Science.gov

Sample records for real configurations volume

  1. Development of a computer code for calculating the steady super/hypersonic inviscid flow around real configurations. Volume 1: Computational technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marconi, F.; Salas, M.; Yaeger, L.

    1976-01-01

    A numerical procedure has been developed to compute the inviscid super/hypersonic flow field about complex vehicle geometries accurately and efficiently. A second order accurate finite difference scheme is used to integrate the three dimensional Euler equations in regions of continuous flow, while all shock waves are computed as discontinuities via the Rankine Hugoniot jump conditions. Conformal mappings are used to develop a computational grid. The effects of blunt nose entropy layers are computed in detail. Real gas effects for equilibrium air are included using curve fits of Mollier charts. Typical calculated results for shuttle orbiter, hypersonic transport, and supersonic aircraft configurations are included to demonstrate the usefulness of this tool.

  2. Sandia software guidelines, Volume 4: Configuration management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    This volume is one in a series of Sandia Software Guidelines for use in producing quality software within Sandia National Laboratories. This volume is based on the IEEE standard and guide for software configuration management. The basic concepts and detailed guidance on implementation of these concepts are discussed for several software project types. Example planning documents for both projects and organizations are included.

  3. Development of a computer code for calculating the steady super/hypersonic inviscid flow around real configurations. Volume 2: Code description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marconi, F.; Yaeger, L.

    1976-01-01

    A numerical procedure was developed to compute the inviscid super/hypersonic flow field about complex vehicle geometries accurately and efficiently. A second-order accurate finite difference scheme is used to integrate the three-dimensional Euler equations in regions of continuous flow, while all shock waves are computed as discontinuities via the Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions. Conformal mappings are used to develop a computational grid. The effects of blunt nose entropy layers are computed in detail. Real gas effects for equilibrium air are included using curve fits of Mollier charts. Typical calculated results for shuttle orbiter, hypersonic transport, and supersonic aircraft configurations are included to demonstrate the usefulness of this tool.

  4. CRANS - CONFIGURABLE REAL-TIME ANALYSIS SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccluney, K.

    1994-01-01

    In a real-time environment, the results of changes or failures in a complex, interconnected system need evaluation quickly. Tabulations showing the effects of changes and/or failures of a given item in the system are generally only useful for a single input, and only with regard to that item. Subsequent changes become harder to evaluate as combinations of failures produce a cascade effect. When confronted by multiple indicated failures in the system, it becomes necessary to determine a single cause. In this case, failure tables are not very helpful. CRANS, the Configurable Real-time ANalysis System, can interpret a logic tree, constructed by the user, describing a complex system and determine the effects of changes and failures in it. Items in the tree are related to each other by Boolean operators. The user is then able to change the state of these items (ON/OFF FAILED/UNFAILED). The program then evaluates the logic tree based on these changes and determines any resultant changes to other items in the tree. CRANS can also search for a common cause for multiple item failures, and allow the user to explore the logic tree from within the program. A "help" mode and a reference check provide the user with a means of exploring an item's underlying logic from within the program. A commonality check determines single point failures for an item or group of items. Output is in the form of a user-defined matrix or matrices of colored boxes, each box representing an item or set of items from the logic tree. Input is via mouse selection of the matrix boxes, using the mouse buttons to toggle the state of the item. CRANS is written in C-language and requires the MIT X Window System, Version 11 Revision 4 or Revision 5. It requires 78K of RAM for execution and a three button mouse. It has been successfully implemented on Sun4 workstations running SunOS, HP9000 workstations running HP-UX, and DECstations running ULTRIX. No executable is provided on the distribution medium; however

  5. Receptivity to thermal noise in real airfoil configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchini, Paolo

    2014-11-01

    Thermal noise, the macroscopic manifestation of microscopic particle agitation, is present in fluid flow just as in electron flow in conductors or in other physical transport phenomena. When the flow acts as an amplifier, typically during transition to turbulence, the transition position can be influenced by the amplitude of external disturbances through the so called receptivity of the flow instabilities; internally generated thermal noise represents a thermodynamically enforced lower bound to how much disturbances can be reduced. In a previous paper (Seventh IUTAM Symposium on Laminar-Turbulent Transition, IUTAM Bookseries Volume 18, Springer, 2010, pp. 11-18), the present author showed that the maximum transition distance in a Blasius boundary layer corresponds to a Reynolds number little above 6 .106 and to an N-factor of the order of 13. Results to be exhibited at this conference show that in a real airfoil configuration the maximum transition Reynolds number imposed by thermal noise is even lower than on a flat wall, and not far from the actually observed transition position. It follows that thermal noise might actually have a role in natural transition; and that even a perfectly silenced laboratory environment cannot push the transition position much farther. Work supported by the European Community through the RECEPT grant.

  6. An arbitrary grid CFD algorithm for configuration aerodynamics analysis. Volume 2: FEMNAS user guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manhardt, Paul D.; Orzechowski, J. A.; Baker, A. J.

    1992-01-01

    This report documents the user input and output data requirements for the FEMNAS finite element Navier-Stokes code for real-gas simulations of external aerodynamics flowfields. This code was developed for the configuration aerodynamics branch of NASA ARC, under SBIR Phase 2 contract NAS2-124568 by Computational Mechanics Corporation (COMCO). This report is in two volumes. Volume 1 contains the theory for the derived finite element algorithm and describes the test cases used to validate the computer program described in the Volume 2 user guide.

  7. An arbitrary grid CFD algorithm for configuration aerodynamics analysis. Volume 1: Theory and validations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, A. J.; Iannelli, G. S.; Manhardt, Paul D.; Orzechowski, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    This report documents the user input and output data requirements for the FEMNAS finite element Navier-Stokes code for real-gas simulations of external aerodynamics flowfields. This code was developed for the configuration aerodynamics branch of NASA ARC, under SBIR Phase 2 contract NAS2-124568 by Computational Mechanics Corporation (COMCO). This report is in two volumes. Volume 1 contains the theory for the derived finite element algorithm and describes the test cases used to validate the computer program described in the Volume 2 user guide.

  8. Formation of uniform fringe pattern free from diffraction noise at LDA measurement volume using holographic imaging configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Abhijit; Nirala, A. K.

    2016-05-01

    In the present study we have proposed a technique for improving fringe quality at laser Doppler anemometry measurement volume in real time using single hololens imaging configuration over conventional imaging configuration with Gaussian beam optics. In order to remove interference fringe gradients as well as higher order diffraction noise formed at measurement volume in the former approach, a combined hololens imaging system has also been proposed. For qualitative as well as quantitative analysis of fringes formed at measurement volume, atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis has been performed.

  9. Space transportation booster engine configuration study. Volume 1: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the Space Transportation Booster Engine (STBE) Configuration Study is to contribute to the Advanced Launch System (ALS) development effort by providing highly reliable, low cost booster engine concepts for both expendable and reusable rocket engines. The objectives of the Space Transportation Booster Engine (STBE) Configuration Study were to identify engine configurations which enhance vehicle performance and provide operational flexibility at low cost, and to explore innovative approaches to the follow-on full-scale development (FSD) phase for the STBE.

  10. Phased-array-fed antenna configuration study, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorbello, R. M.; Zaghloul, A. I.; Lee, B. S.; Siddiqi, S.; Geller, B. D.

    1983-01-01

    Increased capacity in future satellite systems can be achieved through antenna systems which provide multiplicity of frequency reuses at K sub a band. A number of antenna configurations which can provide multiple fixed spot beams and multiple independent spot scanning beams at 20 GHz are addressed. Each design incorporates a phased array with distributed MMIC amplifiers and phasesifters feeding a two reflector optical system. The tradeoffs required for the design of these systems and the corresponding performances are presented. Five final designs are studied. In so doing, a type of MMIC/waveguide transition is described, and measured results of the breadboard model are presented. Other hardware components developed are described. This includes a square orthomode transducer, a subarray fed with a beamforming network to measure scanning performance, and another subarray used to study mutual coupling considerations. Discussions of the advantages and disadvantages of the final design are included.

  11. Configuration management issues and objectives for a real-time research flight test support facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yergensen, Stephen; Rhea, Donald C.

    1988-01-01

    An account is given of configuration management activities for the Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) at NASA-Ames, whose primary function is the conduct of aeronautical research flight testing through real-time processing and display, tracking, and communications systems. The processing of WATR configuration change requests for specific research flight test projects must be conducted in such a way as to refrain from compromising the reliability of WATR support to all project users. Configuration management's scope ranges from mission planning to operations monitoring and performance trend analysis.

  12. Configuration management issues and objectives for a real-time research flight test support facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yergensen, Stephen; Rhea, Donald C.

    1988-01-01

    Presented are some of the critical issues and objectives pertaining to configuration management for the NASA Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) of Ames Research Center. The primary mission of the WATR is to provide a capability for the conduct of aeronautical research flight test through real-time processing and display, tracking, and communications systems. In providing this capability, the WATR must maintain and enforce a configuration management plan which is independent of, but complimentary to, various research flight test project configuration management systems. A primary WATR objective is the continued development of generic research flight test project support capability, wherein the reliability of WATR support provided to all project users is a constant priority. Therefore, the processing of configuration change requests for specific research flight test project requirements must be evaluated within a perspective that maintains this primary objective.

  13. Space shuttle phase B wind tunnel model and test information. Volume 3: Launch configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glynn, J. L.; Poucher, D. E.

    1988-01-01

    Archived wind tunnel test data are available for flyback booster or other alternate recoverable configuration as well as reusable orbiters studied during initial development (Phase B) of the Space Shuttle, including contractor data for an extensive variety of configurations with an array of wing and body planforms. The test data have been compiled into a database and are available for application to current winged flyback or recoverable booster aerodynamic studies. The Space Shuttle Phase B Wind Tunnel Database is structured by vehicle component and configuration. Basic components include booster, orbiter, and launch vehicle. Booster configuration types include straight and delta wings, canard, cylindrical, retroglide and twin body. Orbiter configurations include straight and delta wings, lifting body, drop tanks and double delta wings. Launch configurations include booster and orbiter components in various stacked and tandem combinations. The digital database consists of 220 files containing basic tunnel data. Database structure is documented in a series of reports which include configuration sketches for the various planforms tested. This is Volume 3 -- launch configurations.

  14. Three-Dimensional Numerical Modeling of Initial Mixing of Thermal Discharges at Real-Life Configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Hansong; Paik, Joongcheol; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Khangaonkar, Tarang P.

    2008-09-01

    A three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is developed for simulating turbulent mixing in the near-field of thermal discharge at real-life geometrical configurations. The domain decomposition method with the multi-level embedded overset grids is employed to handle the complexity of real-life diffusers as well as to efficiently account for the large disparity of length scales arising from the relative size of the ambient river reach and the typical diffuser diameter.

  15. Space shuttle phase B wind tunnel model and test information. Volume 1: Booster configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glynn, J. L.; Poucher, D. E.

    1988-01-01

    Archived wind tunnel test data are available for flyback booster or other alternative recoverable configurations as well as reusable orbiters studied during initial development (Phase B) of the Space Shuttle. Considerable wind tunnel data was acquired by the competing contractors and the NASA Centers for an extensive variety of configurations with an array of wing and body planforms. All contractor and NASA wind tunnel test data acquired in the Phase B development have been compiled into a database and are available for application to current winged flyback or recoverable booster aerodynamic studies. The Space Shuttle Phase B Wind Tunnel Database is structured by vehicle component and configuration type. Basic components include the booster, the orbiter and the launch vehicle. Booster configuration types include straight and delta wings, canard, cylindrical, retroglide and twin body. Orbiter configuration types include straight and delta wings, lifting body, drop tanks, and double delta wings. Launch configurations include booster and orbiter components in various stacked and tandem combinations. This is Volume 1 (Part 1) of the report -- Booster Configuration.

  16. Space shuttle phase B wind tunnel model and test information. Volume 1: Booster configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glynn, J. L.; Poucher, D. E.

    1988-01-01

    Archived wind tunnel test data are available for flyback booster or other alternative recoverable configurations as well as reusable orbiters studied during initial development (Phase B) of the Space Shuttle. Considerable wind tunnel data was acquired by the competing contractors and the NASA Centers for an extensive variety of configurations with an array of wing and body planforms. All contractor and NASA wind tunnel test data acquired in the Phase B development have been compiled into a database and are available for application to current winged flyback or recoverable booster aerodynamic studies. The Space Shuttle Phase B Wind Tunnel Database is structured by vehicle component and configuration type. Basic components include the booster, the orbiter, and the launch vehicle. Booster configuration types include straight and delta wings, canard, cylindrical, retroglide and twin body. Orbiter configuration types include straight and delta wings, lifting body, drop tanks and double delta wings. Launch configurations include booster and orbiter components in various stacked and tandem combinations. This is Volume 1 (Part 2) of the report -- Booster Configuration.

  17. Space shuttle phase B wind tunnel model and test information. Volume 3: Launch configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glynn, J. L.; Poucher, D. E.

    1988-01-01

    Archived wind tunnel data are available for flyback booster or other alternative recoverable configurations as well as reusable orbiters studied during initial development (Phase B) of the Space Shuttle. Considerable wind tunnel data was acquired by the competing contractors and the NASA Centers for an extensive variety of configurations with an array of wing and body planforms. All contractor and NASA wind tunnel data acquired in the Phase B development have been compiled into a data base and are available for application to current winged flyback or recoverable booster aerodynamic studies. The Space Shuttle Phase B Wind Tunnel Database is structured by vehicle component and configuration type. Basic components include booster, orbiter and launch vehicle. Booster configuration types include straight and delta wings, canard, cylindrical, retroglide and twin body. Orbital configuration types include straight and delta wings, lifting body, drop tanks and double delta wings. This is Volume 3 (Part 2) of the report -- Launch Configuration -- which includes booster and orbiter components in various stacked and tandem combinations.

  18. Formation of Large-Volume High-Pressure Plasma in Triode-Configuration Discharge Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chao; Wang, Youqing

    2006-03-01

    A ``plane cathode micro-hollow anode discharge (PCHAD)'' is studied in comparison with micro-hollow cathode discharge (MHCD). A new triode-configuration discharge device is also designed for large-volume, high-pressure glow discharges plasma without glow-to-arc transitions, as well as with an anode metal needle, and a cathode of PCHAD. It has a ``needle-hole" sustained glow discharge. Its discharge circuit employs only one power supply circuit with a variable resistor. The discharge experiments have been carried out in the air. The electrical properties and the photo-images in PCHAD, multi-PCHAD and ``needle-hole" sustained discharge have been investigated. The electrical and the optical measurements show that this triode-configuration discharge device can operate stably at high-pressure, in parallel without individual ballasting resistance. And the electron density of the plasma is estimated to be up to 1012cm-3. Compared with the two-supply circuit system, this electrode configuration is very simple with lower cost in generating large-volume plasma at high pressures.

  19. Real-time volume-based ambient occlusion.

    PubMed

    Papaioannou, Georgios; Menexi, Maria Lida; Papadopoulos, Charilaos

    2010-01-01

    Real-time rendering can benefit from global illumination methods to make the 3D environments look more convincing and lifelike. On the other hand, the conventional global illumination algorithms for the estimation of the diffuse surface interreflection make heavy usage of intra- and interobject visibility calculations, so they are time-consuming, and using them in real-time graphics applications can be prohibitive for complex scenes. Modern illumination approximations, such as ambient occlusion variants, use precalculated or frame-dependent data to reduce the problem to a local shading one. This paper presents a fast real-time method for visibility sampling using volumetric data in order to produce accurate inter- and intraobject ambient occlusion. The proposed volume sampling technique disassociates surface representation data from the visibility calculations, and therefore, makes the method suitable for both primitive-order or screen-order rendering, such as deferred rendering. The sampling mechanism can be used in any application that performs visibility queries or ray marching.

  20. Scale-4 Analysis of Pressurized Water Reactor Critical Configurations: Volume 1-Summary

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    The requirements of ANSI/ANS 8.1 specify that calculational methods for away-from-reactor criticality safety analyses be validated against experimental measurements. If credit is to be taken for the reduced reactivity of burned or spent fuel relative to its original ''fresh'' composition, it is necessary to benchmark computational methods used in determining such reactivity worth against spent fuel reactivity measurements. This report summarizes a portion of the ongoing effort to benchmark away-from-reactor criticality analysis methods using critical configurations from commercial pressurized- water reactors (PWR). The analysis methodology utilized for all calculations in this report is based on the modules and data associated with the SCALE-4 code system. Isotopic densities for spent fuel assemblies in the core were calculated using the SAS2H analytical sequence in SCALE-4. The sources of data and the procedures for deriving SAS2H input parameters are described in detail. The SNIKR code sequence was used to extract the necessary isotopic densities from SAS2H results and to provide the data in the format required for SCALE-4 criticality analysis modules. The CSASN analytical sequence in SCALE-4 was used to perform resonance processing of cross sections. The KENO V.a module of SCALE-4 was used to calculate the effective multiplication factor (k{sub eff}) for the critical configuration. The SCALE-4 27-group burnup library containing ENDF/B-IV (actinides) and ENDF/B-V (fission products) data was used for analysis of each critical configuration. Each of the five volumes comprising this report provides an overview of the methodology applied. Subsequent volumes also describe in detail the approach taken in performing criticality calculations for these PWR configurations: Volume 2 describes criticality calculations for the Tennessee Valley Authority's Sequoyah Unit 2 reactor for Cycle 3; Volume 3 documents the analysis of Virginia Power's Surry Unit 1 reactor for the

  1. Guidance and Control Software Project Data - Volume 4: Configuration Management and Quality Assurance Documents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J. (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    The Guidance and Control Software (GCS) project was the last in a series of software reliability studies conducted at Langley Research Center between 1977 and 1994. The technical results of the GCS project were recorded after the experiment was completed. Some of the support documentation produced as part of the experiment, however, is serving an unexpected role far beyond its original project context. Some of the software used as part of the GCS project was developed to conform to the RTCA/DO-178B software standard, "Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification," used in the civil aviation industry. That standard requires extensive documentation throughout the software development life cycle, including plans, software requirements, design and source code, verification cases and results, and configuration management and quality control data. The project documentation that includes this information is open for public scrutiny without the legal or safety implications associated with comparable data from an avionics manufacturer. This public availability has afforded an opportunity to use the GCS project documents for DO-178B training. This report provides a brief overview of the GCS project, describes the 4-volume set of documents and the role they are playing in training, and includes configuration management and quality assurance documents from the GCS project. Volume 4 contains six appendices: A. Software Accomplishment Summary for the Guidance and Control Software Project; B. Software Configuration Index for the Guidance and Control Software Project; C. Configuration Management Records for the Guidance and Control Software Project; D. Software Quality Assurance Records for the Guidance and Control Software Project; E. Problem Report for the Pluto Implementation of the Guidance and Control Software Project; and F. Support Documentation Change Reports for the Guidance and Control Software Project.

  2. Configuration evaluation and criteria plan. Volume 2: Evaluation criteria plan (update). Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) configuration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bair, E. K.

    1987-01-01

    Candidate main engine configurations which enhance vehicle performance, operation and cost are identified. These candidate configurations are evaluated and the configurations which provide significant advantages over existing systems are selected for consideration for the next generation of launch vehicles. The unbiased selection of the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) configuration requires that the candidate engines be evaluated against a predetermined set of criteria which must be properly weighted to emphasize critical requirements defined prior to the actual evaluation. During a prior study of the STME a Gas Generator Cycle engine was selected for conceptual design, with emphasis on reusability, reliability and low cost while achieving good performance. In this study emphasis is on expendable application of the STME while maintaining low cost and high reliability.

  3. Configuration Analysis of the ERS Points in Large-Volume Metrology System

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Zhangjun; Yu, Cijun; Li, Jiangxiong; Ke, Yinglin

    2015-01-01

    In aircraft assembly, multiple laser trackers are used simultaneously to measure large-scale aircraft components. To combine the independent measurements, the transformation matrices between the laser trackers’ coordinate systems and the assembly coordinate system are calculated, by measuring the enhanced referring system (ERS) points. This article aims to understand the influence of the configuration of the ERS points that affect the transformation matrix errors, and then optimize the deployment of the ERS points to reduce the transformation matrix errors. To optimize the deployment of the ERS points, an explicit model is derived to estimate the transformation matrix errors. The estimation model is verified by the experiment implemented in the factory floor. Based on the proposed model, a group of sensitivity coefficients are derived to evaluate the quality of the configuration of the ERS points, and then several typical configurations of the ERS points are analyzed in detail with the sensitivity coefficients. Finally general guidance is established to instruct the deployment of the ERS points in the aspects of the layout, the volume size and the number of the ERS points, as well as the position and orientation of the assembly coordinate system. PMID:26402685

  4. 1999 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahne, David E. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1999 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 8-12, 1999 in Anaheim, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in the areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to: (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientists and engineers working on HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single and midpoint optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented, along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program. This Volume 1/Part 1 publication covers configuration aerodynamics.

  5. Configuration Analysis of the ERS Points in Large-Volume Metrology System.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhangjun; Yu, Cijun; Li, Jiangxiong; Ke, Yinglin

    2015-01-01

    In aircraft assembly, multiple laser trackers are used simultaneously to measure large-scale aircraft components. To combine the independent measurements, the transformation matrices between the laser trackers' coordinate systems and the assembly coordinate system are calculated, by measuring the enhanced referring system (ERS) points. This article aims to understand the influence of the configuration of the ERS points that affect the transformation matrix errors, and then optimize the deployment of the ERS points to reduce the transformation matrix errors. To optimize the deployment of the ERS points, an explicit model is derived to estimate the transformation matrix errors. The estimation model is verified by the experiment implemented in the factory floor. Based on the proposed model, a group of sensitivity coefficients are derived to evaluate the quality of the configuration of the ERS points, and then several typical configurations of the ERS points are analyzed in detail with the sensitivity coefficients. Finally general guidance is established to instruct the deployment of the ERS points in the aspects of the layout, the volume size and the number of the ERS points, as well as the position and orientation of the assembly coordinate system. PMID:26402685

  6. 1999 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahne, David E. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1999 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 8-12, 1999 in Anaheim, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in the areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientists and engineers working on HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single and midpoint optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented, along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program. This Volume 1/Part 2 publication covers the design optimization and testing sessions.

  7. Project Columbiad: Mission to the Moon. Book 2, volume 3: Stage configuration designs; volume 4: Program plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Earth Orbital Rendezvous (EOR) configuration for the piloted mission is composed of three propulsive elements in addition to the Crew Module (CM): Primary Trans-Lunar Injection (PTLI), Lunar Braking Module (LBM), and Earth Return Module (ERM). The precursor mission is also composed of three propulsive elements in addition to its surface payloads: PTLI, LBM and the Payload Landing Module (PLM). Refer to Volume 1, Section 5.1 and 5.2 for a break-up of the different stages into the four launches. A quick summary is as follows: PTLI is on Launch 1 and 3 while the LBM, PLM, and surface payloads are on Launch 2 and another LBM, ERM, and CM on Launch 4. The precursor mission is designed to be as modular as possible with the piloted mission for developmental cost considerations. The following topics are discussed: launch vehicle description; primary trans-lunar injection stage; lunar braking module; earth return module; crew module; payload landing module; and surface payload description.

  8. Project Columbiad: Mission to the Moon. Book 2, volume 3: Stage configuration designs; volume 4: Program plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Earth Orbital Rendezvous (EOR) configuration for the piloted mission is composed of three propulsive elements in addition to the Crew Module (CM): Primary Trans-Lunar Injection (PTLI), Lunar Braking Module (LBM), and Earth Return Module (ERM). The precursor mission is also composed of three propulsive elements in addition to its surface payloads: PTLI, LBM and the Payload Landing Module (PLM). Refer to Volume 1, Section 5.1 and 5.2 for a break-up of the different stages into the four launches. A quick summary is as follows: PTLI is on Launch 1 and 3 while the LBM, PLM, and surface payloads are on Launch 2 and another LBM, ERM, and CM on Launch 4. The precursor mission is designed to be as modular as possible with the piloted mission for developmental cost considerations. The following topics are discussed: launch vehicle description; primary trans-lunar injection stage; lunar braking module; earth return module; crew module; payload landing module; and surface payload description.

  9. Scale-4 Analysis of Pressurized Water Reactor Critical Configurations: Volume 3-Surry Unit 1 Cycle 2

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    The requirements of ANSI/ANS 8.1 specify that calculational methods for away-from-reactor criticality safety analyses be validated against experimental measurements. If credit for the negative reactivity of the depleted (or spent) fuel isotopics is desired, it is necessary to benchmark computational methods against spent fuel critical configurations. This report summarizes a portion of the ongoing effort to benchmark away-from-reactor criticality analysis methods using selected critical configurations from commercial pressurized-water reactors. The analysis methodology selected for all the calculations in this report is based on the codes and data provided in the SCALE-4 code system. The isotopic densities for the spent fuel assemblies in the critical configurations were calculated using the SAS2H analytical sequence of the SCALE-4 system. The sources of data and the procedures for deriving SAS2H input parameters are described in detail. The SNIKR code module was used to extract the necessary isotopic densities from the SAS2H results and to provide the data in the format required by the SCALE criticality analysis modules. The CSASN analytical sequence in SCALE-4 was used to perform resonance processing of the cross sections. The KENO V.a module of SCALE-4 was used to calculate the effective multiplication factor (k{sub eff}) of each case. The SCALE-4 27-group burnup library containing ENDF/B-IV (actinides) and ENDF/B-V (fission products) data was used for all the calculations. This volume of the report documents the SCALE system analysis of two reactor critical configurations for Surry Unit 1 Cycle 2. This unit and cycle were chosen for a previous analysis using a different methodology because detailed isotopics from multidimensional reactor calculations were available from the Virginia Power Company. These data permitted a direct comparison of criticality calculations using the utility-calculated isotopics with those using the isotopics generated by the SCALE-4

  10. Scale-4 Analysis of Pressurized Water Reactor Critical Configurations: Volume 2-Sequoyah Unit 2 Cycle 3

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    The requirements of ANSI/ANS 8.1 specify that calculational methods for away-from-reactor criticality safety analyses be validated against experimental measurements. If credit for the negative reactivity of the depleted (or spent) fuel isotopics is desired, it is necessary to benchmark computational methods against spent fuel critical configurations. This report summarizes a portion of the ongoing effort to benchmark away-from-reactor criticality analysis methods using critical configurations from commercial pressurized-water reactors. The analysis methodology selected for all the calculations reported herein is based on the codes and data provided in the SCALE-4 code system. The isotopic densities for the spent fuel assemblies in the critical configurations were calculated using the SAS2H analytical sequence of the SCALE-4 system. The sources of data and the procedures for deriving SAS2H input parameters are described in detail. The SNIKR code module was used to extract the necessary isotopic densities from the SAS2H results and provide the data in the format required by the SCALE criticality analysis modules. The CSASN analytical sequence in SCALE-4 was used to perform resonance processing of the cross sections. The KENO V.a module of SCALE-4 was used to calculate the effective multiplication factor (k{sub eff}) of each case. The SCALE-4 27-group burnup library containing ENDF/B-IV (actinides) and ENDF/B-V (fission products) data was used for all the calculations. This volume of the report documents the SCALE system analysis of three reactor critical configurations for the Sequoyah Unit 2 Cycle 3. This unit and cycle were chosen because of the relevance in spent fuel benchmark applications: (1) the unit had a significantly long downtime of 2.7 years during the middle of cycle (MOC) 3, and (2) the core consisted entirely of burned fuel at the MOC restart. The first benchmark critical calculation was the MOC restart at hot, full-power (HFP) critical conditions. The

  11. Configuration evaluation and criteria plan. Volume 2: Evaluation critera plan (preliminary). Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) configuration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bair, E. K.

    1986-01-01

    The unbiased selection of the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) configuration requires that the candidate engines be evaluated against a predetermined set of criteria which must be properly weighted to emphasize critical requirements defined prior to the actual evaluation. The evaluation and selection process involves the following functions: (1) determining if a configuration can satisfy basic STME requirements (yes/no); (2) defining the evaluation criteria; (3) selecting the criteria relative importance or weighting; (4) determining the weighting sensitivities; and (5) establishing a baseline for engine evaluation. The criteria weighting and sensitivities are cost related and are based on mission models and vehicle requirements. The evaluation process is used as a coarse screen to determine the candidate engines for the parametric studies and as a fine screen to determine concept(s) for conceptual design. The criteria used for the coarse and fine screen evaluation process is shown. The coarse screen process involves verifying that the candidate engines can meet the yes/no screening requirements and a semi-subjective quantitative evaluation. The fine screen engines have to meet all of the yes/no screening gates and are then subjected to a detailed evaluation or assessment using the quantitative cost evaluation processes. The option exists for re-cycling a concept through the quantitative portion of the screening and allows for some degree of optimization. The basic vehicle is a two stage LOX/HC, LOX/LH2 parallel burn vehicle capable of placing 150,000 lbs in low Earth orbit (LEO).

  12. Deepwater Horizon - Estimating surface oil volume distribution in real time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehr, B.; Simecek-Beatty, D.; Leifer, I.

    2011-12-01

    Spill responders to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill required both the relative spatial distribution and total oil volume of the surface oil. The former was needed on a daily basis to plan and direct local surface recovery and treatment operations. The latter was needed less frequently to provide information for strategic response planning. Unfortunately, the standard spill observation methods were inadequate for an oil spill this size, and new, experimental, methods, were not ready to meet the operational demands of near real-time results. Traditional surface oil estimation tools for large spills include satellite-based sensors to define the spatial extent (but not thickness) of the oil, complemented with trained observers in small aircraft, sometimes supplemented by active or passive remote sensing equipment, to determine surface percent coverage of the 'thick' part of the slick, where the vast majority of the surface oil exists. These tools were also applied to DWH in the early days of the spill but the shear size of the spill prevented synoptic information of the surface slick through the use small aircraft. Also, satellite images of the spill, while large in number, varied considerably in image quality, requiring skilled interpretation of them to identify oil and eliminate false positives. Qualified staff to perform this task were soon in short supply. However, large spills are often events that overcome organizational inertia to the use of new technology. Two prime examples in DWH were the application of hyper-spectral scans from a high-altitude aircraft and more traditional fixed-wing aircraft using multi-spectral scans processed by use of a neural network to determine, respectively, absolute or relative oil thickness. But, with new technology, come new challenges. The hyper-spectral instrument required special viewing conditions that were not present on a daily basis and analysis infrastructure to process the data that was not available at the command

  13. Influence of store dimensions and auxiliary volume configuration on the performance of medium-sized solar combisystems

    SciTech Connect

    Lundh, Magdalena; Zass, Katrin; Wilhelms, Claudius; Vajen, Klaus; Jordan, Ulrike

    2010-07-15

    To increase the fractional energy savings achieved with solar thermal combisystems the store volume may be increased. Installation of large stores in single-family houses is, however, often limited by space constraints. In this article the influence of the store dimensions, as well as internal and external auxiliary volume configurations, are investigated for large solar water stores by annual dynamic TRNSYS simulations. The results show that store sizes up to 4 m{sup 3} may be used in solar heating systems with 30 m{sup 2} collector area. It is further shown that well-insulated stores are rather insensitive to the geometry. Stores deviating from the conventional dimensions still yield high fractional energy savings. Furthermore, the simulations show that the performance of an internal auxiliary volume configuration in most cases exceeds that of a solution with an external auxiliary unit. The practical limitations of very thin auxiliary volumes must, however, be further investigated. (author)

  14. Scale-4 analysis of pressurized water reactor critical configurations: Volume 5, North Anna Unit 1 Cycle 5

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, S.M.; Suto, T. |

    1996-10-01

    ANSI/ANS 8.1 requires that calculational methods for away-from- reactor (AFR) criticality safety analyses be validated against experiment. This report summarizes part of the ongoing effort to benchmark AFR criticality analysis methods using selected critical configurations from commercial PWRs. Codes and data in the SCALE-4 code system were used. This volume documents the SCALE system analysis of one reactor critical configuration for North Anna Unit 1 Cycle 5. The KENO V.a criticality calculations for the North Anna 1 Cycle 5 beginning-of-cycle model yielded a value for k{sub eff} of 1. 0040{+-}0.0005.

  15. The Horizon: A blended wing aircraft configuration design project, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keidel, Paul; Gonda, Mark; Freeman, Darnon; Kim, Jay; Hsu, Yul

    1988-01-01

    The results of a study to design a High-Speed Civilian Transport (HSCT) using the blended wing-body configuration are presented. The HSCT is a Mach 2 to 5 transport aircraft designed to compete with current commercial aircraft. The subjects discussed are sizing, configuration, aerodynamics, stability and control, propulsion, performance, structures and pollution effects.

  16. Space transportation booster engine configuration study. Volume 2: Design definition document and environmental analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the Space Transportation Booster Engine (STBE) Configuration Study is to contribute to the Advanced Launch System (ALS) development effort by providing highly reliable, low cost booster engine concepts for both expendable and reusable rocket engines. The objectives of the space Transportation Booster Engine (STBE) Configuration Study were: (1) to identify engine configurations which enhance vehicle performance and provide operational flexibility at low cost, and (2) to explore innovative approaches to the follow-on Full-Scale Development (FSD) phase for the STBE.

  17. Propulsion and airframe aerodynamic interactions of supersonic V/STOL configurations. Volume 1: Wind tunnel test pressure data report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zilz, D. E.; Devereaux, P. A.

    1985-01-01

    A wind tunnel model of a supersonic V/STOL fighter configuration has been tested to measure the aerodynamic interaction effects which can result from geometrically close-coupled propulsion system/airframe components. The approach was to configure the model to represent two different test techniques. One was a conventional test technique composed of two test modes. In the Flow-Through mode, absolute configuration aerodynamics are measured, including inlet/airframe interactions. In the Jet-Effects mode, incremental nozzle/airframe interactions are measured. The other test technique is a propulsion simulator approach, where a sub-scale, externally powered engine is mounted in the model. This allows proper measurement of inlet/airframe and nozzle/airframe interactions simultaneously. This is Volume 1 of 2: Wind Tunnel Test Pressure Data Report.

  18. NASA/HAA Advanced Rotorcraft Technology and Tilt Rotor Workshop. Volume 6: Vehicle Configuration Session

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Five high speed rotorcraft configurations are considered: the high speed helicopter, compound helicopter, ABC, tilt rotor and the X wing. The technology requirements and the recommended actions are discussed.

  19. Space shuttle phase B wind tunnel model and test information. Volume 2: Orbiter configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glynn, J. L.; Poucher, D. E.

    1988-01-01

    Archived wind tunnel test data are available for flyback booster or other alternative recoverable configurations as well as reusable orbiters studied during initial development (Phase B) of the Space Shuttle. Considerable wind tunnel data was acquired by the competing contractors and the NASA centers for an extensive variety of configurations with an array of wing and body planforms. All contractor and NASA wind tunnel test data acquired in the Phase B development have been compiled into a data base and are available for applying to current winged flyback or recoverable booster aerodynamic studies. The Space Shuttle Phase B Wind Tunnel Data Base is structured by vehicle component and configuration type. Basic components include the booster, the orbiter, and the launch vehicle. Booster configuration types include straight and delta wings, canard, cylindrical, retro-glide and twin body. Orbiter configuration types include straight and delta wings, lifting body, drop tanks, and double delta wings. Launch configuration types include booster and orbiter components in various stacked and tandem combinations.

  20. Configuration Management and Infrastructure Monitoring Using CFEngine and Icinga for Real-time Heterogeneous Data Taking Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poat, M. D.; Lauret, J.; Betts, W.

    2015-12-01

    The STAR online computing environment is an intensive ever-growing system used for real-time data collection and analysis. Composed of heterogeneous and sometimes groups of custom-tuned machines, the computing infrastructure was previously managed by manual configurations and inconsistently monitored by a combination of tools. This situation led to configuration inconsistency and an overload of repetitive tasks along with lackluster communication between personnel and machines. Globally securing this heterogeneous cyberinfrastructure was tedious at best and an agile, policy-driven system ensuring consistency, was pursued. Three configuration management tools, Chef, Puppet, and CFEngine have been compared in reliability, versatility and performance along with a comparison of infrastructure monitoring tools Nagios and Icinga. STAR has selected the CFEngine configuration management tool and the Icinga infrastructure monitoring system leading to a versatile and sustainable solution. By leveraging these two tools STAR can now swiftly upgrade and modify the environment to its needs with ease as well as promptly react to cyber-security requests. By creating a sustainable long term monitoring solution, the detection of failures was reduced from days to minutes, allowing rapid actions before the issues become dire problems, potentially causing loss of precious experimental data or uptime.

  1. Elasticity-based three dimensional ultrasound real-time volume rendering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boctor, Emad M.; Matinfar, Mohammad; Ahmad, Omar; Rivaz, Hassan; Choti, Michael; Taylor, Russell H.

    2009-02-01

    Volumetric ultrasound imaging has not gained wide recognition, despite the availability of real-time 3D ultrasound scanners and the anticipated potential of 3D ultrasound imaging in diagnostic and interventional radiology. Their use, however, has been hindered by the lack of real-time visualization methods that are capable of producing high quality 3D rendering of the target/surface of interest. Volume rendering is a known visualization method, which can display clear surfaces out of the acquired volumetric data, and has an increasing number of applications utilizing CT and MRI data. The key element of any volume rendering pipeline is the ability to classify the target/surface of interest by setting an appropriate opacity function. Practical and successful real-time 3D ultrasound volume rendering can be achieved in Obstetrics and Angio applications where setting these opacity functions can be done rapidly, and reliably. Unfortunately, 3D ultrasound volume rendering of soft tissues is a challenging task due to the presence of significant amount of noise and speckle. Recently, several research groups have shown the feasibility of producing 3D elasticity volume from two consecutive 3D ultrasound scans. This report describes a novel volume rendering pipeline utilizing elasticity information. The basic idea is to compute B-mode voxel opacity from the rapidly calculated strain values, which can also be mixed with conventional gradient based opacity function. We have implemented the volume renderer using GPU unit, which gives an update rate of 40 volume/sec.

  2. Space shuttle phase B wind tunnel model and test information. Volume 2: Orbiter configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glynn, J. L.; Poucher, D. E.

    1988-01-01

    Archived wind tunnel test data are available for flyback booster or other alternate recoverable configurations as well as reusable orbiters studied during initial development (Phase B) of the Space Shuttle. Considerable wind tunnel data was acquired by the competing contractors and the NASA centers for an extensive variety of configurations with an array of wing and body planforms. All contractor and NASA wind tunnel test data acquiredin the Phase B development have been compiled into a database and are available for applying to current winged flyback or recoverable booster aerodynamic studies. The Space Shuttle Phase B Wind Tunnel Database is structured by vehicle component and configuration type. Basic components include the booster, the orbiter, and the launch vehicle. Booster configuration types include straight and delta wings, canard, cylindrical, retroglide, and twin body. Orbiter configuration types include straight and delta wings, lifting body, drop tanks, and double delta wings. Launch configration types include booster and orbiter components in various stacked and tandom combinations. The digital database consists of 220 files of data containing basic tunnel recorded data.

  3. Configuration Control of a Mobile Dextrous Robot: Real-Time Implementation and Experimentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, David; Seraji, Homayoun

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a real-time control system with multiple modes of operation for a mobile dexterous manipulator. The manipulator under study is a kinematically redundant seven degree-of-freedom arm from Robotics Research Corporation, mounted on a one degree-of-freedom motorized platform.

  4. NASA in-house Commercially Developed Space Facility (CDSF) study report. Volume 1: Concept configuration definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deryder, L. J.; Chiger, H. D.; Deryder, D. D.; Detweiler, K. N.; Dupree, R. L.; Gillespie, V. P.; Hall, J. B.; Heck, M. L.; Herrick, D. C.; Katzberg, S. J.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a NASA in-house team effort to develop a concept definition for a Commercially Developed Space Facility (CDSF) are presented. Science mission utilization definition scenarios are documented, the conceptual configuration definition system performance parameters qualified, benchmark operational scenarios developed, space shuttle interface descriptions provided, and development schedule activity was assessed with respect to the establishment of a proposed launch date.

  5. Moving NSDC's Staff Development Standards into Practice: Innovation Configurations. Volume I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Staff Development Council, 2003

    2003-01-01

    NSDC's groundbreaking work in developing standards for staff development has now been joined by an equally important book that spells out exactly how those standards would look if they were being implemented by school districts. An Innovation Configuration map is a device that identifies and describes the major components of a new practice--in…

  6. 1997 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baize, Daniel G. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The High-Speed Research Program and NASA Langley Research Center sponsored the NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop on February 25-28, 1997. The workshop was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in area of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, Flight Controls, Supersonic Laminar Flow Control, and Sonic Boom Prediction. The workshop objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodyamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientist and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single- and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT Motion Simulator results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas.

  7. Configuration study for a 30 GHz monolithic receive array, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nester, W. H.; Cleaveland, B.; Edward, B.; Gotkis, S.; Hesserbacker, G.; Loh, J.; Mitchell, B.

    1984-11-01

    Gregorian, Cassegrain, and single reflector systems were analyzed in configuration studies for communications satellite receive antennas. Parametric design and performance curves were generated. A preliminary design of each reflector/feed system was derived including radiating elements, beam-former network, beamsteering system, and MMIC module architecture. Performance estimates and component requirements were developed for each design. A recommended design was selected for both the scanning beam and the fixed beam case. Detailed design and performance analysis results are presented for the selected Cassegrain configurations. The final design point is characterized in detail and performance measures evaluated in terms of gain, sidelobe level, noise figure, carrier-to-interference ratio, prime power, and beamsteering. The effects of mutual coupling and excitation errors (including phase and amplitude quantization errors) are evaluated. Mechanical assembly drawings are given for the final design point. Thermal design requirements are addressed in the mechanical design.

  8. 1997 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baize, Daniel G. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The High-Speed Research Program and NASA Langley Research Center sponsored the NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop on February 25-28, 1997. The workshop was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, Flight Controls, Supersonic Laminar Flow Control, and Sonic Boom Prediction. The workshop objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientist and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single- and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT Motion Simulator results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas.

  9. Configuration study for a 30 GHz monolithic receive array, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nester, W. H.; Cleaveland, B.; Edward, B.; Gotkis, S.; Hesserbacker, G.; Loh, J.; Mitchell, B.

    1984-01-01

    Gregorian, Cassegrain, and single reflector systems were analyzed in configuration studies for communications satellite receive antennas. Parametric design and performance curves were generated. A preliminary design of each reflector/feed system was derived including radiating elements, beam-former network, beamsteering system, and MMIC module architecture. Performance estimates and component requirements were developed for each design. A recommended design was selected for both the scanning beam and the fixed beam case. Detailed design and performance analysis results are presented for the selected Cassegrain configurations. The final design point is characterized in detail and performance measures evaluated in terms of gain, sidelobe level, noise figure, carrier-to-interference ratio, prime power, and beamsteering. The effects of mutual coupling and excitation errors (including phase and amplitude quantization errors) are evaluated. Mechanical assembly drawings are given for the final design point. Thermal design requirements are addressed in the mechanical design.

  10. Space tug avionics definition study. Volume 3: Avionics baseline configuration definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The baseline avionics systems for the space tug is comprised of a central digital computer that integrates the functions of all of the tug's subsystems by means of a redundant digital data bus. The major subsystems of the avionics system are: data management; communications; guidance, navigation, and control; rendezvous and docking; electrical power; and instrumentation. The baseline avionics system for the space tug resulting from system and subsystem trade studies is defined. Tug interfaces with the spacecraft, orbiter and the ground, and the baseline philosophy and configuration for onboard checkout of the tug are included. Baseline configurations, functional and operational features, component details and characteristics, and the supporting software are included in the subsystem descriptions.

  11. Real-time volume rendering of 4D image using 3D texture mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jinwoo; Kim, June-Sic; Kim, Jae Seok; Kim, In Young; Kim, Sun Il

    2001-05-01

    Four dimensional image is 3D volume data that varies with time. It is used to express deforming or moving object in virtual surgery of 4D ultrasound. It is difficult to render 4D image by conventional ray-casting or shear-warp factorization methods because of their time-consuming rendering time or pre-processing stage whenever the volume data are changed. Even 3D texture mapping is used, repeated volume loading is also time-consuming in 4D image rendering. In this study, we propose a method to reduce data loading time using coherence between currently loaded volume and previously loaded volume in order to achieve real time rendering based on 3D texture mapping. Volume data are divided into small bricks and each brick being loaded is tested for similarity to one which was already loaded in memory. If the brick passed the test, it is defined as 3D texture by OpenGL functions. Later, the texture slices of the brick are mapped into polygons and blended by OpenGL blending functions. All bricks undergo this test. Continuously deforming fifty volumes are rendered in interactive time with SGI ONYX. Real-time volume rendering based on 3D texture mapping is currently available on PC.

  12. Real-time debugger with bitstream configurator and C language design control for FPGAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casselman, Steve; Schewel, John; Wartel, Frank

    2001-07-01

    At the boundary between hardware and software, where FPGAs with 2,000,000 gates is just the beginning, we've found that the tools you have in your toolbox make all the difference. With larger and more feature rich programmable devices such as the VirtexTM Platform FPGA, even minors changes in the design can require hours of compile time. The combination of design complexity and component size is taxing current design entry and implementation tools, making the design cycle loner. The simulation-verification cycle doesn't mean the design will work in the final product. The engineer needs more than ever, to debug designs within the target hardware in real-time. We have built a series of integrated tools aimed at enhancing productivity at the last stages of product design, the final ten percent of the design that takes ninety percent of the time. The tools shown are not meant to replace current tools. These are advanced tools for the FPGA power user. Our goal is creating a set of tools specifically designed to provide better design control, dramatically reduce iteration times and enable real-time In-Circuit debugged in hardware. We have organized this series of tools as The Technology StackTM.

  13. Easily configured real-time CPOE Pick Off Tool supporting focused clinical research and quality improvement

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, Benjamin P; Silkin, Nikolay; Miller, Randolph A

    2014-01-01

    Real-time alerting systems typically warn providers about abnormal laboratory results or medication interactions. For more complex tasks, institutions create site-wide ‘data warehouses’ to support quality audits and longitudinal research. Sophisticated systems like i2b2 or Stanford's STRIDE utilize data warehouses to identify cohorts for research and quality monitoring. However, substantial resources are required to install and maintain such systems. For more modest goals, an organization desiring merely to identify patients with ‘isolation’ orders, or to determine patients’ eligibility for clinical trials, may adopt a simpler, limited approach based on processing the output of one clinical system, and not a data warehouse. We describe a limited, order-entry-based, real-time ‘pick off’ tool, utilizing public domain software (PHP, MySQL). Through a web interface the tool assists users in constructing complex order-related queries and auto-generates corresponding database queries that can be executed at recurring intervals. We describe successful application of the tool for research and quality monitoring. PMID:24287172

  14. Worst configurations (instantons) for compressed sensing over reals: a channel coding approach

    SciTech Connect

    Chertkov, Michael; Chilappagari, Shashi K; Vasic, Bane

    2010-01-01

    We consider Linear Programming (LP) solution of a Compressed Sensing (CS) problem over reals, also known as the Basis Pursuit (BasP) algorithm. The BasP allows interpretation as a channel-coding problem, and it guarantees the error-free reconstruction over reals for properly chosen measurement matrix and sufficiently sparse error vectors. In this manuscript, we examine how the BasP performs on a given measurement matrix and develop a technique to discover sparse vectors for which the BasP fails. The resulting algorithm is a generalization of our previous results on finding the most probable error-patterns, so called instantons, degrading performance of a finite size Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) code in the error-floor regime. The BasP fails when its output is different from the actual error-pattern. We design CS-Instanton Search Algorithm (ISA) generating a sparse vector, called CS-instanton, such that the BasP fails on the instanton, while its action on any modification of the CS-instanton decreasing a properly defined norm is successful. We also prove that, given a sufficiently dense random input for the error-vector, the CS-ISA converges to an instanton in a small finite number of steps. Performance of the CS-ISA is tested on example of a randomly generated 512 * 120 matrix, that outputs the shortest instanton (error vector) pattern of length 11.

  15. Core compressor exit stage study. Volume 4: Data and performance report for the best stage configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisler, D. C.

    1981-01-01

    The core compressor exit stage study program develops rear stage blading designs that have lower losses in their endwall boundary layer regions. The test data and performance results for the best stage configuration consisting of Rotor-B running with Stator-B are described. The technical approach in this efficiency improvement program utilizes a low speed research compressor. Tests were conducted in two ways: (1) to use four identical stages of blading to obtain test data in a true multistage environment and (2) to use a single stage of blading to compare with the multistage test results. The effects of increased rotor tip clearances and circumferential groove casing treatment are evaluated.

  16. The Flying Diamond: A joined aircraft configuration design project, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, Chris; Czech, Joe; Lentz, Bryan; Kobashigawa, Daryl; Oishi, Curtis; Poladian, David

    1988-01-01

    The results of the analysis conducted on the Joined Wing Configuration study are presented. The joined wing configuration employs a conventional fuselage and incorporates two wings joined together near their tips to form a diamond shape in both plan view and front view. The arrangement of the lifting surfaces uses the rear wing as a horizontal tail and as a forward wing strut. The rear wing has its root at the tip of the vertical stabilizer and is structurally attached to the trailing edge of the forward wing. This arrangement of the two wings forms a truss structure which is inherently resistant to the aerodynamic bending loads generated during flight. This allows for a considerable reduction in the weight of the lifting surfaces. With smaller internal wing structures needed, the Joined Wing may employ thinner wings which are more suitable for supersonic and hypersonic flight, having less induced drag than conventional cantilever winged aircraft. Inherent in the Joined Wing is the capability of the generation of direct lift and side force which enhance the performance parameters.

  17. 1998 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillin, S. Naomi (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1998 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 9-13, in Los Angeles, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry HighSpeed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in areas of. Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to: (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientists and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program.

  18. 1998 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillin, S. Naomi (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1998 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 9-13, in Los Angeles, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientists and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program.

  19. SOFIA: Aircraft system, aft telescope cavity configuration, phase 2. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-02-01

    This volume summarizes the tasks performed by E-Systems during Phase 2 of a study evaluating the structural modifications required to install the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, SOFIA in the Boeing 747 airplane. An optimal structural modification concept for installation of the Infrared telescope is identified, and the concept is validated by analysis of the static and dynamic characteristics of the modified structure.

  20. Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System configuration and tradeoff study. Volume 2: Delta 2914 launched TDRSS, Configuration 2. Part 2: Final Report, 22 August 1972 - 1 April 1973

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Configuration data and design information for a Delta 2914 launched configuration with greatly enhanced telecommunication service over the Part I Delta 2914 configuration is contained. The overall system definition, operations and control, and telecommunication service system, including link budgets are discussed. A brief description of the user transceiver and ground station is presented. A final section includes a summary description of the TDR spacecraft and all the subsystems. The data presented are largely in tabular form.

  1. Configuration evaluation and criteria plan. Volume 1: System trades study and design methodology plan (preliminary). Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) configuration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bair, E. K.

    1986-01-01

    The System Trades Study and Design Methodology Plan is used to conduct trade studies to define the combination of Space Shuttle Main Engine features that will optimize candidate engine configurations. This is accomplished by using vehicle sensitivities and engine parametric data to establish engine chamber pressure and area ratio design points for candidate engine configurations. Engineering analyses are to be conducted to refine and optimize the candidate configurations at their design points. The optimized engine data and characteristics are then evaluated and compared against other candidates being considered. The Evaluation Criteria Plan is then used to compare and rank the optimized engine configurations on the basis of cost.

  2. On the effect of calcification volume and configuration on the mechanical behaviour of carotid plaque tissue.

    PubMed

    Barrett, H E; Cunnane, E M; Kavanagh, E G; Walsh, M T

    2016-03-01

    Vascular calcification is a complex molecular process that exhibits a number of relatively characteristic morphology patterns in atherosclerotic plaques. Treatment of arterial stenosis by endovascular intervention, involving forceful circumferential expansion of the plaque, can be unpredictable in calcified lesions. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanical stretching mechanisms and define the mechanical limits for circumferentially expanding carotid plaque lesions under the influence of distinct calcification patterns. Mechanical and structural characterisation was performed on 17 human carotid plaques acquired from patients undergoing endarterectomy procedures. The mechanical properties were determined using uniaxial extension tests that stretch the lesions to complete failure along their circumferential axis. Calcification morphology of mechanically ruptured plaque lesions was characterised using high resolution micro computed tomography imaging. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the mechanically induced failure sites and to identify the interface boundary conditions between calcified and non-calcified tissue. The mechanical tests produced four distinct trends in mechanical behaviour which corresponded to the calcification patterns that structurally defined each mechanical group. Each calcification pattern produced unique mechanical restraining effects on the plaque tissue stretching properties evidenced by the variation in degree of stretch to failure. Resistance to failure appears to rely on interactions between calcification and non-calcified tissue. Scanning electron microscopy examination revealed structural gradations at interface boundary conditions to facilitate the transfer of stress. This study emphasises the mechanical influence of distinct calcification configurations on plaque expansion properties and highlights the importance of pre-operative lesion characterisation to optimise treatment outcomes.

  3. Tetrahedral finite-volume solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations on complex configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frink, N. T.; Pirzadeh, S. Z.

    1999-09-01

    A review of the algorithmic features and capabilities of the unstructured-grid flow solver USM3Dns is presented. This code, along with the tetrahedral grid generator, VGRIDns, is being extensively used throughout the USA for solving the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations on complex aerodynamic problems. Spatial discretization is accomplished by a tetrahedral cell-centered finite-volume formulation using Roe's upwind flux difference splitting. The fluxes are limited by either a Superbee or MinMod limiter. Solution reconstruction within the tetrahedral cells is accomplished with a simple, but novel, multidimensional analytical formula. Time is advanced by an implicit backward-Euler time-stepping scheme. Flow turbulence effects are modeled by the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model, which is coupled with a wall function to reduce the number of cells in the near-wall region of the boundary layer. The issues of accuracy and robustness of USM3Dns Navier-Stokes capabilities are addressed for a flat-plate boundary layer, and a full F-16 aircraft with external stores at transonic speed.

  4. Tetrahedral Finite-Volume Solutions to the Navier-Stokes Equations on Complex Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frink, Neal T.; Pirzadeh, Shahyar Z.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the algorithmic features and capabilities of the unstructured-grid flow solver USM3Dns is presented. This code, along with the tetrahedral grid generator, VGRIDns, is being extensively used throughout the U.S. for solving the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations on complex aerodynamic problems. Spatial discretization is accomplished by a tetrahedral cell-centered finite-volume formulation using Roe's upwind flux difference splitting. The fluxes are limited by either a Superbee or MinMod limiter. Solution reconstruction within the tetrahedral cells is accomplished with a simple, but novel, multidimensional analytical formula. Time is advanced by an implicit backward-Euler time-stepping scheme. Flow turbulence effects are modeled by the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model, which is coupled with a wall function to reduce the number of cells in the near-wall region of the boundary layer. The issues of accuracy and robustness of USM3Dns Navier-Stokes capabilities are addressed for a flat-plate boundary layer, and a full F-16 aircraft with external stores at transonic speed.

  5. Tracking and data relay satellite system configuration and tradeoff study. Volume 5: TDRS spacecraft design, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A dual spin stabilized TDR spacecraft design is presented for low data rate (LDR) and medium data rate (MDR) user spacecraft telecommunication relay service. The relay satellite provides command and data return channels for unmanned users together with duplex voice and data communication channels for manned user spacecraft. TDRS/ground links are in the Ku band. Command links are provided at UHF for LDR users and S band for MDR users. Voice communication channels are provided at UHF/VHF for LDR users and at S band for MDR users. The spacecraft is designed for launch on the Delta 2914 with system deployment planned for 1978. This volume contains a description of the overall TDR spacecraft configuration, a detailed description of the spacecraft subsystems, a reliability analysis, and a product effectiveness plan.

  6. Design for a real-time high-quality volume-rendering work station

    SciTech Connect

    Levoy, M.

    1989-05-01

    A design is presented for a workstation capable of rendering arbitrary mixtures of analytically defined geometry and sampled scalar fields of three spatial dimensions in real-time or near real-time. The design is based on volumetric compositing, a relatively new approach to visualizing scalar fields by computing 2D projections of a colored semi-transparent volume. Geometric primitives are added by filtering and 3D scan-converting them into the data set prior to rendering. Speedups totaling four orders of magnitude over published volumetric compositing techniques are obtained through a combination of algorithmic improvements and hardware implementation of Pixel-planes 5, a massively parallel raster display engine incorporating custom logic-enhanced memory chips. A preliminary design is also presented for a two-handed volume-of-interest data exploration tool.

  7. Scale-4 Analysis of Pressurized Water Reactor Critical Configurations: Volume 5 - North Anna Unit 1 Cycle 5

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    The requirements of ANSI/ANS 8.1 specify that calculational methods for away-from-reactor (AFR) criticality safety analyses be validated against experimental measurements. If credit for the negative reactivity of the depleted (or spent) fuel isotopics is desired, it is necessary to benchmark computational methods against spent fuel critical configurations. This report summarizes a portion of the ongoing effort to benchmark AFR criticality analysis methods using selected critical configurations from commercial pressurized-water reactors (PWR). The analysis methodology selected for all calculations reported herein was the codes and data provided in the SCALE-4 code system. The isotopic densities for the spent fuel assemblies in the critical configurations were calculated using the SAS2H analytical sequence of the SCALE-4 system. The sources of data and the procedures for deriving SAS2H input parameters are described in detail. The SNIKR code module was used to extract the necessary isotopic densities from the SAS2H results and to provide the data in the format required by the SCALE criticality analysis modules. The CSASN analytical sequence in SCALE-4 was used to perform resonance processing of the cross sections. The KENO V.a module of SCALE-4 was used to calculate the effective multiplication factor (k{sub eff}) of each case. The SCALE-4 27-group burnup library containing ENDF/B-IV (actinides) and ENDF/B-V (fission products) data was used for all the calculations. This volume of the report documents the SCALE system analysis of one reactor critical configuration for North Anna Unit 1 Cycle 5. This unit and cycle were chosen for a previous analysis using a different methodology because detailed isotopics from multidimensional reactor calculations were available from the Virginia Power Company. These data permitted comparison of criticality calculations directly using the utility-calculated isotopics to those using the isotopics generated by the SCALE-4 SAS2H

  8. NaNet: a configurable NIC bridging the gap between HPC and real-time HEP GPU computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonardo, A.; Ameli, F.; Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Fiorini, M.; Frezza, O.; Lamanna, G.; Lo Cicero, F.; Martinelli, M.; Neri, I.; Paolucci, P. S.; Pastorelli, E.; Pontisso, L.; Rossetti, D.; Simeone, F.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.; Tosoratto, L.; Vicini, P.

    2015-04-01

    NaNet is a FPGA-based PCIe Network Interface Card (NIC) design with GPUDirect and Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA) capabilities featuring a configurable and extensible set of network channels. The design currently supports both standard—Gbe (1000BASE-T) and 10GbE (10Base-R)—and custom—34 Gbps APElink and 2.5 Gbps deterministic latency KM3link—channels, but its modularity allows for straightforward inclusion of other link technologies. The GPUDirect feature combined with a transport layer offload module and a data stream processing stage makes NaNet a low-latency NIC suitable for real-time GPU processing. In this paper we describe the NaNet architecture and its performances, exhibiting two of its use cases: the GPU-based low-level trigger for the RICH detector in the NA62 experiment at CERN and the on-/off-shore data transport system for the KM3NeT-IT underwater neutrino telescope.

  9. Registration of clinical volumes to beams-eye-view images for real-time tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, Jonathan H.; Rottmann, Joerg; Lewis, John H.; Mishra, Pankaj; Berbeco, Ross I.; Keall, Paul J.

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: The authors combine the registration of 2D beam’s eye view (BEV) images and 3D planning computed tomography (CT) images, with relative, markerless tumor tracking to provide automatic absolute tracking of physician defined volumes such as the gross tumor volume (GTV). Methods: During treatment of lung SBRT cases, BEV images were continuously acquired with an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) operating in cine mode. For absolute registration of physician-defined volumes, an intensity based 2D/3D registration to the planning CT was performed using the end-of-exhale (EoE) phase of the four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT). The volume was converted from Hounsfield units into electron density by a calibration curve and digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) were generated for each beam geometry. Using normalized cross correlation between the DRR and an EoE BEV image, the best in-plane rigid transformation was found. The transformation was applied to physician-defined contours in the planning CT, mapping them into the EPID image domain. A robust multiregion method of relative markerless lung tumor tracking quantified deviations from the EoE position. Results: The success of 2D/3D registration was demonstrated at the EoE breathing phase. By registering at this phase and then employing a separate technique for relative tracking, the authors are able to successfully track target volumes in the BEV images throughout the entire treatment delivery. Conclusions: Through the combination of EPID/4DCT registration and relative tracking, a necessary step toward the clinical implementation of BEV tracking has been completed. The knowledge of tumor volumes relative to the treatment field is important for future applications like real-time motion management, adaptive radiotherapy, and delivered dose calculations.

  10. Real-time volume rendering of digital medical images on an iOS device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noon, Christian; Holub, Joseph; Winer, Eliot

    2013-03-01

    Performing high quality 3D visualizations on mobile devices, while tantalizingly close in many areas, is still a quite difficult task. This is especially true for 3D volume rendering of digital medical images. Allowing this would empower medical personnel a powerful tool to diagnose and treat patients and train the next generation of physicians. This research focuses on performing real time volume rendering of digital medical images on iOS devices using custom developed GPU shaders for orthogonal texture slicing. An interactive volume renderer was designed and developed with several new features including dynamic modification of render resolutions, an incremental render loop, a shader-based clipping algorithm to support OpenGL ES 2.0, and an internal backface culling algorithm for properly sorting rendered geometry with alpha blending. The application was developed using several application programming interfaces (APIs) such as OpenSceneGraph (OSG) as the primary graphics renderer coupled with iOS Cocoa Touch for user interaction, and DCMTK for DICOM I/O. The developed application rendered volume datasets over 450 slices up to 50-60 frames per second, depending on the specific model of the iOS device. All rendering is done locally on the device so no Internet connection is required.

  11. Dynamic real-time 4D cardiac MDCT image display using GPU-accelerated volume rendering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Eagleson, Roy; Peters, Terry M

    2009-09-01

    Intraoperative cardiac monitoring, accurate preoperative diagnosis, and surgical planning are important components of minimally-invasive cardiac therapy. Retrospective, electrocardiographically (ECG) gated, multidetector computed tomographical (MDCT), four-dimensional (3D + time), real-time, cardiac image visualization is an important tool for the surgeon in such procedure, particularly if the dynamic volumetric image can be registered to, and fused with the actual patient anatomy. The addition of stereoscopic imaging provides a more intuitive environment by adding binocular vision and depth cues to structures within the beating heart. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a comprehensive stereoscopic 4D cardiac image visualization and manipulation platform, based on the opacity density radiation model, which exploits the power of modern graphics processing units (GPUs) in the rendering pipeline. In addition, we present a new algorithm to synchronize the phases of the dynamic heart to clinical ECG signals, and to calculate and compensate for latencies in the visualization pipeline. A dynamic multiresolution display is implemented to enable the interactive selection and emphasis of volume of interest (VOI) within the entire contextual cardiac volume and to enhance performance, and a novel color and opacity adjustment algorithm is designed to increase the uniformity of the rendered multiresolution image of heart. Our system provides a visualization environment superior to noninteractive software-based implementations, but with a rendering speed that is comparable to traditional, but inferior quality, volume rendering approaches based on texture mapping. This retrospective ECG-gated dynamic cardiac display system can provide real-time feedback regarding the suspected pathology, function, and structural defects, as well as anatomical information such as chamber volume and morphology.

  12. [Measurement of left atrial and ventricular volumes in real-time 3D echocardiography. Validation by nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Qin, J. X.; White, R. D.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    The measurement of the left ventricular ejection fraction is important for the evaluation of cardiomyopathy and depends on the measurement of left ventricular volumes. There are no existing conventional echocardiographic means of measuring the true left atrial and ventricular volumes without mathematical approximations. The aim of this study was to test anew real time 3-dimensional echocardiographic system of calculating left atrial and ventricular volumes in 40 patients after in vitro validation. The volumes of the left atrium and ventricle acquired from real time 3-D echocardiography in the apical view, were calculated in 7 sections parallel to the surface of the probe and compared with atrial (10 patients) and ventricular (30 patients) volumes calculated by nuclear magnetic resonance with the simpson method and with volumes of water in balloons placed in a cistern. Linear regression analysis showed an excellent correlation between the real volume of water in the balloons and volumes given in real time 3-dimensional echocardiography (y = 0.94x + 5.5, r = 0.99, p < 0.001, D = -10 +/- 4.5 ml). A good correlation was observed between real time 3-dimensional echocardiography and nuclear magnetic resonance for the measurement of left atrial and ventricular volumes (y = 0.95x - 10, r = 0.91, p < 0.001, D = -14.8 +/- 19.5 ml and y = 0.87x + 10, r = 0.98, P < 0.001, D = -8.3 +/- 18.7 ml, respectively. The authors conclude that real time three-dimensional echocardiography allows accurate measurement of left heart volumes underlying the clinical potential of this new 3-D method.

  13. Scale-4 Analysis of Pressurized Water Reactor Critical Configurations: Volume 4-Three Mile Island Unit 1 Cycle 5

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    The requirements of ANSI/ANS-8.1 specify that calculational methods for away-from-reactor criticality safety analyses be validated against experimental measurements. If credit is to be taken for the reduced reactivity of burned or spent fuel relative to its original ''fresh'' composition, it is necessary to benchmark computational methods used in determining such reactivity worth against spent fuel reactivity measurements. This report summarizes a portion of the ongoing effort to benchmark away-from-reactor criticality analysis methods using relevant and well-documented critical configurations from commercial pressurized water reactors. The analysis methodology utilized for all calculations in this report is based on the modules and data associated with the SCALE-4 code system. Isotopic densities for spent fuel assemblies in the core were calculated using the SCALE-4 SAS2H analytical sequence. The sources of data and the procedures for deriving SAS2H input parameters are described in detail. The SNIKR code family was used to extract the necessary isotopic densities from SAS2H results and to provide the data in the format required for SCALE criticality analysis modules. The CSASN analytical sequence in SCALE-4 was used to perform resonance processing of cross sections. The KENO V.a module of SCALE-4 was used to calculate the effective multiplication factor (k{sub eff}) for the critical configuration. The SCALE-4 27-group burnup library containing ENDF/B-IV (actinides) and ENDF/B-V (fission products) data was used for all calculations. This volume of the report documents a reactor critical calculation for GPU Nuclear Corporation's Three Mile Island Unit 1 (TMI-1) during hot, zero-power startup testing for the beginning of cycle 5. This unit and cycle were selected because of their relevance in spent fuel benchmark applications: (1) cycle 5 startup occurred after an especially long downtime of 6.6 years; and (2) the core consisted primarily (75%) of burned fuel, with

  14. Real-time 3D human pose recognition from reconstructed volume via voxel classifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, ByungIn; Choi, Changkyu; Han, Jae-Joon; Lee, Changkyo; Kim, Wonjun; Suh, Sungjoo; Park, Dusik; Kim, Junmo

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a human pose recognition method which simultaneously reconstructs a human volume based on ensemble of voxel classifiers from a single depth image in real-time. The human pose recognition is a difficult task since a single depth camera can capture only visible surfaces of a human body. In order to recognize invisible (self-occluded) surfaces of a human body, the proposed algorithm employs voxel classifiers trained with multi-layered synthetic voxels. Specifically, ray-casting onto a volumetric human model generates a synthetic voxel, where voxel consists of a 3D position and ID corresponding to the body part. The synthesized volumetric data which contain both visible and invisible body voxels are utilized to train the voxel classifiers. As a result, the voxel classifiers not only identify the visible voxels but also reconstruct the 3D positions and the IDs of the invisible voxels. The experimental results show improved performance on estimating the human poses due to the capability of inferring the invisible human body voxels. It is expected that the proposed algorithm can be applied to many fields such as telepresence, gaming, virtual fitting, wellness business, and real 3D contents control on real 3D displays.

  15. Space Transportation Booster Engine Configuration Study. Volume 3: Program Cost estimates and work breakdown structure and WBS dictionary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the Space Transportation Booster Engine Configuration Study is to contribute to the ALS development effort by providing highly reliable, low cost booster engine concepts for both expendable and reusable rocket engines. The objectives of the Space Transportation Booster Engine (STBE) Configuration Study were: (1) to identify engine development configurations which enhance vehicle performance and provide operational flexibility at low cost; and (2) to explore innovative approaches to the follow-on Full-Scale Development (FSD) phase for the STBE.

  16. Fast interactive real-time volume rendering of real-time three-dimensional echocardiography: an implementation for low-end computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saracino, G.; Greenberg, N. L.; Shiota, T.; Corsi, C.; Lamberti, C.; Thomas, J. D.

    2002-01-01

    Real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) is an innovative cardiac imaging modality. However, partly due to lack of user-friendly software, RT3DE has not been widely accepted as a clinical tool. The object of this study was to develop and implement a fast and interactive volume renderer of RT3DE datasets designed for a clinical environment where speed and simplicity are not secondary to accuracy. Thirty-six patients (20 regurgitation, 8 normal, 8 cardiomyopathy) were imaged using RT3DE. Using our newly developed software, all 3D data sets were rendered in real-time throughout the cardiac cycle and assessment of cardiac function and pathology was performed for each case. The real-time interactive volume visualization system is user friendly and instantly provides consistent and reliable 3D images without expensive workstations or dedicated hardware. We believe that this novel tool can be used clinically for dynamic visualization of cardiac anatomy.

  17. Real-Time Automatic Segmentation of Optical Coherence Tomography Volume Data of the Macular Region

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Jing; Varga, Boglárka; Somfai, Gábor Márk; Lee, Wen-Hsiang; Smiddy, William E.; Cabrera DeBuc, Delia

    2015-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high speed, high resolution and non-invasive imaging modality that enables the capturing of the 3D structure of the retina. The fast and automatic analysis of 3D volume OCT data is crucial taking into account the increased amount of patient-specific 3D imaging data. In this work, we have developed an automatic algorithm, OCTRIMA 3D (OCT Retinal IMage Analysis 3D), that could segment OCT volume data in the macular region fast and accurately. The proposed method is implemented using the shortest-path based graph search, which detects the retinal boundaries by searching the shortest-path between two end nodes using Dijkstra’s algorithm. Additional techniques, such as inter-frame flattening, inter-frame search region refinement, masking and biasing were introduced to exploit the spatial dependency between adjacent frames for the reduction of the processing time. Our segmentation algorithm was evaluated by comparing with the manual labelings and three state of the art graph-based segmentation methods. The processing time for the whole OCT volume of 496×644×51 voxels (captured by Spectralis SD-OCT) was 26.15 seconds which is at least a 2-8-fold increase in speed compared to other, similar reference algorithms used in the comparisons. The average unsigned error was about 1 pixel (∼ 4 microns), which was also lower compared to the reference algorithms. We believe that OCTRIMA 3D is a leap forward towards achieving reliable, real-time analysis of 3D OCT retinal data. PMID:26258430

  18. A Quasi-Static Method for Determining the Characteristics of a Motion Capture Camera System in a "Split-Volume" Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Chris; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2001-01-01

    To confidently report any data collected from a video-based motion capture system, its functional characteristics must be determined, namely accuracy, repeatability and resolution. Many researchers have examined these characteristics with motion capture systems, but they used only two cameras, positioned 90 degrees to each other. Everaert used 4 cameras, but all were aligned along major axes (two in x, one in y and z). Richards compared the characteristics of different commercially available systems set-up in practical configurations, but all cameras viewed a single calibration volume. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy, repeatability and resolution of a 6-camera Motion Analysis system in a split-volume configuration using a quasistatic methodology.

  19. Propulsion and airframe aerodynamic interactions of supersonic V/STOL configurations. Volume 2: Wind tunnel test force and moment data report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zilz, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    A wind tunnel model of a supersonic V/STOL fighter configuration has been tested to measure the aerodynamic interaction effects which can result from geometrically close-coupled propulsion system/airframe components. The approach was to configure the model to represent two different test techniques. One was a conventional test technique composed of two test modes. In the Flow-Through mode, absolute configuration aerodynamics are measured, including inlet/airframe interactions. In the Jet-Effects mode, incremental nozzle/airframe interactions are measured. The other test technique is a propulsion simulator approach, where a sub-scale, externally powered engine is mounted in the model. This allows proper measurement of inlet/airframe and nozzle/airframe interactions simultaneously. This is Volume 2 of 2: Wind Tunnel Test Force and Moment Data Report.

  20. A study of an orbital radar mapping mission to Venus. Volume 2: Configuration comparisons and systems evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Configuration comparisons and systems evaluation for the orbital radar mapping mission of the planet Venus are discussed. Designs are recommended which best satisfy the science objectives of the Venus radar mapping concept. Attention is given to the interaction and integration of those specific mission-systems recommendations with one another, and the final proposed designs are presented. The feasibility, cost, and scheduling of these configurations are evaluated against assumptions of reasonable state-of-the-art growth and space funding expectations.

  1. Association between volume and momentum of online searches and real-world collective unrest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Hong; Manrique, Pedro; Johnson, Daniela; Restrepo, Elvira; Johnson, Neil F.

    A fundamental idea from physics is that macroscopic transitions can occur as a result of an escalation in the correlated activity of a many-body system's constituent particles. Here we apply this idea in an interdisciplinary setting, whereby the particles are individuals, their correlated activity involves online search activity surrounding the topics of social unrest, and the macroscopic phenomenon being measured are real-world protests. Our empirical study covers countries in Latin America during 2011-2014 using datasets assembled from multiple sources by subject matter experts. We find specifically that the volume and momentum of searches on Google Trends surrounding mass protest language, can detect - and may even pre-empt - the macroscopic on-street activity. Not only can this simple open-source solution prove an invaluable aid for monitoring civil order, our study serves to strengthen the increasing literature in the physics community aimed at understanding the collective dynamics of interacting populations of living objects across the life sciences.

  2. Antenna subtraction at NNLO with hadronic initial states : double real radiation for initial-initial configurations with two quark flavours.

    SciTech Connect

    Boughezal, R.; Gehrmann-De Ridder, A.; Ritzmann, M.

    2011-02-01

    The antenna subtraction formalism allows to calculate QCD corrections to jet observables. Within this formalism, the subtraction terms are constructed using antenna functions describing all unresolved radiation between a pair of hard radiator partons. In this paper, we focus on the subtraction terms for double real radiation contributions to jet observables in hadron-hadron collisions evaluated at NNLO. An essential ingredient to these subtraction terms are the four-parton antenna functions with both radiators in the initial state. We outline the construction of the double real subtraction terms, classify all relevant antenna functions and describe their integration over the relevant antenna phase space. For the initial-initial antenna functions with two quark flavours, we derive the phase space master integrals and obtain the integrated antennae.

  3. Shuttle/Agena study. Volume 2, part 2: Agena tug configurations, Shuttle/Agena interface, performance, safety, cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An evaluation of the compatibility of the space shuttle and Agena rocket vehicle was conducted. The Agena space tug configuration design is described in terms of the total vehicle system as well as the individual subsystems and major assemblies and components. The complete interface between the Agena space tug and the space shuttle orbiter is defined for in-flight and ground operations. The derivation and design of an evolutionary stage is also presented. This vehicle conforms to the same guidelines and interface requirements as the Agena space tug. Performance data developed for both vehicles for each of the three study baseline missions are included.

  4. Theoretical and numerical methods used as design tool for an aircraft: Application on three real-world configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anton, Nicoleta

    The mathematical models needed to represent the various dynamics phenomena have been conceived in many disciplines related to aerospace engineering. Major aerospace companies have developed their own codes to estimate aerodynamic characteristics and aircraft stability in the conceptual phase, in parallel with universities that have developed various codes for educational and research purposes. This paper presents a design tool that includes FDerivatives code, the new weight functions method and the continuity algorithm. FDerivatives code, developed at the LARCASE laboratory, is dedicated to the analytical and numerical calculations of the aerodynamic coefficients and their corresponding stability derivatives in the subsonic regime. It was developed as part of two research projects. The first project was initiated by CAE Inc. and the Consortium for Research and Innovation in Aerospace in Quebec (CRIAQ), and the second project was funded by NATO in the framework of the NATO RTO AVT-161 "Assessment of Stability and Control Prediction Methods for NATO Air and Sea Vehicles" program. Presagis gave the "Best Simulation Award" to the LARCASE laboratory for FDerivatives and data FLSIM applications. The new method, called the weight functions method, was used as an extension of the former project. Stability analysis of three different aircraft configurations was performed with the weight functions method and validated for longitudinal and lateral motions with the root locus method. The model, tested with the continuity algorithm, is the High Incidence Research Aircraft Model (HIRM) developed by the Swedish Defense Research Agency and implemented in the Aero-Data Model In Research Environment (ADMIRE).

  5. NaNet: a flexible and configurable low-latency NIC for real-time trigger systems based on GPUs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Frezza, O.; Lamanna, G.; Lonardo, A.; Lo Cicero, F.; Paolucci, P. S.; Pantaleo, F.; Rossetti, D.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.; Tosoratto, L.; Vicini, P.

    2014-02-01

    NaNet is an FPGA-based PCIe X8 Gen2 NIC supporting 1/10 GbE links and the custom 34 Gbps APElink channel. The design has GPUDirect RDMA capabilities and features a network stack protocol offloading module, making it suitable for building low-latency, real-time GPU-based computing systems. We provide a detailed description of the NaNet hardware modular architecture. Benchmarks for latency and bandwidth for GbE and APElink channels are presented, followed by a performance analysis on the case study of the GPU-based low level trigger for the RICH detector in the NA62 CERN experiment, using either the NaNet GbE and APElink channels. Finally, we give an outline of project future activities.

  6. Low speed wind tunnel test of a propulsive wing/canard concept in the STOL configuration. Volume 2: Test data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, V. R.

    1987-01-01

    A propulsive wind/canard model was tested at STOL operating conditions in the NASA Langley Research Center 4 x 7 meter wind tunnel. Longitudinal and lateral/directional aerodynamic characteristics were measured for various flap deflections, angles of attack and sideslip, and blowing coefficients. Testing was conducted for several model heights to determine ground proximity effects on the aerodynamic characteristics. Flow field surveys of local flow angles and velocities were performed behind both the canard and the wing. This is volume 2 of a 2 volume report. All of the test data in three appendices are presented. Appendix A presented tabulated six component force and moment data, Appendix B presents tabulated wing pressure coefficients, and Appendix C presents the flow field data.

  7. Laboratory Reconstructions of Real World Frontal Crash Configurations using the Hybrid III and THOR Dummies and PMHS.

    PubMed

    Petitjean, Audrey; Lebarbe, Matthieu; Potier, Pascal; Trosseille, Xavier; Lassau, Jean-Pierre

    2002-11-01

    Load-limiting belt restraints have been present in French cars since 1995. An accident study showed the greater effectiveness in thorax injury prevention using a 4 kN load limiter belt with an airbag than using a 6 kN load limiter belt without airbag. The criteria for thoracic tolerance used in regulatory testing is the sternal deflection for all restraint types, belt and/or airbag restraint. This criterion does not assess the effectiveness of the restraint 4 kN load limiter belt with airbag observed in accidentology. To improve the understanding of thoracic tolerance, frontal sled crashes were performed using the Hybrid III and THOR dummies and PMHS. The sled configuration and the deceleration law correspond to those observed in the accident study. Restraint conditions evaluated are the 6 kN load-limiting belt and the 4 kN load-limiting belt with an airbag. Loads between the occupant and the sled environment were recorded. Various measurements (including thoracic deflections and head, thorax and pelvis accelerations and angular velocities on the dummies) characterize the dummy and PMHS behavior. PMHS anthropometry and injuries were noted. This study presents the test methodology and the results used to evaluate dummy ability to discriminate both restraint types and dummy measurement ability to be representative of thoracic injury risk for all restraint types. The injury results of the PMHS tests showed the same tendency as the accident study. Some of the criteria proposed in the literature did not show a better protection of the 4 kN load limiter belt with airbag restraint, in particular thoracic deflection maxima for both dummies. The four thoracic deflections measured on the THOR and Hybrid III dummies may allow more accurate analysis of the loading pattern and therefore of injury risk.

  8. Validation of admittance computed left ventricular volumes against real-time three-dimensional echocardiography in the porcine heart.

    PubMed

    Kutty, Shelby; Kottam, Anil T; Padiyath, Asif; Bidasee, Keshore R; Li, Ling; Gao, Shunji; Wu, Juefei; Lof, John; Danford, David A; Kuehne, Titus

    2013-06-01

    The admittance and Wei's equation is a new technique for ventricular volumetry to determine pressure-volume relations that addresses traditional conductance-related issues of parallel conductance and field correction factor. These issues with conductance have prevented researchers from obtaining real-time absolute ventricular volumes. Moreover, the time-consuming steps involved in processing conductance catheter data warrant the need for a better catheter-based technique for ventricular volumetry. We aimed to compare the accuracy of left ventricular (LV) volumetry between the new admittance catheterization technique and transoesophageal real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) in a large-animal model. Eight anaesthetized pigs were used. A 7 French admittance catheter was positioned in the LV via the right carotid artery. The catheter was connected to an admittance control unit (ADVantage; Transonic Scisense Inc.), and data were recorded on a four-channel acquisition system (FA404; iWorx Systems). Admittance catheterization data and transoesophageal RT3DE (X7-2; Philips) data were simultaneously obtained with the animal ventilated, under neuromuscular blockade and monitored in baseline conditions and during dobutamine infusion. Left ventricular volumes measured from admittance catheterization (Labscribe; iWorx Systems) and RT3DE (Qlab; Philips) were compared. In a subset of four animals, admittance volumes were compared with those obtained from traditional conductance catheterization (MPVS Ultra; Millar Instruments). Of 37 sets of measurements compared, admittance- and RT3DE-derived LV volumes and ejection fractions at baseline and in the presence of dobutamine exhibited general agreement, with mean percentage intermethod differences of 10% for end-diastolic volumes, 14% for end-systolic volumes and 9% for ejection fraction; the respective intermethod differences between admittance and conductance in eight data sets compared were 11, 11 and 12

  9. Study of structural design concepts for an arrow wing supersonic transport configuration, volume 1. Tasks 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A structural design study was made, based on a 1975 level of technology, to assess the relative merits of structural concepts and materials for an advanced supersonic transport cruising at Mach 2.7. Preliminary studies were made to insure compliance of the configuration with general design criteria, to integrate the propulsion system with the airframe, to select structural concepts and materials, and to define an efficient structural arrangement. An advanced computerized structural design system was used, in conjunction with a relatively large, complex finite element model, for detailed analysis and sizing of structural members to satisfy strength and flutter criteria. A baseline aircraft design was developed for assessment of current technology and for use in future studies of aerostructural trades, and application of advanced technology. Criteria, analysis methods, and results are presented.

  10. 1995 NASA High-Speed Research Program Sonic Boom Workshop. Volume 2; Configuration Design, Analysis, and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baize, Daniel G. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The High-Speed Research Program and NASA Langley Research Center sponsored the NASA High-Speed Research Program Sonic Boom Workshop on September 12-13, 1995. The workshop was designed to bring together NASAs scientists and engineers and their counterparts in industry, other Government agencies, and academia working together in the sonic boom element of NASAs High-Speed Research Program. Specific objectives of this workshop were to: (1) report the progress and status of research in sonic boom propagation, acceptability, and design; (2) promote and disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; (3) help promote synergy among the scientists working in the Program; and (4) identify technology pacing, the development C, of viable reduced-boom High-Speed Civil Transport concepts. The Workshop was organized in four sessions: Sessions 1 Sonic Boom Propagation (Theoretical); Session 2 Sonic Boom Propagation (Experimental); Session 3 Acceptability Studies-Human and Animal; and Session 4 - Configuration Design, Analysis, and Testing.

  11. Determination of left ventricular volume, ejection fraction, and myocardial mass by real-time three-dimensional echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qin, J. X.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    Reconstructed three-dimensional (3-D) echocardiography is an accurate and reproducible method of assessing left ventricular (LV) functions. However, it has limitations for clinical study due to the requirement of complex computer and echocardiographic analysis systems, electrocardiographic/respiratory gating, and prolonged imaging times. Real-time 3-D echocardiography has a major advantage of conveniently visualizing the entire cardiac anatomy in three dimensions and of potentially accurately quantifying LV volumes, ejection fractions, and myocardial mass in patients even in the presence of an LV aneurysm. Although the image quality of the current real-time 3-D echocardiographic methods is not optimal, its widespread clinical application is possible because of the convenient and fast image acquisition. We review real-time 3-D echocardiographic image acquisition and quantitative analysis for the evaluation of LV function and LV mass.

  12. Real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification in nanoliter volumes.

    PubMed

    Gulliksen, Anja; Solli, Lars; Karlsen, Frank; Rogne, Henrik; Hovig, Eivind; Nordstrøm, Trine; Sirevåg, Reidun

    2004-01-01

    Real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) is an isothermal method specifically designed for amplification of RNA. Fluorescent molecular beacon probes enable real-time monitoring of the amplification process. Successful identification, utilizing the real-time NASBA technology, was performed on a microchip with oligonucleotides at a concentration of 1.0 and 0.1 microM, in 10- and 50-nL reaction chambers, respectively. The microchip was developed in a silicon-glass structure. An instrument providing thermal control and an optical detection system was built for amplification readout. Experimental results demonstrate distinct amplification processes. Miniaturized real-time NASBA in microchips makes high-throughput diagnostics of bacteria, viruses, and cancer markers possible, at reduced cost and without contamination.

  13. Real-time ultrasonography for determination of ovarian morphology and volume. A possible early screening test for ovarian cancer?

    PubMed

    Campbell, S; Goessens, L; Goswamy, R; Whitehead, M

    1982-02-20

    The accuracy with which ovarian morphology and size can be determined by a real-time, ultrasound mechanical sector scanner was assessed. Both ovaries of 11 climacteric women appeared morphologically normal by ultrasonography and these findings were confirmed at laparotomy the following day. The correlation coefficient between ovarian volumes determined by sonar and those obtained by direct measurement at operation was 0.97. In a series of 31 postmenopausal women in whom clinical examination was unremarkable, both ovaries were identified by sonar in 26 subjects (84%) and a cystic ovary was diagnosed in 1 patient. Ovarian morphology in the other 25 subjects appeared normal and the range of volumes was from 1.47 to 10.43 cm3 with an arithmetic mean of 4.33 cm2 +/- 1.91 (SD). The mean difference between the volumes of the right and left ovaries was 1.48 cm3 +/- 1.19 and the percentage mean difference was 42.88% +/- 32.05. An ovary with a volume more than twice the size of its fellow should be regarded with some suspicion because ovarian volumes within individuals are clearly related (correlation coefficient = 0.82). The potential of the technique as a screening test for the early detection of ovarian cancer warrants further evaluation.

  14. Storm Water Infiltration and Focused Groundwater Recharge in a Rain Garden: Finite Volume Model and Numerical Simulations for Different Configurations and Climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravena, J.; Dussaillant, A. R.

    2006-12-01

    Source control is the fundamental principle behind sustainable management of stormwater. Rain gardens are an infiltration practice that provides volume and water quality control, recharge, and multiple landscape, ecological and economic potential benefits. The fulfillment of these objectives requires understanding their behavior during events as well as long term, and tools for their design. We have developed a model based on Richards equation coupled to a surface water balance, solved with a 2D finite volume Fortran code which allows alternating upper boundary conditions, including ponding, which is not present in available 2D models. Also, it can simulate non homogeneous water input, heterogeneous soil (layered or more complex geometries), and surface irregularities -e.g. terracing-, so as to estimate infiltration and recharge. The algorithm is conservative; being an advantage compared to available finite difference and finite element methods. We will present performance comparisons to known models, to experimental data from a bioretention cell, which receives roof water to its surface depression planted with native species in an organic-rich root zone soil layer (underlain by a high conductivity lower layer that, while providing inter-event storage, percolates water readily), as well as long term simulations for different rain garden configurations. Recharge predictions for different climates show significant increases from natural recharge, and that the optimal area ratio (raingarden vs. contributing impervious area) reduces from 20% (humid) to 5% (dry).

  15. Handbook of Research on Technology Tools for Real-World Skill Development (2 Volumes)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Yigel, Ed.; Ferrara, Steve, Ed.; Mosharraf, Maryam, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    Education is expanding to include a stronger focus on the practical application of classroom lessons in an effort to prepare the next generation of scholars for a changing world economy centered on collaborative and problem-solving skills for the digital age. "The Handbook of Research on Technology Tools for Real-World Skill Development"…

  16. Development of decision support systems for real-time freeway traffic routing: Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sadek, A.W.; Smith, B.L.; McGhee, C.C.; Demetsky, M.J.

    1998-10-01

    Real-time traffic flow routing is a promising approach to alleviating congestion. Existing approaches to developing real-time routing strategies, however, have limitations. The study explored the potential for using case-based reasoning (CBR), an emerging artificial intelligence paradigm, to overcome such limitations. CBR solves new problems by reusing solutions of similar past problems. To illustrate the feasibility of the approach, the research team developed and evaluated a prototype CBR routing system for the interstate network in Hampton Roads, Virginia. They generated cases for building the system`s case-base using a heuristic dynamic traffic assignment (DTA) model designed for the region. Using a second set of cases, the research team evaluated the performance of the prototype system by comparing its solutions with those of the DTA model. The research team found that CBR has the potential to overcome many of the limitations to existing approaches to real-time routing and a CBR routing system is capable of producing high-quality solutions with reasonable a case-base size. In addition, the research team found that real-time traffic flow routing will likely lead to significant user cost savings.

  17. Integrated payload and mission planning, phase 3. Volume 3: Ground real-time mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, W. J.

    1977-01-01

    The payloads tentatively planned to fly on the first two Spacelab missions were analyzed to examine the cost relationships of providing mission operations support from onboard vs the ground-based Payload Operations Control Center (POCC). The quantitative results indicate that use of a POCC, with data processing capability, to support real-time mission operations is the most cost effective case.

  18. A Novel Component Carrier Configuration and Switching Scheme for Real-Time Traffic in a Cognitive-Radio-Based Spectrum Aggregation System.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yunhai; Ma, Lin; Xu, Yubin

    2015-01-01

    In spectrum aggregation (SA), two or more component carriers (CCs) of different bandwidths in different bands can be aggregated to support a wider transmission bandwidth. The scheduling delay is the most important design constraint for the broadband wireless trunking (BWT) system, especially in the cognitive radio (CR) condition. The current resource scheduling schemes for spectrum aggregation become questionable and are not suitable for meeting the challenge of the delay requirement. Consequently, the authors propose a novel component carrier configuration and switching scheme for real-time traffic (RT-CCCS) to satisfy the delay requirement in the CR-based SA system. In this work, the authors consider a sensor-network-assisted CR network. The authors first introduce a resource scheduling structure for SA in the CR condition. Then the proposed scheme is analyzed in detail. Finally, simulations are carried out to verify the analysis on the proposed scheme. Simulation results prove that our proposed scheme can satisfy the delay requirement in the CR-based SA system. PMID:26393594

  19. A Novel Component Carrier Configuration and Switching Scheme for Real-Time Traffic in a Cognitive-Radio-Based Spectrum Aggregation System

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yunhai; Ma, Lin; Xu, Yubin

    2015-01-01

    In spectrum aggregation (SA), two or more component carriers (CCs) of different bandwidths in different bands can be aggregated to support a wider transmission bandwidth. The scheduling delay is the most important design constraint for the broadband wireless trunking (BWT) system, especially in the cognitive radio (CR) condition. The current resource scheduling schemes for spectrum aggregation become questionable and are not suitable for meeting the challenge of the delay requirement. Consequently, the authors propose a novel component carrier configuration and switching scheme for real-time traffic (RT-CCCS) to satisfy the delay requirement in the CR-based SA system. In this work, the authors consider a sensor-network-assisted CR network. The authors first introduce a resource scheduling structure for SA in the CR condition. Then the proposed scheme is analyzed in detail. Finally, simulations are carried out to verify the analysis on the proposed scheme. Simulation results prove that our proposed scheme can satisfy the delay requirement in the CR-based SA system. PMID:26393594

  20. A Novel Component Carrier Configuration and Switching Scheme for Real-Time Traffic in a Cognitive-Radio-Based Spectrum Aggregation System.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yunhai; Ma, Lin; Xu, Yubin

    2015-09-17

    In spectrum aggregation (SA), two or more component carriers (CCs) of different bandwidths in different bands can be aggregated to support a wider transmission bandwidth. The scheduling delay is the most important design constraint for the broadband wireless trunking (BWT) system, especially in the cognitive radio (CR) condition. The current resource scheduling schemes for spectrum aggregation become questionable and are not suitable for meeting the challenge of the delay requirement. Consequently, the authors propose a novel component carrier configuration and switching scheme for real-time traffic (RT-CCCS) to satisfy the delay requirement in the CR-based SA system. In this work, the authors consider a sensor-network-assisted CR network. The authors first introduce a resource scheduling structure for SA in the CR condition. Then the proposed scheme is analyzed in detail. Finally, simulations are carried out to verify the analysis on the proposed scheme. Simulation results prove that our proposed scheme can satisfy the delay requirement in the CR-based SA system.

  1. [Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction for COPD: not a real solution after all].

    PubMed

    Wesseling, G J

    2016-01-01

    Hyperinflation is an important element in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), contributing significantly to dyspnoea and exercise intolerance. Bronchodilators have some, albeit slight, effect on hyperinflation. Lung volume reduction surgery has been advocated in a highly select group of patients with heterogeneous, predominantly upper lobe, emphysema but morbidity and mortality associated with this intervention have hampered its widespread use in respiratory medicine. Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction has recently been introduced. Several studies have shown promising results, again in a highly select group of patients, with clinically relevant effects on symptoms, lung function and quality of life. However, for most COPD patients, prevention and slowing down of disease progression are much more important. Smoking cessation is the single most important intervention to achieve these goals. Furthermore, effective new anti-inflammatory drugs are needed since inhaled steroids, although widely used in COPD, are largely ineffective. PMID:27650026

  2. MONTE GENEROSO ROCKFALL FIELD TEST (SWITZERLAND): Comparison between real rockfall volumes measurements and production calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matasci, B.; Pedrazzini, A.; Humair, F.; Pedrozzi, G.; Carrea, D.; Loye, A.; Jaboyedoff, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Monte Generoso rockfall testing area is a mountainside located in the canton of Ticino (southern Switzerland) above an important highway that links Italy to Northern Europe. The slope is steep and consists of two high fractured limestone cliffs situated one above the other and divided by a sparse forest. The highway is potentially affected by rockfall hazard leading to the installation of several protective dams. The upper series of dams, collecting the blocks issued from the higher cliff, were emptied in May 2011. This gave the unique opportunity to assess the volumes of blocks produced in a known period of time in the different sections of the upper cliff. The cliff is formed by six catchments zones and the dams are therefore divided in six groups leading to the calculation of six volumes respectively. Based on geological and structural field data, a susceptibility assessment of the six portions of the cliff was performed and the results were compared to the six volume measured before emptying the dams. The aim is to spatially determine the main parameters influencing the rock fall production in the different portions of the cliff and to validate these results according to the material accumulated behind the protective dams. Structural analyses based on high resolution DEM and field investigation was performed to define the orientation and the geometrical characteristics of the discontinuity sets. The bedding plus five joint sets are present in the cliff and display a very small spacing. Multiples wedge structures affect the stability of the cliff and a surface parallel discontinuity set promotes the formation of flake instabilities. Based on a 1m cell-size DEM, the Matterocking method was applied in order to calculate the number of potential failure mechanisms (wedge and planar sliding) for each cell of the DEM. This allowed us to establish a first susceptibility rating for the six portions of the cliff. This rating was then refined by taking into account

  3. Real-time implementation of a speech digitization algorithm combining time-domain harmonic scaling and adaptive residual coding, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melsa, J. L.; Mills, J. D.; Arora, A. A.

    1983-06-01

    This report describes the results of a fifteen-month study of the real-time implementation of algorithm combining time-domain harmonic scaling and Adaptive Residual Coding at a transmission bit rate of 16 kb/s. The modifications of this encoding algorithm as originally presented by Melsa and Pande to allow real-time implementation are described in detail. A non real-time FORTRAN simulation using a sixteen-bit word length was developed and tested to establish feasibility. The hardware implementation of a full-duplex, real-time system has demonstrated that this algorithm is capable of producing toll quality speech digitization. This report has been divided into two volumes. The first volume discusses the algorithm modifications and FORTRAN simulation. The details of the hardware implementation, schematics for the system and operating instructions are included in Volume 2 of this final report.

  4. New digital measurement methods for left ventricular volume using real-time three-dimensional echocardiography: comparison with electromagnetic flow method and magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qin, J. J.; Jones, M.; Shiota, T.; Greenberg, N. L.; Firstenberg, M. S.; Tsujino, H.; Zetts, A. D.; Sun, J. P.; Cardon, L. A.; Odabashian, J. A.; Flamm, S. D.; White, R. D.; Panza, J. A.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and accuracy of using symmetrically rotated apical long axis planes for the determination of left ventricular (LV) volumes with real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE). METHODS AND RESULTS: Real-time 3DE was performed in six sheep during 24 haemodynamic conditions with electromagnetic flow measurements (EM), and in 29 patients with magnetic resonance imaging measurements (MRI). LV volumes were calculated by Simpson's rule with five 3DE methods (i.e. apical biplane, four-plane, six-plane, nine-plane (in which the angle between each long axis plane was 90 degrees, 45 degrees, 30 degrees or 20 degrees, respectively) and standard short axis views (SAX)). Real-time 3DE correlated well with EM for LV stroke volumes in animals (r=0.68-0.95) and with MRI for absolute volumes in patients (r-values=0.93-0.98). However, agreement between MRI and apical nine-plane, six-plane, and SAX methods in patients was better than those with apical four-plane and bi-plane methods (mean difference = -15, -18, -13, vs. -31 and -48 ml for end-diastolic volume, respectively, P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Apically rotated measurement methods of real-time 3DE correlated well with reference standards for calculating LV volumes. Balancing accuracy and required time for these LV volume measurements, the apical six-plane method is recommended for clinical use.

  5. Real-time viscosity and mass density sensors requiring microliter sample volume based on nanomechanical resonators.

    PubMed

    Bircher, Benjamin A; Duempelmann, Luc; Renggli, Kasper; Lang, Hans Peter; Gerber, Christoph; Bruns, Nico; Braun, Thomas

    2013-09-17

    A microcantilever based method for fluid viscosity and mass density measurements with high temporal resolution and microliter sample consumption is presented. Nanomechanical cantilever vibration is driven by photothermal excitation and detected by an optical beam deflection system using two laser beams of different wavelengths. The theoretical framework relating cantilever response to the viscosity and mass density of the surrounding fluid was extended to consider higher flexural modes vibrating at high Reynolds numbers. The performance of the developed sensor and extended theory was validated over a viscosity range of 1-20 mPa·s and a corresponding mass density range of 998-1176 kg/m(3) using reference fluids. Separating sample plugs from the carrier fluid by a two-phase configuration in combination with a microfluidic flow cell, allowed samples of 5 μL to be sequentially measured under continuous flow, opening the method to fast and reliable screening applications. To demonstrate the study of dynamic processes, the viscosity and mass density changes occurring during the free radical polymerization of acrylamide were monitored and compared to published data. Shear-thinning was observed in the viscosity data at higher flexural modes, which vibrate at elevated frequencies. Rheokinetic models allowed the monomer-to-polymer conversion to be tracked in spite of the shear-thinning behavior, and could be applied to study the kinetics of unknown processes. PMID:23905589

  6. Evaluation of mitral valve prolapse using newly developed real-time three-dimensional echocardiographic system with real-time volume rendering.

    PubMed

    Goktekin, Omer; Matsumura, Makoto; Omoto, Ryozo; Kyo, Shunei; Mochizuki, Tsuyoshi

    2003-02-01

    The development of a real-time three-dimensional (RT3D) image acquisition system and direct digital links between ultrasound equipment and the data processing computer facilitate improved 3D image reconstruction. However, at present time, it is hard to promptly display 3D images and is also ineffective for a practical use. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of a new transthoracic RT3D echocardiographic system for evaluation of mitral valve prolapse. Eighteen patients with mitral valve prolapse diagnosed by transthoracic two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography and M-mode were examined through this technique (11 male, mean age 42 +/- 17 years). Since visualization of mitral valve from apical four-chamber view was better than that of the parasternal approach, only apical approach was used for mitral valve evaluation. This system is capable of acquiring volumetric data from mechanical scanning of the phased-array transducer (3.5 MHz) as well as displaying the volume rendered images of the structure without storing the image data and reconstruction of the object. The prolapse of leaflet could be seen in 14/ 18 (77%) of patients with mitral valve prolapse based on conventional echocardiography. The newly developed transthoracic RT 3D ultrasound system without a reconstruction process seemed to be a useful noninvasive tool for diagnosis of mitral valve prolapse and detection of prolapsed leaflet or scallop, which is very important for deciding on a reliable surgical technique.

  7. Space shuttle: Aerodynamic characteristics of various MDAC space shuttle ascent configurations with parallel burn pressure-fed and SRM boosters. Volume 1: Tanks T1 and T2 ascent configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarrett, T. W.

    1972-01-01

    Various space shuttle ascent configurations were tested in a trisonic wind tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics. The ascent configuration consisted of a NASA/MSC 040 orbiter in combination with various HO centerline tank and booster geometries. The aerodynamic interference between components of the space shuttle and the effect on the orbiter aerodynamics was determined. The various aerodynamic configurations tested were: (1) centerline HO tanks T1 and T2, (2) centerline HO tank T3, and (3) centerline HO tank H4.

  8. Real-time X-ray Imaging of Lung Fluid Volumes in Neonatal Mouse Lung.

    PubMed

    Van Avermaete, Ashley E; Trac, Phi T; Gauthier, Theresa W; Helms, My N

    2016-01-01

    At birth, the lung undergoes a profound phenotypic switch from secretion to absorption, which allows for adaptation to breathing independently. Promoting and sustaining this phenotype is critically important in normal alveolar growth and gas exchange throughout life. Several in vitro studies have characterized the role of key regulatory proteins, signaling molecules, and steroid hormones that can influence the rate of lung fluid clearance. However, in vivo examinations must be performed to evaluate whether these regulatory factors play important physiological roles in regulating perinatal lung liquid absorption. As such, the utilization of real time X-ray imaging to determine perinatal lung fluid clearance, or pulmonary edema, represents a technological advancement in the field. Herein, we explain and illustrate an approach to assess the rate of alveolar lung fluid clearance and alveolar flooding in C57BL/6 mice at post natal day 10 using X-ray imaging and analysis. Successful implementation of this protocol requires prior approval from institutional animal care and use committees (IACUC), an in vivo small animal X-ray imaging system, and compatible molecular imaging software. PMID:27500410

  9. Real-time X-ray Imaging of Lung Fluid Volumes in Neonatal Mouse Lung.

    PubMed

    Van Avermaete, Ashley E; Trac, Phi T; Gauthier, Theresa W; Helms, My N

    2016-01-01

    At birth, the lung undergoes a profound phenotypic switch from secretion to absorption, which allows for adaptation to breathing independently. Promoting and sustaining this phenotype is critically important in normal alveolar growth and gas exchange throughout life. Several in vitro studies have characterized the role of key regulatory proteins, signaling molecules, and steroid hormones that can influence the rate of lung fluid clearance. However, in vivo examinations must be performed to evaluate whether these regulatory factors play important physiological roles in regulating perinatal lung liquid absorption. As such, the utilization of real time X-ray imaging to determine perinatal lung fluid clearance, or pulmonary edema, represents a technological advancement in the field. Herein, we explain and illustrate an approach to assess the rate of alveolar lung fluid clearance and alveolar flooding in C57BL/6 mice at post natal day 10 using X-ray imaging and analysis. Successful implementation of this protocol requires prior approval from institutional animal care and use committees (IACUC), an in vivo small animal X-ray imaging system, and compatible molecular imaging software.

  10. Near-real-time Arctic sea ice thickness and volume from CryoSat-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilling, Rachel L.; Ridout, Andy; Shepherd, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Timely observations of sea ice thickness help us to understand the Arctic climate, and have the potential to support seasonal forecasts and operational activities in the polar regions. Although it is possible to calculate Arctic sea ice thickness using measurements acquired by CryoSat-2, the latency of the final release data set is typically 1 month due to the time required to determine precise satellite orbits. We use a new fast-delivery CryoSat-2 data set based on preliminary orbits to compute Arctic sea ice thickness in near real time (NRT), and analyse this data for one sea ice growth season from October 2014 to April 2015. We show that this NRT sea-ice-thickness product is of comparable accuracy to that produced using the final release CryoSat-2 data, with a mean thickness difference of 0.9 cm, demonstrating that the satellite orbit is not a critical factor in determining sea ice freeboard. In addition, the CryoSat-2 fast-delivery product also provides measurements of Arctic sea ice thickness within 3 days of acquisition by the satellite, and a measurement is delivered, on average, within 14, 7 and 6 km of each location in the Arctic every 2, 14 and 28 days respectively. The CryoSat-2 NRT sea-ice-thickness data set provides an additional constraint for short-term and seasonal predictions of changes in the Arctic ice cover and could support industries such as tourism and transport through assimilation in operational models.

  11. 3D Real-Time Echocardiography Combined with Mini Pressure Wire Generate Reliable Pressure-Volume Loops in Small Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Linden, Katharina; Dewald, Oliver; Gatzweiler, Eva; Seehase, Matthias; Duerr, Georg Daniel; Dörner, Jonas; Kleppe, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Background Pressure-volume loops (PVL) provide vital information regarding ventricular performance and pathophysiology in cardiac disease. Unfortunately, acquisition of PVL by conductance technology is not feasible in neonates and small children due to the available human catheter size and resulting invasiveness. The aim of the study was to validate the accuracy of PVL in small hearts using volume data obtained by real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) and simultaneously acquired pressure data. Methods In 17 piglets (weight range: 3.6–8.0 kg) left ventricular PVL were generated by 3DE and simultaneous recordings of ventricular pressure using a mini pressure wire (PVL3D). PVL3D were compared to conductance catheter measurements (PVLCond) under various hemodynamic conditions (baseline, alpha-adrenergic stimulation with phenylephrine, beta-adrenoreceptor-blockage using esmolol). In order to validate the accuracy of 3D volumetric data, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) was performed in another 8 piglets. Results Correlation between CMR- and 3DE-derived volumes was good (enddiastolic volume: mean bias -0.03ml ±1.34ml). Computation of PVL3D in small hearts was feasible and comparable to results obtained by conductance technology. Bland-Altman analysis showed a low bias between PVL3D and PVLCond. Systolic and diastolic parameters were closely associated (Intraclass-Correlation Coefficient for: systolic myocardial elastance 0.95, arterial elastance 0.93, diastolic relaxation constant tau 0.90, indexed end-diastolic volume 0.98). Hemodynamic changes under different conditions were well detected by both methods (ICC 0.82 to 0.98). Inter- and intra-observer coefficients of variation were below 5% for all parameters. Conclusions PVL3D generated from 3DE combined with mini pressure wire represent a novel, feasible and reliable method to assess different hemodynamic conditions of cardiac function in hearts comparable to neonate and infant size. This

  12. Interaction between respiration and right versus left ventricular volumes at rest and during exercise: a real-time cardiac magnetic resonance study.

    PubMed

    Claessen, Guido; Claus, Piet; Delcroix, Marion; Bogaert, Jan; La Gerche, Andre; Heidbuchel, Hein

    2014-03-01

    Breathing-induced changes in intrathoracic pressures influence left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) volumes, the exact nature and extent of which have not previously been evaluated in humans. We sought to examine this "respiratory pump" using novel real-time cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. Eight healthy subjects underwent serial multislice real-time CMR during normal breathing, breath holding, and the Valsalva maneuver. Subsequently, a separate cohort of nine subjects underwent real-time CMR at rest and during incremental exercise. LV and RV end-diastolic volume (EDV) and end-systolic volume (ESV) and diastolic and systolic eccentricity indexes were determined at peak inspiration and expiration. During normal breathing, inspiration resulted in an increase in RV volumes [RVEDV: +18 ± 8%, RVESV: +14 ± 12%, and RV stroke volume (SV): +21 ± 10%, P < 0.01] and an opposing decrease in LV volumes (P < 0.0001 for interaction). During end-inspiratory breath holding, RV SV decreased by 9 ± 10% (P = 0.046), whereas LV SV did not change. During the Valsalva maneuver, volumes decreased in both ventricles (RVEDV: -29 ± 11%, RVESV: -16 ± 14%, RV SV: -36 ± 14%, LVEDV: -22 ± 17%, and LV SV: -25 ± 17%, P < 0.01). The reciprocal effect of respiration on LV and RV volumes was maintained throughout exercise. The diastolic and systolic eccentricity indexes were greater during inspiration than during expiration, both at rest and during exercise (P < 0.0001 for both). In conclusion, ventricular volumes oscillate with respiratory phase such that RV and LV volumes are maximal at peak inspiration and expiration, respectively. Thus, interpretation of RV versus LV volumes requires careful definition of the exact respiratory time point for proper interpretation, both at rest and during exercise.

  13. Quantification of Shunt Volume Through Ventricular Septal Defect by Real-Time 3-D Color Doppler Echocardiography: An in Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Meihua; Ashraf, Muhammad; Tam, Lydia; Streiff, Cole; Kimura, Sumito; Shimada, Eriko; Sahn, David J

    2016-05-01

    Quantification of shunt volume is important for ventricular septal defects (VSDs). The aim of the in vitro study described here was to test the feasibility of using real-time 3-D color Doppler echocardiography (RT3-D-CDE) to quantify shunt volume through a modeled VSD. Eight porcine heart phantoms with VSDs ranging in diameter from 3 to 25 mm were studied. Each phantom was passively driven at five different stroke volumes from 30 to 70 mL and two stroke rates, 60 and 120 strokes/min. RT3-D-CDE full volumes were obtained at color Doppler volume rates of 15, 20 and 27 volumes/s. Shunt flow derived from RT3-D-CDE was linearly correlated with pump-driven stroke volume (R = 0.982). RT3-D-CDE-derived shunt volumes from three color Doppler flow rate settings and two stroke rate acquisitions did not differ (p > 0.05). The use of RT3-D-CDE to determine shunt volume though VSDs is feasible. Different color volume rates/heart rates under clinically/physiologically relevant range have no effect on VSD 3-D shunt volume determination.

  14. Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System configuration and tradeoff study. Volume 3: Atlas Centaur launched TDRSS. Part 2: Final Report, 22 August 1972 - 1 April 1973

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Configuration data and design information for the Atlas Centaur launched configuration are presented. Overall system definition, operations and control, and telecommunication service system, including link budgets, are discussed. A brief description of the user telecommunications equipment and ground station is presented. A summary description of the TDR spacecraft and all the subsystems is included. The data presented are largely in tabular form. A brief treatment of an optional configuration with enhanced telecommunications service is described.

  15. Real-time implementation of a speech digitization algorithm combining time-domain harmonic scaling and adaptive residual coding, volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melsa, J. L.; Mills, J. D.; Arora, A. A.

    1983-06-01

    This report describes the results of a fifteen month study of the real-time implementation of an algorithm combining time-domain harmonic scaling and Adaptive Residual Coding at a transmission bit rate of 16 kb/s. The modifications of this encoding algorithm as originally presented by Melso and Pande to allow real-time implementation are described in detail. A non real-time FORTRAN simulation using a sixteen-bit word length was developed and tested to establish feasibility. The hardware implementation of a full-duplex, real-time system has demonstrated that this algorithm is capable of producing toll quality speech digitization. This report has been divided into two volumes. The second volume discusses details of the hardware implementation, schematics for the system and operating instructions.

  16. Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System configuration and tradeoff study. Volume 4: Space shuttle launched TDRSS. Part 2: Final Report, 22 August 1972 - 1 April 1973

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Configuration data and design information for the space shuttle launched configuration is presented. The overall system definition, operations and control, and telecommunication service system including link budgets are discussed. A brief description of the user transceiver and ground station is presented. A final section includes a summary description of the TDR spacecraft and all the subsystems. The data presented are largely in tabular form.

  17. Low speed wind tunnel test of ground proximity and deck edge effects on a lift cruise fan V/STOL configuration, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, V. R.

    1979-01-01

    The characteristics were determined of a lift cruise fan V/STOL multi-mission configuration in the near proximity to the edge of a small flat surface representation of a ship deck. Tests were conducted at both static and forward speed test conditions. The model (0.12 scale) tested was a four fan configuration with modifications to represent a three fan configuration. Analysis of data showed that the deck edge effects were in general less critical in terms of differences from free air than a full deck (in ground effect) configuration. The one exception to this was when the aft edge of the deck was located under the center of gravity. This condition, representative of an approach from the rear, showed a significant lift loss. Induced moments were generally small compared to the single axis control power requirements, but will likely add to the pilot work load.

  18. Real-time cardiac synchronization with fixed volume frame rate for reducing physiological instabilities in 3D FMRI.

    PubMed

    Tijssen, Rob H N; Okell, Thomas W; Miller, Karla L

    2011-08-15

    Although 2D echo-planar imaging (EPI) remains the dominant method for functional MRI (FMRI), 3D readouts are receiving more interest as these sequences have favorable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and enable imaging at a high isotropic resolution. Spoiled gradient-echo (SPGR) and balanced steady-state free-precession (bSSFP) are rapid sequences that are typically acquired with highly segmented 3D readouts, and thus less sensitive to image distortion and signal dropout. They therefore provide a powerful alternative for FMRI in areas with strong susceptibility offsets, such as deep gray matter structures and the brainstem. Unfortunately, the multi-shot nature of the readout makes these sequences highly sensitive to physiological fluctuations, and large signal instabilities are observed in the inferior regions of the brain. In this work a characterization of the source of these instabilities is given and a new method is presented to reduce the instabilities observed in 3D SPGR and bSSFP. Rapidly acquired single-slice data, which critically sampled the respiratory and cardiac waveforms, showed that cardiac pulsation is the dominant source of the instabilities. Simulations further showed that synchronizing the readout to the cardiac cycle minimizes the instabilities considerably. A real-time synchronization method was therefore developed, which utilizes parallel-imaging techniques to allow cardiac synchronization without alteration of the volume acquisition rate. The implemented method significantly improves the temporal stability in areas that are affected by cardiac-related signal fluctuations. In bSSFP data the tSNR in the brainstem increased by 45%, at the cost of a small reduction in tSNR in the cortical areas. In SPGR the temporal stability is improved by approximately 20% in the subcortical structures and as well as cortical gray matter when synchronization was performed.

  19. Module Configuration

    DOEpatents

    Oweis, Salah; D'Ussel, Louis; Chagnon, Guy; Zuhowski, Michael; Sack, Tim; Laucournet, Gaullume; Jackson, Edward J.

    2002-06-04

    A stand alone battery module including: (a) a mechanical configuration; (b) a thermal management configuration; (c) an electrical connection configuration; and (d) an electronics configuration. Such a module is fully interchangeable in a battery pack assembly, mechanically, from the thermal management point of view, and electrically. With the same hardware, the module can accommodate different cell sizes and, therefore, can easily have different capacities. The module structure is designed to accommodate the electronics monitoring, protection, and printed wiring assembly boards (PWAs), as well as to allow airflow through the module. A plurality of modules may easily be connected together to form a battery pack. The parts of the module are designed to facilitate their manufacture and assembly.

  20. Tracking and data relay satellite system configuration and tradeoff study. Volume 1: Summary. Part 2: Final Report, 22 August 1972 - 1 April 1973

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) concept for service of low, medium, and high data rate user spacecraft has been defined. During the study, four TDRS dual spin stabilized configurations (contractual requirement) were designed; two are compatible with Delta 2914, one with Atlas Centaur, and one with space shuttle launches. A summary of the study and the salient results are presented. The topics included are: (1) TDRSS operations, (2) telecommunications service performance, telecommunications service equipment, (3) TDRS configurations and their design characteristics, and (4) TDRS system reliability.

  1. Hypersonic aeroheating test of space shuttle vehicle: Configuration 3 (model 22 OTS) in the NASA-Ames 3.5-foot hypersonic wind tunnel (IH20), volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kingsland, R. B.; Lockman, W. K.

    1975-01-01

    The model tested was an 0.0175-scale version of the vehicle 3 space shuttle configuration. Temperature measurements were made on the launch configuration, orbiter plus tank, orbiter alone, tank alone, and solid rocket booster (SRB) alone to provide heat transfer data. The test was conducted at free stream Mach numbers of 5.3 and 7.3 and at free stream Reynolds numbers of 1.5, 3.7, 5.0, and 7.0 million per foot. The model was tested at angles of attack from -5 deg to 20 deg and side slip angles of -5 deg and 0 deg.

  2. Triple balance test of the PRR baseline space shuttle configuration on a .004 scale model of the MCR 0074 orbiter configuration in the MSFC 14 x 14 inch Trisonic Wind Tunnel (TWT 570) IA31F(B), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, P. E.; Davis, T. C.

    1974-01-01

    A wind tunnel force and moment test of the space shuttle launch vehicle was conducted. The wind tunnel model utilized a triple balance such that component aerodynamics of the orbiter, external tank, and solid rocket booster was obtained. The test was conducted at an angle of attack range from -10 deg to 10 deg, and angle of sideslip range from -10 deg to 10 deg, and a Mach number range from 0.6 to 4.96. Simulation parameters to be used in future launch vehicle wind tunnel tests were investigated. The following were included: (1) effect of orbiter -ET attach hardware; (2) model attachment (spacer) effects; (3) effects of grit on model leading surfaces; and (4) model misalignment effects. The effects of external tank nose shape was studied by investigating five different nose configurations. Plotted and tabulated data is reported.

  3. Detailed software design of an ultra-parallel ultra-high speed SD-OCT for real-time 4D display at 12 volume/second

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiro-Oka, H.; Choi, D.; Shimizu, K.; Ohbayashi, K.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the software design of an ultra-parallel ultra-high speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) system. In our system, optical de-multiplexers divide an interferogram into 320 light every 18.7 GHz frequency, instead of a refractive grating for spectroscopy so far used in conventional SD-OCT. These optical elements enable to get rid of a re-sampling process and contribute to reduce the load of computing. The fast Fourier transform (FFT) is performed by field-programmable gate array (FPGA) and real-time 3D OCT images are created on graphics processing unit (GPU). Our system achieves a real-time 3D OCT image display (4D display) with an A-scan, B-scan, and volume rate of 10 MHz, 4 kHz, and 12 volumes per second, respectively.

  4. Supramolecular clusters and chains of 2,6-dimethylpyridine on Cu(110): Observation of dynamic configuration change with real-space surface science techniques and DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Junseok; Sorescu, Dan C.; Lee, Jae-Gook; Dougherty, Dan

    2016-10-01

    The adsorption of 2,6-dimethylpyridine (2,6-DMP) on Cu(110) has been studied using low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (LT-STM), time-of-flight electron stimulated desorption ion angular distribution (TOF-ESDIAD), and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. At low temperatures (T < ~ 150 K), the 2,6-DMP adsorbs in a flat configuration on Cu(110) producing clusters and extended domains via weak hydrogen bonding (C-H···N) with the molecular symmetry axis aligned along the < 001 > surface direction. At near-saturation coverage, a c(6 × 2) long-range ordered structure was observed. Upon annealing to T = 200 K, the 2,6-DMP molecules adopt an upright configuration with their pyridine ring plane oriented parallel to the < 1 1 ̅ 0 > azimuth. These upright 2,6-DMP molecules produce extended molecular chains where the repulsive interactions between the molecular chains give rise to coverage-dependent interchain distances.

  5. Objective evaluation of changes in left ventricular and atrial volumes during parabolic flight using real-time three-dimensional echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Caiani, E G; Sugeng, L; Weinert, L; Capderou, A; Lang, R M; Vaïda, P

    2006-08-01

    We tested the feasibility of real-time three-dimensional (3D) echocardiographic (RT3DE) imaging to measure left heart volumes at different gravity during parabolic flight and studied the effects of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) as a countermeasure. Weightlessness-related changes in cardiac function have been previously studied during spaceflights using both 2D and 3D echocardiography. Several technical factors, such as inability to provide real-time analysis and the need for laborious endocardial definition, have limited its usefulness. RT3DE imaging overcomes these limitations by acquiring real-time pyramidal data sets encompassing the entire ventricle. RT3DE data sets were obtained (Philips 7500, X3) during breath hold in 16 unmedicated normal subjects in upright standing position at different gravity phases during parabolic flight (normogravity, 1 Gz; hypergravity, 1.8 Gz; microgravity, 0 Gz), with LBNP applied (-50 mmHg) at 0 Gz in selected parabolas. RT3DE imaging during parabolic flight was feasible in 14 of 16 subjects. Data were analyzed (Tomtec) to quantify left ventricular (LV) and atrial (LA) volumes at end diastole and end systole, which significantly decreased at 1.8 Gz and increased at 0 Gz. While ejection fraction did not change with gravity, stroke volume was reduced by 16% at 1.8 Gz and increased by 20% at 0 Gz, but it was not significantly different from 1 Gz values with LBNP. RT3DE during parabolic flight is feasible and provides the basis for accurate quantification of LV and LA volume changes with gravity. As LBNP counteracted the increase of LV and LA volumes caused by changes in venous return, it may be effectively used for preventing cardiac dilatation during 0 Gz.

  6. Hypersonic aeroheating test of space shuttle vehicle configuration 3 (model 22-OTS) in the NASA-Ames 3.5-foot hypersonic wind tunnel (IH20), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kingsland, R. B.; Lockman, W. K.

    1975-01-01

    The results of hypersonic wind tunnel testing of an 0.0175 scale version of the vehicle 3 space shuttle configuration are presented. Temperature measurements were made on the launch configuration, orbiter plus tank, orbiter alone, tank alone, and solid rocket booster alone to provide heat transfer data. The test was conducted at free-stream Mach numbers of 5.3 and 7.3 and at free-stream Reynolds numbers of 1.5 million, 3.7 million, 5.0 million, and 7.0 million per foot. The model was tested at angles of attack from -5 deg to 20 deg and side slip angles of -5 deg and 0 deg.

  7. Ultra-high speed real-time 4D display system installed in ultra-high speed parallel OCT system at a volume rate of 12 volumes/sec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohbayashi, K.; Choi, D.; Hiro-oka, H.; Kubota, A.; Ohno, T.; Ikeda, R.; Shimizu, K.

    2011-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become a promising diagnostic method in many medical fields. Non-invasive real-time optical biopsy of internal organs is one of the most attractive applications of OCT enabling in-situ diagnostic of cancer in its early stage, i.e. optical biopsy. For the application, faster OCT methods are required to reduce the inspection time and motion artifacts in images. A criterion to satisfy the purpose is an endoscopic-OCT method capable to display volumetric tomography continuously in real-time at a rate of video movie like conventional endoscopes. In our previous work, we demonstrated ultra-high speed OCT at an A-scan rate of 60 MHz. However, movies were rendered after the data acquisition. In this work, we have developed an ultra-fast data processing system, installed it in the ultra-high speed OCT system, and enabled real time display of various 3D tomography images without limitation of diagnostic time, i.e. 4D OCT imaging, at an A-scan rate, B-scan rate and volume rate of 10 MHz, 4 kHz and 12 volumes/sec, respectively. Various image presentations in real-time are demonstrated such as continuous rendered 3D imaging and continuous 2D-slice scanning 3D imaging.

  8. Regional Differences in Brain Volume Predict the Acquisition of Skill in a Complex Real-Time Strategy Videogame

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basak, Chandramallika; Voss, Michelle W.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Boot, Walter R.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have found that differences in brain volume among older adults predict performance in laboratory tasks of executive control, memory, and motor learning. In the present study we asked whether regional differences in brain volume as assessed by the application of a voxel-based morphometry technique on high resolution MRI would also…

  9. Low speed wind tunnel test of a propulsive wing/canard concept in the STOL configuration. Volume 1: Test description and discussion of results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, V. R.

    1987-01-01

    A propulsive wing/canard model was tested at STOL operating conditions in the NASA Langley Research Center 4 x 7 meter wind tunnel. Longitudinal and lateral/directional aerodynamic characteristics were measured for various flap deflections, angles of attack and sideslip, and blowing coefficients. Testing was conducted for several model heights to determine ground proximity effects on the aerodynamic characteristics. Flow field surveys of local flow angles and velocities were performed behind both the canard and the wing. This is volume 1 of a 2 volume report. The model, instrumentation, and test procedures are described. An analysis of the data is included.

  10. LDA optical setup using holographic imaging configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Abhijit; Nirala, A. K.

    2015-11-01

    This paper describes one of the possible ways for improving fringe quality at LDA measuring volume using a holographic imaging configuration consisting of a single hololens. For its comparative study with a conventional imaging configuration, a complete characterization of fringes formed at the measurement volume by both the configuration is presented. Results indicate the qualitative as well as quantitative improvement of the fringes formed at measurement volume by the holographic imaging configuration. Hence it is concluded that use of holographic imaging configuration for making LDA optical setup is a better choice than the conventional one.

  11. Validation of real-time three-dimensional echocardiography for quantifying left ventricular volumes in the presence of a left ventricular aneurysm: in vitro and in vivo studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qin, J. X.; Jones, M.; Shiota, T.; Greenberg, N. L.; Tsujino, H.; Firstenberg, M. S.; Gupta, P. C.; Zetts, A. D.; Xu, Y.; Ping Sun, J.; Cardon, L. A.; Odabashian, J. A.; Flamm, S. D.; White, R. D.; Panza, J. A.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To validate the accuracy of real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) for quantifying aneurysmal left ventricular (LV) volumes. BACKGROUND: Conventional two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) has limitations when applied for quantification of LV volumes in patients with LV aneurysms. METHODS: Seven aneurysmal balloons, 15 sheep (5 with chronic LV aneurysms and 10 without LV aneurysms) during 60 different hemodynamic conditions and 29 patients (13 with chronic LV aneurysms and 16 with normal LV) underwent RT3DE and 2DE. Electromagnetic flow meters and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) served as reference standards in the animals and in the patients, respectively. Rotated apical six-plane method with multiplanar Simpson's rule and apical biplane Simpson's rule were used to determine LV volumes by RT3DE and 2DE, respectively. RESULTS: Both RT3DE and 2DE correlated well with actual volumes for aneurysmal balloons. However, a significantly smaller mean difference (MD) was found between RT3DE and actual volumes (-7 ml for RT3DE vs. 22 ml for 2DE, p = 0.0002). Excellent correlation and agreement between RT3DE and electromagnetic flow meters for LV stroke volumes for animals with aneurysms were observed, while 2DE showed lesser correlation and agreement (r = 0.97, MD = -1.0 ml vs. r = 0.76, MD = 4.4 ml). In patients with LV aneurysms, better correlation and agreement between RT3DE and MRI for LV volumes were obtained (r = 0.99, MD = -28 ml) than between 2DE and MRI (r = 0.91, MD = -49 ml). CONCLUSIONS: For geometrically asymmetric LVs associated with ventricular aneurysms, RT3DE can accurately quantify LV volumes.

  12. Characterization of a new ultra-low volume fuselage spray configuration on Air Force C-130H airplane used for adult mosquito control.

    PubMed

    Breidenbaugh, Mark; Haagsma, Karl; Latham, Mark; de Szalay, Ferenc

    2009-01-01

    The US Air Force (USAF) tested a new fuselage boom configuration on the C-130H airplane. We used into-the-wind and crosswind field trials to characterize a BVA oil (BVA Inc, Wixom, MI) droplet spectra produced by fuselage booms with flat-fan nozzles (8001, 8005) at the Air Force Range at Avon Park, FL. Across all trials, median droplet diameter (DV50) for 8001 and 8005 nozzles were 11.4 microm and 54.3 microm, respectively. For 8005 nozzles 22% of droplets collected were 7 microm to 25 microm size range while 75% of droplets from 8001 nozzles were < 7 microm. Fuselage configuration parameters and field data were also used as input variables into the Agricultural Dispersal (AGDISP) computer model to predict aerosol deposition and droplet fate. AGDISP predictions were compared with field data from crosswind tests and the model was found to fit reasonably well to empirical data. However, AGDISP predictions were better correlated with empirical findings for larger droplets than smaller droplets and for locations closer to the release point than further downwind.

  13. Grade Configuration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Where to locate the 7th and 8th grade is a perennial question. While there are many variations, three approaches are most often used---include them in a 7-12 secondary campus, maintain a separate middle grades campus, or include them as part of a K-8 program. Research says that grade configuration is inconclusive at best and there is no research…

  14. Proceedings of the eleventh thematic conference - geologic remote sensing: Practical solutions for real world problems. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This document contains the Proceedings of the Eleventh Thematic Conference Geologic Remote Sensing (Volume 1). The conference was held February 27-29, 1996 in Las Vegas, Nevada, USA. Presentations included in this volume address the following topics: Geologic Remote Sensing as applied toward mineral exploration, regional geology, petroleum exploration, and the environmental effects of mining. Future commercial satellite technologies, image processing and spectral analysis are also discussed.

  15. Fingernail Configuration

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jin Woo; Shin, Jun Ho; Kwon, Yu Jin; Hwang, Jae Ha; Lee, Sam Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background A number of conditions can alter a person's fingernail configuration. The ratio between fingernail width and length (W/L) is an important aesthetic criterion, and some underlying diseases can alter the size of the fingernail. Fingernail curvature can be altered by systemic disorders or disorders of the fingernail itself. Although the shape and curvature of the fingernail can provide diagnostic clues for various diseases, few studies have precisely characterized normal fingernail configuration. Methods We measured the W/L ratio of the fingernail, transverse fingernail curvature, hand length, hand breadth, and distal interphalangeal joint width in 300 volunteers with healthy fingernails. We also investigated whether age, sex, height, and handedness influenced the fingernail W/L ratio and transverse fingernail curvature. Results In women, fingernail W/L ratios were similar across all five fingers, and were lower than those in men. The highest value of transverse fingernail curvature was found in the thumb, followed by the index, middle, ring, and little fingers. Handedness and aging influenced transverse fingernail curvature, but not the fingernail W/L ratio. Fingernails were flatter on the dominant hand than on the non-dominant hand. The radius of transverse fingernail curvature increased with age, indicating that fingernails tended to flatten with age. Conclusions Our quantitative data on fingernail configuration can be used as a reference range for diagnosing various diseases and deformities of the fingernail, and for performing reconstructive or aesthetic fingernail surgery. PMID:26618124

  16. Tracking and data relay satellite system configuration and tradeoff study. Volume 4: TDRS system operation and control and telecommunications service system, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Major study areas treated in this volume are: 1) operations and control and 2) the telecommunication service system. The TDRS orbit selection, orbital deployment, ground station visibility, sequence of events from launch to final orbit position, and TDRS control center functions required for stationkeeping, repositioning, attitude control, and antenna pointing are briefly treated as part of the operations and control section. The last topic of this section concerns the operations required for efficiently providing the TDRSS user telecommunication services. The discussion treats functions of the GSFC control and data processing facility, ground station, and TDRS control center. The second major portion of this volume deals with the Telecommunication Service System (TSS) which consists of the ground station, TDRS communication equipment and the user transceiver. A summary of the requirements and objectives for the telecommunication services and a brief summary of the TSS capabilities is followed by communication system analysis, signal design, and equipment design. Finally, descriptions of the three TSS elements are presented.

  17. Evaluation of the right ventricular function in pneumoconiosis patients using volume-time curves obtained by real-time three-dimensional echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Shi, Doufei; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Xinkai; Zhang, Gang; Cui, Lianqun

    2014-12-01

    The study was aimed to evaluate the right ventricular function in pneumoconiosis patients by real-time three-dimensional echocardiography. A total of 80 individuals including 44 consecutive pneumoconiosis patients and 36 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers as controls were prospectively recruited for the study. All the patients underwent two- and three-dimensional echocardiography. Measurements of the right ventricle included tricuspid regurgitation pressure (TRPG), anterior and posterior wall thickness and range of motion (TH1, TH2, M1, M2), right end-diastolic volume and end-systolic volume. The right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) was also calculated. The RVEF of healthy volunteers ranged from 50 to 78 %, whereas that of the pneumoconiosis patients varied from 29 to 73 %. An increase in TRPG caused a significant (p = 0.006) decrease in RVEF (by 77.3 %), suggesting the two variables were negatively correlated (r = -0.643, p < 0.01). In comparison with normal, the volume-time curves of the pneumoconiosis patients showed a lower trough. Use of real-time three-dimensional echocardiography provides with added clinical information needed to evaluate right ventricular function in pneumoconiosis patients.

  18. Static stability and control effectiveness of models 12-0 and 34-0 of the vehicle 3 configuration, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, E. C.; Tuttle, T.

    1973-01-01

    Static stability and control effectiveness characteristics of two 0.004 scale models of the vehicle 3 configuration are presented. The components investigated consisted of a single aft body, vertical/rudder, OMS pods with two interchangeable wings, four interchangeable forward bodies, four trimmers, and a spoiler. The test was conducted in a 14 x 14 inch trisonic wind tunnel over a Mach number range from 0.6 to 4.96. Angles of attack from 0 to 60 degrees and angles of sideslip from -10 to 10 degrees at 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 degrees angle of attack were tested. Elevon, body flap, and speed brake deflection composed the parametric considerations. No grit was placed on the models during the test. The lateral-directional characteristics are presented along with some additional longitudinal data.

  19. Static stability and control effectiveness of models 12-0 and 34-0 of the vehicle 3 configuration, volume 3. [tabulated source data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, E. C.; Tuttle, T.

    1973-01-01

    Static stability and control effectiveness characteristics of two 0.004 scale models of the vehicle 3 configuration are reported. The components investigated consisted of a single aft body, vertical/rudder, OMS pods with two interchangeable wings, four interchangeable forward bodies, four trimmers, and a spoiler. The test was conducted in 14 x 14 inch trisonic wind tunnel over a Mach number range from 0.6 to 4.96. Angles of attack from 0 to 60 degrees and angles of sideslip from -10 to 10 degrees at 0, 10, 20,30, and 40 degrees angle of attack were tested. Elevon, body flap, and speed brake deflection composed the parametric considerations. No grit was placed on the models during the test. The tabulated source data and incremental data figures are presented.

  20. Using volume-time curves with real-time three-dimensional echocardiography to analyze right ventricular function in patients with pneumoconiosis.

    PubMed

    Wei, D M; Ding, Y; He, W

    2014-11-14

    We evaluated right ventricular function in patients with pneumoconiosis using real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE). A total of 80 consecutive patients were prospectively recruited, 44 of whom were diagnosed with pneumoconiosis, and the remaining 36 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers served as the control group. All patients underwent both 2D and 3DE. The tricuspid regurgitation pressure (TRPG), right ventricular anterior wall thickness and range of motion, right ventricular posterior wall thickness and range of motion, right ventricular end-diastolic volume, right ventricular end-systolic volume, and right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) were measured. The RVEF of healthy volunteers ranged from 50 to 78%, while the RVEF of pneumoconiosis patients ranged from 29 to 73%. TRPG influenced RVEF by 77.3% (P = 0.006) and showed a negative correlation (r = -0.643, P < 0.01). Volume-time curves (VTC) of patients with pneumoconiosis showed more troughs (low stroke volumes) than the VTCs of normal subjects. Evaluation of right ventricular function in patients with pneumoconiosis using RT3DE can provide additional clinical information.

  1. Two-dimensional tissue tracking: a novel echocardiographic technique to measure left atrial volume: comparison with biplane area length method and real time three-dimensional echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Li, Shi-Yan; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Bo-Wen; Yu, Chan; Xu, Li-Long; Li, Peng; Xu, Ke; Pan, Mei; Wang, Bei

    2014-07-01

    Enlargement of the left atrium is an independent predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcomes, and an accurate, convenient imaging modality is necessary for clinical practice. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of a novel imaging technique, two-dimensional tissue tracking (2DTT), for assessment of left atrial (LA) volume and function and to compare its correlation and agreement with biplane area length (AL) method and real time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE). A total of 105 patients prospectively underwent 2DTT, AL and RT3DE. The LA volume index (LAVI) and emptying fraction were measured. In addition, intra- and inter-observer agreement were calculated by using the intraclass correlation coefficient. There were no significant differences in LAVI and emptying fraction measured by 2DTT in comparison with those made by AL or RT3DE, furthermore Bland-Altman analysis showed that 2DTT had significantly better agreement for LAVI and emptying fraction with AL and RT3DE. 2DTT also exhibited smaller intra- and inter-observer variability as compared with AL or RT3DE. Furthermore, the time to measure LA volume and acquire time-volume curve was significantly less by 2DTT than that by RT3DE (U = 49.00, P < 0.001). These observations suggest that the 2DTT could provide valuable information which is consistent with the standard AL and RT3DE measurements for LAVI and function with potentially lower intra- and inter-observer variability.

  2. Cold flow scaleup facility experimental results and comparison of performance at different bed configurations, Volume 1: Topical report, January--December 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, D.K.; Yang, W.C.; Ettehadieh, B.; Anestis, T.C.; Haldipur, G.B.; Kettering, E.; O'Rourke, R.E.; Weigle, D.

    1988-12-01

    KRW Energy Systems Inc. is engaged in the continuing development of a pressurized, fluidized-bed gasification process at its Waltz Mill Site in Madison, Pennsylvania. The overall objective of the program is to demonstrate the viability of the KRW process for the environmentally acceptable production of low- and medium-BTU fuel gas from a variety of fossilized carbonaceous feedstocks for electric power generation, synthetic natural gas, chemical feedstocks and industrial fuels. This report presents analysis of the Cold Flow Scaleup Facility (CFSF) operations. Included is work performed on the 3-meter CFSF model using four different bed configurations to check correlations and scale-up criteria developed from studies conducted in small-scale cold flow units and those available in open literature. The 3-meter model permits full front-face viewing of the fluidized bed through a transparent plastic window and with its instrumentation allows detailed studies of jet behavior, bubble dynamics, solid circulation, gas mixing, and related phenomena important to the design of a large-scale gasifier. 87 refs., 95 figs., 56 tabs.

  3. Development of a novel index of shoulder's mobility based on the configuration space volume and its link to mono-axial amplitudes.

    PubMed

    Crétual, Armel; Bonan, Isabelle; Ropars, Mickaël

    2015-06-01

    At first sight, shoulder mobility is frequently evaluated through mono-axial amplitude. Interestingly, for diagnosing shoulder hyperlaxity or frozen shoulder, external rotation of the arm whilst at the side (ER1) is commonly used. However, by definition, a mono-axial amplitude does not fully reflect shoulder global mobility. Our goal was to propose a novel index for measuring shoulder global mobility and secondly to evaluate the link between main mono-axial amplitudes and this new index. Twenty-eight female subjects (mean age 24.8 years) without upper limb pathology participated in the study. The movements of their right dominant arm were measured with an opto-electronic motion capture system. They performed 5 mono-axial maximal amplitude motions (axial rotations in three different postures, flexion/extension and abduction from rest) and a global range of motion exploring all the reachable space around the three axes of rotation. From this, we computed the correlation coefficient between the volume of the reachable space and each possible linear combination of the 5 mono-axial amplitudes. Even though ER1 is often chosen to assess global mobility, it demonstrated the lowest correlation with measured joint mobility. To assess shoulder global mobility, clinical routine examination should more take into account external/internal rotation with the shoulder abducted, then abduction and finally flexion/extension. However, further clinical testing in other populations has to be done to evaluate the potential generalization of this result.

  4. Fully automatic guidance and control for rotorcraft nap-of-the-Earth flight following planned profiles. Volume 1: Real-time piloted simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Warren F.; Gorder, Peter J.; Jewell, Wayne F.

    1991-01-01

    Developing a single-pilot, all-weather nap-of-the-earth (NOE) capability requires fully automatic NOE (ANOE) navigation and flight control. Innovative guidance and control concepts are investigated in a four-fold research effort that: (1) organizes the on-board computer-based storage and real-time updating of NOE terrain profiles and obstacles in course-oriented coordinates indexed to the mission flight plan; (2) defines a class of automatic anticipative pursuit guidance algorithms and necessary data preview requirements to follow the vertical, lateral, and longitudinal guidance commands dictated by the updated flight profiles; (3) automates a decision-making process for unexpected obstacle avoidance; and (4) provides several rapid response maneuvers. Acquired knowledge from the sensed environment is correlated with the forehand knowledge of the recorded environment (terrain, cultural features, threats, and targets), which is then used to determine an appropriate evasive maneuver if a nonconformity of the sensed and recorded environments is observed. This four-fold research effort was evaluated in both fixed-based and moving-based real-time piloted simulations, thereby, providing a practical demonstration for evaluating pilot acceptance of the automated concepts, supervisory override, manual operation, and re-engagement of the automatic system. Volume one describes the major components of the guidance and control laws as well as the results of the piloted simulations. Volume two describes the complete mathematical model of the fully automatic guidance system for rotorcraft NOE flight following planned flight profiles.

  5. Real-time multidimensional temporal analysis of complex high volume physiological data streams in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Carolyn; James, Andrew; Eklund, Mike; Sow, Daby; Ebling, Maria; Blount, Marion

    2013-01-01

    The intensive care of immature preterm infants is a challenging, dynamic clinical task that is complicated because these infants frequently develop a range of comorbidities as they grow and develop after their premature birth. Earliest reliable condition onset detection is a goal within this setting and high frequency physiological analysis is showing potential new pathophysiological indicators for earlier onset detection of several conditions. To realise this, a platform for multi-stream, multi-condition, multi-feature risk scoring is required. In this paper we demonstrate our multi-stream online analytics approach for condition onset detection and demonstrate a user interface approach for patient state that can be available in real-time to support condition risk scoring.

  6. Assessment of Left Ventricular Volume and Function Using Real-Time 3D Echocardiography versus Angiocardiography in Children with Tetralogy of Fallot

    PubMed Central

    Abdel Aziz, Faten M; Abdel Dayem, Soha M; Ismail, Reem I; Hassan, Hebah

    2016-01-01

    Background Evaluation of left ventricular (LV) size and function is one of the important reasons for performing echocardiography. Real time three dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) is now available for a precise non-invasive ventricular volumetry. Aim of work was to validate RT3DE as a non-invasive cardiac imaging method for measurement of LV volumes using cardiac angiography as the reference technique. Methods Prospective study on 40 consecutive patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) referred for cardiac catheterization for preoperative assessment. Biplane cineangiography, conventional 2 dimensional echocardiography (2DE) and RT3DE were performed for the patients. A control group of 18 age and sex matched children was included and 2DE and RT3DE were performed for them. Results The mean LV end diastolic volume (LVEDV) and LVEDV index (LVEDVI) measured by RT3DE of patients were lower than controls (p value = 0.004, 0.01, respectively). There was strong correlation between the mean value of the LVEDV and the LVEDVI measured by RT3DE and angiography (r = 0.97, p < 0.001). The mean value of LV ejection fraction measured by RT3DE was lower than that assessed by 2DE (50 ± 6.2%, 65 ± 4.6%, respectively, p value < 0.001) in the studied TOF cases. There was good intra- and inter-observer reliability for all measurements. Conclusion RT3DE is a noninvasive and feasible tool for measurement of LV volumes that strongly correlates with LV volumetry done by angiography in very young infants and children, and further studies needed. PMID:27358704

  7. Estimating the real world daily usage and cost for exenatide twice daily and liraglutide in Germany, the Netherlands, and the UK based on volumes dispensed by pharmacies

    PubMed Central

    McDonell, Amanda L; Kiiskinen, Urpo; Zammit, Danielle C; Kotchie, Robert W; Thuresson, Per-Olof; Nicolay, Claudia; Haslam, Thomas; Bruinsma, Michiel; Janszen-Van Oosterhout, Anne-Jeanine; Otto, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Background Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are indicated for improvement of glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes. Cost is one aspect of treatment to be considered, in addition to clinical benefits, when selecting optimal therapy for a patient. The objective of this study was to estimate the average dose usage and real world daily cost of the GLP-1 receptor agonists, exenatide twice daily and liraglutide once daily, in Germany, the Netherlands, and the UK. Methods Administrative databases were used to source the data from longitudinal records of dispensed prescriptions. Data were extracted from the IMS Longitudinal Prescription database which captures details of prescriptions dispensed in pharmacies. Information on the dispensed quantity of each product was used to estimate average daily usage per patient. Daily dose usage was multiplied by the public price per unit to estimate daily cost. Results The dispensed volume in Germany corresponded to a mean dispensed daily dose of 16.81 μg for exenatide twice daily and 1.37 mg for liraglutide (mean daily cost €4.02 and €4.54, respectively). In the Netherlands, average dispensed daily doses of 17.07 μg and 1.49 mg were observed for exenatide twice daily and liraglutide (mean daily cost €3.05 and €3.97, respectively). In the UK, the mean dispensed volume corresponded to a daily usage of 20.49 μg for exenatide twice daily and 1.50 mg for liraglutide (mean daily cost £2.53 and £3.28, respectively). Conclusion Estimates of average daily dispensed doses of GLP-1 receptor agonists derived from pharmacy data in real world settings corresponded to the dosing recommendation of the summaries of product characteristics. Nevertheless, the mean daily cost of exenatide twice daily was lower than that of liraglutide in Germany, the Netherlands, and the UK. Such estimates can be used to inform health care decision-makers on the real world usage and cost of medications effective in achieving

  8. Analysis of wind tunnel test results for a 9.39-per cent scale model of a VSTOL fighter/attack aircraft. Volume 3: Effects of configuration variations from baseline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lummus, J. R.; Joyce, G. T.; Omalley, C. D.

    1980-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of the components of the baseline E205 configuration is presented. Geometric variations from the baseline E205 configuration are also given including a matrix of conrad longitudinal locations and strake shapes.

  9. SASSI system software configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, E.O.

    1994-08-01

    The SASSI (System for Analysis for Soil-Structure Interaction) computer program was obtained by WHC from the University of California at Berkeley for seismic structural analysis of complex embedded building configurations. SASSI was developed in the 1980`s by a team of doctoral students under the direction of Prof. J. Lysmer. The program treats three-dimensional soil-structure interaction problems with the flexible volume substructuring method. In the 1970`s, the same organization developed the FLUSH program, which has achieved widespread international usage in the seismic analysis of structures. SASSI consists of nine modules, each of which are to be run as a separate execution. The SASSI source code, dated 1989 and identified as a Cray version, was put up on the RL Cray XM/232 Unicos system in 1991. That system was removed at the end of 1993, and SASSI is now installed on the LANL Cray YMP systems.

  10. Fluid therapy LiDCO controlled trial-optimization of volume resuscitation of extensively burned patients through noninvasive continuous real-time hemodynamic monitoring LiDCO.

    PubMed

    Tokarik, Monika; Sjöberg, Folke; Balik, Martin; Pafcuga, Igor; Broz, Ludomir

    2013-01-01

    This pilot trial aims at gaining support for the optimization of acute burn resuscitation through noninvasive continuous real-time hemodynamic monitoring using arterial pulse contour analysis. A group of 21 burned patients meeting preliminary criteria (age range 18-75 years with second- third- degree burns and TBSA ≥10-75%) was randomized during 2010. A hemodynamic monitoring through lithium dilution cardiac output was used in 10 randomized patients (LiDCO group), whereas those without LiDCO monitoring were defined as the control group. The modified Brooke/Parkland formula as a starting resuscitative formula, balanced crystalloids as the initial solutions, urine output of 0.5 ml/kg/hr as a crucial value of adequate intravascular filling were used in both groups. Additionally, the volume and vasopressor/inotropic support were based on dynamic preload parameters in the LiDCO group in the case of circulatory instability and oligouria. Statistical analysis was done using t-tests. Within the first 24 hours postburn, a significantly lower consumption of crystalloids was registered in LiDCO group (P = .04). The fluid balance under LiDCO control in combination with hourly diuresis contributed to reducing the cumulative fluid balance approximately by 10% compared with fluid management based on standard monitoring parameters. The amount of applied solutions in the LiDCO group got closer to Brooke formula whereas the urine output was at the same level in both groups (0.8 ml/kg/hr). The new finding in this study is that when a fluid resuscitation is based on the arterial waveform analysis, the initial fluid volume provided was significantly lower than that delivered on the basis of physician-directed fluid resuscitation (by urine output and mean arterial pressure).

  11. Application of the Price-Volume Approach in Cases of Innovative Drugs Where Value-Based Pricing is Inadequate: Description of Real Experiences in Italy.

    PubMed

    Messori, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Several cases of expensive drugs designed for large patient populations (e.g. sofosbuvir) have raised a complex question in terms of drug pricing. Even assuming value-based pricing, the treatment with these drugs of all eligible patients would have an immense budgetary impact, which is unsustainable also for the richest countries. This raises the need to reduce the prices of these agents in comparison with those suggested by the value-based approach and to devise new pricing methods that can achieve this goal. The present study discusses in detail the following two methods: (i) The approach based on setting nation-wide budget thresholds for individual innovative agents in which a fixed proportion of the historical pharmaceutical expenditure represents the maximum budget attributable to an innovative treatment; (ii) The approach based on nation-wide price-volume agreements in which drug prices are progressively reduced as more patients receive the treatment. The first approach has been developed in the USA by the Institute for Clinical and Economic Review and has been applied to PCSK9 inhibitors (alirocumab and evolocumab). The second approach has been designed for the Italian market and has found a systematic application to manage the price of ranibizumab, sofosbuvir, and PCSK9 inhibitors. While, in the past, price-volume agreements have been applied only on an empirical basis (i.e. in the absence of any quantitative theoretical rule), more recently some explicit mathematical models have been described. The performance of these models is now being evaluated on the basis of the real-world experiences conducted in some European countries, especially Italy. PMID:27216427

  12. Application of the Price-Volume Approach in Cases of Innovative Drugs Where Value-Based Pricing is Inadequate: Description of Real Experiences in Italy.

    PubMed

    Messori, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Several cases of expensive drugs designed for large patient populations (e.g. sofosbuvir) have raised a complex question in terms of drug pricing. Even assuming value-based pricing, the treatment with these drugs of all eligible patients would have an immense budgetary impact, which is unsustainable also for the richest countries. This raises the need to reduce the prices of these agents in comparison with those suggested by the value-based approach and to devise new pricing methods that can achieve this goal. The present study discusses in detail the following two methods: (i) The approach based on setting nation-wide budget thresholds for individual innovative agents in which a fixed proportion of the historical pharmaceutical expenditure represents the maximum budget attributable to an innovative treatment; (ii) The approach based on nation-wide price-volume agreements in which drug prices are progressively reduced as more patients receive the treatment. The first approach has been developed in the USA by the Institute for Clinical and Economic Review and has been applied to PCSK9 inhibitors (alirocumab and evolocumab). The second approach has been designed for the Italian market and has found a systematic application to manage the price of ranibizumab, sofosbuvir, and PCSK9 inhibitors. While, in the past, price-volume agreements have been applied only on an empirical basis (i.e. in the absence of any quantitative theoretical rule), more recently some explicit mathematical models have been described. The performance of these models is now being evaluated on the basis of the real-world experiences conducted in some European countries, especially Italy.

  13. In vivo multispectral photoacoustic and photothermal flow cytometry with multicolor dyes: a potential for real-time assessment of circulation, dye-cell interaction, and blood volume

    PubMed Central

    Proskurnin, Mikhail A.; Zhidkova, Tatyana V.; Volkov, Dmitry S.; Sarimollaoglu, Mustafa; Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Mock, Donald; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, photoacoustic (PA) flow cytometry (PAFC) has been developed for in vivo detection of circulating tumor cells and bacteria targeted by nanoparticles. Here, we propose multispectral PAFC with multiple dyes having distinctive absorption spectra as multicolor PA contrast agents. As a first step of our proof-of-concept, we characterized high-speed PAFC capability to monitor the clearance of three dyes (ICG, MB, and TB) in an animal model in vivo and in real time. We observed strong dynamic PA signal fluctuations, which can be associated with interactions of dyes with circulating blood cells and plasma proteins. PAFC demonstrated enumeration of circulating red and white blood cells labeled with ICG and MB, respectively, and detection of rare dead cells uptaking TB directly in bloodstream. The possibility for accurate measurements of various dye concentrations including CV and BG were verified in vitro using complementary to PAFC photothermal (PT) technique and spectrophotometry under batch and flow conditions. We further analyze the potential of integrated PAFC/PT spectroscopy with multiple dyes for rapid and accurate measurements of circulating blood volume without a priori information on hemoglobin content, which is impossible with existing optical techniques. This is important in many medical conditions including surgery and trauma with extensive blood loss, rapid fluid administration, transfusion of red blood cells. The potential for developing a robust clinical PAFC prototype that is, safe for human, and its applications for studying the liver function are further highlighted. PMID:21905207

  14. Configuration optimization of space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felippa, Carlos; Crivelli, Luis A.; Vandenbelt, David

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to develop a computer aid for the conceptual/initial design of aerospace structures, allowing configurations and shape to be apriori design variables. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: Kikuchi's homogenization method; a classical shape design problem; homogenization method steps; a 3D mechanical component design example; forming a homogenized finite element; a 2D optimization problem; treatment of volume inequality constraint; algorithms for the volume inequality constraint; object function derivatives--taking advantage of design locality; stiffness variations; variations of potential; and schematics of the optimization problem.

  15. Ames Optimized TCA Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliff, Susan E.; Reuther, James J.; Hicks, Raymond M.

    1999-01-01

    CPU time limit available on the Cray machines. A typical optimization run using finite difference gradients can use only 30 to 40 design variables and one optimization iteration within the 8 hour queue limit for the chosen grid size and convergence level. The efficiency afforded by the adjoint method allowed for 50-120 design variables and 5-10 optimization iterations in the 8 hour queue. Geometric perturbations to the wing and fuselage were made using the Hicks/Henne (HH) shape functions. The HH functions were distributed uniformly along the chords of the wing defining sections and lofted linearly. During single-surface design, constraints on thickness and volume at selected wing stations were imposed. Both fuselage camber and cross-sectional area distributions were permitted to change during design. The major disadvantage to the use of these functions is the inherent surface waviness produced by repeated use of such functions. Many smoothing operations were required following optimization runs to produce a configuration with reasonable smoothness. Wagner functions were also used on the wing sections but were never used on the fuselage. The Wagner functions are a family of increasingly oscillatory functions that have also been used extensively in airfoil design. The leading and trailing edge regions of the wing were designed by use of polynomial and monomial functions respectively. Twist was attempted but was abandoned because of little performance improvement available from changing the baseline twist.

  16. New Configurations of Micro Plate-Fin Heat Sink to Reduce Coolant Pumping Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezania, A.; Rosendahl, L. A.

    2012-06-01

    The thermal resistance of heat exchangers has a strong influence on the electric power produced by a thermoelectric generator (TEG). In this work, a real TEG device is applied to three configurations of micro plate-fin heat sink. The distance between certain microchannels is varied to find the optimum heat sink configuration. The particular focus of this study is to reduce the coolant mass flow rate by considering the thermal resistances of the heat sinks and, thereby, to reduce the coolant pumping power in the system. The three-dimensional governing equations for the fluid flow and the heat transfer are solved using the finite-volume method for a wide range of pressure drop laminar flows along the heat sink. The temperature and the mass flow rate distribution in the heat sink are discussed. The results, which are in good agreement with previous computational studies, show that using suggested heat sink configurations reduces the coolant pumping power in the system.

  17. PAN AIR: A computer program for predicting subsonic or supersonic linear potential flows about arbitrary configurations using a higher order panel method. Volume 1: Theory document (version 1.1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magnus, A. E.; Epton, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    Panel aerodynamics (PAN AIR) is a system of computer programs designed to analyze subsonic and supersonic inviscid flows about arbitrary configurations. A panel method is a program which solves a linear partial differential equation by approximating the configuration surface by a set of panels. An overview of the theory of potential flow in general and PAN AIR in particular is given along with detailed mathematical formulations. Fluid dynamics, the Navier-Stokes equation, and the theory of panel methods were also discussed.

  18. Operational Dynamic Configuration Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lai, Chok Fung; Zelinski, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    Sectors may combine or split within areas of specialization in response to changing traffic patterns. This method of managing capacity and controller workload could be made more flexible by dynamically modifying sector boundaries. Much work has been done on methods for dynamically creating new sector boundaries [1-5]. Many assessments of dynamic configuration methods assume the current day baseline configuration remains fixed [6-7]. A challenging question is how to select a dynamic configuration baseline to assess potential benefits of proposed dynamic configuration concepts. Bloem used operational sector reconfigurations as a baseline [8]. The main difficulty is that operational reconfiguration data is noisy. Reconfigurations often occur frequently to accommodate staff training or breaks, or to complete a more complicated reconfiguration through a rapid sequence of simpler reconfigurations. Gupta quantified a few aspects of airspace boundary changes from this data [9]. Most of these metrics are unique to sector combining operations and not applicable to more flexible dynamic configuration concepts. To better understand what sort of reconfigurations are acceptable or beneficial, more configuration change metrics should be developed and their distribution in current practice should be computed. This paper proposes a method to select a simple sequence of configurations among operational configurations to serve as a dynamic configuration baseline for future dynamic configuration concept assessments. New configuration change metrics are applied to the operational data to establish current day thresholds for these metrics. These thresholds are then corroborated, refined, or dismissed based on airspace practitioner feedback. The dynamic configuration baseline selection method uses a k-means clustering algorithm to select the sequence of configurations and trigger times from a given day of operational sector combination data. The clustering algorithm selects a simplified

  19. Interface Configuration Experiment: Preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Concus, P.; Finn, R.; Weislogel, M.

    1993-09-01

    The Interface Configuration Experiment (ICE) was carried out on USML-1 to investigate liquid-gas interfaces in certain rotationally-symmetric containers having prescribed, mathematically derived shapes. These containers have the property that they admit an entire continuum of distinct equilibrium rotationally-symmetric interfaces for a given liquid volume and contact angle. Furthermore, it can be shown that none of these interfaces can be stable. It was found, after the containers were filled in orbit, that an initial equilibrium interface from the symmetric continuum reoriented, when perturbed, to a stable interface that was not rotationally symmetric, in accordance with the mathematical theory.

  20. Interface Configuration Experiment: Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Concus, Paul; Finn, Robert; Weislogel, Mark

    1994-01-01

    The Interface Configuration Experiment (ICE) was carried out on USML-1 to investigate liquid-gas interfaces in certain rotationally-symmetric containers having prescribed, mathematically derived shapes. These containers have the property that they admit an entire continuum of distinct equilibrium rotationally-symmetric interfaces for a given liquid volume and contact angle. Furthermore, it can be shown that none of these interfaces can be stable. It was found, after the containers were filled in orbit, that an initial equilibrium interface from the symmetric continuum re-oriented, when perturbed, to a stable interface that was not rotationally symmetric, in accordance with the mathematical theory.

  1. Heat transfer tests on a 0.01-scale Rockwell configuration 3 space shuttle orbiter and tank (37-OT) in the Calspan 48-inch hypersonic shock tunnel (OH12/IH21), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotch, M.

    1975-01-01

    Model information and data are presented from wind tunnel tests conducted on 0.01-scale models of the space shuttle orbiter and external tank. These tests were conducted in a hypersonic shock tunnel to determine heating rates on ascent and reentry configurations at various Reynolds numbers, Mach numbers, and angles of attack.

  2. Computer Lab Configuration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodarz, Nan

    2003-01-01

    Describes the layout and elements of an effective school computer lab. Includes configuration, storage spaces, cabling and electrical requirements, lighting, furniture, and computer hardware and peripherals. (PKP)

  3. CONFIGURATION GENERATOR MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    A. Alsaed

    2004-11-18

    ''The Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' prescribes an approach to the methodology for performing postclosure criticality analyses within the monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. An essential component of the methodology is the ''Configuration Generator Model for In-Package Criticality'' that provides a tool to evaluate the probabilities of degraded configurations achieving a critical state. The configuration generator model is a risk-informed, performance-based process for evaluating the criticality potential of degraded configurations in the monitored geologic repository. The method uses event tree methods to define configuration classes derived from criticality scenarios and to identify configuration class characteristics (parameters, ranges, etc.). The probabilities of achieving the various configuration classes are derived in part from probability density functions for degradation parameters. The NRC has issued ''Safety Evaluation Report for Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report, Revision 0''. That report contained 28 open items that required resolution through additional documentation. Of the 28 open items, numbers 5, 6, 9, 10, 18, and 19 were concerned with a previously proposed software approach to the configuration generator methodology and, in particular, the k{sub eff} regression analysis associated with the methodology. However, the use of a k{sub eff} regression analysis is not part of the current configuration generator methodology and, thus, the referenced open items are no longer considered applicable and will not be further addressed.

  4. Real time three-dimensional echocardiography for quantification of ventricular volumes, mass, and function in children with congenital and acquired heart diseases.

    PubMed

    Balluz, Rula; Liu, Liwen; Zhou, Xiaodong; Ge, Shuping

    2013-04-01

    Quantitative measurement of left ventricular (LV) volumes, mass, and function is one of the most common and important indications for echocardiography. These measurements are among the most powerful tools for diagnosis and prognosis of congenital and acquired heart diseases and for assessment of medical, percutaneous, and surgical interventions. Awareness is also growing of the importance of right ventricular (RV) volume, mass, and function in many cardiopulmonary diseases. Furthermore, there are challenges and opportunities to measure the volume, mass, and function of complex chambers such as the left atrium, right atrium, and the univentricular heart. As echocardiography continues to be the imaging modality of choice for these measurements, the strengths and limitations of M-mode, two-dimensional (2D), and recently three-dimensional (3D) echocardiographic (3DE) methodologies for accurate and reproducible measurement of these indices have been extensively investigated for congenital and acquired heart diseases. Evidence suggests that 3DE provides improved accuracy and reproducibility over 2D methods for measurement of LV volume and function calculation in adults and in children. Data have accumulated on the utility of 3DE for measuring chamber volumes and function for the RV and for the single ventricle, which may become more widely used in clinical and research arenas in the future. Finally, new advanced modes of analysis such as 3D strain and synchrony analysis by 3DE are promising methodologies that warrant further investigation.

  5. Space Shuttle Orbiter trimmed center-of-gravity extension study. Volume 8: Effects of configuration modifications on the aerodynamic characteristics of the 140 A/B Orbiter at a Mach number of 5.97

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. P.

    1984-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics at M=5.97 for the 140 A/B Space Shuttle Orbiter configuration and for the configuration modified by geometric changes in the wing planform fillet region and the fuselage forebody are presented. The modifications, designed to extend the orbiter's longitudinal trim capability to more forward center of gravity locations, include reshaping the baseline wing fillet, changing the fuselage forebody camber, and adding canards. The Langley 20 inch Mach 6 Tunnel at a Reynolds number of approximately 6 million based on fuselage reference length was used. The angle of attack range of the investigation varied from about 15 deg to 35 deg at 0 deg and -5 deg sideslip angles. Data are obtained with the elevators and body flap deflected at appropriate negative and positive conditions to assess the trim limits.

  6. Results of tests OA63 and IA29 on an 0.015 scale model of the space shuttle configuration 140 A/B in the NASA/ARC 6- by 6-foot transonic wind tunnel, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangler, R. H.; Thornton, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the NASA/ARC 6- by 6-foot transonic wind tunnel from September 12 to September 28, 1973 on an 0.015-scale model of the space shuttle configuration 140 A/B. Surface pressure data were obtained for the orbiter for both launch and entry configuration at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 2.0. The surface pressures were obtained in the vicinity of the cargo bay door hinge and parting lines, the side of the fuselage at the crew compartment and below the OMS pods at the aft compartment. Data were obtained at angles of attack and sideslip consistent with the expected divergencies along the nominal trajectory. These tests were first in a series of tests supporting the orbiter venting analysis. The series will include tests in three facilities covering a total Mach number range from 0.6 to 10.4.

  7. Aeroheating (pressure) characteristics on a 0.010-scale version of the vehicle 3 space shuttle configuration (26-OTS) in the Langley Research Center 4-foot wind tunnel (IH4), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kingsland, R. B.

    1976-01-01

    The results of wind tunnel tests conducted on a 0.010-scale version of the Vehicle 3 Space Shuttle Configuration were presented. Pressure measurements were made on the launch configuration, orbiter alone, external tank alone, and solid rocket booster alone, to provide heat transfer pressure data. The tests were conducted for a Mach number range from 2.36 to 4.6 and Reynolds number range from 1.2 to 5 million per foot. The model was tested at angles of attack from -10 deg to 20 deg for a sideslip angle range from -5 deg to +5 deg and at sideslip angles from -5 deg to 48 deg for 0 deg angle of attack.

  8. Results of wind tunnel tests of an ASRM configured 0.03 scale Space Shuttle integrated vehicle model (47-OTS) in the AEDC 16-foot Transonic wind tunnel (IA613A), volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marroquin, J.; Lemoine, P.

    1992-10-01

    An experimental Aerodynamic and Aero-Acoustic loads data base was obtained at transonic Mach numbers for the Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle configured with the ASRM Solid Rocket Boosters as an increment to the current flight configuration (RSRB). These data were obtained during transonic wind tunnel tests (IA 613A) conducted in the Arnold Engineering Development Center 16-Foot transonic propulsion wind tunnel from March 27, 1991 through April 12, 1991. This test is the first of a series of two tests covering the Mach range from 0.6 to 3.5. Steady state surface static and fluctuating pressure distributions over the Orbiter, External Tank and Solid Rocket Boosters of the Shuttle Integrated Vehicle were measured. Total Orbiter forces, Wing forces and Elevon hinge moments were directly measured as well from force balances. Two configurations of Solid Rocket Boosters were tested, the Redesigned Solid Rocket Booster (RSRB) and the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM). The effects of the position (i.e. top, bottom, top and bottom) of the Integrated Electronics Assembly (IEA) box, mounted on the SRB attach ring, were obtained on the ASRM configured model. These data were obtained with and without Solid Plume Simulators which, when used, matched as close as possible the flight derived pressures on the Orbiter and External Tank base. Data were obtained at Mach numbers ranging from 0.6 to 1.55 at a Unit Reynolds Number of 2.5 million per foot through model angles of attack from -8 to +4 degrees at sideslip angles of 0, +4 and -4 degrees.

  9. Results of wind tunnel tests of an ASRM configured 0.03 scale Space Shuttle integrated vehicle model (47-OTS) in the AEDC 16-foot transonic wind tunnel, volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marroquin, J.; Lemoine, P.

    1992-10-01

    An experimental Aerodynamic and Aero-Acoustic loads data base was obtained at transonic Mach numbers for the Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle configured with the ASRM Solid Rocket Boosters as an increment to the current flight configuration (RSRB). These data were obtained during transonic wind tunnel tests (IA 613A) conducted in the Arnold Engineering Development Center 16-Foot transonic propulsion wind tunnel from March 27, 1991 through April 12, 1991. This test is the first of a series of two tests covering the Mach range from 0.6 to 3.5. Steady state surface static and fluctuating pressure distributions over the Orbiter, External Tank and Solid Rocket Boosters of the Shuttle Integrated Vehicle were measured. Total Orbiter forces, Wing forces and Elevon hinge moments were directly measured as well from force balances. Two configurations of Solid Rocket Boosters were tested, the Redesigned Solid Rocket Booster (RSRB) and the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM). The effects of the position (i.e., top, bottom, top and bottom) of the Integrated Electronics Assembly (IEA) box, mounted on the SRB attach ring, were obtained on the ASRM configured model. These data were obtained with and without Solid Plume Simulators which, when used, matched as close as possible the flight derived pressures on the Orbiter and External Tank base. Data were obtained at Mach numbers ranging from 0.6 to 1.55 at a Unit Reynolds Number of 2.5 million per foot through model angles of attack from -8 to +4 degrees at sideslip angles of 0, +4 and -4 degrees.

  10. Results of wind tunnel tests of an ASRM configured 0.03 scale Space Shuttle integrated vehicle model (47-OTS) in the AEDC 16-foot transonic wind tunnel, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marroquin, J.; Lemoine, P.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental Aerodynamic and Aero-Acoustic loads data base was obtained at transonic Mach numbers for the Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle configured with the ASRM Solid Rocket Boosters as an increment to the current flight configuration (RSRB). These data were obtained during transonic wind tunnel tests (IA 613A) conducted in the Arnold Engineering Development Center 16-Foot transonic propulsion wind tunnel from March 27, 1991 through April 12, 1991. This test is the first of a series of two tests covering the Mach range from 0.6 to 3.5. Steady state surface static and fluctuating pressure distributions over the Orbiter, External Tank and Solid Rocket Boosters of the Shuttle Integrated Vehicle were measured. Total Orbiter forces, Wing forces and Elevon hinge moments were directly measured as well from force balances. Two configurations of Solid Rocket Boosters were tested, the Redesigned Solid Rocket Booster (RSRB) and the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM). The effects of the position (i.e., top, bottom, top and bottom) of the Integrated Electronics Assembly (IEA) box, mounted on the SRB attach ring, were obtained on the ASRM configured model. These data were obtained with and without Solid Plume Simulators which, when used, matched as close as possible the flight derived pressures on the Orbiter and External Tank base. Data were obtained at Mach numbers ranging from 0.6 to 1.55 at a Unit Reynolds Number of 2.5 million per foot through model angles of attack from -8 to +4 degrees at sideslip angles of 0, +4 and -4 degrees.

  11. Results of wind tunnel tests of an ASRM configured 0.03 scale Space Shuttle integrated vehicle model (47-OTS) in the AEDC 16-foot Transonic wind tunnel (IA613A), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marroquin, J.; Lemoine, P.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental Aerodynamic and Aero-Acoustic loads data base was obtained at transonic Mach numbers for the Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle configured with the ASRM Solid Rocket Boosters as an increment to the current flight configuration (RSRB). These data were obtained during transonic wind tunnel tests (IA 613A) conducted in the Arnold Engineering Development Center 16-Foot transonic propulsion wind tunnel from March 27, 1991 through April 12, 1991. This test is the first of a series of two tests covering the Mach range from 0.6 to 3.5. Steady state surface static and fluctuating pressure distributions over the Orbiter, External Tank and Solid Rocket Boosters of the Shuttle Integrated Vehicle were measured. Total Orbiter forces, Wing forces and Elevon hinge moments were directly measured as well from force balances. Two configurations of Solid Rocket Boosters were tested, the Redesigned Solid Rocket Booster (RSRB) and the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM). The effects of the position (i.e. top, bottom, top and bottom) of the Integrated Electronics Assembly (IEA) box, mounted on the SRB attach ring, were obtained on the ASRM configured model. These data were obtained with and without Solid Plume Simulators which, when used, matched as close as possible the flight derived pressures on the Orbiter and External Tank base. Data were obtained at Mach numbers ranging from 0.6 to 1.55 at a Unit Reynolds Number of 2.5 million per foot through model angles of attack from -8 to +4 degrees at sideslip angles of 0, +4 and -4 degrees.

  12. Space Shuttle Orbiter trimmed center-of-gravity extension study. Volume 7: Effects of configuration modifications on the subsonic aerodynamic characteristics of the 1140 A/B orbbiter at high Reynolds numbers. [Langley low turbulence pressure tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. P.

    1981-01-01

    Subsonic longitudinal andd laternal directional characteristics were obtained for several modified configurations of the 140 A/B orbiter (0.010 scale). These modifications, designed to extend longitudinal trim capability forward of the 65 percent fuselage length station, consisted of modified wing planform fillet and a canard. Tests were performed in the Langley Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel at Reynolds numbers from about 4.2 million to 14.3 million based on the fuselage reference length.

  13. Advanced Multiple Processor Configuration Study. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clymer, S. J.

    This summary of a study on multiple processor configurations includes the objectives, background, approach, and results of research undertaken to provide the Air Force with a generalized model of computer processor combinations for use in the evaluation of proposed flight training simulator computational designs. An analysis of a real-time flight…

  14. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography of multi-MHz A-scan rates at 1310 nm range and real-time 4D-display up to 41 volumes/second

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Dong-hak; Hiro-Oka, Hideaki; Shimizu, Kimiya; Ohbayashi, Kohji

    2012-01-01

    An ultrafast frequency domain optical coherence tomography system was developed at A-scan rates between 2.5 and 10 MHz, a B-scan rate of 4 or 8 kHz, and volume-rates between 12 and 41 volumes/second. In the case of the worst duty ratio of 10%, the averaged A-scan rate was 1 MHz. Two optical demultiplexers at a center wavelength of 1310 nm were used for linear-k spectral dispersion and simultaneous differential signal detection at 320 wavelengths. The depth-range, sensitivity, sensitivity roll-off by 6 dB, and axial resolution were 4 mm, 97 dB, 6 mm, and 23 μm, respectively. Using FPGAs for FFT and a GPU for volume rendering, a real-time 4D display was demonstrated at a rate up to 41 volumes/second for an image size of 256 (axial) × 128 × 128 (lateral) voxels. PMID:23243560

  15. Measuring and mitigating inhibition during quantitative real time PCR analysis of viral nucleic acid extracts from large-volume environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Gibson, K E; Schwab, K J; Spencer, S K; Borchardt, M A

    2012-09-01

    Naturally-occurring inhibitory compounds are a major concern during qPCR and RT-qPCR analysis of environmental samples, particularly large volume water samples. Here, a standardized method for measuring and mitigating sample inhibition in environmental water concentrates is described. Specifically, the method 1) employs a commercially available standard RNA control; 2) defines inhibition by the change in the quantification cycle (C(q)) of the standard RNA control when added to the sample concentrate; and 3) calculates a dilution factor using a mathematical formula applied to the change in C(q) to indicate the specific volume of nuclease-free water necessary to dilute the effect of inhibitors. The standardized inhibition method was applied to 3,193 large-volume water (surface, groundwater, drinking water, agricultural runoff, sewage) concentrates of which 1,074 (34%) were inhibited. Inhibition level was not related to sample volume. Samples collected from the same locations over a one to two year period had widely variable inhibition levels. The proportion of samples that could have been reported as false negatives if inhibition had not been mitigated was between 0.3% and 71%, depending on water source. These findings emphasize the importance of measuring and mitigating inhibition when reporting qPCR results for viral pathogens in environmental waters to minimize the likelihood of reporting false negatives and under-quantifying virus concentration.

  16. An Experimental Investigation of Reduction in Transonic Drag Rise at Zero Lift by the Addition of Volume to the Fuselage of a Wing-body-tail Configuration and a Comparison with Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdaway, George H

    1954-01-01

    An experimental investigation was made by the free-fall recoverable-model technique to assess at zero lift the possibilities of reducing the drag-rise coefficients of a wing-body-cruciform-tail combination by adding volume to the fuselage. The basic features of the test model were an unswept aspect-ratio-3.1 thin wing, a fineness-ratio-12.4 fuselage, and four 45 degrees sweptback tail surfaces. The tests covered a Mach number range of 0.84 to 1.15 with Reynolds numbers of 6.000.000 to 14,000,000, based on the wing mean aerodynamic chord. Considerable reduction in drag-rise coefficient was effected for several different modifications by the addition of properly distributed volume to the fuselage. In one instance, a reduction in drag coefficient was obtained by adding a volume which was almost four times the exposed wing volume. The computation method presented in NACA RM A53H17 generally predicted the supersonic drag-rise coefficients for each modification within 20 percent of the experimental values. As in the above-mentioned report, the predictions at a Mach number of one were not accurate. The changes in drag-rise coefficients resulting from the modifications were generally predicted with better accuracy than the values of drag-rise coefficients.

  17. PAN AIR: A computer program for predicting subsonic or supersonic linear potential flows about arbitrary configurations using a higher order panel method. Volume 3: Case manual (version 1.0)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medan, R. T. (Editor); Magnus, A. E.; Sidwell, K. W.; Epton, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    Numerous applications of the PAN AIR computer program system are presented. PAN AIR is user-oriented tool for analyzing and/or designing aerodynamic configurations in subsonic or supersonic flow using a technique generally referred to as a higher order panel method. Problems solved include simple wings in subsonic and supersonic flow, a wing-body in supersonic flow, wing with deflected flap in subsonic flow, design of two-dimensional and three-dimensional wings, axisymmetric nacelle in supersonic flow, and wing-canard-tail-nacelle-fuselage combination in supersonic flow.

  18. Piston engine configuration alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Wyczalek, F.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper provides a technological assessment of alternate engine component configuration and material alternatives. It includes a comparative analysis of key characteristics of Gasoline, Diesel and Gas Turbine engines built by Daihatsu, Honda, Isuzu, Mazda, Mitsubishi, Nissan, Suburu, Suzuki and Toyota. The piston engines range from two to ten cylinders with inline, vee and opposed configurations. Furthermore, additional special features and alternative choices include variable compression ratio, ceramic structural components, supercharger, turbocharger, twin turbocharger, supercharger-turbocharger combined and the regenerative gas turbine.

  19. ION Configuration Editor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borgen, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    The configuration of ION (Inter - planetary Overlay Network) network nodes is a manual task that is complex, time-consuming, and error-prone. This program seeks to accelerate this job and produce reliable configurations. The ION Configuration Editor is a model-based smart editor based on Eclipse Modeling Framework technology. An ION network designer uses this Eclipse-based GUI to construct a data model of the complete target network and then generate configurations. The data model is captured in an XML file. Intrinsic editor features aid in achieving model correctness, such as field fill-in, type-checking, lists of valid values, and suitable default values. Additionally, an explicit "validation" feature executes custom rules to catch more subtle model errors. A "survey" feature provides a set of reports providing an overview of the entire network, enabling a quick assessment of the model s completeness and correctness. The "configuration" feature produces the main final result, a complete set of ION configuration files (eight distinct file types) for each ION node in the network.

  20. Design and performance of a large vocabulary discrete word recognition system. Volume 1: Technical report. [real time computer technique for voice data processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The development, construction, and test of a 100-word vocabulary near real time word recognition system are reported. Included are reasonable replacement of any one or all 100 words in the vocabulary, rapid learning of a new speaker, storage and retrieval of training sets, verbal or manual single word deletion, continuous adaptation with verbal or manual error correction, on-line verification of vocabulary as spoken, system modes selectable via verification display keyboard, relationship of classified word to neighboring word, and a versatile input/output interface to accommodate a variety of applications.

  1. V/STOL tilt rotor study. Volume 5: A mathematical model for real time flight simulation of the Bell model 301 tilt rotor research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harendra, P. B.; Joglekar, M. J.; Gaffey, T. M.; Marr, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    A mathematical model for real-time flight simulation of a tilt rotor research aircraft was developed. The mathematical model was used to support the aircraft design, pilot training, and proof-of-concept aspects of the development program. The structure of the mathematical model is indicated by a block diagram. The mathematical model differs from that for a conventional fixed wing aircraft principally in the added requirement to represent the dynamics and aerodynamics of the rotors, the interaction of the rotor wake with the airframe, and the rotor control and drive systems. The constraints imposed on the mathematical model are defined.

  2. Restructured Freedom configuration characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troutman, Patrick A.; Heck, Michael L.; Kumar, Renjith R.; Mazanek, Daniel D.

    1991-01-01

    In Jan. 1991, the LaRc SSFO performed an assessment of the configuration characteristics of the proposed pre-integrated Space Station Freedom (SSF) concept. Of particular concern was the relationship of solar array operation and orientation with respect to spacecraft controllability. For the man-tended configuration (MTC), it was determined that torque equilibrium attitude (TEA) seeking Control Moment Gyroscope (CMG) control laws could not always maintain attitude. The control problems occurred when the solar arrays were tracking the sun to produce full power while flying in an arrow or gravity gradient flight mode. The large solar array articulations that sometimes result from having the functions of the alpha and beta joints reversed on MTC induced large product of inertia changes that can invalidate the control system gains during an orbit. Several modified sun tracking techniques were evaluated with respect to producing a controllable configuration requiring no modifications to the CMG control algorithms. Another assessment involved the permanently manned configuration (PMC) which has a third asymmetric PV unit on one side of the transverse boom. Recommendations include constraining alpha rotations for MTC in the arrow and gravity gradient flight modes and perhaps developing new non-TEA seeking control laws. Recommendations for PMC include raising the operational altitude and moving to a symmetric configuration as soon as possible.

  3. Configurational diffusion of coal macromolecules

    SciTech Connect

    Guin, J.A.; Curtis, C.W.; Tarrer, A.R.; Kim, S.; Hwang, D.; Chen, C.C.; Chiou, Z.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of our research was to obtain fundamental information regarding the functional dependence of the diffusion coefficient of coal molecules on the ratio of molecule to pore diameter. That is, the objective of our study was to examine the effect of molecule size and configuration on hindered diffusion of coal macromolecules through as porous medium. To best accomplish this task, we circumvented the complexities of an actual porous catalyst by using a well defined porous matrix with uniform capillaric pores, i.e., a track-etched membrane. In this way, useful information was obtained regarding the relationship of molecular size and configuration on the diffusion rate of coal derived macromolecules through a pore structure with known geometry. Similar studies were performed using a pellet formed of porous alumina, to provide a link between the idealized membranes and the actual complex pore structure of real catalyst extrudates. The fundamental information from our study will be useful toward the tailoring of catalysts to minimize diffusional influences and thereby increase coal conversion and selectivity for desirable products. (VC)

  4. Load and dynamic assessment of B-52B-008 carrier aircraft for finned configuration 1 space shuttle solid rocket booster decelerator subsystem drop test vehicle. Volume 3: Pylon load data method 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quade, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    The pylon loading at the drop test vehicle and wing interface attach points is presented. The loads shown are determined using a stiffness method, which assumes the side stiffness of the foreward hook guide to be one-fourth of the fore and aft stiffness of each drag pin. The net effect of this assumption is that the forward hook guide reacts approximately 85% of the drop test vehicle yawing moment. For a comparison of these loads to previous X-15 analysis design loadings, see Volume 1 of this document.

  5. Load and dynamic assessment of B-52B-008 carrier aircraft for finned configuration 1 space shuttle solid rocket booster deceleration subsystem drop test vehicle. Volume 4: Pylon load data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quade, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    The pylon loading at the drop test vehicle and wing interface attack points is presented. The loads shown are determined using a stiffness method, which assumes the side stiffness of the forward hook guide and the fore and aft stiffness of each drag pin to be equal. The net effect of this assumption is that the forward hook guide reacts approximately 96% of the drop test vehicle yawing moment. For a comparison of these loads to previous X-15 analysis design loadings, see Volume 1 of this document.

  6. Software Configuration Management Guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The growth in cost and importance of software to NASA has caused NASA to address the improvement of software development across the agency. One of the products of this program is a series of guidebooks that define a NASA concept of the assurance processes which are used in software development. The Software Assurance Guidebook, SMAP-GB-A201, issued in September, 1989, provides an overall picture of the concepts and practices of NASA in software assurance. Lower level guidebooks focus on specific activities that fall within the software assurance discipline, and provide more detailed information for the manager and/or practitioner. This is the Software Configuration Management Guidebook which describes software configuration management in a way that is compatible with practices in industry and at NASA Centers. Software configuration management is a key software development process, and is essential for doing software assurance.

  7. Configuration of bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Martens, Dirk E; van den End, Evert J; Streefland, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Lab-scale stirred-tank bioreactors (0.2-20 l) are used for fundamental research on animal cells and in process development and troubleshooting for large-scale production. In this chapter, different configurations of bioreactor systems are shortly discussed and setting up these different configurations is described. In addition, online measurement and control of bioreactor parameters is described, with special attention to controller settings (PID) and online measurement of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production. Finally, methods for determining the oxygen transfer coefficient are described.

  8. An investigation in MSFC 14-inch TWT to determine the static stability characteristics of 0.004-scale model (74-OTS) space shuttle vehicle 5 configuration (IA33), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, E. C.

    1975-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted to: (1) determine the static stability characteristics of the Shuttle Vehicle 5 configuration; (2) determine the effect on the Vehicle 5 aerodynamic characteristics of External Tank (ET) and Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) nose shape, SRB nozzle shroud flare angle, orbiter to tank fairing, and sting location; (3) provide flow visualization using thin film oil paint; and (4) determine rudder, body flap, and inboard and outboard elevon hinge moments. The mated vehicle model was mounted in three different ways: (1) the orbiter mounted on the balance with the SRB's attached to the tank and the tank in turn attached to the orbiter; (2) the tank mounted on the balance (with the sting protruding through the tank base) with the SRB's and orbiter attached to the tank, and (3) with the tank mounted on the balance and the balance in turn supported by a forked sting entering the nozzle of each SRB, extending forward into the SRB's then crossing over to the tank to provide a balance socket. Data were obtained for Mach numbers from 0.6 through 4.96 at angles-of-attack and -sideslip from -10 to 10 degrees.

  9. Space Station Final Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    An artist's conception of what the final configuration of the International Space Station (ISS) will look like when it is fully built and deployed. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide an unprecedented undertaking in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  10. Inclusive Services Innovation Configuration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdheide, Lynn R.; Reschly, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Teacher preparation to deliver inclusive services to students with disabilities is increasingly important because of changes in law and policy emphasizing student access to, and achievement in, the general education curriculum. This innovation configuration identifies the components of inclusive services that should be incorporated in teacher…

  11. Real Earthquakes, Real Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schomburg, Aaron

    2003-01-01

    One teacher took her class on a year long earthquake expedition. The goal was to monitor the occurrences of real earthquakes during the year and mark their locations with push pins on a wall-sized world map in the hallway outside the science room. The purpose of the project was to create a detailed picture of the earthquakes that occurred…

  12. Comparing Methods for Dynamic Airspace Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelinski, Shannon; Lai, Chok Fung

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares airspace design solutions for dynamically reconfiguring airspace in response to nominal daily traffic volume fluctuation. Airspace designs from seven algorithmic methods and a representation of current day operations in Kansas City Center were simulated with two times today's demand traffic. A three-configuration scenario was used to represent current day operations. Algorithms used projected unimpeded flight tracks to design initial 24-hour plans to switch between three configurations at predetermined reconfiguration times. At each reconfiguration time, algorithms used updated projected flight tracks to update the subsequent planned configurations. Compared to the baseline, most airspace design methods reduced delay and increased reconfiguration complexity, with similar traffic pattern complexity results. Design updates enabled several methods to as much as half the delay from their original designs. Freeform design methods reduced delay and increased reconfiguration complexity the most.

  13. Dynamic Airspace Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloem, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    In air traffic management systems, airspace is partitioned into regions in part to distribute the tasks associated with managing air traffic among different systems and people. These regions, as well as the systems and people allocated to each, are changed dynamically so that air traffic can be safely and efficiently managed. It is expected that new air traffic control systems will enable greater flexibility in how airspace is partitioned and how resources are allocated to airspace regions. In this talk, I will begin by providing an overview of some previous work and open questions in Dynamic Airspace Configuration research, which is concerned with how to partition airspace and assign resources to regions of airspace. For example, I will introduce airspace partitioning algorithms based on clustering, integer programming optimization, and computational geometry. I will conclude by discussing the development of a tablet-based tool that is intended to help air traffic controller supervisors configure airspace and controllers in current operations.

  14. Modular small hydro configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-09-01

    Smaller sites (those under 750 kilowatts) which previously were not attractive to develop using equipment intended for application at larger scale sites, were the focal point in the conception of a system which utilizes standard industrial components which are generally available within short procurement times. Such components were integrated into a development scheme for sites having 20 feet to 150 feet of head. The modular small hydro configuration maximizes the use of available components and minimizes modification of existing civil works. A key aspect of the development concept is the use of a vertical turbine multistage pump, used in the reverse mode as a hydraulic turbine. The configuration allows for automated operation and control of the hydroelectric facilities with sufficient flexibility for inclusion of potential hydroelectric sites into dispersed storage and generation (DSG) utility grid systems.

  15. Left ventricular layer function in hypertension assessed by myocardial strain rate using novel one-beat real-time three-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography with high volume rates.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Maki; Sato, Noriaki; Kawasaki, Masanori; Tanaka, Ryuhei; Nagaya, Maki; Watanabe, Takatomo; Ono, Koji; Noda, Toshiyuki; Zile, Michael R; Minatoguchi, Shinya

    2015-08-01

    We recently developed novel software to measure phasic strain rate (SR) using automated one-beat real-time three-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (3D-STE) with high volume rates. We tested the hypothesis that left ventricular (LV) systolic function and relaxation analyzed by SR with the novel 3D-STE in hypertension (HTN) with hypertrophy may be impaired in the endocardium before there is LV systolic dysfunction. We measured LV longitudinal, radial and circumferential SR in patients with HTN (n=80, 69±7 years) and age-matched normotensive controls (n= 60, 69±10 years) using 3D-STE. HTN patients were divided into four groups according to LV geometry: normal, concentric remodeling, concentric hypertrophy and eccentric hypertrophy. We measured SR during systole as an index of systolic function, SR during isovolumic relaxation (IVR) as an index of relaxation and E/e' as an index of filling pressure. Endocardial SR during systole in HTN with concentric and eccentric hypertrophy decreased compared with that in controls despite no reduction in ejection fraction or epicardial SR. Endocardial radial SR during IVR decreased even in normal geometry, and it was further reduced in concentric remodeling and hypertrophy despite no reduction in epicardial SR. LV phasic SR assessed by 3D-STE with high volume rates is a useful index to detect early decreases in LV systolic function and to predict subclinical LV layer dysfunction in patients with HTN.

  16. Fuel cell system configurations

    DOEpatents

    Kothmann, Richard E.; Cyphers, Joseph A.

    1981-01-01

    Fuel cell stack configurations having elongated polygonal cross-sectional shapes and gaskets at the peripheral faces to which flow manifolds are sealingly affixed. Process channels convey a fuel and an oxidant through longer channels, and a cooling fluid is conveyed through relatively shorter cooling passages. The polygonal structure preferably includes at least two right angles, and the faces of the stack are arranged in opposite parallel pairs.

  17. Polysoaps: Configurations and Elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halperin, A.

    1997-03-01

    Simple polymers are very long, flexible, linear molecules. Amphiphiles, soaps, are small molecules comprising of a part that prefers water over oil and a part that prefers oil over water. By combining the two we arrive at an interesting, little explored, class of materials: Polysoaps. These comprise of a water soluble backbone incorporating, at intervals, covalently bound amphiphilic monomers. In water, the polymerised amphiphiles aggregate into self assembled units known as micelles. This induces a dramatic modification of the spatial configurations of the polymers. What were featureless random coils now exhibit intramolecular, hierachial self organisation. Due to this self organisation it is necessary to modify the paradigms describing the large scale behaviour of these polymers: Their configurations, dimensions and elasticity. Understanding the behaviour of these polymers is of practical interest because of their wide range of industrial applications, ranging from cosmetics to paper coating. It is of fundamental interest because polysoaps are characterised by a rugged free energy landscape that is reminiscent of complex systems such as proteins and glasses. The talk concerns theoretical arguments regarding the following issues: (i) The design parameters that govern the spatial configurations of the polysoaps, (ii) The interaction between polysoaps and free amphiphiles, (iii) The effect of the intramolecular self organisation on the elasticity of the chains.

  18. GSC configuration management plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withers, B. Edward

    1990-01-01

    The tools and methods used for the configuration management of the artifacts (including software and documentation) associated with the Guidance and Control Software (GCS) project are described. The GCS project is part of a software error studies research program. Three implementations of GCS are being produced in order to study the fundamental characteristics of the software failure process. The Code Management System (CMS) is used to track and retrieve versions of the documentation and software. Application of the CMS for this project is described and the numbering scheme is delineated for the versions of the project artifacts.

  19. SIM Configuration Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aaron, Kim M.

    2000-01-01

    The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) is a space-based 10 m baseline Michelson interferometer. Planned for launch in 2005 aboard a Delta III launch vehicle, or equivalent, its primary objective is to measure the positions of stars and other celestial objects with an unprecedented accuracy of 4 micro arc seconds. With such an instrument, tremendous advancement can be expected in our understanding of stellar and galactic dynamics. Using triangulation from opposite sides of the orbit around the sun (i.e. by using parallax) one can measure the distance to any observable object in our galaxy. By directly measuring the orbital wobble of nearby stars, the mass and orbit of planets can be determined over a wide range of parameters. The distribution of velocity within nearby galaxies will be measurable. Observations of these and other objects will improve the calibration of distance estimators by more than an order of magnitude. This will permit a much better determination of the Hubble Constant as well as improving our overall understanding of the evolution of the universe. SIM has undergone several transformations, especially over the past year and a half since the start of Phase A. During this phase of a project, it is desirable to perform system-level trade studies, so the substantial evolution of the design that has occurred is quite appropriate. Part of the trade-off process has addressed two major underlying architectures: SIM Classic; and Son of SIM. The difference between these two architectures is related to the overall arrangement of the optical elements and the associated metrology system. Several different configurations have been developed for each architecture. Each configuration is the result of design choices that are influenced by many competing considerations. Some of the more important aspects will be discussed. The Space Interferometry Mission has some extremely challenging goals: millikelvin thermal stability, nanometer stabilization of optics

  20. Power converter connection configuration

    DOEpatents

    Beihoff, Bruce C.; Kehl, Dennis L.; Gettelfinger, Lee A.; Kaishian, Steven C.; Phillips, Mark G.; Radosevich, Lawrence D.

    2008-11-11

    EMI shielding is provided for power electronics circuits and the like via a direct-mount reference plane support and shielding structure. The thermal support may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support. The support forms a shield from both external EMI/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as improved terminal configurations. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  1. Software Configurable Multichannel Transceiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freudinger, Lawrence C.; Cornelius, Harold; Hickling, Ron; Brooks, Walter

    2009-01-01

    Emerging test instrumentation and test scenarios increasingly require network communication to manage complexity. Adapting wireless communication infrastructure to accommodate challenging testing needs can benefit from reconfigurable radio technology. A fundamental requirement for a software-definable radio system is independence from carrier frequencies, one of the radio components that to date has seen only limited progress toward programmability. This paper overviews an ongoing project to validate the viability of a promising chipset that performs conversion of radio frequency (RF) signals directly into digital data for the wireless receiver and, for the transmitter, converts digital data into RF signals. The Software Configurable Multichannel Transceiver (SCMT) enables four transmitters and four receivers in a single unit the size of a commodity disk drive, programmable for any frequency band between 1 MHz and 6 GHz.

  2. Inductrack magnet configuration

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard Freeman

    2003-10-14

    A magnet configuration comprising a pair of Halbach arrays magnetically and structurally connected together are positioned with respect to each other so that a first component of their fields substantially cancels at a first plane between them, and a second component of their fields substantially adds at this first plane. A track of windings is located between the pair of Halbach arrays and a propulsion mechanism is provided for moving the pair of Halbach arrays along the track. When the pair of Halbach arrays move along the track and the track is not located at the first plane, a current is induced in the windings and a restoring force is exerted on the pair of Halbach arrays.

  3. Inductrack magnet configuration

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard Freeman

    2003-12-16

    A magnet configuration comprising a pair of Halbach arrays magnetically and structurally connected together are positioned with respect to each other so that a first component of their fields substantially cancels at a first plane between them, and a second component of their fields substantially adds at this first plane. A track of windings is located between the pair of Halbach arrays and a propulsion mechanism is provided for moving the pair of Halbach arrays along the track. When the pair of Halbach arrays move along the track and the track is not located at the first plane, a current is induced in the windings and a restoring force is exerted on the pair of Halbach arrays.

  4. Configurable Aperture Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennico, Kimberly; Bendek, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    In December 2014, we were awarded Center Innovation Fund to evaluate an optical and mechanical concept for a novel implementation of a segmented telescope based on modular, interconnected small sats (satlets). The concept is called CAST, a Configurable Aperture Space Telescope. With a current TRL is 2 we will aim to reach TLR 3 in Sept 2015 by demonstrating a 2x2 mirror system to validate our optical model and error budget, provide straw man mechanical architecture and structural damping analyses, and derive future satlet-based observatory performance requirements. CAST provides an alternative access to visible and/or UV wavelength space telescope with 1-meter or larger aperture for NASA SMD Astrophysics and Planetary Science community after the retirement of HST

  5. CMS - HLT Configuration Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daponte, Vincenzo; Bocci, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    The CMS High Level Trigger (HLT) is a collection of software algorithms that run using an optimized version of the CMS offline reconstruction software. The HLT uses Python configuration files each containing hundreds of "modules", organized in "sequences" and "paths". Each configuration usually uses an average of 2200 different modules and more than 400 independent trigger paths. The complexity of the HLT configurations and their large number require the design of a suitable data management system. The work presented here describes the solution designed to manage the considerable number of configurations developed and to assist the editing of new configurations.

  6. Motion control of 7-DOF arms - The configuration control approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun; Long, Mark K.; Lee, Thomas S.

    1993-01-01

    Graphics simulation and real-time implementation of configuration control schemes for a redundant 7-DOF Robotics Research arm are described. The arm kinematics and motion control schemes are described briefly. This is followed by a description of a graphics simulation environment for 7-DOF arm control on the Silicon Graphics IRIS Workstation. Computer simulation results are presented to demonstrate elbow control, collision avoidance, and optimal joint movement as redundancy resolution goals. The laboratory setup for experimental validation of motion control of the 7-DOF Robotics Research arm is then described. The configuration control approach is implemented on a Motorola-68020/VME-bus-based real-time controller, with elbow positioning for redundancy resolution. Experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of configuration control for real-time control.

  7. A syringe injection rate detector employing a dual Hall-effect sensor configuration.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Biswarup; George, Boby; Sivaprakasam, Mohanasankar

    2013-01-01

    Injection of fluids in the body using needle syringes is a standard clinical practice. The rate of injection can have various pathological effects on the body such as the pain perceived or in case of anesthesia, the amount of akinesia attained. Hence, a training system with a modified syringe employing a simple measurement scheme where a trainee can observe and practice the rate of injection prior to administering on actual human subjects, can be of great value towards reduction of complications in real life situations. In this paper, we develop a system for measurement of syringe injection rate with two Hall-effect sensors. Ring magnets attached to the body of the syringe along with the dual Hall-effect sensor configuration help in determining the position of the piston with respect to the syringe body. The two Hall-sensors are arranged in a differential configuration such that a linear relationship is obtained between the volume of liquid in the syringe (in ml) and the Hall-effect sensor output voltages. A prototype developed validated the measurement scheme. The rate of injection was displayed in real-time with a LabVIEW based Virtual Instrument. The error was within acceptable limits illustrating its efficacy for practical training purposes.

  8. A syringe injection rate detector employing a dual Hall-effect sensor configuration.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Biswarup; George, Boby; Sivaprakasam, Mohanasankar

    2013-01-01

    Injection of fluids in the body using needle syringes is a standard clinical practice. The rate of injection can have various pathological effects on the body such as the pain perceived or in case of anesthesia, the amount of akinesia attained. Hence, a training system with a modified syringe employing a simple measurement scheme where a trainee can observe and practice the rate of injection prior to administering on actual human subjects, can be of great value towards reduction of complications in real life situations. In this paper, we develop a system for measurement of syringe injection rate with two Hall-effect sensors. Ring magnets attached to the body of the syringe along with the dual Hall-effect sensor configuration help in determining the position of the piston with respect to the syringe body. The two Hall-sensors are arranged in a differential configuration such that a linear relationship is obtained between the volume of liquid in the syringe (in ml) and the Hall-effect sensor output voltages. A prototype developed validated the measurement scheme. The rate of injection was displayed in real-time with a LabVIEW based Virtual Instrument. The error was within acceptable limits illustrating its efficacy for practical training purposes. PMID:24110792

  9. Configurational subdiffusion of peptides: A network study

    SciTech Connect

    Neusius, Thomas; Diadone, Isabella; Sokolov, Igor; Smith, Jeremy C

    2011-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of linear peptides reveals configurational subdiffusion at equilibrium extending from 10-12 to 10-8 s. Rouse chain and continuous-time random walk models of the subdiffusion are critically discussed. Network approaches to analyzing MD simulations are shown to reproduce the time dependence of the subdiffusive mean squared displacement, which is found to arise from the fractal-like geometry of the accessible volume in the configuration space. Convergence properties of the simulation pertaining to the subdiffusive dynamics are characterized and the effect on the subdiffusive properties of representing the solvent explicitly or implicitly is compared. Non-Markovianity and other factors limiting the range of applicability of the network models are examined.

  10. Identification of configuration and boundaries of interplanetary magnetic clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, H. Q.; Wu, D. J.; Chao, J. K.

    2006-07-01

    To study interplanetary magnetic clouds (IMCs), it is important to find their configurations and boundaries from the observed magnetic field data. This paper presents a novel method of identifying the configuration and boundaries of IMCs, wherein the interplanetary magnetic field data, which are measured in the Geocentric Solar Ecliptic (GSE) coordinate system, are converted into an IMC natural coordinate system that can more clearly display the configuration and boundaries of the IMC as a flux tube. The establishment of the natural coordinate system is based on the idea that the IMC is a flux rope with approximately constant α force-free field configuration. We also apply this method to analyze four IMCs observed by the Wind spacecraft. Two of them are identified as having the flux rope configuration lying in the ecliptic plane, and the other two are flux ropes vertical to the ecliptic plane. The results demonstrate that our method can work well for real IMCs.

  11. Real Language Meets Real Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muirhead, Muirhead; Schechter, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The Real Business Language Challenge was a collaborative pilot project between Coca-Cola Enterprises (CCE) and Routes into Languages East for Year 9 and 10 pupils. It was based on CCE's award-winning Real Business Challenge, part of its highly acclaimed education programme. The Real Business Language Challenge transformed the project into a…

  12. Hubble Space Telescope Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This image illustrates the overall Hubble Space Telescope (HST) configuration. The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is approximately the size of a railroad car, with two cylinders joined together and wrapped in a silvery reflective heat shield blanket. Wing-like solar arrays extend horizontally from each side of these cylinders, and dish-shaped anternas extend above and below the body of the telescope. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  13. Backside configured surface plasmonic enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Guiru; Lu, Xuejun; Vaillancourt, Jarrod

    2014-03-31

    In this work, we fabricated, measured and compared the quantum dots infrared photodetector enhancement by the top- and backside- configured plasmonic structures. The backside configured plasmonic structure can provide much higher device performance enhancement. Furthermore, the excitation of the surface plasmonic waves by the top- and backside- configured plasmonic structures was analyzed. Detailed simulation results of the electric field at different wavelength from top illumination and backside illumination were provided. The stronger electric field from the backside illumination attributed to the higher enhancement.

  14. Topological spectrum of classical configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Nettel, Francisco; Quevedo, Hernando

    2007-11-14

    For any classical field configuration or mechanical system with a finite number of degrees of freedom we introduce the concept of topological spectrum. It is based upon the assumption that for any classical configuration there exists a principle fiber bundle that contains all the physical and geometric information of the configuration. The topological spectrum follows from the investigation of the corresponding topological invariants. Examples are given which illustrate the procedure and the significance of the topological spectrum as a discretization relationship among the parameters that determine the physical meaning of classical configurations.

  15. Residence time determination for adsorbent beds of different configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Otermat, J.E.; Wikoff, W.O.; Kovach, J.L.

    1995-02-01

    The residence time calculations of ASME AG-1 Code, Section FC, currently specify a screen surface area method, that is technically incorrect. Test data has been obtained on Type II adsorber trays of different configurations to establish residence time in the adsorber trays. These data indicate that the air volume/carbon volume ratio or the average screen area are more appropriate for the calculation of the residence time calculation than the currently used, smallest screen area basis.

  16. Space Station reference configuration update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonner, Tom F., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The reference configuration of the NASA Space Station as of November 1985 is presented in a series of diagrams, drawings, graphs, and tables. The configurations for components to be contributed by ESA, Canada, and Japan are included. Brief captions are provided, along with answers to questions raised at the conference.

  17. CMS Configuration Editor: GUI based application for user analysis job

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Cosa, A.

    2011-12-01

    We present the user interface and the software architecture of the Configuration Editor for the CMS experiment. The analysis workflow is organized in a modular way integrated within the CMS framework that organizes in a flexible way user analysis code. The Python scripting language is adopted to define the job configuration that drives the analysis workflow. It could be a challenging task for users, especially for newcomers, to develop analysis jobs managing the configuration of many required modules. For this reason a graphical tool has been conceived in order to edit and inspect configuration files. A set of common analysis tools defined in the CMS Physics Analysis Toolkit (PAT) can be steered and configured using the Config Editor. A user-defined analysis workflow can be produced starting from a standard configuration file, applying and configuring PAT tools according to the specific user requirements. CMS users can adopt this tool, the Config Editor, to create their analysis visualizing in real time which are the effects of their actions. They can visualize the structure of their configuration, look at the modules included in the workflow, inspect the dependences existing among the modules and check the data flow. They can visualize at which values parameters are set and change them according to what is required by their analysis task. The integration of common tools in the GUI needed to adopt an object-oriented structure in the Python definition of the PAT tools and the definition of a layer of abstraction from which all PAT tools inherit.

  18. Parametric analysis of ATT configurations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a Lockheed parametric analysis of the performance, environmental factors, and economics of an advanced commercial transport envisioned for operation in the post-1985 time period. The design parameters investigated include cruise speeds from Mach 0.85 to Mach 1.0, passenger capacities from 200 to 500, ranges of 2800 to 5500 nautical miles, and noise level criteria. NASA high performance configurations and alternate configurations are operated over domestic and international route structures. Indirect and direct costs and return on investment are determined for approximately 40 candidate aircraft configurations. The candidate configurations are input to an aircraft sizing and performance program which includes a subroutine for noise criteria. Comparisons are made between preferred configurations on the basis of maximum return on investment as a function of payload, range, and design cruise speed.

  19. Radiant-interchange Configuration Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, D C :; Morgan, W R

    1952-01-01

    A study is presented of the geometric configuration factors required for computing radiant heat transfer between opaque surfaces separated by a nonabsorbing medium and various methods of determining the configuration factors are discussed. Configuration-factor solutions available in the literature have been checked and the more complicated equations are presented as families of curves. Cases for point, line, and finite-area sources are worked out over a wide range of geometric proportions. These cases include several new configurations involving rectangles, triangles, and cylinders of finite length which are integrated and tabulated. An analysis is presented, in which configuration factors are employed of the radiant heat transfer to the rotor blades of a typical gas turbine under different conditions of temperature and pressure. (author)

  20. Thin film solar cell configuration and fabrication method

    DOEpatents

    Menezes, Shalini

    2009-07-14

    A new photovoltaic device configuration based on an n-copper indium selenide absorber and a p-type window is disclosed. A fabrication method to produce this device on flexible or rigid substrates is described that reduces the number of cell components, avoids hazardous materials, simplifies the process steps and hence the costs for high volume solar cell manufacturing.

  1. Configurable Multi-Purpose Processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valencia, J. Emilio; Forney, Chirstopher; Morrison, Robert; Birr, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Advancements in technology have allowed the miniaturization of systems used in aerospace vehicles. This technology is driven by the need for next-generation systems that provide reliable, responsive, and cost-effective range operations while providing increased capabilities such as simultaneous mission support, increased launch trajectories, improved launch, and landing opportunities, etc. Leveraging the newest technologies, the command and telemetry processor (CTP) concept provides for a compact, flexible, and integrated solution for flight command and telemetry systems and range systems. The CTP is a relatively small circuit board that serves as a processing platform for high dynamic, high vibration environments. The CTP can be reconfigured and reprogrammed, allowing it to be adapted for many different applications. The design is centered around a configurable field-programmable gate array (FPGA) device that contains numerous logic cells that can be used to implement traditional integrated circuits. The FPGA contains two PowerPC processors running the Vx-Works real-time operating system and are used to execute software programs specific to each application. The CTP was designed and developed specifically to provide telemetry functions; namely, the command processing, telemetry processing, and GPS metric tracking of a flight vehicle. However, it can be used as a general-purpose processor board to perform numerous functions implemented in either hardware or software using the FPGA s processors and/or logic cells. Functionally, the CTP was designed for range safety applications where it would ultimately become part of a vehicle s flight termination system. Consequently, the major functions of the CTP are to perform the forward link command processing, GPS metric tracking, return link telemetry data processing, error detection and correction, data encryption/ decryption, and initiate flight termination action commands. Also, the CTP had to be designed to survive and

  2. Viscous Design of TCA Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krist, Steven E.; Bauer, Steven X. S.; Campbell, Richard L.

    1999-01-01

    The goal in this effort is to redesign the baseline TCA configuration for improved performance at both supersonic and transonic cruise. Viscous analyses are conducted with OVERFLOW, a Navier-Stokes code for overset grids, using PEGSUS to compute the interpolations between overset grids. Viscous designs are conducted with OVERDISC, a script which couples OVERFLOW with the Constrained Direct Iterative Surface Curvature (CDISC) inverse design method. The successful execution of any computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based aerodynamic design method for complex configurations requires an efficient method for regenerating the computational grids to account for modifications to the configuration shape. The first section of this presentation deals with the automated regridding procedure used to generate overset grids for the fuselage/wing/diverter/nacelle configurations analysed in this effort. The second section outlines the procedures utilized to conduct OVERDISC inverse designs. The third section briefly covers the work conducted by Dick Campbell, in which a dual-point design at Mach 2.4 and 0.9 was attempted using OVERDISC; the initial configuration from which this design effort was started is an early version of the optimized shape for the TCA configuration developed by the Boeing Commercial Airplane Group (BCAG), which eventually evolved into the NCV design. The final section presents results from application of the Natural Flow Wing design philosophy to the TCA configuration.

  3. Device configuration-management system

    SciTech Connect

    Nowell, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    The Fusion Chamber System, a major component of the Magnetic Fusion Test Facility, contains several hundred devices which report status to the Supervisory Control and Diagnostic System for control and monitoring purposes. To manage the large number of diversity of devices represented, a device configuration management system was required and developed. Key components of this software tool include the MFTF Data Base; a configuration editor; and a tree structure defining the relationships between the subsystem devices. This paper will describe how the configuration system easily accomodates recognizing new devices, restructuring existing devices, and modifying device profile information.

  4. Real Forestry for Real Estate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon, Jennifer; Fisher, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Virginia is poised to see an unprecedented change in forest land ownership. To provide new landowners with information on sustainable forest management, we developed a two-part program, Real Forestry for Real Estate. First, we assembled New Landowner Packets, which contain a variety of sustainable forest management resources. Second, two…

  5. SAMI Automated Plug Plate Configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorente, N. P. F.; Farrell, T.; Goodwin, M.

    2013-10-01

    The Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) is a prototype wide-field system at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) which uses a plug-plate to mount its 13×61-core imaging fibre bundles (hexabundles) in the optical path at the telescope's prime focus. In this paper we describe the process of determining the positions of the plug-plate holes, where plates contain three or more stacked observation configurations. The process, which up until now has involved several separate processes and has required significant manual configuration and checking, is now being automated to increase efficiency and reduce error. This is carried out by means of a thin Java controller layer which drives the configuration cycle. This layer controls the user interface and the C++ algorithm layer where the plate configuration and optimisation is carried out. Additionally, through the Aladin display package, it provides visualisation and facilitates user verification of the resulting plates.

  6. Flow field analysis for a class of waverider configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moitra, Anutosh

    1990-01-01

    A package of computer codes for analysis of flow fields for waverider configurations is described. The package consists of a surface/volume grid generator and a finite-volume flow solver. The grid generator defines body geometries and computational grids by an algebraic homotopy procedure. The algebraic procedure is versatile in its application and can readily generate configurations in the class of blended wing-body geometries. This code has the ability to produce a wide variety of geometries in the given class with varying geometrical attributes. The flow solver employs a finite-volume formation and solves the explicit, Runge-Kutta integration technique. The method or flow simulation incorporates several techniques for acceleration of the convergence of the interaction process and an entropy corrected enthalpy damping procedure for efficient computation of high Mach number flows.

  7. Multiple cell configuration electromagnetic vibration energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, Anthony; Bressers, Scott; Priya, Shashank

    2011-07-01

    This paper reports the design of an electromagnetic vibration energy harvester that doubles the magnitude of output power generated by the prior four-bar magnet configuration. This enhancement was achieved with minor increase in volume by 23% and mass by 30%. The new 'double cell' design utilizes an additional pair of magnets to create a secondary air gap, or cell, for a second coil to vibrate within. To further reduce the dimensions of the device, two coils were attached to one common cantilever beam. These unique features lead to improvements of 66% in output power per unit volume (power density) and 27% increase in output power per unit volume and mass (specific power density), from 0.1 to 0.17 mW cm-3 and 0.41 to 0.51 mW cm-3 kg-1 respectively. Using the ANSYS multiphysics analysis, it was determined that for the double cell harvester, adding one additional pair of magnets created a small magnetic gradient between air gaps of 0.001 T which is insignificant in terms of electromagnetic damping. An analytical model was developed to optimize the magnitude of transformation factor and magnetic field gradient within the gap.

  8. Context based configuration management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gawdiak, Yuri O. (Inventor); Gurram, Mohana M. (Inventor); Maluf, David A. (Inventor); Mederos, Luis A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A computer-based system for configuring and displaying information on changes in, and present status of, a collection of events associated with a project. Classes of icons for decision events, configurations and feedback mechanisms, and time lines (sequential and/or simultaneous) for related events are displayed. Metadata for each icon in each class is displayed by choosing and activating the corresponding icon. Access control (viewing, reading, writing, editing, deleting, etc.) is optionally imposed for metadata and other displayed information.

  9. Space Station reference configuration description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The data generated by the Space Station Program Skunk Works over a period of 4 months which supports the definition of a Space Station reference configuration is documented. The data were generated to meet these objectives: (1) provide a focal point for the definition and assessment of program requirements; (2) establish a basis for estimating program cost; and (3) define a reference configuration in sufficient detail to allow its inclusion in the definition phase Request for Proposal (RFP).

  10. Electrical Capacitance Volume Tomography: Design and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Marashdeh, Qussai; Fan, Liang-Shih; Warsito, Warsito

    2010-01-01

    This article reports recent advances and progress in the field of electrical capacitance volume tomography (ECVT). ECVT, developed from the two-dimensional electrical capacitance tomography (ECT), is a promising non-intrusive imaging technology that can provide real-time three-dimensional images of the sensing domain. Images are reconstructed from capacitance measurements acquired by electrodes placed on the outside boundary of the testing vessel. In this article, a review of progress on capacitance sensor design and applications to multi-phase flows is presented. The sensor shape, electrode configuration, and the number of electrodes that comprise three key elements of three-dimensional capacitance sensors are illustrated. The article also highlights applications of ECVT sensors on vessels of various sizes from 1 to 60 inches with complex geometries. Case studies are used to show the capability and validity of ECVT. The studies provide qualitative and quantitative real-time three-dimensional information of the measuring domain under study. Advantages of ECVT render it a favorable tool to be utilized for industrial applications and fundamental multi-phase flow research. PMID:22294905

  11. A PC program to optimize system configuration for desired reliability at minimum cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hills, Steven W.; Siahpush, Ali S.

    1994-01-01

    High reliability is desired in all engineered systems. One way to improve system reliability is to use redundant components. When redundant components are used, the problem becomes one of allocating them to achieve the best reliability without exceeding other design constraints such as cost, weight, or volume. Systems with few components can be optimized by simply examining every possible combination but the number of combinations for most systems is prohibitive. A computerized iteration of the process is possible but anything short of a super computer requires too much time to be practical. Many researchers have derived mathematical formulations for calculating the optimum configuration directly. However, most of the derivations are based on continuous functions whereas the real system is composed of discrete entities. Therefore, these techniques are approximations of the true optimum solution. This paper describes a computer program that will determine the optimum configuration of a system of multiple redundancy of both standard and optional components. The algorithm is a pair-wise comparative progression technique which can derive the true optimum by calculating only a small fraction of the total number of combinations. A designer can quickly analyze a system with this program on a personal computer.

  12. Sensitivity Analysis and Optimization of Aerodynamic Configurations with Blend Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, A. M.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1997-01-01

    A novel (geometrical) parametrization procedure using solutions to a suitably chosen fourth order partial differential equation is used to define a class of airplane configurations. Inclusive in this definition are surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, vertical tail and horizontal tail. The design variables are incorporated into the boundary conditions, and the solution is expressed as a Fourier series. The fuselage has circular cross section, and the radius is an algebraic function of four design parameters and an independent computational variable. Volume grids are obtained through an application of the Control Point Form method. A graphic interface software is developed which dynamically changes the surface of the airplane configuration with the change in input design variable. The software is made user friendly and is targeted towards the initial conceptual development of any aerodynamic configurations. Grid sensitivity with respect to surface design parameters and aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients based on potential flow is obtained using an Automatic Differentiation precompiler software tool ADIFOR. Aerodynamic shape optimization of the complete aircraft with twenty four design variables is performed. Unstructured and structured volume grids and Euler solutions are obtained with standard software to demonstrate the feasibility of the new surface definition.

  13. Comparison of stereoscopic technologies in various configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fliegel, Karel; Vítek, Stanislav; Jindra, Tomáš; Páta, Petr; Klíma, Miloš

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold. In the first part of the paper we present results of subjective quality assessment based comparison of stereoscopic technologies in various configurations. Subjective assessment has been done on a limited set of observers while using a database of stereoscopic test videos of various source types. There is also comparison of results obtained with the same stereoscopic content from the two cooperating test laboratories. The results can be used to address different aspects of viewing experience, especially comparing passive and active stereoscopic display technologies. The second part of the paper is focused on preliminary experimental results analyzing the vergence-accommodation conflict present in current stereoscopic systems. Simultaneous measurement of the vergence and accommodation has been done with observers viewing a real scene and its stereoscopic reproduction.

  14. Neuroplasmonics: From Kretschmann configuration to plasmonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohrabi, Foozieh; Hamidi, Seyedeh Mehri

    2016-07-01

    Recently, a worldwide attempt for understanding the functions of brain and nervous system has been made. Hence, various aspects of neuroscience have been investigated through different techniques. Among these techniques, neuroplasmonics as a newborn branch of this science tries to seize the realm of in vitro and in vivo neural imaging, recording and healing. Neuroplasmonics offers advantages comprising rapidity, high sensitivity, biological compatibility, label-free and real-time detection by benefiting from the sensing and thermal characteristics of surface plasmon resonances (SPRs). This paper reviews four main branches of neuroplasmonics comprising prism coupler configurations, the combination of SPR and fluorescence microscopy and methods based on nanorods and plasmonic crystals. For each division, the advantages, disadvantages and the provided facilities will be discussed in detail.

  15. The configuration of the Brazilian scientific field.

    PubMed

    Barata, Rita B; Aragão, Erika; de Sousa, Luis E P Fernandes; Santana, Taris M; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2014-03-01

    This article describes the configuration of the scientific field in Brazil, characterizing the scientific communities in every major area of knowledge in terms of installed capacity, ability to train new researchers, and capacity for academic production. Empirical data from several sources of information are used to characterize the different communities. Articulating the theoretical contributions of Pierre Bourdieu, Ludwik Fleck, and Thomas Kuhn, the following types of capital are analyzed for each community: social capital (scientific prestige), symbolic capital (dominant paradigm), political capital (leadership in S & T policy), and economic capital (resources). Scientific prestige is analyzed by taking into account the volume of production, activity index, citations, and other indicators. To characterize symbolic capital, the dominant paradigms that distinguish the natural sciences, the humanities, applied sciences, and technology development are analyzed theoretically. Political capital is measured by presidency in one of the main agencies in the S & T national system, and research resources and fellowships define the economic capital. The article discusses the composition of these different types of capital and their correspondence to structural capacities in various communities with the aim of describing the configuration of the Brazilian scientific field. PMID:24676181

  16. The configuration of the Brazilian scientific field.

    PubMed

    Barata, Rita B; Aragão, Erika; de Sousa, Luis E P Fernandes; Santana, Taris M; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2014-03-01

    This article describes the configuration of the scientific field in Brazil, characterizing the scientific communities in every major area of knowledge in terms of installed capacity, ability to train new researchers, and capacity for academic production. Empirical data from several sources of information are used to characterize the different communities. Articulating the theoretical contributions of Pierre Bourdieu, Ludwik Fleck, and Thomas Kuhn, the following types of capital are analyzed for each community: social capital (scientific prestige), symbolic capital (dominant paradigm), political capital (leadership in S & T policy), and economic capital (resources). Scientific prestige is analyzed by taking into account the volume of production, activity index, citations, and other indicators. To characterize symbolic capital, the dominant paradigms that distinguish the natural sciences, the humanities, applied sciences, and technology development are analyzed theoretically. Political capital is measured by presidency in one of the main agencies in the S & T national system, and research resources and fellowships define the economic capital. The article discusses the composition of these different types of capital and their correspondence to structural capacities in various communities with the aim of describing the configuration of the Brazilian scientific field.

  17. Configurable silicon photonic crystal waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prorok, Stefan; Petrov, Alexander; Eich, Manfred; Luo, Jingdong; Jen, Alex K.-Y.

    2013-12-01

    In this Letter, we demonstrate that the mode cut off of a photonic crystal waveguide can be trimmed with high accuracy by electron beam bleaching of a chromophore doped polymer cladding. Using this method, configurable waveguides are realized, which allow for spatially resolved changes of the photonic crystal's effective lattice constant as small as 7.6 pm. We show three different examples how to take advantage of configurable photonic crystal waveguides: Shifting of the complete transmission spectrum, definition of cavities with high quality factor, and tuning of existing cavities.

  18. Configuration of the Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, T. W.; Dessler, A. J.; Michel, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    A model is presented in which the Jovian magnetosphere is severely inflated by the centrifugal stress of partially corotating plasma streaming out along field lines from the ionosphere. The model is consistent with observations reported from the Pioneer 10 encounter, including the disk-like field configuration, the diurnal modulation of trapped-particle fluxes, and the inferred departure from rigid corotation in the outer magnetosphere. The field configuration is closed on the dayside, but on the nightside the plasma can force the magnetic field open to form a planetary wind flowing in the antisolar direction.

  19. Configurable silicon photonic crystal waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Prorok, Stefan; Petrov, Alexander; Eich, Manfred; Luo, Jingdong; Jen, Alex K.-Y.

    2013-12-23

    In this Letter, we demonstrate that the mode cut off of a photonic crystal waveguide can be trimmed with high accuracy by electron beam bleaching of a chromophore doped polymer cladding. Using this method, configurable waveguides are realized, which allow for spatially resolved changes of the photonic crystal's effective lattice constant as small as 7.6 pm. We show three different examples how to take advantage of configurable photonic crystal waveguides: Shifting of the complete transmission spectrum, definition of cavities with high quality factor, and tuning of existing cavities.

  20. Airloads investigation of an 0.030-scale model of the space shuttle vehicle 140A/B launch configuration (model 47-OTS) in the arc 11-foot unitary plan wind tunnel for Mach range 0.6 to 1.4 (IA14A), Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillins, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    Results of tests conducted on an 0.030-scale launch configuration model of the space shuttle vehicle 140A/B in the NASA/ARC 11-foot unitary plan wind tunnel are presented. Aerodynamic loads data were obtained at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 1.4. Surface pressure distributions were obtained simultaneously with six-component stability and control force data on the complete launch configuration. The configuration consisted of the orbiter, an external tank, two solid rocket boosters, and associated intercomponent attach hardware. Angles of attack and sideslip from -10 degrees to +10 degrees were investigated.

  1. Real Heroes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denenberg, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    Presents stories taken from the book, "50 American Heroes Every Kid Should Meet," explaining that children need to learn about the value of real-life human accomplishments (versus those of athletes, television personalities, and rock stars). The heroes include Elizabeth Blackwell, first American woman doctor; George C. Marshall, architect of…

  2. Configuration Effects on Liner Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhold, Carl H.; Brown, Martha C.; Jones, Michael G.; Howerton, Brian M.

    2012-01-01

    The acoustic performance of a duct liner depends not only on the intrinsic properties of the liner but also on the configuration of the duct in which it is used. A series of experiments is performed in the NASA Langley Research Center Curved Duct Test Rig (at Mach 0.275) to evaluate the effect of duct configuration on the acoustic performance of single degree of freedom perforate-over-honeycomb liners. The liners form the sidewalls of the duct's test section. Variations of duct configuration include: asymmetric (liner on one side and hard wall opposite) and symmetric (liner on both sides) wall treatment; inlet and exhaust orientation, in which the sound propagates either against or with the flow; and straight and curved flow path. The effect that duct configuration has on the overall acoustic performance, particularly the shift in frequency and magnitude of peak attenuation, is quantified. The redistribution of incident mode content is shown. The liners constitute the side walls of the liner test section and the scatter of incident horizontal order 1 mode by the asymmetric treatment and order 2 mode by the symmetric treatment into order 0 mode is shown. Scatter of order 0 incident modes into higher order modes is also shown. This redistribution of mode content is significant because it indicates that the liner design can be manipulated such that energy is scattered into more highly attenuated modes, thus enhancing liner performance.

  3. Antenna configurations provide polarization diversity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumacher, C. N.

    1966-01-01

    Compact back-to-back trapezoidal tooth log-periodic /TTLP/ antenna with frequency-independent characteristics is formed by reducing the angle between the two elements of a basic TTLP to zero. The back-to-back antenna, arranged in various configurations, provides monopulse operations in one or two planes and in various polarizations.

  4. Configural Processing and Face Viewpoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKone, Elinor

    2008-01-01

    Configural/holistic processing, a key property of face recognition, has previously been examined only for front views of faces. Here, 6 experiments tested front (0 degree), three-quarter (45 degree), and profile views (90 degree), using composite and peripheral inversion tasks. Results showed an overall disadvantage in identifying profiles. This…

  5. A Communication Configuration of AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughey, Jim D.

    A study focused on the way that image, knowledge, behavioral intent, and communicative responsiveness are configured for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The classic model of the adoption process expects that knowledge about a subject will lead to a favorable evaluation of it, which in turn will lead to a decision to act. But the…

  6. NCCDS configuration management process improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shay, Kathy

    1993-01-01

    By concentrating on defining and improving specific Configuration Management (CM) functions, processes, procedures, personnel selection/development, and tools, internal and external customers received improved CM services. Job performance within the section increased in both satisfaction and output. Participation in achieving major improvements has led to the delivery of consistent quality CM products as well as significant decreases in every measured CM metrics category.

  7. Inversion and Configuration of Faces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, James C.; Searcy, Jean

    1993-01-01

    The Thatcher illusion, in which the inverted mouth and eyes of a face appear grotesque when upright, but not when the whole configuration is inverted, was studied in 3 experiments involving 89 undergraduates. Results suggest that the illusion represents a disruption of encoding of holistic information when faces are inverted. (SLD)

  8. Configuration Aerodynamics: Past - Present - Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Agrawal, Shreekant; Bencze, Daniel P.; Kulfan, Robert M.; Wilson, Douglas L.

    1999-01-01

    The Configuration Aerodynamics (CA) element of the High Speed Research (HSR) program is managed by a joint NASA and Industry team, referred to as the Technology Integration Development (ITD) team. This team is responsible for the development of a broad range of technologies for improved aerodynamic performance and stability and control characteristics at subsonic to supersonic flight conditions. These objectives are pursued through the aggressive use of advanced experimental test techniques and state of the art computational methods. As the HSR program matures and transitions into the next phase the objectives of the Configuration Aerodynamics ITD are being refined to address the drag reduction needs and stability and control requirements of High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) aircraft. In addition, the experimental and computational tools are being refined and improved to meet these challenges. The presentation will review the work performed within the Configuration Aerodynamics element in 1994 and 1995 and then discuss the plans for the 1996-1998 time period. The final portion of the presentation will review several observations of the HSR program and the design activity within Configuration Aerodynamics.

  9. A Novel Optimal Configuration form Redundant MEMS Inertial Sensors Based on the Orthogonal Rotation Method

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jianhua; Dong, Jinlu; Landry, Rene Jr.; Chen, Daidai

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the accuracy and reliability of micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS) navigation systems, an orthogonal rotation method-based nine-gyro redundant MEMS configuration is presented. By analyzing the accuracy and reliability characteristics of an inertial navigation system (INS), criteria for redundant configuration design are introduced. Then the orthogonal rotation configuration is formed through a two-rotation of a set of orthogonal inertial sensors around a space vector. A feasible installation method is given for the real engineering realization of this proposed configuration. The performances of the novel configuration and another six configurations are comprehensively compared and analyzed. Simulation and experimentation are also conducted, and the results show that the orthogonal rotation configuration has the best reliability, accuracy and fault detection and isolation (FDI) performance when the number of gyros is nine. PMID:25076218

  10. Automated dimensional inspection with real-time photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, Horst A.

    Real-time photogrammetry, in the sense of on-line digital close-range photogrammetry, has reached a high level of performance. It has evolved from a research topic to a viable technology for a large number of applications. In order to gain acceptance by industrial users the performance must be proven under real-world conditions. This paper reports on a pilot study for the deformation analysis of car bodies in crash tests, successfully performed in cooperation with a car manufacturer. The performance of a prototype of a real-time photogrammetric system (RTPS) was verified under factory floor conditions. An accuracy of better than 1 mm in each coordinate axis was attained within a 5 × 2 × 2 m 3 measurement volume with off-the-shelf CCTV-type solid-state cameras. The measurement task and the requirements of the pilot study are outlined. The measurement configuration, the hardware, and the software used in the test are addressed. The measurement procedure, the pre-calibration of the CCD-cameras, the accuracy, the measurement speed, and the problems encountered in the study are discussed.

  11. Generation of the relationship between glacier area and volume for a tropical glacier in Bolivian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T.; Kinouchi, T.; Hasegawa, A.; Tsuda, M.; Iwami, Y.; Asaoka, Y.; Mendoza, J.

    2015-12-01

    In Andes, retreat of tropical glaciers is rapid, thus water resources currently available from glacierized catchments would be changed in its volume and temporal variations due to climate change and glacier shrinkage. The relationship between glacier area and volume is difficult to define however which is important to monitor glaciers especially those are remote or inaccessible. Water resources in La Paz and El Alto in Bolivia, strongly depend on the runoff from glacierized headwater catchments in the Cordillera Real, Andes, which is therefore selected as our study region.To predict annual glacier mass balances, PWRI-Distributed Hydrological Model (PWRI-DHM) was applied to simulate runoff from the partially glacierized catchments in high mountains (i.e. Condoriri-Huayna West headwater catchment located in the Cordillera Real, Bolivian Andes). PWRI-DHM is based on tank model concept in a distributed and 4-tank configuration including surface, unsaturated, aquifer, and river course tanks. The model was calibrated and validated with observed meteorological and hydrological data from 2011 to 2014 by considering different phases of precipitation, various runoff components from glacierized and non-glacierized areas, and the retarding effect by glacial lakes and wetlands. The model is then applied with MRI-AGCM outputs from 1987 to 2003 considering the shrinkage of glacier outlines since 1980s derived from Landsat data. Annual glacier mass balance in each 100m-grid was reproduced, with which the glacier area-volume relationship was generated with reasonable initial volume setting. Out study established a method to define the relationship between glacier area and volume by remote sensing information and glacier mass balances simulated by distributed hydrological model. Our results demonstrated that the changing trend of local glacier had a consistency the previous observed glacier area-volume relationship in the Cordillera Real.

  12. Virtual display design using waveguide hologram in conical mounting configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhanjun; Li, Wenqiang; Zhou, Yongjun; Kang, Mingwu; Zheng, Zhenrong

    2011-09-01

    An improved virtual display is proposed by using a waveguide holographic configuration with two total internal reflection holographic gratings in conical mounting and two volume hologram in classical mounting recorded on a single transparent planar waveguide. Using this compact configuration, efficiency can be dramatically improved and assembly is easy to be realized. The main principle and the method of intensity uniformity control are present in the paper. The analysis and simulation results are also explained. The virtual display system design shows good optical performance with 25 deg. field of view, a large pupil about 43 mm, little distortion less than 1%, and low aberration. The configuration can be used to a portable or wearable display.

  13. Generalized Ellipsometry in Unusual Configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle; Holcomb, David Eugene; Hunn, John D; Rouleau, Christopher M; Wright, Gomez W

    2006-01-01

    Most ellipsometry experiments are performed by shining polarized light onto a sample at a large angle of incidence, and the results are interpreted in terms of thin film thicknesses and isotropic optical functions of the film or substrate. However, it is possible to alter the geometrical arrangement, either by observing the sample in transmission or at normal-incidence reflection. In both cases, the experiment is fundamentally the same, but the interpretation of the results is considerably different. Both configurations can be used in conjunction with microscope optics, allowing for images to be made of the sample. The results of three examples of these different configurations using the two-modulator generalized ellipsometer (2-MGE) are reported: (1) spectroscopic birefringence measurements of ZnO, (2) electric field-induced birefringence (Pockels effect) in GaAs, and (3) normal-incidence reflection anisotropy of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG).

  14. Solar disk sextant optical configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, H.-Y.; Maier, E.; Schatten, K. H.; Sofia, S.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper the performance of a plausible configuration for the solar disk sextant, an instrument to be used to monitor the solar diameter, is evaluated. Overall system requirements are evaluated, and tolerable uncertainties are obtained. It is concluded that by using a beam splitting wedge, a folded optics design can be used to measure the solar diameter to an accuracy of 10 to the -6th, despite the greater aberrations present in such optical systems.

  15. Throughput Benefit Assessment for Tactical Runway Configuration Management (TRCM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phojanamongkolkij, Nipa; Oseguera-Lohr, Rosa M.; Lohr, Gary W.; Fenbert, James W.

    2014-01-01

    The System-Oriented Runway Management (SORM) concept is a collection of needed capabilities focused on a more efficient use of runways while considering all of the factors that affect runway use. Tactical Runway Configuration Management (TRCM), one of the SORM capabilities, provides runway configuration and runway usage recommendations, monitoring the active runway configuration for suitability given existing factors, based on a 90 minute planning horizon. This study evaluates the throughput benefits using a representative sample of today's traffic volumes at three airports: Memphis International Airport (MEM), Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport (DFW), and John F. Kennedy International Airport (JFK). Based on this initial assessment, there are statistical throughput benefits for both arrivals and departures at MEM with an average of 4% for arrivals, and 6% for departures. For DFW, there is a statistical benefit for arrivals with an average of 3%. Although there is an average of 1% benefit observed for departures, it is not statistically significant. For JFK, there is a 12% benefit for arrivals, but a 2% penalty for departures. The results obtained are for current traffic volumes and should show greater benefit for increased future demand. This paper also proposes some potential TRCM algorithm improvements for future research. A continued research plan is being worked to implement these improvements and to re-assess the throughput benefit for today and future projected traffic volumes.

  16. The 2010 Brown Center Report on American Education: How Well Are American Students Learning? With Sections on International Tests, Who's Winning the Real Race to the Top, and NAEP and the Common Core State Standards. Volume II, Number 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveless, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This edition of the Brown Center Report marks the tenth issue of the series and the final issue of Volume II. The publication began in 2000 with Bill Clinton in the White House and the Bush-Gore presidential campaign building toward its dramatic conclusion. That first report was organized in a three-part structure that all subsequent Brown Center…

  17. RINGED ACCRETION DISKS: EQUILIBRIUM CONFIGURATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Pugliese, D.; Stuchlík, Z. E-mail: zdenek.stuchlik@physics.cz

    2015-12-15

    We investigate a model of a ringed accretion disk, made up by several rings rotating around a supermassive Kerr black hole attractor. Each toroid of the ringed disk is governed by the general relativity hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. Properties of the tori can then be determined by an appropriately defined effective potential reflecting the background Kerr geometry and the centrifugal effects. The ringed disks could be created in various regimes during the evolution of matter configurations around supermassive black holes. Therefore, both corotating and counterrotating rings have to be considered as being a constituent of the ringed disk. We provide constraints on the model parameters for the existence and stability of various ringed configurations and discuss occurrence of accretion onto the Kerr black hole and possible launching of jets from the ringed disk. We demonstrate that various ringed disks can be characterized by a maximum number of rings. We present also a perturbation analysis based on evolution of the oscillating components of the ringed disk. The dynamics of the unstable phases of the ringed disk evolution seems to be promising in relation to high-energy phenomena demonstrated in active galactic nuclei.

  18. Analysis of Advanced Rotorcraft Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2000-01-01

    Advanced rotorcraft configurations are being investigated with the objectives of identifying vehicles that are larger, quieter, and faster than current-generation rotorcraft. A large rotorcraft, carrying perhaps 150 passengers, could do much to alleviate airport capacity limitations, and a quiet rotorcraft is essential for community acceptance of the benefits of VTOL operations. A fast, long-range, long-endurance rotorcraft, notably the tilt-rotor configuration, will improve rotorcraft economics through productivity increases. A major part of the investigation of advanced rotorcraft configurations consists of conducting comprehensive analyses of vehicle behavior for the purpose of assessing vehicle potential and feasibility, as well as to establish the analytical models required to support the vehicle development. The analytical work of FY99 included applications to tilt-rotor aircraft. Tilt Rotor Aeroacoustic Model (TRAM) wind tunnel measurements are being compared with calculations performed by using the comprehensive analysis tool (Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics (CAMRAD 11)). The objective is to establish the wing and wake aerodynamic models that are required for tilt-rotor analysis and design. The TRAM test in the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW) produced extensive measurements. This is the first test to encompass air loads, performance, and structural load measurements on tilt rotors, as well as acoustic and flow visualization data. The correlation of measurements and calculations includes helicopter-mode operation (performance, air loads, and blade structural loads), hover (performance and air loads), and airplane-mode operation (performance).

  19. Transonic empirical configuration design process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitcomb, R. T.

    1983-01-01

    This lecture describes some of the experimental research pertaining to transonic configuration development conducted by the Transonic Aerodynamics Branch of the NASA Langley Research Center. Discussions are presented of the following: use of florescent oil films for the study of surface boundary layer flows; the severe effect of wind tunnel wall interference on the measured configuration drag rise near the speed of sound as determined by a comparison between wind tunnel and free air results; the development of a near sonic transport configuration incorporating a supercritical wing and an indented fuselage, designed on the basis of the area rule with a modification to account for the presence of local supersonic flow above the wing; a device for improving the transonic pitch up of swept wings with very little added drag at the cruise condition; a means for reducing the large transonic aerodynamic interference between the wing, fuselage, nacelle and pylon for a for a fuselage mounted nacelle having the inlet above the wing; and methods for reducing the transonic interference between flows over a winglet and the wing.

  20. Configuration Management Process Assessment Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Thad

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To propose a strategy for assessing the development and effectiveness of configuration management systems within Programs, Projects, and Design Activities performed by technical organizations and their supporting development contractors. Scope: Various entities CM Systems will be assessed dependent on Project Scope (DDT&E), Support Services and Acquisition Agreements. Approach: Model based structured against assessing organizations CM requirements including best practices maturity criteria. The model is tailored to the entity being assessed dependent on their CM system. The assessment approach provides objective feedback to Engineering and Project Management of the observed CM system maturity state versus the ideal state of the configuration management processes and outcomes(system). center dot Identifies strengths and risks versus audit gotcha's (findings/observations). center dot Used "recursively and iteratively" throughout program lifecycle at select points of need. (Typical assessments timing is Post PDR/Post CDR) center dot Ideal state criteria and maturity targets are reviewed with the assessed entity prior to an assessment (Tailoring) and is dependent on the assessed phase of the CM system. center dot Supports exit success criteria for Preliminary and Critical Design Reviews. center dot Gives a comprehensive CM system assessment which ultimately supports configuration verification activities.*

  1. Real-Time Reed-Solomon Decoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maki, Gary K.; Cameron, Kelly B.; Owsley, Patrick A.

    1994-01-01

    Generic Reed-Solomon decoder fast enough to correct errors in real time in practical applications designed to be implemented in fewer and smaller very-large-scale integrated, VLSI, circuit chips. Configured to operate in pipelined manner. One outstanding aspect of decoder design is that Euclid multiplier and divider modules contain Galoisfield multipliers configured as combinational-logic cells. Operates at speeds greater than older multipliers. Cellular configuration highly regular and requires little interconnection area, making it ideal for implementation in extraordinarily dense VLSI circuitry. Flight electronics single chip version of this technology implemented and available.

  2. Nonequilibrium dynamics of emergent field configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Rafael Cassidy

    The processes by which nonlinear physical systems approach thermal equilibrium is of great importance in many areas of science. Central to this is the mechanism by which energy is transferred between the many degrees of freedom comprising these systems. With this in mind, in this research the nonequilibrium dynamics of nonperturbative fluctuations within Ginzburg-Landau models are investigated. In particular, two questions are addressed. In both cases the system is initially prepared in one of two minima of a double-well potential. First, within the context of a (2 + 1) dimensional field theory, we investigate whether emergent spatio-temporal coherent structures play a dynamcal role in the equilibration of the field. We find that the answer is sensitive to the initial temperature of the system. At low initial temperatures, the dynamics are well approximated with a time-dependent mean-field theory. For higher temperatures, the strong nonlinear coupling between the modes in the field does give rise to the synchronized emergence of coherent spatio-temporal configurations, identified with oscillons. These are long-lived coherent field configurations characterized by their persistent oscillatory behavior at their core. This initial global emergence is seen to be a consequence of resonant behavior in the long wavelength modes in the system. A second question concerns the emergence of disorder in a highly viscous system modeled by a (3 + 1) dimensional field theory. An integro-differential Boltzmann equation is derived to model the thermal nucleation of precursors of one phase within the homogeneous background. The fraction of the volume populated by these precursors is computed as a function of temperature. This model is capable of describing the onset of percolation, characterizing the approach to criticality (i.e. disorder). It also provides a nonperturbative correction to the critical temperature based on the nonequilibrium dynamics of the system.

  3. Results of an investigation to determine local flow characteristics at the air data probe locations using an 0.030-scale model (45-0) of the space shuttle vehicle orbiter configuration 140A/B (modified) in the NASA Ames Research Center unitary plan wind tunnel (OA161, A, B, C), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, M. E.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented of wind tunnel test 0A161 of a 0.030-scale model 45-0 of the configuration 140A/B (modified) space shuttle vehicle orbiter in the NASA Ames Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel facilities. The purpose of this test was to determine local total and static pressure environments for the air data probe locations and relative effectiveness of alternate flight-test probe configurations. Testing was done in the Mach number range from 0.30 to 3.5. Angle of attack was varied from -8 to 25 degrees while sideslip varied between -8 and 8 degrees.

  4. A theoretical method to compute sequence dependent configurational properties in charged polymers and proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawle, Lucas; Ghosh, Kingshuk

    2015-08-01

    A general formalism to compute configurational properties of proteins and other heteropolymers with an arbitrary sequence of charges and non-uniform excluded volume interaction is presented. A variational approach is utilized to predict average distance between any two monomers in the chain. The presented analytical model, for the first time, explicitly incorporates the role of sequence charge distribution to determine relative sizes between two sequences that vary not only in total charge composition but also in charge decoration (even when charge composition is fixed). Furthermore, the formalism is general enough to allow variation in excluded volume interactions between two monomers. Model predictions are benchmarked against the all-atom Monte Carlo studies of Das and Pappu [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 110, 13392 (2013)] for 30 different synthetic sequences of polyampholytes. These sequences possess an equal number of glutamic acid (E) and lysine (K) residues but differ in the patterning within the sequence. Without any fit parameter, the model captures the strong sequence dependence of the simulated values of the radius of gyration with a correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.9. The model is then applied to real proteins to compare the unfolded state dimensions of 540 orthologous pairs of thermophilic and mesophilic proteins. The excluded volume parameters are assumed similar under denatured conditions, and only electrostatic effects encoded in the sequence are accounted for. With these assumptions, thermophilic proteins are found—with high statistical significance—to have more compact disordered ensemble compared to their mesophilic counterparts. The method presented here, due to its analytical nature, is capable of making such high throughput analysis of multiple proteins and will have broad applications in proteomic studies as well as in other heteropolymeric systems.

  5. A theoretical method to compute sequence dependent configurational properties in charged polymers and proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Sawle, Lucas; Ghosh, Kingshuk

    2015-08-28

    A general formalism to compute configurational properties of proteins and other heteropolymers with an arbitrary sequence of charges and non-uniform excluded volume interaction is presented. A variational approach is utilized to predict average distance between any two monomers in the chain. The presented analytical model, for the first time, explicitly incorporates the role of sequence charge distribution to determine relative sizes between two sequences that vary not only in total charge composition but also in charge decoration (even when charge composition is fixed). Furthermore, the formalism is general enough to allow variation in excluded volume interactions between two monomers. Model predictions are benchmarked against the all-atom Monte Carlo studies of Das and Pappu [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 110, 13392 (2013)] for 30 different synthetic sequences of polyampholytes. These sequences possess an equal number of glutamic acid (E) and lysine (K) residues but differ in the patterning within the sequence. Without any fit parameter, the model captures the strong sequence dependence of the simulated values of the radius of gyration with a correlation coefficient of R{sup 2} = 0.9. The model is then applied to real proteins to compare the unfolded state dimensions of 540 orthologous pairs of thermophilic and mesophilic proteins. The excluded volume parameters are assumed similar under denatured conditions, and only electrostatic effects encoded in the sequence are accounted for. With these assumptions, thermophilic proteins are found—with high statistical significance—to have more compact disordered ensemble compared to their mesophilic counterparts. The method presented here, due to its analytical nature, is capable of making such high throughput analysis of multiple proteins and will have broad applications in proteomic studies as well as in other heteropolymeric systems.

  6. Processing PCM Data in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wissink, T. L.

    1982-01-01

    Novel hardware configuration makes it possible for Space Shuttle launch processing system to monitor pulse-code-modulated data in real time. Using two microprogramable "option planes," incoming PCM data are monitored for changes at rate of one frame of data (80 16-bit words) every 10 milliseconds. Real-time PCM processor utilizes CPU in mini-computer and CPU's in two option planes.

  7. Measuring the configurational temperature of a binary disc packing.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Song-Chuan; Schröter, Matthias

    2014-06-21

    Jammed packings of granular materials differ from systems normally described by statistical mechanics in that they are athermal. In recent years a statistical mechanics of static granular media has emerged where the thermodynamic temperature is replaced by a configurational temperature X which describes how the number of mechanically stable configurations depends on the volume. Four different methods have been suggested to measure X. Three of them are computed from properties of the Voronoi volume distribution, the fourth takes into account the contact number and the global volume fraction. This paper answers two questions using experimental binary disc packings: first we test if the four methods to measure compactivity provide identical results when applied to the same dataset. We find that only two of the methods agree quantitatively. This implies that at least two of the four methods are wrong. Secondly, we test if X is indeed an intensive variable; this becomes true only for samples larger than roughly 200 particles. This result is shown to be due to recently measured correlations between the particle volumes [Zhao et al., Europhys. Lett., 2012, 97, 34004].

  8. Self-Configuring Network Monitor

    2004-05-01

    Self-Configuring Network Monitor (SCNM) is a passive monitoring that can collect packet headers from any point in a network path. SCNM uses special activation packets to automatically activate monitors deployed at the layer three ingress and egress routers of the wide-area network, and at critical points within the site networks. Monitoring output data is sent back to the application data source or destination host. No modifications are required to the application or network routing infrastructuremore » in order to activate monitoring of traffic for an application. This ensures that the monitoring operation does not add a burden to the networks administrator.« less

  9. Laser photography system: hardware configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piszczek, Marek; Rutyna, Krzysztof; Kowalski, Marcin; Zyczkowski, Marek

    2012-06-01

    Solution presented in this article is a system using image acquisition time gating method. The time-spatial framing method developed by authors was used to build Laser Photography System (LPS). An active vision system for open space monitoring and terrorist threats detection is being built as an effect of recent work lead in the Institute of Optoelectronics, MUT. The device is destined to prevent and recognize possible terrorist threats in important land and marine areas. The aim of this article is to discuss the properties and hardware configuration of the Laser Photography System.

  10. Dimensional regularization in configuration space

    SciTech Connect

    Bollini, C.G. |; Giambiagi, J.J.

    1996-05-01

    Dimensional regularization is introduced in configuration space by Fourier transforming in {nu} dimensions the perturbative momentum space Green functions. For this transformation, the Bochner theorem is used; no extra parameters, such as those of Feynman or Bogoliubov and Shirkov, are needed for convolutions. The regularized causal functions in {ital x} space have {nu}-dependent moderated singularities at the origin. They can be multiplied together and Fourier transformed (Bochner) without divergence problems. The usual ultraviolet divergences appear as poles of the resultant analytic functions of {nu}. Several examples are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  11. Multiple forearm robotic elbow configuration

    DOEpatents

    Fisher, John J.

    1990-01-01

    A dual forearmed robotic elbow configuration comprises a main arm having a double elbow from which two coplanar forearms depend, two actuators carried in the double elbow for moving the forearms, and separate, independent end effectors, operated by a cable carried from the main arm through the elbow, is attached to the distal end of each forearm. Coiling the cables around the actuators prevents bending or kinking when the forearms are rotated 360 degrees. The end effectors can have similar or different capabilities. Actuator cannisters within the dual elbow are modular for rapid replacement or maintenance. Coarse and fine resolver transducers within the actuators provide accurate position referencing information.

  12. Electromagnetic configurations of rail guns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fat'yanov, O. V.; Ostashev, V. E.; Lopyrev, A. N.; Ul'Yanov, A. V.

    1993-06-01

    Some problems associated with the electromagnetic acceleration of macrobodies in a rail gun are examined. An approach to the design of rail gun configurations is proposed, and some basic rail gun schemes are synthesized. The alternative rail gun schemes are compared in terms of electrode potential and stability of the electrode gap with respect to parasitic current shunting. The effect of the ohmic resistance of the electrodes and of the additional magnetization field on the spatial structure of the discharge in the rail gun channel is discussed. A classification of rail gun modifications is presented.

  13. Configurable technology development for reusable control and monitor ground systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uhrlaub, David R.

    1994-01-01

    The control monitor unit (CMU) uses configurable software technology for real-time mission command and control, telemetry processing, simulation, data acquisition, data archiving, and ground operations automation. The base technology is currently planned for the following control and monitor systems: portable Space Station checkout systems; ecological life support systems; Space Station logistics carrier system; and the ground system of the Delta Clipper (SX-2) in the Single-Stage Rocket Technology program. The CMU makes extensive use of commercial technology to increase capability and reduce development and life-cycle costs. The concepts and technology are being developed by McDonnell Douglas Space and Defense Systems for the Real-Time Systems Laboratory at NASA's Kennedy Space Center under the Payload Ground Operations Contract. A second function of the Real-Time Systems Laboratory is development and utilization of advanced software development practices.

  14. Free volume distribution of nearly jammed hard sphere packings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiti, Moumita; Sastry, Srikanth

    2014-07-01

    We calculate the free volume distributions of nearly jammed packings of monodisperse and bidisperse hard sphere configurations. These distributions differ qualitatively from those of the fluid, displaying a power law tail at large free volumes, which constitutes a distinct signature of nearly jammed configurations, persisting for moderate degrees of decompression. We reproduce and explain the observed distribution by considering the pair correlation function within the first coordination shell for jammed hard sphere configurations. We analyze features of the equation of state near jamming, and discuss the significance of observed asphericities of the free volumes to the equation of state.

  15. Quantum volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabov, V. A.

    2015-08-01

    Quantum systems in a mechanical embedding, the breathing mode of a small particles, optomechanical system, etc. are far not the full list of examples in which the volume exhibits quantum behavior. Traditional consideration suggests strain in small systems as a result of a collective movement of particles, rather than the dynamics of the volume as an independent variable. The aim of this work is to show that some problem here might be essentially simplified by introducing periodic boundary conditions. At this case, the volume is considered as the independent dynamical variable driven by the internal pressure. For this purpose, the concept of quantum volume based on Schrödinger’s equation in 𝕋3 manifold is proposed. It is used to explore several 1D model systems: An ensemble of free particles under external pressure, quantum manometer and a quantum breathing mode. In particular, the influence of the pressure of free particle on quantum oscillator is determined. It is shown also that correction to the spectrum of the breathing mode due to internal degrees of freedom is determined by the off-diagonal matrix elements of the quantum stress. The new treatment not using the “force” theorem is proposed for the quantum stress tensor. In the general case of flexible quantum 3D dynamics, quantum deformations of different type might be introduced similarly to monopole mode.

  16. Tank waste remediation system configuration management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Vann, J.M.

    1998-01-08

    The configuration management program for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project Mission supports management of the project baseline by providing the mechanisms to identify, document, and control the functional and physical characteristics of the products. This document is one of the tools used to develop and control the mission and work. It is an integrated approach for control of technical, cost, schedule, and administrative information necessary to manage the configurations for the TWRS Project Mission. Configuration management focuses on five principal activities: configuration management system management, configuration identification, configuration status accounting, change control, and configuration management assessments. TWRS Project personnel must execute work in a controlled fashion. Work must be performed by verbatim use of authorized and released technical information and documentation. Application of configuration management will be consistently applied across all TWRS Project activities and assessed accordingly. The Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) configuration management requirements are prescribed in HNF-MP-013, Configuration Management Plan (FDH 1997a). This TWRS Configuration Management Plan (CMP) implements those requirements and supersedes the Tank Waste Remediation System Configuration Management Program Plan described in Vann, 1996. HNF-SD-WM-CM-014, Tank Waste Remediation System Configuration Management Implementation Plan (Vann, 1997) will be revised to implement the requirements of this plan. This plan provides the responsibilities, actions and tools necessary to implement the requirements as defined in the above referenced documents.

  17. Preliminary design study of lunar housing configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, K. H.

    1992-01-01

    A preliminary design study assesses various configurations for habitation of the lunar surface. The study assumes an initial 4-man habitation module expandable to a 48-man concept. Through the numerous coupling combinations of identical modules, five basic configuration types are identified. A design model presents each configuration in light of certain issues. The issues include circulation, internal and external spatial characteristics, functional organizations, and future growth potential. The study discusses the attributes, potentials, and unique requirements of each configuration.

  18. Results of test 0A82 in the NASA/LRC 31 inch CFHT on an 0.010-scale model (32-0) of the space shuttle configuration 3 to determine RCS jet flow field interaction and to investigate RT real gas effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center 31-inch Continuous Flow Hypersonic Wind Tunnel to determine RCS jet interaction effects on hypersonic aerodynamic characteristics and to investigate RT (gas constant times temperature) scaling effects on the RCS similitude. The model was an 0.010-scale replica of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Configuration 3. Hypersonic aerodynamic data were obtained from tests at Mach 10.3 and dynamic pressures of 200, 150, 125, and 100 psf. The RCS modes of pitch, yaw, and roll at free flight dynamic pressure simulation of 20 psf were investigated.

  19. Aerodynamic results of a separation test (CA20) conducted at the Boeing transonic wind tunnel using 0.030-scale models of the configuration 140A/B (modified) SSV orbiter (model no. 45-0) and the Boeing 747 carrier (model no. AX 1319 I-1), volume 1. [wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dziubala, T.; Esparza, V.; Gillins, R. L.; Petrozzi, M.

    1975-01-01

    A Rockwell built 0.030-scale 45-0 modified Space Shuttle Orbiter Configuration 14?A/B model and a Boeing built 0.030-scale 747 carrier model were tested to provide six component force and moment data for each vehicle in proximity to the other at a matrix of relative positions, attitudes and test conditions (angles of attack and sideslip were varied). Orbiter model support system tare effects were determined for corrections to obtain support-free aerodynamics. In addition to the balance force data, pressures were measured. Pressure orifices were located at the base of the Orbiter, on either side of the vertical blade strut, and at the mid-root chord on either side of the vertical tail. Strain gages were installed on the Boeing 747 vertical tail to indicate buffet onset. Photographs of aerodynamic configurations tested are shown.

  20. Results of an aerodynamic investigation of a space shuttle orbiter/747 carrier flight test configuration to determine separation characteristics utilizing 0.0125-scale models (48-0/AX1318I-1) in the LTV 4 x 4 foot high speed wind tunnel (CA26), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillins, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    Results of tests conducted on a 0.0125-scale model of the Space Shuttle Orbiter and a 0.0125-scale model of the 747 CAM configuration in a 4 x 4-foot High Speed Wind Tunnel were presented. Force and moment data were obtained for each vehicle separately at a Mach number of 0.6 and for each vehicle in proximity to the other at Mach numbers of 0.3, 0.5, 0.6 and 0.7. The proximity effects of each vehicle on the other at separation distances (from the mated configuration) ranging from 1.5 feet to 75 feet were presented; 747 Carrier angles of attack from 0 deg to 6 deg and angles of sideslip of 0 deg and -5 deg were tested. Model variables included orbiter elevon, aileron and body flap deflections, orbiter tailcone on and off, and 747 stabilizer and rudder deflections.

  1. Resolvability and the Tetrahedral Configuration of Carbon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, George B.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses evidence for the tetrahedral configuration of the carbon atom, indicating that three symmetrical configurations are theoretically possible for coordination number four. Includes table indicating that resolvability of compounds of type CR'R"R"'R"" is a necessary but not sufficient condition for proving tetrahedral configuration. (JN)

  2. CFD DPAL modeling for various schemes of flow configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waichman, Karol; Barmashenko, Boris D.; Rosenwaks, Salman

    2014-10-01

    Comprehensive analysis of kinetic and fluid dynamic processes in flowing-gas diode pumped alkali lasers (DPALs) using two- and three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (2D and 3D CFD) models is reported for Cs DPALs. The models take into account effects of temperature rise and losses of alkali atoms due to ionization. Various gas flow regimes and transverse and parallel flow-optics directions configurations are studied. Optimization of the Cs DPAL parameters, using 3D CFD modeling, shows that applying high flow velocity and narrowband pumping, maximum lasing power as high as 40 kW can be obtained at pump power of 80 kW for transverse flow configuration in a pumped volume of ~ 0.7 cm3. At high pump power the calculated laser power is higher for the transverse scheme than for the parallel scheme because of a more efficient heat convection from the beam volume in the transverse configuration. The CFD models are applied to experimental devices and the calculated results are in good agreement with the measurements.

  3. Results of a jet plume effects test on Rockwell International integrated space shuttle vehicle using a vehicle 5 configuration 0.02-scale model (88-OTS) in the 11 by 11 foot leg of the NASA/Ames Research Center unitary plan wind tunnel (IA19), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, M. E.

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented of jet plume effects test IA19 using a vehicle 5 configuration integrated space shuttle vehicle 0.02-scale model in the NASA/Ames Research Center 11 x 11-foot leg of the unitary plan wind tunnel. The jet plume power effects on the integrated vehicle static pressure distribution were determined along with elevon, main propulsion system nozzle, and solid rocket booster nozzle effectiveness and elevon hinge moments.

  4. Soot Volume Fraction Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Paul S.; Ku, Jerry C.

    1994-01-01

    A new technique is described for the full-field determination of soot volume fractions via laser extinction measurements. This technique differs from previously reported point-wise methods in that a two-dimensional array (i.e., image) of data is acquired simultaneously. In this fashion, the net data rate is increased, allowing the study of time-dependent phenomena and the investigation of spatial and temporal correlations. A telecentric imaging configuration is employed to provide depth-invariant magnification and to permit the specification of the collection angle for scattered light. To improve the threshold measurement sensitivity, a method is employed to suppress undesirable coherent imaging effects. A discussion of the tomographic inversion process is provided, including the results obtained from numerical simulation. Results obtained with this method from an ethylene diffusion flame are shown to be in close agreement with those previously obtained by sequential point-wise interrogation.

  5. Pattern of care and effectiveness of treatment for glioblastoma patients in the real world: Results from a prospective population-based registry. Could survival differ in a high-volume center?

    PubMed Central

    Brandes, Alba A.; Franceschi, Enrico; Ermani, Mario; Tosoni, Alicia; Albani, Fiorenzo; Depenni, Roberta; Faedi, Marina; Pisanello, Anna; Crisi, Girolamo; Urbini, Benedetta; Dazzi, Claudio; Cavanna, Luigi; Mucciarini, Claudia; Pasini, Giuseppe; Bartolini, Stefania; Marucci, Gianluca; Morandi, Luca; Zunarelli, Elena; Cerasoli, Serenella; Gardini, Giorgio; Lanza, Giovanni; Silini, Enrico Maria; Cavuto, Silvio; Baruzzi, Agostino

    2014-01-01

    Background As yet, no population-based prospective studies have been conducted to investigate the incidence and clinical outcome of glioblastoma (GBM) or the diffusion and impact of the current standard therapeutic approach in newly diagnosed patients younger than aged 70 years. Methods Data on all new cases of primary brain tumors observed from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2010, in adults residing within the Emilia-Romagna region were recorded in a prospective registry in the Project of Emilia Romagna on Neuro-Oncology (PERNO). Based on the data from this registry, a prospective evaluation was made of the treatment efficacy and outcome in GBM patients. Results Two hundred sixty-seven GBM patients (median age, 64 y; range, 29–84 y) were enrolled. The median overall survival (OS) was 10.7 months (95% CI, 9.2–12.4). The 139 patients ≤aged 70 years who were given standard temozolomide treatment concomitant with and adjuvant to radiotherapy had a median OS of 16.4 months (95% CI, 14.0–18.5). With multivariate analysis, OS correlated significantly with KPS (HR = 0.458; 95% CI, 0.248–0.847; P = .0127), MGMT methylation status (HR = 0.612; 95% CI, 0.388–0.966; P = .0350), and treatment received in a high versus low-volume center (HR = 0.56; 95% CI, 0.328–0.986; P = .0446). Conclusions The median OS following standard temozolomide treatment concurrent with and adjuvant to radiotherapy given to (72.8% of) patients aged ≤70 years is consistent with findings reported from randomized phase III trials. The volume and expertise of the treatment center should be further investigated as a prognostic factor. PMID:26034628

  6. Semantic framework for social robot self-configuration.

    PubMed

    Azkune, Gorka; Orduña, Pablo; Laiseca, Xabier; Castillejo, Eduardo; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Loitxate, Miguel; Azpiazu, Jon

    2013-05-28

    Healthcare environments, as many other real world environments, present many changing and unpredictable situations. In order to use a social robot in such an environment, the robot has to be prepared to deal with all the changing situations. This paper presents a robot self-configuration approach to overcome suitably the commented problems. The approach is based on the integration of a semantic framework, where a reasoner can take decisions about the configuration of robot services and resources. An ontology has been designed to model the robot and the relevant context information. Besides rules are used to encode human knowledge and serve as policies for the reasoner. The approach has been successfully implemented in a mobile robot, which showed to be more capable of solving situations not pre-designed.

  7. Semantic framework for social robot self-configuration.

    PubMed

    Azkune, Gorka; Orduña, Pablo; Laiseca, Xabier; Castillejo, Eduardo; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Loitxate, Miguel; Azpiazu, Jon

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare environments, as many other real world environments, present many changing and unpredictable situations. In order to use a social robot in such an environment, the robot has to be prepared to deal with all the changing situations. This paper presents a robot self-configuration approach to overcome suitably the commented problems. The approach is based on the integration of a semantic framework, where a reasoner can take decisions about the configuration of robot services and resources. An ontology has been designed to model the robot and the relevant context information. Besides rules are used to encode human knowledge and serve as policies for the reasoner. The approach has been successfully implemented in a mobile robot, which showed to be more capable of solving situations not pre-designed. PMID:23760085

  8. Economic study of multipurpose advanced high-speed transport configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A nondimensional economic examination of a parametrically-derived set of supersonic transport aircraft was conducted. The measure of economic value was surcharged relative to subsonic airplane tourist-class yield. Ten airplanes were defined according to size, payload, and speed. The price, range capability, fuel burned, and block time were determined for each configuration, then operating costs and surcharges were calculated. The parameter with the most noticeable influence on nominal surcharge was found to be real (constant dollars) fuel price increase. A change in SST design Mach number from 2.4 to Mach 2.7 showed a very small surcharge advantage (on the order of 1 percent for the faster aircraft). Configuration design compromises required for an airplane to operate overland at supersonic speeds without causing sonic boom annoyance result in severe performance penalties and require high (more than 100 percent) surcharges.

  9. Semantic Framework for Social Robot Self-Configuration

    PubMed Central

    Azkune, Gorka; Orduña, Pablo; Laiseca, Xabier; Castillejo, Eduardo; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Loitxate, Miguel; Azpiazu, Jon

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare environments, as many other real world environments, present many changing and unpredictable situations. In order to use a social robot in such an environment, the robot has to be prepared to deal with all the changing situations. This paper presents a robot self-configuration approach to overcome suitably the commented problems. The approach is based on the integration of a semantic framework, where a reasoner can take decisions about the configuration of robot services and resources. An ontology has been designed to model the robot and the relevant context information. Besides rules are used to encode human knowledge and serve as policies for the reasoner. The approach has been successfully implemented in a mobile robot, which showed to be more capable of solving situations not pre-designed. PMID:23760085

  10. Nanolevitation Phenomena in Real Plane-Parallel Systems Due to the Balance between Casimir and Gravity Forces

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report on the theoretical analysis of equilibrium distances in real plane-parallel systems under the influence of Casimir and gravity forces at thermal equilibrium. Due to the balance between these forces, thin films of Teflon, silica, or polystyrene in a single-layer configuration and immersed in glycerol stand over a silicon substrate at certain stable or unstable positions depending on the material and the slab thickness. Hybrid systems containing silica and polystyrene, materials which display Casimir forces and equilibrium distances of opposite nature when considered individually, are analyzed in either bilayer arrangements or as composite systems made of a homogeneous matrix with small inclusions inside. For each configuration, equilibrium distances and their stability can be adjusted by fine-tuning of the volume occupied by each material. We find the specific conditions under which nanolevitation of realistic films should be observed. Our results indicate that thin films of real materials in plane-parallel configurations can be used to control suspension or stiction phenomena at the nanoscale. PMID:26405466

  11. Capability of cross-hole electrical configurations for monitoring rapid plume migration experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellmunt, F.; Marcuello, A.; Ledo, J.; Queralt, P.

    2016-01-01

    Cross-hole electrical resistivity tomography is a useful tool in geotechnical, hydrogeological or fluid/gas plume migration studies. It allows better characterization of deep subsurface structures and monitoring of the involved processes. However, due to the large amount of possible four-electrode combinations between boreholes, the choice of the most efficient ones for rapid plume migration experiments (real-time monitoring), becomes a challenge. In this work, a numerical simulation to assess the capabilities and constraints of the most common cross-hole configurations for real-time monitoring is presented. Four-electrode configurations, sensitivity, dependence on the body location and amount of data were taken into account. The analysis of anomaly detection and the symmetry of the sensitivity pattern of cross-hole configurations allowed significant reduction of the amount of data and maintaining the maximum potential resolution of each configuration for real-time monitoring. The obtained results also highlighted the benefit of using the cross-hole AB-MN configuration (with both current - or potential - electrodes located in the same borehole) combined with other configurations with complementary sensitivity pattern.

  12. Configurational diffusion of coal macromolecules

    SciTech Connect

    Guin, J.A.; Curtis, C.W.; Tarrer, A.R.

    1991-01-01

    It has been reported that the most predominant constituents of coal extract are the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Yet the experimental values of diffusivity in ethyl acetate for the most of these materials were not available in the literature. Thus, the diffusion coefficients of some of these materials were measured to increase an understanding of the diffusional behavior of coal macromolecules. In an earlier quarterly report, the authors reported the diffusion coefficients of some model coal molecules determined using their diffusion cell with polycarbonate membranes. Subsequently, they have found that these polycarbonate membranes are semi-permeable to some of the model compounds, so that the measured diffusion flux was greater than that through the pores alone. This extra solute flux could result in over estimation of the diffusion coefficients, therefore, they have now re-measured these diffusivities using polyester, rather than polycarbonate, membranes. The polyester material is not permeable to the solute molecules, except through the open pore area. Thus the only diffusion flux is that through the pores, resulting in correct diffusion coefficients as reported herein. The detailed results are presented in the body of this report. Finally in the last section the authors discuss a slight departure in methodology of some of their earlier planned work. This change will have a positive beneficial impact on the results and speed-up the collection of configurational diffusion data in actual tortuous porous media. 12 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Configurational forces in solid nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Zhigang Suo

    2006-06-12

    The DOE grant (DE-FG02-99ER45787) to Princeton University, entitled Configurational Forces in Solid Nanostructures, was intended to cover the four-year period from September 1999 to September 2003. Effective 1 July 2003, the PI will relocate from Princeton to join the Harvard faculty. Princeton University will submit the Final Financial Report, the Final Property Report, and the Final Patent Report. The expenditures to date are $261,513 with %8,487 remaining of the awarded amount of $320,000. Harvard University will submit a request for the remaining amount. This Final Technical Report covers from the period between September 1999 to June 2003. Three Ph.D. students, Wei Lu, Yanfei Gao and Wei Hong, admitted to Princeton in the fall of 1998, 1999, 2002, respectively, have been dedicated to this project. Wei Lu earned his Ph.D. in August 2001, and is now an assistant professor at The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Yanfei Gao earned his Ph.D. in February 2003, and is now a post-doc at Brown University. The amount of funding covers one student at a time. All three students received first-year fellowships from Princeton University. In the Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, to fulfill a doctoral degree requirement, every student serves as a teaching assistant for three semesters, for which the student is partially paid by the University.

  14. High Performance Field Reversed Configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binderbauer, Michl

    2014-10-01

    The field-reversed configuration (FRC) is a prolate compact toroid with poloidal magnetic fields. FRCs could lead to economic fusion reactors with high power density, simple geometry, natural divertor, ease of translation, and possibly capable of burning aneutronic fuels. However, as in other high-beta plasmas, there are stability and confinement concerns. These concerns can be addressed by introducing and maintaining a significant fast ion population in the system. This is the approach adopted by TAE and implemented for the first time in the C-2 device. Studying the physics of FRCs driven by Neutral Beam (NB) injection, significant improvements were made in confinement and stability. Early C-2 discharges had relatively good confinement, but global power losses exceeded the available NB input power. The addition of axially streaming plasma guns, magnetic end plugs as well as advanced surface conditioning leads to dramatic reductions in turbulence driven losses and greatly improved stability. As a result, fast ion confinement significantly improved and allowed for build-up of a dominant fast particle population. Under such appropriate conditions we achieved highly reproducible, long-lived, macroscopically stable FRCs with record lifetimes. This demonstrated many beneficial effects of large orbit particles and their performance impact on FRCs Together these achievements point to the prospect of beam-driven FRCs as a path toward fusion reactors. This presentation will review and expand on key results and present context for their interpretation.

  15. Simulator sickness and HMD configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrlich, Jennifer A.

    1997-12-01

    The helmet-mounted display (HMD), often used in non-vehicle- based virtual environments (VEs), can be configured as either a stereoscopic or bi-ocular display. As a stereoscopic display the computer modeling the VE calculates two different views for each eye, based upon the views each eye normally receives due to their separation in the head. On the other hand, the same view can be presented to each eye, resulting in a bi- ocular display. The normally linked processes of accommodation and vergence must be decoupled when viewing through an HMD. This way of perceiving may lead to physiological problems. For example, a common problem with virtual environments (VE) is simulator sickness. Its symptoms are similar to those experienced in motion sickness, and include problems with eyestrain, disorientation, and nausea. A study was conducted in which both relative differences in simulator sickness and performance were examined for walking, tracking, distance estimation, and micromanipulation tasks. Using the self-report simulator sickness questionnaire (SSQ), data revealed that the stereoscopic condition was more nauseogenic. In addition, post-experimental disorientation, oculomotor discomfort and total severity measures correlated significantly with completion time on a task that required more near-far focal transitions within a short period of time than any other task.

  16. Absolute configuration of isovouacapenol C

    PubMed Central

    Fun, Hoong-Kun; Yodsaoue, Orapun; Karalai, Chatchanok; Chantrapromma, Suchada

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, C27H34O5 {systematic name: (4aR,5R,6R,6aS,7R,11aS,11bR)-4a,6-dihy­droxy-4,4,7,11b-tetra­methyl-1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,6a,7,11,11a,11b-dodeca­hydro­phenanthro[3,2-b]furan-5-yl benzoate}, is a cassane furan­oditerpene, which was isolated from the roots of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. The three cyclo­hexane rings are trans fused: two of these are in chair conformations with the third in a twisted half-chair conformation, whereas the furan ring is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.003 Å). An intra­molecular C—H⋯O inter­action generates an S(6) ring. The absolute configurations of the stereogenic centres at positions 4a, 5, 6, 6a, 7, 11a and 11b are R, R, R, S, R, S and R, respectively. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked into infinite chains along [010] by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. C⋯O [3.306 (2)–3.347 (2) Å] short contacts and C—H⋯π inter­actions also occur. PMID:21588364

  17. Space Station-Baseline Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    In response to President Reagan's directive to NASA to develop a permanent marned Space Station within a decade, part of the State of the Union message to Congress on January 25, 1984, NASA and the Administration adopted a phased approach to Station development. This approach provided an initial capability at reduced costs, to be followed by an enhanced Space Station capability in the future. This illustration depicts the baseline configuration, which features a 110-meter-long horizontal boom with four pressurized modules attached in the middle. Located at each end are four photovoltaic arrays generating a total of 75-kW of power. Two attachment points for external payloads are provided along this boom. The four pressurized modules include the following: A laboratory and habitation module provided by the United States; two additional laboratories, one each provided by the European Space Agency (ESA) and Japan; and an ESA-provided Man-Tended Free Flyer, a pressurized module capable of operations both attached to and separate from the Space Station core. Canada was expected to provide the first increment of a Mobile Serving System.

  18. Results of tests in the NASA/LaRC 31-inch CFHT on an 0.010-scale model (32-OT) of the space shuttle configuration 3 to determine the RCS jet flowfield interaction effects on aerodynamic characteristics (IA60/0A105), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the 31-inch continuous Flow Hypersonic Wind Tunnel to determine RCS jet interaction effect on the hypersonic aerodynamic and stability and control characteristics prior to RTLS abort separation. The model used was an 0.010-scale replica of the Space Shuttle Vehicle Configuration 3. Hypersonic stability data were obtained from tests at Mach 10.3 and dynamic pressure of 150 psf for the integrated Orbiter and external tank and the Orbiter alone. RCS modes of pitch, yaw, and roll at free flight dynamic pressure simulation of 7, 20, and 50 psf were investigated. The effects of speedbrake, bodyflap, elevon, and airleron deflections were also investigated.

  19. An investigation in the NASA MSFC 14-inch trisonic wind tunnel to determine the pressure distribution over the components of a 0.004 scale version of the Rockwell MCR 0074 baseline shuttle ascent configuration (IA32F), volume 1. [space shuttles - wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, P. E.

    1975-01-01

    Data were obtained for Mach numbers from 0.6 to 3.48, angles of attack from -10 to 10 degrees, and angles of sideslip from -10 to 10 degrees at zero angle of attack. Also, -4 and 4 degrees sideslip were run for an angle of attack of -5 and 5 degrees. Aerodynamic configurations of the solid rocket motors, external tank, and orbiter are shown. Graphs of plotted pressure data (pressure coefficients) for the external tank and solid rocket motors are given. A description of the test facility is included.

  20. Configurable Hardware And Software For Multiple Related Uses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uhrlaub, David R.; Gaines, James M.; Snoddy, William E.; Bard, Richard D.; Robinson, Lawrence W.

    1996-01-01

    Control Monitor Unit (CMU) is system of configurable hardware and software undergoing development for use in controlling and monitoring complex systems of equipment. Provides comprehensive array of capabilities for such functions as processing equipment-test data for calibration and diagnosis, controlling operation of equipment in real time, simulating operation of equipment, and processing large streams of scientific-measurement data. Automates many of ground operations involved in preparing and testing spacecraft prior to launch. Also useful in variety of similar applications; for example, testing aircraft, ships, power plants, and automated production lines.

  1. Grid generation and compressible flow computations about a high-speed civil transport configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abolhassani, J. S.; Stewart, J. E.; Farr, N.; Smith, R. E.; Kerr, P. W.; Everton, E. L.

    1991-01-01

    Techniques and software are discussed for generating grids about a high-speed civil transport configuration. The configuration is defined by a computer-aided design system in wing, fuselage, tail and engine-nacelle components. Grid topology and the surfaces outlining the blocks of the topology are computed with interactive software. The volume grid is computed using software based on transfinite interpolation and Lagrangian blending functions. Several volume grids for inviscid and viscous flow have been generated using this system of codes. Demonstration flowfields around this vehicle are described.

  2. Asymmetrical Polyhedral Configuration of Giant Vesicles Induced by Orderly Array of Encapsulated Colloidal Particles.

    PubMed

    Natsume, Yuno; Toyota, Taro

    2016-01-01

    Giant vesicles (GVs) encapsulating colloidal particles by a specific volume fraction show a characteristic configuration under a hypertonic condition. Several flat faces were formed in GV membrane with orderly array of inner particles. GV shape changed from the spherical to the asymmetrical polyhedral configuration. This shape deformation was derived by entropic interaction between inner particles and GV membrane. Because a part of inner particles became to form an ordered phase in the region neighboring the GV membrane, free volume for the other part of particles increased. Giant vesicles encapsulating colloidal particles were useful for the model of "crowding effect" which is the entropic interaction in the cell.

  3. Asymmetrical Polyhedral Configuration of Giant Vesicles Induced by Orderly Array of Encapsulated Colloidal Particles

    PubMed Central

    Natsume, Yuno; Toyota, Taro

    2016-01-01

    Giant vesicles (GVs) encapsulating colloidal particles by a specific volume fraction show a characteristic configuration under a hypertonic condition. Several flat faces were formed in GV membrane with orderly array of inner particles. GV shape changed from the spherical to the asymmetrical polyhedral configuration. This shape deformation was derived by entropic interaction between inner particles and GV membrane. Because a part of inner particles became to form an ordered phase in the region neighboring the GV membrane, free volume for the other part of particles increased. Giant vesicles encapsulating colloidal particles were useful for the model of “crowding effect” which is the entropic interaction in the cell. PMID:26752650

  4. Results of test MA22 in the NASA/LaRC 31-inch CFHT on an 0.010-scale model (32-0) of the space shuttle configuration 3 to determine RCS jet flow field interaction, volume 1. [wind tunnel tests for interactions of aerodynamic heating on jet flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanipe, D. B.

    1976-01-01

    A wind tunnel test was conducted in the Langley Research Center 31-inch Continuous Flow Hypersonic Wind Tunnel from May 6, 1975 through June 3, 1975. The primary objectives of this test were the following: (1) to study the ability of the wind tunnel to repeat, on a run-to-run basis, data taken for identical configurations to determine if errors in repeatability could have a significant effect on jet interaction data, (2) to determine the effect of aerodynamic heating of the scale model on jet interaction, (3) to investigate the effects of elevon and body flap deflections on jet interaction, (4) to determine if the effects from jets fired separately along different axes can be added to equal the effects of the jets fired simultaneously (super position effects), (5) to study multiple jet effects, and (6) to investigate area ratio effects, i.e., the effect on jet interaction measurements of using wind tunnel nozzles with different area ratios in the same location. The model used in the test was a .010-scale model of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Configuration 3. The test was conducted at Mach 10.3 and a dynamic pressure of 150 psf. RCS chamber pressure was varied to simulate free flight dynamic pressures of 5, 7.5, 10, and 20 psf.

  5. Geometry modeling and grid generation using 3D NURBS control volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Tzu-Yi; Soni, Bharat K.; Shih, Ming-Hsin

    1995-01-01

    The algorithms for volume grid generation using NURBS geometric representation are presented. The parameterization algorithm is enhanced to yield a desired physical distribution on the curve, surface and volume. This approach bridges the gap between CAD surface/volume definition and surface/volume grid generation. Computational examples associated with practical configurations have shown the utilization of these algorithms.

  6. Automated verification of system configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, W. H., Jr.; Baker, S. P.; Blalock, A. V.

    1991-05-01

    Errors in field wiring can result in significant correction costs (if the errors are discovered prior to use), in erroneous or unusable data (if the errors are not discovered in time), or in serious accidents (if the errors corrupt critical data). Detailed field wiring checkout rework are tedious and expensive, but they are essential steps in the quality assurance process for large, complex instrumentation and control systems. A recent Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) development, the CONFiguration IDEnification System (CONFIDES) automates verification of field wiring. In CONFIDES, an identifier module is installed on or integrated into each component (e.g., sensor, actuator, cable, distribution panel) to be verified. Interrogator modules, controlled by a personal computer (PC), are installed at the connections of the field wiring to the inputs of the data acquisition and control system (DACS). Interrogator modules poll the components connected to each channel of the DACS and can determine the path taken by each channel's signal to or from the end device for that channel. The system will provide not only the identification (ID) code for the cables and patch panels in the path to a particular sensor or actuator but for individual cable conductor IDs as well. One version of the system uses existing signal wires for communications between CONFIDES modules. Another, more powerful version requires a single dedicated conductor in each cable. Both version can operate with or without instrument power applied and neither interferes with the normal operation of the DACS. Identifier modules can provide a variety of information including status and calibration data.

  7. Recent Sawtooth Studies on the Tokamak a Configuration Variable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testa, Duccio; Canal, Gustavo; Coda, Stefano; Duval, Basil; Federspiel, Lucia; Felici, Federico; Gnesin, Silvano; Goodman, Timothy; Graves, Jonathan; Halpern, Federico; Janvier, Miho; Kamleitner, Josef; Karpushov, Alexander; Kim, Doohyun; Kim, Kyungjin; Pochelon, Antoine; Reimerdes, Holger; Sauter, Olivier; TCV Team

    2011-10-01

    We report recent studies performed on the Tokamak a Configuration Variable on the sawtooth instability and its relation with Tearing Modes (TMs). The primary long-term aim of this work is to provide understanding of the relation between sawteeth and TMs so that reliable real-time schemes can be devised for combined sawtooth and TM control in burning plasma experiments such as ITER. Hence, our work has focused on studying: dynamical relation between sawtooth crash and subsequent onset of TMs, sometimes leading to disruptions, as a function of the plasma shape and current profile; coupling of the low m/n modes generated at the sawtooth crash; dynamical evolution of the toroidal rotation during sawteeth; real-time control techniques for the sawtooth period using localized electron cyclotron heating and current drive; distribution function of high energy electrons generated at the sawtooth crash. Work partly funded by Fonds National Suisse Recherche Scientifique.

  8. Metrics for measuring distances in configuration spaces.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Ali; Ghasemi, S Alireza; Schaefer, Bastian; Mohr, Stephan; Lill, Markus A; Goedecker, Stefan

    2013-11-14

    In order to characterize molecular structures we introduce configurational fingerprint vectors which are counterparts of quantities used experimentally to identify structures. The Euclidean distance between the configurational fingerprint vectors satisfies the properties of a metric and can therefore safely be used to measure dissimilarities between configurations in the high dimensional configuration space. In particular we show that these metrics are a perfect and computationally cheap replacement for the root-mean-square distance (RMSD) when one has to decide whether two noise contaminated configurations are identical or not. We introduce a Monte Carlo approach to obtain the global minimum of the RMSD between configurations, which is obtained from a global minimization over all translations, rotations, and permutations of atomic indices. PMID:24320265

  9. Metrics for measuring distances in configuration spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Sadeghi, Ali Ghasemi, S. Alireza; Schaefer, Bastian; Mohr, Stephan; Goedecker, Stefan; Lill, Markus A.

    2013-11-14

    In order to characterize molecular structures we introduce configurational fingerprint vectors which are counterparts of quantities used experimentally to identify structures. The Euclidean distance between the configurational fingerprint vectors satisfies the properties of a metric and can therefore safely be used to measure dissimilarities between configurations in the high dimensional configuration space. In particular we show that these metrics are a perfect and computationally cheap replacement for the root-mean-square distance (RMSD) when one has to decide whether two noise contaminated configurations are identical or not. We introduce a Monte Carlo approach to obtain the global minimum of the RMSD between configurations, which is obtained from a global minimization over all translations, rotations, and permutations of atomic indices.

  10. Impact of entrainment and impingement on fish populations in the Hudson River Estuary. Volume II. Impingement impact analyses, evaluations of alternative screening devices, and critiques of utility testimony relating to density-dependent growth, the age-composition of the striped bass spawning stock, and the LMS real-time life cycle model

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L. W.; Van Winkle, W.; Golumbek, J.; Cada, G. F.; Goodyear, C. P.; Christensen, S. W.; Cannon, J. B.; Lee, D. W.

    1982-04-01

    This volume includes a series of four exhibits relating to impacts of impingement on fish populations, together with a collection of critical evaluations of testimony prepared for the utilities by their consultants. The first exhibit is a quantitative evaluation of four sources of bias (collection efficiency, reimpingement, impingement on inoperative screens, and impingement survival) affecting estimates of the number of fish killed at Hudson River power plants. The two following exhibits contain, respectively, a detailed assessment of the impact of impingement on the Hudson River white perch population and estimates of conditional impingement mortality rates for seven Hudson River fish populations. The fourth exhibit is an evaluation of the engineering feasibility and potential biological effectiveness of several types of modified intake structures proposed as alternatives to cooling towers for reducing impingement impacts. The remainder of Volume II consists of critical evaluations of the utilities' empirical evidence for the existence of density-dependent growth in young-of-the-year striped bass and white perch, of their estimate of the age-composition of the striped bass spawning stock in the Hudson River, and of their use of the Lawler, Matusky, and Skelly (LMS) Real-Time Life Cycle Model to estimate the impact of entrainment and impingement on the Hudson River striped bass population.

  11. Peltier Current Leads with conical configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakimi, I.; Nikulshin, Y.; Wolfus, S.; Yeshurun, Y.

    2016-04-01

    Current leads in cryogenic systems are a major heat source which eventually affects the entire system. It has been shown in recent years that Peltier elements are useful in reducing incoming heat into the cold system. In this article we present a new tapered cone-like configuration of the Peltier Current Leads which increases the power saving. This configuration is compared to the standard cylindrical configuration utilizing advanced ANSYS simulations. The simulations show an additional power saving of 4% when using the tapered lead configuration.

  12. International Space Station Configuration Analysis and Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anchondo, Rebekah

    2016-01-01

    Ambitious engineering projects, such as NASA's International Space Station (ISS), require dependable modeling, analysis, visualization, and robotics to ensure that complex mission strategies are carried out cost effectively, sustainably, and safely. Learn how Booz Allen Hamilton's Modeling, Analysis, Visualization, and Robotics Integration Center (MAVRIC) team performs engineering analysis of the ISS Configuration based primarily on the use of 3D CAD models. To support mission planning and execution, the team tracks the configuration of ISS and maintains configuration requirements to ensure operational goals are met. The MAVRIC team performs multi-disciplinary integration and trade studies to ensure future configurations meet stakeholder needs.

  13. Results of tests in the NASA/LaRC 31-inch CFHT on an 0.010-scale model (32-OT) of the space shuttle configuration 3 to determine the RCS jet flowfield interaction effects on aerodynamic characteristics (IA60/0A105), volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center 31-inch continuous flow hypersonic wind tunnel from 14 February to 22 February 1974, to determine RCS jet interaction effect on the hypersonic aerodynamic and stability and control characteristics prior to RTLS abort separation. The model used was an 0.010-scale replica of the space shuttle vehicle configuration 3. Hypersonic stability data were obtained from tests at Mach 10.3 and dynamic pressure of 150 psf for the intergrated orbiter and external tank and the orbiter alone. RCS modes of pitch, yaw, and roll at free flight dynamic pressure simulation of 7, 20, and 50 psf were investigated. The effects of speedbrake, bodyflap, elevon, and aileron deflections were also investigated.

  14. Space shuttle: Pressure investigation of a space shuttle launch configuration consisting of a delta-wing orbiter and a swept-wing booster with canard and tip fans (M equals 0.6 to 1.3). Volume 1, part A: Booster data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampy, J. M.; Blackwell, K. L.; Gomillion, G. R.

    1973-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests to determine the pressure distribution on a space shuttle launch configuration consisting of a delta wing orbiter and a swept wing booster with canard and tip fins were conducted. Pressure data were obtained for the combined orbiter and booster and for the booster alone at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 1.3, angles of attack from minus 8 degrees to plus 10 degrees, and sideslip angles from minus 6 degrees to plus 6 degrees. Pressure data were also obtained for the booster alone without canard at Mach numbers of 0.9 and 1.1. The pressure taps were distributed primarily over the booster upper surface and the orbiter lower surface.

  15. Results of tests in the NASA/LARC 31-inch CFHT on an 0.010-scale model (32-OT) of the space shuttle configuration 3 to determine the RCS jet flowfield interaction effects on aerodynamic characteristics (IA60/OA105), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center 31-inch continuous Flow Hypersonic Wind Tunnel to determine RCS jet interaction effect on the hypersonic aerodynamic and stability and control characteristics prior to return to launch site (RTLS) abort separation. The model used was an 0.010-scale replica of the Space Shuttle Vehicle Configuration 3. Hypersonic stability data were obtained from tests at Mach 10.3 and dynamic pressure of 150 psf for the integrated Orbiter and external tank and the Orbiter alone. RCS modes of pitch, yaw, and roll at free flight dynamic pressure simulation of 7, 20, and 50 psf were investigated. The effects of speedbrake, bodyflap, elevon, and aileron deflections were also investigated.

  16. Experiment Configurations for the DAST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This image shows three vehicle configurations considered for the Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) program, conducted at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center between 1977 and 1983. The DAST project planned for three wing configurations. These were the Instrumented Standard Wing (ISW), the Aeroelastic Research Wing-1 (ARW-1), and the ARW-2. After the DAST-1 crash, project personnel fitted a second Firebee II with a rebuilt ARW-1 wing. Due to the project's ending, it never flew the ARW-2 wing. These are the image contact sheets for each image resolution of the NASA Dryden Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) Photo Gallery. From 1977 to 1983, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (under two different names) conducted the DAST Program as a high-risk flight experiment using a ground-controlled, pilotless aircraft. Described by NASA engineers as a 'wind tunnel in the sky,' the DAST was a specially modified Teledyne-Ryan BQM-34E/F Firebee II supersonic target drone that was flown to validate theoretical predictions under actual flight conditions in a joint project with the Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The DAST Program merged advances in electronic remote control systems with advances in airplane design. Drones (remotely controlled, missile-like vehicles initially developed to serve as gunnery targets) had been deployed successfully during the Vietnamese conflict as reconnaissance aircraft. After the war, the energy crisis of the 1970s led NASA to seek new ways to cut fuel use and improve airplane efficiency. The DAST Program's drones provided an economical, fuel-conscious method for conducting in-flight experiments from a remote ground site. DAST explored the technology required to build wing structures with less than normal stiffness. This was done because stiffness requires structural weight but ensures freedom from flutter-an uncontrolled, divergent oscillation of the structure, driven by aerodynamic

  17. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  18. [Real time 3D echocardiography].

    PubMed

    Bauer, F; Shiota, T; Thomas, J D

    2001-07-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients. PMID:11494630

  19. Flammability Configuration Analysis for Spacecraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David

    2004-01-01

    Flight hardware configuration flammability assessment will: a) evaluate the overall hardware configuration; b) evaluate the way in which the hardware will be used; c) identify the major materials to be assessed; d) determine fire propagation paths; and e) evaluate ability of containers to contain fire.

  20. Existence Regions of Shock Wave Triple Configurations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulat, Pavel V.; Chernyshev, Mikhail V.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the research is to create the classification for shock wave triple configurations and their existence regions of various types: type 1, type 2, type 3. Analytical solutions for limit Mach numbers and passing shock intensity that define existence region of every type of triple configuration have been acquired. The ratios that conjugate…

  1. System for Configuring Modular Telemetry Transponders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varnavas, Kosta A. (Inventor); Sims, William Herbert, III (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A system for configuring telemetry transponder cards uses a database of error checking protocol data structures, each containing data to implement at least one CCSDS protocol algorithm. Using a user interface, a user selects at least one telemetry specific error checking protocol from the database. A compiler configures an FPGA with the data from the data structures to implement the error checking protocol.

  2. When One Configuration Is Not Enough

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillin, David R.

    2008-01-01

    For most molecules molecular orbital theory predicts a ground-state electronic configuration that is useful for rationalizing relative bond lengths, magnetic properties, and so forth. However, when electron correlation is a dominant consideration, the ground-state configuration may provide a poor representation of the system. In such cases,…

  3. 40 CFR 610.41 - Test configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test configurations. 610.41 Section... ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria General Vehicle Test Procedures § 610.41 Test configurations. (a) In order to measure the effectiveness of a retrofit device at least two,...

  4. 40 CFR 610.41 - Test configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test configurations. 610.41 Section... ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria General Vehicle Test Procedures § 610.41 Test configurations. (a) In order to measure the effectiveness of a retrofit device at least two,...

  5. 40 CFR 610.41 - Test configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test configurations. 610.41 Section... ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria General Vehicle Test Procedures § 610.41 Test configurations. (a) In order to measure the effectiveness of a retrofit device at least two,...

  6. 40 CFR 610.41 - Test configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test configurations. 610.41 Section... ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria General Vehicle Test Procedures § 610.41 Test configurations. (a) In order to measure the effectiveness of a retrofit device at least two,...

  7. 14 CFR 35.2 - Propeller configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propeller configuration. 35.2 Section 35.2... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS General § 35.2 Propeller configuration. The applicant must provide a list of all the... design of the propeller to be approved under § 21.31 of this chapter....

  8. 14 CFR 35.2 - Propeller configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Propeller configuration. 35.2 Section 35.2... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS General § 35.2 Propeller configuration. The applicant must provide a list of all the... design of the propeller to be approved under § 21.31 of this chapter....

  9. 14 CFR 35.2 - Propeller configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Propeller configuration. 35.2 Section 35.2... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS General § 35.2 Propeller configuration. The applicant must provide a list of all the... design of the propeller to be approved under § 21.31 of this chapter....

  10. 14 CFR 35.2 - Propeller configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Propeller configuration. 35.2 Section 35.2... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS General § 35.2 Propeller configuration. The applicant must provide a list of all the... design of the propeller to be approved under § 21.31 of this chapter....

  11. 14 CFR 35.2 - Propeller configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller configuration. 35.2 Section 35.2... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS General § 35.2 Propeller configuration. The applicant must provide a list of all the... design of the propeller to be approved under § 21.31 of this chapter....

  12. 47 CFR 22.623 - System configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false System configuration. 22.623 Section 22.623... Paging and Radiotelephone Service Point-To-Multipoint Operation § 22.623 System configuration. This... in a system that controls at least four public mobile base transmitters that transmit on the...

  13. Marking up lattice QCD configurations and ensembles

    SciTech Connect

    P.Coddington; B.Joo; C.M.Maynard; D.Pleiter; T.Yoshie

    2007-10-01

    QCDml is an XML-based markup language designed for sharing QCD configurations and ensembles world-wide via the International Lattice Data Grid (ILDG). Based on the latest release, we present key ingredients of the QCDml in order to provide some starting points for colleagues in this community to markup valuable configurations and submit them to the ILDG.

  14. Configuration-Control Scheme Copes With Singularities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun; Colbaugh, Richard D.

    1993-01-01

    Improved configuration-control scheme for robotic manipulator having redundant degrees of freedom suppresses large joint velocities near singularities, at expense of small trajectory errors. Provides means to enforce order of priority of tasks assigned to robot. Basic concept of configuration control of redundant robot described in "Increasing The Dexterity Of Redundant Robots" (NPO-17801).

  15. Development of the global sea ice 6.0 CICE configuration for the Met Office global coupled model

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rae, J. G. L.; Hewitt, H. T.; Keen, A. B.; Ridley, J. K.; West, A. E.; Harris, C. M.; Hunke, E. C.; Walters, D. N.

    2015-07-24

    The new sea ice configuration GSI6.0, used in the Met Office global coupled configuration GC2.0, is described and the sea ice extent, thickness and volume are compared with the previous configuration and with observationally based data sets. In the Arctic, the sea ice is thicker in all seasons than in the previous configuration, and there is now better agreement of the modelled concentration and extent with the HadISST data set. As a result, in the Antarctic, a warm bias in the ocean model has been exacerbated at the higher resolution of GC2.0, leading to a large reduction in ice extentmore » and volume; further work is required to rectify this in future configurations.« less

  16. Development of the global sea ice 6.0 CICE configuration for the Met Office global coupled model

    SciTech Connect

    Rae, J. G. L.; Hewitt, H. T.; Keen, A. B.; Ridley, J. K.; West, A. E.; Harris, C. M.; Hunke, E. C.; Walters, D. N.

    2015-07-24

    The new sea ice configuration GSI6.0, used in the Met Office global coupled configuration GC2.0, is described and the sea ice extent, thickness and volume are compared with the previous configuration and with observationally based data sets. In the Arctic, the sea ice is thicker in all seasons than in the previous configuration, and there is now better agreement of the modelled concentration and extent with the HadISST data set. As a result, in the Antarctic, a warm bias in the ocean model has been exacerbated at the higher resolution of GC2.0, leading to a large reduction in ice extent and volume; further work is required to rectify this in future configurations.

  17. Development of global sea ice 6.0 CICE configuration for the Met Office global coupled model

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rae, J. . G. L; Hewitt, H. T.; Keen, A. B.; Ridley, J. K.; West, A. E.; Harris, C. M.; Hunke, E. C.; Walters, D. N.

    2015-03-05

    The new sea ice configuration GSI6.0, used in the Met Office global coupled configuration GC2.0, is described and the sea ice extent, thickness and volume are compared with the previous configuration and with observationally-based datasets. In the Arctic, the sea ice is thicker in all seasons than in the previous configuration, and there is now better agreement of the modelled concentration and extent with the HadISST dataset. In the Antarctic, a warm bias in the ocean model has been exacerbated at the higher resolution of GC2.0, leading to a large reduction in ice extent and volume; further work is requiredmore » to rectify this in future configurations.« less

  18. Development of global sea ice 6.0 CICE configuration for the Met Office global coupled model

    SciTech Connect

    Rae, J. . G. L; Hewitt, H. T.; Keen, A. B.; Ridley, J. K.; West, A. E.; Harris, C. M.; Hunke, E. C.; Walters, D. N.

    2015-03-05

    The new sea ice configuration GSI6.0, used in the Met Office global coupled configuration GC2.0, is described and the sea ice extent, thickness and volume are compared with the previous configuration and with observationally-based datasets. In the Arctic, the sea ice is thicker in all seasons than in the previous configuration, and there is now better agreement of the modelled concentration and extent with the HadISST dataset. In the Antarctic, a warm bias in the ocean model has been exacerbated at the higher resolution of GC2.0, leading to a large reduction in ice extent and volume; further work is required to rectify this in future configurations.

  19. Real-Time Data Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedings, Marc

    2007-01-01

    RT-Display is a MATLAB-based data acquisition environment designed to use a variety of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware to digitize analog signals to a standard data format usable by other post-acquisition data analysis tools. This software presents the acquired data in real time using a variety of signal-processing algorithms. The acquired data is stored in a standard Operator Interactive Signal Processing Software (OISPS) data-formatted file. RT-Display is primarily configured to use the Agilent VXI (or equivalent) data acquisition boards used in such systems as MIDDAS (Multi-channel Integrated Dynamic Data Acquisition System). The software is generalized and deployable in almost any testing environment, without limitations or proprietary configuration for a specific test program or project. With the Agilent hardware configured and in place, users can start the program and, in one step, immediately begin digitizing multiple channels of data. Once the acquisition is completed, data is converted into a common binary format that also can be translated to specific formats used by external analysis software, such as OISPS and PC-Signal (product of AI Signal Research Inc.). RT-Display at the time of this reporting was certified on Agilent hardware capable of acquisition up to 196,608 samples per second. Data signals are presented to the user on-screen simultaneously for 16 channels. Each channel can be viewed individually, with a maximum capability of 160 signal channels (depending on hardware configuration). Current signal presentations include: time data, fast Fourier transforms (FFT), and power spectral density plots (PSD). Additional processing algorithms can be easily incorporated into this environment.

  20. Two suggested configurations for the Chinese space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ding-Qiang; Cui, Xiang-Qun

    2014-09-01

    China will establish a 2-meter space-based astronomical telescope. Its main science goals are performing a sky survey for research about dark matter and dark energy, and high resolution observations. Some experts suggest that this space telescope should be installed inside the Chinese space station. In accord with this suggestion we put forward our first configuration, i.e., to adopt a coudé system for this telescope. This coudé system comes from the Chinese 2.16m telescope's coudé system, which includes a relay mirror so that excellent image quality can be obtained. In our second configuration, we suggest that the whole space telescope fly freely as an independent satellite outside the space station. When it needs servicing, for example, changing instruments, refilling refrigerant or propellant, etc., this space telescope can fly near or even dock with the core space station. Although some space stations have had accompanying satellites, the one we propose is a space telescope that will be much larger than other accompanying satellites in terms of weight and volume. On the basis of the second configuration, we also put forward the following idea: the space station can be composed of several large independent modules if necessary.

  1. Measure Guideline: Optimizing the Configuration of Flexible Duct Junction Boxes

    SciTech Connect

    Beach, R.; Burdick, A.

    2014-03-01

    This measure guideline offers additional recommendations to heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system designers for optimizing flexible duct, constant-volume HVAC systems using junction boxes within Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual D guidance (Rutkowski, H. Manual D -- Residential Duct Systems, 3rd edition, Version 1.00. Arlington, VA: Air Conditioning Contractors of America, 2009.). IBACOS used computational fluid dynamics software to explore and develop guidance to better control the airflow effects of factors that may impact pressure losses within junction boxes among various design configurations (Beach, R., Prahl, D., and Lange, R. CFD Analysis of Flexible Duct Junction Box Design. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, submitted for publication 2013). These recommendations can help to ensure that a system aligns more closely with the design and the occupants' comfort expectations. Specifically, the recommendations described herein show how to configure a rectangular box with four outlets, a triangular box with three outlets, metal wyes with two outlets, and multiple configurations for more than four outlets. Designers of HVAC systems, contractors who are fabricating junction boxes on site, and anyone using the ACCA Manual D process for sizing duct runs will find this measure guideline invaluable for more accurately minimizing pressure losses when using junction boxes with flexible ducts.

  2. Measure Guideline: Optimizing the Configuration of Flexible Duct Junction Boxes

    SciTech Connect

    Beach, R.; Burdick, A.

    2014-03-01

    This measure guideline offers additional recommendations to heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system designers for optimizing flexible duct, constant-volume HVAC systems using junction boxes within Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual D guidance. IBACOS used computational fluid dynamics software to explore and develop guidance to better control the airflow effects of factors that may impact pressure losses within junction boxes among various design configurations. These recommendations can help to ensure that a system aligns more closely with the design and the occupants' comfort expectations. Specifically, the recommendations described herein show how to configure a rectangular box with four outlets, a triangular box with three outlets, metal wyes with two outlets, and multiple configurations for more than four outlets. Designers of HVAC systems, contractors who are fabricating junction boxes on site, and anyone using the ACCA Manual D process for sizing duct runs will find this measure guideline invaluable for more accurately minimizing pressure losses when using junction boxes with flexible ducts.

  3. Effect of injector configuration in rocket nozzle film cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A. Lakshya; Pisharady, J. C.; Shine, S. R.

    2016-04-01

    Experimental and numerical investigations are carried out to analyze the effect of coolant injector configuration on overall film cooling performance in a divergent section of a rocket nozzle. Two different injector orientations are investigated: (1) shaped slots with a divergence angle of 15° (semi-divergent injector) (2) fully divergent slot (fully divergent injector). A 2-dimensional, axis-symmetric, multispecies computational model using finite volume formulation has been developed and validated against the experimental data. The experiments provided a consistent set of measurements for cooling effectiveness for different blowing ratios ranging from 3.7 to 6. Results show that the semi divergent configuration leads to higher effectiveness compared to fully divergent slot at all blowing ratios. The spatially averaged effectiveness results show that the difference between the two configurations is significant at higher blowing ratios. The increase in effectiveness was around 2 % at BR = 3.7 whereas it was around 12 % in the case of BR = 6. Numerical results show the presence of secondary flow recirculation zones near the jet exit for both the injectors. An additional recirculation zone present in the case of fully divergent injector caused an increase in mixing of the coolant and mainstream, and a reduction in film cooling performance.

  4. Serial CSTR digester configuration for improving biogas production from manure.

    PubMed

    Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-01-01

    A new configuration of manure digesters for improving biogas production has been investigated in laboratory scale. A single thermophilic continuous-flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operated with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15 days was compared to a serial CSTR configuration with volume distribution ratio of 80/20 and 90/10, and total HRT of 15 days. The results showed that the serial CSTR could obtain 11% higher biogas yield compared to the single CSTR. The increased biogas yield in the serial CSTR was mainly from the second reactor, which accounted for 16% and 12% of total biogas yield in the 90/10 and 80/20 configuration, respectively. VFA concentration in the serial CSTR was high in the first reactor but very low in the second reactor. The results from organic pulse load test showed that the second reactor in serial CSTR helped utilizing VFA produced from overloading in the first reactor, which improved the effluent quality and conversion efficiency of the serial CSTR.

  5. CFD Simulations of Tiltrotor Configurations in Hover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potsdam, Mark a.; Strawn, Roger C.

    2002-01-01

    Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics calculations are presented for isolated, half-span, and full-span V-22 tiltrotor hover configurations. These computational results extend the validity of CFD hover methodology beyond conventional rotorcraft applications to tiltrotor configurations. Computed steady-state, isolated rotor performance agrees well with experimental measurements, showing little sensitivity to grid resolution. However, blade-vortex interaction flowfield details are sensitive to numerical dissipation and are more difficult to model accurately. Time-dependent, dynamic, half- and full-span installed configurations show sensitivities in performance to the tiltrotor fountain flow. As such, the full-span configuration exhibits higher rotor performance and lower airframe download than the half-span configuration. Half-span rotor installation trends match available half-span data, and airframe downloads are reasonably well predicted. Overall, the CFD solutions provide a wealth of flowfield details that can be used to analyze and improve tiltrotor aerodynamic performance.

  6. Evolution of the Configuration Database Design

    SciTech Connect

    Salnikov, A

    2006-04-19

    The BABAR experiment at SLAC successfully collects physics data since 1999. One of the major parts of its on-line system is the configuration database which provides other parts of the system with the configuration data necessary for data taking. Originally the configuration database was implemented in the Objectivity/DB ODBMS. Recently BABAR performed a successful migration of its event store from Objectivity/DB to ROOT and this prompted a complete phase-out of the Objectivity/DB in all other BABAR databases. It required the complete redesign of the configuration database to hide any implementation details and to support multiple storage technologies. In this paper we describe the process of the migration of the configuration database, its new design, implementation strategy and details.

  7. Spherical Stellarator-Tokamak Hybrid Configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, James D.; Yuan, Ying; Gandy, Rex F.; Knowlton, Stephen F.; Doloc, Cristian; Carnevali, Antonino; Hartwell, Gregory

    1996-11-01

    We consider low-aspect ratio stellarator-tokamak hybrid configurations similar to the inclined coils configurations of Moroz(P. E. Moroz, Phys. Plasmas 2), 4269 (1995). and the Small-Aspect Ratio Toroidal Hybrid(D. B. Batchelor et al)., poster at this meeting. (SMARTH) configurations of Batchelor et al. The advantages of these configurations include a current-free q profile which increases with minor radius, (like a tokamak's), and a magnetic divertor structure which does not rotate about the magnetic axis. Our investigations center on configurations suitable to be built as a small, inexpensive exploratory device. Initial work has focused on planar coils (for ease of construction) and small numbers of toroidal coils (for ease of access). Results from field line tracing, equilibrium, and particle orbit studies will be shown.

  8. On Configuration Trajectory Formation in Spatiotemporal Profile for Reproducing Human Hand Reaching Movement.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenbin; Xiong, Caihua; Yue, Shigang

    2016-03-01

    Most functional reaching activities in daily living generally require a hand to reach the functional position in appropriate orientation with invariant spatiotemporal profile. Effectively reproducing such spatiotemporal feature of hand configuration trajectory in real time is essential to understand the human motor control and plan human-like motion on anthropomorphic robotic arm. However, there are no novel computational models in literature toward reproducing hand configuration-to-configuration movement in spatiotemporal profile. In response to the problem, this paper presents a computational framework for hand configuration trajectory formation based on hierarchical principle of human motor control. The composite potential field is constructed on special Euclidean Group to induce time-varying configuration toward target. The dynamic behavior of hand is described by a second-order kinematic model to produce the external representation of high-level motor control. The multivariate regression relation between intrinsic and extrinsic coordinates of arm, is statistically analyzed for determining the arm orientation in real time, which produces the external representation of low-level motor control. The proposed method is demonstrated in an anthropomorphic arm by performing several highly curved self-reaching movements. The generated configuration trajectories are compared with actual human movement in spatiotemporal profile to validate the proposed method.

  9. Numerical simulation of the wake variation due to the change of after-body configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Kiyohira; Zhu, Ming

    1993-09-01

    Wake variation due to the difference of the after body configuration is numerically studied for the notch-back car-like body by using the finite volume method. The relationship between the wake and the drag is also investigated. Calculated results denote that the intensity of the longitudinal vortices has close relation with the pressure drag of the after-body.

  10. Improving motorcycle conspicuity through innovative headlight configurations.

    PubMed

    Ranchet, Maud; Cavallo, Viola; Dang, Nguyen-Thong; Vienne, Fabrice

    2016-09-01

    Most motorcycle crashes involve another vehicle that violated the motorcycle's right-of-way at an intersection. Two kinds of perceptual failures of other road users are often the cause of such accidents: motorcycle-detection failures and motion-perception errors. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of different headlight configurations on motorcycle detectability when the motorcycle is in visual competition with cars. Three innovative headlight configurations were tested: (1) standard yellow (central yellow headlight), (2) vertical white (one white light on the motorcyclist's helmet and two white lights on the fork in addition to the central white headlight), and (3) vertical yellow (same configuration as (2) with yellow lights instead of white). These three headlight configurations were evaluated in comparison to the standard configuration (central white headlight) in three environments containing visual distractors formed by car lights: (1) daytime running lights (DRLs), (2) low beams, or (3) DRLs and low beams. Video clips of computer-generated traffic situations were displayed briefly (250ms) to 57 drivers. The results revealed a beneficial effect of standard yellow configuration and the vertical yellow configuration on motorcycle detectability. However, this effect was modulated by the car-DRL environment. Findings and practical recommendations are discussed with regard to possible applications for motorcycles. PMID:27280780

  11. National Ignition Facility Configuration Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Cabral, S G; Moore, T L

    2002-10-01

    This Configuration Management Plan (CMP) describes the technical and administrative management process for controlling the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project configuration. The complexity of the NIF Project (i.e., participation by multiple national laboratories and subcontractors involved in the development, fabrication, installation, and testing of NIF hardware and software, as well as construction and testing of Project facilities) requires implementation of the comprehensive configuration management program defined in this plan. A logical schematic illustrating how the plan functions is provided in Figure 1. A summary of the process is provided in Section 4.0, Configuration Change Control. Detailed procedures that make up the overall process are referenced. This CMP is consistent with guidance for managing a project's configuration provided in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 430.1, Guide PMG 10, ''Project Execution and Engineering Management Planning''. Configuration management is a formal discipline comprised of the following four elements: (1) Identification--defines the functional and physical characteristics of a Project and uniquely identifies the defining requirements. This includes selection of components of the end product(s) subject to control and selection of the documents that define the project and components. (2) Change management--provides a systematic method for managing changes to the project and its physical and functional configuration to ensure that all changes are properly identified, assessed, reviewed, approved, implemented, tested, and documented. (3) Data management--ensures that necessary information on the project and its end product(s) is systematically recorded and disseminated for decision-making and other uses. Identifies, stores and controls, tracks status, retrieves, and distributes documents. (4) Assessments and validation--ensures that the planned configuration requirements match actual physical configurations and

  12. Space Transportation Booster Engine (STBE) configuration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The overall objective of this Space Transportation Booster Engine (STBE) study is to identify candidate engine configurations which enhance vehicle performance and provide operational flexibility at low cost. The specific objectives are as follows: (1) to identify and evaluate candidate LOX/HC engine configurations for the Advanced Space Transportation System for an early 1995 IOC and a late 2000 IOC; (2) to select one optimum engine for each time period; 3) to prepare a conceptual design for each configuration; (4) to develop a technology plan for the 2000 IOC engine; and, (5) to prepare preliminary programmatic planning and analysis for the 1995 IOC engine.

  13. Configuration effects on satellite charging response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purvis, C. K.

    1980-01-01

    The response of various spacecraft configurations to a charging environment in sunlight was studied using the NASA Charging Analyzer Program code. The configuration features geometry, type of stabilization, and overall size. Results indicate that sunlight charging response is dominated by differential charging effects. Shaded insulation charges negatively result in the formation of potential barriers which suppress photoelectron emission from sunlit surfaces. Sunlight charging occurs relatively slowly: with 30 minutes of charging simulations, in none of the configurations modeled did the most negative surface cell reach half its equilibrium potential in eclipse.

  14. PDSS configuration control plan and procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The payload development support system (PDSS) configuration control plan and procedures are presented. These plans and procedures establish the process for maintaining configuration control of the PDSS system, especially the Spacelab experiment interface device's (SEID) RAU, HRM, and PDI interface simulations and the PDSS ECOS DEP Services simulation. The plans and procedures as specified are designed to provide a simplified but complete configuration control process. The intent is to require a minimum amount of paperwork but provide total traceability of PDSS during experiment test activities.

  15. Shuttle Liquid Fly Back Booster Configuration Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Healy, T. J., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    This paper surveys the basic configuration options available to a Liquid Fly Back Booster (LFBB), integrated with the Space Shuttle system. The background of the development of the LFBB concept is given. The influence of the main booster engine (BME) installations and the Fly Back Engine (FBE) installation on the aerodynamic configurations are also discussed. Limits on the LFBB configuration design space imposed by the existing Shuttle flight and ground elements are also described. The objective of the paper is to put the constrains and design space for an LFBB in perspective. The object of the work is to define LFBB configurations that significantly improve safety, operability, reliability and performance of the Shuttle system and dramatically lower operations costs.

  16. A New Gimmick for Assigning Absolute Configuration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayorinde, F. O.

    1983-01-01

    A five-step procedure is provided to help students in making the assignment absolute configuration less bothersome. Examples for both single (2-butanol) and multi-chiral carbon (3-chloro-2-butanol) molecules are included. (JN)

  17. Complex configuration analysis at transonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boppe, C. W.; Aidala, P. V.

    1980-01-01

    Advanced performance requirements of new combat and transport aircraft together with design time constraints intensify the development and application of three dimensional computational analyses. A computational method which was developed for the specific purpose of providing an engineering analysis of complex aircraft configurations at transonic speeds. Particular attention is given to the recently incorporated wing viscous interaction and canard capabilities. The treatment of fuselage fairings, nacelles, and pylons is reviewed. The means for keeping computing resources at reasonable levels are identified. Three configurations were selected for correlations with experimental data. Taken together, the comparisons illustrate the full extent of current analysis capabilities. The configurations include: (1) a wing fuselage canard fighter; (2) a transport with fuselage fairings, four nacelles, four pylons; and (3) a space vehicle which includes an external fuel tank and rocket boosters (transonic launch configuration).

  18. Status Configurations, Military Service and Higher Education

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin; Elder, Glen H.; Spence, Naomi J.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Armed Forces offer educational and training benefits as incentives for service. This study investigates the influence of status configurations on military enlistment and their link to greater educational opportunity. Three statuses (socioeconomic status of origin, cognitive ability and academic performance) have particular relevance for life course options. We hypothesize that young men with inconsistent statuses are more likely to enlist than men with consistent status profiles, and that military service improves access to college for certain configurations. Analyses of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) show (1. that several status configurations markedly increased the likelihood of military enlistment and (2. within status configurations, recruits were generally more likely to enroll in higher education than nonveterans, with associate degrees being more likely. PMID:24511161

  19. Habitat Demonstration Unit - Deep Space Habitat Configuration

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animated video shows the process of transporting, assembling and testing the Habitat Demonstration Unit - Deep Space Habitat (HDU DSH) configuration, which will be deployed during the 2011 Des...

  20. CICADA -- Configurable Instrument Control and Data Acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Peter J.; Roberts, William H.; Sebo, Kim M.

    CICADA (Young et al. 1997) is a multi-process, distributed application for the control of astronomical data acquisition systems. It comprises elements that control the operation of, and data flow from CCD camera systems; and the operation of telescope instrument control systems. CICADA can be used to dynamically configure support for astronomical instruments that can be made up of multiple cameras and multiple instrument controllers. Each camera is described by a hierarchy of parts that are each individually configured and linked together. Most of CICADA is written in C++ and much of the configurability of CICADA comes from the use of inheritance and polymorphism. An example of a multiple part instrument configuration -- a wide field imager (WFI) -- is described here. WFI, presently under construction, is made up of eight 2k x 4k CCDs with dual SDSU II controllers and will be used at Siding Spring's ANU 40in and AAO 3.9m telescopes.

  1. Shuttle Liquid Fly Back Booster Configuration Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Healy, Thomas J., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    This paper surveys the basic configuration options available to a Liquid Fly Back Booster (LFBB), integrated with the Space Shuttle system. The background of the development of the LFBB concept is given. The influence of the main booster engine (BME) installations and the fly back engine (FBE) installation on the aerodynamic configurations are also discussed. Limits on the LFBB configuration design space imposed by the existing Shuttle flight and ground elements are also described. The objective of the paper is to put the constrains and design space for an LFBB in perspective. The object of the work is to define LFBB configurations that significantly improve safety, operability, reliability and performance of the Shuttle system and dramatically lower operations costs.

  2. Space shuttle configuration accounting functional design specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the requirements for an on-line automated system which must be capable of tracking the status of requirements and engineering changes and of providing accurate and timely records. The functional design specification provides the definition, description, and character length of the required data elements and the interrelationship of data elements to adequately track, display, and report the status of active configuration changes. As changes to the space shuttle program levels II and III configuration are proposed, evaluated, and dispositioned, it is the function of the configuration management office to maintain records regarding changes to the baseline and to track and report the status of those changes. The configuration accounting system will consist of a combination of computers, computer terminals, software, and procedures, all of which are designed to store, retrieve, display, and process information required to track proposed and proved engineering changes to maintain baseline documentation of the space shuttle program levels II and III.

  3. Molecular Electronic Terms and Molecular Orbital Configurations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazo, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are the molecular electronic terms which can arise from a given electronic configuration. Considered are simple cases, molecular states, direct products, closed shells, and open shells. Two examples are provided. (CW)

  4. Handling qualities requirements for control configured vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, R. J.; George, F. L.

    1976-01-01

    The potential effects of fly by wire and control configured vehicle concepts on flying qualities are considered. Failure mode probabilities and consequences, controllability, and dynamics of highly augmented aircraft are among the factors discussed in terms of design criteria.

  5. IVUS coronary volume alignment for distinct phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Monica Mitiko Soares; Lemos, Pedro Alves; Furuie, Sergio Shiguemi

    2009-02-01

    Image-based intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) cardiac phase detection allows coronary volume reconstruction in different phases. Consecutive volumes are not necessarily spatially aligned due to longitudinal movement of the catheter. Besides ordinary pullback velocity, there is a relative longitudinal movement of the heart vessel walls and the transducer, due to myocardial contraction. In this manuscript, we aim to spatially align cardiac phase coronary IVUS volumes. In addition, we want to investigate this non-linear longitudinal catheter movement. With this purpose, we have analyzed 120 simulated IVUS images and 10 real IVUS pullbacks. We implemented the following methodology. Firstly, we built IVUS volume for each distinct phase. Secondly, each IVUS volume was transformed into a parametric signal of average frame intensity. We have used these signals to make correlation in space with a reference one. Then we estimated the spatial distance between the distinct IVUS volumes and the reference. We have tested in simulated images and real examinations. We have also observed similar pattern in real IVUS examinations. This spatial alignment method is feasible and useful as a step towards dynamic studies of IVUS examination.

  6. Sensitivity of detachment extent to magnetic configuration and external parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipschultz, Bruce; Parra, Felix I.; Hutchinson, Ian H.

    2016-05-01

    Divertor detachment may be essential to reduce heat loads to magnetic fusion tokamak reactor divertor surfaces. Yet in experiments it is difficult to control the extent of the detached, low pressure, plasma region. At maximum extent the front edge of the detached region reaches the X-point and can lead to degradation of core plasma properties. We define the ‘detachment window’ in a given position control variable C (for example, the upstream plasma density) as the range in C within which the front location can be stably held at any position from the target to the X-point; increased detachment window corresponds to better control. We extend a 1D analytic model [1] to determine the detachment window for the following control variables: the upstream plasma density, the impurity concentration and the power entering the scrape-off layer (SOL). We find that variations in magnetic configuration can have strong effects; increasing the ratio of the total magnetic field at the X-point to that at the target, {{B}×}/{{B}t} , (total flux expansion, as in the super-x divertor configuration) strongly increases the detachment window for all control variables studied, thus strongly improving detachment front control and the capability of the divertor plasma to passively accommodate transients while still staying detached. Increasing flux tube length and thus volume in the divertor, through poloidal flux expansion (as in the snowflake or x-divertor configurations) or length of the divertor, also increases the detachment window, but less than the total flux expansion does. The sensitivity of the detachment front location, z h , to each control variable, C, defined as \\partial {{z}h}/\\partial C , depends on the magnetic configuration. The size of the radiating volume and the total divertor radiation increase \\propto {{≤ft({{B}×}/{{B}t}\\right)}2} and \\propto {{B}×}/{{B}t} , respectively, but not by increasing divertor poloidal flux expansion or field line length. We

  7. Direct measurement meter indicates real-time energy flow

    SciTech Connect

    Heyden, W.H.V. )

    1991-05-01

    The increased activity in transporting gas and the use of natural gas from widely varying sources has created a need to simplify measurement of energy transfers in natural gas operations. The natural gas industry requires an energy measurement device that is simple, cost effective and accurate. Such a device must be a direct measurement meter, easy to install, and one which will measure energy transfers in natural gas regardless of volume, composition, heating value, supercompressibility, inert fractions and temperature. These and other factors that are required for what presently is and remains, a calculation of energy in natural gas. The need then, is for a flow device which will measure and indicate direct, real-time energy flow and perform at pipe line conditions. A flow meter has been under development for seven years and has been in field testing for three years at 4 different sites under a Gas Research Institute (GRI) sponsored program. The field test objective is to measure and verify the meter's technical properties under actual field service conditions. In each field test site, the meter is continuously compared to existing gas flow measurement devices. Eact test site has different meter configurations which allow a broad scope of comparison and testing experience.

  8. Watershed configuration and geographic information system parameterization for spur model hydrologic simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Sasowsky, K.C. ); Gardner, T.W. )

    1991-02-01

    A grid cell geographic information system (GIS) is used to parameterize SPUR, a quasi-physically based surface runoff model in which a watershed is configured as a set of stream segments and contributing areas. GIS analysis techniques produce various watershed configurations by progressive simplification of a stream network delineated from digital elevation models (DEM). The authors used three watershed configurations: {ge}2nd, {ge}4th, and {ge}13th Shreve order networks, where the watershed contains 28, 15, and 1 channel segments with 66, 37, and 3 contributing areas, respectively. Watershed configuration controls simulated daily and monthly sums of runoff volumes. For the climatic and topographic setting in southeastern Arizona the {ge}4th order configuration of the stream network and contributing areas produces results that are typically as good as the {ge} 2nd order network. However both are consistently better than the {ge}13th order configuration. Due to the degree of parameterization in SPUR, model simulations cannot be significantly improved by increasing watershed configuration beyond the {ge}4th order network. However, a range of Soil Conservation Service curve numbers derived from rainfall/runoff data can affect model simulations. Higher curve numbers yield better results for the {ge}2nd order network while lower curve numbers yield better results for the {ge}4th order network.

  9. Neural network predicts carrot volume with only three images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Federico; Sanchez, Sergio

    1998-09-01

    A mechanism turned a vision camera around a fixed carrot taking 100 images of it. A 3D reconstruction finite element algorithm reproduced the volume using finite area triangles and morphological operations to optimize memory utilization. Volume from several carrots were calculated and correlated against real volume achieving a 98% success rate. Three images 120 degrees apart were acquired and the main features extracted. A neural network system was trained using the features, increasing the measuring speed and obtaining together with a regression algorithm an accuracy of 95% in predicting the real volume.

  10. Turning intractable counting into sampling: Computing the configurational entropy of three-dimensional jammed packings.

    PubMed

    Martiniani, Stefano; Schrenk, K Julian; Stevenson, Jacob D; Wales, David J; Frenkel, Daan

    2016-01-01

    We present a numerical calculation of the total number of disordered jammed configurations Ω of N repulsive, three-dimensional spheres in a fixed volume V. To make these calculations tractable, we increase the computational efficiency of the approach of Xu et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 245502 (2011)10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.245502] and Asenjo et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 098002 (2014)10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.098002] and we extend the method to allow computation of the configurational entropy as a function of pressure. The approach that we use computes the configurational entropy by sampling the absolute volume of basins of attraction of the stable packings in the potential energy landscape. We find a surprisingly strong correlation between the pressure of a configuration and the volume of its basin of attraction in the potential energy landscape. This relation is well described by a power law. Our methodology to compute the number of minima in the potential energy landscape should be applicable to a wide range of other enumeration problems in statistical physics, string theory, cosmology, and machine learning that aim to find the distribution of the extrema of a scalar cost function that depends on many degrees of freedom. PMID:26871142

  11. Turning intractable counting into sampling: Computing the configurational entropy of three-dimensional jammed packings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martiniani, Stefano; Schrenk, K. Julian; Stevenson, Jacob D.; Wales, David J.; Frenkel, Daan

    2016-01-01

    We present a numerical calculation of the total number of disordered jammed configurations Ω of N repulsive, three-dimensional spheres in a fixed volume V . To make these calculations tractable, we increase the computational efficiency of the approach of Xu et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 245502 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.245502] and Asenjo et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 098002 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.098002] and we extend the method to allow computation of the configurational entropy as a function of pressure. The approach that we use computes the configurational entropy by sampling the absolute volume of basins of attraction of the stable packings in the potential energy landscape. We find a surprisingly strong correlation between the pressure of a configuration and the volume of its basin of attraction in the potential energy landscape. This relation is well described by a power law. Our methodology to compute the number of minima in the potential energy landscape should be applicable to a wide range of other enumeration problems in statistical physics, string theory, cosmology, and machine learning that aim to find the distribution of the extrema of a scalar cost function that depends on many degrees of freedom.

  12. Lighting design for globally illuminated volume rendering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yubo; Ma, Kwan-Liu

    2013-12-01

    With the evolution of graphics hardware, high quality global illumination becomes available for real-time volume rendering. Compared to local illumination, global illumination can produce realistic shading effects which are closer to real world scenes, and has proven useful for enhancing volume data visualization to enable better depth and shape perception. However, setting up optimal lighting could be a nontrivial task for average users. There were lighting design works for volume visualization but they did not consider global light transportation. In this paper, we present a lighting design method for volume visualization employing global illumination. The resulting system takes into account view and transfer-function dependent content of the volume data to automatically generate an optimized three-point lighting environment. Our method fully exploits the back light which is not used by previous volume visualization systems. By also including global shadow and multiple scattering, our lighting system can effectively enhance the depth and shape perception of volumetric features of interest. In addition, we propose an automatic tone mapping operator which recovers visual details from overexposed areas while maintaining sufficient contrast in the dark areas. We show that our method is effective for visualizing volume datasets with complex structures. The structural information is more clearly and correctly presented under the automatically generated light sources.

  13. Minimizing the search space in sniper localization using sensor configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damarla, Thyagaraju

    2010-04-01

    In this paper an algorithm for sniper localization using disparate single microphone sensors that uses only the time difference of arrival (TDOA) between muzzle blast and shock wave is presented. Just as in any algorithm that looks for optimal solution this algorithm also faces the local minima (possible sniper locations) problem. In order to find the global or near global solution one has to perform search over a large area. In order to reduce the computational burden, the search space needs to be small. In this paper, an upper and lower bound on the range for the search space are estimated using the sensor configuration. Based on this, the area around the bullets path is searched with the bounds on range to determine the exact or near global solution for the sniper location. The results of sniper localization algorithm applied to real data collected in a field test will be presented.

  14. A Vertical Differential Configuration in GPR prospecting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persico, Raffaele; Pochanin, Gennadiy; Varianytsia-Roshchupkina, Liudmyla; Catapano, Ilaria; Gennarelli, Gianluca; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    The rejection of the direct coupling between the antennas is an issue of interest in several GPR applications, especially when it is important to distinguish the targets of interest from the clutter and the signal reflected from the air soil interface. Therefore, in this framework several hardware and software strategies have been proposed. Among the software strategies, probably the most common one is the background removal [1], whereas as an hardware strategy the differential configuration has been introduced in [2-3] and then further on studied in [4] with respect to the spatial filtering properties of the relevant mathematical operator. In particular, the studies proposed in [1] and [4] have shown that, in general, all the strategies for the rejection of the direct coupling have necessarily some drawback, essentially because it is not possible to erase all and only the undesired contributions leaving "untouched" the contributions of the targets of interest to the gathered signal. With specific regard to the differential configuration, in [2-3], the differential configuration consisted in a couple of receiving antennas symmetrically placed around the transmitting one, being the three antennas placed along the same horizontal segment. Therefore, we might define that configuration as a "horizontal differential configuration". Here, we propose a novel differential GPR configuration, where the two receiving antennas are still symmetrically located with respect to the transmitting one, but are placed piled on each other at different heights from the air-soil interface, whereas the transmitting antenna is at the medium height between the two receiving one (however, it is not at the same abscissa but at a fixed horizontal offset from the receiving antennas). Such a differential configuration has been previously presented in [5-6] and allows a good isolation between the antennas, while preserving the possibility to collect backscattered signals from both electrically

  15. Integrated geometry and grid generation system for complex configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akdag, Vedat; Wulf, Armin

    1992-01-01

    A grid generation system was developed that enables grid generation for complex configurations. The system called ICEM/CFD is described and its role in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) applications is presented. The capabilities of the system include full computer aided design (CAD), grid generation on the actual CAD geometry definition using robust surface projection algorithms, interfacing easily with known CAD packages through common file formats for geometry transfer, grid quality evaluation of the volume grid, coupling boundary condition set-up for block faces with grid topology generation, multi-block grid generation with or without point continuity and block to block interface requirement, and generating grid files directly compatible with known flow solvers. The interactive and integrated approach to the problem of computational grid generation not only substantially reduces manpower time but also increases the flexibility of later grid modifications and enhancements which is required in an environment where CFD is integrated into a product design cycle.

  16. Inferring unstable equilibrium configurations from experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virgin, L. N.; Wiebe, R.; Spottswood, S. M.; Beberniss, T.

    2016-09-01

    This research considers the structural behavior of slender, mechanically buckled beams and panels of the type commonly found in aerospace structures. The specimens were deflected and then clamped in a rigid frame in order to exhibit snap-through. That is, the initial equilibrium and the buckled (snapped-through) equilibrium configurations both co-existed for the given clamped conditions. In order to transit between these two stable equilibrium configurations (for example, under the action of an externally applied load), it is necessary for the structural component to pass through an intermediate unstable equilibrium configuration. A sequence of sudden impacts was imparted to the system, of various strengths and at various locations. The goal of this impact force was to induce relatively intermediate-sized transients that effectively slowed-down in the vicinity of the unstable equilibrium configuration. Thus, monitoring the velocity of the motion, and specifically its slowing down, should give an indication of the presence of an equilibrium configuration, even though it is unstable and not amenable to direct experimental observation. A digital image correlation (DIC) system was used in conjunction with an instrumented impact hammer to track trajectories and statistical methods used to infer the presence of unstable equilibria in both a beam and a panel.

  17. Configuration Fuzzing for Software Vulnerability Detection

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Huning; Murphy, Christian; Kaiser, Gail

    2010-01-01

    Many software security vulnerabilities only reveal themselves under certain conditions, i.e., particular configurations of the software together with its particular runtime environment. One approach to detecting these vulnerabilities is fuzz testing, which feeds a range of randomly modified inputs to a software application while monitoring it for failures. However, typical fuzz testing makes no guarantees regarding the syntactic and semantic validity of the input, or of how much of the input space will be explored. To address these problems, in this paper we present a new testing methodology called configuration fuzzing. Configuration fuzzing is a technique whereby the configuration of the running application is randomly modified at certain execution points, in order to check for vulnerabilities that only arise in certain conditions. As the application runs in the deployment environment, this testing technique continuously fuzzes the configuration and checks “security invariants” that, if violated, indicate a vulnerability; however, the fuzzing is performed in a duplicated copy of the original process, so that it does not affect the state of the running application. In addition to discussing the approach and describing a prototype framework for implementation, we also present the results of a case study to demonstrate the approach’s efficiency. PMID:21461049

  18. Configuring Airspace Sectors with Approximate Dynamic Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloem, Michael; Gupta, Pramod

    2010-01-01

    In response to changing traffic and staffing conditions, supervisors dynamically configure airspace sectors by assigning them to control positions. A finite horizon airspace sector configuration problem models this supervisor decision. The problem is to select an airspace configuration at each time step while considering a workload cost, a reconfiguration cost, and a constraint on the number of control positions at each time step. Three algorithms for this problem are proposed and evaluated: a myopic heuristic, an exact dynamic programming algorithm, and a rollouts approximate dynamic programming algorithm. On problem instances from current operations with only dozens of possible configurations, an exact dynamic programming solution gives the optimal cost value. The rollouts algorithm achieves costs within 2% of optimal for these instances, on average. For larger problem instances that are representative of future operations and have thousands of possible configurations, excessive computation time prohibits the use of exact dynamic programming. On such problem instances, the rollouts algorithm reduces the cost achieved by the heuristic by more than 15% on average with an acceptable computation time.

  19. Real-time exploitation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedel, Richard D.

    1998-11-01

    The proliferation and technology advances of digital sensors for reconnaissance imaging require a commensurate increase in the productivity of ground-based exploitation system to process the increased volume of remotely-sensed data. Systems to support this level of production, themselves, must have significantly reduced development and life-cycle costs from previously installed systems. For cost, growth, and integration advantages, reconnaissance exploitation systems should be designed to maximize Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) hardware and software. As an example, the Real-Time Exploitation System is a state-of-the-art system for photo interpretation and exploitation of real-time digital reconnaissance imagery. Using COTS hardware, the system is able to receive imagery at rates greater than 80 Mpixels/sec; perform detailed interpretation, exploitation and report generation, and; disseminate reports to intelligence users over secure networks. New technologies have been applied in workflow management, database management, and user interfaces to provide the image analyst with superior analysis tools and access to other intelligence data sources. Photogrammetric functions are also provided for monoscopic and stereoscopic imagery. These functions provide greater geographic accuracy than is achievable in most reconnaissance exploitation systems. The Real-Time Exploitation System significantly reduces timelines for the analysis and report generation process, and significantly increases the quality and accuracy of reports.

  20. Evaluation of Sensor Configurations for Robotic Surgical Instruments

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-de-Gabriel, Jesús M.; Harwin, William

    2015-01-01

    Designing surgical instruments for robotic-assisted minimally-invasive surgery (RAMIS) is challenging due to constraints on the number and type of sensors imposed by considerations such as space or the need for sterilization. A new method for evaluating the usability of virtual teleoperated surgical instruments based on virtual sensors is presented. This method uses virtual prototyping of the surgical instrument with a dual physical interaction, which allows testing of different sensor configurations in a real environment. Moreover, the proposed approach has been applied to the evaluation of prototypes of a two-finger grasper for lump detection by remote pinching. In this example, the usability of a set of five different sensor configurations, with a different number of force sensors, is evaluated in terms of quantitative and qualitative measures in clinical experiments with 23 volunteers. As a result, the smallest number of force sensors needed in the surgical instrument that ensures the usability of the device can be determined. The details of the experimental setup are also included. PMID:26516863

  1. Evaluation of Sensor Configurations for Robotic Surgical Instruments.

    PubMed

    Gómez-de-Gabriel, Jesús M; Harwin, William

    2015-01-01

    Designing surgical instruments for robotic-assisted minimally-invasive surgery (RAMIS) is challenging due to constraints on the number and type of sensors imposed by considerations such as space or the need for sterilization. A new method for evaluating the usability of virtual teleoperated surgical instruments based on virtual sensors is presented. This method uses virtual prototyping of the surgical instrument with a dual physical interaction, which allows testing of different sensor configurations in a real environment. Moreover, the proposed approach has been applied to the evaluation of prototypes of a two-finger grasper for lump detection by remote pinching. In this example, the usability of a set of five different sensor configurations, with a different number of force sensors, is evaluated in terms of quantitative and qualitative measures in clinical experiments with 23 volunteers. As a result, the smallest number of force sensors needed in the surgical instrument that ensures the usability of the device can be determined. The details of the experimental setup are also included. PMID:26516863

  2. Evaluation of Sensor Configurations for Robotic Surgical Instruments.

    PubMed

    Gómez-de-Gabriel, Jesús M; Harwin, William

    2015-10-27

    Designing surgical instruments for robotic-assisted minimally-invasive surgery (RAMIS) is challenging due to constraints on the number and type of sensors imposed by considerations such as space or the need for sterilization. A new method for evaluating the usability of virtual teleoperated surgical instruments based on virtual sensors is presented. This method uses virtual prototyping of the surgical instrument with a dual physical interaction, which allows testing of different sensor configurations in a real environment. Moreover, the proposed approach has been applied to the evaluation of prototypes of a two-finger grasper for lump detection by remote pinching. In this example, the usability of a set of five different sensor configurations, with a different number of force sensors, is evaluated in terms of quantitative and qualitative measures in clinical experiments with 23 volunteers. As a result, the smallest number of force sensors needed in the surgical instrument that ensures the usability of the device can be determined. The details of the experimental setup are also included.

  3. Gas-lift digester configuration effects on mixing effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Karim, Khursheed; Thoma, Gregory J; Al-Dahhan, Muthanna H

    2007-07-01

    Computational fluid dynamics simulations were used to study the effect of bottom configuration and a hanging baffle on the mixing inside a gas-lift digester filled with non-Newtonian sludge. The Navier-Stokes and continuity equations were solved numerically using commercially available finite element method-based solver. The results from this simulation were found to be in good agreement with previously reported experimental findings. At a gas recirculation rate of 84.96l/h, the poorly mixed zones inside a flat bottom digester were about 33.6% of the digester volume, while in the case of digesters with 25 degrees and 45 degrees conical bottoms poorly mixed zones were about 31.9% and 29.6%, respectively. The power law viscosity index, n, did not have a significant effect on the mixing pattern under the conditions studied. Introduction of a hanging baffle in combination with a 45 degrees hopper bottom resulted in reduction of the poorly mixed zone by a factor of three compared to a flat bottom without baffle configuration. Although the introduction of a hanging baffle was able to significantly reduce the size of the poorly mixed zones inside a gas-lift digester, further optimization of the digester geometry may lead to additional improvements.

  4. DAQMAN - A flexible configurable data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Sivertz, Michael; Larry Hoff, Seth Nemesure

    2012-08-01

    DAQMAN is a flexible configurable interface that allows the user to build and operate a VME-based data acquisition system on a Linux workstation. It consists of two parts: a Java-based Graphical User Interface to configure the system, and a C-based utility that reads out the data and creates the output ASCII data file, with two levels of diagnostic tools. The data acquisition system requires a CAEN CONET-VME Bridge to communicate between the hardware in the VME crate and the Linux workstation. Data acquisition modules, such as ADCs, TDC, Scalers, can be loaded into the system, or removed easily. The GUI allows users to activate modules, and channels within modules by clicking on icons. Running configurations are stored; data are collected and can be viewed either as raw numbers, or by charts and histograms that update as the data are accumulated. Data files are written to disk in ASCII format, with a date and time stamp.

  5. A historic review of canard configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, S. B.; Feistel, T. W.

    1985-01-01

    The first human-powered flight was achieved by a canard-configured aircraft (Wright Brothers). Although other canard concepts were flown with varying degrees of success over the years, the tail-aft configuration has dominated the aircraft market for both military and civil use. This paper reviews the development of canard aircraft with emphasis on stability and control, handling qualities, and operating problems. The results show that early canard concepts suffered adversely in flight behavior because of a lack of understanding of the sensitivities of these concepts to basic stability and control principles. Modern canard designs have been made competitive with tail-aft configurations by using appropriate handling qualities design criteria.

  6. Configurational entropy in brane-world models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, R. A. C.; da Rocha, Roldão

    2015-11-01

    In this work we investigate the entropic information on thick brane-world scenarios and its consequences. The brane-world entropic information is studied for the sine-Gordon model and hence the brane-world entropic information measure is shown to be an accurate way for providing the most suitable range for the bulk AdS curvature, in particular from the informational content of physical solutions. Besides, the brane-world configurational entropy is employed to demonstrate a high organisational degree in the structure of the configuration of the system, for large values of a parameter of the sine-Gordon model but the one related to the AdS curvature. The Gleiser and Stamatopoulos procedure is finally applied in order to achieve a precise correlation between the energy of the system and the brane-world configurational entropy.

  7. Omnidirectional Structured Light in a Flexible Configuration

    PubMed Central

    Paniagua, Carmen; Puig, Luis; Guerrero, José J.

    2013-01-01

    Structured light is a perception method that allows us to obtain 3D information from images of the scene by projecting synthetic features with a light emitter. Traditionally, this method considers a rigid configuration, where the position and orientation of the light emitter with respect to the camera are known and calibrated beforehand. In this paper we propose a new omnidirectional structured light system in flexible configuration, which overcomes the rigidness of the traditional structured light systems. We propose the use of an omnidirectional camera combined with a conic pattern light, i.e., the 3D information of the conic in the space. This reconstruction considers the recovery of the depth and orientation of the scene surface where the conic pattern is projected. One application of our proposed structured light system in flexible configuration consists of a wearable omnicamera with a low-cost laser in hand for visual impaired personal assistance. PMID:24129024

  8. Oblique wing transonic transport configuration development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Studies of transport aircraft designed for boom-free supersonic flight show the variable sweep oblique wing to be the most efficient configuration for flight at low supersonic speeds. Use of this concept leads to a configuration that is lighter, quieter, and more fuel efficient than symmetric aircraft designed for the same mission. Aerodynamic structural, weight, aeroelastic and flight control studies show the oblique wing concept to be technically feasible. Investigations are reported for wing planform and thickness, pivot design and weight estimation, engine cycle (bypass ratio), and climb, descent and reserve fuel. Results are incorporated into a final configuration. Performance, weight, and balance characteristics are evaluated. Flight control requirements are reviewed, and areas in which further research is needed are identified.

  9. Real time analysis under EDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneberk, D.

    1985-07-01

    The analysis component of the Enrichment Diagnostic System (EDS) developed for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program (AVLIS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is described. Four different types of analysis are performed on data acquired through EDS: (1) absorption spectroscopy on laser-generated spectral lines, (2) mass spectrometer analysis, (3) general purpose waveform analysis, and (4) separation performance calculations. The information produced from this data includes: measures of particle density and velocity, partial pressures of residual gases, and overall measures of isotope enrichment. The analysis component supports a variety of real-time modeling tasks, a means for broadcasting data to other nodes, and a great degree of flexibility for tailoring computations to the exact needs of the process. A particular data base structure and program flow is common to all types of analysis. Key elements of the analysis component are: (1) a fast access data base which can configure all types of analysis, (2) a selected set of analysis routines, (3) a general purpose data manipulation and graphics package for the results of real time analysis.

  10. Access to specialist care: Optimizing the geographic configuration of trauma systems

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Jan O.; Morrison, Jonathan J.; Wang, Handing; He, Shan; Lawrenson, Robin; Hutchison, James D.; Campbell, Marion K.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The optimal geographic configuration of health care systems is key to maximizing accessibility while promoting the efficient use of resources. This article reports the use of a novel approach to inform the optimal configuration of a national trauma system. METHODS This is a prospective cohort study of all trauma patients, 15 years and older, attended to by the Scottish Ambulance Service, between July 1, 2013, and June 30, 2014. Patients underwent notional triage to one of three levels of care (major trauma center [MTC], trauma unit, or local emergency hospital). We used geographic information systems software to calculate access times, by road and air, from all incident locations to all candidate hospitals. We then modeled the performance of all mathematically possible network configurations and used multiobjective optimization to determine geospatially optimized configurations. RESULTS A total of 80,391 casualties were included. A network with only high- or moderate-volume MTCs (admitting at least 650 or 400 severely injured patients per year, respectively) would be optimally configured with a single MTC. A network accepting lower-volume MTCs (at least 240 severely injured patients per year) would be optimally configured with two MTCs. Both configurations would necessitate an increase in the number of helicopter retrievals. CONCLUSION This study has shown that a novel combination of notional triage, network analysis, and mathematical optimization can be used to inform the planning of a national clinical network. Scotland’s trauma system could be optimized with one or two MTCs. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Care management study, level IV. PMID:26335775

  11. Dynamic airspace configuration algorithms for next generation air transportation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jian

    The National Airspace System (NAS) is under great pressure to safely and efficiently handle the record-high air traffic volume nowadays, and will face even greater challenge to keep pace with the steady increase of future air travel demand, since the air travel demand is projected to increase to two to three times the current level by 2025. The inefficiency of traffic flow management initiatives causes severe airspace congestion and frequent flight delays, which cost billions of economic losses every year. To address the increasingly severe airspace congestion and delays, the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) is proposed to transform the current static and rigid radar based system to a dynamic and flexible satellite based system. New operational concepts such as Dynamic Airspace Configuration (DAC) have been under development to allow more flexibility required to mitigate the demand-capacity imbalances in order to increase the throughput of the entire NAS. In this dissertation, we address the DAC problem in the en route and terminal airspace under the framework of NextGen. We develop a series of algorithms to facilitate the implementation of innovative concepts relevant with DAC in both the en route and terminal airspace. We also develop a performance evaluation framework for comprehensive benefit analyses on different aspects of future sector design algorithms. First, we complete a graph based sectorization algorithm for DAC in the en route airspace, which models the underlying air route network with a weighted graph, converts the sectorization problem into the graph partition problem, partitions the weighted graph with an iterative spectral bipartition method, and constructs the sectors from the partitioned graph. The algorithm uses a graph model to accurately capture the complex traffic patterns of the real flights, and generates sectors with high efficiency while evenly distributing the workload among the generated sectors. We further improve

  12. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  13. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  14. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  15. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  16. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  17. CFDP Configuration: Enclid and Juice Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valverde, Alberto; Taylor, Chris; Montesinos, Juan Antonio; Maiorano, Elena; Colombo, Cyril; Erd, Christian; Magistrati, Giorgio

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents the work done within the ESA ESTEC Data Systems Division, targeting the implementation of CFDP in future ESA Science Missions. EUCLID and JUICE currently include CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP) as baseline for payload data transfer to ground. The two missions have completely different characteristics, although both present quite demanding scenarios. Using the communication link characteristics as an input, some simulations have been performed to optimize the CFDP configuration and get some preliminary figures on the retransmission overhead, payload data bandwidth and number of parallel transactions needed to maintain full bandwidth utilization. The paper provides some guidelines on CFDP configuration and usage that can be useful in future CFDP implementations.

  18. Static aeroelastic analysis for generic configuration wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, IN; Miura, Hirokazu; Chargin, Mladen K.

    1991-01-01

    A static aeroelastic analysis capability that calculates flexible air loads for generic configuration wings was developed. It was made possible by integrating a finite element structural analysis code (MSC/NASTRAN) and a panel code of aerodynamic analysis based on linear potential flow theory. The framework already built in MSC/NASTRAN was used, and the aerodynamic influence coefficient matrix was computed externally and inserted in the NASTRAN by means of a DMAP program. It was shown that deformation and flexible air loads of an oblique wing configuration including asymmetric wings can be calculated reliably by this code both in subsonic and supersonic speeds.

  19. Configurations of the amphiphilic molecules in micelles

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, K.A.

    1982-04-29

    Several theoretic models aim to account for the properties of micelles in terms of the configurations of the constituent amphiphilic chain molecules. Recent /sup 13/C NMR measurement of one property of the configuration distribution of the the hydrocarbon chain segments allows critical evaluation of these theories. It is concluded that the interphase and singly-bent chain theories, which fully account for chain continuity and for intermolecular constraints imposed by hydrophobic and steric forces, give a more satisfactory description of micellar molecular organization than models in which chains are ordered and radially aligned, or in which they have the complete disorder characteristic of an amorphous hydrocarbon liquid.

  20. Hemodialyzer membranes and configurations: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Clark, W R

    2000-01-01

    The principle of hemodialysis (HD) was first described over a century ago while the first human HD treatment was performed in 1923 with collodion tubes. Since that time, a variety of different hemodialyzer configurations and membranes have been used. The purpose of this article is to provide a historical review of these various configurations and membranes. The rotating drum, coil, parallel flow, and hollow fiber artificial kidneys are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the factors that have influenced the shaping of the contemporary HD market. PMID:11014692

  1. CFD Computations on Multi-GPU Configurations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Sandeep; Perot, Blair

    2007-11-01

    Programmable graphics processors have shown favorable potential for use in practical CFD simulations -- often delivering a speed-up factor between 3 to 5 times over conventional CPUs. In recent times, most PCs are supplied with the option of installing multiple GPUs on a single motherboard, thereby providing the option of a parallel GPU configuration in a shared-memory paradigm. We demonstrate our implementation of an unstructured CFD solver using a set up which is configured to run two GPUs in parallel, and discuss its performance details.

  2. Design review of the INTOR mechanical configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T.G.

    1981-01-01

    The INTOR conceptual design has been carried out by design teams working in the home countries with periodic workshop sessions in Vienna to review the ongoing work and to make decisions on the evolving design. The decisions taken at each workshop session were then incorporated into each national design activity, so that the four national design contributions would progressively converge toward a single design with increasingly greater detail. This paper defines the final INTOR configuration that has evolved during the conceptual design phase, defining the major system design alternatives that were considered and the rationale for selecting the final system configuration.

  3. The Design and Analysis of Virtual Network Configuration for a Wireless Mobile ATM Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Stephen F.

    1999-05-01

    This research concentrates on the design and analysis of an algorithm referred to as Virtual Network Configuration (VNC) which uses predicted future states of a system for faster network configuration and management. VNC is applied to the configuration of a wireless mobile ATM network. VNC is built on techniques from parallel discrete event simulation merged with constraints from real-time systems and applied to mobile ATM configuration and handoff. Configuration in a mobile network is a dynamic and continuous process. Factors such as load, distance, capacity and topology are all constantly changing in a mobile environment. The VNC algorithm anticipates configuration changes and speeds the reconfiguration process by pre-computing and caching results. VNC propagates local prediction results throughout the VNC enhanced system. The Global Positioning System is an enabling technology for the use of VNC in mobile networks because it provides location information and accurate time for each node. This research has resulted in well defined structures for the encapsulation of physical processes within Logical Processes and a generic library for enhancing a system with VNC. Enhancing an existing system with VNC is straight forward assuming the existing physical processes do not have side effects. The benefit of prediction is gained at the cost of additional traffic and processing. This research includes an analysis of VNC and suggestions for optimization of the VNC algorithm and its parameters.

  4. Determination Method for Loss Minimum Configuration Considering Reconnection of Distributed Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Hirotaka; Tomida, Takafumi; Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Matsuki, Junya

    In the field of electrical power system, various approaches, such as utilization of renewable energy, loss reduction, and so on, have been taken to reduce CO2 emission. So as to work toward this goal, the total number of distributed generators (DGs) using renewable energy connected into 6.6kV distribution system has been increasing rapidly. The DGs can reduce distribution loss by appropriate allocation. However, when a fault occurs such as distribution line fault and bank fault, DGs connecting outage sections are disconnected simultaneously. Since the simultaneous disconnection of DGs influences restoration configuration and normal configuration after the restoration, it is necessary to determine the system configuration in normal state considering simultaneous disconnection of DGs. In this paper, the authors propose a computation method to determine the loss minimum configuration in normal state considering reconnection of DGs after simultaneous disconnection by fault occurrence. The feature of determined loss minimum configuration is satisfying with operational constraints even if all DGs are disconnected from the system. Numerical simulations are carried out for a real scale distribution system model with 252 sectionalizing switches (configuration candidates are 2252) and 120 DGs (total output is 38.46MW which is 23% of total load) in order to examine the validity of the proposed algorithm.

  5. Benefit Assessment for Metroplex Tactical Runway Configuration Management (mTRCM) in a Simulated Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phojanamongkolkij, Nipa; Oseguera-Lohr, Rosa M.; Lohr, Gary W.; Robbins, Steven W.; Fenbert, James W.; Hartman, Christopher L.

    2015-01-01

    The System-Oriented Runway Management (SORM) concept is a collection of capabilities focused on a more efficient use of runways while considering all of the factors that affect runway use. Tactical Runway Configuration Management (TRCM), one of the SORM capabilities, provides runway configuration and runway usage recommendations, and monitoring the active runway configuration for suitability given existing factors. This report focuses on the metroplex environment, with two or more proximate airports having arrival and departure operations that are highly interdependent. The myriad of factors that affect metroplex opeations require consideration in arriving at runway configurations that collectively best serve the system as a whole. To assess the metroplex TRCM (mTRCM) benefit, the performance metrics must be compared with the actual historical operations. The historical configuration schedules can be viewed as the schedules produced by subject matter experts (SMEs), and therefore are referred to as the SMEs' schedules. These schedules were obtained from the FAA's Aviation System Performance Metrics (ASPM) database; this is the most representative information regarding runway configuration selection by SMEs. This report focused on a benefit assessment of total delay, transit time, and throughput efficiency (TE) benefits using the mTRCM algorithm at representative volumes for today's traffic at the New York metroplex (N90).

  6. Improved Full Configuration Interaction Monte Carlo for the Hubbard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changlani, Hitesh; Holmes, Adam; Petruzielo, Frank; Chan, Garnet; Henley, C. L.; Umrigar, C. J.

    2012-02-01

    We consider the recently proposed full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo (FCI-QMC) method and its ``initiator'' extension, both of which promise to ameliorate the sign problem by utilizing the cancellation of positive and negative walkers in the Hilbert space of Slater determinants. While the method has been primarily used for quantum chemistry by A.Alavi and his co-workers [1,2], its application to lattice models in solid state physics has not been tested. We propose an improvement in the form of choosing a basis to make the wavefunction more localized in Fock space, which potentially also reduces the sign problem. We perform calculations on the 4x4 and 8x8 Hubbard models in real and momentum space and in a basis motivated by the reduced density matrix of a 2x2 real space patch obtained from the exact diagonalization of a larger system in which it is embedded. We discuss our results for a range of fillings and U/t and compare them with previous Auxiliary Field QMC and Fixed Node Green's Function Monte Carlo calculations. [4pt] [1] George Booth, Alex Thom, Ali Alavi, J Chem Phys, 131, 050106,(2009)[0pt] [2] D Cleland, GH Booth, Ali Alavi, J Chem Phys 132, 041103, (2010)

  7. Bridge/amplifier configuration for switched arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohning, O. D.

    1977-01-01

    Bridge network connected to differential amplifier and used with bubble-domain memories draws no power during standby and can be arrayed with other bridge amplifiers of like design. Two-node arrangement greatly simplifies conventional configurations where more than two nodes are involved.

  8. Integrating configuration workflows with project management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, Dimitri; Weber, Pavel

    2014-06-01

    The complexity of the heterogeneous computing resources, services and recurring infrastructure changes at the GridKa WLCG Tier-1 computing center require a structured approach to configuration management and optimization of interplay between functional components of the whole system. A set of tools deployed at GridKa, including Puppet, Redmine, Foreman, SVN and Icinga, provides the administrative environment giving the possibility to define and develop configuration workflows, reduce the administrative effort and improve sustainable operation of the whole computing center. In this presentation we discuss the developed configuration scenarios implemented at GridKa, which we use for host installation, service deployment, change management procedures, service retirement etc. The integration of Puppet with a project management tool like Redmine provides us with the opportunity to track problem issues, organize tasks and automate these workflows. The interaction between Puppet and Redmine results in automatic updates of the issues related to the executed workflow performed by different system components. The extensive configuration workflows require collaboration and interaction between different departments like network, security, production etc. at GridKa. Redmine plugins developed at GridKa and integrated in its administrative environment provide an effective way of collaboration within the GridKa team. We present the structural overview of the software components, their connections, communication protocols and show a few working examples of the workflows and their automation.

  9. NASA's acquisition requirements for configuration management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coletta, Mark P.

    1992-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on NASA's acquisition requirements for configuration management (CM) goes over CM requirements for single mission and multi-mission orientations, CM automation and CALS implementation initiatives, NASA implementation of DOD standards and DID's (data item descriptions), impact of traceability in NASA CM support, NASA's CM efforts in modifying/upgrading equipment, and CM control of multi-vendor hardware.

  10. Holistic processing of face configurations and components.

    PubMed

    Hayward, William G; Crookes, Kate; Chu, Ming Hon; Favelle, Simone K; Rhodes, Gillian

    2016-10-01

    Although many researchers agree that faces are processed holistically, we know relatively little about what information holistic processing captures from a face. Most studies that assess the nature of holistic processing do so with changes to the face affecting many different aspects of face information (e.g., different identities). Does holistic processing affect every aspect of a face? We used the composite task, a common means of examining the strength of holistic processing, with participants making same-different judgments about configuration changes or component changes to 1 portion of a face. Configuration changes involved changes in spatial position of the eyes, whereas component changes involved lightening or darkening the eyebrows. Composites were either aligned or misaligned, and were presented either upright or inverted. Both configuration judgments and component judgments showed evidence of holistic processing, and in both cases it was strongest for upright face composites. These results suggest that holistic processing captures a broad range of information about the face, including both configuration-based and component-based information. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Infants' Bimodal Recognition of Human Stimulus Configurations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Patricia L.; McCroy, George

    The major purpose of this study was to examine bimodal coordination of featural stimuli in infancy. Specifically of interest was infant sensitivity to the auditory and visual combinations that characterize male and female stimulus configurations. A total of 27 male and 27 female subjects of 3, 6, and 9 months of age participated in the study.…

  12. Configurations of Common Childhood Psychosocial Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, William; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Background: Co-occurrence of psychosocial risk factors is commonplace, but little is known about psychiatrically-predictive configurations of psychosocial risk factors. Methods: Latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to 17 putative psychosocial risk factors in a representative population sample of 920 children ages 9 to 17. The resultant class…

  13. Flexible spatial configuration of local image features.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Gustavo; Jepson, Allan D

    2007-12-01

    Local image features have been designed to be informative and repeatable under rigid transformations and illumination deformations. Even though current state-of-the-art local image features present a high degree of repeatability, their local appearance alone usually does not bring enough discriminative power to support a reliable matching, resulting in a relatively high number of mismatches in the correspondence set formed during the data association procedure. As a result, geometric filters, commonly based on global spatial configuration, have been used to reduce this number of mismatches. However, this approach presents a trade off between the effectiveness to reject mismatches and the robustness to non-rigid deformations. In this paper, we propose two geometric filters, based on semilocal spatial configuration of local features, that are designed to be robust to non-rigid deformations and to rigid transformations, without compromising its efficacy to reject mismatches. We compare our methods to the Hough transform, which is an efficient and effective mismatch rejection step based on global spatial configuration of features. In these comparisons, our methods are shown to be more effective in the task of rejecting mismatches for rigid transformations and non-rigid deformations at comparable time complexity figures. Finally, we demonstrate how to integrate these methods in a probabilistic recognition system such that the final verification step uses not only the similarity between features, but also their semi-local configuration.

  14. 40 CFR 610.50 - Test configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test configurations. 610.50 Section... ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria Durability Test Procedures § 610.50 Test... the same test sequence for fuel economy and exhaust emissions as specified in subpart D....

  15. 40 CFR 610.50 - Test configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test configurations. 610.50 Section... ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria Durability Test Procedures § 610.50 Test... the same test sequence for fuel economy and exhaust emissions as specified in subpart D....

  16. 40 CFR 610.50 - Test configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test configurations. 610.50 Section... ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria Durability Test Procedures § 610.50 Test... the same test sequence for fuel economy and exhaust emissions as specified in subpart D....

  17. 40 CFR 610.50 - Test configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test configurations. 610.50 Section... ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria Durability Test Procedures § 610.50 Test... the same test sequence for fuel economy and exhaust emissions as specified in subpart D....

  18. 24 CFR 3285.304 - Pier configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... configuration. (a) Concrete blocks. Installation instructions for concrete block piers must be developed in...-bearing (not decorative) concrete blocks must have nominal dimensions of at least 8 inches × 8 inches × 16 inches; (2) The concrete blocks must be stacked with their hollow cells aligned vertically; and (3)...

  19. 24 CFR 3285.304 - Pier configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... configuration. (a) Concrete blocks. Installation instructions for concrete block piers must be developed in...-bearing (not decorative) concrete blocks must have nominal dimensions of at least 8 inches × 8 inches × 16 inches; (2) The concrete blocks must be stacked with their hollow cells aligned vertically; and (3)...

  20. 24 CFR 3285.304 - Pier configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... configuration. (a) Concrete blocks. Installation instructions for concrete block piers must be developed in...-bearing (not decorative) concrete blocks must have nominal dimensions of at least 8 inches × 8 inches × 16 inches; (2) The concrete blocks must be stacked with their hollow cells aligned vertically; and (3)...

  1. 24 CFR 3285.304 - Pier configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... configuration. (a) Concrete blocks. Installation instructions for concrete block piers must be developed in...-bearing (not decorative) concrete blocks must have nominal dimensions of at least 8 inches × 8 inches × 16 inches; (2) The concrete blocks must be stacked with their hollow cells aligned vertically; and (3)...

  2. 24 CFR 3285.304 - Pier configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... configuration. (a) Concrete blocks. Installation instructions for concrete block piers must be developed in...-bearing (not decorative) concrete blocks must have nominal dimensions of at least 8 inches × 8 inches × 16 inches; (2) The concrete blocks must be stacked with their hollow cells aligned vertically; and (3)...

  3. Aeropropulsion facilities configuration control: Procedures manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavelle, James J.

    1990-01-01

    Lewis Research Center senior management directed that the aeropropulsion facilities be put under configuration control. A Configuration Management (CM) program was established by the Facilities Management Branch of the Aeropropulsion Facilities and Experiments Division. Under the CM program, a support service contractor was engaged to staff and implement the program. The Aeronautics Directorate has over 30 facilities at Lewis of various sizes and complexities. Under the program, a Facility Baseline List (FBL) was established for each facility, listing which systems and their documents were to be placed under configuration control. A Change Control System (CCS) was established requiring that any proposed changes to FBL systems or their documents were to be processed as per the CCS. Limited access control of the FBL master drawings was implemented and an audit system established to ensure all facility changes are properly processed. This procedures manual sets forth the policy and responsibilities to ensure all key documents constituting a facilities configuration are kept current, modified as needed, and verified to reflect any proposed change. This is the essence of the CM program.

  4. The Periodic Table and Electron Configurations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Judith A.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the teaching of electron configurations and various systems used to help students write them correctly. Presents an approach to this type of instruction which uses diagrams and mnemonic devices. Examples of exercises which encourage the use of this method are provided. (TW)

  5. Sympathetic solar eruptions in quadrupolar magnetic configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torok, T.; Titov, V. S.; Panasenco, O.

    2014-12-01

    Observations by SDO/AIA have renewed the interest in sympathetic solareruptions, i.e., of eruptions that occur simultaneously (or in shortsuccession) at different source regions in the corona. Recently, Toroket al. (2011) developed an idealized numerical model for the triggermechanisms of sympathetic eruptions in so-called pseudo-streamers, whichconsist of a tri-polar magnetic configuration with a parasitic polarityin their center. Here we extend the work by Torok et al. by investigating sympathetic eruptions in (the topologically somewhat more complex) quadrupolar configurations, using MHD simulations. We consider both symmetric and asymmetric initial configurations that contain two or three flux ropes within the quadrupole. We find, differentto Torok et al. (2011), that magnetic reconnection induced by a firsteruption cannot just trigger, but also prevent subsequent eruptions. In addition, a (relatively modest) asymmetry of the configuration may fully suppress the occurrence of successive full eruptions, i.e., of coronal mass ejections. We discuss the implications of these results for our understanding of sympathetic eruptions.

  6. Stimulus Configuration, Classical Conditioning, and Hippocampal Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmajuk, Nestor A.; DiCarlo, James J.

    1991-01-01

    The participation of the hippocampus in classical conditioning is described in terms of a multilayer network portraying stimulus configuration. A model of hippocampal function is presented, and computer simulations are used to study neural activity in the various brain areas mapped according to the model. (SLD)

  7. Film bonded fuel cell interface configuration

    DOEpatents

    Kaufman, Arthur; Terry, Peter L.

    1985-01-01

    An improved interface configuration for use between adjacent elements of a fuel cell stack. The interface is impervious to gas and liquid and provides resistance to corrosion by the electrolyte of the fuel cell. A multi-layer arrangement for the interface provides bridging electrical contact with a hot-pressed resin filling the void space.

  8. Real-time cylindrical curvilinear 3-D ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Pua, E C; Yen, J T; Smith, S W

    2003-07-01

    In patients who are obese or exhibit signs of pulmonary disease, standard transthoracic scanning may yield poor quality cardiac images. For these conditions, two-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is established as an essential diagnostic tool. Current techniques in transesophageal scanning, though, are limited by incomplete visualization of cardiac structures in close proximity to the transducer. Thus, we propose a 2D curvilinear array for 3D transesophageal echocardiography in order to widen the field of view and increase visualization close to the transducer face. In this project, a 440 channel 5 MHz two-dimensional array with a 12.6 mm aperture diameter on a flexible interconnect circuit has been molded to a 4 mm radius of curvature. A 75% element yield was achieved during fabrication and an average -6dB bandwidth of 30% was observed in pulse-echo tests. Using this transducer in conjunction with modifications to the beam former delay software and scan converter display software of the our 3D scanner, we obtained cylindrical real-time curvilinear volumetric scans of tissue phantoms, including a field of view of greater than 120 degrees in the curved, azimuth direction and 65 degrees phased array sector scans in the elevation direction. These images were achieved using a stepped subaperture across the cylindrical curvilinear direction of the transducer face and phased array sector scanning in the noncurved plane. In addition, real-time volume rendered images of a tissue mimicking phantom with holes ranging from 1 cm to less than 4 mm have been obtained. 3D color flow Doppler results have also been acquired. This configuration can theoretically achieve volumes displaying 180 degrees by 120 degrees. The transducer is also capable of obtaining images through a curvilinear stepped subaperture in azimuth in conjunction with a rectilinear stepped subaperture in elevation, further increasing the field of view close to the transducer face. Future work

  9. Liquid Rocket Booster Integration Study. Volume 2: Study synopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The impacts of introducing liquid rocket booster engines (LRB) into the Space Transportation System (STS)/Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch environment are identified and evaluated. Proposed ground systems configurations are presented along with a launch site requirements summary. Prelaunch processing scenarios are described and the required facility modifications and new facility requirements are analyzed. Flight vehicle design recommendations to enhance launch processing are discussed. Processing approaches to integrate LRB with existing STS launch operations are evaluated. The key features and significance of launch site transition to a new STS configuration in parallel with ongoing launch activities are enumerated. This volume is the study summary of the five volume series.

  10. Liquid rocket booster integration study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The impacts of introducing liquid rocket booster engines (LRB) into the Space Transportation System (STS)/Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch environment are identified and evaluated. Proposed ground systems configurations are presented along with a launch site requirements summary. Prelaunch processing scenarios are described and the required facility modifications and new facility requirements are analyzed. Flight vehicle design recommendations to enhance launch processing are discussed. Processing approaches to integrate LRB with existing STS launch operations are evaluated. The key features and significance of launch site transition to a new STS configuration in parallel with ongoing launch activities are enumerated. This volume is the executive summary of the five volume series.

  11. Liquid rocket booster integration study. Volume 5, part 1: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The impacts of introducing liquid rocket booster engines (LRB) into the Space Transportation System (STS)/Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch environment are identified and evaluated. Proposed ground systems configurations are presented along with a launch site requirements summary. Prelaunch processing scenarios are described and the required facility modifications and new facility requirements are analyzed. Flight vehicle design recommendations to enhance launch processing are discussed. Processing approaches to integrate LRB with existing STS launch operations are evaluated. The key features and significance of launch site transition to a new STS configuration in parallel with ongoing launch activities are enumerated. This volume is the appendices of the five volume series.

  12. RICA: a reliable and image configurable arena for cyborg bumblebee based on CAN bus.

    PubMed

    Gong, Fan; Zheng, Nenggan; Xue, Lei; Xu, Kedi; Zheng, Xiaoxiang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we designed a reliable and image configurable flight arena, RICA, for developing cyborg bumblebees. To meet the spatial and temporal requirements of bumblebees, the Controller Area Network (CAN) bus is adopted to interconnect the LED display modules to ensure the reliability and real-time performance of the arena system. Easily-configurable interfaces on a desktop computer implemented by python scripts are provided to transmit the visual patterns to the LED distributor online and configure RICA dynamically. The new arena system will be a power tool to investigate the quantitative relationship between the visual inputs and induced flight behaviors and also will be helpful to the visual-motor research in other related fields.

  13. RICA: a reliable and image configurable arena for cyborg bumblebee based on CAN bus.

    PubMed

    Gong, Fan; Zheng, Nenggan; Xue, Lei; Xu, Kedi; Zheng, Xiaoxiang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we designed a reliable and image configurable flight arena, RICA, for developing cyborg bumblebees. To meet the spatial and temporal requirements of bumblebees, the Controller Area Network (CAN) bus is adopted to interconnect the LED display modules to ensure the reliability and real-time performance of the arena system. Easily-configurable interfaces on a desktop computer implemented by python scripts are provided to transmit the visual patterns to the LED distributor online and configure RICA dynamically. The new arena system will be a power tool to investigate the quantitative relationship between the visual inputs and induced flight behaviors and also will be helpful to the visual-motor research in other related fields. PMID:25570095

  14. E→H mode transition density and power in two types of inductively coupled plasma configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jian; Du, Yin-chang; Zhang, Xiao; Zheng, Zhe; Liu, Yu; Xu, Liang; Wang, Pi; Cao, Jin-xiang

    2014-07-15

    E → H transition power and density were investigated at various argon pressures in inductively coupled plasma (ICP) in a cylindrical interlaid chamber. The transition power versus the pressure shows a minimum transition power at 4 Pa (ν/ω=1) for argon. Then the transition density hardly changes at low pressures (ν/ω≪1), but it increases clearly when argon pressure exceeds an appropriate value. In addition, both the transition power and transition density are lower in the re-entrant configuration of ICP compared with that in the cylindrical configuration of ICP. The result may be caused from the decrease of stochastic heating in the re-entrant configuration of ICP. This work is useful to understand E → H mode transition and control the transition points in real plasma processes.

  15. Configurational diffusion of asphaltenes in fresh and aged catalysts extrudates. [Mathematical configurational diffusion model

    SciTech Connect

    Guin, J.A.; Tarrer, A.R.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this research is to determine the relationship between the size and shape of coal and petroleum macromolecules and their diffusion rates i.e., effective diffusivities, in catalyst pore structures. That is, how do the effective intrapore diffusivities depend on molecule configuration and pore geometry. This quarter we made a more comprehensive literature survey concerning configurational diffusion in porous catalysts or catalyst supports. A detailed literature review is reported. Also, a mathematical configurational diffusion model was developed. By using this model, the effective diffusivity for model compounds diffusing in porous media and a linear adsorption constant can be determined by fitting experimental data.

  16. Tracking magmatic intrusions in real-time by means of free-shaped volcanic source modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannavo', Flavio; Camacho, Antonio G.; Scandura, Danila; González, Pablo J.; Mattia, Mario; Fernández, José

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays continuous measurements of geophysical parameters provide a general real-time view of current state of the volcano. Nonetheless, a current challenge is to localize and track in real-time the evolution of the magma source beneath the volcano. Here we present a new methodology to rapidly estimate magmatic sources from surface geodetic data and track their evolution in time without any a priori assumption about source geometry. Indeed, the proposed approach takes the advantages of fast calculation from the analytical models and adds the capability to model free-shape distributed sources. Assuming homogenous elastic conditions, the approach can determine general geometrical configurations of pressured and/or density source and/or sliding structures corresponding to prescribed values of anomalous density, pressure and slip. These source bodies are described as aggregation of elemental point sources for pressure, density and slip, and they fit the whole data (keeping some 3D regularity conditions). In this work we show an application of the methodology to model the real-time evolution of the volcanic source for 2008 eruption of Mount Etna (Italy). To this aim the High-Rate GPS data, coming from the Continuous GPS network, are processed in real-time to obtain sub-daily solutions for tracking the fast dynamics of the magma migration. In our test case we reproduced the real-time scenario of the eruption. Though the data of the test were processed after data collection, real-time operation was emulated. From the results, it is possible to extrapolate the dynamic of a deep and a shallow magma source and the dyke intrusion. In particular, results show at 5 am UTC a magma batch likely migrating towards the surface leaving behind a deflating volume at about 2 km bsl and a deep elongated body from 2 km bsl to 10 km bsl which runs along the High Vp Body and likely represents the deep conduit from where the magma rises up. We demonstrate that the proposed methodology is

  17. Raman Based Process Monitor for Continuous Real-Time Analysis Of High Level Radioactive Waste Components

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, S.; Levitskaia, T.; Schlahta, St.

    2008-07-01

    A new monitoring system was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to quickly generate real-time data/analysis to facilitate a timely response to the dynamic characteristics of a radioactive high level waste stream. The developed process monitor features Raman and Coriolis/conductivity instrumentation configured for the remote monitoring, MatLab-based chemometric data processing, and comprehensive software for data acquisition/storage/archiving/display. The monitoring system is capable of simultaneously and continuously quantifying the levels of all the chemically significant anions within the waste stream including nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, carbonate, chromate, hydroxide, sulfate, and aluminate. The total sodium ion concentration was also determined independently by modeling inputs from on-line conductivity and density meters. In addition to the chemical information, this monitoring system provides immediate real-time data on the flow parameters, such as flow rate and temperature, and cumulative mass/volume of the retrieved waste stream. The components and analytical tools of the new process monitor can be tailored for a variety of complex mixtures in chemically harsh environments, such as pulp and paper processing liquids, electroplating solutions, and radioactive tank wastes. The developed monitoring system was tested for acceptability before it was deployed for use in Hanford Tank S-109 retrieval activities. The acceptance tests included performance inspection of hardware, software, and chemometric data analysis to determine the expected measurement accuracy for the different chemical species that are encountered during S-109 retrieval. (authors)

  18. Raman Based Process Monitor For Continuous Real-Time Analysis Of High Level Radioactive Waste Components

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Samuel A.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Schlahta, Stephan N.

    2008-05-27

    ABSTRACT A new monitoring system was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to quickly generate real-time data/analysis to facilitate a timely response to the dynamic characteristics of a radioactive high level waste stream. The developed process monitor features Raman and Coriolis/conductivity instrumentation configured for the remote monitoring, MatLab-based chemometric data processing, and comprehensive software for data acquisition/storage/archiving/display. The monitoring system is capable of simultaneously and continuously quantifying the levels of all the chemically significant anions within the waste stream including nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, carbonate, chromate, hydroxide, sulfate, and aluminate. The total sodium ion concentration was also determined independently by modeling inputs from on-line conductivity and density meters. In addition to the chemical information, this monitoring system provides immediate real-time data on the flow parameters, such as flow rate and temperature, and cumulative mass/volume of the retrieved waste stream. The components and analytical tools of the new process monitor can be tailored for a variety of complex mixtures in chemically harsh environments, such as pulp and paper processing liquids, electroplating solutions, and radioactive tank wastes. The developed monitoring system was tested for acceptability before it was deployed for use in Hanford Tank S-109 retrieval activities. The acceptance tests included performance inspection of hardware, software, and chemometric data analysis to determine the expected measurement accuracy for the different chemical species that are encountered during S-109 retrieval.

  19. Regimes of pulsed formation of a compact plasma configuration with a high energy input

    SciTech Connect

    Romadanov, I. V.; Ryzhkov, S. V.

    2015-10-15

    Results of experiments on the formation of a compact toroidal magnetic configuration at the Compact Toroid Challenge setup are presented. The experiments were primarily aimed at studying particular formation stages. Two series of experiments, with and without an auxiliary capacitor bank, were conducted. The magnetic field was measured, its time evolution and spatial distribution over the chamber volume were determined, and its influence on the formation regimes was investigated.

  20. Regimes of pulsed formation of a compact plasma configuration with a high energy input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romadanov, I. V.; Ryzhkov, S. V.

    2015-10-01

    Results of experiments on the formation of a compact toroidal magnetic configuration at the Compact Toroid Challenge setup are presented. The experiments were primarily aimed at studying particular formation stages. Two series of experiments, with and without an auxiliary capacitor bank, were conducted. The magnetic field was measured, its time evolution and spatial distribution over the chamber volume were determined, and its influence on the formation regimes was investigated.

  1. A Vertical Differential Configuration in GPR prospecting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persico, Raffaele; Pochanin, Gennadiy; Varianytsia-Roshchupkina, Liudmyla; Catapano, Ilaria; Gennarelli, Gianluca; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    The rejection of the direct coupling between the antennas is an issue of interest in several GPR applications, especially when it is important to distinguish the targets of interest from the clutter and the signal reflected from the air soil interface. Therefore, in this framework several hardware and software strategies have been proposed. Among the software strategies, probably the most common one is the background removal [1], whereas as an hardware strategy the differential configuration has been introduced in [2-3] and then further on studied in [4] with respect to the spatial filtering properties of the relevant mathematical operator. In particular, the studies proposed in [1] and [4] have shown that, in general, all the strategies for the rejection of the direct coupling have necessarily some drawback, essentially because it is not possible to erase all and only the undesired contributions leaving "untouched" the contributions of the targets of interest to the gathered signal. With specific regard to the differential configuration, in [2-3], the differential configuration consisted in a couple of receiving antennas symmetrically placed around the transmitting one, being the three antennas placed along the same horizontal segment. Therefore, we might define that configuration as a "horizontal differential configuration". Here, we propose a novel differential GPR configuration, where the two receiving antennas are still symmetrically located with respect to the transmitting one, but are placed piled on each other at different heights from the air-soil interface, whereas the transmitting antenna is at the medium height between the two receiving one (however, it is not at the same abscissa but at a fixed horizontal offset from the receiving antennas). Such a differential configuration has been previously presented in [5-6] and allows a good isolation between the antennas, while preserving the possibility to collect backscattered signals from both electrically

  2. Shaping light with split lens configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizana, A.; Vargas, A.; Turpin, A.; Ramirez, C.; Estevez, I.; Campos, J.

    2016-10-01

    We present an intuitive and versatile method that can dynamically generate 2D and 3D tailored light patterns. The light structures are generated by dynamically implementing discrete and continuous split lens configurations onto a spatial light modulator. These configurations can be dynamically modified by tuning a reduced number of control parameters with simple physical interpretation. We demonstrate the versatility of the method by experimentally implementing a wide number of structured beams, including optical lattices, a light cone, and vortex beams carrying orbital angular momentum. Compared with other optical illuminators, the advantages of our method are its simple interpretation and control for creating the light structures, and that it is based on a robust, dynamic and easy-to-build optical set-up. The proposed method may be useful in a large number of applications, such as optical trapping, super-resolution imaging or illuminating arrays of photonic switching devices.

  3. Remote object configuration/orientation determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumacher, Larry L. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    This invention relates to object detection and location systems and, more particularly, to a method for determining the configuration and location of an object with respect to an X, Y, X coordinate frame. In space applications in particular, there is a need to be able to passively determine the orientation of an object at a distance, for example, in the control of large, flexible space structures. At present, there is no available method or apparatus which will allow the operator to make such a determination. A similar problem and need exists in robotic application. It is the primary object of this invention to provide a system for remotely defining an object's configuration in a manner compatible with a computer's analytical capability.

  4. Sustainable Supply Chain Design: A Configurational Approach

    PubMed Central

    Masoumik, S. Maryam; Raja Ghazilla, Raja Ariffin

    2014-01-01

    Designing the right supply chain that meets the requirements of sustainable development is a significant challenge. Although there are a considerable number of studies on issues relating to sustainable supply chain design (SSCD) in terms of designing the practices, processes, and structures, they have rarely demonstrated how these components can be aligned to form an effective sustainable supply chain (SSC). Considering this gap in the literature, this study adopts the configurational approach to develop a conceptual framework that could configure the components of a SSC. In this respect, a process-oriented approach is utilized to classify and harmonize the design components. A natural-resource-based view (NRBV) is adopted to determine the central theme to align the design components around. The proposed framework presents three types of SSC, namely, efficient SSC, innovative SSC, and reputed SSC. The study culminates with recommendations concerning the direction for future research. PMID:24523652

  5. Spacecraft (Mobile Satellite) configuration design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The relative costs to procure and operate a two-satellite mobile satellite system designed to operate either in the UHF band of the L Band, and with several antenna diameter options in each frequency band was investigated. As configured, the size of the spacecraft is limited to the current RCA Series 4000 Geosynchronous Communications Spacecraft bus, which spans the range from 4000 to 5800 pounds in the transfer orbit. The Series 4000 bus forms the basis around which the Mobile Satellite transponder and associated antennas were appended. Although the resultant configuration has little outward resemblance to the present Series 4000 microwave communications spacecraft, the structure, attitude control, thermal, power, and command and control subsystems of the Series 4000 spacecraft are all adapted to support the Mobile Satellite mission.

  6. Space station configuration and flight dynamics identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metter, E.; Milman, M. H.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Station will be assembled in low earth orbit by a combination of deployable and space erectable modules that are progressively integrated during successive flights of the Shuttle. The crew assisted space construction will result in a configuration which is a large scale composite of structural elements having connectivity with a wide range of possible end conditions and imprecisely known dynamic characteristics. The generic applications of Flight Dynamics Identification to the candidate Space Station configurations currently under consideration are described. Identification functions are categorized, and the various methods for extracting parameter estimates are correlated with the sensing of parameter estimates are correlated with the sensing of specific characteristics of interest to both engineering subsystems and users of the Station's commercial and scientific facilities. Onboard implementation architecture and constraints are discussed from the viewpoint of maximizing integration of the Identification process with the flight subsystem's data and signal flow.

  7. Genetic optimization for radio interferometer configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauci, Adam; Zarb Adami, Kristian; Abela, John; Cohanim, Babak E.

    2013-05-01

    The large bandwidth and resolution specifications of today's telescopes require the use of different types of collectors positioned over long baselines. Innovative feeds and detectors must be designed and introduced in the initial phases of development. The required level of resolution can only be achieved through a ground-breaking configuration of dishes and antennas. This work investigates the possibility of the genetic optimization of radio interferometer layouts given constraints on cable length, required UV density distribution and point-spread function. Owing to the large collecting area and the frequency range required for the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) to deliver the promised science, the configuration of the dishes within each station is an important issue. As a proof of concept, the Phase 1 specifications of this telescope are used to test the proposed framework.

  8. Configuration management; Operating power station electrical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Beavers, R.R.; Sumiec, K.F. )

    1989-01-01

    Increasing regulatory and industry attention has been focused on properly controlling electrical design changes. These changes can be controlled by using configuration management techniques. Typically, there are ongoing modifications to various process systems or additions due to new requirements at every power plant. Proper control of these changes requires that an organized method be used to ensure that all important parameters of the electrical auxiliary systems are analyzed and that these parameters are evaluated accurately. This process, commonly referred to as configuration management, is becoming more important on both fossil and nuclear plants. Recent NRC- and utility-initiated inspections have identified problems due to incomplete analysis of changes to electrical auxiliary systems at nuclear stations.

  9. Lidar configurations for wind turbine control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaei, Mahmood; Mann, Jakob

    2016-09-01

    Lidar sensors have proved to be very beneficial in the wind energy industry. They can be used for yaw correction, feed-forward pitch control and load verification. However, the current lidars are expensive. One way to reduce the price is to use lidars with few measurement points. Finding the best configuration of an inexpensive lidar in terms of number of measurement points, the measurement distance and the opening angle is the subject of this study. In order to solve the problem, a lidar model is developed and used to measure wind speed in a turbulence box. The effective wind speed measured by the lidar is compared against the effective wind speed on a wind turbine rotor both theoretically and through simulations. The study provides some results to choose the best configuration of the lidar with few measurement points.

  10. Calculation of vortex flows on complex configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maskew, B.; Rao, B. M.

    1982-01-01

    The calculation of aerodynamic characteristics of complex configurations having strongly coupled vortex flows is a non-linear problem requiring iterative solution techniques. This paper discusses the use of a low-order panel method as a means of obtaining practical solutions to such problems. The panel method is based on piecewise constant source and doublet quadrilateral panels and uses the internal Dirichlet boundary condition of zero perturbation potential. The problems of predicting vortex/surface interaction and vortex separation are discussed. Some example calculations are included but further test cases have yet to be carried out, in particular for comparisons with experimental data. The problem of convergence on the iterative calculation for the shape of the free vortex sheet is addressed and a preprocessor routine, based on an unsteady, two-dimensional version of the panel method, is put forward as a cost-effective way of generating an initial vortex structure for use as a starting solution for general configurations.

  11. Sustainable supply chain design: a configurational approach.

    PubMed

    Masoumik, S Maryam; Abdul-Rashid, Salwa Hanim; Olugu, Ezutah Udoncy; Raja Ghazilla, Raja Ariffin

    2014-01-01

    Designing the right supply chain that meets the requirements of sustainable development is a significant challenge. Although there are a considerable number of studies on issues relating to sustainable supply chain design (SSCD) in terms of designing the practices, processes, and structures, they have rarely demonstrated how these components can be aligned to form an effective sustainable supply chain (SSC). Considering this gap in the literature, this study adopts the configurational approach to develop a conceptual framework that could configure the components of a SSC. In this respect, a process-oriented approach is utilized to classify and harmonize the design components. A natural-resource-based view (NRBV) is adopted to determine the central theme to align the design components around. The proposed framework presents three types of SSC, namely, efficient SSC, innovative SSC, and reputed SSC. The study culminates with recommendations concerning the direction for future research. PMID:24523652

  12. Writing for Real Audiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shugert, Diane P., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    The focus of the articles in this journal issue is helping students write for real audiences. The document contains the following articles: "Real Audiences: The Only Kind We Write For" (Margaret Queenan); "A Literary Magazine for Middle Grades" (Anthony R. Angelo and Marie-Jeanne Laurent); "Rewarding Understanding and Warmth" (Peter M. Ashe);…

  13. Real Estate Career Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Robert; Gardner, Gene

    Designed to provide basic information on the major entry-level career fields in real estate, this document can be used as a reference manual for counselors and instructors. The manual contains general information about the following real estate careers: salesperson, sales manager, broker, land developer, property manager, appraiser, mortgage loan…

  14. Multiblock grid generation for jet engine configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Mark E. M.

    1992-01-01

    The goal was to create methods for generating grids with minimal human intervention that are applicable to a wide range of problems and compatible with existing numerical methods and with existing and proposed computers. The following topics that are related to multiblock grid generation are briefly covered in viewgraph form: finding a domain decomposition, dimensioning grids, grid smoothing, manipulating grids and decompositions, and some specializations for jet engine configurations.

  15. Coaxial configuration of the dielectric Cherenkov maser

    SciTech Connect

    Gavate, E.P.; Fisher, A. . Dept. of Physics); Main, W.G. . Lab. for Plasma Research)

    1990-10-01

    The linearized Lorentz force, continuity equation, and Maxwell's equations are used to calculate the system dispersion relation for a coaxial configuration of the dielectric Cherenkov maser. The system consists of two coaxial conductors lined with dielectric and an annular relativistic electron beam, which propagates between the two liners. Using the linearized dispersion relation, the growth rate for the beam-TM{sub on} waveguide mode instability is calculated in the strong-coupling tenuous beam limit.

  16. Synchronization configurations of two coupled double pendula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koluda, Piotr; Perlikowski, Przemyslaw; Czolczynski, Krzysztof; Kapitaniak, Tomasz

    2014-04-01

    We consider the synchronization of two self-excited double pendula hanging from a horizontal beam which can roll on the parallel surface. We show that such pendula can obtain four different robust synchronous configurations. Our approximate analytical analysis allows to derive the synchronization conditions and explains the observed types of synchronizations. We consider the energy balance in the system and show how the energy is transferred between the pendula via the oscillating beam allowing the pendula' synchronization.

  17. Configurationally exhaustive first-principles study of a quaternary superalloy with a vast configuration space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maisel, S. B.; Höfler, M.; Müller, S.

    2016-07-01

    Exploration of the vast configuration space encountered in a multicomponent alloy is impossible without a suitable engine like the cluster-expansion (CE) method. While a CE ansatz can be formulated for an arbitrary number of components n , the combinatorial explosion of configuration space with increasing n can still be prohibitive. In this paper, we present a configurationally exhaustive study of a four-component nickel-based superalloy. We obtain all ground-state compounds, temperature- and concentration-dependent configurational energies, and micrographs of the γ /γ' microstructure of the γ'-strengthened superalloy Ni-Al-Ta-W. Several phenomena that cannot be studied from the binary building blocks Ni-Al, Ni-W, or Ni-Ta alone are discussed, e.g., the suppression of γ'' formation in Al-Ni-Ta-W, the effect of Ta on the γ' composition, and the tungsten partitioning ratio as a function of both temperature and bulk composition.

  18. Adaptive anisotropic kernels for nonparametric estimation of absolute configurational entropies in high-dimensional configuration spaces.

    PubMed

    Hensen, Ulf; Grubmüller, Helmut; Lange, Oliver F

    2009-07-01

    The quasiharmonic approximation is the most widely used estimate for the configurational entropy of macromolecules from configurational ensembles generated from atomistic simulations. This method, however, rests on two assumptions that severely limit its applicability, (i) that a principal component analysis yields sufficiently uncorrelated modes and (ii) that configurational densities can be well approximated by Gaussian functions. In this paper we introduce a nonparametric density estimation method which rests on adaptive anisotropic kernels. It is shown that this method provides accurate configurational entropies for up to 45 dimensions thus improving on the quasiharmonic approximation. When embedded in the minimally coupled subspace framework, large macromolecules of biological interest become accessible, as demonstrated for the 67-residue coldshock protein. PMID:19658735

  19. High-volume centers.

    PubMed

    Vespa, P; Diringer, Michael N

    2011-09-01

    Outcome from trauma, surgery, and a variety of other medical conditions has been shown to be positively affected by providing treatment at facilities experiencing a high volume of patients with those conditions. An electronic literature search was made to identify English-language articles available through March 2011, addressing the effect of patient treatment volume on outcome for patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Limited data were identified, with 16 citations included in the current review. Over 60% of hospitals fall into the lowest case-volume quartile. Outcome is influenced by patient volume, with better outcome occurring in high-volume centers treating >60 cases per year. Patients treated at low-volume hospitals are less likely to experience definitive treatment. Furthermore, transfer to high-volume centers may be inadequately arranged. Several factors may influence the better outcome at high-volume centers, including the availability of neurointensivists and interventional neuroradiologists. PMID:21792754

  20. Redundant Array Configurations for 21 cm Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, Joshua S.; Parsons, Aaron R.

    2016-08-01

    Realizing the potential of 21 cm tomography to statistically probe the intergalactic medium before and during the Epoch of Reionization requires large telescopes and precise control of systematics. Next-generation telescopes are now being designed and built to meet these challenges, drawing lessons from first-generation experiments that showed the benefits of densely packed, highly redundant arrays—in which the same mode on the sky is sampled by many antenna pairs—for achieving high sensitivity, precise calibration, and robust foreground mitigation. In this work, we focus on the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) as an interferometer with a dense, redundant core designed following these lessons to be optimized for 21 cm cosmology. We show how modestly supplementing or modifying a compact design like HERA’s can still deliver high sensitivity while enhancing strategies for calibration and foreground mitigation. In particular, we compare the imaging capability of several array configurations, both instantaneously (to address instrumental and ionospheric effects) and with rotation synthesis (for foreground removal). We also examine the effects that configuration has on calibratability using instantaneous redundancy. We find that improved imaging with sub-aperture sampling via “off-grid” antennas and increased angular resolution via far-flung “outrigger” antennas is possible with a redundantly calibratable array configuration.

  1. Permutation-invariant distance between atomic configurations.

    PubMed

    Ferré, Grégoire; Maillet, Jean-Bernard; Stoltz, Gabriel

    2015-09-14

    We present a permutation-invariant distance between atomic configurations, defined through a functional representation of atomic positions. This distance enables us to directly compare different atomic environments with an arbitrary number of particles, without going through a space of reduced dimensionality (i.e., fingerprints) as an intermediate step. Moreover, this distance is naturally invariant through permutations of atoms, avoiding the time consuming associated minimization required by other common criteria (like the root mean square distance). Finally, the invariance through global rotations is accounted for by a minimization procedure in the space of rotations solved by Monte Carlo simulated annealing. A formal framework is also introduced, showing that the distance we propose verifies the property of a metric on the space of atomic configurations. Two examples of applications are proposed. The first one consists in evaluating faithfulness of some fingerprints (or descriptors), i.e., their capacity to represent the structural information of a configuration. The second application concerns structural analysis, where our distance proves to be efficient in discriminating different local structures and even classifying their degree of similarity.

  2. Hybrid Wing Body Configuration Scaling Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickol, Craig L.

    2012-01-01

    The Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) configuration is a subsonic transport aircraft concept with the potential to simultaneously reduce fuel burn, noise and emissions compared to conventional concepts. Initial studies focused on very large applications with capacities for up to 800 passengers. More recent studies have focused on the large, twin-aisle class with passenger capacities in the 300-450 range. Efficiently scaling this concept down to the single aisle or smaller size is challenging due to geometric constraints, potentially reducing the desirability of this concept for applications in the 100-200 passenger capacity range or less. In order to quantify this scaling challenge, five advanced conventional (tube-and-wing layout) concepts were developed, along with equivalent (payload/range/technology) HWB concepts, and their fuel burn performance compared. The comparison showed that the HWB concepts have fuel burn advantages over advanced tube-and-wing concepts in the larger payload/range classes (roughly 767-sized and larger). Although noise performance was not quantified in this study, the HWB concept has distinct noise advantages over the conventional tube-and-wing configuration due to the inherent noise shielding features of the HWB. NASA s Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project will continue to investigate advanced configurations, such as the HWB, due to their potential to simultaneously reduce fuel burn, noise and emissions.

  3. Computational Aeroheating Predictions for Mars Lander Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edquist, Karl T.; Alter, Stephen J.

    2003-01-01

    The proposed Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission is intended to deliver a large rover to the Martian surface within 10 km of the target site. This paper presents computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions of forebody heating rates for two MSL entry configurations with fixed aerodynamic trim tabs. Results are compared to heating on a 70-deg sphere-cone reference geometry. All three heatshield geometries are designed to trim hypersonically at a 16 deg angle of attack in order to generate the lift-to-drag ratio (L/D) required for precision landing. Comparisons between CFD and tunnel data are generally in good agreement for each configuration, but the computations predict more flow separation and higher heating on a trim tab inclined 10 deg relative to the surface. CFD solutions at flight conditions were obtained using an 8-species Mars gas in chemical and thermal nonequilibrium. Laminar and Baldwin-Lomax solutions were used to estimate the effects of the trim tabs and turbulence on heating. A tab extending smoothly from the heatshield flank is not predicted to increase laminar or turbulent heating rates above the reference levels. Laminar heating on a tab deflected 10 deg from the conical heatshield is influenced by flow separation and is up to 35% above the baseline heating rate. The turbulent solution on the inclined tab configuration predicts attached flow and a 43% heating increase above the reference level.

  4. Process configuration role in anaerobic biotransformations

    SciTech Connect

    Speece, R.E.

    1998-07-01

    Defining the environmental conditions which would enable anaerobic processes to consistently produce effluents containing only non-detectable concentrations of degradable organics would remove one of the main drawbacks to wider application of this important treatment technology. Recently specific metabolic intermediates formed in the anaerobic biotransformation of complex organics have been found to enhance or curtail process performance. Using acrylate and acrolein as representative hazardous chemicals, modifications in staging and reactor operation procedures have been observed in the author's laboratory to profoundly impact the rate and completeness of the biotransformation process. Specific metabolic intermediates formed in the biotransformation of complex substrates to a large extent will control a given process performance and process configuration greatly impacts the metabolic pathway, thus impacting the intermediates formed as well. There is a growing body of literature to indicate that process performance in anaerobic biotransformation is greatly impacted by reactor configuration. There is also some evidence that metabolic precursors impact the subsequent efficiency of conversion of volatile fatty acids (VFA) ultimately to CH{sub 4}. But although profound differences in the performance of anaerobic biotransformation are reported for various process configurations, there are no published criteria to guide the rational design of stages/phased processes. Clarification of the relative merits of single stage, two stage, two phase, granules and biofilms as well as CSTR and plug flow modes in the biotransformation of hazardous pollutants would be foundational for future research and development.

  5. Configuration management plan for the GENII software

    SciTech Connect

    Rittmann, P.D.

    1994-12-12

    The GENII program calculates doses from radionuclides released into the environment for a variety of possible exposure scenarios. The user prepares an input data file with the necessary modelling assumptions and parameters. The program reads the user`s input file, computes the necessary doses and stores these results in an output file. The output file also contains a listing of the user`s input and gives the title lines from the data libraries which are accessed in the course of the calculations. The purpose of this document is to provide users of the GENII software with the configuration controls which are planned for use by WHC in accordance with WHC-CM-3-10. The controls are solely for WHC employees. Non-WHC individuals are not excluded, but no promise is made or implied that they will be informed of errors or revisions to the software. The configuration controls cover the GENII software, the GENII user`s guide, the list of GENII users at WHC, and the backup copies. Revisions to the software must be approved prior to distribution in accordance with this configuration management plan.

  6. Permutation-invariant distance between atomic configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Ferré, Grégoire; Maillet, Jean-Bernard; Stoltz, Gabriel

    2015-09-14

    We present a permutation-invariant distance between atomic configurations, defined through a functional representation of atomic positions. This distance enables us to directly compare different atomic environments with an arbitrary number of particles, without going through a space of reduced dimensionality (i.e., fingerprints) as an intermediate step. Moreover, this distance is naturally invariant through permutations of atoms, avoiding the time consuming associated minimization required by other common criteria (like the root mean square distance). Finally, the invariance through global rotations is accounted for by a minimization procedure in the space of rotations solved by Monte Carlo simulated annealing. A formal framework is also introduced, showing that the distance we propose verifies the property of a metric on the space of atomic configurations. Two examples of applications are proposed. The first one consists in evaluating faithfulness of some fingerprints (or descriptors), i.e., their capacity to represent the structural information of a configuration. The second application concerns structural analysis, where our distance proves to be efficient in discriminating different local structures and even classifying their degree of similarity.

  7. Air Traffic Sector Configuration Change Frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterji, Gano B.; Drew, Michael

    2010-01-01

    A Mixed Integer Linear Programming method is used for creating sectors in Fort Worth, Cleveland, and Los Angeles centers based on several days of good-weather traffic data. The performance of these sectors is studied when they are subjected to traffic data from different days. Additionally, the advantage of using different sector designs at different times of day with varying traffic loads is examined. Specifically, traffic data from 10 days are used for design, and 47 other days are played back to test if the traffic-counts stay below the design values used in creating the partitions. The primary findings of this study are as follows. Sectors created with traffic from good-weather days can be used on other good-weather days. Sector configurations created with two hours of traffic can be used for 6 to 12 hours without exceeding the peak-count requirement. Compared to using a single configuration for the entire day, most of the sector-hour reduction is achieved by using two sector configurations -one during daytime hours and one during nighttime hours.

  8. DAQMAN - A flexible configurable data acquisition system

    2012-08-01

    DAQMAN is a flexible configurable interface that allows the user to build and operate a VME-based data acquisition system on a Linux workstation. It consists of two parts: a Java-based Graphical User Interface to configure the system, and a C-based utility that reads out the data and creates the output ASCII data file, with two levels of diagnostic tools. The data acquisition system requires a CAEN CONET-VME Bridge to communicate between the hardware in themore » VME crate and the Linux workstation. Data acquisition modules, such as ADCs, TDC, Scalers, can be loaded into the system, or removed easily. The GUI allows users to activate modules, and channels within modules by clicking on icons. Running configurations are stored; data are collected and can be viewed either as raw numbers, or by charts and histograms that update as the data are accumulated. Data files are written to disk in ASCII format, with a date and time stamp.« less

  9. Configuration and Data Management Process and the System Safety Professional

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivers, Charles Herbert; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This article presents a discussion of the configuration management (CM) and the Data Management (DM) functions and provides a perspective of the importance of configuration and data management processes to the success of system safety activities. The article addresses the basic requirements of configuration and data management generally based on NASA configuration and data management policies and practices, although the concepts are likely to represent processes of any public or private organization's well-designed configuration and data management program.

  10. Core compressor exit stage study. Volume 2: Data and performance report for the baseline configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisler, D. C.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of the program is to develop rear stage blading designs that have lower losses in their endwall boundary layer regions. The overall technical approach in this efficiency improvement program utilized General Electric's Low Speed Research Compressor as the principal investigative tool. Tests were conducted in two ways: using four identical stages of blading so that test data would be obtained in a true multistage environment and using a single stage of blading so that comparison with the multistage test results could be made.

  11. The Leading Edge 250: Oblique wing aircraft configuration project, volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Andre; Moore, Peri; Nguyen, Dan; Oganesyan, Petros; Palmer, Charles

    1988-01-01

    The design of a high speed transport aircraft using the oblique wing concept as a part of the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) aircraft study is the Leading Edge 250 capable of travelling at Mach 4 with 250 passengers and has a 6,500 nautical mile range. Its innovation lies within its use of the unconventional oblique wing to provide efficient flight at any Mach number. Wave drag is kept to a minimum at high speed, while high lift is attained during critical takeoff and landing maneuvers by varying the sweep of the wing.

  12. Configuration study for a 30 GHz monolithic receive array, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nester, W. H.; Cleaveland, B.; Edward, B.; Gotkis, S.; Hesserbacker, G.; Loh, J.; Mitchell, B.

    1984-01-01

    The formalism of the sidelobe suppression algorithm and the method used to calculate the system noise figure for a 30 GHz monolithic receive array are presented. Results of array element weight determination and performance studies of a Gregorian aperture image system are also given.

  13. A fault-tolerant multiprocessor architecture for aircraft, volume 1. [autopilot configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, T. B.; Hopkins, A. L.; Taylor, W.; Ausrotas, R. A.; Lala, J. H.; Hanley, L. D.; Martin, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    A fault-tolerant multiprocessor architecture is reported. This architecture, together with a comprehensive information system architecture, has important potential for future aircraft applications. A preliminary definition and assessment of a suitable multiprocessor architecture for such applications is developed.

  14. Phased-array-fed antenna configuration study. Volume 1: Technology assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorbello, R. M.; Zaghloul, A. I.; Lee, B. S.; Siddiqi, S.; Geller, B. D.; Gerson, H. I.; Srinivas, D. N.

    1983-01-01

    The status of the technologies for phased-array-fed dual reflector systems is reviewed. The different aspects of these technologies, including optical performances, phased array systems, problems encountered in phased array design, beamforming networks, MMIC design and its incorporation into waveguide systems, reflector antenna structures, and reflector deployment mechanisms are addressed.

  15. Stability of Markers Used for Real-Time Tumor Tracking After Percutaneous Intrapulmonary Placement

    SciTech Connect

    Voort van Zyp, Noelle C. van der; Hoogeman, Mischa S.; Water, Steven van de; Levendag, Peter C.; Holt, Bronno van der; Heijmen, Ben J.M.; Nuyttens, Joost J.

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: To determine the stability of markers used for real-time tumor tracking after percutaneous intrapulmonary placement. Methods and Materials: A total of 42 patients with 44 lesions, 111 markers, and {>=}2 repeat computed tomography (CT) scans were studied. The tumor on the repeat CT scans was registered with the tumor on the planning CT scan. Next, the three-dimensional marker coordinates were determined on the planning CT scan and repeat CT scans. Marker stability was analyzed by the displacement of the markers and the displacement of the center of mass (COM) of the marker configurations. In addition, we assessed the reliability of using the intermarker distance as a check for displacements in the COM of the marker configurations. Results: The median marker displacement was 1.3 mm (range, 0.1-53.6). The marker displacement was >5 mm in 12% of the markers and >10 mm in 5% of the markers. The causes of marker displacement >5 mm included marker migration (2 of 13) and target volume changes (5 of 13). Nonsynchronous tumor and marker movement during breathing might have been responsible for the displacements >5 mm in the other 6 of 13 markers. The median displacement in the COM of the marker configurations was 1.0 mm (range, 0.1-23.3). Displacements in the COM of the marker configurations of {>=}2.0 mm were detected by changes in the intermarker distance of >1.5 mm in 96% of the treatment fractions. Conclusion: The median marker displacement was small (1.3 mm). Nevertheless, displacements >5 mm occurred in 12% of the markers. Therefore, we recommend the implantation of multiple markers because multiple markers will enable a quick and reliable check of marker displacement by determining the change in the intermarker distance. A displacement in the COM of the marker configuration of {>=}2.0 mm was almost always detected (96%) by a change in the distance between the markers of >1.5 mm. This enabled the displaced marker to be disabled, such that tumor localization

  16. Hippocampal theta wave activity during configural and non-configural tasks in rats.

    PubMed

    Sakimoto, Yuya; Hattori, Minoru; Takeda, Kozue; Okada, Kana; Sakata, Shogo

    2013-03-01

    This study examined hippocampal theta power during configural and non-configural tasks in rats. Experiment 1 compared hippocampal theta power during a negative patterning task (A+, B+, AB-) to a configural task and a simple discrimination task (A+, B-) as a non-configural task. The results showed that hippocampal theta power during the non-reinforcement trial (non-RFT) of the negative patterning task was higher than that during the simple discrimination task. However, this hippocampal power may reflect sensory processing for compound stimuli that have cross-modality features (the non-RFT of the negative patterning task was presented together with visual and auditory stimuli, but the non-RFT of the simple discrimination task was presented with visual or auditory stimulus alone). Thus, in experiment 2, we examined whether the experiment 1 results were attributable to sensory processing of a compound stimulus by comparing hippocampal theta power during negative patterning (A+, B+, AB-), simultaneous feature-negative (A+, AB-), and simple discrimination tasks (A+, B-). Experiment 2 showed that hippocampal theta activity during the non-RFT in the negative patterning task was higher than that in the simultaneous feature-negative and simple discrimination tasks. Thus, we showed that hippocampal theta activity increased during configural tasks but not during non-configural tasks.

  17. Navajo History. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yazzie, Ethelou, Ed.

    This volume, an account of the prerecorded history of the Navajos, is the first of a series of two volumes. (Volume 2 will take up recorded history.) From the knowledge of verbal literature supplied by Navajos themselves, this composite was completed to help alleviate the lack of materials on Navajo culture. Consensus, the authors point out, was…

  18. Variable volume maser techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhardt, V. S.

    1977-01-01

    The frequency stability of hydrogen masers in variable volume storage bulbs is discussed in terms of wall shift. Variable volume devices discussed include: Brenner flexible bulb, Debely device, and the concertina hydrogen maser. A flexible cone variable volume element outside the cavity is described.

  19. 3D MR imaging in real time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttman, Michael A.; McVeigh, Elliot R.

    2001-05-01

    A system has been developed to produce live 3D volume renderings from an MR scanner. Whereas real-time 2D MR imaging has been demonstrated by several groups, 3D volumes are currently rendered off-line to gain greater understanding of anatomical structures. For example, surgical planning is sometimes performed by viewing 2D images or 3D renderings from previously acquired image data. A disadvantage of this approach is misregistration which could occur if the anatomy changes due to normal muscle contractions or surgical manipulation. The ability to produce volume renderings in real-time and present them in the magnet room could eliminate this problem, and enable or benefit other types of interventional procedures. The system uses the data stream generated by a fast 2D multi- slice pulse sequence to update a volume rendering immediately after a new slice is available. We demonstrate some basic types of user interaction with the rendering during imaging at a rate of up to 20 frames per second.

  20. Separation of plastic waste via the hydraulic separator Multidune under different geometric configurations.

    PubMed

    La Marca, Floriana; Moroni, Monica; Cherubini, Lorenzo; Lupo, Emanuela; Cenedese, Antonio

    2012-07-01

    The recovery of high-quality plastic materials is becoming an increasingly challenging issue for the recycling sector. Technologies for plastic recycling have to guarantee high-quality secondary raw material, complying with specific standards, for use in industrial applications. The variability in waste plastics does not always correspond to evident differences in physical characteristics, making traditional methodologies ineffective for plastic separation. The Multidune separator is a hydraulic channel allowing the sorting of solid particles on the basis of differential transport mechanisms by generating particular fluid dynamic conditions due to its geometric configuration and operational settings. In this paper, the fluid dynamic conditions were investigated by an image analysis technique, allowing the reconstruction of velocity fields generated inside the Multidune, considering two different geometric configurations of the device, Configuration A and Configuration B. Furthermore, tests on mono- and bi-material samples were completed with varying operational conditions under both configurations. In both series of experiments, the bi-material samples were composed of differing proportions (85% vs. 15%) to simulate real conditions in an industrial plant for the purifying of a useful fraction from a contaminating fraction. The separation results were evaluated in terms of grade and recovery of the useful fraction.

  1. Real time gamma-ray signature identifier

    DOEpatents

    Rowland, Mark; Gosnell, Tom B.; Ham, Cheryl; Perkins, Dwight; Wong, James

    2012-05-15

    A real time gamma-ray signature/source identification method and system using principal components analysis (PCA) for transforming and substantially reducing one or more comprehensive spectral libraries of nuclear materials types and configurations into a corresponding concise representation/signature(s) representing and indexing each individual predetermined spectrum in principal component (PC) space, wherein an unknown gamma-ray signature may be compared against the representative signature to find a match or at least characterize the unknown signature from among all the entries in the library with a single regression or simple projection into the PC space, so as to substantially reduce processing time and computing resources and enable real-time characterization and/or identification.

  2. Are Volume Plasmons Excitable by Classical Light?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höflich, Katja; Gösele, Ulrich; Christiansen, Silke

    2009-08-01

    Volume plasmons are collective eigenmodes of the free-electron gas inside a metal. Because of their longitudinal character and the transversal nature of light, the photoexcitation of volume plasmons is forbidden in classical electrodynamics. Nevertheless, we show their existence for metallic nanoshells using analytical solutions of the classical scattering problem. Solely for the case of a vanishing real part of the shell permittivity, a local maximum at the natural plasma frequency appears in the extinction spectra. For explaining our observations, we suggest a simple physical picture which is supported by examples on silver and gold shells.

  3. Are volume plasmons excitable by classical light?

    PubMed

    Höflich, Katja; Gösele, Ulrich; Christiansen, Silke

    2009-08-21

    Volume plasmons are collective eigenmodes of the free-electron gas inside a metal. Because of their longitudinal character and the transversal nature of light, the photoexcitation of volume plasmons is forbidden in classical electrodynamics. Nevertheless, we show their existence for metallic nanoshells using analytical solutions of the classical scattering problem. Solely for the case of a vanishing real part of the shell permittivity, a local maximum at the natural plasma frequency appears in the extinction spectra. For explaining our observations, we suggest a simple physical picture which is supported by examples on silver and gold shells.

  4. Waverider, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nightingale, Pat; Duong, Toan; Gillotte, Chris; Mangio, Ron; Martinez, Pablo

    1988-01-01

    The results of a study concerning a High-Speed Civilian Transport Aircraft are discussed. An evaluation of the viability of four configurations is presented. One design considered in the Waverider configuration. The Waverider creates lift at high speeds through the use of shock waves. This shocklift when combined with conventionally created lift provides high lift/drag values at higher speeds than conventional configurations. The Waverider cruises at Mach 5.5, has a range of 6,500 nautical miles, and seats 250 passengers. The aircraft is operable from existing airfields and does not require any special traffic control considerations when operating in controlled airspace.

  5. Study of Alternate Space Shuttle Concepts. Volume 2, Part 2: Concept Analysis and Definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This is the final report of a Phase A Study of Alternate Space Shuttle Concepts by the Lockheed Missiles & Space Company (LMSC) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The eleven-month study, which began on 30 June 1970, is to examine the stage-and-one-half and other Space Shuttle configurations and to establish feasibility, performance, cost, and schedules for the selected concepts. This final report consists of four volumes as follows: Volume I - Executive Summary, Volume II - Concept Analysis and Definition, Volume III - Program Planning, and Volume IV - Data Cost Data. This document is Volume II, Concept Analysis and Definition.

  6. Multi-volume visualization for interactive therapy planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Liangshou; Amin, Viren R.; Ryken, Timothy; Long, Tao; Hagge, Mathew J.; Bryden, Mark

    2007-03-01

    During the past decade, various volume visualization techniques have been developed for different purposes, and many of them, such as direct volume rendering, maximum intensity projection and non-photorealistic rendering, have been implemented on consumer graphics hardware for real time visualization. However, effective multi-volume visualization, a way to establish the visual connections between two or more types of data, has not been adequately addressed even though it has wide applications in medical imaging and numerical simulation based on 3D physical model. In this paper, we aim to develop an effective GPU-based system for multi-volume visualization which is able to reveal both the connections and distinctions among multiple volume data. To address the main challenge for multi-volume visualization on how to establish the visual correspondences while maintaining the distinctive information among multiple volumes, a multi-level distinction mechanism is developed including 2D transfer function, mixed rendering modes, and volume clipping. Taking advantage of the fast hardware-supported processing capabilities, the system is implemented based on the GPU programming. Several advanced volume rendering techniques based on segmented volume are also implemented. The resulting visualization is a highly interactive image fusion system with high quality image and three-level volume distinction. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our system with a case study in which the heat effect on brain tumor, represented as a temperature volume resulting from high intensity focused ultrasound beam exposure over time, is visualized in the context of a MRI head volume.

  7. Life sciences payload definition and integration study. Volume 3: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Detail design information concerning payloads for biomedical research projects conducted during space missions is presented. Subjects discussed are: (1) equipment modules and equipment item lists, (2) weight and volume breakdown by payload and equipment units, (3) longitudinal floor arrangement configuration, and (4) nonbaseline second generation layouts.

  8. ATLAS software configuration and build tool optimisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybkin, Grigory; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    ATLAS software code base is over 6 million lines organised in about 2000 packages. It makes use of some 100 external software packages, is developed by more than 400 developers and used by more than 2500 physicists from over 200 universities and laboratories in 6 continents. To meet the challenge of configuration and building of this software, the Configuration Management Tool (CMT) is used. CMT expects each package to describe its build targets, build and environment setup parameters, dependencies on other packages in a text file called requirements, and each project (group of packages) to describe its policies and dependencies on other projects in a text project file. Based on the effective set of configuration parameters read from the requirements files of dependent packages and project files, CMT commands build the packages, generate the environment for their use, or query the packages. The main focus was on build time performance that was optimised within several approaches: reduction of the number of reads of requirements files that are now read once per package by a CMT build command that generates cached requirements files for subsequent CMT build commands; introduction of more fine-grained build parallelism at package task level, i.e., dependent applications and libraries are compiled in parallel; code optimisation of CMT commands used for build; introduction of package level build parallelism, i. e., parallelise the build of independent packages. By default, CMT launches NUMBER-OF-PROCESSORS build commands in parallel. The other focus was on CMT commands optimisation in general that made them approximately 2 times faster. CMT can generate a cached requirements file for the environment setup command, which is especially useful for deployment on distributed file systems like AFS or CERN VMFS. The use of parallelism, caching and code optimisation significantly-by several times-reduced software build time, environment setup time, increased the efficiency of

  9. Flammability Configuration Analysis for Spacecraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedley, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Fire is one of the many potentially catastrophic hazards associated with the operation of crewed spacecraft. A major lesson learned by NASA from the Apollo 204 fire in 1966 was that ignition sources in an electrically powered vehicle should and can be minimized, but can never be eliminated completely. For this reason, spacecraft fire control is based on minimizing potential ignition sources and eliminating materials that can propagate fire. Fire extinguishers are always provided on crewed spacecraft, but are not considered as part of the fire control process. "Eliminating materials that can propagate fire" does not mean eliminating all flammable materials - the cost of designing and building spacecraft using only nonflammable materials is extraordinary and unnecessary. It means controlling the quantity and configuration of such materials to eliminate potential fire propagation paths and thus ensure that any fire would be small, localized, and isolated, and would self-extinguish without harm to the crew. Over the years, NASA has developed many solutions for controlling the configuration of flammable materials (and potentially flammable materials in commercial "off-the-shelf" hardware) so that they can be used safely in air and oxygen-enriched environments in crewed spacecraft. This document describes and explains these design solutions so payload customers and other organizations can use them in designing safe and cost-effective flight hardware. Proper application of these guidelines will produce acceptable flammability configurations for hardware located in any compartment of the International Space Station or other program crewed vehicles and habitats. However, use of these guidelines does not exempt hardware organizations of the responsibility for safety of the hardware under their control.

  10. Computing Free Energy Differences of Configurational Basins.

    PubMed

    Giovannelli, Edoardo; Cardini, Gianni; Gellini, Cristina; Pietraperzia, Giangaetano; Chelli, Riccardo

    2015-08-11

    A simulation-based approach is proposed to estimate free energy differences between configurational states A and B, defined in terms of collective coordinates of the molecular system. The computational protocol is organized into three stages that can be carried on simultaneously. Two of them consist of independent simulations aimed at sampling, in turn, A and B states. In order to limit the evolution of the system around A and B, biased sampling simulations such as umbrella sampling can be employed. These simulations allow us to estimate local configuration integrals associated with A and B, which can be viewed as vibrational contributions to the free energy. Free energy evaluation is completed by the linking-path stage, in which the potential of mean force difference is estimated between two arbitrary points of the configurational surface, located the first around A and the second around B. The linking path in the space of the collective coordinates is arbitrary and can be computed with any method, starting from adaptive biasing potential/force approaches to nonequilibrium techniques. As an illustrative example, we present the calculation of free energy differences between conformational states of the alanine dipeptide in the space of backbone dihedral angles. The basic advantage of this method, that we term "path-linked domains" scheme, is to prevent accurate calculation of the whole free energy hypersurface in the space of the collective coordinates, thus limiting the statistical sampling to a minimum. Path-linked domains schemes can be applied to a variety of biochemical processes, such as protein-ligand complexation or folding-unfolding interconversion.

  11. Making It Real

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCartney, Robert; Tenenberg, Josh

    2008-01-01

    Some have proposed that realistic problem situations are better for learning. This issue contains two articles that examine the effects of "making it real" in computer architecture and human-computer interaction.

  12. Low energy fission: dynamics and scission configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goutte, H.; Berger, J.-F.; Gogny, D.; Younes, W.

    2005-11-01

    In the first part of this paper we recall a recent study concerning low energy fission dynamics. Propagation is made by use of the Time Dependent Generator Coordinate Method, where the basis states are taken from self-consistent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations with the Gogny force. Theoretical fragment mass distributions are presented and compared with the evaluation made by Wahl. In the second part of this paper, new results concerning scission configurations are shown. Deviations of the fission fragment proton numbers from the Unchanged Charge Distribution prescription and fission fragment deformations are discussed.

  13. CFD configurations for hydraulic turbine startup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolle, J.; Giroux, A. M.; Morissette, J. F.

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents various numerical setups for modelling Francis turbine startups involving moving meshes and variable runner speed in order to help define best practices. During the accelerating phase of the startup, the flow is self-similar between channels, thus making single sector configuration appropriate. Adding the draft tube improves the results by allowing pressure recovery midway during in the startup. At the speed no-load regime, a rotating stall phenomenon occurs and can only be capted with the full runner included in the simulation. Comparison with experimental data, such as runner speed and strain gauge measurements, generally shows good agreement.

  14. Sitnikov problem in the cyclic kite configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahbaz Ullah, M.; Bhatnagar, K. B.; Hassan, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    This manuscript deals with the development of the series solutions of the Sitnikov kite configuration by the methods given of Lindstedt-Poincarė, using Green's function and MacMillan. Next we have developed averaged equation of motion by applying the Van der Pol transformation and averaging technique of Guckenheimer and Holmes (Nonlinear oscillations, dynamical system bifurcations of vector fields. Springer, Berlin, 1983). In addition to the resonance criterion at the 3/2 commensurability we have chosen ω=2 n/3, n=2, ω is the angular velocity of the coordinate system. Lastly the periodicity of the solutions has been examined by the Poincarė section.

  15. Distance distribution in configuration-model networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitzan, Mor; Katzav, Eytan; Kühn, Reimer; Biham, Ofer

    2016-06-01

    We present analytical results for the distribution of shortest path lengths between random pairs of nodes in configuration model networks. The results, which are based on recursion equations, are shown to be in good agreement with numerical simulations for networks with degenerate, binomial, and power-law degree distributions. The mean, mode, and variance of the distribution of shortest path lengths are also evaluated. These results provide expressions for central measures and dispersion measures of the distribution of shortest path lengths in terms of moments of the degree distribution, illuminating the connection between the two distributions.

  16. Distance distribution in configuration-model networks.

    PubMed

    Nitzan, Mor; Katzav, Eytan; Kühn, Reimer; Biham, Ofer

    2016-06-01

    We present analytical results for the distribution of shortest path lengths between random pairs of nodes in configuration model networks. The results, which are based on recursion equations, are shown to be in good agreement with numerical simulations for networks with degenerate, binomial, and power-law degree distributions. The mean, mode, and variance of the distribution of shortest path lengths are also evaluated. These results provide expressions for central measures and dispersion measures of the distribution of shortest path lengths in terms of moments of the degree distribution, illuminating the connection between the two distributions. PMID:27415282

  17. Spill response system configuration study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Desimone, R.V.; Agosta, J.M.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the development of a prototype decision support system for oil spill response configuration planning that will help U.S. Coast Guard planners to determine the appropriate response equipment and personnel for major spills. The report discusses the application of advanced artificial intelligence planning techniques, as well as other software tools for spill trajectory modeling, plan evaluation and map display. The implementation of the prototype system is discussed in the context of two specific major spill scenarios in the San Francisco Bay.

  18. Kinetic Stability of the Field Reversed Configuration

    SciTech Connect

    E.V. Belova; R.C. Davidson; H. Ji; and M. Yamada

    2002-07-09

    New computational results are presented which advance the understanding of the stability properties of the Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC). The FRC is an innovative confinement approach that offers a unique fusion reactor potential because of its compact and simple geometry, translation properties, and high plasma beta. One of the most important issues is FRC stability with respect to low-n (toroidal mode number) MHD modes. There is a clear discrepancy between the predictions of standard MHD theory that many modes should be unstable on the MHD time scale, and the observed macroscopic resilience of FRCs in experiments.

  19. Soliton configurations in generalized Mie electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Rybakov, Yu. P.

    2011-07-15

    The generalization of the Mie electrodynamics within the scope of the effective 8-spinor field model is suggested, with the Lagrangian including Higgs-like potential and higher degrees of the invariant A{sub Micro-Sign }A{sup Micro-Sign }. Using special Brioschi 8-spinor identity, we show that the model includes the Skyrme and the Faddeev models as particular cases. We investigate the large-distance asymptotic of static solutions and estimate the electromagnetic contribution to the energy of the localized charged configuration.

  20. Confinement of translated field-reversed configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuszewski, M.; Armstrong, W. T.; Chrien, R. E.; Klingner, P. L.; McKenna, K. F.; Rej, D. J.; Sherwood, E. G.; Siemon, R. E.

    1986-03-01

    The confinement properties of translating field-reversed configurations (FRC) in the FRX-C/T device [Phys. Fluids 29, (1986)] are analyzed and compared to previous data without translation and to available theory. Translation dynamics do not appear to appreciably modify the FRC confinement. Some empirical scaling laws with respect to various plasma parameters are extracted from the data. These are qualitatively similar to those obtained in the TRX-1 device [Phys. Fluids 28, 888 (1985)] without translation and with a different formation method. Translation with a static gas fill offers new opportunities such as improved particle confinement or refueling of the FRC particle inventory.