-01-01

    U-Pb sensitive high resolution ion microprobe mass spectrometer (SHRIMP) ages of zircon, monazite and xenotime crystals from felsic intrusive rocks from the Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt show two development stages between 2,152 and 2,130 Ma, and between 2,130 and 2,080 Ma. The older intrusions yielded ages of 2,152??6 Ma in monazite crystals and 2,155??9 Ma in zircon crystals derived from the Trilhado granodiorite, and ages of 2,130??7 Ma and 2,128??8 Ma in zircon crystals derived from the Teofila??ndia tonalite. The emplacement age of the syntectonic Ambro??sio dome as indicated by a 2,080??2-Ma xenotime age for a granite dyke probably marks the end of the felsic magmatism. This age shows good agreement with the Ar-Ar plateau age of 2,080??5 Ma obtained in hornblendes from an amphibolite and with a U-Pb SHRIMP age of 2,076??10 Ma in detrital zircon crystals from a quartzite, interpreted as the age of the peak of the metamorphism. The predominance of inherited zircons in the syntectonic Ambro??sio dome suggests that the basement of the supracrustal rocks was composed of Archaean continental crust with components of 2,937??16, 3,111??13 and 3,162??13 Ma. Ar-Ar plateau ages of 2,050??4 Ma and 2,054??2 Ma on hydrothermal muscovite samples from the Fazenda Brasileiro gold deposit are interpreted as minimum ages for gold mineralisation and close to the true age of gold deposition. The Ar-Ar data indicate that the mineralisation must have occurred less than 30 million years after the peak of the metamorphism, or episodically between 2,080 Ma and 2,050 Ma, during uplift and exhumation of the orogen. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

  16. Carbon stock and available nutrients in soils under “cacao-cabruca” system in southeast areas of Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In agroecosytems, the efficient nutrient cycling is considered responsible for plant nutrition; however it is important to consider the amount of total available nutrients. Experiments were undertaken to quantify the carbon stock and available nutrients in cacao plantation grown under tree shade of ...

  17. Carbon, nitrogen, organic phosphorus, microbial biomass and N mineralization in soils under cacao agroforestry systems in Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the soil organic P cycle is important to improve the P fertilization management in low-input tropical agricultural systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate organic P (Po) content by Bowman extraction method and labile P fractions by NaHCO3 extraction in soil profiles under cacao ...

  18. The advertisement call of Bokermannohyla flavopicta Leite, Pezzuti & Garcia, 2012 (Anura: Hylidae) from the mountains of Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Pedro Carvalho; Thompson, Julia Resende; Leite, Felipe Sá Fortes; Garcia, Paulo Christiano De Anchietta

    2016-01-07

    Bokermannohyla Faivovich, Haddad, Garcia, Frost, Campbell & Wheeler (2005) is a Brazilian treefrog genus currently composed of 32 species (Brandão et al. 2012; Leite et al. 2012; Frost 2015). The genus comprehends four, putatively monophyletic, species groups: B. circumdata, B. claresignata, B. martinsi, and B. pseudopseudis (sensu Faivovich et al. 2005). The B. pseudopseudis group includes nine species: B. alvarengai (Bokermann 1956), B. flavopicta Leite et al. 2012, B. ibitiguara (Cardoso 1983), B. itapoty Lugli & Haddad 2006a, B. oxente Lugli & Haddad 2006b, B. pseudopseudis (Miranda-Ribeiro 1937), B. sagarana Leite et al. 2011, B. sapiranga Brandão et al. 2012, and B. saxicola (Bokermann 1964).

  19. Serological survey of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in goats, sheep, cattle and water buffaloes in Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pita Gondim, L F; Barbosa, H V; Ribeiro Filho, C H; Saeki, H

    1999-05-01

    Serum samples from 439 goats, 240 sheep, 194 cattle and 104 water buffaloes were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by a latex agglutination test. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 28.93% of goats, 18.75% of sheep, 1.03% of cattle and 3.85% of water buffaloes, at a dilution of 1:64. The highest titres observed in goats, sheep, cattle and water buffaloes were 1:2048, 1:2048, 1:64 and 1:512, respectively.

  20. Military Education in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haussman, Fay

    1974-01-01

    A large share of the credit for Brazil's recent progress must go to Brazil's highly structured military education, including the colegios militares (high schools), the military colleges, and the general staff schools. (Author/PG)

  1. Bahia Adair and vicinity, Sonora: modern siliciclastic-dominated arid macrotidal coastline

    SciTech Connect

    Lock, B.E.; Sinitiere, S.M.; Williams, L.J.

    1989-03-01

    The northwestern Sonoran coastline, in the vicinity of Bahia Adair, combines several important geologic features. The arid landward environments are dominated by the dunes of the Gran Desierto and the surrounding alluvial fans and ephemeral streams. The Colorado River, whose delta lies to the northwest, has been an important source of sediment until very recently. The high tidal energy of the region has profoundly influenced the distribution and geometries of coastal and shallow-marine sand bodies, and the active tectonic setting has also played a role. The Cerro Prieto splay of the San Andreas fault system has been responsible for local uplift and downwarp and resulting transgression and regression. The intertidal and supratidal zones are dominated by sand and constitute a sand-body type that has been seldom considered by petroleum explorationists or other students of ancient sand bodies, and the associated evaporites are rather different from those described from the superficially analogous Persian Gulf sabkhas.

  2. Transcriptional response of mysid crustacean, Americamysis bahia, is affected by subchronic exposure to nonylphenol.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Masaya; Hirano, Masashi; Ishibashi, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Jun; Kagami, Yoshihiro; Koyanagi, Akiko; Kusano, Teruhiko; Koga, Minoru; Arizono, Koji

    2016-11-01

    Nonylphenol (NP) has been classified as an endocrine-disrupting chemical. In this study, we conducted mysid DNA microarray analysis with which has 2240 oligo DNA probes to observe differential gene expressions in mysid crustacean (Americamysis bahia) exposed to 1, 3, 10 and 30 μg/l of NP for 14 days. As a result, we found 31, 27, 39 and 68 genes were differentially expressed in the respective concentrations. Among these genes, the expressions of five particular genes were regulated in a similar manner at all concentrations of the NP exposure. So, we focused on one gene encoding cuticle protein, and another encoding cuticular protein analogous to peritrophins 1-H precursor. These genes were down-regulated by NP exposure in a dose-dependent manner, and it suggested that they were related in a reduction of the number of molting in mysids. Thus, they might become useful molecular biomarker candidates to evaluate molting inhibition in mysids. PMID:27497080

  3. Biochemical Education in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vella, F.

    1988-01-01

    Described are discussions held concerning the problems of biochemical education in Brazil at a meeting of the Sociedade Brazileira de Bioquimica in April 1988. Also discussed are other visits that were made to universities in Brazil. Three major recommendations to improve the state of biochemistry education in Brazil are presented. (CW)

  4. Evaluation of toxicity of polluted marine sediments from Bahia Salina Cruz, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Lozano, Maria Cristina; Mendez-Rodriguez, Lia C; Maeda-Martinez, Alejandro M; Murugan, Gopal; Vazquez-Botello, Alfonso

    2010-01-01

    Bahia Salina Cruz, Oaxaca, Mexico is a major center of oil and refined product distribution on the Mexican Pacific coast. From the start of oil industry operations in 1979, negative effects from discharges of treated effluents in the bay have been a constant concern for local communities. We analyzed 28 surface sediment samples obtained in June, 2002 to evaluate the level of toxicity in the littoral zone, port-harbor, and La Ventosa estuary in Bahia Salina Cruz. The extractable organic matter concentration was high (1,213 to 7,505 micro g g(-1)) in 5 of 7 stations from the port and harbor, whereas it was low in 12 of 16 stations in the littoral zone (36 to 98 micro g g(-1)). The total aromatic hydrocarbon concentration was highest (57 to 142 micro g g(-1)) in the port and harbor compared to the La Ventosa estuary and the littoral zone. Among the heavy metals analyzed, cadmium exceeded the effects range-low values associated with adverse biological effects. The geo-accumulation index of sediments was moderate to strong contamination at 5 stations in the nonlittoral and 6 stations in the littoral zone. The enrichment of lead, zinc, and cadmium at 5 stations from the littoral, port, and harbor suggest that these metals are of anthropogenic origin. Bioassay tests of elutriates of sediments on nauplii of Artemia franciscana and Artemia sp. showed that the port and harbor were more toxic than the La Ventosa estuary and the coastal zone. The Microtox test (Vibrio fischeri) did not show a similar response with the solid phase of the sediments. The results of this study indicate that the high levels of organic content and metals in the sediments of port-harbor and the La Ventosa estuary are mainly caused by anthropogenic activities.

  5. Real Language Meets Real Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muirhead, Muirhead; Schechter, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The Real Business Language Challenge was a collaborative pilot project between Coca-Cola Enterprises (CCE) and Routes into Languages East for Year 9 and 10 pupils. It was based on CCE's award-winning Real Business Challenge, part of its highly acclaimed education programme. The Real Business Language Challenge transformed the project into a…

  6. Shallow-water stenopodidean and caridean shrimps from Abrolhos Archipelago, Brazil: new records and updated checklist.

    PubMed

    Soledade, Guidomar O; Fonseca, Mytalle S; Almeida, Alexandre O

    2015-01-01

    This study deals with a recent collection of stenopodidean and caridean shrimps made in the Abrolhos Archipelago, Bahia, Brazil, in July and August 2013. Sampling was carried out in the vicinity of Ilha de Santa Bárbara (17°57'49"S 38°41'53"W). Specimens were obtained by hand or using small hand nets in tide pools or under rocks in the intertidal zone. Part of the material was collected by scuba diving in the shallow subtidal, to a maximum depth of 11 m. We obtained a total of 18 species, 12 of which are reported for the first time for the Abrolhos and 4 as new records for the state of Bahia. The distributions of Microprosthema semilaeve (von Martens, 1872), Typton gnathophylloides Holthuis, 1951, Alpheus verrilli (Schmitt, 1924) and Alpheopsis cf. trigona (Rathbun, 1901) are extended from their previously known ranges. The occurrence of Automate cf. rectifrons Chace, 1972 on the Brazilian coast is confirmed. We thus provide an updated checklist of stenopodidean (2 species) and caridean (29 species) shrimps from the Abrolhos Archipelago, incorporating and critically evaluating previous records.  PMID:25661021

  7. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a semiarid copper mining area in Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Gladstone Alves; Trufem, Sandra Farto Botelho; Saggin Júnior, Orivaldo José; Maia, Leonor Costa

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in a copper mining area was investigated. Soil samples were collected from six sites at the Mineração Caraiba, Bahia State, northeastern Brazil, comprising: (1) a site that receives the waste product; (2) a site that receives low grade deposits; (3) the interface between the caatinga and site 1; (4) the surroundings of the industrial area; (5) the site for extracting topsoil for land filling; (6) the preserved caatinga. Thirty-two plant species were identified around the collection locations. Trap cultures were maintained in the greenhouse for 3 months, using bahia grass ( Paspalum notatum Flügge) as the host plant. Spores were extracted from soil and 21 AMF species (15 Glomus and one of each of Acaulospora, Archaeospora, Entrophospora, Gigaspora , Paraglomus and Scutellospora) were identified. In site 1, plants or AMF were not found during the dry season. Site 6, with native vegetation, had the highest number of plants and AMF species. The disturbed sites showed less plant diversification, with the community of AMF being quantitative and qualitatively affected by disturbance. PMID:14767726

  8. Shallow-water stenopodidean and caridean shrimps from Abrolhos Archipelago, Brazil: new records and updated checklist.

    PubMed

    Soledade, Guidomar O; Fonseca, Mytalle S; Almeida, Alexandre O

    2015-01-09

    This study deals with a recent collection of stenopodidean and caridean shrimps made in the Abrolhos Archipelago, Bahia, Brazil, in July and August 2013. Sampling was carried out in the vicinity of Ilha de Santa Bárbara (17°57'49"S 38°41'53"W). Specimens were obtained by hand or using small hand nets in tide pools or under rocks in the intertidal zone. Part of the material was collected by scuba diving in the shallow subtidal, to a maximum depth of 11 m. We obtained a total of 18 species, 12 of which are reported for the first time for the Abrolhos and 4 as new records for the state of Bahia. The distributions of Microprosthema semilaeve (von Martens, 1872), Typton gnathophylloides Holthuis, 1951, Alpheus verrilli (Schmitt, 1924) and Alpheopsis cf. trigona (Rathbun, 1901) are extended from their previously known ranges. The occurrence of Automate cf. rectifrons Chace, 1972 on the Brazilian coast is confirmed. We thus provide an updated checklist of stenopodidean (2 species) and caridean (29 species) shrimps from the Abrolhos Archipelago, incorporating and critically evaluating previous records. 

  9. Manaus, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The junctions of the Amazon and the Rio Negro Rivers at Manaus, Brazil. The Rio Negro flows 2300 km from Columbia, and is the dark current forming the north side of the river. It gets its color from the high tannin content in the water. The Amazon is sediment laden, appearing brown in this simulated natural color image. Manaus is the capital of Amazonas state, and has a population in excess of one million. The ASTER image covers an area of 60 x 45 km. This image was acquired on July 16, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation

  10. Characterization and Relocation of Seismic Clusters in the Area of Bahia de Banderas, Jalisco-Nayarit, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutz Lopez, M.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Carmona, E.

    2004-12-01

    We analysed the seismic activity that took place the year of 2003 in the area of Bahia de Banderas, between the states of Jalisco and Nayarit, registrated with a local network of 7 stations, which belongs to the Civil Defence of Jalisco and the University of Guadalajara. 400 events have been located, in these earthquakes we identified some series of a similar waveforms. For defining this similarity between seismic events and in order to classify them into clusters, we have applied the cross-correlation method of the P and S arrivals. We found a fourth part of epicentres gathered into 15 clusters of 3-25 events. For some clusters we used relocations relative to a master event. Located south of Bahia de Banderas exist clusters aligned along structures trending N-S in the area of Tuito. This trend agrees with the topographic relief of the area. Other clustes can be related with active tectonic structures at north of Cajon de Peñas dam (Tomatlan). Another cluster was identified at the East, Amatlan de Cañas-Ameca area, and one more in the center of the Bahia de Banderas.

  11. Large Devaluations and the Real Exchange Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burstein, Ariel; Eichenbaum, Martin; Rebelo, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we argue that the primary force behind the large drop in real exchange rates that occurs after large devaluations is the slow adjustment in the prices of nontradable goods and services. Our empirical analysis uses data from five large devaluation episodes: Argentina (2002), Brazil (1999), Korea (1997), Mexico (1994), and Thailand…

  12. The biomedicalisation of illegal abortion: the double life of misoprostol in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zordo, Silvia De

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the double life of misoprostol in Brazil, where it is illegally used by women as an abortifacient and legally used in obstetric hospital wards. Based on my doctoral and post-doctoral anthropological research on contraception and abortion in Salvador, Bahia, this paper initially traces the "conversion" of misoprostol from a drug to treat ulcers to a self-administered abortifacient in Latin America, and its later conversion to aneclectic global obstetric tool. It then shows how, while reducing maternal mortality, its use as an illegal abortifacient has reinforced the double reproductive citizenship regime existing in countries with restrictive abortion laws and poor post-abortion care services, where poor women using it illegally are stigmatised, discriminated against and exposed to potentially severe health risks. PMID:27008072

  13. [Cumulative annual incidence of disabling work-related musculoskeletal disorders in an urban area of Brazil].

    PubMed

    Souza, Norma Suely Souto; Santana, Vilma Sousa

    2011-11-01

    This study focused on the annual cumulative incidence (ACI) of disabling work-related musculoskeletal disorders affecting the neck and/or upper limbs (ULMSD) among workers covered by the National Social Insurance System in the city of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. Cases were workers who received disability compensation benefits when unable to work due to ULMSD, during the year 2008. The data were obtained from the administrative systems of the National Social Insurance Institute and Ministry of Labor and Employment. ACI was 15 per 10,000 workers. Increased ACI of ULMSD was associated with female gender, lower income, and work in financial activities or manufacturing. Women earning the minimum wage (US$ 64.00 per month) or less had the highest ACI of ULMSD (123 per 10,000), suggesting inequalities in the occurrence of these disorders. The study indicates the need to prioritize preventive actions focusing on ergonomics and work organization, early diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation. PMID:22124490

  14. Two new species of Halichondrida (Demospongiae) and the first record of Phycopsis and Ciocalapata for Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lage, Anaíra; Carvalho, Mariana De S; Menegola, Carla

    2013-01-01

    Two new species of the genera Phycopsis and Ciocalapata are described from the shallow waters off the Brazilian coast. This is the first record of Phycopsis in South Atlantic, with Phycopsis styloxeata sp. nov. being the only species of the genus that presents three categories of spicules: two of styles and one of oxeas. Ciocalapata, here represented by Ciocalapata minuspiculifera sp. nov., displays smaller oxeas and styles when compared to its congeneric C. amorphosa (Ridley & Dendy, 1886). The definition of this genus was modified and its geographical and bathymetric distributions now extend from the coast of Argentina to the northeastern coast of Brazil (state of Bahia) and from deep (1.097 m) to shallow (14-20 m) waters, respectively.

  15. [Inequality, poverty, and childhood health and nutritional conditions in Northeast Brazil].

    PubMed

    Assis, Ana Marlúcia O; Barreto, Maurício L; Santos, Nedja Silva; Oliveira, Lucivalda Pereira Magalhães de; Dos Santos, Sandra Maria Chaves; Pinheiro, Sandra Maria Conceição

    2007-10-01

    This cross-sectional study analyzes the relationship between gradients of social inequalities and the household environment and health and nutritional conditions among 2,001 preschool children in ten counties (municipalities) in the State of Bahia, Brazil. The analysis used multinomial multivariate logistic regression. Children in the middle and lower tertiles on the poverty scale had significant and increasing odds of living in a household headed by a woman, an unemployed father, a mother with

  16. Environmental interventions and the pattern of geohelminth infections in Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moraes, L R S; Cairncross, S

    2004-08-01

    This paper reports a longitudinal study, conducted in 1989/90, of 1893 children aged 5 to 14 years in 9 poor urban areas of the city of Salvador (population 2.44 million), capital of Bahia State in northeast Brazil. Stool examinations were performed to measure nematode infection and reinfection 9 months after treatment, and an extensive questionnaire was applied to collect information on each child and on the conditions of the household. Comparison of areas with different levels of infrastructure showed the following trends as the level of community sanitation improved: clustering of cases by household became more significant, predisposition of individuals to reinfection and to heavy infection became more marked, and infections with different species were increasingly aggregated in the same individuals. These results suggest that sewerage and drainage can significantly reduce transmission of intestinal nematode infections in the public domain, but that other measures are required to control transmission within the household.

  17. Three new species of Misionella from northern Brazil (Araneae, Haplogynae, Filistatidae)

    PubMed Central

    Brescovit, Antonio D.; Magalhaes, Ivan L. F.; Cizauskas, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of the genus Misionella are described from Brazil: Misionella carajas sp. n. and Misionella aikewara sp. n. from caves in the states of Pará and Tocantins and Misionella pallida sp. n. from natural and synanthropic dry areas in the states of Piauí, Maranhão, Rio Grande do Norte and Bahia. These species seem to belong to a distinct group within the genus; the males have an elongate palpal tibia and bulb, a pair of characteristic and hirsute macrosetae in the second metatarsus and the females have internal genitalia with only one pair of spermathecae, with relatively short ducts, lacking the auxiliary receptacles. Their phylogenetic placement and geographic distribution are briefly discussed. PMID:27408535

  18. Outbreak of aggressions and transmission of rabies in human beings by vampire bats in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Marcio A S; Sá-Neto, Raymundo J; Brazil, Tania K

    2002-01-01

    Outbreaks of attacks upon human beings by vampire bats seems to be a common phenomenon in several regions of Latin America, but the occurrence of rabies infection among humans bled by vampires, is relatively low. In the present study, two outbreaks of human rabies transmitted by common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) are described from Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil, in 1991 and 1992. The first was recorded in Aporá where 308 people were bled by vampires bats and three of these die from this zoonosis. The 2nd outbreak occurred in Conde where only five people were bled by vampires, and two deaths by rabies were registered. Our data suggest that rabies transmitted by bats basically depends on the presence of virus in the vampire bat population and not on the number of humans bled by them.

  19. Outbreak of aggressions and transmission of rabies in human beings by vampire bats in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Marcio A S; Sá-Neto, Raymundo J; Brazil, Tania K

    2002-01-01

    Outbreaks of attacks upon human beings by vampire bats seems to be a common phenomenon in several regions of Latin America, but the occurrence of rabies infection among humans bled by vampires, is relatively low. In the present study, two outbreaks of human rabies transmitted by common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) are described from Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil, in 1991 and 1992. The first was recorded in Aporá where 308 people were bled by vampires bats and three of these die from this zoonosis. The 2nd outbreak occurred in Conde where only five people were bled by vampires, and two deaths by rabies were registered. Our data suggest that rabies transmitted by bats basically depends on the presence of virus in the vampire bat population and not on the number of humans bled by them. PMID:12621664

  20. Three new species of Misionella from northern Brazil (Araneae, Haplogynae, Filistatidae).

    PubMed

    Brescovit, Antonio D; Magalhaes, Ivan L F; Cizauskas, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Three new species of the genus Misionella are described from Brazil: Misionella carajas sp. n. and Misionella aikewara sp. n. from caves in the states of Pará and Tocantins and Misionella pallida sp. n. from natural and synanthropic dry areas in the states of Piauí, Maranhão, Rio Grande do Norte and Bahia. These species seem to belong to a distinct group within the genus; the males have an elongate palpal tibia and bulb, a pair of characteristic and hirsute macrosetae in the second metatarsus and the females have internal genitalia with only one pair of spermathecae, with relatively short ducts, lacking the auxiliary receptacles. Their phylogenetic placement and geographic distribution are briefly discussed. PMID:27408535

  1. [Cumulative annual incidence of disabling work-related musculoskeletal disorders in an urban area of Brazil].

    PubMed

    Souza, Norma Suely Souto; Santana, Vilma Sousa

    2011-11-01

    This study focused on the annual cumulative incidence (ACI) of disabling work-related musculoskeletal disorders affecting the neck and/or upper limbs (ULMSD) among workers covered by the National Social Insurance System in the city of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. Cases were workers who received disability compensation benefits when unable to work due to ULMSD, during the year 2008. The data were obtained from the administrative systems of the National Social Insurance Institute and Ministry of Labor and Employment. ACI was 15 per 10,000 workers. Increased ACI of ULMSD was associated with female gender, lower income, and work in financial activities or manufacturing. Women earning the minimum wage (US$ 64.00 per month) or less had the highest ACI of ULMSD (123 per 10,000), suggesting inequalities in the occurrence of these disorders. The study indicates the need to prioritize preventive actions focusing on ergonomics and work organization, early diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation.

  2. Real Forestry for Real Estate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon, Jennifer; Fisher, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Virginia is poised to see an unprecedented change in forest land ownership. To provide new landowners with information on sustainable forest management, we developed a two-part program, Real Forestry for Real Estate. First, we assembled New Landowner Packets, which contain a variety of sustainable forest management resources. Second, two…

  3. Orthopedics nursing patients' profile of a public hospital in Salvador-Bahia

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Renata Reis Matutino; Ribeiro, Natália Fonseca; de Andrade, Aline Mendonça; Jaques, Bruno Dórea

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the profile of patients treated in the trauma and orthopedics nursing of a trauma care referral public hospital of in the state of Bahia. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in which data were collected from medical records of patients in the period from July to December 2008. RESULTS: The profile of the patients involved was formed by subjects mostly male young subjects, victims of trauma from accidents, especially those with motorcycles or car runover. On the other hand,the most frequent traumas associated with urban violence were perforations by gunshot and stab wounds. The primary injury presented by these individuals was exposed fracture of the femur and the most common treatment was external fixation. The most frequent in-hospital complication was wound infection, which required another surgical approach. Most inpatients were discharged and only one death was reported during this period. CONCLUSION: The results of this study corroborate those from other institutions in the country, which may contribute to elaborate public policies for accidents and violence prevention. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:24453666

  4. Acaricides efficiency on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus from Bahia state North-Central region.

    PubMed

    Raynal, José Tadeu; Silva, Aretha Alves Borges da; Sousa, Thiago de Jesus; Bahiense, Thiago Campanharo; Meyer, Roberto; Portela, Ricardo Wagner

    2013-01-01

    The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is responsible for major losses in the Brazilian livestock, mainly due to reduction in cattle productive performance. Resistance development to major classes of acaricide widely used nowadays has been extensively reported, as well as the occurrence of residues from these compounds in animal products and the environment. This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of acaricides on R. (B.) microplus collected from rural properties in the North-Central region of Bahia State. Ticks were collected in several cattle farms in the cited region, and an in vitro acaricide efficiency assay was performed based on the immersion of ticks in acaricide solutions made according to manufacturers' recommendations. The results obtained in the experiments indicated varying degrees of efficiency of the several bases studied, with the products benzofenilurea, macrocyclic lactone and fipronil showing the highest levels of efficiency, 100%, 100% and 97.34%, respectively. It was possible to conclude that, for the region studied, there are different degrees of commercial acaricides efficiency, and many present less than 95% effectiveness, value determined as acceptable by the Brazilian legislation. PMID:23538503

  5. Comparative toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides to two estuarine crustacean species, Americamysis bahia and Palaemonetes pugio.

    PubMed

    DeLorenzo, Marie E; Key, Peter B; Chung, Katy W; Sapozhnikova, Yelena; Fulton, Michael H

    2014-10-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used on agricultural crops, as well as for nurseries, golf courses, urban structural and landscaping sites, residential home and garden pest control, and mosquito abatement. Evaluation of sensitive marine and estuarine species is essential for the development of toxicity testing and risk-assessment protocols. Two estuarine crustacean species, Americamysis bahia (mysids) and Palaemonetes pugio (grass shrimp), were tested with the commonly used pyrethroid compounds, lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, and phenothrin. Sensitivities of adult and larval grass shrimp and 7-day-old mysids were compared using standard 96-h LC50 bioassay protocols. Adult and larval grass shrimp were more sensitive than the mysids to all the pyrethroids tested. Larval grass shrimp were approximately 18-fold more sensitive to lambda-cyhalothrin than the mysids. Larval grass shrimp were similar in sensitivity to adult grass shrimp for cypermethrin, deltamethrin, and phenothrin, but larvae were approximately twice as sensitive to lambda-cyhalothrin and permethrin as adult shrimp. Acute toxicity to estuarine crustaceans occurred at low nanogram per liter concentrations of some pyrethroids, illustrating the need for careful regulation of the use of pyrethroid compounds in the coastal zone.

  6. Industrial impact on marsh soils at the Bahia Blanca Ria, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Maria Luisa; Reyzabal, Maria Luisa; Marcet, Purificacion; Montero, Maria Jose

    2002-01-01

    The Bahia Blanca Estuary is located in southern Buenos Aires province, Argentina. The area is linked to a petrochemical industrial complex, whose raw materials and final products contaminate the surrounding areas via atmospheric pollution and effluents, which are dumped in the estuary waters. To establish the effects of the industrial waste disposal on the nearest coastal soils, 17 samples were taken at different distances from the loading dock and the outfall pipes of the industrial complex. Later, the physicochemical characteristics of the soil samples, their hydrocarbon contents, sulfides, sulfates, Zn, Cu, and Pb were analyzed and a comparison was made to control samples, which were not affected by the industrial outfall. Hydrocarbons, Zn, Cu, and Pb contents were found at levels that modified the physical and chemical characteristics of the soils. The resistance to penetration shows that the thinner the film of water that surrounds the particles or aggregates, the smaller the migration of organic micelle, which settle on the surface of the contact material. This is demonstrated by the degree of cohesion reached by the particles and the strong influence on the index of hydrophobicity. The high porosity shows that the continuity of the porous space of the soil matrix is impeded by the presence of pollutants, which generate areas that are highly limiting to water flow. The oxidation-reduction potential and the low concentrations of soluble forms of Cu and Pb compared with their concentrations precipitated as sulfides confirm the action of the pollutants.

  7. Ecology and ethnoecology of dusky grouper [garoupa, Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834)] along the coast of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Begossi, Alpina; Silvano, Renato AM

    2008-01-01

    Dusky grouper (garoupa, Epinephelus marginatus) is an important catch for several artisanal small-scale fisheries along the Brazilian coast. It is a sedentary, monandric, and late maturing protogynous species, which makes it vulnerable to overharvesting even though it is mainly caught through hook and line or spear fishing through free diving. Lack of information on the ecology and biology of this species in Brazil is astonishing. Much of the information found in the literature concerns Mediterranean dusky groupers. Studies compiling local knowledge (ethnoecology) about fish species complement biological data, and have been fundamental for effective fisheries management. In this study, our objectives are to obtain data about dusky grouper through fish catches and analysis of stomach contents and gonad maturation (macroscopic analyses), along with interviews from fishermen from six small-scales communities from the southern (Pântano do Sul, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State) to the northern Brazilian coast (Porto Sauípe, Bahia State). We conclude that precautionary approaches and 'data-less' management approaches are needed in the coast of Brazil. Research on this species and on the potential of aquaculture for its cultivation, are urgent, due to the apparent vulnerability and decrease of dusky grouper along the coast of Brazil. PMID:18793394

  8. Ecology and ethnoecology of dusky grouper [garoupa, Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834)] along the coast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Begossi, Alpina; Silvano, Renato Am

    2008-09-15

    Dusky grouper (garoupa, Epinephelus marginatus) is an important catch for several artisanal small-scale fisheries along the Brazilian coast. It is a sedentary, monandric, and late maturing protogynous species, which makes it vulnerable to overharvesting even though it is mainly caught through hook and line or spear fishing through free diving. Lack of information on the ecology and biology of this species in Brazil is astonishing. Much of the information found in the literature concerns Mediterranean dusky groupers. Studies compiling local knowledge (ethnoecology) about fish species complement biological data, and have been fundamental for effective fisheries management. In this study, our objectives are to obtain data about dusky grouper through fish catches and analysis of stomach contents and gonad maturation (macroscopic analyses), along with interviews from fishermen from six small-scales communities from the southern (Pântano do Sul, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State) to the northern Brazilian coast (Porto Sauípe, Bahia State). We conclude that precautionary approaches and 'data-less' management approaches are needed in the coast of Brazil. Research on this species and on the potential of aquaculture for its cultivation, are urgent, due to the apparent vulnerability and decrease of dusky grouper along the coast of Brazil.

  9. Climate forcings of changes in paleoprecipitation patterns in Brazil from oxygen isotope ratios on speleothems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cruz, F.; Cheng, H.; Barreto, E. S.; Wang, X.; Vuille, M.; Edwards, R.; Karmann, I.; Burns, S. J.; Auler, A.

    2009-12-01

    Stable oxygen isotope records in speleothems have provided new insights into changes in the tropical precipitation patterns over South America during Holocene. This is evident in the antiphasing observed between rainfall in northeastern Brazil and in areas affected by the South American Summer Monsoon (SASM), such as southern Brazil, the Amazon and the tropical Andes on orbital time-scales (Cruz et al., 2009). This pattern is attributed to changes in the strength of both Hadley and Walker-cells due to the influence of insolation on the global summer monsoons. A higher incoming austral summer insolation can intensify the SASM by favoring moisture convergence in the Amazon Basin and promote a substantial increase in monsoon precipitation in southern Brazil. Simultaneously, northeastern Brazil experiences arid conditions because of increased west-east upper-level subsidence induced by the convection in the monsoon core. A new speleothem record from Bahia State in NE Brazil confirms this antiphasing pattern of long-term precipitation for last 90 ky B.P. in Brazil, but in contrast with what is seen in southern Brazil, the records from the NE part of the country are mostly in phase with the Chinese speleothem records. Besides, it also shows that insolation exerts a strong forcing during MIS 5c to 5a, which is not as apparent during the MIS 4, 3 and 2. We suggest that the glacial boundary conditions play an important role in the SASM intensification between 60 and 20 ky during the latter marine isotope stages triggering wetter and drier conditions in southern and northeastern Brazil, respectively. On the other hand, the abrupt increases in precipitation during Heinrich events indicate a similar rainfall pattern everywhere in Brazil and suggest a more direct response from changes in oceanic conditions on millennial time-scales, which is relatively independent of monsoon activity in South America. References Cruz, F.W; Vuille, M.; Burns, S.J.; Wang, X.; Cheng H; Werner M

  10. Recent studies on UV radiation in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, M. P.; Ceballos, J. C.; Moregula, A.; Okuno, E.; Fausto, A.; Mol, A.; Santos, J. C.

    2009-04-01

    This presentation shows a summary of UV index measurements performed in the last years in Southeastern (SE) and Northeastern (NE) Brazilian regions. Brazil has an area of 8.5 million km2 distributed between latitudes 5˚ N and 35˚ S and longitudes 5˚ W and 75˚ W. SE is the most important economic pole of South America and the NE coast is an important tourist region. This large area has a great diversity of climatic, atmospheric and geographical conditions in addition to very diverse social and cultural habits. Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is an epidemiological health problem with more than 120,000 new cases each year. The most of these cases are found in the South and Southeast regions, with about 70 new NMSC per 100,000 inhabitants. Solar Light UV501 biometers are installed in the SE cities of São Paulo (23.6˚ S, 46.7˚ W, 865 m ASL), Itajubá/Minas Gerais (22.4˚ S; 45.5˚ W, 846 m ASL) and the NE city of Ilhéus/Bahia (14.8˚ S; 39.3˚ W; 54 m ASL). First measurements began in 2005 in São Paulo city, while Itajubá and Ilhéus have regular measurements from the beginning of 2008. Other studies related to the UV radiation modeling and interactions with atmosphere components, as ozone, aerosols and clouds, have also been performed. For example: a) UVI modelling calculations performed by a multiple-scattering spectral models; b) studies on the aerosol radiative properties based on satellite (MODIS/Terra-Aqua) and ground-based (Aeronet) observation; c) ozone content variability from satellite (OMI/Aura) and ground-based (Microtops ozonometer) measurements; d) behavioral profile of the population, as regarding habits of solar exposure and sun protection measures. Results show that more than 75% of the measurements conducted in the summer (outside noon) can be classified as upper than high UVI according to World Health Organization (WHO) recommended categories: Low (UVI < 2), Medium (3 ? UVI < 6), High (6 ? UVI < 8), Very High (8 ? UVI

  11. Transformations of Mangrove Forests in Bahia Magdalena, Baja California Sur, Mexico: Two Decade Results Based on Landsat Imageries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh Babu, S.; Abdul Rahaman, S.; Muthushankar, G.; Jonathan, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Mangrove forests which thrive along the tropical and subtropical regions are the most productive ecosystems in the world with a wide range of ecological and economical services to mankind. With the rapid urbanization across the globe, these forests tend to be destroying at an alarming rate. The area of concern for this study, Bahia Magdalena is very important for the economy of the state as nearly 50% of the artisan fisheries are established in the mangrove zone. Henceforth this study is an attempt for a regional assessment and to accurately quantify the mangroves using LANDSAT imageries for over two decades in Bahia Magdalena, Baja California. Satellite imageries from the year 1986 through 2014 were analysed to assess the prolonged changes taking place in and around the mangrove reserve. Using the estimates of land use/cover for all the years, the spatio - temporal data was validated using ArcGIS software. The results revealed that the spatial extent of mangroves are decreasing until 2005 due to the developmental plans such as tourism, shrimp farming and establishment of industries in this part of the country. During the past 10 years (~ after 2005) there is no much change in the area extent of mangrove reserves due to afforestation and conservation efforts. Thus the unbiased dataset generated may be widely used for an improved understanding of the role of mangrove forests in the socio economic aspects, protection from natural disasters, identify possible areas for conservation, restoration and rehabilitation; and improve estimates of the amount of carbon stored in mangrove vegetation and the associated marine environment. Keywords: Mangroves, LANDSAT, Bahia Magdalena, México.

  12. A relic coral fauna threatened by global changes and human activities, Eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leão, Zelinda M A N; Kikuchi, Ruy K P

    2005-01-01

    Coral species composition of drilled cores from emergent bank reefs, and coral cover of the surface of old and living reefs located along the coast of the state of Bahia, Eastern Brazil, revealed that there is a marked change in the occurrence of the major building coral species in different time intervals of the reef structure, as well as in the living surface of reefs located in two different geographical sites. Holocene core sections from two reef areas (12 degrees 40'S-38 degrees 00'W and 18 degrees 00'S-39 degrees 00'W) have as major reef builders, on its topmost core interval (3 to 4 ky old), the endemic coral Mussismilia braziliensis Verrill, 1868, which also dominate on the 2.5-3.5 ky old surfaces of truncated reef tops. At the base of the cores (the 2m lower interval, older than 4 ky BP), another endemic coral Mussismilia harttii Verrill, 1868 is the dominant reef component. The relative abundance of M. braziliensis on the living surfaces of shallow reefs from both areas, shows that in the southern area, it is up to 98% on reefs located 60 km off the coast, in depths between 3 and 4m, but do not exceed 1.3% on the surface of the northern reefs located 1-2 km off the coast in depths 4-5m. The Holocene falling sea level that occurred along the coast of Brazil since 5.1 ky BP, causes an increasing runoff into the area of coastal reefs. This phenomenon may have affected the nearshore reef building fauna, replacing a more susceptive coral fauna with one better adapted to low light levels and higher sediment influx. The high turbidity associated with early Holocene shelf flooding, should also be responsible for the absence of M. braziliensis during the initial stages of reef buildup in Brazil. At the present time, the rapidly increasing human pressure, due to changes in land uses of the coastal zone (increasing sedimentation rate, nutrification of coastal waters, industrial pollution) and underwater practices, such as overfishing and an intense tourism, is

  13. Rickettsial agents in avian ixodid ticks in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lugarini, Camile; Martins, Thiago Fernandes; Ogrzewalska, Maria; de Vasconcelos, Nathália Costa Teixeira; Ellis, Vincenzo A; de Oliveira, Jaqueline Bianque; Pinter, Adriano; Labruna, Marcelo B; Silva, Jean Carlos Ramos

    2015-04-01

    Birds are important in the maintenance and spread of ticks and tick-borne diseases. In this context we screened birds in the Atlantic forest north of the São Francisco River and Caatinga in northeast Brazil. In the Atlantic forest Amblyomma longirostre, Amblyomma nodosum, Amblyomma varium and Amblyomma auricularium were identified. A. longirostre was infected by "Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii" and A. nodosum by a Rickettsia parkeri-like agent. In Caatinga, Amblyomma parvum and A. auricularium were identified. A. auricularium was infected by "Ca. R. amblyommii" and Rickettsia bellii. "Canditatus Rickettsia andenae" was also identified in A. parvum collected from birds in Caatinga. In addition, Rickettsia sp. genotype AL was identified in A. varium collected on the clothes of the field team in one area of Atlantic forest. Here we provide a series of new host records for several Neotropical Amblyomma species and document rickettsial infections of "Ca. R. amblyomii" and a R. parkeri-like agent in Paraíba State, and R. bellii and "Ca. R. andenae" in Bahia State. For the first time we provide information regarding the infection of A. varium by "Ca. R. amblyommii". PMID:25800099

  14. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in seabirds from Abrolhos Archipelago, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gennari, Solange M; Niemeyer, Claudia; Soares, Herbert S; Musso, Cesar M; Siqueira, Glauber C C; Catão-Dias, José L; Dias, Ricardo A; Dubey, Jitender P

    2016-08-15

    Toxoplasma gondii is a coccidian parasite that infects almost all warm-blooded animals, including birds. Abrolhos is an archipelago of five islands, located in the Atlantic Ocean, 56 nautical kilometers from the south coast of the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. Part of this archipelago is a National Marine Park, which is a conservation area protected by the Brazilian government. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of T. gondii antibodies in sera of seabird's species Sula spp. and Phaeton spp. from breeding colonies located in the Islands of Santa Bárbara and Redonda, Abrolhos's archipelago. Sera were tested by modified agglutination test, first screened at 1:5 dilution (cut-off point) and the positive samples were titrated at a two-fold serial dilution. Serum samples were obtained from 69 birds of four species: Sula dactylatra (23 birds), Sula leucogaster (19 birds), Phaeton aethereus (25 birds) and Phaeton lepturus (2 birds). Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 24 (34.8%) of 69 seabirds with titers that ranged from 5 to 640. Occurrence value in S. dactylatra was 34.8% (8/23), in S. leucogaster was 47.4% (9/19), in P. aethereus was 28% (7/25) and the 2 P. lepturus were negative. This is the first description of T. gondii antibodies in free ranging seabirds of the orders Suliformes and Phaethontiformes. PMID:27514883

  15. Rickettsial agents in avian ixodid ticks in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lugarini, Camile; Martins, Thiago Fernandes; Ogrzewalska, Maria; de Vasconcelos, Nathália Costa Teixeira; Ellis, Vincenzo A; de Oliveira, Jaqueline Bianque; Pinter, Adriano; Labruna, Marcelo B; Silva, Jean Carlos Ramos

    2015-04-01

    Birds are important in the maintenance and spread of ticks and tick-borne diseases. In this context we screened birds in the Atlantic forest north of the São Francisco River and Caatinga in northeast Brazil. In the Atlantic forest Amblyomma longirostre, Amblyomma nodosum, Amblyomma varium and Amblyomma auricularium were identified. A. longirostre was infected by "Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii" and A. nodosum by a Rickettsia parkeri-like agent. In Caatinga, Amblyomma parvum and A. auricularium were identified. A. auricularium was infected by "Ca. R. amblyommii" and Rickettsia bellii. "Canditatus Rickettsia andenae" was also identified in A. parvum collected from birds in Caatinga. In addition, Rickettsia sp. genotype AL was identified in A. varium collected on the clothes of the field team in one area of Atlantic forest. Here we provide a series of new host records for several Neotropical Amblyomma species and document rickettsial infections of "Ca. R. amblyomii" and a R. parkeri-like agent in Paraíba State, and R. bellii and "Ca. R. andenae" in Bahia State. For the first time we provide information regarding the infection of A. varium by "Ca. R. amblyommii".

  16. Real Heroes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denenberg, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    Presents stories taken from the book, "50 American Heroes Every Kid Should Meet," explaining that children need to learn about the value of real-life human accomplishments (versus those of athletes, television personalities, and rock stars). The heroes include Elizabeth Blackwell, first American woman doctor; George C. Marshall, architect of…

  17. [Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated to host plants in the southern region of Bahia State].

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, M A L; da Silva, A C M; Silva, V E S; Bomfim, Z V; Guimarães, J A; de Souza Filho, M F; Araujo, E L

    2011-01-01

    The association among Anastrepha species, braconid parasitoids and host fruits in southern Bahia is recorded. Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) was associated with A. serpentina (Wied.) in Pouteria caimito, A. bahiensis Lima in Helicostylis tomentosa, A. sororcula Zucchi in Eugenia uniflora, and A. obliqua (Macquart) in Spondias purpurea. Anatrepha obliqua was unique in fruits of Averrhoa carambola, but associated with D. areolatus, Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck) and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck). In Achras sapota, A. serpentina was associated with A. anastrephae and D. areolatus, while in Psidium guajava, A. fraterculus (Wied.) and A. sororcula were associated with D. areolatus and U. anastrephae.

  18. The beta-globin gene cluster haplotypes in sickle cell anemia patients from Northeast Brazil: a clinical and molecular view.

    PubMed

    Adorno, Elisângela Vitória; Zanette, Angela; Lyra, Isa; Souza, Cyntia Cajado; Santos, Leandro Ferraz; Menezes, Joelma Figueiredo; Dupuit, Marie France; Almeida, Mari Ney Tavares; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão; Gonçalves, Marilda Souza

    2004-08-01

    The beta(S)-globin haplotypes were studied in 78 sickle cell Brazilian patients from Bahia, Northeast Brazil, that has a large population of African origin. Hemoglobin (Hb) profiles were developed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and beta(S)-globin gene haplotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) techniques. We identified 44 (55.0%) patients with the CAR/Ben (Central African Republic/Benin) genotype, 16 (20.0%) Ben/Ben, 13 (16.2%) CAR/CAR and seven (8.8%) with other genotypes. Analyses of the phenotypes showed clinical differences related only to Hb F levels and blood transfusion therapy; the presence of -alpha(-3.7)-thalassemia (thal) demonstrated statistical significance when associated with hematocrit (p=0.044), MCV (p=0.0007), MCH (p=0.012) and spleen sequestration events. The haplotype diversity found in the present study can be justified by information about the origin of the slave traffic period in Bahia during the 19th century. The specific characteristics described among the Bahian sickle cell patients could be confirmed by increasing the number of patients with specific genotypes and further studies of genetic markers.

  19. Taxonomic revision of the "Pierella lamia species group" (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) with descriptions of four new species from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zacca, Thamara; Siewert, Ricardo R; Casagrande, Mirna M; Mielke, Olaf H H; Paluch, Márlon

    2016-01-01

    Four new species of Pierella Westwood, 1851 from Brazil are described: P. angeloi Zacca, Siewert & Mielke sp. nov. from Maranhão, P. kesselringi Zacca, Siewert & Paluch sp. nov. from Paraíba, Pernambuco, Alagoas and Sergipe, P. nice Zacca, Siewert & Paluch sp. nov. from Bahia and P. keithbrowni Siewert, Zacca & Casagrande sp. nov. from Bahia, Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Paraná and Santa Catarina. Additionally, P. chalybaea Godman, 1905 stat. rest. and P. boliviana F.M. Brown, 1948 stat. nov. are recognized as valid species and not as subspecies of P. lamia (Sulzer, 1776), while P. l. colombiana Constantino & Salazar, 2007 syn. nov. is synonymized to the former. Lectotype and paralectotype of Papilio dyndimene Cramer, 1779 (a synonym of Pierella lamia) and Pierella chalybaea Godman, 1905 stat. rest. are designated. Habitus and illustrations of male and female genitalia are provided for all species, as well as a geographical distribution map. PMID:27395987

  20. Analysis of Service-learning activities adopted in health courses of Federal University of Bahia.

    PubMed

    Baldoino, Aline Silva; Veras, Renata Meira

    2016-06-01

    is study aimed to raise and discuss the data about the integration of health courses teaching and service activities o ered at the Federal University of Bahia (UFBA), pre- senting scenarios practices and major di culties existing in the relationship between the university and the services of health. is was a qualitative study of descriptive explo- ratory character, using a questionnaire as a research tool applied to the coordinators of selected health courses. e selection was by reading the political pedagogical project, the following courses were selected: nursing, physical therapy, speech therapy, medicine, nu- trition, dentistry and public health. e results indicated eight types of teaching-service integration activities, 57 scenarios of practice and the main di culties. It was concluded that these courses are sticking to changes in academic training in health, in view of the large number of basic health units in the teaching service process. us, it emphasizes that the UFBA includes activities in health care that enable the integration-education in the higher education process, although there are some di culties in this relationship indicated by the coordinators. Esse estudo teve como objetivo levantar e discutir os dados acerca das atividades de integração ensino-serviço de cursos de saúde oferecidos na Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), apresentando os cenários de práticas e as principais di culdades existentes na relação entre a uni- versidadeeosserviçosdesaúde.Tratou-sedeumapesquisaqualitativa,decaráterdescritivoexploratório,utilizando-seumquestionáriocomo instrumento de investigação aplicado aos coordenadores dos cursos de saúde selecionados. A seleção foi mediante a leitura do projeto político pedagógico, sendo selecionados os seguintes cursos: enfermagem, sioterapia, fonoaudiologia, medicina, nutrição, odontologia e saúde coletiva. Os resultados indicaram 8 tipos de atividades de integração ensino-serviço, 57 cenários de pr

  1. Analysis of Service-learning activities adopted in health courses of Federal University of Bahia.

    PubMed

    Baldoino, Aline Silva; Veras, Renata Meira

    2016-06-01

    is study aimed to raise and discuss the data about the integration of health courses teaching and service activities o ered at the Federal University of Bahia (UFBA), pre- senting scenarios practices and major di culties existing in the relationship between the university and the services of health. is was a qualitative study of descriptive explo- ratory character, using a questionnaire as a research tool applied to the coordinators of selected health courses. e selection was by reading the political pedagogical project, the following courses were selected: nursing, physical therapy, speech therapy, medicine, nu- trition, dentistry and public health. e results indicated eight types of teaching-service integration activities, 57 scenarios of practice and the main di culties. It was concluded that these courses are sticking to changes in academic training in health, in view of the large number of basic health units in the teaching service process. us, it emphasizes that the UFBA includes activities in health care that enable the integration-education in the higher education process, although there are some di culties in this relationship indicated by the coordinators. Esse estudo teve como objetivo levantar e discutir os dados acerca das atividades de integração ensino-serviço de cursos de saúde oferecidos na Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), apresentando os cenários de práticas e as principais di culdades existentes na relação entre a uni- versidadeeosserviçosdesaúde.Tratou-sedeumapesquisaqualitativa,decaráterdescritivoexploratório,utilizando-seumquestionáriocomo instrumento de investigação aplicado aos coordenadores dos cursos de saúde selecionados. A seleção foi mediante a leitura do projeto político pedagógico, sendo selecionados os seguintes cursos: enfermagem, sioterapia, fonoaudiologia, medicina, nutrição, odontologia e saúde coletiva. Os resultados indicaram 8 tipos de atividades de integração ensino-serviço, 57 cenários de pr

  2. Envenomation by Bothrops atrox in a traveler to Manaus, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Larréché, Sébastien; Imbert, Patrick; Mornand, Pierre; Andriamanantena, Dina; Mion, Georges; Rapp, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Snakebites are an infrequent but real risk for travelers. We report a case of envenomation by Bothrops atrox in a traveler to Manaus, Brazil. Rapid administration of specific antivenom prevented the expected systemic disorders. This case gives opportunity to review prevention and first aid measures of snakebites in travelers. PMID:23570867

  3. Long-term assessment of the oil spill at Bahia Las Minas, Panama. Interim report. Volume 1: Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, B.D.; Jackson, J.B.C.

    1991-10-01

    On April 27, 1986, at least 8 million liters of medium-weight crude oil spilled from a ruptured storage tank into the Bahia Las Minas on the Caribbean Coast of Panama. Coral reefs, seagrass communities, and mangroves were affected. The area of the spill was also the location of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute's Galeta Laboratory where resident and visiting scientists have been studying the ecology of the Bahia Las Minas and the adjacent areas for over 15 years. Because this was a unique opportunity to assess the immediate biological effects following a major spill in the Caribbean region and to monitor the subsequent recovery, the U.S. Department of the Interior Minerals Management Service supported a 5-year environmental study. The objectives of the study are to identify any long-term changes in the marine environment that may have resulted from the spill and to understand the ecological processes causing such changes. This is the first report from the study and addresses the effects observed during the first two years of the effort.

  4. Long-term assessment of the oil spill at Bahia Las Minas, Panama. Interim report. Volume 2: Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, B.D.; Jackson, J.B.C.

    1991-10-01

    On April 27, 1986, at least 8 million liters of medium-weight crude oil spilled from a ruptured storage tank into the Bahia Las Minas on the Caribbean Coast of Panama. Coral reefs, seagrass communities, and mangroves were affected. The area of the spill was also the location of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute's Galeta Laboratory where resident and visiting scientists have been studying the ecology of the Bahia Las Minas and the adjacent areas for over 15 years. Because this was a unique opportunity to assess the immediate biological effects following a major spill in the Caribbean region and to monitor the subsequent recovery, the U.S. Department of the Interior Minerals Management Service supported a 5-year environmental study. The objectives of the study are to identify any long-term changes in the marine environment that may have resulted from the spill and to understand the ecological processes causing such changes. This is the first report from the study and addresses the effects observed during the first two years of the effort.

  5. Brazil: Xingu River

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    ... title:  Fire and Deforestation near the Xingu River     View Larger Image Numerous fires occurred near the headwaters of the Xingu River and the Xingu Indigenous Peoples' Reserve in Mato Grosso, Brazil, during ...

  6. Social Studies in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searles, John E.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the role of social studies in transmitting the cultural heritage of Brazil. Includes descriptions of Brazilian culture and the educational structure. Journal availability: see SO 506 831. (AV)

  7. Fibropapillomatosis in green turtles Chelonia mydas in Brazil: characteristics of tumors and virus.

    PubMed

    Rodenbusch, C R; Baptistotte, C; Werneck, M R; Pires, T T; Melo, M T D; de Ataíde, M W; Testa, P; Alieve, M M; Canal, C W

    2014-10-16

    Fibropapillomatosis (FP) is a benign neoplasia that affects physiological functions of sea turtles and may lead to death. High prevalence of FP in sea turtle populations has prompted several research groups to study the disease and the associated herpesvirus, chelonid herpesvirus 5 (ChHV5). The present study detected and quantified ChHV5 in 153 fibropapilloma samples collected from green turtles Chelonia mydas on the Brazilian coast between 2009 and 2010 to characterize the relationship between viral load and tumor characteristics. Of the tumor samples collected, 73 and 87% were positive for ChHV5 in conventional PCR and real-time PCR, respectively, and viral loads ranged between 1 and 118.62 copies cell⁻¹. Thirty-three percent of turtles were mildly, 28% were moderately and 39% were severely affected with FP. Skin samples were used as negative control. High viral loads correlated positively with increasing FP severity in turtles sampled on the Brazilian coast and with samples from turtles found dead in the states of São Paulo and Bahia. Six viral variants were detected in tumor samples, 4 of which were similar to the Atlantic phylogenetic group. Two variants were similar to the western Atlantic/eastern Caribbean phylogenetic group. Co-infection in turtles with more than one variant was observed in the states of São Paulo and Bahia. PMID:25320033

  8. Fibropapillomatosis in green turtles Chelonia mydas in Brazil: characteristics of tumors and virus.

    PubMed

    Rodenbusch, C R; Baptistotte, C; Werneck, M R; Pires, T T; Melo, M T D; de Ataíde, M W; Testa, P; Alieve, M M; Canal, C W

    2014-10-16

    Fibropapillomatosis (FP) is a benign neoplasia that affects physiological functions of sea turtles and may lead to death. High prevalence of FP in sea turtle populations has prompted several research groups to study the disease and the associated herpesvirus, chelonid herpesvirus 5 (ChHV5). The present study detected and quantified ChHV5 in 153 fibropapilloma samples collected from green turtles Chelonia mydas on the Brazilian coast between 2009 and 2010 to characterize the relationship between viral load and tumor characteristics. Of the tumor samples collected, 73 and 87% were positive for ChHV5 in conventional PCR and real-time PCR, respectively, and viral loads ranged between 1 and 118.62 copies cell⁻¹. Thirty-three percent of turtles were mildly, 28% were moderately and 39% were severely affected with FP. Skin samples were used as negative control. High viral loads correlated positively with increasing FP severity in turtles sampled on the Brazilian coast and with samples from turtles found dead in the states of São Paulo and Bahia. Six viral variants were detected in tumor samples, 4 of which were similar to the Atlantic phylogenetic group. Two variants were similar to the western Atlantic/eastern Caribbean phylogenetic group. Co-infection in turtles with more than one variant was observed in the states of São Paulo and Bahia.

  9. 33 CFR 100.35T07-0297 - Special Local Regulation, 50 Aniversario Balneario de Boqueron, Bahia de Boqueron; Boqueron, PR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Buffer Zone. All waters of the Bahia de Boqueron, Boqueron, Puerto Rico encompassed within an imaginary... west back to origin. All persons and vessels except those persons and vessels enforcing the buffer zone are prohibited from entering, transiting through, anchoring in, or remaining within the buffer...

  10. 33 CFR 100.35T07-0297 - Special Local Regulation, 50 Aniversario Balneario de Boqueron, Bahia de Boqueron; Boqueron, PR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Buffer Zone. All waters of the Bahia de Boqueron, Boqueron, Puerto Rico encompassed within an imaginary... west back to origin. All persons and vessels except those persons and vessels enforcing the buffer zone are prohibited from entering, transiting through, anchoring in, or remaining within the buffer...

  11. PROJECTED POPULATION-LEVEL EFFECTS OF THIOBENCARB EXPOSURE ON THE MYSID, AMERICAMYSIS BAHIA, AND EXTINCTION PROBABILITY IN A CONCENTRATION-DECAY EXPOSURE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory



    Population-level effects of the mysid, Americamysis bahia, exposed to varying thiobencarb concentrations were estimated using stage-structured matrix models. A deterministic density-independent matrix model estimated the decrease in population growth rate, l, with increas...

  12. 78 FR 19103 - Safety Zone; Spanish Navy School Ship San Sebastian El Cano Escort; Bahia de San Juan; San Juan, PR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Spanish Navy School Ship San Sebastian El Cano Escort; Bahia de San Juan; San Juan, PR AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final...

  13. New Genus and species of Heteroxyidae from Brazil (Axinellida: Demospongiae: Porifera), with a revised identification key for the family.

    PubMed

    Santos, George Garcia; Pinheiro, Ulisses; Hajdu, Eduardo; Soest, Rob Van

    2016-08-26

    Alveospongia sinuosclera gen. nov. sp. nov. is described from shallow-waters off Canavieiras (Bahia, Brazil). The species bears an unusual morphology, combining saccular or alveolar, evenly perforated habit, and sinuous spiny microrhabdose microscleres. This sponge is tentatively classified within the Heteroxyidae Dendy (1905), on the basis of its confused choanosomal architecture of styles, and possession of spiny microrhabdose microscleres. Assays to generate DNA sequences from this material were unsuccessful. We emended the diagnosis of the family to include species bearing saccular/alveolar shape, microrhabdose acanthomicrostrongyles and styles/strongyles with modifications at the ends. The proposed new genus is compared to the remaining heteroxyid genera, as well as Crella (Crellidae), Batzella (Chondropsidae), Goreauiella (Astroscleridae) and Sceptrintus (Podospongiidae). A revised key for identification of Heteroxyidae genera is provided.

  14. New Genus and species of Heteroxyidae from Brazil (Axinellida: Demospongiae: Porifera), with a revised identification key for the family.

    PubMed

    Santos, George Garcia; Pinheiro, Ulisses; Hajdu, Eduardo; Soest, Rob Van

    2016-01-01

    Alveospongia sinuosclera gen. nov. sp. nov. is described from shallow-waters off Canavieiras (Bahia, Brazil). The species bears an unusual morphology, combining saccular or alveolar, evenly perforated habit, and sinuous spiny microrhabdose microscleres. This sponge is tentatively classified within the Heteroxyidae Dendy (1905), on the basis of its confused choanosomal architecture of styles, and possession of spiny microrhabdose microscleres. Assays to generate DNA sequences from this material were unsuccessful. We emended the diagnosis of the family to include species bearing saccular/alveolar shape, microrhabdose acanthomicrostrongyles and styles/strongyles with modifications at the ends. The proposed new genus is compared to the remaining heteroxyid genera, as well as Crella (Crellidae), Batzella (Chondropsidae), Goreauiella (Astroscleridae) and Sceptrintus (Podospongiidae). A revised key for identification of Heteroxyidae genera is provided. PMID:27615873

  15. [Yellow fever epidemiology in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Mondet, B

    2001-08-01

    present in the area but infecting humans only rarely if at all. The virus occasionally leaves the cyclic emergence area and appears in the sporadic emergence area to the east, in the states of Bahia, Minas Gerais and São Paulo, and, as a consequence, moving onto other hydraulic basins. The small river basins in Maranhão and NorthWest states, as well as in the northern part of the state of Roraima also form part of the sporadic emergence area. The epidemics that occur here are directly linked to the endemic area and are only preceded by sometimes indiscernible epizootics and can consequently not be foreseen. Again the virus appears to use privileged pathways to reach the sporadic emergence areas where human and monkey populations are generally only partially immunised against yellow fever and where contact with mosquitoes is intense despite the fact it is limited in space and time, being restricted to the often narrow strip of trees along the water courses. Other routes used by the virus may be the Madeira, Xingu and Tapajós rivers, the scene of outbreaks observed in the state of Rondônia and in the north of Mato Grosso, where ongoing environmental changes are likely to result in an increasing number of outbreaks in the coming years. Since the discovery of the sylvatic cycle of yellow fever in 1933, not only the extent of the epidemiological areas has changed, but also their limits. Ecological modifications that are currently taking place in the Amazon basin, which is an endemic reservoir of the virus, will inevitably facilitate an increase the contact between humans and vectors. While more and more urban areas harbour populations of Aedes aegypti, the domestic and urban vector of yellow fever, it is particularly important to try to protect human populations living in emergence zones and epidemic areas and thus to prevent the arrival of the virus in towns via humans with viremia--in other words the much feared urbanisation of yellow fever in Brazil. PMID:11681224

  16. Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in dogs in Brazil: epidemiology, co-infection, and clinical aspects.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, F S; Wenceslau, A A; Albuquerque, G R; Munhoz, A D; Gross, E; Carneiro, P L S; Oliveira, H C; Rocha, J M; Santos, I A; Rezende, R P

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is an endemic disease present in 98 countries. In Brazil, the northeast region accounts for approximately half of the cases in humans, and has experienced an increased number of positive cases in dogs. In this study, we investigated the epidemiology of canine leishmaniasis in the city of Ilhéus, Bahia, using serological and molecular techniques and evaluated the possible environmental risk factors and associated clinical signs. Blood samples were collected from 560 dogs in urban and peri-urban areas in Ilhéus, northeastern Brazil. Genomic DNA was extracted from the selected animals and subjected to molecular analysis using Leishmania species-specific primers and diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi. A total of 54.72% of dogs were positive for Leishmania braziliensis, and animals positive for both Leishmania infantum and T. cruzi were not identified. Hematologic variables were not statistically associated with cases of L. braziliensis. However, the positive animal group showed lower red blood cell and platelet counts and higher levels of urea and serum creatinine. Few dogs presented clinical signs compatible with the presence of Leishmania. Age of more than 2 years and specific hair colors were associated with positive results for L. braziliensis. The geoclimatic characteristics of the region may improve parasite survival, reproduction, and vectors. This may explain the higher rate of dogs identified as positive in this study.

  17. Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in dogs in Brazil: epidemiology, co-infection, and clinical aspects.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, F S; Wenceslau, A A; Albuquerque, G R; Munhoz, A D; Gross, E; Carneiro, P L S; Oliveira, H C; Rocha, J M; Santos, I A; Rezende, R P

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is an endemic disease present in 98 countries. In Brazil, the northeast region accounts for approximately half of the cases in humans, and has experienced an increased number of positive cases in dogs. In this study, we investigated the epidemiology of canine leishmaniasis in the city of Ilhéus, Bahia, using serological and molecular techniques and evaluated the possible environmental risk factors and associated clinical signs. Blood samples were collected from 560 dogs in urban and peri-urban areas in Ilhéus, northeastern Brazil. Genomic DNA was extracted from the selected animals and subjected to molecular analysis using Leishmania species-specific primers and diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi. A total of 54.72% of dogs were positive for Leishmania braziliensis, and animals positive for both Leishmania infantum and T. cruzi were not identified. Hematologic variables were not statistically associated with cases of L. braziliensis. However, the positive animal group showed lower red blood cell and platelet counts and higher levels of urea and serum creatinine. Few dogs presented clinical signs compatible with the presence of Leishmania. Age of more than 2 years and specific hair colors were associated with positive results for L. braziliensis. The geoclimatic characteristics of the region may improve parasite survival, reproduction, and vectors. This may explain the higher rate of dogs identified as positive in this study. PMID:26505353

  18. Toxoplasma gondii isolates from free-range chickens from the northeast region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, L N; Costa Junior, L M; de Melo, C F; Ramos Silva, J C; Bevilaqua, C M L; Azevedo, S S; Muradian, V; Araújo, D A F V; Dubey, J P; Gennari, S M

    2009-02-01

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging chickens is a good indicator of the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in the soil because chickens feed from the ground. The prevalence of T. gondii in 152 free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) from 22 municipalities in 7 northeastern states (Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Norte, Maranhão, Bahia, Ceará, Sergipe, and Alagoas) of Brazil was determined. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by the modified agglutination test (MAT); 81 (53.3 %) chickens had titers of 1:5 in 26, 1:10 in 9, 1:20 in 4, 1:40 in 1, 1:80 in 6, 1:160 in 6, 1:320 in 13, 1:640 in 6, 1:1,280 in 3, 1:2,560 in 6, and 1:5,120 or higher in 1. Hearts and brains of 81 seropositive chickens were bioassayed individually in mice. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from 23 chickens with MAT titers of 1:5 or higher; the isolates were designated TgCKBr165-187. Five isolates killed all infected mice. Results indicate widespread contamination of rural environment in Brazil with T. gondii oocysts.

  19. MtDNA variability in whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) populations in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Valle, G E; Lourenção, A L; Zucchi, M I; Pinheiro, J B; Abreu, A G

    2011-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) consists of a complex of morphologically indistinct biotypes that vary mainly in their capacity to transmit plant viruses and to induce physiological disorders in plants of economic importance. The adaptability of B. tabaci to many regions of the world has fostered the appearance of various biotypes and has resulted in a broad spectrum of host plants. Our goal was to identify which biotypes were present in four B. tabaci populations in Brazil. We quantified genetic variability between and within populations. Three individuals were collected from three host plant species: two populations on soybean (Campinas and Rondonópolis), one on pumpkin (Barreiras) and one on tomato (Cruz das Almas) in three States of Brazil (São Paulo, Mato Grosso, and Bahia). We chose one sequence of the B biotype, obtained from GenBank; the Campinas population, which had been previously characterized as biotype B, was used as a control for this biotype. We also included one sequence of the Q biotype, obtained from GenBank, as an outgroup. The COI region of the mtDNA gene was partially amplified with the CI-J-2195 and L2-N-3014 pair of primers, and the reaction products were sequenced. Based on distance-based algorithm analyses, we found that all haplotypes belong to biotype B, which was confirmed by the haplotype network. Genetic structure analyses showed that the host plant species does not influence population structuring of this pest; only the geographic location mattered. PMID:21968683

  20. MtDNA variability in whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) populations in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Valle, G E; Lourenção, A L; Zucchi, M I; Pinheiro, J B; Abreu, A G

    2011-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) consists of a complex of morphologically indistinct biotypes that vary mainly in their capacity to transmit plant viruses and to induce physiological disorders in plants of economic importance. The adaptability of B. tabaci to many regions of the world has fostered the appearance of various biotypes and has resulted in a broad spectrum of host plants. Our goal was to identify which biotypes were present in four B. tabaci populations in Brazil. We quantified genetic variability between and within populations. Three individuals were collected from three host plant species: two populations on soybean (Campinas and Rondonópolis), one on pumpkin (Barreiras) and one on tomato (Cruz das Almas) in three States of Brazil (São Paulo, Mato Grosso, and Bahia). We chose one sequence of the B biotype, obtained from GenBank; the Campinas population, which had been previously characterized as biotype B, was used as a control for this biotype. We also included one sequence of the Q biotype, obtained from GenBank, as an outgroup. The COI region of the mtDNA gene was partially amplified with the CI-J-2195 and L2-N-3014 pair of primers, and the reaction products were sequenced. Based on distance-based algorithm analyses, we found that all haplotypes belong to biotype B, which was confirmed by the haplotype network. Genetic structure analyses showed that the host plant species does not influence population structuring of this pest; only the geographic location mattered.

  1. Submarine Neotectonic Investigations of the Bahia Soledad Fault, off Northern Baja California Near the US - Mexico Border

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, K.; Lundsten, E. M.; Paull, C. K.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H. J.; Maier, K. L.; McGann, M.; Herguera, J. C.; Gwiazda, R.; Arregui, S.; Barrientos, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) conducted detailed surveys at selected sites on the seafloor along the Bahia Soledad Fault offshore of Northern Baja California, Mexico, during a two-ship expedition in the spring of 2015. The Bahia Soledad Fault is a NNW-trending strike-slip fault that is likely continuous with the San Diego Trough Fault offshore of San Diego, California. Constraining the style of deformation, continuity, and slip rate along this fault system is critical to characterizing the seismic hazards to the adjacent coastal areas extending from Los Angeles to Ensenada. Detailed morphologic surveys were conducted using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) to provide ultra high-resolution multibeam bathymetry (vertical precision of 0.15 m and horizontal resolution of 1.0 m). The AUV also carried a 2-10 kHz chirp sub-bottom profiler and an Edgetech 110kHz and 410kHz sidescan. The two sites along the Bahia Soledad Fault each run ~6 km along the fault with ~1.8 km wide footprint. The resulting bathymetry shows these fault zones are marked with distinct lineations that are flanked by ~1 km long elongated ridges and depressions which are interpreted to be transpressional pop-up structures and transtensional pull-apart basins up to 100 m of relief. Offset seismic reflectors that extend to near the seafloor confirm that these lineations are fault scarps. The detailed bathymetric maps and sub-bottom profiles were used to locate key sites where deformed stratigraphic horizons along the fault are within 1.5 m of the seafloor. These areas were sampled using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) equipped with a vibracoring system capable of collecting precisely located cores that are up to 1.5 m long. The coupled use of multibeam imagery and surgically-collected stratigraphic samples will enable to constrain the frequency and timing of recent movements on this fault which will be useful to incorporated into future seismic hazard assessment.

  2. Description of a new species of Betrichia Mosely 1939 from Brazil and edescription of the type-species (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae: Leucotrichiinae).

    PubMed

    Souza, Wagner Rafael M De; Santos, Allan Paulo Moreira; Takiya, Daniela Maeda

    2016-01-01

    Betrichia Mosely 1939 was erected to include a single species, B. zilbra Mosely 1939 from Brazil. The genus has a complicated taxonomy mainly because of the lack of diagnostic characteristics in the original description. Marshall (1979) stated that some features of the antennae, wing venation, and male genitalia are presumably diagnostic, but it remained without a precise diagnosis. Currently, Betrichia comprises 11 Neotropical species (Flint et al. 1999; Oláh & Johanson 2011; Thomson 2012; Oláh & Flint 2012), six of which have been recorded from Brazil (Santos et al. 2015): B. alibrachia Thomson 2012 (Rio de Janeiro State), B. hamulifera Flint 1983 (Pernambuco, São Paulo, and Santa Catarina states), B. kagyla Oláh & Flint 2012 (Amazonas State), B. longistyla Flint 1983 (Santa Catarina State), B. varratlana Oláh & Flint 2012 (Rondônia State), and B. zilbra Mosely 1939 (Santa Catarina State). Herein, we describe and illustrate a new species of the genus and redescribe the type-species of the genus based on topotypical specimens. We also provide new distributional records for Betrichia zilbra, reported here for the first time from Argentina (Misiones) and Bahia and Sergipe states (Brazil), and for Betrichia bispinosa Flint 1974, representing the first record of this species in Brazil (Amapá and Pará states). PMID:27395503

  3. [A better Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lesser, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Many countries in the Americas describe themselves as "nations of immigrants." In the United States, the myth of the "promised land" suggests that foreigners better themselves upon arrival because the nation is intrinsically great. In Brazil, however, the relationship between immigration and national identity is different. Many intellectuals, politicians, and cultural and economic leaders saw (and see) immigrants as improving an imperfect nation that has been tainted by the history of Portuguese colonialism and African slavery. As a result, immigrants were often hailed as saviors because they modified and improved Brazil, not because they were improved by Brazil. This "improvement" took place through absorption, mixture and with the use of increasingly flexible racial and ethnic categories.

  4. Health care in Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Haines, A

    1993-01-01

    Brazil has great geopolitical importance because of its size, environmental resources, and potential economic power. The organisation of its health care system reflects the schisms within Brazilian society. High technology private care is available to the rich and inadequate public care to the poor. Limited financial resources have been overconcentrated on health care in the hospital sector and health professionals are generally inappropriately trained to meet the needs of the community. However, recent changes in the organisation of health care are taking power away from federal government to state and local authorities. This should help the process of reform, but many vested interests remain to be overcome. A link programme between Britain and Brazil focusing on primary care has resulted in exchange of ideas and staff between the two countries. If primary care in Brazil can be improved it could help to narrow the health divide between rich and poor. Images p503-a p504-a p505-a PMID:8448465

  5. [A better Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lesser, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Many countries in the Americas describe themselves as "nations of immigrants." In the United States, the myth of the "promised land" suggests that foreigners better themselves upon arrival because the nation is intrinsically great. In Brazil, however, the relationship between immigration and national identity is different. Many intellectuals, politicians, and cultural and economic leaders saw (and see) immigrants as improving an imperfect nation that has been tainted by the history of Portuguese colonialism and African slavery. As a result, immigrants were often hailed as saviors because they modified and improved Brazil, not because they were improved by Brazil. This "improvement" took place through absorption, mixture and with the use of increasingly flexible racial and ethnic categories. PMID:24789488

  6. Assessment of computer techniques for processing digital LANDSAT MSS data for lithological discrimination of Serra do Ramalho, State of Bahia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paradella, W. R. (Principal Investigator); Vitorello, I.; Monteiro, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    Enhancement techniques and thematic classifications were applied to the metasediments of Bambui Super Group (Upper Proterozoic) in the Region of Serra do Ramalho, SW of the state of Bahia. Linear contrast stretch, band-ratios with contrast stretch, and color-composites allow lithological discriminations. The effects of human activities and of vegetation cover mask and limit, in several ways, the lithological discrimination with digital MSS data. Principal component images and color composite of linear contrast stretch of these products, show lithological discrimination through tonal gradations. This set of products allows the delineations of several metasedimentary sequences to a level superior to reconnaissance mapping. Supervised (maximum likelihood classifier) and nonsupervised (K-Means classifier) classification of the limestone sequence, host to fluorite mineralization show satisfactory results.

  7. Magnetic anomalies in Bahia Esperanza: A window of magmatic arc intrusions and glacier erosion over the northeastern Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo-Zaldívar, Jesús; Ruiz-Constán, Ana; Pedrera, Antonio; Ghidella, Marta; Montes, Manuel; Nozal, Francisco; Rodríguez-Fernandez, Luis Roberto

    2013-02-01

    Bahia Esperanza, constituting the NE tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, is made up of Paleozoic clastic sedimentary rocks overlain by a Jurassic volcano-sedimentary series and intruded by Cretaceous gabbros and diorites. The area is located along the southern part of the Pacific Margin magnetic anomaly belt. Field magnetic researches during February 2010 contribute to determining the deep geometry of the intermediate and basic intrusive rocks. Moreover, the new field data help constrain the regional Pacific Margin Anomaly, characterized up to now only by aeromagnetic and marine data. Field magnetic susceptibility measurements of intrusive intermediate and basic rocks, responsible for magnetic anomalies, ranges from 0.5 × 10- 3 SI in diorites to values between 0.75 × 10- 3 SI and 1.3 × 10- 3 SI in gabbros. In addition, a significant remanent magnetism should also have contributed to the anomalies. The regional magnetic anomaly is characterized by a westward increase from 100 nT up to 750 nT, associated with large intrusive diorite bodies. They probably underlie most of the western slopes of Mount Flora. Gabbros in the Nobby Nunatak determine local residual rough anomalies that extend northwards and westwards, pointing to the irregular geometry of the top of the basic rocks bodies below the Pirámide Peak Glacier. However, the southern and eastern boundaries with the Buenos Aires Glacier are sharp related to deep glacier incision. As a result of the glacier dynamics, magnetic anomalies are also detected north of the Nobby Nunatak due to the extension of the anomalous body and the presence of gabbro blocks in the moraines. The Bahia Esperanza region is a key area where onshore field geological and magnetic research allows us to constrain the shape of the crustal igneous intrusions and the basement glacier geometry, providing accurate data that complete regional aeromagnetic research.

  8. Hydrography of Bahia Todos Santos, Baja California: Results of more than twenty five years of investigations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos-Serrano, H.; Canino-Herrera, S. R.; Morales-Chavez, R.; Martinez-Garcia, G. M.

    2007-05-01

    The first study of Bahia Todos Santos (BTS) was reported by Walton in 1955. We conducted oceanographic studies in BTS since 1979. The BTS has a connection with a coastal lagoon named Estero de Punta Banda (EPB), two islands at the western portion and the Port of Ensenada. The general hydrographic characteristics are: In winter the water became homogeneous, less saline (<33.4) and with low stability. During spring and summer a hydrographic structure of three layers is noticed. The deepest layer is composed of the southern California water mass with a relatively high salinity (>33.6) low temperature (13°C), low oxygen (~3mL L-1) and rich in nutrient concentration. The isothermal top layer has relatively high temperature (>17°C) and oxygen concentration (>6mL L-1). The intermediate transition layer (seasonal thermocline) has minimum salinity, maximum oxygen and high stability. During fall there is distribution of heat from the surface layer to the entire water column. The thermic waves propagate with decrease amplitude in ~3 months, from surface to bottom water. The California Current flow generally southward off the western United States and northern Mexico and is one of the major coastal upwelling of the word oceans. The upwelling events in BTS appear regularly at the SW portion and were typically characterized by an increase in pCO2, decrease of O2, increase of nutrients and a lower temperature. Upwelling activity increases surface nutrient availability causing rise in the primary productivity and hence increased zooplankton biomass. The annual upwelling event which had a maximum strength on May, the seasonal warming and cooling, and the water advection were the dominant modifying processes for the variability of seawater characteristics. Higher salinities are located close to the coastline and lower off the bay. The levels of oxygen, alkalinity, pH and chlorophyll indicate that the maximum concentration of phytoplankton is located at the center of the bay. The

  9. Human Pythiosis, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bosco, Sandra de Moraes Gimenes; Araújo, João Pessoa; Candeias, João Manuel Grisi; Fabiano de Franco, Marcello; Marques, Mariangela Esther Alencar; Mendoza, Leonel; Pires de Camargo, Rosangela; Marques, Silvio Alencar

    2005-01-01

    Pythiosis, caused by Pythium insidiosum, occurs in humans and animals and is acquired from aquatic environments that harbor the emerging pathogen. Diagnosis is difficult because clinical and histopathologic features are not pathognomonic. We report the first human case of pythiosis from Brazil, diagnosed by using culture and rDNA sequencing. PMID:15890126

  10. Brazil: Rio Branco

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    article title:  Deforestation near Rio Branco, Brazil     View Larger Image Settlement and deforestation surrounding the Brazilian town of Rio Branco are seen here in the striking "herring bone" deforestation patterns that cut through the rainforest. Rio Branco is the ...

  11. English Teaching Profile: Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    This review of the status of English language instruction in Brazil provides an overview of the Brazilian geographic, historical, and political context and the role of English in the society in general and in the educational system. The following topics are covered: an outline of the status of English use and instruction in the educational system…

  12. Adult Education in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio da Educacao e Cultura, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

    The status and goals of adult education programs in Brazil are discussed in this report. Supplemental systems such as the Brazilian Literacy Movement (Mobral) and their results are described and evaluated. Charts detailing the evolution of literacy are shown and priorities in education are suggested. The progress of other educational entities is…

  13. Diversity and population dynamics of Ascidae, Blattisociidae and Melicharidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) in tropical flowers in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Britto, Erika Pessoa Japhyassu; Finotti, Amanda Silva; de Moraes, Gilberto José

    2015-06-01

    Cultivation of tropical flowers has expanded considerably in Brazil, justifying efforts to determine the arthropods associated with it. Heliconia species are some of the most important tropical flowers in Brazil. Mites of the families Ascidae, Blattisociidae and Melicharidae are commonly found on those plants. They disperse from flower to flower on hummingbirds. The objective of this study was to identify the diversity of mites of this group in tropical flowers, with emphasis on Heliconia species, in Brazil and to determine the fluctuation of the population of these mites in Piracicaba, Sao Paulo state. Specimens from Amazonas, Bahia, Pernambuco, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina and São Paulo States were examined. Mites of the genera Asca and Iphidozercon (Ascidae), Cheiroseius and Lasioseius (Blattisociidae), and Proctolaelaps and Tropicoseius (Melicharidae) were collected in flowers of four plant families, with Lasioseius being the most diverse genus. Overall, most specimens found belonged to Tropicoseius, especially Tropicoseius venezuelensis Baker & Yunker; this was the dominant species on five of 13 Heliconia species/hybrids considered in this study. Samples of panicles of Heliconia rostrata Ruiz & Pavón were collected every 2 weeks, in Piracicaba. Six species of those mite families were found, among which Tropicoseius heliconiae Baker & Yunker and T. venezuelensis were the most numerous. The highest population levels of mites of those three families occurred at the beginning and at the end of the year, coinciding with the highest levels of rainfall, relative humidity and temperature, when plant flowers were most numerous and vigorous. Along each panicle, the highest mite densities were found in inflorescences of the three distal eighths of the panicles, where nectar and pollen were probably most abundant.

  14. Evaluation of the use of Leptodactylus ocellatus (Anura: Leptodactylidae) frog tissues as bioindicator of metal contamination in Contas River, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Correia, Lívia O; Siqueira Júnior, Sérgio; Carneiro, Paulo L S; Bezerra, Marcos A

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a study on the viability of the use of tissues of the Leptodactylus ocellatus species (Anura Leptodactylidae) as a bioindicator of metal pollution. The study is based on the determination and correlation of the concentrations of manganese, chromium, zinc, nickel, copper and iron in sediments and tissues (skin, muscles and viscera) of the frog Leptodactylus ocellatus collected in the middle region of the Contas River in Bahia, Brazil. The highest levels of the metals studied were found in the viscera of this animal. In this tissue, a higher correlation of the concentration of these metals with those found in sediments was also observed. The concentrations of elements found in the skin and muscles of these amphibians have revealed no correlation with the sediment where they were collected. According to the results obtained, the viscera of the L. ocellatus species presents itself as a good bioindicator of contamination by the metals studied.

  15. [Unawareness of hypertension and its determinants among 'quilombolas' (inhabitants of 'quilombos' - hinterland settlements founded by people of African origin) living in Southwest Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Vanessa Moraes; Andrade, Amanda Cristina de Souza; César, Cibele Comini; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-03-01

    This study sought to evaluate the prevalence of unawareness of arterial hypertension (AH) and associated factors among the quilombola population and to describe aspects of the non-pharmacological management of AH. It involved a cross-sectional study with a sample of 358 people with AH aged 18 years or more. AH was considered systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg and/or reported use of antihypertensive drugs. Unawareness of AH was classified as persons answering negatively when asked if they suffered from AH. Poisson regression was then used. The prevalence of unawareness of AH was 44.1% (95% CI: 38.9-49.3). Among those who already knew the diagnosis and had drug treatment only 24.8% had controlled BP. The unawareness of AH was positively associated with the male sex and Stage 1 of AH and negatively with increasing age, overweight, negative self-perception of health and medical visits. For non-pharmacological management, low percentages of quilombola reported appropriate standard recommendations of care. Arterial hypertension is a serious public health issue among the quilombola population, revealing great vulnerability in health due to poor levels of awareness, treatment and control.

  16. Macrofauna associated with the brown algae Dictyota spp. (Phaeophyceae, Dictyotaceae) in the Sebastião Gomes Reef and Abrolhos Archipelago, Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, Tauana Junqueira; Güth, Arthur Ziggiatti; Bromberg, Sandra; Sumida, Paulo Yukio Gomes

    2013-11-01

    The taxonomic richness and distributional patterns of the macrofauna associated with the algae genus Dictyota from the Abrolhos Bank (Eastern Brazilian coast) are analyzed. Macrofauna comprised a total of 9586 specimens; a complete faunal list of the most abundant taxa (Crustacea, Polychaeta and Mollusca, accounting for 95.6%) resulted in 64 families and 120 species. Forty six species are registered for the first time for the Abrolhos Bank, of which 3 are also new for the Brazilian coast. The most abundant families were Ampithoidae amphipods (with Ampithoe ramondi as the main faunal component), Janiridae isopods, Rissoellidae gastropods and Syllidae polychaetes. Comparisons were made between summer and winter periods and among sites from Sebastião Gomes Reef, near the coast, and from Siriba Island, in the Abrolhos Archipelago, away from the mainland. Algae size was lower in the summer, when faunal density was higher, suggesting a possible effect of grazing. Macrofaunal communities were significantly different among sites and periods. Coastal and external communities were markedly different and winter had the greatest effects on the fauna. Environmental conditions related to sediment type and origin and turbidity appear to be a good scenario for our macrofauna distribution results.

  17. Advertisement call and morphological variation of the poorly known and endemic Bokermannohyla juiju Faivovich, Lugli, Lourenço and Haddad, 2009 (Anura: Hylidae) from Central Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Taucce, Pedro P G; Pinheiro, Paulo D P; Leite, Felipe S F; Garcia, Paulo C A

    2015-01-01

    Bokermannohyla juiju is a member of the B. martinsi species group and it was described based on one male specimen. In order to enhance the knowledge about the species, we describe its advertisement call and morphological variation, including for the first time data on females. We also provide additional comments about its natural history, geographic distribution, and conservation. The advertisement call of B. juiju consists of a single note, non-pulsed, harmonic structured call emitted several times in a row. Four out of five males were found calling in bromeliads. The female, as it is common in many Bokermannohyla species, presents some morphological features not shared with the males, like a non-hypertrophied forearm and less developed prepollex.  PMID:25662112

  18. Deforestation, Rondonia, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This view of deforestation in Rondonia, far western Brazil, (10.0S, 63.0W) is part of an agricultural resettlement project which ultimately covers an area about 80% the size of France. The patterns of deforestation in this part of the Amazon River Basin are usually aligned adjacent to highways, secondary roads, and streams for ease of access and transportation. Compare this view with the earlier 51G-37-062 for a comparison of deforestation in the region.

  19. IPPs in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Alqueres, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Brazil offers a viable opportunity for independent power producers (IPPs). Four areas of the Brazilian power sector may be the potential starting points for an independent power industry. Recent legislation also has opened the doors for IPP activity by allowing companies to form consortia to generate power for their own needs. Another recent decree formed the basis for a grid system to which generators can sell power. This also has laid the groundwork for more clearly defined wheeling charges.

  20. Health promotion in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ivo de Carvalho, Antonio; Westphal, Marcia Faria; Pereira Lima, Vera Lucia Góes

    2007-01-01

    Brazil, a Latin American country of continental proportions and contrasts, demographic inequalities, and social inequities, concomitantly faces the challenge of preventing and controlling infectious diseases, injuries, and non-communicable diseases. The loss of strength of the biomedical paradigm, the change in epidemiological profile, and the sociopolitical and cultural challenges of recent decades have fostered the emergence of new formulations about public health thinking and practice. Among them, are the paradigms of Brazilian Collective Health and Health Promotion. The former provides philosophical support for Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS). The aim of this article is to discuss the development of public health within the country's history, and to analyze and compare the theoretical assumptions of Health Promotion and Collective Health. We conclude that health promotion, based on the principles and values disseminated by the international Charters and concerned with social actors and social determinants of the health-disease process, has significant potential to promote the improvement of living and health conditions of the population. This frame of reference guided the formulation of the National Policy of Health Promotion within the Unified Health System, which was institutionalized by a ministerial decree. The importance and application of evaluating the effectiveness of health promotion processes and methodologies in Brazil have been guided by various frames of reference, which we clarify in this article through describing historical processes.

  1. Health promotion in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ivo de Carvalho, Antonio; Westphal, Marcia Faria; Pereira Lima, Vera Lucia Góes

    2007-01-01

    Brazil, a Latin American country of continental proportions and contrasts, demographic inequalities, and social inequities, concomitantly faces the challenge of preventing and controlling infectious diseases, injuries, and non-communicable diseases. The loss of strength of the biomedical paradigm, the change in epidemiological profile, and the sociopolitical and cultural challenges of recent decades have fostered the emergence of new formulations about public health thinking and practice. Among them, are the paradigms of Brazilian Collective Health and Health Promotion. The former provides philosophical support for Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS). The aim of this article is to discuss the development of public health within the country's history, and to analyze and compare the theoretical assumptions of Health Promotion and Collective Health. We conclude that health promotion, based on the principles and values disseminated by the international Charters and concerned with social actors and social determinants of the health-disease process, has significant potential to promote the improvement of living and health conditions of the population. This frame of reference guided the formulation of the National Policy of Health Promotion within the Unified Health System, which was institutionalized by a ministerial decree. The importance and application of evaluating the effectiveness of health promotion processes and methodologies in Brazil have been guided by various frames of reference, which we clarify in this article through describing historical processes. PMID:17596091

  2. Country watch: Brazil.

    PubMed

    Henriques, H

    1996-01-01

    Prior to the successful, low-cost, multimedia campaigns of GAPA-Bahia (GAPA-BA), a nongovernmental organization (NGO), campaigns to educate people about HIV, AIDS, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were produced by the Brazilian National AIDS/STD Program. Their first campaign, in 1990, focused on fear; their second, in 1995, known as the Braulio campaign, targeted poor men with little education via a conversation between a man and his penis "which had its own will power, opinions about condoms, and a compulsion to have sex." Both campaigns failed. GAPA-BA, in 1990, joined the chorus protesting the campaigns; the NGO believed the messages failed because 1) frightening people drives them away from information and 2) frequent association of AIDS with death is depressing and carries a subliminal message of guilt to those infected. GAPA-BA became the first NGO to produce low-cost, multimedia campaigns nationwide. They focused on "the social responsibility of fighting the disease while emphasizing the value of life and individual sexual freedom." The first campaign, in 1993 and in 1994, used charismatic singers to send short messages encouraging individual responsibility in condom use. The second campaign, in 1995, used "elements from the local culture by affirming the Afro-Bahain heritage expressed in popular music and dance." The light-hearted prevention message during Carnival was "Don't hide from pleasure, avoid AIDS" as a condom was inflated. The 1996 campaign ("Don't rely on luck; use a condom") required five newspaper ads, radio spots, TV ads, 25,000 posters, billboards, and ads on public buses. Five HIV-infected or HIV-affected persons spoke about their lives. This was the first time people living with HIV/AIDS took on educational roles and shed their dangerous and frightening stereotypes. The campaigns are sponsored by donors or remain low in cost because community-based organizations have sensitized other social actors who respond through the community

  3. Country watch: Brazil.

    PubMed

    Henriques, H

    1996-01-01

    Prior to the successful, low-cost, multimedia campaigns of GAPA-Bahia (GAPA-BA), a nongovernmental organization (NGO), campaigns to educate people about HIV, AIDS, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were produced by the Brazilian National AIDS/STD Program. Their first campaign, in 1990, focused on fear; their second, in 1995, known as the Braulio campaign, targeted poor men with little education via a conversation between a man and his penis "which had its own will power, opinions about condoms, and a compulsion to have sex." Both campaigns failed. GAPA-BA, in 1990, joined the chorus protesting the campaigns; the NGO believed the messages failed because 1) frightening people drives them away from information and 2) frequent association of AIDS with death is depressing and carries a subliminal message of guilt to those infected. GAPA-BA became the first NGO to produce low-cost, multimedia campaigns nationwide. They focused on "the social responsibility of fighting the disease while emphasizing the value of life and individual sexual freedom." The first campaign, in 1993 and in 1994, used charismatic singers to send short messages encouraging individual responsibility in condom use. The second campaign, in 1995, used "elements from the local culture by affirming the Afro-Bahain heritage expressed in popular music and dance." The light-hearted prevention message during Carnival was "Don't hide from pleasure, avoid AIDS" as a condom was inflated. The 1996 campaign ("Don't rely on luck; use a condom") required five newspaper ads, radio spots, TV ads, 25,000 posters, billboards, and ads on public buses. Five HIV-infected or HIV-affected persons spoke about their lives. This was the first time people living with HIV/AIDS took on educational roles and shed their dangerous and frightening stereotypes. The campaigns are sponsored by donors or remain low in cost because community-based organizations have sensitized other social actors who respond through the community

  4. Increase in Reported Prevalence of Microcephaly in Infants Born to Women Living in Areas with Confirmed Zika Virus Transmission During the First Trimester of Pregnancy - Brazil, 2015.

    PubMed

    Kleber de Oliveira, Wanderson; Cortez-Escalante, Juan; De Oliveira, Wanessa Tenório Gonçalves Holanda; do Carmo, Greice Madeleine Ikeda; Henriques, Cláudio Maierovitch Pessanha; Coelho, Giovanini Evelim; Araújo de França, Giovanny Vinícius

    2016-03-11

    Widespread transmission of Zika virus by Aedes mosquitoes has been recognized in Brazil since late 2014, and in October 2015, an increase in the number of reported cases of microcephaly was reported to the Brazil Ministry of Health.* By January 2016, a total of 3,530 suspected microcephaly cases had been reported, many of which occurred in infants born to women who lived in or had visited areas where Zika virus transmission was occurring. Microcephaly surveillance was enhanced in late 2015 by implementing a more sensitive case definition. Based on the peak number of reported cases of microcephaly, and assuming an average estimated pregnancy duration of 38 weeks in Brazil (1), the first trimester of pregnancy coincided with reports of cases of febrile rash illness compatible with Zika virus disease in pregnant women in Bahia, Paraíba, and Pernambuco states, supporting an association between Zika virus infection during early pregnancy and the occurrence of microcephaly. Pregnant women in areas where Zika virus transmission is occurring should take steps to avoid mosquito bites. Additional studies are needed to further elucidate the relationship between Zika virus infection in pregnancy and microcephaly.

  5. Migratory flows and foraging habitat selection by shorebirds along the northeastern coast of Brazil: The case of Baía de Todos os Santos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunardi, Vitor O.; Macedo, Regina H.; Granadeiro, José P.; Palmeirim, Jorge M.

    2012-01-01

    Large numbers of Nearctic shorebirds migrate and winter along the coast of northeastern Brazil, but there is little information on their migratory flows, foraging ecology, and on the structure of the species assemblages that they form with resident shorebirds. We studied these issues on intertidal flats of Baía de Todos os Santos (Bahia), the second largest bay in Brazil. During a full year cycle we carried out weekly bird counts in an intertidal area of 280 ha divided in sectors, where we also measured environmental parameters. The analyses of weekly counts resulted in a detailed phenology of use of the area by shorebirds. Five species were resident and ten were Nearctic migrants. Several of the latter had clear peaks in numbers in March and October, revealing the use of the bay as a stopover during both the north-bound and south-bound migration flows. A canonical correspondence analysis of the relationship between environmental parameters and bird numbers indicated that the foraging bird assemblage could be divided into five main groups, occupying distinct ecological gradients in the study area. The most important factors driving this structure were invertebrate prey abundance, percentage of fine sediments, area of mangrove cover and distance to channels. Our findings imply that maintenance of the diversity of intertidal habitats in this bay is crucial to satisfy the particular habitat requirements of resident and migrant shorebirds using the northeastern coastal regions of Brazil.

  6. Host genetic factors in American cutaneous leishmaniasis: a critical appraisal of studies conducted in an endemic area of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Castellucci, Léa Cristina; Almeida, Lucas Frederico de; Jamieson, Sarra Elisabeth; Fakiola, Michaela; Carvalho, Edgar Marcelino de; Blackwell, Jenefer Mary

    2014-06-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a vector-transmitted infectious disease with an estimated 1.5 million new cases per year. In Brazil, ACL represents a significant public health problem, with approximately 30,000 new reported cases annually, representing an incidence of 18.5 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Corte de Pedra is in a region endemic for ACL in the state of Bahia (BA), northeastern Brazil, with 500-1,300 patients treated annually. Over the last decade, population and family-based candidate gene studies were conducted in Corte de Pedra, founded on previous knowledge from studies on mice and humans. Notwithstanding limitations related to sample size and power, these studies contribute important genetic biomarkers that identify novel pathways of disease pathogenesis and possible new therapeutic targets. The present paper is a narrative review about ACL immunogenetics in BA, highlighting in particular the interacting roles of the wound healing gene FLI1 with interleukin-6 and genes SMAD2 and SMAD3 of the transforming growth factor beta signalling pathway. This research highlights the need for well-powered genetic and functional studies on Leishmania braziliensis infection as essential to define and validate the role of host genes in determining resistance/susceptibility regarding this disease.

  7. Influence of Tropical Cyclones Period 1970 TO 2010 IN the Region of Bahia de Banderas, Nayarit-Jalisco Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    This study evaluates the impacts of tropical cyclones (TC) that made landfall in populated areas along the Pacific coast of Mexico, especially in the region of Bahia de Banderas. During the period of 1970-2010 and used a database of international natural disasters to identify impacts. Were more than 13 events during the reporting period, of which 10 are examined more precipitation accumulated and 6 that caused further damage to the affected population in these cases ranged from 5000 to more than 15 000 inhabitants. Strong winds and heavy rainfall in periods of one to three days were associated with property damage and loss of life. The results of the study indicate that excessive accumulations of rain and daily intensity are important factors connected with the occurrence of disasters in densely populated areas. Six of the first 10 Tropical Cyclone associated with major disasters occurred in conditions of El Niño and four neutral conditions. With the analysis of satellite images using GOES-10 in the IDV software maps were obtained in the coastal impacts of Banderas Bay and describes the main features of each meteorological phenomena. In which concludes that no tropical cyclone entered directly to the Banderas Bay region, but its effects were very relevant, taking into account the topography, land use change and the vulnerability of the region. Tropical Cyclones that have affected the region of Bay of Banderas

  8. Development and validation of models predicting the toxicity of major seawater ions to the mysid shrimp, Americamysis bahia.

    PubMed

    Pillard, David A; DuFresne, Doree L; Mickley, Mike C

    2002-10-01

    The concentration and balance of major ions that comprise total dissolved solids (TDS) can influence the toxicity of effluents discharged to freshwater and marine environments. An additional complicating factor in waters released to saltwater systems is the effluent salinity since the toxicity of major ions changes with the salinity of the test solution. A study was conducted to evaluate the toxicity of six major seawater ions (bicarbonate, borate, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sulfate) to the mysid shrimp, Americamysis bahia, at salinities of 10 and 20/1000. Logistic regression models were developed to predict organism survival at deficient and excess concentrations of the ions. Calcium and potassium caused significant mortality to mysid shrimp in both excess and deficient (relative to artificial seawater) solutions. Bicarbonate, borate, and magnesium displayed significant toxicity only in excess concentrations, while sulfate had no adverse impacts at any of the concentrations tested. As the salinity of the test solutions decreased, mysid shrimp tolerated increasingly lower calcium and potassium concentrations. Similarly, as salinity increased, the upper tolerance levels of calcium, potassium, and magnesium also increased. The models developed during these studies, and similar models developed by other researchers, were used to evaluate 11 actual effluents with unexplained toxicity that might be associated with TDS ions. The models correctly identified calcium as the primary toxicant in 9 of the 11 effluents. These results indicate the models can be used as an important tool to identify toxicity associated with major seawater ions. PMID:12371489

  9. Brazil: Intercultural Experiential Learning Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    This booklet was designed to facilitate interactions and communication with the people of Brazil by providing information about their customs, attitudes and other cultural characteristics which influence their actions and values. A brief description of Brazil is given, covering the following: its size and geography, history, language, economy,…

  10. A Comprehensive View of Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    This student and teacher resource discusses the geography, history, and contemporary changes and achievements of Brazil. It is intended to complement textbooks and other teaching materials by serving as a resource for teachers, administrators, and students. The document is presented in three parts. Part I focuses on the geography of Brazil,…

  11. Group 2 vaccinia virus, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Assis, Felipe Lopes; Borges, Iara Apolinario; Ferreira, Paulo César Peregrino; Bonjardim, Cláudio Antônio; Trindade, Giliane de Souza; Lobato, Zélia Inês Portela; Guedes, Maria Isabel Maldonado; Mesquita, Vaz; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Abrahão, Jônatas Santos

    2012-12-01

    In 2011, vaccinia virus caused an outbreak of bovine vaccinia, affecting dairy cattle and dairy workers in Brazil. Genetic and phenotypic analyses identified this isolate as distinct from others recently identified, thereby reinforcing the hypothesis that different vaccinia virus strains co-circulate in Brazil.

  12. Upward Lightning in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, C.; Saba, M. M.; Alves, J.; Warner, T. A.; Albrecht, R. I.; Bie, L. L.

    2012-12-01

    Observations of upward lightning from tall objects have been reported since 1939. Interest in this subject has grown recently, some of it because of the rapid expansion of wind power generation. Also, with the increasing number of tall buildings and towers, there will be a corresponding increase in the number of upward lightning flashes from these structures. Reports from recent field observations are beginning to address the nature of upward lightning initiation, but much still needs to be learned. Examples are studies of upward lightning from towers in winter thunderstorms in Japan (Wang and Takagi, 2010; and Lu et al., 2009) and summer thunderstorms in Europe (Miki et al., 2005; Flache et al., 2008; and Diendorfer et al., 2009; Zhou et al., 2011) and in North America (Mazur and Ruhnke, 2011; Hussein et al., 2011; Warner, 2011, and Warner et al., 2011). Up to January 2012, no upward flash had ever been registered in Brazil. With the help of some video cameras, we recorded 15 upward lightning which started from one of the towers located on Peak Jaraguá in the city of São Paulo. This paper describes the first results of this field campaign. A combination of high-speed video and standard definition video were used to record upward lightning flashes from multiple towers in Sao Paulo, Brazil, a city located in southeastern Brazil with a population over 10 million people, an average elevation of around 800 meters above sea level, and a flash density of 15 flashes/km2/year. Observations of 15 upward flashes made with these assets were analyzed along with BrasilDAT Lightning Detection Network and a lightning mapping array (LMA) and electric field sensors.

  13. Astronomy in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbuy, Beatriz; Maciel, Walter J.

    2013-01-01

    A historical background combined with political decisions along time explain the increasing importance of Brazil in the world's astronomical scenario. Professional astronomy was triggered in the late sixties and early seventies by the two main historical institutions then existing (ON and IAG/USP), together with the creation of agencies for research and combined with individual actions. There are presently 670 astronomers working in the country, including permanent jobs and graduate students. A brief description of observational facilities and plans to increase access to other facilities is presented.

  14. Social Psychotherapy in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Heloisa J; Marra, Marlene M; Knobel, Anna M

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the practice of sociodrama, a method created by J. L. Moreno in the 1930s, and the Brazilian contemporary socio-psychodrama. In 1970, after the Fifth International Congress of Psychodrama was held in Brazil, group psychotherapy began to flourish both in private practice and hospital clinical settings. Twenty years later, the Brazilian health care system added group work as a reimbursable mental health procedure to improve social health policies. In this context, socio-psychodrama became a key resource for social health promotion within groups. Some specific conceptual contributions by Brazilians on sociodrama are also noteworthy. PMID:26401805

  15. Impact of drainage and sewerage on intestinal nematode infections in poor urban areas in Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moraes, L R S; Cancio, Jacira Azevedo; Cairncross, Sandy

    2004-04-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted in 1989 among children aged between 5 and 14 years old living in nine poor urban areas of the city of Salvador (pop. 2.44 million), capital of Bahia State, in Northeast Brazil. Three of these areas had benefited from both drainage and sewerage, 3 from improved drainage only, and 3 from neither. The children studied thus belonged to 3 exposure groups regarding their level of sanitation infrastructure. An extensive questionnaire was applied to collect information on each child and on the conditions of the household, and stool examinations of the children 5-14 years old were performed to measure nematode infection. Comparison of the sewerage group with the drainage-only group and the latter with the control (no sewerage or drainage) group showed that, when the level of community sanitation was better, the prevalence of infection among children was less, but risk factors identified for infection were more numerous and more significant. Intensity of infection with Trichuris, but not with Ascaris or hookworm, was also less. The results suggest that sewerage and drainage can have a significant effect on intestinal nematode infections, by reducing transmission occurring in the public domain.

  16. Leprosy in children and adolescents under 15 years old in an urban centre in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Selton Diniz; Penna, Gerson Oliveira; Costa, Maria da Conceição Nascimento; Natividade, Marcio Santos; Teixeira, Maria Glória

    2016-05-24

    This original study describes the intra-urban distribution of cases of leprosy in residents under 15 years old in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; the study also identifies the environment in which Mycobacterium leprae is being transmitted. The cases were distributed by operational classification, clinical forms, type of contact and the addresses were geo-referenced by neighborhood. Between 2007 and 2011, were reported 145 cases of leprosy in target population living in Salvador, corresponding to detection rates of 6.21, 6.14, 5.58, 5.41 and 6.88/100,000 inhabitants, respectively. The spatial distribution of the disease was focal. Of the 157 neighborhoods of Salvador, 44 (28.6%) notified cases of leprosy and in 22 (50%) of these were detected more than 10 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. The infectious forms were found in 40% of cases. Over 90% of cases had been living in Salvador for more than five years. Overall, 52.6% reported having had contact with another infected individual inside the household and 25% in their social circle. In Salvador, M. leprae transmission is established. The situation is a major concern, since transmission is intense at an early age, indicating that this endemic disease is expanding and contacts extend beyond individual households. PMID:27223655

  17. Isolation, molecular characteristics and disinfection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from ICU units in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Campos, Guilherme B; Souza, Simone G; Lob O, Tassia N; Da Silva, Danilo C C; Sousa, Daniel S; Oliveira, Pollianna S; Santos, Verena M; Amorim, Aline T; Farias, S Vio T; Cruz, Mariluze P; Yatsuda, Regiane; Marques, Lucas M

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to isolate S. aureus strains resistant to antibiotics, characterize the genotype profiles of resistance staphylococci, and evaluate the efficacy of antiseptic agents and disinfectants used in two public hospitals of Vitoria da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil. Clinical samples were obtained from ICU environments and equipment surfaces in two public hospitals in Vitoria da Conquista. Broth cultures were plated onto mannitol salt agar, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by the broth microdilution method according to CLSI. MRSA strains were submitted to PCR for detecting the mecA gene. PCR products were purified and sequenced for SCCmec type identification. Moreover, the strains were tested for efficacy of different disinfectant solutions. S. aureus were isolated from 31 and 67 sites in each hospital, respectively. Among the isolates from hospital 1, 07 (22.6%) were resistant to oxacillin while 28 (41.8%) were resistant in hospital 2. Thirty-one were positive for the mecA gene. All isolates showed SCCmec type III genotype characteristics of the Brazilian epidemic clone. In disinfectant tests, sodium hypochlorite (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%), 2% chlorhexidine gluconate, quaternary ammonium, peracetic acid and formaldehyde were effective against the isolates tested. The strains showed higher resistance to vinegar (4% acetic acid), alcohol and glutaraldehyde. The findings of this study should assist in reducing the occurrence of nosocomial infections and therefore the morbidity, mortality and socio-economic burden caused by prolonged hospitalization.

  18. Sickle cell disease retinopathy: characterization among pediatric and teenage patients from northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida Oliveira, Dayse Cury; Carvalho, Magda O.S.; do Nascimento, Valma Maria Lopes; Villas-Bôas, Flávia Silva; Galvão-Castro, Bernardo; Goncalves, Marilda Souza

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to characterize sickle cell disease retinopathy in children and teenagers from Bahia, the state in northeastern Brazil with the highest incidence and prevalence of sickle cell disease. Methods A group of 51 sickle cell disease patients (36 hemoglobin SS and 15 hemoglobin SC) with ages ranging from 4 to 18 years was studied. Ophthalmological examinations were performed in all patients. Moreover, a fluorescein angiography was also performed in over 10-year-old patients. Results The most common ocular lesions were vascular tortuosity, which was found in nine (25%) hemoglobin SS patients, and black sunburst, in three (20%) hemoglobin SC patients. Peripheral arterial closure was observed in five (13.9%) hemoglobin SS patients and in three (13.3%) hemoglobin SC patients. Arteriovenous anastomoses were present in six (16.5%) hemoglobin SS patients and six (37.5%) hemoglobin SC patients. Neovascularization was not identified in any of the patients. Conclusions This study supports the use of early ophthalmological examinations in young sickle cell disease patients to prevent the progression of retinopathy to severe disease and further blindness. PMID:25305166

  19. A new species of the genus Hermanella Needham & Murphy (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae) from Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Everlin; Costa, Sabrina; Mariano, Rodolfo

    2016-01-01

    Hermanella angeli sp. nov. (Holotype male deposited in MZUSP: Itacaré municipality, Cachoeira Bom Sossego, 14°20'05.2"S, 39°01'27.4"W, 31.VII.2012, Mariano, R, Almeida, E & Costa, S. leg.) is described based on imagos and nymphs from the State of Bahia, Brazil. The new species can be distinguished by the following combination of characteristics, in male imagos: (1) costal and subcostal area of forewing brown (Fig. 5b); (2) thorax and abdominal terga predominantly brown (Fig. 2-3); (3) penes divided in apical 1/8 (Fig. 8); (4) penis lobe with ventral, long, curved spine (Fig. 7); (5) prosternum narrow (Fig. 1). In nymphs: (1) tarsal claws with 2-3 accessory denticles (Fig. 19); (2) mandible without setae near basal articulation (Fig. 13a); (3) prostheca of left mandible with spines on inner margin (Fig. 13b); (4) plate-like gills terminated in a finger-like process (Fig. 11). PMID:27395966

  20. Characterization saprobic fungi on leaf litter of two species of trees in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Loise Araujo; Gusmão, Luís Fernando Pascholati

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the composition and structure of fungal communities associated with leaf litter generated by Clusia nemorosa and Vismia guianensis that belong to phylogenetically-related botanical families and exist together in a remnant of the Atlantic Forest in Bahia, Brazil. Samplings were conducted during wet (June 2011) and dry (January 2013) seasons in Serra da Jibóia. The fungi were isolated using particle filtration and the 1,832 isolates represented 92 taxa. The wet season yielded the largest number of isolates (1,141) and taxa (76) compared with the dry season (641 isolates and 37 taxa). The richness and diversity of fungal species associated with C. nemorosa (64 taxa, Simpson=0.95)were higher compared with those of V.guianensis (59 taxa, Simpson =0.90). Analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) revealed significant variations in the composition and community structure of fungi isolated from the two plants as a function of seasons. In contrast, nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis show that the seasonality was an important influence on the distribution of fungal species. However, the populations of the saprobic fungal communities were dynamic, and several factors may influence such communities in the Atlantic Forest.

  1. Periodontal profile and presence of periodontal pathogens in young African-Americans from Salvador, Ba, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Victor, Ligia Valéria; Cortelli, Sheila Cavalca; Aquino, Davi Romeiro; de Carvalho Filho, Jonas; Cortelli, José Roberto

    2008-01-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluated the periodontal status and the presence of periodontopathogens in 132 young, black ethnic subjects who live in Salvador/Bahia-Brazil and have never smoked. Periodontal Probing Depth (PPD), Clinical Attachment Level (CAL), Plaque Index (PI) and Gingival Index (GI) were measured and analyzed by ANOVA and Wilcoxon tests (p<0.05) according to gender and age. The presence of A.actinomycetemcomitans, P.gingivalis, E.corrodens and F.nucleatum was determined by PCR and was analyzed by ANOVA, Wilcoxon, Student-t tests (p<0.05). Mean values of PPD and CAL were 2.18 and 1.0mm, respectively. Clinical parameters did not show differences between subjects of varying gender and age. The microbial prevalence was observed to be 95.45% for E.corrodens followed by F.nucleatum with 68.18%, A.actinomycetemcomitans with 45.45% and P gingivalis with 40.9%. An association between the presence of pathogens and gender and age was not observed (p<0.05). PPD, CAL and PI were not associated with P.gingivalis; however, GI appeared in higher frequencies among subjects without P.gingivalis. In this young, black ethnic, Brazilian population, a high percentage (96.96%) of subjects harbored at least one selected periodontal pathogen, but most subjects showed a healthy periodontal status. Further investigations are required to evaluate the actual influence of the presence of these bacterial species. PMID:24031206

  2. Reproduction of the fish Lutjanus analis (mutton snapper; Perciformes: Lutjanidae) from Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Simone F; Duarte, Yalan F; Ferreira, Beatrice P

    2010-09-01

    The mutton snapper Lutjanus analis is an overexploited species of economic importance for the Northeast region of Brazil. To determine the reproductive aspects of the mutton snapper, biological data were sampled from Bahia, Pernambuco, Paraíba, Rio Grande do Norte and Ceará States, between 7 and 200m depth, from February 1997 to December 1999, performed in the Brazilian Economic Exclusive Zone Study Program (REVIZEE-NE Program). Data on total length (TL), fork length (FL), standard length (SL), total weight (TW) and gutted weight (GW) were measured. The gonads were collected and fixed in FAACC for histological analysis on maturational stage and calculation of the gonadosomatic index (GSI). A total of 135 fishes were collected; from these, 74 were females and 61 were males. Females were between 28.0 and 69.0cm (TL) and the males between 35.0 and 75.0cm (TL). Mutton snapper are gonochorists, and the spawning season, determined by the maturity stages frequency and the GSI, occurred between November and April, with peak spawning in March. The mature females' minimum length was 28.0cm fork length, smaller than the minimum maturation length previously reported for the species in Cuba. The exploitation status of the species and the biological traits enhances the importance of establishing spatial and seasonal protection measures such as protected areas both in nursery and spawning sites. PMID:20737838

  3. Leprosy in children and adolescents under 15 years old in an urban centre in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Selton Diniz; Penna, Gerson Oliveira; Costa, Maria da Conceição Nascimento; Natividade, Marcio Santos; Teixeira, Maria Glória

    2016-01-01

    This original study describes the intra-urban distribution of cases of leprosy in residents under 15 years old in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; the study also identifies the environment in which Mycobacterium leprae is being transmitted. The cases were distributed by operational classification, clinical forms, type of contact and the addresses were geo-referenced by neighborhood. Between 2007 and 2011, were reported 145 cases of leprosy in target population living in Salvador, corresponding to detection rates of 6.21, 6.14, 5.58, 5.41 and 6.88/100,000 inhabitants, respectively. The spatial distribution of the disease was focal. Of the 157 neighborhoods of Salvador, 44 (28.6%) notified cases of leprosy and in 22 (50%) of these were detected more than 10 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. The infectious forms were found in 40% of cases. Over 90% of cases had been living in Salvador for more than five years. Overall, 52.6% reported having had contact with another infected individual inside the household and 25% in their social circle. In Salvador, M. leprae transmission is established. The situation is a major concern, since transmission is intense at an early age, indicating that this endemic disease is expanding and contacts extend beyond individual households. PMID:27223655

  4. [Pathogenic bacteria dissemination by ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in two hospitals in northeast Brazil].

    PubMed

    Fontana, Renato; Wetler, Rita M da C; Aquino, Renata S S; Andrioli, João L; Queiroz, Guilherme R G; Ferreira, Sônia L; Nascimento, Ivan C do; Delabie, Jacques H C

    2010-01-01

    Nosocomial infections bring a high risk to the health of hospital patients and employees. Ants are common organisms in Brazilian hospitals, where they can act as dispersers of opportunistic microorganisms in places they forage. The occurrence of multi-resistant bacteria carried by ants was analyzed in two public hospitals (HA and HB) in southeastern Bahia, Brazil. In these two hospitals 132 workers belonging to three ant species were collected. The bacteria associated to these ants were identified and their susceptibility to antibiotics was evaluated. More than half (57.3%) of ants collected in HA were associated with some kind of bacteria, with 26.7% of them being opportunist bacteria, while 84,2% of the ants from HB presented associated bacteria growth, with 61.4% of them being opportunist bacteria. Twenty four species of bacteria were isolated. The Gram-positive bacilli of the genus Bacillus were the most frequent, followed by the Gram-positive cocci, Gram-negative bacilli (family Enterobacteriaceae) and Gram-negative non-fermenters bacilli. The profile of sensitivity of the bacterial isolates to drugs pointed out the existence of multi-resistant isolates carried by ants. For the first time, are reported cases of the same bacterial resistant isolates taken form homospecific ant workers that point out the importance of ants to bacteria dissemination and proliferation in a hospital. Our results suggest that the risk of contamination presented by these ants is similar to the one of any other mechanical vector of bacterial dissemination.

  5. Characterization saprobic fungi on leaf litter of two species of trees in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Loise Araujo; Gusmão, Luís Fernando Pascholati

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the composition and structure of fungal communities associated with leaf litter generated by Clusia nemorosa and Vismia guianensis that belong to phylogenetically-related botanical families and exist together in a remnant of the Atlantic Forest in Bahia, Brazil. Samplings were conducted during wet (June 2011) and dry (January 2013) seasons in Serra da Jibóia. The fungi were isolated using particle filtration and the 1,832 isolates represented 92 taxa. The wet season yielded the largest number of isolates (1,141) and taxa (76) compared with the dry season (641 isolates and 37 taxa). The richness and diversity of fungal species associated with C. nemorosa (64 taxa, Simpson=0.95)were higher compared with those of V.guianensis (59 taxa, Simpson =0.90). Analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) revealed significant variations in the composition and community structure of fungi isolated from the two plants as a function of seasons. In contrast, nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis show that the seasonality was an important influence on the distribution of fungal species. However, the populations of the saprobic fungal communities were dynamic, and several factors may influence such communities in the Atlantic Forest. PMID:26691460

  6. Diversity among isolates of cowpea severe mosaic virus infecting cowpeas in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Abreu, E F M; Tinoco, M L P; Andrade, E C; Aragão, F J L

    2012-09-03

    Eleven isolates of cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV), a member of the genus Comovirus, were selected from 50 samples collected of nine cowpea fields in Northeastern Brazil (Piauí, Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Alagoas, Sergipe, Bahia, and Distrito Federal) and partially sequenced. The RNA1 partial sequence, corresponding to the helicase, viral genome-linked protein, picornain 3C-like protease, and the RNA-directed RNA polymerase genes from CPSMV, had high identity among isolates, varying from 98 to 100%. No evidence was found for intermolecular or intramolecular recombination. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the Brazilian CPSMV isolates are substantially different from the CPSMV strain USA. Despite the low variability found among Brazilian CPSMV isolates, there were notable differences in the symptomatology of infected cowpea plants, ranging from mild to moderate. Previous reports have demonstrated an association between CPSMV symptom determinants and helicase. However, we found no correlation between the helicase mutations and symptoms caused by CPSMV. Nevertheless, all isolates with mutation R to K in the protease provoked severe symptoms. This type of information can provide a foundation for the development of strategies to produce durable resistant cowpea lines. It is crucial for strategies based on DNA sequence-dependent technologies, such as inhibition with RNAi.

  7. Population genetic structure of Attalea vitrivir Zona (Arecaceae) in fragmented areas of southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, R R M; Cavallari, M M; Pimenta, M A S; Abreu, A G; Costa, M R; Guedes, M L

    2015-06-11

    Attalea vitrivir Zona (synonym Orbignya oleifera) is one of the six species of Arecaceae known as "babassu". This species is used to make cosmetics, food, and detergents due to the high concentration of oil in the seeds. It is found only in fragmented areas of southern Bahia State and northern Minas Gerais State, southeast Brazil, and this fragmentation has affected both its ecological and genetic characteristics. We evaluated the genetic diversity and population genetic structure of A. vitrivir in six areas of two different regions at the extremes of its geographical range, in order to gain a better understanding of the factors that affect the distribution and partitioning of its diversity. Nine inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers amplified 74 polymorphic bands, resulting in large diversity values (Shannon diversity index, 0.37-0.47; intrapopulation genetic diversity, 0.25-0.34). Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed considerable differentiation between sampling sites (30.03%) and regions (12.08%), although most of the diversity was observed within sampling sites (69%). Further differentiation between sampling sites was noted more in the northern region than in the southern region, highlighting the genetic connectivity between the sampling sites within Rio Pandeiros Environmental Protection Area (southern region). The identification of two distinct genetic clusters (K = 2) corresponded to the northern and southern regions, and corroborated the AMOVA results. We suggest that the northern area, outside Rio Pandeiros Environmental Protection Area, must be included in future management plans for this species.

  8. The ethnoecology of Caiçara metapopulations (Atlantic Forest, Brazil): ecological concepts and questions

    PubMed Central

    Begossi, Alpina

    2006-01-01

    The Atlantic Forest is represented on the coast of Brazil by approximately 7,5% of remnants, much of these concentrated on the country's SE coast. Within these southeastern remnants, we still find the coastal Caiçaras who descend from Native Indians and Portuguese Colonizers. The maintenance of such populations, and their existence in spite of the deforestation that occurred on the Atlantic Forest coast, deserves especial attention and analysis. In this study, I address, in particular, the Caiçaras who live on the coast of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro States, illustrating with examples of coastal inhabitants from other areas, such as Bahia State (NE coast) and of other forested areas (riverine caboclos of the Amazon). The major focus of this study, based on previous research, performed since 1986 in several populations or villages of the Atlantic Forest coast, is to understand the resilience of the Caiçaras, which is analyzed using ecological concepts, such as metapopulation, resilience and adaptive cycles. The Caiçara populations are located on islands (Búzios, Comprida, Grande, Ilhabela, Jaguanum, Gipóia) and on the coast (Bertioga, Puruba, Picinguaba, among others). Information gathered about the Caiçaras regarding the economic cycles of the local regions, along with ecological, historical and economic data available, are used to understand such resilience, and are complemented with comparative examples from the Brazilian Amazon and with variables such as the local restrictions imposed by environmental governmental agencies. PMID:17010204

  9. Diversity and Localization of Bacterial Endosymbionts from Whitefly Species Collected in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Marubayashi, Julio Massaharu; Kliot, Adi; Yuki, Valdir Atsushi; Rezende, Jorge Alberto Marques; Krause-Sakate, Renate; Pavan, Marcelo Agenor; Ghanim, Murad

    2014-01-01

    Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are sap-sucking insect pests, and some cause serious damage in agricultural crops by direct feeding and by transmitting plant viruses. Whiteflies maintain close associations with bacterial endosymbionts that can significantly influence their biology. All whitefly species harbor a primary endosymbiont, and a diverse array of secondary endosymbionts. In this study, we surveyed 34 whitefly populations collected from the states of Sao Paulo, Bahia, Minas Gerais and Parana in Brazil, for species identification and for infection with secondary endosymbionts. Sequencing the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I gene revealed the existence of five whitefly species: The sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci B biotype (recently termed Middle East-Asia Minor 1 or MEAM1), the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum, B. tabaci A biotype (recently termed New World 2 or NW2) collected only from Euphorbia, the Acacia whitefly Tetraleurodes acaciae and Bemisia tuberculata both were detected only on cassava. Sequencing rRNA genes showed that Hamiltonella and Rickettsia were highly prevalent in all MEAM1 populations, while Cardinium was close to fixation in only three populations. Surprisingly, some MEAM1 individuals and one NW2 population were infected with Fritschea. Arsenopnohus was the only endosymbiont detected in T. vaporariorum. In T. acaciae and B. tuberculata populations collected from cassava, Wolbachia was fixed in B. tuberculata and was highly prevalent in T. acaciae. Interestingly, while B. tuberculata was additionally infected with Arsenophonus, T. acaciae was infected with Cardinium and Fritschea. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis on representative individuals showed that Hamiltonella, Arsenopnohus and Fritschea were localized inside the bacteriome, Cardinium and Wolbachia exhibited dual localization patterns inside and outside the bacteriome, and Rickettsia showed strict localization outside the bacteriome. This study is

  10. Diversity and localization of bacterial endosymbionts from whitefly species collected in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marubayashi, Julio Massaharu; Kliot, Adi; Yuki, Valdir Atsushi; Rezende, Jorge Alberto Marques; Krause-Sakate, Renate; Pavan, Marcelo Agenor; Ghanim, Murad

    2014-01-01

    Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are sap-sucking insect pests, and some cause serious damage in agricultural crops by direct feeding and by transmitting plant viruses. Whiteflies maintain close associations with bacterial endosymbionts that can significantly influence their biology. All whitefly species harbor a primary endosymbiont, and a diverse array of secondary endosymbionts. In this study, we surveyed 34 whitefly populations collected from the states of Sao Paulo, Bahia, Minas Gerais and Parana in Brazil, for species identification and for infection with secondary endosymbionts. Sequencing the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I gene revealed the existence of five whitefly species: The sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci B biotype (recently termed Middle East-Asia Minor 1 or MEAM1), the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum, B. tabaci A biotype (recently termed New World 2 or NW2) collected only from Euphorbia, the Acacia whitefly Tetraleurodes acaciae and Bemisia tuberculata both were detected only on cassava. Sequencing rRNA genes showed that Hamiltonella and Rickettsia were highly prevalent in all MEAM1 populations, while Cardinium was close to fixation in only three populations. Surprisingly, some MEAM1 individuals and one NW2 population were infected with Fritschea. Arsenopnohus was the only endosymbiont detected in T. vaporariorum. In T. acaciae and B. tuberculata populations collected from cassava, Wolbachia was fixed in B. tuberculata and was highly prevalent in T. acaciae. Interestingly, while B. tuberculata was additionally infected with Arsenophonus, T. acaciae was infected with Cardinium and Fritschea. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis on representative individuals showed that Hamiltonella, Arsenopnohus and Fritschea were localized inside the bacteriome, Cardinium and Wolbachia exhibited dual localization patterns inside and outside the bacteriome, and Rickettsia showed strict localization outside the bacteriome. This study is

  11. Shifting Patterns of Pasturelands and Stocking Rates of Cattle in Brazil: 1940 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, L. C. P.; Santos, A.; Pimenta, F. M.; Costa, M. H.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we investigate the shifting in historical patterns of pastureland (natural and planted) in Brazil using a new high-resolution (approximately 1 km x 1 km) spatially explicit reconstruction of land use from 1940 to 2012 and stocking rate of cattle maps from 1990 to 2012. We also identified the top 5% (highest yields) pixels in the 2010 stocking rate map and we assessed the historical trends in intensification and extensification practices in Brazil. We focus our analyzes in Amazonia and Cerrado biomes, in Mato Grosso and Pará states, and in the new agricultural frontier called MATOPIBA - which is formed by Maranhão, Tocantins, Piauí, and Bahia states. Natural pastureland expanded until the 1970s and, after that, most areas with natural pasture were replaced by planted pasture, which is more profitable. In 2012, natural pastures were still predominant in the Pampas (located in southern Rio Grande do Sul) and the Pantanal (located in western Mato Grosso do Sul). On the other hand, planted pastureland expanded in area between 1975 and 2012, especially in the Cerrado biome. Brazilian stocking rate of cattle increased, but remains close to 1.0 head/ha between 1990 and 2010 and the top 5% were about twice as high as the average in all regions analyzed. The yield gap (difference between average and the top 5% pixels) was largest in Pará state, where the stocking rate of cattle was below 50% of the potential given 2010 practices. The increase in cattle production in Amazonia biome and in the states of Mato Grosso and Pará came from both intensification and expansion of pasturelands. In contrast, pasturelands in Cerrado and MATOPIBA decreased in area while stocking rates of cattle increased gradually. Our results provide new insights about land use change and productivity in Brazilian territory that could guide future agricultural and conservation discussions, decisions, and policies.

  12. Baseline susceptibility to Cry1Ac insecticidal protein in Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) populations in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Albernaz, K C; Merlin, B L; Martinelli, S; Head, G P; Omoto, C

    2013-08-01

    The tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (F.), is one of the target pests of genetically modified cotton expressing Cry1Ac insecticidal protein (Bt cotton) derived from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner. This study was conducted to evaluate the susceptibility of field-collected populations of H. virescens to Cry1Ac to establish a baseline for use in an insect resistance management program for Bt cotton in Brazil. Insects were sampled from the main Brazilian cotton-growing regions (Bahia, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, and Goiás) during the cropping seasons of 2007/08 and 2008/09. Cry1Ac susceptibility was estimated by using diet incorporation bioassays. H. virescens was highly susceptible to Cry1Ac protein. The estimated LC50 values varied from 0.18 to 0.66 microg of Cry1Ac/ml of diet among the 2007-2008 populations (approximately 3.7-fold variation). Similarly, the EC50 values based on growth inhibition ranged from 0.0053 to 0.0161 microg of Cry1Ac/ml of diet for the 2007-2008 populations (approximately 3.0-fold variation). A joint analysis of the mortality data across all tested populations was used to develop and validate the diagnostic concentrations of 3.1 and 5.6 microg of Cry1Ac/ml of diet, the upper bound of the confidence interval and twice the LC99 were selected, for resistance monitoring programs of H. virescens to Cry1Ac protein in Brazil.

  13. Seven new species of Selaginellasubg.Stachygynandrum (Selaginellaceae) from Brazil and new synonyms for the genus.

    PubMed

    Valdespino, Iván A; Heringer, Gustavo; Salino, Alexandre; Góes-Neto, Luiz A de Araújo; Ceballos, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    We describe seven new species of Selaginellasubg.Stachygynandrum (Selaginellaalstonii, Selaginellablepharodella, Selaginellacrinita, Selaginellamucronata, Selaginellamucugensis, Selaginellasaltuicola, and Selaginellasematophylla) from Brazil and discuss their possible affinities and conservation status. Scanning electron micrographs of stem sections, leaves, and spores are provided to illustrate the new taxa. In Selaginellaalstonii and Selaginellasaltuicola vegetative growth from strobilus tips is reported and discussed. Four of the new species are from the Espinhaço Mountain Range associated with Campos Rupestres (montane savannah/rocky fields) vegetation. Three of these (i.e., Selaginellablepharodella, Selaginellacrinita, and Selaginellamucugensis) were collected in the northern part of the range in Chapada Diamantina, state of Bahia, while Selaginellaalstonii is from the southern part of the range in the state of Minas Gerais. Selaginellamucronata is found in Atlantic Rainforest vegetation in the state of Espírito Santo, whereas Selaginellasaltuicola inhabits Cerrado (tropical savannah) vegetation in the state of Mato Grosso. Selaginellasematophylla is the most widely distributed of the new species and was collected in Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, and Rio de Janeiro states in Campos Rupestres and Atlantic Rainforest vegetation. Selaginellaalstonii occurs in rocky caves, Selaginellablepharodella, Selaginellacrinita, Selaginellamucugensis, and Selaginellasematophylla seem adapted to seasonally dry places, living on sandy or humid soils, Selaginellamucronata occupies humid, forest understory, and Selaginellasaltuicola is adapted to wet places associated with rocks or logs in waterfalls. Of the seven new species, six are considered local endemics (except for Selaginellasematophylla) because of their restricted currently known distributions to one or two localities within a single state in Brazil. Additionally, we propose new synonymy for Selaginellapalmiformis

  14. Seven new species of Selaginellasubg.Stachygynandrum (Selaginellaceae) from Brazil and new synonyms for the genus.

    PubMed

    Valdespino, Iván A; Heringer, Gustavo; Salino, Alexandre; Góes-Neto, Luiz A de Araújo; Ceballos, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    We describe seven new species of Selaginellasubg.Stachygynandrum (Selaginellaalstonii, Selaginellablepharodella, Selaginellacrinita, Selaginellamucronata, Selaginellamucugensis, Selaginellasaltuicola, and Selaginellasematophylla) from Brazil and discuss their possible affinities and conservation status. Scanning electron micrographs of stem sections, leaves, and spores are provided to illustrate the new taxa. In Selaginellaalstonii and Selaginellasaltuicola vegetative growth from strobilus tips is reported and discussed. Four of the new species are from the Espinhaço Mountain Range associated with Campos Rupestres (montane savannah/rocky fields) vegetation. Three of these (i.e., Selaginellablepharodella, Selaginellacrinita, and Selaginellamucugensis) were collected in the northern part of the range in Chapada Diamantina, state of Bahia, while Selaginellaalstonii is from the southern part of the range in the state of Minas Gerais. Selaginellamucronata is found in Atlantic Rainforest vegetation in the state of Espírito Santo, whereas Selaginellasaltuicola inhabits Cerrado (tropical savannah) vegetation in the state of Mato Grosso. Selaginellasematophylla is the most widely distributed of the new species and was collected in Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, and Rio de Janeiro states in Campos Rupestres and Atlantic Rainforest vegetation. Selaginellaalstonii occurs in rocky caves, Selaginellablepharodella, Selaginellacrinita, Selaginellamucugensis, and Selaginellasematophylla seem adapted to seasonally dry places, living on sandy or humid soils, Selaginellamucronata occupies humid, forest understory, and Selaginellasaltuicola is adapted to wet places associated with rocks or logs in waterfalls. Of the seven new species, six are considered local endemics (except for Selaginellasematophylla) because of their restricted currently known distributions to one or two localities within a single state in Brazil. Additionally, we propose new synonymy for Selaginellapalmiformis

  15. Seven new species of Selaginella subg. Stachygynandrum (Selaginellaceae) from Brazil and new synonyms for the genus

    PubMed Central

    Valdespino, Iván A.; Heringer, Gustavo; Salino, Alexandre; Góes-Neto, Luiz A. de Araújo; Ceballos, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We describe seven new species of Selaginella subg. Stachygynandrum (Selaginella alstonii, Selaginella blepharodella, Selaginella crinita, Selaginella mucronata, Selaginella mucugensis, Selaginella saltuicola, and Selaginella sematophylla) from Brazil and discuss their possible affinities and conservation status. Scanning electron micrographs of stem sections, leaves, and spores are provided to illustrate the new taxa. In Selaginella alstonii and Selaginella saltuicola vegetative growth from strobilus tips is reported and discussed. Four of the new species are from the Espinhaço Mountain Range associated with Campos Rupestres (montane savannah/rocky fields) vegetation. Three of these (i.e., Selaginella blepharodella, Selaginella crinita, and Selaginella mucugensis) were collected in the northern part of the range in Chapada Diamantina, state of Bahia, while Selaginella alstonii is from the southern part of the range in the state of Minas Gerais. Selaginella mucronata is found in Atlantic Rainforest vegetation in the state of Espírito Santo, whereas Selaginella saltuicola inhabits Cerrado (tropical savannah) vegetation in the state of Mato Grosso. Selaginella sematophylla is the most widely distributed of the new species and was collected in Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, and Rio de Janeiro states in Campos Rupestres and Atlantic Rainforest vegetation. Selaginella alstonii occurs in rocky caves, Selaginella blepharodella, Selaginella crinita, Selaginella mucugensis, and Selaginella sematophylla seem adapted to seasonally dry places, living on sandy or humid soils, Selaginella mucronata occupies humid, forest understory, and Selaginella saltuicola is adapted to wet places associated with rocks or logs in waterfalls. Of the seven new species, six are considered local endemics (except for Selaginella sematophylla) because of their restricted currently known distributions to one or two localities within a single state in Brazil. Additionally, we propose new

  16. Influence of salinity and organic carbon on the chronic toxicity of silver to mysids (Americamysis bahia) and silversides (Menidia beryllina).

    PubMed

    Ward, Timothy J; Boeri, Robert L; Hogstrand, Christer; Kramer, James R; Lussier, Suzanne M; Stubblefield, William A; Wyskiel, Derek C; Gorsuch, Joseph W

    2006-07-01

    Tests were conducted with mysids (Americamysis bahia) and silversides (Menidia beryllina) to evaluate the influence of salinity and organic carbon on the chronic toxicity of silver. During 7- and 28-d tests conducted at 10, 20, and 30% per hundred salinity, higher concentrations of dissolved silver generally were required to cause a chronic effect as the salinity of the seawater was increased. The 28-d mysid and silverside 20%-effective concentration values (expressed as dissolved silver) ranged from 3.9 to 60 and from 38 to 170 microg/L, respectively, over the salinity range. This pattern was not observed when the same test results were evaluated against the concentrations of free ionic silver (measured directly during toxicity tests), as predicted by the free-ion activity model. Increasing the concentration of dissolved organic carbon from 1 mg/L to the apparent maximum achievable concentration of 6 mg/L in seawater caused a slight decrease in chronic toxicity to silversides but had no effect on the chronic toxicity to mysids. The possible additive toxicity of silver in both food and water also was investigated. Even at the maximum achievable foodborne concentration, the chronic toxicity of silver added to the water was not affected when silver was also added to the food, based on the most sensitive endpoint (growth). However, although fecundity was unaffected at all five tested concentrations during the test with silver in water only, it was significantly reduced at the two highest waterborne silver concentrations (12 and 24 microg/L) during the test with silver dosed into food and water.

  17. Climate patterns governing the presence and permanence of salmonellae in coastal areas of Bahia de Todos Santos, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Simental, Lourdes; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime

    2008-10-01

    Despite the importance of salmonellae as one of the major causes of food-borne infections worldwide, data regarding the presence of these organisms in the environment are limited. We investigated the presence of Salmonella spp. in Bahia de Todos Santos (Baja California, Mexico) and evaluated the environmental factors that affect the occurrence of Salmonella spp. in this arid region. A total of 1,331 samples collected from 21 sites along the coast during a period of 3 years were analyzed for Salmonella spp. Geographical and seasonal distribution of Salmonella spp. was evaluated in association with environmental parameters and with human infections in the area. The incidence of Salmonella bacteria throughout the study was 4.8%, with the highest incidence detected in wastewater (16.2%), followed by stream water (10.6%), mollusks (7.4%), and seawater (2.3%). Twenty different serotypes were identified among the 64 Salmonella isolates. The dominant serotype was Typhimurium (23.4%), followed by Vejle (6.2%). The presence of Salmonella spp. in coastal areas was mostly confined to rainy periods and areas of stream discharges, and runoff was identified as the predominant factor influencing the transport of Salmonella bacteria from source points to the sea via streams. Isolation of Salmonella spp. was negatively and significantly associated with temperature, probably because of the effect of solar radiation in the decline of permanence of Salmonella bacteria. Conversely, human infections prevailed during the warmest months and were negatively correlated with the presence of Salmonella spp. in the marine environment. PMID:18708509

  18. Biothics in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Debora; Guilhem, Dirce Bellezi; Garrafa, Volnei

    1999-07-01

    In this article the authors briefly sketch the nature of Brazilian bioethics. Bioethics emerged in Brazil later than in other Western countries and the 1990's were the most important period for the spread of the discipline in the country. It is in this period that some structural elements of bioethics were established, such as research groups, regulation of Local Research Ethics Committees (Comitês Locais de Etica em Pesquisa -- CEP), the creation of the National Commission of Ethics in Research with Human Beings (Comissão Nacional de Etica em Pesquisa com Seres Humanos -- CONEP) and the Brazilian Bioethics Society (Sociedade Brasileira de Bioética -- SBB). With regard to theoretical work, Brazilian bioethics is clearly an importer of theories from countries central to the studies of bioethics, or, in other words, countries where biothics first emerged and was established. The most commonly used theory among Brazilian researchers is principalism.

  19. The Brazil nut problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta, Dora; Ruiz-Suarez, Jesus

    2004-03-01

    The segregation of large intruders in a vertically vibrated granular bed is studied. We measure rising times a function of density, diameter and depth; for two different sinusoidal excitations. Our results shed definitive light to explain the fundamental aspects of the fascinating Brazil nut problem. At low frequencies (high amplitudes), inertia and convection are the only mechanisms behind segregation. Inertia dominates when the relative density of the intruder is greater than one and convection when it is less than one. At high frequencies (small amplitudes), where convection is suppressed, segregation occurs by buoyancy or sinkage. Finally, when the diameter of the intruders is changed, the well known paradigm "larger intruders rise faster" fails if the mass of the intruders is kept constant (while their relative densities are greater than one).

  20. Tungsten resources of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Max Gregg

    1974-01-01

    Brazilian tungsten production, 85 percent of which is exported, comes almost entirely from scheelite-bearing tactites in northeast Brazil, and has reached an annual rate of about 2,000 metric tons (2,200 short tons) of scheelite concentrate with 70 percent WO3. Scheelite ore reserves, located principally in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, are estimated to be as high as 8,300,000 tons (9,100,000 short tons) containing 0.7 percent WO3. Minor deposits (or those about which only minimal information is available) of wolframite, with which some cassiterite is associated, are located in Sao Paulo, Santa Catarina, and Rio Grande do Sul. Both the scheelite and the wolframite deposits are considered . to be late Precambrian A (620 to 900 m.y.) or early Cambrian in age.

  1. Brazil: public health genomics.

    PubMed

    Castilla, E E; Luquetti, D V

    2009-01-01

    Brazil represents half of South America and one third of Latin America, having more than 186 million inhabitants. After China and India it is the third largest developing country in the world. The wealth is unequally distributed among the states and among the people. Brazil has a large and complex health care system. A Universal Public Health System (SUS: Sistema SPACEnico de Saúde) covers the medical expenses for 80% of the population. The genetic structure of the population is very complex, including a large proportion of tri- hybrid persons, genetic isolates, and a panmictic large majority. Genetic services are offered at 64 genetic centers, half of them public and free. Nationwide networks are operating for inborn errors of metabolism, oncogenetics, and craniofacial anomalies. The Brazilian Society of Medical Genetics (SBGM) has granted 120 board certifications since 1986, and 7 recognized residences in medical genetics are operating in the country. Three main public health actions promoted by the federal government have been undertaken in the last decade, ultimately aimed at the prevention of birth defects. Since 1999, birth defects are reported for all 3 million annual live births, several vaccination strategies aim at the eradication of rubella, and wheat and maize flours are fortified with folic acid. Currently, the government distributes over 2 million US dollars to finance 14 research projects aimed at providing the basis for the adequate prevention and care of genetics disorders through the SUS. Continuity of this proactive attitude of the government in the area of genomics in public health is desired. PMID:19023184

  2. Zika: Why Brazil, Why Now

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160251.html Zika: Why Brazil, Why Now Several factors -- including economics, ... been the country hit hardest by the ongoing Zika virus epidemic and its potential for birth defects. ...

  3. Agriculture, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This infrared scene of agriculture and ranching enterprises along the middle portion of the Rio Sao Francisco basin of Brazil (13.0S, 43.5 W) shows the usefulness of infrared film in determining types of vegetation. This region of Brazil has been under study for agriculture and ranching enterprises for several years. However, unpredictable rainfall and frequent severe droughts have limited the success of these enterprises.

  4. Neotectonics in northeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezerra, Francisco Hilario Rego

    The thesis describes neotectonic deformation in the continental intraplate region of northeastern Brazil and explores its links with modern seismicity. The region, which is under E-W-oriented compression and N-S-oriented extension, shows shallow earthquake swarms which last for several years and include 5.0-5.2 mb events. Remote sensing, borehole and geophysical data, in conjunction with field structural information, indicate a continuous faulting process since the Miocene which has reactivated Cretaceous faults and Precambrian shear zones or in places generated new faults which cut across existing structures. Three main sets of faults are recognised across the area: a NE-striking set, a NW-striking set and a N-striking set. The first and the second sets are pervasive and their cross-cutting relationships show that they locally form a conjugate set and display both a strike-slip and a dip-slip component of movement. They have generated troughs filled by as much as 260 m of Cainozoic sediments. Radiocarbon dating shows that some of the faults slipped as recently as 4,041-3,689 cal. yr BP. Although the elevation of coastal deposits is consistent with the predictions of glacioisostatic models for the area, tectonic influence can be detected notably near the Carnaubais fault, where rapid emergence by at least 5 m to the east of Sao Bento occurred 4,080-2,780 cal. yr BP. Secondary ground failure, which includes hydroplastic deformation, liquefaction and landslides, can be seen in Quaternary alluvial sediments and is reported in the historical record. The present data show that the potential for large earthquakes in northeastern Brazil has been underestimated. Empirical relationships using liquefaction and surface rupture point to events of at least Ms=6.8 compared to a maximum mb = 5.2 recorded instrumentally. The finding that NE- and NW-trending faults are favourably orientated for reactivation in relation to the current stress field is of potential value for seismic

  5. [Epidemiological research in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Guimarães, R; Lourenço-De-Oliveira, R; Cosac, S

    2001-08-01

    The current epidemiological research in Brazil is described. Secondary data sources were consulted, such as the year 2000 database of the Brazilian Directory of Research Groups and the National Board of Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq). The criterion to identify a group as a research one relies on the existence of at least one research line in the field of epidemiology, as defined by the group leader. After identifying the defined universe of epidemiological research, which included 176 groups and 320 different research lines, the following issues were presented and discussed: the relationships between research financing and health research, focusing on CAPES (Coordination Center for the Advance of University Professionals) graduation programs, public health research and epidemiological research, geographic and institutional distribution and outreach of the current epidemiological research, the researchers and students directly participating in epidemiological research, research topics and patterns of disseminating research findings; the journals where papers in its fullness were published; the financial support of the epidemiological research focusing on the 23 officially recognized graduate programs in public health field. PMID:11600921

  6. Chronic Toxicity of Unweathered and Weathered Macondo Oils to Mysid Shrimp (Americamysis bahia) and Inland Silversides (Menidia beryllina).

    PubMed

    Echols, B; Smith, A; Gardinali, P R; Rand, G M

    2016-07-01

    Chronic, 21-28-day toxicity tests of Macondo source (Massachusetts, or MASS) and weathered Slick A (CTC) and Slick B (Juniper) oils field collected during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) Incident in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) were conducted using standardized procedures. Standard species, Americamysis bahia and Menidia beryllina, were evaluated for changes in survival and growth during daily static-renewal tests. Both species demonstrated an increased sensitivity to low-energy water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of un-weathered MASS oil, with growth and survival decreasing as oil loading rate increased from 0.01 to 1.0 g/L. Survival and growth of mysid shrimp exposed to weathered oil (Slick A and Slick B) did not differ from that of test controls. In contrast, survival and growth of inland silversides declined relative to that of test controls at loading rates of 1 g/L for both weathered oils. Based on the concentration of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (TPAH42), no observed effect concentrations were lower for inland silverside survival (5.00-7.61 µg/L) and growth (<2.02 to <7.61 µg/L) in chronic exposures to Slick B and Slick A weathered oils compared with mysids (4.75-17.9 µg/L). Average TPAH concentrations in full strength WAFs followed the weathering trend, with 165 ± 17.2, 17.9 ± 0.480, and 4.75 ± 0.521 µg/L for MASS, Slick A, and Slick B oils, respectively. The effect (LOEC, IC25) and no-effect exposure concentrations (in TPAHs) from the standardized laboratory toxicity studies with un-weathered and weathered oils are discussed relative to the actual exposure concentrations in the GOM in 2010. The exposures evaluated in the laboratory toxicity tests represent the highest concentrations of total PAHs that were rarely observed in water column samples collected in the GOM during the release and post release periods of the DWH incident. PMID:27090525

  7. Hydrological Forecasting Practices in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Fernando; Paiva, Rodrigo; Collischonn, Walter; Ramos, Maria-Helena

    2016-04-01

    This work brings a review on current hydrological and flood forecasting practices in Brazil, including the main forecasts applications, the different kinds of techniques that are currently being employed and the institutions involved on forecasts generation. A brief overview of Brazil is provided, including aspects related to its geography, climate, hydrology and flood hazards. A general discussion about the Brazilian practices on hydrological short and medium range forecasting is presented. Detailed examples of some hydrological forecasting systems that are operational or in a research/pre-operational phase using the large scale hydrological model MGB-IPH are also presented. Finally, some suggestions are given about how the forecasting practices in Brazil can be understood nowadays, and what are the perspectives for the future.

  8. Thunderstorms over Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This photograph, acquired in February 1984 by an astronaut aboard the space shuttle, shows a series of mature thunderstorms located near the Parana River in southern Brazil. With abundant warm temperatures and moisture-laden air in this part of Brazil, large thunderstorms are commonplace. A number of overshooting tops and anvil clouds are visible at the tops of the clouds. Storms of this magnitude can drop large amounts of rainfall in a short period of time, causing flash floods. However, a NASA-funded researcher has discovered that tiny airborne particles of pollution may modify developing thunderclouds by increasing the quantity and reducing the size of the ice crystals within them. These modifications may affect the clouds' impact on the Earth's 'radiation budget,' or the amount of radiation that enters and leaves our planet. Steven Sherwood, a professor at Yale University, found that airborne aerosols reduce the size of ice crystals in thunderclouds and may reduce precipitation as well. Using several satellites and instruments including NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, Sherwood observed how airborne pollution particles (aerosols) affect large thunderstorms, or cumulonimbus clouds in the tropics. Common aerosols include mineral dust, smoke, and sulfates. An increased number of these particles create a larger number of smaller ice crystals in cumulonimbus clouds. As a result of their smaller size, the ice crystals evaporate from a solid state directly into a gas, instead of falling as rain. Sherwood noted that this effect is more prevalent over land than open ocean areas. Previous research by Daniel Rosenfeld of Hebrew University revealed that aerosols and pollution reduced rainfall in shallow cumulus clouds of liquid water, which do not have the capability to produce as much rainfall. Sherwood expanded on that research by looking at cumulonimbus clouds with more ice particles. Studies

  9. Country watch: Brazil.

    PubMed

    Szterenfeld, C

    1995-01-01

    The Health in Prostitution Project was launched in 1991 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The project offers a multi-year training program of health education designed to both fight the stigmatization of and violence against commercial sex workers and enhance their self-esteem, self-determination, and access to civil rights. The project therefore promotes individual awareness while influencing public opinion and policies. At first, health agents were recruited among women and transvestites who work in street-based sex work. The program was then gradually expanded to include young male sex workers and other locations, such as private parlors, saunas, and escort services. People of all sexes and sexual orientation now comprise the health agent group. The program has a paid staff of five women, three young men, and three transvestites, and approximately 70 sex workers are trained annually. Basic training includes topics such as human sexuality, personal risk assessment, HIV/STD infection, negotiation of safer sex, and STD referral services. Year two training emphasizes reproductive and women's health issues, while year three courses prioritize street work methodologies. Theatrical performances, speaking English as a second language, and performing Bach flower therapy for clients take place during the fourth year. Program trainers include medical specialists, nurses, psychologists, health educators, lawyers, and university students. At least half of the 350 health agents trained thus far are estimated to be currently engaged in paid or voluntary prevention work. Two surveys with female sex workers in 1991 and 1993 found that reported regular condom use increased from 57% to 73%; the health agents are having an effect. The program is constantly evaluated and revised.

  10. Sexuality education in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Suplicy, M

    1994-01-01

    The development of a comprehensive program of sex education in Brazilian schools is described in the context of Brazil's culture and traditions such as the Carnival. The influence of Catholicism is explored as is the effect of the behavioral restrictions called for by scientists concerned about sexually transmitted diseases. The Brazilian response to homosexuality is described, and the emergence of a public discussion of sexuality in the media is traced. It is noted that improvements in the status of women have been held in check by a public ridicule of feminism and by the strength of the traditional patriarchal structures which dominate the culture. With this picture given of how the issue of sexuality fits into Brazilian life, the 1980s initiative on the part of the Work and Research Group for Sex Education is described. Opposition to this effort has largely taken the form of passive resistance; even the Catholic Church has not officially protested the sex education program. Details are provided about 1) the selection of teachers, teacher training, and weekly supervisory teacher meetings; 2) the way in which parental permission for student participation was gained; 3) the implementation of the program; 4) the successes achieved; and 5) the difficulties encountered. Finally, it is noted that plans were made to expand the sex education project from the Sao Paulo area to 6 additional large cities in 1994. Also planned is the publication of the Brazilian Guidelines for Comprehensive Sexuality which will explain the sex education methodology and be extremely valuable in the establishment of new projects. PMID:12287356

  11. Country watch: Brazil.

    PubMed

    Szterenfeld, C

    1995-01-01

    The Health in Prostitution Project was launched in 1991 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The project offers a multi-year training program of health education designed to both fight the stigmatization of and violence against commercial sex workers and enhance their self-esteem, self-determination, and access to civil rights. The project therefore promotes individual awareness while influencing public opinion and policies. At first, health agents were recruited among women and transvestites who work in street-based sex work. The program was then gradually expanded to include young male sex workers and other locations, such as private parlors, saunas, and escort services. People of all sexes and sexual orientation now comprise the health agent group. The program has a paid staff of five women, three young men, and three transvestites, and approximately 70 sex workers are trained annually. Basic training includes topics such as human sexuality, personal risk assessment, HIV/STD infection, negotiation of safer sex, and STD referral services. Year two training emphasizes reproductive and women's health issues, while year three courses prioritize street work methodologies. Theatrical performances, speaking English as a second language, and performing Bach flower therapy for clients take place during the fourth year. Program trainers include medical specialists, nurses, psychologists, health educators, lawyers, and university students. At least half of the 350 health agents trained thus far are estimated to be currently engaged in paid or voluntary prevention work. Two surveys with female sex workers in 1991 and 1993 found that reported regular condom use increased from 57% to 73%; the health agents are having an effect. The program is constantly evaluated and revised. PMID:12346918

  12. Zika virus outbreak in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Heukelbach, Jorg; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Kelvin, Alyson Ann; de Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber; Pamplona de Góes Cavalcanti, Luciano

    2016-02-28

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is spreading rapidly within the Americas after originating from an outbreak in Brazil. We describe the current ZIKV infection epidemic in Brazil and the neurological symptoms arising. First cases of an acute exanthematic disease were reported in Brazil's Northeast region at the end of 2014. In March 2015, autochthonous ZIKV was determined to be the causative agent of the exanthematic disease. As cases of neurological syndromes in regions where ZIKV, dengue and/or Chikungunya viruses co-circulate were reported, ZIKV was also identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute neurological syndromes and previous exanthematic disease. By the end of September 2015, an increasing number of infants with small head circumference or microcephaly were noted in Brazil's Northeast which was estimated to be 29 cases between August and October. ZIKV was identified in blood and tissue samples of a newborn and in mothers who had given birth to infants with microcephaly and ophthalmological anomalies. In 2015, there were an estimated 440,000 - 1,300,000 Zika cases in Brazil. There have been 4,783 suspected cases of microcephaly, most of them in the Northeast of Brazil associated with 76 deaths. The Ministry of Health is intensifying control measures against the mosquito Aedes aegypti and implemented intensive surveillance actions. Further studies are needed to confirm the suspected association between ZIKV infection and microcephaly; to identify antiviral, immunotherapy, or prophylactic vaccine; to introduce diagnostic ELISA testing. Clinical and epidemiological studies must be performed to describe viral dynamics and expansion of the outbreak.

  13. Writing for Real Audiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shugert, Diane P., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    The focus of the articles in this journal issue is helping students write for real audiences. The document contains the following articles: "Real Audiences: The Only Kind We Write For" (Margaret Queenan); "A Literary Magazine for Middle Grades" (Anthony R. Angelo and Marie-Jeanne Laurent); "Rewarding Understanding and Warmth" (Peter M. Ashe);…

  14. Real Estate Career Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Robert; Gardner, Gene

    Designed to provide basic information on the major entry-level career fields in real estate, this document can be used as a reference manual for counselors and instructors. The manual contains general information about the following real estate careers: salesperson, sales manager, broker, land developer, property manager, appraiser, mortgage loan…

  15. The Real and Promised Brasilia: "An Asymmetrical Symbol in 1960s Brazilian Literature"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal, Sophia

    2010-01-01

    To write about Brasilia in the 1960s was to write about a dual city, part symbol and part reality. This dual city grew out of an impulse to oversimplify representations of the real city in order to preserve its mythic promise of national progress. The oversimplifications derived from a national desire to showcase how Brazil had found an authentic…

  16. Lesions associated with Halocercus brasiliensis Lins de Almeida, 1933 in the lungs of dolphins stranded in the Northeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, J P; Febronio, A M B; Vergara-Parente, J E; Werneck, M R

    2015-04-01

    The parasitic fauna of cetaceans is an important tool for ecological studies, including analyses on the causes of death. Halocercus brasiliensis is a nematode frequently found in the bronchi and bronchioles of some cetaceans, and it is commonly associated with focal inflammation of the respiratory tract leading to bacterial pneumonia and septicemia and, sometimes, to death. The objective of this study was to report infections by H. brasiliensis in the respiratory tract of Delphinidae stranded on the northern seaside of Bahia, Sergipe, and south of Alagoas, all states in the northeast region of Brazil. A total of 30 individuals, 1 Feresa attenuate (pygmy killer whale), 9 Stenella clymene (Clymene dolphin), and 20 Sotalia guianensis (Guiana dolphin) were studied. In 16 of them, the presence of H. brasiliensis was observed with a mean intensity of 3.5 ± 0.6 (range 1-9) in the hosts. Macroscopically, parasitic calcified nodules, lung congestion, edema, and emphysema were observed. Histopathological examination showed interstitial and granulomatous pneumonia with multifocal infiltrates, discrete to moderate edema, congestion, diffuse hemorrhage, and foci of calcification. We conclude that parasitic pneumonia in the sampled individuals may have directly contributed to stranding and death of the animals. PMID:25171594

  17. Lesions associated with Halocercus brasiliensis Lins de Almeida, 1933 in the lungs of dolphins stranded in the Northeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, J P; Febronio, A M B; Vergara-Parente, J E; Werneck, M R

    2015-04-01

    The parasitic fauna of cetaceans is an important tool for ecological studies, including analyses on the causes of death. Halocercus brasiliensis is a nematode frequently found in the bronchi and bronchioles of some cetaceans, and it is commonly associated with focal inflammation of the respiratory tract leading to bacterial pneumonia and septicemia and, sometimes, to death. The objective of this study was to report infections by H. brasiliensis in the respiratory tract of Delphinidae stranded on the northern seaside of Bahia, Sergipe, and south of Alagoas, all states in the northeast region of Brazil. A total of 30 individuals, 1 Feresa attenuate (pygmy killer whale), 9 Stenella clymene (Clymene dolphin), and 20 Sotalia guianensis (Guiana dolphin) were studied. In 16 of them, the presence of H. brasiliensis was observed with a mean intensity of 3.5 ± 0.6 (range 1-9) in the hosts. Macroscopically, parasitic calcified nodules, lung congestion, edema, and emphysema were observed. Histopathological examination showed interstitial and granulomatous pneumonia with multifocal infiltrates, discrete to moderate edema, congestion, diffuse hemorrhage, and foci of calcification. We conclude that parasitic pneumonia in the sampled individuals may have directly contributed to stranding and death of the animals.

  18. [Evaluation of public policies for food security and hunger control in Brazil, 1995-2002: 1--Methodological framework].

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Sandra Maria Chaves; Santos, Leonor Maria Pacheco

    2007-05-01

    The authors describe the adaptation and application of a multidimensional methodology based on structure-process-outcome for evaluating food security and hunger control programs. According to the proposal, study of the structure dimension analyzes the programs' material and discursive instruments; the process dimension focuses on the activities and interventions; and the outcome dimension includes coverage, targeting, and social control, and also potentially the effects of the interventions on the beneficiaries' food security and nutrition. The methodology was used to evaluate programs implemented in Brazil from 1995 to 2002. A case study was also done including 45 municipalities in the State of Bahia, involving documental research, interviews with key informants, and a household survey including 1,750 low-income families in the rural area and 760 in the capital city. The results are expected to contribute to the discussion on facilitating factors and obstacles at the local level for the implementation of such programs, and to methodological development in the field of food security, nutrition, and hunger control policies.

  19. Biodiversity assessment of benthic macroinvertebrates along a reservoir cascade in the lower São Francisco river (northeastern Brazil).

    PubMed

    Callisto, M; Goulart, M; Barbosa, F A R; Rocha, O

    2005-05-01

    In order to verify the cascade-system effect in benthic macroinvertebrate communities, and the implications for policy making and proposals for conservation and sustainable use of the lower portion of São Francisco river basin (Bahia State, Brazil), a three-reservoir cascade system including two stretches downstream were studied during dry (June, 1997) and rainy (March, 1998) periods. The dominant groups found were Mollusca (Melanoides tuberculata), Oligochaeta, and Chironomidae larvae. Low Shannon-Wiener and Pielou index values were found, but with no significant difference between the sampling periods. However, density and taxonomic richness were significantly different (t(0.05: 31)) = -2.1945; p < 0.05; e t(0.05; 31) = -3.0600; p < 0.01) between the sampling periods, with a reduction in the number of taxa and macroinvertebrate abundance during the rainy period. An increasing gradient in benthic macroinvertebrate community structures was noted along the reservoir cascade from the first reservoir (Apolônio Sales), followed by a decrease downstream from the third reservoir of the system (Xing6). Despite the negative consequences of rapid proliferation of dams, which have caused widespread loss of freshwater habitats, the reservoir cascade system promoted an increase in benthic macroinvertebrate diversity, due to water-quality improvement along the system.

  20. School meals defined from the perspective of students catered for under the National School Feeding Program, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Janaína Braga de; Freitas, Maria do Carmo Soares de; Santos, Ligia Amparo da Silva

    2016-08-01

    Based on socio-anthropological studies into food and in connection with guidance from the Public Policy on Food and Nutrition Security in Brazil, this paper sought to objectively analyze students' views of the school meals given to them as part of the National School Feeding Program (PNAE). The data was produced through ethnographic exercises that were developed where the above Program (hereafter Program) had been implemented in a semi-arid municipality in the state of Bahia. The exercises also involved the production of written material and the use of focus groups with teenagers in primary school education. Of particular note in this study was the time and space the students had for their break/recreation period which brought to light the relationship between the body and food. Based on the responses given we were able to identify different understandings and meanings associated with the food served in these institutions. The study helped to shed some light on the relational aspects between habitual eating at "home-on the road-and-in school" with the right to have school meals. We were also able to obtain a broader understanding of the eating habits of teenagers that are catered for as part of the PNAE. PMID:27557023

  1. School meals defined from the perspective of students catered for under the National School Feeding Program, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Janaína Braga de; Freitas, Maria do Carmo Soares de; Santos, Ligia Amparo da Silva

    2016-08-01

    Based on socio-anthropological studies into food and in connection with guidance from the Public Policy on Food and Nutrition Security in Brazil, this paper sought to objectively analyze students' views of the school meals given to them as part of the National School Feeding Program (PNAE). The data was produced through ethnographic exercises that were developed where the above Program (hereafter Program) had been implemented in a semi-arid municipality in the state of Bahia. The exercises also involved the production of written material and the use of focus groups with teenagers in primary school education. Of particular note in this study was the time and space the students had for their break/recreation period which brought to light the relationship between the body and food. Based on the responses given we were able to identify different understandings and meanings associated with the food served in these institutions. The study helped to shed some light on the relational aspects between habitual eating at "home-on the road-and-in school" with the right to have school meals. We were also able to obtain a broader understanding of the eating habits of teenagers that are catered for as part of the PNAE.

  2. Investigating prediction performance of an artificial neural network and a numerical model of the tidal signal at Puerto Belgrano, Bahia Blanca Estuary (Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierini, Jorge; Lovallo, Michele; Telesca, Luciano; Gómez, Eduardo

    2013-12-01

    In the present study we compare performances of the prediction of hourly tidal level variations at Puerto Belgrano, a coastal site in the Bahia Blanca Estuary (Argentina), by means of the MOHID model, which is a numerical model designed for coastal and estuarine shallow water applications, and of an artificial neural network (ANN). It was shown that the ANN model is able to predict the hourly tidal levels over long term duration with at least seven days of observations and with a better performance in respect to the numerical model. Our findings can be useful to implement ANN-based tools for future studies of the hydrodynamics of Bahía Blanca estuary.

  3. Promoting Scientific Collaboration in South America through IDD-Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagas, G. O.

    2006-05-01

    The IDD-Brazil constitutes of an expansion of the Unidata Internet Data Distribution (IDD), a joint effort among the Laboratório de Prognósticos em Mesoescala - Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (LPM/UFRJ), Centro de PreviSão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos (CPTEC, a division of INPE) and the Unidata Program Center, linking several Brazilian and South American Institutions in a network for near-real time data sharing. This international cooperation is modifying drastically the way that researchers use data, providing access to broaden and more detailed information, available freely for the participants of this network. Data-sharing is one of the biggest issues in Brazil, and the solutions developed at Unidata Program Center enhances not only data access and management, but also the display and analysis of a variety of datasets. Using the Local Data Manager (LDM), a site can both receive and send data trough the IDD network, on a client-server architecture. Moreover, this system also provides a seamless integration with many decoders, following WMO standards for a large array of data, ranging from METAR messages to GRIB. Using this network as a new path to deliver and acquire observational data, IDD-Brazil participants are now capable of receiving observational data not only from GTS (Global Telecommunication System), but also from CPTECs PCD (automatic stations) network and the entire array of METAR and SYNOP observations, in a near-real time basis. This network is capable of addressing a gap in data sharing, since it has no cost for educational and research purposes. The UFRJ has been working closely with CPTEC and Unidata, porting new datasets to this system, such as the output from CPTEC's ETA 40km regional model, local acquired Satellite Imagery from GOES, and LPM's MM5 and WRF 20km mesoscale models. The IDD-Brazil is creating a new cooperation among several institutions that traditionally face the same issues, but never had a link to a community. The

  4. Endophytic cultivable bacterial community obtained from the Paullinia cupana seed in Amazonas and Bahia regions and its antagonistic effects against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    PubMed

    Silva, Maria Carolina Santos E; Polonio, Julio Cesar; Quecine, Maria Carolina; Almeida, Tiago Tognolli de; Bogas, Andréa Cristina; Pamphile, João Alencar; Pereira, José Odair; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco; Azevedo, João Lucio

    2016-09-01

    Guarana (Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis) is a plant from the Amazonas region with socio-economic importance. However, guarana production has been increasingly affected by unfavorable conditions resulting from anthracnose, caused by the Colletotrichum fungal genus, which primarily affects mainly the Amazonas region. The aim of the present study was to isolate bacterial endophytes from the seeds of guarana plants obtained from Amazonas region and the Northeast state of Bahia, a region where this disease is not a problem for guarana plantations. The number of bacterial Colony Forming Units (CFU/g seeds) was 2.4 × 10(4) from the Bahia and 2.9 × 10(4) from the Amazonas region. One hundred and two isolated bacteria were evaluated in vitro against the phytopathogenic strain Colletotrichum gloeosporioides L1. These isolates were also analyzed for the enzymatic production of amylase, cellulase, protease, pectinase, lipase and esterase. Approximately 15% of isolates, showing high antagonistic activity, and the production of at least one enzyme were identified through the partial sequencing of 16S rDNA. The genus Bacillus was the most frequently observed, followed by Paenibacillus, Ochrobactrum, Microbacterium and Stenotrophomonas. Proteolytic activity was observed in 24 isolates followed by amylolytic, pectinolytic and cellulolytic activities. No esterase and lipase production was detected. Most of the isolates, showing antagonistic effects against C. gloeosporioides and high enzymatic activities, were isolated from the anthracnose-affected region. A biocontrol method using the endophytes from guarana seeds could be applied in the future, as these bacteria are vertically transferred to guarana seedlings. PMID:27343372

  5. Endophytic cultivable bacterial community obtained from the Paullinia cupana seed in Amazonas and Bahia regions and its antagonistic effects against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    PubMed

    Silva, Maria Carolina Santos E; Polonio, Julio Cesar; Quecine, Maria Carolina; Almeida, Tiago Tognolli de; Bogas, Andréa Cristina; Pamphile, João Alencar; Pereira, José Odair; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco; Azevedo, João Lucio

    2016-09-01

    Guarana (Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis) is a plant from the Amazonas region with socio-economic importance. However, guarana production has been increasingly affected by unfavorable conditions resulting from anthracnose, caused by the Colletotrichum fungal genus, which primarily affects mainly the Amazonas region. The aim of the present study was to isolate bacterial endophytes from the seeds of guarana plants obtained from Amazonas region and the Northeast state of Bahia, a region where this disease is not a problem for guarana plantations. The number of bacterial Colony Forming Units (CFU/g seeds) was 2.4 × 10(4) from the Bahia and 2.9 × 10(4) from the Amazonas region. One hundred and two isolated bacteria were evaluated in vitro against the phytopathogenic strain Colletotrichum gloeosporioides L1. These isolates were also analyzed for the enzymatic production of amylase, cellulase, protease, pectinase, lipase and esterase. Approximately 15% of isolates, showing high antagonistic activity, and the production of at least one enzyme were identified through the partial sequencing of 16S rDNA. The genus Bacillus was the most frequently observed, followed by Paenibacillus, Ochrobactrum, Microbacterium and Stenotrophomonas. Proteolytic activity was observed in 24 isolates followed by amylolytic, pectinolytic and cellulolytic activities. No esterase and lipase production was detected. Most of the isolates, showing antagonistic effects against C. gloeosporioides and high enzymatic activities, were isolated from the anthracnose-affected region. A biocontrol method using the endophytes from guarana seeds could be applied in the future, as these bacteria are vertically transferred to guarana seedlings.

  6. Brazil The Duck Lagoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of Brazil covers an area of about 298 kilometers x 358 kilometers, and was captured by the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on December 27, 2001. The 'Lagoa dos Patos', in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, translates to 'the Duck Lagoon'. It was named by 16th century Jesuit settlers, who asked the King of Spain to grant them title to the lagoon so that they could breed ducks. The King consented, but revoked his edict when he discovered that the 'duck-pond' (measuring about 14,000 square kilometers) was one of the largest lagoonal systems in the world. Note the sediment plume emanating from the southern end of the lagoon. Sailors in the 16th century imagined this outlet to be the mouth of a large river. Early Portuguese explorers mistook the entrance to the lagoon for the mouth of a great river and called it the Rio Grande. A series of wave-like points and curls form 'cusps' on the inner shores of the lagoon. The lagoon's characteristics change with short-term tide-induced cyclic perturbations, and with longer term large scale meteorological conditions. The distinctive wavelike 'cusps' along the inner shores result from the circulation, erosion and accumulation of sediments driven by wind and tidal action. The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) circulation affects precipitation amount and continental runoff, thereby changing the contents of the lagoon waters. High rainfall and increased freshwater discharge during El Nino events correspond with elevated dissolved nutrient concentrations and increased phytoplankton growth. La Nina years are dry and the associated low rainfall reduces the freshwater recharge to the lagoon, causing an increase in salinity. Occasional blooms of toxic cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa), have been registered in the lagoon when nutrient concentrations are elevated. A number of reeds and grasses are important to the lagoon estuary, including widgeon grass

  7. Opportunity Foregone: Education in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdsall, Nancy, Ed.; Sabot, Richard H., Ed.

    The studies presented in this volume help readers to understand the constraints faced in addressing the key problems within the Brazilian education system. Steps to address the issues and benefits to be gained by addressing those issues are discussed. Forty-two authors reiterate that the success of Brazil's education reform will have an important…

  8. Environmental Education Activities in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Michele

    1994-01-01

    Describes environmental education activities in the Cuiaba region of Brazil's Amazon and Platina Basins. Activities include the environmental education specialization course at the Federal University of Mato Grosso, teacher training in rural schools, and the introduction of environmental themes into school curriculum. (MDH)

  9. Chromobacterium violaceum in Siblings, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Juarez; Ruf, Hilda; Ramos, Eduardo Antonio G.; Maciel, Elves Anderson Pires; Rolim, Ana; Jabur, Laura; Vasconcelos, Luciana; Silvany, Célia

    2005-01-01

    Chromobacterium violaceum, a saprophyte bacterium found commonly in soil and water in tropical and subtropical climates, is a rare cause of severe, often fatal, human disease. We report 1 confirmed and 2 suspected cases of C. violaceum septicemia, with 2 fatalities, in siblings after recreational exposure in northeastern Brazil. PMID:16229777

  10. Chromobacterium violaceum in siblings, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Siqueira, Isadora Cristina; Dias, Juarez; Ruf, Hilda; Ramos, Eduardo Antonio G; Maciel, Elves Anderson Pires; Rolim, Ana; Labur, Laura; Vasconcelos, Luciana; Silvany, Célia

    2005-09-01

    Chromobacterium violaceum, a saprophyte bacterium found commonly in soil and water in tropical and subtropical climates, is a rare cause of severe, often fatal, human disease. We report 1 confirmed and 2 suspected cases of C. violaceum septicemia, with 2 fatalities, in siblings after recreational exposure in northeastern Brazil. PMID:16229777

  11. Brazil soybean yield covariance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate soybean yields for the seven soybean-growing states of Brazil. The meteorological data of these seven states were pooled and the years 1975 to 1980 were used to model since there was no technological trend in the yields during these years. Predictor variables were derived from monthly total precipitation and monthly average temperature.

  12. Neglected tropical diseases in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lindoso, José Angelo L; Lindoso, Ana Angélica B P

    2009-01-01

    Poverty is intrinsically related to the incidence of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs). The main countries that have the lowest human development indices (HDI) and the highest burdens of NTDs are located in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Among these countries is Brazil, which is ranked 70th in HDI. Nine out of the ten NTDs established by the World Health Organization (WHO) are present in Brazil. Leishmaniasis, tuberculosis, dengue fever and leprosy are present over almost the entire Brazilian territory. More than 90% of malaria cases occur in the Northern region of the country, and lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis occur in outbreaks in a particular region. The North and Northeast regions of Brazil have the lowest HDIs and the highest rates of NTDs. These diseases are considered neglected because there is not important investment in projects for the development of new drugs and vaccines and existing programs to control these diseases are not sufficient. Another problem related to NTDs is co-infection with HIV, which favors the occurrence of severe clinical manifestations and therapeutic failure. In this article, we describe the status of the main NTDs currently occurring in Brazil and relate them to the HDI and poverty.

  13. Education for Librarianship in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Pamela F.

    The paper examines and describes the development, trends, and current status of education for librarianship in Brazil against the background of the contemporary library scene and the system of higher education in general, focusing on the development of the 30 undergraduate and six post-graduate library programs in existence today. The master's…

  14. Evaluating School Facilities in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Sheila Walbe; Moreira, Nanci Saraiva

    2008-01-01

    Brazil's Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region is conducting a performance evaluation pilot study at three schools serving disadvantaged populations. The objective is first to test methods which can facilitate Post Occupancy Evaluations (POEs) and then to carry out the evaluations. The preliminary results are provided below.

  15. Rescuing Tradition at the Pierre Verger Cultural Space: Teaching and Learning Afro-Brazilian Culture through Music in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junqueira, Joao Carlos

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates how the Pierre Verger Cultural Space (PVCS), an educational organization dedicated to teaching Afro-Brazilian culture in Bahia, uses music to construct a sense of Afro-Brazilian self. Located in a poverty-stricken neighborhood of Salvador, Bahia, the PVCS sees its mission as "rescuing" ("resgatar") an Afro-Brazilian sense…

  16. Making It Real

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCartney, Robert; Tenenberg, Josh

    2008-01-01

    Some have proposed that realistic problem situations are better for learning. This issue contains two articles that examine the effects of "making it real" in computer architecture and human-computer interaction.

  17. Macrophytobenthic flora of the Abrolhos Archipelago and the Sebastião Gomes Reef, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrano-Silva, Beatriz N.; Oliveira, Eurico C.

    2013-11-01

    The Abrolhos Bank, located on the coast of Bahia, Brazil, harbors the largest coral reef system in the South Atlantic. This area has attracted the attention of biologists because of its peculiar mushroom-shaped structures, locally known as "chapeirões", and endemic species of corals and other organisms. The macrophytobenthos compartment plays an important ecological role in the functioning of the bank, and some reports on the presence of seaweeds and seagrasses have been published; however, the data are fragmentary, and a more detailed survey of the macrophytobenthos compartment is lacking. Here we consolidate the information available and add new data obtained from two expeditions focused on seaweed and seagrass diversity from two sectors of the bank: the islands of the Abrolhos archipelago (AA) and the Sebastião Gomes Reef (SG). These sites were selected for their contrasting characteristics. Specifically, SG (15 km off the mouth of the Caravelas River) is subjected to a broader range of anthropogenic impacts and to input of terrigenous sediments, while the AA (54 km offshore) is surrounded by calcareous biogenic sediments, has clearer water and is less affected by human activities. Macrophytobenthic species richness on both reference areas is larger than previously thought. Considering previous records, there are 164 species of macrophytes in AA and 111 species in SG, of which 59 and 74 species are first records for each respective location. The higher species richness at the AA may result from a higher habitat complexity and lower turbidity, but a potential negative effect of enhanced human impacts at SG cannot be ruled out. Considering that macroalgae are relevant components of the benthic community, as producers and structurer organisms, the data presented herein provide a reliable baseline for future environmental studies, and thus may contribute to improve management policies within the unique ecosystem of Abrolhos.

  18. Passion fruit green spot virus vectored by Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) on passion fruit in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, E W; Rezende, J A M; Rodrigues, J C V

    2003-01-01

    Passion fruit green spot disease was first identified in 1997 after a severe outbreak at Vera Cruz County, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Mature yellow fruits of Passiflora edulis Simms f. flavicarpa Degener showed characteristic green spots, 2-5 mm in diameter and patches of green tissues were present on senescent leaves. The devastating effect to passion flower is caused by necrotic lesions that encircle the stems and kill the plant. In severe cases, entire orchards of a few hectares in size have been completely destroyed. The disease was always preceded by heavy infestations of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). Transmission electron microscopy of affected tissues (fruits, leaves, and stems) consistently revealed the presence of short, bacilliform particles (50-70 nm x 100-120 nm) in the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum, as well as the presence of a dense viroplasm in the cytoplasm. This cytopathic effect has been found in several other Brevipalpus-transmitted or associated viruses and is classified as a cytoplasmic type of disease. Experimental reproduction of the leaf and stem symptoms was achieved by transferring B. phoenicis collected from affected field passion flower plants onto healthy plants. The evidence supports a viral etiology for the disease and the agent was named passion fruit green spot virus. Its relationship with other B. phoenicis related viruses continues to be studied. The disease was also found in the Brazilian states of Bahia, Sergipe, Rondonia, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, and in the Federal District. Use of one or more of the following acaricides (hexythiazox, fenbutatin-oxide, propargite, quinomethionate, or dicofol) has significantly reduced the incidence of the disease. PMID:14756419

  19. Frequent House Invasion of Trypanosoma cruzi-Infected Triatomines in a Suburban Area of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro Jr., Gilmar; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo; Reis, Renato Barbosa; dos Santos, Carlos Gustavo Silva; Amorim, Alekhine; Andrade, Sônia Gumes; Reis, Mitermayer G.

    2015-01-01

    Background The demographic transition of populations from rural areas to large urban centers often results in a disordered occupation of forest remnants and increased economic pressure to develop high-income buildings in these areas. Ecological and socioeconomic factors associated with these urban transitions create conditions for the potential transmission of infectious diseases, which was demonstrated for Chagas disease. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed 930 triatomines, mainly Triatoma tibiamaculata, collected in artificial and sylvatic environments (forests near houses) of a suburban area of the city of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil between 2007 and 2011. Most triatomines were captured at peridomiciles. Adult bugs predominated in all studied environments, and nymphs were scarce inside houses. Molecular analyses of a randomly selected sub-sample (n=212) of triatomines showed Trypanosoma cruzi infection rates of 65%, 50% and 56% in intradomestic, peridomestic and sylvatic environments, respectively. We detected the T. cruzi lineages I and II and mixed infections. We also showed that T. tibiamaculata fed on blood from birds (50%), marsupials (38%), ruminants (7%) and rodents (5%). The probability of T. cruzi infection was higher in triatomines that fed on marsupial blood (odds ratio (OR) = 1.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.22-3.11). Moreover, we observed a protective effect against infection in bugs that fed on bird blood (OR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.30-0.73). Conclusions/Significance The frequent invasion of houses by infected triatomines indicates a potential risk of T. cruzi transmission to inhabitants in this area. Our results reinforce that continuous epidemiological surveillance should be performed in areas where domestic transmission is controlled but enzootic transmission persists. PMID:25909509

  20. Passion fruit green spot virus vectored by Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) on passion fruit in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, E W; Rezende, J A M; Rodrigues, J C V

    2003-01-01

    Passion fruit green spot disease was first identified in 1997 after a severe outbreak at Vera Cruz County, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Mature yellow fruits of Passiflora edulis Simms f. flavicarpa Degener showed characteristic green spots, 2-5 mm in diameter and patches of green tissues were present on senescent leaves. The devastating effect to passion flower is caused by necrotic lesions that encircle the stems and kill the plant. In severe cases, entire orchards of a few hectares in size have been completely destroyed. The disease was always preceded by heavy infestations of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). Transmission electron microscopy of affected tissues (fruits, leaves, and stems) consistently revealed the presence of short, bacilliform particles (50-70 nm x 100-120 nm) in the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum, as well as the presence of a dense viroplasm in the cytoplasm. This cytopathic effect has been found in several other Brevipalpus-transmitted or associated viruses and is classified as a cytoplasmic type of disease. Experimental reproduction of the leaf and stem symptoms was achieved by transferring B. phoenicis collected from affected field passion flower plants onto healthy plants. The evidence supports a viral etiology for the disease and the agent was named passion fruit green spot virus. Its relationship with other B. phoenicis related viruses continues to be studied. The disease was also found in the Brazilian states of Bahia, Sergipe, Rondonia, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, and in the Federal District. Use of one or more of the following acaricides (hexythiazox, fenbutatin-oxide, propargite, quinomethionate, or dicofol) has significantly reduced the incidence of the disease.

  1. The Siderian-Orosirian magmatism in the Gavião Paleoplate, Brazil: U–Pb geochronology, geochemistry and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira Cruz, Simone Cerqueira; Figueiredo Barbosa, Johildo Salomão; Pinto, Marilda Santos; Peucat, Jean-Jacques; Paquette, Jean Louis; Santos de Souza, Jailma; de Souza Martins, Violeta; Júnior, Farid Chemale; Carneiro, Mauricio Antonio

    2016-08-01

    continental crust in the formation of these rocks. The Humaitá granitoid probably presents the lowest contribution from the continental crust in its genesis. The rocks from Group 1 were generated as the product of an active continental margin arc situated eastwards from the southern portion of the Gavião Paleoplate. The spatial distribution between the granitoids of groups 1 and 2a suggests westwards subduction and led to a cordilleran model for the Western Bahia Magmatic Arc. Continental collision between the Gavião and Jequié paleoplates occurred around 2.09 Ga and was followed by the setting of late-collision granitoids of groups 2a to 2d. The comparison between the tectonic model presented in this study and other existing models that explain the Siderian-Rhyacian-Orosirian granitogenesis of the Mineiro Belt and Mantiqueira Complex suggests a continuation of the Western Bahia Magmatic Arc and of the collisional orogen that followed, towards the south. The Western Bahia Magmatic Arc emplacement occurred before the Paleoproterozoic granitogenesis of the Serrinha (Bahia-Brazil) and Congo (Africa) paleoplates.

  2. The Siderian-Orosirian magmatism in the Gavião Paleoplate, Brazil: U-Pb geochronology, geochemistry and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira Cruz, Simone Cerqueira; Figueiredo Barbosa, Johildo Salomão; Pinto, Marilda Santos; Peucat, Jean-Jacques; Paquette, Jean Louis; Santos de Souza, Jailma; de Souza Martins, Violeta; Júnior, Farid Chemale; Carneiro, Mauricio Antonio

    2016-08-01

    continental crust in the formation of these rocks. The Humaitá granitoid probably presents the lowest contribution from the continental crust in its genesis. The rocks from Group 1 were generated as the product of an active continental margin arc situated eastwards from the southern portion of the Gavião Paleoplate. The spatial distribution between the granitoids of groups 1 and 2a suggests westwards subduction and led to a cordilleran model for the Western Bahia Magmatic Arc. Continental collision between the Gavião and Jequié paleoplates occurred around 2.09 Ga and was followed by the setting of late-collision granitoids of groups 2a to 2d. The comparison between the tectonic model presented in this study and other existing models that explain the Siderian-Rhyacian-Orosirian granitogenesis of the Mineiro Belt and Mantiqueira Complex suggests a continuation of the Western Bahia Magmatic Arc and of the collisional orogen that followed, towards the south. The Western Bahia Magmatic Arc emplacement occurred before the Paleoproterozoic granitogenesis of the Serrinha (Bahia-Brazil) and Congo (Africa) paleoplates.

  3. The dilemma of a practice: experiences of abortion in a public maternity hospital in the city of Salvador, Bahia.

    PubMed

    McCallum, Cecilia; Menezes, Greice; Reis, Ana Paula Dos

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses abortion and miscarriage from the perspective of women admitted to a public maternity hospital in Salvador (BA), Brazil. Based on qualitative and quantitative research, it draws on participant observation of everyday hospital life. Taking an ethnographic approach, it addresses the hospital experiences of women who had miscarriages or induced abortions, also presenting the views of health professionals. It argues that the way the institution structures care for abortion and miscarriage involves symbolic processes that profoundly affect women's experiences. The discrimination against women who have had abortions/miscarriages is an integral part of the structure, organization and culture of these institutions, and does not derive solely from the individual actions of healthcare personnel.

  4. Brazil wheat yield covariance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate wheat yields for the wheat growing states of Rio Grande do Sul, Parana, and Santa Catarina in Brazil. The meteorological data of these three states were pooled and the years 1972 to 1979 were used to develop the model since there was no technological trend in the yields during these years. Predictor variables were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature.

  5. An AIDS campaign in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Janoff, D

    1987-01-01

    The Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) distribution program in Brazil, spearheaded by the National Division of Sanitary Surveillance in Ports, Airports, and Borders, was part of the government's massive education campaign to prevent the transmission of HIV-AIDS in Brazil. Beginning in February 1987, the climate was sufficiently favorable to operate a coordinated information campaign during the Carnival celebration, and tourists arriving in the cities of Brazil for the annual Carnival celebration were handed an educational brochure in Portugese, Spanish, English, and French. Yet, beyond reaching the tourist populations, it is particularly important to reach large portions of the Brazilian population. Planners of the national AIDS campaign intend to use television, radio, and all major newspapers in their effort to cover the country. Initial television coverage is comprised of short informational messages directed at high-risk groups. There also are plans to use radio and the print media in order to reach a wider audience. It is estimated that US $6 million will be needed to adequately meet the costs of AIDS prevention and medical care, but due to extreme budget constraints, only $45,000 has been earmarked for ongoing AIDS activities at this time. PMID:12281284

  6. AIDS Treatment In Brazil: Impacts And Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Amy Stewart; Fonseca, Elize Massard da; Bastos, Francisco I.; Gruskin, Sofia

    2009-01-01

    Brazil has one of the developing world's largest, and arguably most successful, AIDS treatment programs. In this paper we review the treatment program, including controversial policies that Brazil has used to promote widespread local and global access to AIDS treatment. We also examine the lessons learned from this program and highlight the challenges Brazil faces, including the rising costs of AIDS treatment and changes in donors' funding priorities. Finally, we explore the relevance of Brazil's treatment program for other countries and its broad implications for global AIDS and health policy. PMID:19597210

  7. Real-time radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Bossi, R.H.; Oien, C.T.

    1981-02-26

    Real-time radiography is used for imaging both dynamic events and static objects. Fluorescent screens play an important role in converting radiation to light, which is then observed directly or intensified and detected. The radiographic parameters for real-time radiography are similar to conventional film radiography with special emphasis on statistics and magnification. Direct-viewing fluoroscopy uses the human eye as a detector of fluorescent screen light or the light from an intensifier. Remote-viewing systems replace the human observer with a television camera. The remote-viewing systems have many advantages over the direct-viewing conditions such as safety, image enhancement, and the capability to produce permanent records. This report reviews real-time imaging system parameters and components.

  8. Real-World Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borja, Rhea R.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents IISME, a U.S. program that can give educators a real-world experience and that can deepen their subject-matter knowledge. It also presents the experiences of some teachers who are into this program. IISME's summer-fellowship program started out with 40 teachers and 12 companies. The group's growth picked up in 2001, when it…

  9. Real Estate Assistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Commercial Remote Sensing Program at Stennis Space Center assists numerous companies across the United States, in learning to use remote sensing capabilities to enhance their competitiveness. Through the Visiting Investigator Program, SSC helped Coast Delta Realty in Diamondhead, Miss., incorporate remote sensing and Geogrpahic Information System technology for real estate marketing and management.

  10. Real World Graph Connectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Joy; Narayan, Darren

    2009-01-01

    We present the topic of graph connectivity along with a famous theorem of Menger in the real-world setting of the national computer network infrastructure of "National LambdaRail". We include a set of exercises where students reinforce their understanding of graph connectivity by analysing the "National LambdaRail" network. Finally, we give…

  11. Real-time sonography

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischey, A.C.; James, A.E. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    This textbook acquaints the reader with normal and pathologic anatomy as depicted on dynamic or real-time scanning. Chapters are organized by specialty, such as abdominal, urologic, or pediatric. The text is illustrated with still-frame images and line drawings. The drawings show important areas of interest and provide graphic notation as to where and in what orientation the scan was obtained.

  12. Mathematics for Real Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsy, Zaghloul, Ed.; Draxler, Alexandra, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    A set of articles with the theme "Mathematics for Real Life" is presented. These article titles are: (1) Teaching Mathematics as a Tool for Problem Solving; (2) New Math or New Education; (3) Hand Calculators and Math in Primary School; (4) Mass Media in the Mathematical Training of Polish Primary Teachers; (5) The Goals of Mathematics Teaching in…

  13. Convergence Is Real

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enyeart, Mike; Staman, E. Michael; Valdes, Jose J., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of convergence has evolved significantly during recent years. Today, "convergence" refers to the integration of the communications and computing resources and services that seamlessly traverse multiple infrastructures and deliver content to multiple platforms or appliances. Convergence is real. Those in higher education, and especially…

  14. Being Real for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Margie

    1995-01-01

    Because ready role models for today's children are media-created superheroes and celebrities of television and film, children need real-life role models who guide them into realistic personal and social pathways. As principal adult contacts, teachers can be such role models. Specific strategies for encouraging teachers in this role are presented.…

  15. Is It Real Gold?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Harold H.

    1999-01-01

    Features acid tests for determining whether jewelry is "real" gold or simply gold-plated. Describes the carat system of denoting gold content and explains how alloys are used to create various shades of gold jewelry. Addresses the question of whether gold jewelry can turn a wearer's skin green by considering various oxidation reactions. (WRM)

  16. Is Optimism Real?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Joseph P.; Massey, Cade

    2012-01-01

    Is optimism real, or are optimistic forecasts just cheap talk? To help answer this question, we investigated whether optimistic predictions persist in the face of large incentives to be accurate. We asked National Football League football fans to predict the winner of a single game. Roughly half (the partisans) predicted a game involving their…

  17. Just like Real Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betteley, Pat

    2009-01-01

    How do you inspire students to keep records like scientists? Share the primary research of real scientists and explicitly teach students how to keep records--that's how! Therefore, a group of third-grade students and their teacher studied the work of famous primatologist Jane Goodall and her modern-day counterpart Ian Gilby. After learning about…

  18. On real quadric line complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnov, Vyacheslav A.

    2010-12-01

    We describe the topological types of the real parts of the Kummer surfaces associated with real three-dimensional quadric line complexes. The topological type of the real part of such a surface is shown to depend on the number of real singular points: it is determined by the number of such points if any exist, and otherwise the real part of the Kummer surface is either empty or consists of one or two tori.

  19. Rainfall erosivity in Brazil: A Review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper, we review the erosivity studies conducted in Brazil to verify the quality and representativeness of the results generated and to provide a greater understanding of the rainfall erosivity (R-factor) in Brazil. We searched the ISI Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, and Google Scholar datab...

  20. Recent developments on shotcrete applications in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Guimaraes Filho, J.D.; Guimaraes Neto, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    This article describes the development of shotcrete in Brazil, since its introduction in the country to the present. Firstly, the authors focus on the application, with an overview on the main projects in which shotcrete was used. Next, the evolution of fabrication of shotcrete equipment in Brazil and some new achievements in this area are shown.