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Sample records for real historical bricks

  1. Raman spectroscopy after accelerated ageing tests to assess the origin of some decayed products found in real historical bricks affected by urban polluted atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Maguregui, M; Sarmiento, A; Escribano, R; Martinez-Arkarazo, I; Castro, K; Madariaga, J M

    2009-12-01

    Bricks, together with stones and mortars, can be considered as one of the most important building materials that constitute our built heritage. Numerous factors which cause several decaying pathologies in bricks can be listed, but it should be emphasised that the most severe and damaging one is the wet and dry deposition of both combustion and greenhouse gases (CO(2), SO(x) and NO(x) mainly). For instance, after the impact of CO(2) and SO(x), the decayed products promoted in bricks are carbonates and sulphates. Once identified in all these kinds of salts in real samples, it is necessary to make sure that the aggressive atmospheric conditions are sufficient to promote the formation of these salts. Therefore, accelerated exposure test are a good alternative in order to simulate the formation of these decayed compounds and to predict the reactions that promote the decaying mechanism. In this work, brick samples manufactured at different firing temperatures following ancient methods were subjected to humidity/dryness, freeze/thaw, CO(2) and SO(2) (KESTERNICH DIN 50018) accelerated ageing tests followed by a Raman spectroscopy screening in order to verify the formation of sulphate and carbonate salts in bricks on accelerated conditions, simulating the damage caused by a polluted atmosphere throughout many years of exposure.

  2. Accelerated ageing in testing bricks used in the conservation of historic buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlendová, Gabriela; Podoba, Rudolf; Baník, Ivan

    2014-11-01

    The effect of accelerated climate ageing on historical bricks in the laboratory is investigated in the paper. Differences in thermal properties are experimentally determined and studied before and after bricks exposure to climate ageing, which consists of 60 freeze-thaw cycles. For measuring thermal conductivity, diffusivity and specific heat, pulse method is used.

  3. Comparative Numerical Analysis of Different Strengthening Systems of Historical Brick Arches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielińska, M.

    2017-05-01

    The article presents a comparative numerical analysis of various ways to strengthen historical brick arches. Five ways of strengthening brick arches with steel tie-rods have been proposed. Two of these involve the use of braces wrapped around pillars supporting the arch connected with a tie-rod; the other two ways involve the use of the tie-rods with welded metal sheets of different sizes; the latter involves the use of a tie-rod glued with the use of an epoxy adhesive. The collected data were compared with the reference model of the arch left without any interference. The results make it possible to evaluate the effectiveness of the methods by comparing displacements in the vertical and horizontal direction and stresses. The article indicates the direction of proper planning and design of the arch strengthening in brick structures in historical buildings.

  4. Bond Behavior of Historical Clay Bricks Strengthened with Steel Reinforced Polymers (SRP)

    PubMed Central

    Grande, Ernesto; Imbimbo, Maura; Sacco, Elio

    2011-01-01

    In the strengthening interventions of past and historical masonry constructions, the non-standardized manufacture processes, the ageing and the damage of masonry units, could significantly affect the properties of the surfaces where strengthening materials are applied. This aspect requires particular care in evaluating the performance of externally bonded strengthening layers, especially with reference to the detachment mechanism. The bond response of old masonries could be very different from that occurring in new masonry units which are the ones generally considered in most of the bond tests available in technical literature. The aim of the present paper is the study of the bond behavior of historical clay bricks strengthened with steel reinforced polymers (SRP) materials. In particular, the results of an experimental study concerning new manufactured clay bricks and old bricks extracted from different historical masonry buildings are presented. The obtained results, particularly in terms of bond resistance, detachment mechanism and strain distributions, are discussed for the purpose of analyzing the peculiarities of the historical bricks in comparison with new manufactured ones. Some considerations on the efficacy of the theoretical formulations of the recent Italian code are also carried out.

  5. Quaternary ammonium biocides as antimicrobial agents protecting historical wood and brick.

    PubMed

    Rajkowska, Katarzyna; Koziróg, Anna; Otlewska, Anna; Piotrowska, Małgorzata; Nowicka-Krawczyk, Paulina; Brycki, Bogumił; Kunicka-Styczyńska, Alina; Gutarowska, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are widely used in disinfection of water, surfaces and instruments as well as in textile, leather and food industries because of their relatively low toxicity, broad antimicrobial spectrum, non-volatility and chemical stability. Due to these advantages, QACs are also used in restoration and can be applied on historical material. The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of biocides based on quaternary ammonium salts and containing various excipients in the protection of historical materials against microbial growth. The study determined the antimicrobial activity of three biocides against bacteria: Pseudomonas fluorescens, Staphylococcus equorum, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus muralis, Sporosarcina aquimarina and Rhodococcus fascians, and moulds: Chaetomium globosum, Penicillium citreonigrum, Cladosporium cladosporioides I, Acremonium strictum, Aspergillus fumigatus and Cladosporium cladosporioides II, all isolated from historical wood and brick. Staphylococcus equorum, Bacillus cereus, Sporosarcina aquimarina and Rhodococcus fascians bacteria, and Cladosporium cladosporioides I and Acremonium strictum moulds showed high sensitivity to quaternary ammonium biocides. Historical wood can be effectively disinfected by three applications of biocide A (30% v/v) containing dodecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC), citric acid, propiconazole and propanol. Disinfection of historical brick can be carried out by three applications of 6% v/v solutions of biocide B (based on DDAC and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid - EDTA) or biocide C (containing a non-ionic surfactant, DDAC and EDTA). Effective protection of historical building materials against microbial growth for a period of seven days can be achieved by the application of biocide A (30% v/v) on the wood surface and biocide B (6% v/v) on the brick surface.

  6. Innovative Solutions for Energetic Refurbishment of Historic Brick Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagorskas, Jurgis; Burinskienė, Marija; Paliulis, Gražvydas Mykolas; Venckauskaitė, Jūratė

    Building standards for energy effectiveness are increasing constantly and market follows these changes by construction of new buildings in accordance with standards and refurbishment of existing housing stock. Comprehensive trends of European construction market show tremendous increase in building retrofit works. It can be predicted that after this decade more than half of construction works in European cities will be taking place in existing buildings, pushing the construction of new buildings to the less important role. Such a growth in building refurbishment works is creating a demand for suitable materials, retrofitting techniques and research. The differences between refurbishment of new-build projects and historical or valuable buildings are insufficiently recognized—mostly the buildings without further cultural preservation requirements are studied. This article covers the theme of refurbishment measures in the historical buildings—the specific measures like inside insulation which is allowed due to the valuable façade or other heritage preservation requirements. An overview of other innovative methods for energy saving in existing buildings and their potential is given.

  7. Energetic Refurbishment of Historic Brick Buildings: Problems and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagorskas, Jurgis; Paliulis, Gražvydas Mykolas; Burinskienė, Marija; Venckauskaitė, Jūratė

    2013-12-01

    Building standards for energy effectiveness are increasing constantly and the market follows these changes by constructing new buildings in accordance with standards and refurbishment of the existing housing stock. Comprehensive trends in European construction market show tremendous increase in building retrofit works. It can be predicted that after the end of this decade, more than half of the construction works in European cities will be taking place in existing buildings, pushing the construction of new buildings to a less important role. Such a growth in building refurbishment works is creating a demand for suitable materials, retrofitting techniques and research. The differences between refurbishment of new-build projects and historical or valuable buildings are insufficiently recognized - mostly the buildings without further cultural preservation requirements are studied. This article covers the theme of refurbishment measures in historical buildings - the specific measures like inside insulation which are allowed due to the valuable façade or other heritage preservation requirements. An overview of other innovative methods for energy saving in existing buildings and their potential is given.

  8. Indicating Vertical Deviation of Historical Buildings Using Geodetic Methods - Case Study of Brick and Wood Tower in Nowe Miasteczko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrówczyńska, Maria; Gibowski, Sławomir

    2016-09-01

    The article presents the possibilities of applying geodetic methods to determine the vertical deviation of historical buildings. In particular, the results of measurements obtained for a brick and wood Town Hall Tower located in the town of Nowe Miasteczko have been presented. Geodetic measurements of vertical deviation taken before and after carrying out repairs which were aimed at stopping or eliminating the destructive processes of degradation taking place, especially in the wooden part of the tower. During the renovation works, attention was also given to improving the technical condition of the building, which was reflected by the results of the measurements and calculations.

  9. Mechanical interaction between historical brick and repair mortar: experimental and numerical tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocca, P.; Grazzini, A.; Masera, D.; Alberto, A.; Valente, S.

    2011-07-01

    An innovative laboratory procedure, developed at the Non Destructive Testing Laboratory of the Politecnico di Torino, as a preliminary design stage for the pre-qualification of repair mortars applied to historical masonry buildings is described. Tested repair mortars are suitable for new dehumidified plaster in order to stop the rising damp effects by capillary action on historical masonry walls. Long-term plaster delamination occurs frequently as a consequence of not compatible mechanical characteristics of mortar. Preventing this phenomenon is the main way to increase the durability of repair work. In this direction, it is useful to analyse, through the cohesive crack model, the evolutionary phenomenon of plaster delamination. The parameters used in the numerical simulation of experimental tests are able to characterize the mechanical behaviour of the interface. It is therefore possible to predict delamination in problems with different boundary conditions.

  10. 2. VIEW SOUTH SHOWING NORTHEAST ELEVATION; BRICK CORBELLING, BUTTRESSES AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTH SHOWING NORTHEAST ELEVATION; BRICK CORBELLING, BUTTRESSES AND ART DECO STAINED GLASS - Poletown Historic District, St. Michael's Greek Catholic Church, 2390 East Grand Boulevard, Detroit, MI

  11. Insulated face brick

    SciTech Connect

    Cromrich, J.; Cromrich, L.B.

    1990-10-16

    This patent describes a method for forming insulated brick intended solely for use in building walls and having superior insulation qualities and lighter weight consonant with the load bearing capabilities of building bricks and the appearance of facing brick. It comprises dry mixing two parts of vermiculite and one part of brick clay, thereby forming a dry mixture having a vermiculite to clay ratio of approximately two-to-one by volume; adding water to the dry mixture and mixing, so that a substantially dry admixture having expanded vermiculite and brick clay is formed; forming a facing layer solely from brick clay; molding and compressing the substantially dry admixture, so as to form a generally rectangular main body layer having parallel top and bottom faces, a pair of parallel side faces and a pair of parallel end faces, respectively, the top and bottom faces being substantially larger in area than the respective side faces, and the side faces being substantially larger in area than the respective end faces, the body layer further having at least one bore formed therein, the bore running from the top face to the bottom face perpendicularly thereto and substantially parallel to the side surfaces thereof, the bore being substantially centrally disposed and wherein the facing layer is disposed on one of the side surfaces of the body portion; curing the molded admixture having the facing layer disposed thereon; whereby a cured brick is formed; and firing the cured brick and the facing layer disposed thereon, whereby an integral brick is formed having top and bottom faces of the brick which are entirely devoid of facing layers, wherein the brick has the desired load bearing capability substantially between its top and bottom faces, whereby the outer facing layer only provides the desired appearance and weather resistance, and further whereby the weight of the brick is substantially reduced.

  12. Training Guidelines: Bricks Operatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceramics, Glass, and Mineral Products Industry Training Board, Harrow (England).

    This manual offers guidelines for training of personnel involved in the manufacture of bricks, including employment practices; handling and preparation of raw materials; making, drying, firing, sorting, packing, and loading of bricks. A major emphasis is placed on industrial safety. (MF)

  13. Orality and Literacy--the Real Difference: A Historical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Gary N.

    Just as a contemporary professional person maintains copies of wills, real estate records, and court decrees, so did 15th-century B.C. residents of the ancient city of Nuzi. Such documents, then and now, are generally written by legal scribes. The Hittites of the 14th century B.C. maintained detailed manuals concerning the care and feeding of…

  14. Are These Parents for Real? Students' Views of Parents in Realistic and Historical Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Janis M.; Gonzales, Monica C.

    2003-01-01

    Describes what students had to say about parental roles. Includes students' views about parental roles in real life, their expectations of parental roles in realistic and historical novels, their impressions of the parents they encountered in the selected books, and a comparison across genres about these parental characters. Presents guidelines…

  15. Are These Parents for Real? Students' Views of Parents in Realistic and Historical Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Janis M.; Gonzales, Monica C.

    2003-01-01

    Describes what students had to say about parental roles. Includes students' views about parental roles in real life, their expectations of parental roles in realistic and historical novels, their impressions of the parents they encountered in the selected books, and a comparison across genres about these parental characters. Presents guidelines…

  16. 23. Brick coke quencher, brick stack, metal stack to right, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Brick coke quencher, brick stack, metal stack to right, coke gas pipe to left; in background, BOF building, limestone piles, Levy's Slag Dump. Looking north/northwest - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  17. Residential mercury contamination in adobe brick homes in Huancavelica, Peru.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Nicole; Robins, Nicholas; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Halabi, Susan; Espinoza Gonzales, Ruben Dario; Richter, Daniel deB; Vandenberg, John

    2013-01-01

    This is the first study of adobe brick contamination anywhere in the world. Huancavelica, Peru is the site of historic cinnabar refining and one of the most mercury (Hg) contaminated urban areas in the world. Over 80% of homes in Huancavelica are constructed with adobe bricks made from Hg contaminated soil. In this study we measured total Hg concentrations in adobe brick, dirt floor, surface dust, and air samples from the interior of 60 adobe brick houses located in four neighborhoods. Concentrations of total Hg in adobe bricks, dirt floors, and surface dust ranged from 8.00 to 1070 µg/g, 3.06 to 926 µg/g, and 0.02 to 9.69 µg/wipe, respectively, with statistically significant differences between the four neighborhoods. Concentrations of Hg in adobe brick and dirt floor samples in Huancavelica were orders of magnitude higher than in Ayacucho, a non-mining town in Peru. A strong correlation exists between total Hg concentrations in adobe bricks and dirt floors which confirms that adobe bricks were being made on-site and not purchased from an off-site source. A strong correlation between surface dust and adobe bricks and dirt floors indicates that walls and floors serve as indoor sources of Hg contamination. Elemental Hg vapor concentrations were below detection (<0.5 µg/m(3)) in most homes; however in homes with detectable levels, concentrations up to 5.1 µg/m(3) were observed. No statistically significant differences in Hg vapor measurements were observed between neighborhoods. This study demonstrates that building materials used widely in developing communities, such as adobe bricks, may be a substantial source of residential Hg exposure in silver or gold refining communities where Hg is produced or used for amalgamation in artisanal gold production.

  18. Residential Mercury Contamination in Adobe Brick Homes in Huancavelica, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Hagan, Nicole; Robins, Nicholas; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Halabi, Susan; Espinoza Gonzales, Ruben Dario; Richter, Daniel deB.; Vandenberg, John

    2013-01-01

    This is the first study of adobe brick contamination anywhere in the world. Huancavelica, Peru is the site of historic cinnabar refining and one of the most mercury (Hg) contaminated urban areas in the world. Over 80% of homes in Huancavelica are constructed with adobe bricks made from Hg contaminated soil. In this study we measured total Hg concentrations in adobe brick, dirt floor, surface dust, and air samples from the interior of 60 adobe brick houses located in four neighborhoods. Concentrations of total Hg in adobe bricks, dirt floors, and surface dust ranged from 8.00 to 1070 µg/g, 3.06 to 926 µg/g, and 0.02 to 9.69 µg/wipe, respectively, with statistically significant differences between the four neighborhoods. Concentrations of Hg in adobe brick and dirt floor samples in Huancavelica were orders of magnitude higher than in Ayacucho, a non-mining town in Peru. A strong correlation exists between total Hg concentrations in adobe bricks and dirt floors which confirms that adobe bricks were being made on-site and not purchased from an off-site source. A strong correlation between surface dust and adobe bricks and dirt floors indicates that walls and floors serve as indoor sources of Hg contamination. Elemental Hg vapor concentrations were below detection (<0.5 µg/m3) in most homes; however in homes with detectable levels, concentrations up to 5.1 µg/m3 were observed. No statistically significant differences in Hg vapor measurements were observed between neighborhoods. This study demonstrates that building materials used widely in developing communities, such as adobe bricks, may be a substantial source of residential Hg exposure in silver or gold refining communities where Hg is produced or used for amalgamation in artisanal gold production. PMID:24040399

  19. 41 CFR 102-75.445 - Who can convey surplus real and related personal property for historic monument use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Who can convey surplus... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal Property for Use As Historic Monuments § 102-75.445 Who can convey surplus real and related personal property for...

  20. 41 CFR 102-75.445 - Who can convey surplus real and related personal property for historic monument use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who can convey surplus... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal Property for Use As Historic Monuments § 102-75.445 Who can convey surplus real and related personal property for...

  1. 41 CFR 102-75.445 - Who can convey surplus real and related personal property for historic monument use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Who can convey surplus... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal Property for Use As Historic Monuments § 102-75.445 Who can convey surplus real and related personal property for...

  2. 41 CFR 102-75.445 - Who can convey surplus real and related personal property for historic monument use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Who can convey surplus... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal Property for Use As Historic Monuments § 102-75.445 Who can convey surplus real and related personal property for...

  3. 41 CFR 102-78.65 - What are Federal agencies' historic preservation responsibilities when disposing of real property...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... agencies' historic preservation responsibilities when disposing of real property under their control? 102... real property under their control? Federal agencies must— (a) To the extent practicable, establish and implement alternatives for historic properties, including adaptive use, that are not needed for current or...

  4. 41 CFR 102-78.65 - What are Federal agencies' historic preservation responsibilities when disposing of real property...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... agencies' historic preservation responsibilities when disposing of real property under their control? 102... real property under their control? Federal agencies must— (a) To the extent practicable, establish and implement alternatives for historic properties, including adaptive use, that are not needed for current or...

  5. 41 CFR 102-78.65 - What are Federal agencies' historic preservation responsibilities when disposing of real property...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... agencies' historic preservation responsibilities when disposing of real property under their control? 102... real property under their control? Federal agencies must— (a) To the extent practicable, establish and implement alternatives for historic properties, including adaptive use, that are not needed for current or...

  6. 41 CFR 102-78.65 - What are Federal agencies' historic preservation responsibilities when disposing of real property...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... agencies' historic preservation responsibilities when disposing of real property under their control? 102... real property under their control? Federal agencies must— (a) To the extent practicable, establish and implement alternatives for historic properties, including adaptive use, that are not needed for current or...

  7. 41 CFR 102-78.65 - What are Federal agencies' historic preservation responsibilities when disposing of real property...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... agencies' historic preservation responsibilities when disposing of real property under their control? 102... real property under their control? Federal agencies must— (a) To the extent practicable, establish and implement alternatives for historic properties, including adaptive use, that are not needed for current or...

  8. Arithmetic theory of brick tilings

    SciTech Connect

    Egorov, A V; Prikhod'ko, A A

    1998-12-31

    A new, 'arithmetic', approach to the algebraic theory of brick tilings is developed. This approach enables one to construct a simple classification of brick tilings in Z{sup d} and to find new proofs of several classical results on brick packing and tilings in Z{sup d}. In addition, possible generalizations of results on integer brick packing to the Euclidean plane R{sup 2} are investigated.

  9. Surface dating of bricks, an application of luminescence techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, Anna; Martini, Marco; Maspero, Francesco; Panzeri, Laura; Sibilia, Emanuela

    2014-05-01

    Luminescence techniques are a powerful tool to date archaeological ceramic materials and geological sediments. Thermoluminescence (TL) is widely used for bricks dating to reconstruct the chronology of urban complexes and the development of human cultures. However, it can sometimes be inconclusive, since TL assesses the firing period of bricks, which can be reused, even several centuries later. This problem can be circumvented using a dating technique based on a resetting event different from the last heating. OSL (Optically Stimulated Luminescence) exploits the last light exposition of the brick surface, which resets the light-sensitive electron traps until the surface is definitely shielded by mortar and superimposed bricks. This advanced application (surface dating) has been successfully attempted on rocks, marble and stone artifacts, but not yet on bricks. A recent conservation campaign at the Certosa di Pavia gave the opportunity to sample some bricks belonging to a XVII century collapsed wall, still tied to their mortars. This was an advantageous condition to test this technique, comparing the dating results with precise historical data. This attempt gave satisfactory results, allowing to identify bricks surely reused and to fully confirm that the edification of the perimetral wall occurred at the end of XVII century.

  10. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer October 1936 #12 EARLY RED BRICK HOUSE, Elk and Prospect Sts., Galena, Illinois - Galena Doorways, Red Brick House, Elk & Prospect Streets, Galena, Jo Daviess County, IL

  11. The Brick Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Science fiction writers, like Jules Verne in France and Edward Everett Hale in America, had discovered one of the most vital elements in the formula for space travel-a fertile imagination. The first known proposal for a marned-satellite appears in a story by Hale entitled 'The Brick Moon' published in 1899. The story involved a group of young Bostonians who planned to put an artificial satellite into polar orbit for sailors to use to determine longitude accurately and easily. They planned to send a brick satellite into orbit because the satellite would have to withstand fire very well. The Satellite's 37 inhabitants signaled the Earth in morse code by jumping up and down on the outside of the satellite.

  12. Speciation and bioaccessibility of mercury in adobe bricks and dirt floors in Huancavelica, Peru

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Huancavelica, Peru, a historic cinnabar refining site, is one of the most mercury (Hg) contaminated urban areas in the world. Residents’ exposures are amplified because residents build their adobe brick homes from contaminated soil. Objectives: The objectives of th...

  13. Speciation and bioaccessibility of mercury in adobe bricks and dirt floors in Huancavelica, Peru

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Huancavelica, Peru, a historic cinnabar refining site, is one of the most mercury (Hg) contaminated urban areas in the world. Residents’ exposures are amplified because residents build their adobe brick homes from contaminated soil. Objectives: The objectives of th...

  14. 80. Portion of a one story brick building dating from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    80. Portion of a one story brick building dating from the 1930s. It has five separate storefronts, stone window sills, and a string course. The Main Street facade (not shown) has a stepped parapet wall. - Butte Historic District, Bounded by Copper, Arizona, Mercury & Continental Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  15. 17. Detail view southwest showing brick parapet, wood entablature, brick ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Detail view southwest showing brick parapet, wood entablature, brick pilasters with molded wood caps, splayed arch and arched window lintels of north elevation of west operator's house. - Yellow Mill Bridge, Spanning Yellow Mill Channel at Stratford Avenue, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

  16. Method of forming ceramic bricks

    DOEpatents

    Poeppel, Roger B.; Claar, Terry D.; Silkowski, Peter

    1988-09-06

    A method for forming free standing ceramic bricks for use as tritium breeder material is disclosed. Aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate are mixed with an organic hydrocolloid dispersion and powdered lithium carbonate, spray dried, and ceramic bricks formed by molding in a die and firing.

  17. Method of forming ceramic bricks

    DOEpatents

    Poeppel, R.B.; Claar, T.D.; Silkowski, P.

    1987-04-22

    A method for forming free standing ceramic bricks for use as tritium breeder material is disclosed. Aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate are mixed with an organic hydrocolloid dispersion and powdered lithium carbonate, spray dried, and ceramic bricks formed by molding in a die and firing.

  18. Method of forming ceramic bricks

    DOEpatents

    Poeppel, Roger B.; Claar, Terry D.; Silkowski, Peter

    1988-01-01

    A method for forming free standing ceramic bricks for use as tritium breeder material is disclosed. Aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate are mixed with an organic hydrocolloid dispersion and powdered lithium carbonate, spray dried, and ceramic bricks formed by molding in a die and firing.

  19. The "Brick Wall" Graphic Organizer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matteson, Shirley M.

    2016-01-01

    A brick wall provides a fitting description of what happens when teachers try to teach a concept for which students are unprepared. When students are unsuccessful academically, their foundational knowledge may be missing, incomplete, or incorrect. As a result, students "hit a brick wall," and their academic progress stops because they do…

  20. More than Bricks and Mortar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Gaythorne Row, a terrace of Victorian back-to-back houses in Great Horton, was earmarked for demolition when, in 1986, Bradford Industrial Museum took possession of the three cottages and transported them, brick by brick, to the museum site four miles away. The houses were built in 1876, a year later than the old worsted spinning mill in which the…

  1. More than Bricks and Mortar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Gaythorne Row, a terrace of Victorian back-to-back houses in Great Horton, was earmarked for demolition when, in 1986, Bradford Industrial Museum took possession of the three cottages and transported them, brick by brick, to the museum site four miles away. The houses were built in 1876, a year later than the old worsted spinning mill in which the…

  2. The "Brick Wall" Graphic Organizer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matteson, Shirley M.

    2016-01-01

    A brick wall provides a fitting description of what happens when teachers try to teach a concept for which students are unprepared. When students are unsuccessful academically, their foundational knowledge may be missing, incomplete, or incorrect. As a result, students "hit a brick wall," and their academic progress stops because they do…

  3. Utilisation of IGCC slag and clay steriles in soft mud bricks (by pressing) for use in building bricks manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Acosta, A; Iglesias, I; Aineto, M; Romero, M; Rincón, J Ma

    2002-01-01

    The subject of this study is the application to the construction of soft mud bricks (also known as pressed bricks), both green and heat-treated bodies, built from raw materials from Santa Cruz de Mudela, Ciudad Real, and IGCC slag from the power central of Puertollano (Ciudad Real, Spain). For this purpose, industrial level tests have been performed: the production of these kind of bricks from mixes of waste from ores of construction clays and to significant fraction of different ratios and clay granulometries mixed with IGCC slag. The results of this experimentation suggests that not only can IGCC slag be applied to a ceramic process, but also its use gives several advantages, as water and energy savings, as well as improvements on the final properties of products.

  4. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Nathaniel R. Ewan, Photographer February ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Nathaniel R. Ewan, Photographer February 21, 1939 EXTERIOR - BRICK PANING DETAIL - Van Ness House, Jackson Avenue & Pompton Pine, Pompton Plains, Morris County, NJ

  5. Laboratory Characterization of Talley Brick

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    velocity determinations were made under atmospheric conditions, i.e., no prestress of any type was applied to the specimen. The tests were conducted in...MPa, the brick has not yet reached void closure. Materials such as concrete and brick can continue to gain strength with increasing pressure until...ASTM Standards 2005. Philadelphia, PA. _____. 2005a. Designation C 39-05. Standard test method for compressive strength of concrete specimens

  6. Automated Historical and Real-Time Cyclone Discovery With Multimodal Remote Satellite Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, S.; Talukder, A.; Liu, T.; Tang, W.; Bingham, A.

    2008-12-01

    methodology can be applied to (i) historical data to support Earth scientists in climate modeling, cyclonic-climate interactions, and obtain a better understanding of the cause and effects of cyclone (e.g. cyclo-genesis), and (ii) automatic cyclone discovery in near real-time using streaming satellite to support and improve the planning of global cyclone field campaigns. Additional satellite data from GOES and other orbiting satellites can be easily assimilated and integrated into our automated cyclone detection and tracking module to improve the temporal tracking accuracy of cyclones down to ½ hr and reduce the incidence of false alarms.

  7. A real-time snow water equivalent interpolation system using wireless sensor networks and historical remotely sensed data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Z.; Zhang, Z.; Molotch, N. P.; Glaser, S.; Bales, R. C.; Conklin, M. H.

    2015-12-01

    Over 100 wireless sensors for monitoring real-time snow conditions were deployed in ten clusters distributed across the headwaters of the American River Basin. The sensors are strategically placed to measure snow depth across elevation gradients and local differences in slope, aspect and canopy coverage. The sensors provided near-real-time snow-depth readings during the 2014 and 2015 snow seasons. Also, time series of snow water equivalent (SWE) maps were reconstructed for 2012-2014 using energy-balance modeling with modeled energy forcings (NLDAS), terrain corrections for solar radiation (TOPORAD), and fractional snow cover data (MODIS). We blended the real-time snow-depth readings with the historical SWE reconstructions to interpolate real-time SWE conditions across the basin. Snow-depth readings from all sensors for selected dates in 2014 were converted into SWE estimates using density values from snow-pillow sites in the basin. SWE values for pixels where sensors were located were extracted from the reconstructed 2012-2013 data to develop a time-series array. Using a Nearest-Neighbor algorithm we searched the array for the closest conditions that matched the sensor data, interpolated the residuals between reconstructed versus measured SWE across the basin, and added the interpolated values to the reconstructed SWE. We also blended the sensor measurements with the 2014 reconstruction results that were from the same dates. We evaluated both the historical SWE blending results and the concurrent SWE blending results with the operational networks measurements, finding that the concurrent SWE blending has a slightly lower RMSE compared to that of historical SWE blending. Since the reconstruction results could only be estimated after the end of the season, concurrent SWE blending is not applicable to the real time SWE interpolation even though it has a more accurate estimation. However, the small difference of RMSE between the two approaches informs us that the

  8. Historical and future hydrologic response to glacier recession in the Cordillera Real, Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frans, C. D.; Istanbulluoglu, E.; Naz, B.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Condom, T.; Clarke, G. K.; Burns, P. J.; Nolin, A. W.

    2013-12-01

    In many partially glaciated watersheds climate-forced glacier recession has altered and will continue to alter seasonal water availability, leading to profound implications for water supply systems. The tropical glaciers of the Cordillera Real, Bolivia, whose melt water significantly contributes to water supply and energy production for the densely populated La Paz area, have retreated at unprecedented rates since the 1970's. This glacier recession will continue with ongoing increasing temperatures projected for the subtropical Andes. We use a recently developed glacio-hydrological model to evaluate the contribution of glacier melt to watershed discharge, and track this contribution in time with changing glacier area. A glacier model, solving time-evolving and spatially-distributed balance equations for glacier mass and momentum, is integrated within the Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM). The glacio-hydrologic behavior of Cordillera Real watersheds is simulated during the historical period of 1987-2010. This model application is validated through comparisons with satellite derived glacier extent estimates and in-situ mass balance, surface energy flux, and stream discharge measurements. The retrospective analysis indicates that glacier melt contributed, on average, 31% (63%) of total annual (dry season-JJA) watershed discharge. Further, the modeling approach is used to predict the transitioning contribution of glacier melt and watershed hydrology through the 21st century. Multiple realizations of the 21st century meteorological data, used to force the glacier-hydrological model, are produced using a stochastic statistical downscaling technique. In this technique a weather generator (Advanced Weather Generator, AWE-GEN) is employed with statistical parameters of the future climate obtained from predictions of 11 CMIP5 general circulation models (GCMs). Future simulations indicate a 17% (23%) decrease in annual (JJA) runoff by the end of the 21st

  9. Can an Electron Rotate a Brick?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2009-01-01

    In "The Theory of Almost Everything", Robert Oerter asserts the following: "Take a beam of electrons that are all spinning in the same direction and fire it at, say, a brick. If you could keep this up for long enough, and if there were no other forces acting on the brick, the electrons would transfer their rotation to the brick, and it would begin…

  10. Can an Electron Rotate a Brick?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2009-01-01

    In "The Theory of Almost Everything", Robert Oerter asserts the following: "Take a beam of electrons that are all spinning in the same direction and fire it at, say, a brick. If you could keep this up for long enough, and if there were no other forces acting on the brick, the electrons would transfer their rotation to the brick, and it would begin…

  11. Standardized Curriculum for Brick, Block, and Stonemasonry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: brick, block, and stonemasonry I and II. The six units in brick, block, and stonemasonry I are as follows: orientation and leadership activities; safety; basic tools and equipment; masonry units; mortar; and wall layout. Brick, block,…

  12. Historical ecology with real numbers: Past and present extent and biomass of an imperilled estuarine habitat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Historic baselines are important in developing our understanding of ecosystems and species dynamics in the face of rapid global change. While a number of studies have sought to elucidate the historic abundance of exploited marine populations, there are few that confidently quantify patterns of abund...

  13. Exterior building details of Building C, east façade: historic fouroverfour ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building C, east façade: historic four-over-four window, brick lintel, brick quoins, corbelled brick cornice, spiral metal staircase to inclined stairs rising to second floor cantilever wooden walkway; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  14. Historical ecology with real numbers: past and present extent and biomass of an imperilled estuarine habitat

    PubMed Central

    Zu Ermgassen, Philine S. E.; Spalding, Mark D.; Blake, Brady; Coen, Loren D.; Dumbauld, Brett; Geiger, Steve; Grabowski, Jonathan H.; Grizzle, Raymond; Luckenbach, Mark; McGraw, Kay; Rodney, William; Ruesink, Jennifer L.; Powers, Sean P.; Brumbaugh, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Historic baselines are important in developing our understanding of ecosystems in the face of rapid global change. While a number of studies have sought to determine changes in extent of exploited habitats over historic timescales, few have quantified such changes prior to late twentieth century baselines. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the first ever large-scale quantitative assessment of the extent and biomass of marine habitat-forming species over a 100-year time frame. We examined records of wild native oyster abundance in the United States from a historic, yet already exploited, baseline between 1878 and 1935 (predominantly 1885–1915), and a current baseline between 1968 and 2010 (predominantly 2000–2010). We quantified the extent of oyster grounds in 39 estuaries historically and 51 estuaries from recent times. Data from 24 estuaries allowed comparison of historic to present extent and biomass. We found evidence for a 64 per cent decline in the spatial extent of oyster habitat and an 88 per cent decline in oyster biomass over time. The difference between these two numbers illustrates that current areal extent measures may be masking significant loss of habitat through degradation. PMID:22696522

  15. Refractory Behaviors of Magnetite-Kaolin Bricks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeosun, S. O.; Akpan, E. I.; Gbenebor, O. P.; Taiwo, O. O.; Eke, I. J.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, the suitability of using kaolin-magnetite-plastic clay to produce refractory bricks has been experimentally explored. Thirty bricks of different compositions were produced and fired at 1200°C. The density, shrinkage moisture content, loss on ignition, porosity and permeability of the bricks were examined. Results show that the bricks remained stable during firing and thus possess good insulating characteristics. The highest (2.23 g/cm3) and lowest (2.00 g/cm3) bulk densities obtained in this study are higher than the highest bulk density reported for Al dross-filled refractories (1.23 g/cm3). The bricks also possessed very low effective moisture content (10-23%) and very high compression modulus (16-100 MPa) desirable in insulating refractory bricks with high resistance to abrasion.

  16. Chromia refractory brick with carbon treatment

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, James P.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing

    2017-03-21

    The disclosure provides a refractory brick system comprising a chromia refractory brick for operation in the slagging environment of an air-cooled gasifier. The chromia refractory brick comprises a ceramically-bonded porous chromia refractory having a porosity greater than 9% and having carbon deposits residing within the pores. The brick may be further comprised of Al.sub.2O.sub.3. The air-cooled gasifier generates a liquefied slag in contact with the refractory brick and generally operates at temperatures between 1250.degree. C. and 1575.degree. C. and pressures between 300 psi to 1000 psi, with oxygen partial pressures generally between 10.sup.-4 and 10.sup.-10 atm. The refractory brick performs without substantial chromium carbide or chromium metal formation in the low oxygen partial pressure environment. The inclusion of carbon without chromium carbide formation provides for significant mitigation of slag penetration and significantly reduced refractory wear.

  17. Paucity of Historical Earthquakes South of the Dead Sea: Is it Real?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemi, T. M.

    2007-12-01

    The long cultural record of Dead Sea Transform (DST) earthquakes provides a unique opportunity for studying the patterns of seismicity over multiple seismic cycles, especially if rupture and/or epicentral areas of historical earthquakes can be identified. It has long been noted that the modern rate of seismic activity in the Wadi 'Arabah (Arava) south of the Dead Sea is lower than other segments of the DST and few historical earthquakes have been located south of the Dead Sea. Does the tendency to assign most epicentral locations north of the Dead Sea reflect a bias toward higher ancient settlement patterns? Seismites studied in Israel suggest a millennial-scale clustering of seismicity with a paucity of activity during the 6th-11 centuries. However, comparison of the timing of fault rupture constrained by paleoseismic trenching, archaeoseismic excavations, and radiocarbon and archaeological artifact dating from sites on the northern Wadi 'Arabah fault (Qasr Tilah area) and in Aqaba in Jordan suggests a temporal correlation of earthquake activity along the full length of the DST south of the Dead Sea during this quiescent period. Our data indicate a major period of seismic activity during the late 6th to 8th centuries. Furthermore, faulting and architectural collapse during the 2nd and 4th centuries indicate other periods of increased earthquake activity. Evidence for 2-3 additional ruptures in the 9th-16th centuries that are attested to by historical accounts, while evident in the geologic faulting record are poorly constrained by independent age control. At least one of these events is likely the 1068 earthquake. Correlation of earthquakes from the north and south 'Arabah indicate either very long fault rupture (about 160 km) or multiple ruptures on adjacent fault segments that are closely spaced in time. In Aqaba, multiple ruptures during these earthquake intervals may indicate both foreshock and main events similar to the seismic sequence preceding the 1995

  18. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, August, 1971 SOUTH (FRONT) ELEVATIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, August, 1971 SOUTH (FRONT) ELEVATIONS OF CORNER OF UNITED STATES HOTEL (FAR LEFT), JUDGE AND NUNAN'S SADDLERY, P.J. RYAN'S FIRST BRICK STORE BUILDING (JACKSONVILLE INN). - P. J. Ryan's First Brick Store Building, 175 East California Street, Jacksonville, Jackson County, OR

  19. Neutron radiography determination of water diffusivity in fired clay brick.

    PubMed

    El Abd, A; Czachor, A; Milczarek, J

    2009-04-01

    The real time neutron and gamma radiography station at Maria reactor, Institute of Atomic Energy, Swierk, Poland, was used to investigate the isothermal water absorption into fired clay brick samples. The investigated brick is different from the bricks reported in El Abd and Milczarek [2004. Neutron radiology study of water absorption in porous building materials: anomalous diffusing analysis. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 37, 2305-2313] in density and chemical composition. Neutron radiography images were acquired regularly as the absorption time elapses. The water content, theta, along the flow direction, x, namely the water profiles theta(x,t) and the water front position as a function of the absorption time, t, were extracted from neutron radiography images. The results were discussed in terms of the macroscopic theory of water infiltration in unsaturated porous media. It was shown that the water front position followed the square root t-scaling (x(m)=phi(m) square root t) and the profiles (theta-phi) converged to a universal one master curve. The water diffusivity was analytically determined from the experimental results. It has the so-called hypo-diffusive character, namely its gradient with respect to the water content is positive. Neutron radiography is a powerful method to distinguish among the unsaturated flow in different porous construction materials.

  20. Exterior building details of Building C, east façade: historic six ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building C, east façade: historic six light entry double door with three light transom, historic six light door with a one light transom, arch brick lintels and quoins, scored cement plaster finished brick walls; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  1. 21 CFR 133.109 - Brick cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Brick cheese for manufacturing. 133.109 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.109 Brick cheese for manufacturing. Brick cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity for brick cheese prescribed by §...

  2. 21 CFR 133.109 - Brick cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brick cheese for manufacturing. 133.109 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.109 Brick cheese for manufacturing. Brick cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity for brick cheese prescribed by §...

  3. 21 CFR 133.109 - Brick cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Brick cheese for manufacturing. 133.109 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.109 Brick cheese for manufacturing. Brick cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity for brick cheese prescribed by §...

  4. 21 CFR 133.109 - Brick cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Brick cheese for manufacturing. 133.109 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.109 Brick cheese for manufacturing. Brick cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity for brick cheese prescribed by §...

  5. 21 CFR 133.109 - Brick cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Brick cheese for manufacturing. 133.109 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.109 Brick cheese for manufacturing. Brick cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity for brick cheese prescribed by §...

  6. Rapid assessment of tsunami impact from real-time seismology and geographic, historical other datasets using machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelini, Alberto; Lomax, Anthony

    2017-04-01

    The impact of an earthquake, tsunami, volcanic eruption, severe weather or other natural disaster is related to: the intensity of the hazard; the vulnerability or exposure of the population, such as housing quality, infrastructure and proximity to a coastlines; and the capacity to resist and cope with the disaster. Rapid assessment by monitoring agencies of the impact of a natural event is fundamental for early warning and response. We previously* proposed the "tsunami importance" parameter, It, for characterizing the strength of a tsunami. This parameter combines 5 descriptive indices from the NOAA/WDC Historical Tsunami Database: 4 tsunami impact measures (deaths, injuries, damage, houses destroyed), and maximum water height. Accordingly, It = 2 corresponds approximately to the JMA threshold for issuing a ''Tsunami Warning'' whereas the largest or most devastating tsunamis typically have It = 10. Here we discuss extending this simple, 5-component parameter with additional impact-related measures from relevant databases (e.g., LandScan population density, major infrastructures) and historical / archaeological information, and measures that might be obtained in near-real-time (e.g., emergency services, news, social media). We combine these measures with seismological and other real-time observations as an ensemble of features within automated procedures to estimate impact and guide decision making. We examine using modern machine learning methodologies to train and calibrate the procedures, while working with high-dimensional feature space. * Lomax, A. and A. Michelini (2011), Tsunami early warning using earthquake rupture duration and P-wave dominant period: the importance of length and depth of faulting, Geophys. J. Int., 185, 283-291, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2010.04916.x

  7. Real-Time PCR Detection of Dogwood Anthracnose Fungus in Historical Herbarium Specimens from Asia

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Stephen; Masuya, Hayato; Zhang, Jian; Walsh, Emily; Zhang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Cornus species (dogwoods) are popular ornamental trees and important understory plants in natural forests of northern hemisphere. Dogwood anthracnose, one of the major diseases affecting the native North American Cornus species, such as C. florida, is caused by the fungal pathogen Discula destructiva. The origin of this fungus is not known, but it is hypothesized that it was imported to North America with its host plants from Asia. In this study, a TaqMan real-time PCR assay was used to detect D. destructiva in dried herbarium and fresh Cornus samples. Several herbarium specimens from Japan and China were detected positive for D. destructiva, some of which were collected before the first report of the dogwood anthracnose in North America. Our findings further support that D. destructiva was introduced to North America from Asia where the fungus likely does not cause severe disease. PMID:27096929

  8. Real-Time PCR Detection of Dogwood Anthracnose Fungus in Historical Herbarium Specimens from Asia.

    PubMed

    Miller, Stephen; Masuya, Hayato; Zhang, Jian; Walsh, Emily; Zhang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Cornus species (dogwoods) are popular ornamental trees and important understory plants in natural forests of northern hemisphere. Dogwood anthracnose, one of the major diseases affecting the native North American Cornus species, such as C. florida, is caused by the fungal pathogen Discula destructiva. The origin of this fungus is not known, but it is hypothesized that it was imported to North America with its host plants from Asia. In this study, a TaqMan real-time PCR assay was used to detect D. destructiva in dried herbarium and fresh Cornus samples. Several herbarium specimens from Japan and China were detected positive for D. destructiva, some of which were collected before the first report of the dogwood anthracnose in North America. Our findings further support that D. destructiva was introduced to North America from Asia where the fungus likely does not cause severe disease.

  9. Historical changes in US dollar exchange rate and real value of oil

    SciTech Connect

    DeMis, W.D.

    1996-12-31

    Oil prices relative to world currencies are now at unprecedented lows, as shown by a price analysis that incorporates the effect of US dollar exchange rates on the value of oil. A commodity-based analysis corroborates this exchange-rate analysis. The value of oil today on world markets is even below its 1969 level (the nadir of the previous oil bust). The inflation-corrected price of oil (using the producer price index) in the US has increased 130% since 1969. However, the US dollar has lost over 40% of its value relative to G-7 currencies since abandonment of the Bretton Woods agreement in 1971. Therefore, the real value of oil an international markets is 20% below its 1969 level. Since 1988 alone, the dollar has lost 16% relative to the G-7 currencies. Oil producing countries are taking extreme revenue cuts caused by the eroding US dollar.

  10. Historical changes in US dollar exchange rate and real value of oil

    SciTech Connect

    DeMis, W.D. )

    1996-01-01

    Oil prices relative to world currencies are now at unprecedented lows, as shown by a price analysis that incorporates the effect of US dollar exchange rates on the value of oil. A commodity-based analysis corroborates this exchange-rate analysis. The value of oil today on world markets is even below its 1969 level (the nadir of the previous oil bust). The inflation-corrected price of oil (using the producer price index) in the US has increased 130% since 1969. However, the US dollar has lost over 40% of its value relative to G-7 currencies since abandonment of the Bretton Woods agreement in 1971. Therefore, the real value of oil an international markets is 20% below its 1969 level. Since 1988 alone, the dollar has lost 16% relative to the G-7 currencies. Oil producing countries are taking extreme revenue cuts caused by the eroding US dollar.

  11. 24. Historic American Buildings Survey, Stevens Commercial Photographers, September 17, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Historic American Buildings Survey, Stevens Commercial Photographers, September 17, 1927 Photocopy by Lyle E. Winkle, 1969 WEATHERLY BUILDING AND ORIENTAL THEATRE BEFORE BRICK AND TERRA-COTTA CLADDING. - Oriental Theatre, 828 Southeast Grand Avenue, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  12. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey George Eisenman, Photographer Summer 1967 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey George Eisenman, Photographer Summer 1967 DETAIL, WINDOWS OF BRICK ELL - Adams-Mason House, 1072 Thomas Jefferson Street Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  13. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey George Eisenman, Photographer Summer 1967 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey George Eisenman, Photographer Summer 1967 BASEMENT: FIREPLACE SUPPORT ARCH, WEST WALL, UNDER BRICK ELL - Adams-Mason House, 1072 Thomas Jefferson Street Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey, P. Kent Fairbanks, Photographer August, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey, P. Kent Fairbanks, Photographer August, 1968 DETAIL OF SOUTH ELEVATION STAIRWAY WINDOW AND EXPOSED ADOBE BRICK. - Beehive House, East South Temple Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  15. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Theodore F. Dillon, Photographer, July, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Theodore F. Dillon, Photographer, July, 1959 INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, FRONT DETAIL OF TERRA COTTA, BRICK AND TILE FIREPLACE. - Mutual Fire Insurance Company Building, Germantown Avenue & School House Lane, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Cortlandt Van Dyke Hubbard, Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Cortlandt Van Dyke Hubbard, Photographer October 1959 BRICK NOGGING AND ORIGINAL WEATHERBOARDING OF SOUTH ELEVATION - White Meadow Farm, State Roads 290 & 262 (moved to Lewes, DE), Cool Spring, Sussex County, DE

  17. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 20, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 20, 1934. BRICK WALL, WAS ONCE USED AS A COW LOT - Jemison-van de Graaf-Burchfield House, 1305 Greensboro Avenue, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  18. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Nathaniel R. Ewan, Photographer April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Nathaniel R. Ewan, Photographer April 28, 1938 EXTERIOR - BRICK DETAIL, At Grade - Showing Arch. - Somers Mansion, Shore Road & Goll Street, Somers Point, Atlantic County, NJ

  19. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Nathaniel R. Ewan, Photographer January ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Nathaniel R. Ewan, Photographer January 3, 1938 EXTERIOR - ORIGINAL BRICK WALL IN REAR OF PROPERTY - Wood-Haddon House, 201 Wood Lane & Hawthorne Avenue, Haddonfield, Camden County, NJ

  20. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer From ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer From photograph furnished by Miss Edith D. Johnston, Savannah, Ga. Sept. 5, 1936 RED BRICK CHURCH (FORMER BUILDING 1811- 1837) - Christ Church (Episcopal), 28 Bull Street, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  1. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, March ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, March 22, 1937 BRICK WORK UNDER SOUTH WALL AND FRONT PORCH - Calvert-Webster House, 265 North Conception Street, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  2. 16. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, October ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, October 6, 1936 FIREPLACE WITH RAISED BRICK HEARTH, W. WALL OF ATTIC ROOM - J. J. McMahon House, 456 Saint Francis Street, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  3. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey E. H. Pickering, Photographer August ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey E. H. Pickering, Photographer August 1936 BRICK HORSE BARN FROM NORTH WEST, COACH HOUSE AND STABLE. - Hayfields Farm Buildings, Worthington Valley, Cockeysville, Baltimore County, MD

  4. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Nathaniel R. Ewan, Photographer November ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Nathaniel R. Ewan, Photographer November 20, 1936 EXTERIOR - SUN DRIED BRICK DETAIL - SECOND FLOOR - William R. Atkinson-Shinn House, Route 39, Columbus, Burlington County, NJ

  5. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Nathaniel R. Ewan, Photographer November ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Nathaniel R. Ewan, Photographer November 20, 1936 EXTERIOR - SUN DRIED BRICK DETAIL - FIRST FLOOR - William R. Atkinson-Shinn House, Route 39, Columbus, Burlington County, NJ

  6. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Ned Goode, Photographer August ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Ned Goode, Photographer - August 1959 WEST OR REAR AND SOUTH SIDE OF HOUSE SHOWING BRICK SMOKEHOUSE IN THE RIGHT FOREGROUND - Buffum House, Main & Middle Streets, Walpole, Cheshire County, NH

  7. XAL Application Framework and Bricks GUI Builder

    SciTech Connect

    Pelaia II, Tom

    2007-01-01

    The XAL [1] Application Framework is a framework for rapidly developing document based Java applications with a common look and feel along with many built-in user interface behaviors. The Bricks GUI builder consists of a modern application and framework for rapidly building user interfaces in support of true Model-View-Controller (MVC) compliant Java applications. Bricks and the XAL Application Framework allow developers to rapidly create quality applications.

  8. Making Bengali Brick Lane: claiming and contesting space in East London.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Claire

    2011-06-01

    Based on a recent empirical project on 'the Bengal diaspora', the paper explores the construction and contestation of meanings around the iconic East London street, Brick Lane. Taking the 2006 protests around the film Brick Lane as its starting point, the paper draws on original interviews conducted in 2008 with a range of Bengali community representatives, to examine the narratives of space, community and belonging that emerge around the idea of Brick Lane as the 'cultural heartland' of the British Bangladeshi community. By exploring the representation, production and contestation of 'social space' through everyday practices, the paper engages with and contests the representation of minority ethnic 'communities' in the context of contemporary multicultural London and examines the process of 'claiming' and 'making' space in East London. In so doing, the paper contributes to a critical tradition that challenges essentialising and pathologizing accounts of ethnic communities and racialized spaces, or that places them outside of broader social and historical processes - redolent, for example, in contemporary discussions about 'parallel lives' or 'the clash of civilizations'. By contrast, this paper views social space as made through movement and narration, with a particular emphasis on the social agency of local Bengali inhabitants and the multiple meanings that emerge from within this 'imagined community'. However, rather than simply stressing the unfinished and processual nature of spatial meanings, the paper insists on the historical, embodied and affective dimensions of such meaning making, and a reckoning with the broader social and political landscape within which such meanings take shape. The focus on Brick Lane provides an empirically rich, geographically and historically located lens through which to explore the complex role of ethnicity as a marker of social space and of spatial practices of resistance and identity. By exploring Bengali Brick Lane through

  9. Manufacturing ceramic bricks with polyaluminum chloride (PAC) sludge from a water treatment plant.

    PubMed

    da Silva, E M; Morita, D M; Lima, A C M; Teixeira, L Girard

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research work is to assess the viability of manufacturing ceramic bricks with sludge from a water treatment plant (WTP) for use in real-world applications. Sludge was collected from settling tanks at the Bolonha WTP, which is located in Belém, capital of the state of Pará, Brazil. After dewatering in drainage beds, sludge was added to the clay at a local brickworks at different mass percentages (7.6, 9.0, 11.7, 13.9 and 23.5%). Laboratory tests were performed on the bricks to assess their resistance to compression, water absorption, dimensions and visual aspects. Percentages of 7.6, 9.0, 11.7 and 13.9% (w/w) of WTP sludge presented good results in terms of resistance, which indicates that technically, ceramic bricks can be produced by incorporating up to 13.9% of WTP sludge.

  10. Decontaminating lead bricks and shielding

    SciTech Connect

    Lussiez, G.

    1994-02-01

    Lead used for shielding is often surface contaminated with radioisotopes and is therefore a RCRA D008 mixed waste. The technology-based standard for treatment is macroencapsulation. However, decontaminating and recycling the clean lead is a more attractive solution. Los Alamos National Laboratory decontaminates material and equipment contaminated with radioisotopes. Decontaminating lead poses special problems because of the RCRA hazard classification and the size of the inventory, now about 50 tons and likely to grow substantially of planned decommissioning operations. Thus lead, in the form of bricks and other shield shapes, is surface contaminated with fission products. One of the best methods for contaminated lead is removing the superficial layer of contamination with an abrasive medium under pressure. For lead, a mixture of alumina with water and air at about 40 psig rapidly and effectively decontaminates the lead. The abrasive medium is sprayed onto the lead in a scaled-off area. The slurry of abrasive and particles of lead falls through a floor and is collected in a sump. A pump sends the slurry mixture back to the spray gun, creating a continuous process. The process generates small volumes of lead slurry that can be solidified and, because it passes the TCLP, is not a mixed waste. The decontaminated lead can be released for recycling.

  11. Modeling tools for the real-time evaluation and historical reconstruction of tsunami events in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrero, J. C.; Greer, D.; Goring, D. G. G.; Power, W. L.

    2014-12-01

    We assess tsunami hazards in New Zealand through a review of historical accounts, analysis of water level and current speed data and detailed numerical modeling. The tsunamis of 2010 (Chile) and 2011 (Japan) were recorded on tide gauges throughout New Zealand, providing a rich water level data set for model comparison and calibration. Furthermore, a current meter at the entrance to Tauranga Harbor also captured these tsunamis providing a unique current speed data set augmented by several concurrent water level records. Analysis of the current data from 2011 shows that although port operations were not adversely affected, tsunami currents may have exceeded thresholds for the navigation of large vessels through the narrow harbor entrance. Harmonic analysis of the current speed data also illustrates the effect of tidal flows on tsunami currents. This information was then used to calibrate numerical models using the ComMIT modeling tool. A sensitivity study for tsunamis generated from around the Pacific Rim indicates the relative hazards from different source regions. Deterministic scenario modeling of significant historical tsunamis provides a quantitative estimate of the expected effects from possible future great earthquakes. These models were tested in April 2014 after the Mw 8.2 earthquake offshore of Iquique, Chile - an event of particular concern given that the August 1868 Arica earthquake generated a tsunami of ~7 m in Lyttelton Harbor as well as runup of up to 10 m in the Chatham Islands. As the April 2014 event unfolded, it was initially unclear if an evacuation or other emergency response would be necessary in New Zealand given that a tsunami was observed and recorded on tide gauges and deep ocean tsunameters close to the source region. Models run in real time, using sources based on inverted tsunameter data and finite fault solutions of the earthquake, suggested that a damaging far-field tsunami was not expected. As a result, emergency response teams and

  12. Using solar dryers to dry clay bricks

    SciTech Connect

    Bernal, J.A.; Wicker, R.B.

    1996-12-31

    Experiments using a small-scale solar dryer have been performed to determine the effect of incorporating solar dryers in the pre-firing stage of clay brick production. A comparison of brick moisture content over time is presented for dry bricks that underwent additional drying either naturally through direct exposure, in convection ovens set at 65.6 C and 104 C, in the solar dryer, or sealed in plastic bags. The ambient temperature and relative humidity were monitored along with the solar dryer temperature. Results indicated the solar dryer removed from one to two percent more moisture than natural drying, but removed less moisture than did the ovens. A similar comparison of wet bricks naturally dried, oven dried, and placed in the solar dryer for periods of five and seven days is also presented. The solar dryer reduced the amount of time required for bricks to be dried to a specified moisture content and increased the amount of moisture removed for a given amount of time.

  13. WEST FACADE. THREESTORY BRICK AND STEEL BUILDING WITH CONCRETE ADDITION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST FACADE. THREE-STORY BRICK AND STEEL BUILDING WITH CONCRETE ADDITION AT SOUTH FACE. NOTE OPENINGS INTO BUILDING ARE BOARDED OR BRICKED UP WITH WOODEN BOARDS OR CONCRETE BLOCK - National Can Company, 2566 East Grand Boulevard, Detroit, MI

  14. 78 FR 3449 - Silica Bricks and Shapes From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... COMMISSION Silica Bricks and Shapes From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... China of silica bricks and shapes, provided for in subheading 6902.20.10 of the Harmonized Tariff... injury by reason of LTFV imports of silica bricks and shapes from China. Accordingly, effective November...

  15. Design, the "Straw" Missing from the "Bricks" of IS Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waguespack, Leslie J.

    2011-01-01

    As punishment in the biblical story of Moses the slaves were told they had to make bricks without straw. This was impossible because bricks made without straw had the appearance of strength and function but could not withstand the proof of actual use. The slaves' punishment was therefore not only to make bricks, but also to find the straw on their…

  16. The quantitative estimation of the vulnerability of brick and concrete wall impacted by an experimental boulder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Guo, Z. X.; Wang, D.; Qian, H.

    2016-02-01

    There is little historic data about the vulnerability of damaged elements due to debris flow events in China. Therefore, it is difficult to quantitatively estimate the vulnerable elements suffered by debris flows. This paper is devoted to the research of the vulnerability of brick and concrete walls impacted by debris flows. An experimental boulder (an iron sphere) was applied to be the substitute of debris flow since it can produce similar shape impulse load on elements as debris flow. Several walls made of brick and concrete were constructed in prototype dimensions to physically simulate the damaged structures in debris flows. The maximum impact force was measured, and the damage conditions of the elements (including cracks and displacements) were collected, described and compared. The failure criterion of brick and concrete wall was proposed with reference to the structure characteristics as well as the damage pattern caused by debris flows. The quantitative estimation of the vulnerability of brick and concrete wall was finally established based on fuzzy mathematics and the proposed failure criterion. Momentum, maximum impact force and maximum impact bending moment were compared to be the best candidate for disaster intensity index. The results show that the maximum impact bending moment seems to be most suitable for the disaster intensity index in establishing vulnerability curve and formula.

  17. Prefabricated brick wall panels: Economy or nightmare?

    SciTech Connect

    Louis, M.J.

    1999-07-01

    Prefabricated wall systems are becoming a popular element of building construction. Prefabricated systems lend themselves to streamlining construction schedules and reducing overall construction costs. They offer the potential for increased quality due to assembly in controlled factory environments. This paper reviews basic principles and concepts for the design of waterproofing systems for prefabricated brick wall panels. Using a project case study, the author will show that failure to adhere to certain proven conventional practices can have serious adverse consequences with respect to the performance of prefabricated brick wall panels.

  18. Preparation of Clay Brick Using Coal Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Jung W.; Jung, Jin H.; Kim, Jae M.; Lee, Sung M.; Kim, Hyung T.

    2004-03-31

    A great deal of coal waste produced during the development of a mine was accumulated around the mine, which caused many problems such as traffic, acid mine drainage and damage of forest and scenery. Carbon in the coal waste helps calcination of the brick even at low temperature. Considering the reuse of natural waste and energy saving, clay brick was prepared using coal waste under various conditions, including particle size, amount of coal waste mixed, calcination temperature and pressing pressure. The specimens were characterized by XRD, SEM and TG-DTA and interpreted in terms of water absorption and compressive strength.

  19. Evaluation of eMODIS Expedited and Historical Data for Near real-time Monitoring Applications in Support of Famine Early Warning Early Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budde, M. E.; Rowland, J.

    2010-12-01

    Scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center are utilizing a new Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data set in support of the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) requirement for near real-time monitoring for food security analysis. The expedited MODIS, or eMODIS, production system provides two parallel data streams of NDVI data. The first is the eMODIS expedited data stream which is available within 24 hours of the end of the composite period using MODIS surface reflectance provided by the Land Atmosphere Near-real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE). The second is the eMODIS historical data stream which is available within 3 - 10 days of final acquisition using Level 1 and Atmosphere Archive and Distribution System (LAADS) Level-2 surface reflectance. The difference between the two processing streams is that the former uses estimated ephemeris and predicted atmospheric corrections while the latter uses actual ephemeris and applies a complete set of atmospheric corrections. Since the needs of FEWS NET are primarily for timely (or near real-time) operational monitoring, the benefits of the expedited product are obvious. Both sets of data were analyzed for two FEWS NET regions to assess the feasibility of comparing near real-time data with the historical processed data. Results showed that on a per-pixel basis, the correlation of the two data sets was very good, resulting in R2 values greater than 0.9. Further summaries of NDVI for specific spatial units, a typical technique used by FEWS NET, showed even greater improvement in the expedited versus historical results. The strong relationships established here provide confidence in the use of the eMODIS expedited stream for near real-time vegetation monitoring.

  20. Interface bonding of shotcrete reinforced brick masonry assemblages, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, D. W.; Kahn, L. F.

    1982-09-01

    Nine 9 sq ft. shotcrete reinforced brick masonry assemblages and one 9 sq ft brick masonry control specimen were tested under a single reversed cycle diagonal compression load similar to the ASTM E519-74 testing procedures. The interface surface conditions, between the brick and shotcrete were varied. The surfaces of the single sythe of old brick were either dry, wet, or epoxy coated before application of the 3-inch reinforced shotcrete layer. Ultimate load capacities of the specimens were similar, however, specimens with epoxy-enhanced interfaces were the most ductile; the dry brick specimens showed interface bond failure immediately after the ultimate inplane load was attained.

  1. Not "Just Another Brick in the Wall"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zolkower, Betina A.; Rubel, Laurie H.

    2015-01-01

    "Low threshold, high ceiling" tasks are accessible to diverse learners; invite a wide range of approaches; and hold the potential to further challenge, strengthen, and extend everyone's mathematical reasoning. In this article, the authors present a family of Brick Pyramid problems as examples of "low threshold, high ceiling"…

  2. Not "Just Another Brick in the Wall"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zolkower, Betina A.; Rubel, Laurie H.

    2015-01-01

    "Low threshold, high ceiling" tasks are accessible to diverse learners; invite a wide range of approaches; and hold the potential to further challenge, strengthen, and extend everyone's mathematical reasoning. In this article, the authors present a family of Brick Pyramid problems as examples of "low threshold, high ceiling"…

  3. Assessment of air pollutant emissions from brick kilns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajarathnam, Uma; Athalye, Vasudev; Ragavan, Santhosh; Maithel, Sameer; Lalchandani, Dheeraj; Kumar, Sonal; Baum, Ellen; Weyant, Cheryl; Bond, Tami

    2014-12-01

    India has more than 100,000 brick kilns producing around 250 billion bricks annually. Indian brick industry is often a small scale industry and third largest consumer of coal in the country. With the growing demand for building materials and characterised by lack of pollution control measures the brick industry has a potential to cause adverse effects on the environment. This paper presents assessment of five brick making technologies based on the measurements carried out at seventeen individual brick kilns. Emissions of PM, SO2, CO and CO2 were measured and these emissions were used to estimate the emission factors for comparing the emissions across different fuel or operating conditions. Estimated emission from brick kilns in South Asia are about 0.94 million tonnes of PM; 3.9 million tonnes of CO and 127 million tonnes of CO2 per year. Among various technologies that are widely used in India, Zig zag and vertical shaft brick kilns showed better performance in terms of emissions over the traditional fixed chimney Bull's trench kilns. This suggests that the replacement of traditional technologies with Zig zag, vertical shaft brick kilns or other cleaner kiln technologies will contribute towards improvements in the environmental performance of brick kiln industry in the country. Zig zag kilns appear to be the logical replacement because of low capital investment, easy integration with the existing production process, and the possibility of retrofitting fixed chimney Bull's trench kilns into Zig zag firing.

  4. Mining bridge and brick motifs from complex biological networks for functionally and statistically significant discovery.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chia-Ying; Huang, Chung-Yuan; Sun, Chuen-Tsai

    2008-02-01

    A major task for postgenomic systems biology researchers is to systematically catalogue molecules and their interactions within living cells. Advancements in complex-network theory are being made toward uncovering organizing principles that govern cell formation and evolution, but we lack understanding of how molecules and their interactions determine how complex systems function. Molecular bridge motifs include isolated motifs that neither interact nor overlap with others, whereas brick motifs act as network foundations that play a central role in defining global topological organization. To emphasize their structural organizing and evolutionary characteristics, we define bridge motifs as consisting of weak links only and brick motifs as consisting of strong links only, then propose a method for performing two tasks simultaneously, which are as follows: 1) detecting global statistical features and local connection structures in biological networks and 2) locating functionally and statistically significant network motifs. To further understand the role of biological networks in system contexts, we examine functional and topological differences between bridge and brick motifs for predicting biological network behaviors and functions. After observing brick motif similarities between E. coli and S. cerevisiae, we note that bridge motifs differentiate C. elegans from Drosophila and sea urchin in three types of networks. Similarities (differences) in bridge and brick motifs imply similar (different) key circuit elements in the three organisms. We suggest that motif-content analyses can provide researchers with global and local data for real biological networks and assist in the search for either isolated or functionally and topologically overlapping motifs when investigating and comparing biological system functions and behaviors.

  5. DNA Brick Crystals with Prescribed Depth

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Yonggang; Ong, Luvena L.; Sun, Wei; Song, Jie; Dong, Mingdong; Shih, William M.; Yin, Peng

    2014-01-01

    We describe a general framework for constructing two-dimensional crystals with prescribed depth and sophisticated three-dimensional features. These crystals may serve as scaffolds for the precise spatial arrangements of functional materials for diverse applications. The crystals are self-assembled from single-stranded DNA components called DNA bricks. We demonstrate the experimental construction of DNA brick crystals that can grow to micron-size in the lateral dimensions with precisely controlled depth up to 80 nanometers. They can be designed to display user-specified sophisticated three-dimensional nanoscale features, such as continuous or discontinuous cavities and channels, and to pack DNA helices at parallel and perpendicular angles relative to the plane of the crystals. PMID:25343605

  6. The yellow brick road of medical education

    PubMed Central

    Nisker, J A

    1997-01-01

    From the time the medical school's acceptance letter is opened, students eagerly set off on the yellow brick road in pursuit of the attributes of the good physician: intelligence, compassion and courage. The students already possess these traits, just as the Scarecrow, Tin Man and Lion did before they set out for Oz, but they may dissolve in education systems that still decree that the initiation to medicine involve tonnes of tutored words and consuming call schedules. PMID:9068580

  7. Three-Dimensional Structures Self-Assembled from DNA Bricks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Yonggang; Ong, Luvena L.; Shih, William M.; Yin, Peng

    2012-11-01

    We describe a simple and robust method to construct complex three-dimensional (3D) structures by using short synthetic DNA strands that we call “DNA bricks.” In one-step annealing reactions, bricks with hundreds of distinct sequences self-assemble into prescribed 3D shapes. Each 32-nucleotide brick is a modular component; it binds to four local neighbors and can be removed or added independently. Each 8-base pair interaction between bricks defines a voxel with dimensions of 2.5 by 2.5 by 2.7 nanometers, and a master brick collection defines a “molecular canvas” with dimensions of 10 by 10 by 10 voxels. By selecting subsets of bricks from this canvas, we constructed a panel of 102 distinct shapes exhibiting sophisticated surface features, as well as intricate interior cavities and tunnels.

  8. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Charles E. Peterson, Photographer c. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Charles E. Peterson, Photographer c. 1936 Brick Parapet, Earth Traverse, and Columbiad Mounted in Water Battery East of Sally-Port - Fort McHenry National Monument & Historic Shrine, East Fort Avenue at Whetstone Point, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  9. Brane brick models in the mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Sebastián; Lee, Sangmin; Seong, Rak-Kyeong; Vafa, Cumrun

    2017-02-01

    Brane brick models are Type IIA brane configurations that encode the 2 d N=(0,2) gauge theories on the worldvolume of D1-branes probing toric Calabi-Yau 4-folds. We use mirror symmetry to improve our understanding of this correspondence and to provide a systematic approach for constructing brane brick models starting from geometry. The mirror configuration consists of D5-branes wrapping 4-spheres and the gauge theory is determined by how they intersect. We also explain how 2 d (0 , 2) triality is realized in terms of geometric transitions in the mirror geometry. Mirror symmetry leads to a geometric unification of dualities in different dimensions, where the order of duality is n - 1 for a Calabi-Yau n-fold. This makes us conjecture the existence of a quadrality symmetry in 0 d. Finally, we comment on how the M-theory lift of brane brick models connects to the classification of 2 d (0 , 2) theories in terms of 4-manifolds.

  10. 6. Detail of the west side showing the original brick ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail of the west side showing the original brick detailing. The Roman bricks in the first story were installed in the 1950s. The heavy wood mullions are original and support a wood beam that carries the second-story brick facade. Remnants of the 1950s facade still remain above the parapet. Credit GADA/MRM. - Stroud Building, 31-33 North Central Avenue, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  11. View from intersection. Ninestory reinforced concrete building infilled with brick. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from intersection. Nine-story reinforced concrete building infilled with brick. The street facades on beaubien and east grand are faced with stone accents and elaborate brick work. Brick pilasters run the entire height of the building. Steel tiebacks are apparent running up the height of the building on the east side. The large tower appears at the northeast and southeast corners - Detroit Storage Company, 2937 East Grand Boulevard, Detroit, MI

  12. 15. Detail view of the south elevation brick work at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail view of the south elevation brick work at the west end, with scale. (Note initials and date carved into the bricks and how the coursing does not line up. The end bricks could be an early repair to the masonry or be the result of replacing wood walls with brick and what is evident is how the new walls were keyed into the gable walls. In either scenario, the mortar has been poorly repointed and is a later change.) - Kiskiack, Naval Mine Depot, State Route 238 vicinity, Yorktown, York County, VA

  13. Bricks as indicators for an urban soil genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehls, Thomas; Rokia, Sarah; Schwartz, Christophe; Wessolek, Gerd

    2013-04-01

    Bricks can be considered as anthropogenic markers since they are regularly found in urban soils worldwide. They are among the most resistent residues of building materials, therefore are called technogenic substrates. They have been dumped to urban soils since more than 4000 years and can be dated back to their burning using thermoluminescence. In Berlin, bricks have been piled up to more than 37 rubble mountains in the city after WW II. The devils mountain, the most prominent of them is higher than 60m. However, bricks are known not to be isolated in the soil but to fulfill soil functions due to their porosity. Therefore, they are nice research objects for soil scientists. The purpose of this study is to investigate abundance and functions of bricks in urban soils, focusing on plant nutrition and contamination aspects. Three different Berlin urban soils have been studied for their brick contents in the coarse and fine earth fractions by endless hand sorting. Light and scanning electron microscopy was then employed to investigate the bricks for proofs of plant roots. Third, CEC, pH, EC, Corg, nutrient storage (XRF) and availability (2:1 extract, ion chromatography, AAS) of bricks and fine earth fractions of the corresponding soil horizons have been investigated. The fine earth fractions of the investigated soils contain 3 to 5% of bricks, while the coarse fractions contain up to 50%. We found roots entering brick pores or at least attached to brick surfaces. Therefore, plants can use the water and nutrients stored in bricks. The CEC of bricks is grain size dependent and reaches a maximum of 6 cmolc kg-1 for particles smaller than 0.063 mm. This dependency is not explained by a low pore connectivity. Rather, it is the result of the restricted diffusion into the brick pore system due to the short shaking time in the CEC analysis protocol. From the nutrient storage and availabilities we conclude that bricks can better supply plants with K, Mg, Ca and S than the bulk

  14. Speciation and bioaccessibility of mercury in adobe bricks and dirt floors in Huancavelica, Peru.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Nicole; Robins, Nicholas; Gonzales, Ruben Dario Espinoza; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

    2015-04-01

    Huancavelica, Peru, a historic cinnabar refining site, is one of the most mercury (Hg)-contaminated urban areas in the world. Exposure is amplified because residents build their adobe brick homes from contaminated soil. The objectives of this study were to compare two Hg-leaching procedures, and their application as risk-assessment screening tools in Hg-contaminated adobe brick homes in Huancavelica. The purpose was to evaluate potential health implications, particularly for children, after ingestion of Hg-contaminated particles. Hg was measured in adobe brick and dirt floor samples from 60 households by total Hg extraction, simulated gastric fluid (GF) extraction, and sequential selective extraction (SSE), which provides more detailed data but is resource-intensive. Most of the Hg present in samples was relatively insoluble, although in some households soluble Hg species were present at concentrations that may be of concern after ingestion. A strong correlation was identified between results from simulated GF extraction of adobe bricks and dirt floors and the more soluble fractions of Hg from SSE. Simulated GF extraction data were combined with ingestion and body mass characteristics for small children to compare potential risk of ingestion of Hg-contaminated soil with current health standards. Simulated GF extraction can be used as a risk assessment screening tool for effective allocation of time and resources to households that have measurable concentrations of bioaccessible Hg. Combining simulated GF extraction data with health standards enables intervention strategies targeted at households with the greatest potential health threat from ingestion of Hg-contaminated particles.

  15. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF EASTERN BEEHIVE BRICK, SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF EASTERN BEEHIVE BRICK, SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS. KILNS 1A, 2A, 3A, AND 4A IN FOREGROUND. GAS VALVE AND METERING HOUSE TO LEFT OF PICTURE. - Jenkins Brick Company, Plant No. 2, Furnace Street, Montgomery, Montgomery County, AL

  16. An Exploration of the Nanoworld with LEGO Bricks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Dean J.; Miller, Josiah D.; Bannon, Stephen J.; Obermaier, Lauren M.

    2011-01-01

    LEGO bricks can be used for a number of demonstrations of chemical structures and properties, especially at the nanoscale level. These bricks can also be used to model instrumentation that probes these structures and properties. Detailed resources about many of these demonstrations are located on the extensive Web site "Exploring the Nanoworld…

  17. Perspective view. Threestory steel and brick building with factory windows ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view. Three-story steel and brick building with factory windows punctuating facades. East and west facades have tall brick piers capped with evenly spaced stone capitals. North facade (facing Milwaukee Ave. E.) has parapet element decorated with stone accent lines and large flagpole. Piers on north facade have raised stone base - New Center Stamping, 950 East Milwaukee Avenue, Detroit, MI

  18. 78 FR 44433 - Safety Zone; Metedeconk River; Brick Township, NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... during the event. This action is intended to restrict vessel traffic in a portion of Delaware River near... Guard Sector Delaware Bay--COTP Zone by-- 0 a. Suspending entry 9, ``Metedeconk River, Brick Township... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Metedeconk River; Brick Township, NJ AGENCY...

  19. Inside the Sex Ed Studio: An Interview with Peggy Brick

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taverner, William J.

    2008-01-01

    "Inside the Sex Ed Studio" profiles leaders in the field of sexuality education. Peggy Brick, former director of Planned Parenthood of Greater Northern New Jersey's Center for Family Life Education (CFLE) and author of numerous sexuality education resources used worldwide, is the subject of this interview. Ms. Brick was interviewed by…

  20. An Exploration of the Nanoworld with LEGO Bricks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Dean J.; Miller, Josiah D.; Bannon, Stephen J.; Obermaier, Lauren M.

    2011-01-01

    LEGO bricks can be used for a number of demonstrations of chemical structures and properties, especially at the nanoscale level. These bricks can also be used to model instrumentation that probes these structures and properties. Detailed resources about many of these demonstrations are located on the extensive Web site "Exploring the Nanoworld…

  1. 5. VIEW OF THE LAMP HOUSE LOOKING EAST. DECORATIVE BRICK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF THE LAMP HOUSE LOOKING EAST. DECORATIVE BRICK CORBELING AND PILASTERS DIVIDE THE BAYS. BRICK CORBELING ACCENTS THE EAVES. CONCRETE LINTELS ABOVE THE WINDOW OPENINGS PROVIDE ADDITIONAL DETAILING. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

  2. WEST FACADE. THREESTORY BRICK AND STEEL BUILDING WITH CONCRETE ADDITION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST FACADE. THREE-STORY BRICK AND STEEL BUILDING WITH CONCRETE ADDITION AT SOUTH FACE. NOTE OPENINGS INTO BUILDING ARE BOARDED OR BRICKED UP WITH WOODEN BOARDS OR CONCRETE BLOCK. (Duplicate color view of HAER MI-352-1) - National Can Company, 2566 East Grand Boulevard, Detroit, MI

  3. Black hole entropy without brick walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Li

    2002-07-01

    The properties of the thermal radiation are discussed by using the new equation of state density motivated by the generalized uncertainty relation in the quantum gravity. There is no burst at the last stage of the emission of a Schwarzschild black hole. When the new equation of state density is utilized to investigate the entropy of a scalar field outside the horizon of a static black hole, the divergence appearing in the brick wall model is removed, without any cutoff. The entropy proportional to the horizon area is derived from the contribution of the vicinity of the horizon.

  4. Brick walls and AdS/CFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, Bernard S.; Ortíz, L.

    2014-05-01

    We discuss the relationship between the bulk-boundary correspondence in Rehren's algebraic holography (and in other `fixed-background', QFT-based, approaches to holography) and in mainstream string-theoretic `Maldacena AdS/CFT'. Especially, we contrast the understanding of black-hole entropy from the point of view of QFT in curved spacetime—in the framework of 't Hooft's `brick wall' model—with the understanding based on Maldacena AdS/CFT. We show that the brick-wall modification of a Klein-Gordon field in the Hartle-Hawking-Israel state on dimensional Schwarzschild AdS has a well-defined boundary limit with the same temperature and entropy as the brick-wall-modified bulk theory. One of our main purposes is to point out a close connection, for general AdS/CFT situations, between the puzzle raised by Arnsdorf and Smolin regarding the relationship between Rehren's algebraic holography and mainstream AdS/CFT and the puzzle embodied in the `complementarity principle' proposed by Mukohyama and Israel in their work on the brick-wall approach to black hole entropy. Working on the assumption that similar results will hold for bulk QFT other than the Klein-Gordon field and for Schwarzschild AdS in other dimensions, and recalling the first author's proposed resolution to the Mukohyama-Israel puzzle based on his `matter-gravity entanglement hypothesis', we argue that, in Maldacena AdS/CFT, the algebra of the boundary CFT is isomorphic only to a proper subalgebra of the bulk algebra, albeit (at non-zero temperature) the (GNS) Hilbert spaces of bulk and boundary theories are still the `same'—the total bulk state being pure, while the boundary state is mixed (thermal). We also argue from the finiteness of its boundary (and hence, on our assumptions, also bulk) entropy at finite temperature, that the Rehren dual of the Maldacena boundary CFT cannot itself be a QFT and must, instead, presumably be something like a string theory.

  5. Sustainable use of tannery sludge in brick manufacturing in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Juel, Md Ariful Islam; Mizan, Al; Ahmed, Tanvir

    2017-02-01

    Chromium-rich tannery sludge generated from tanneries has the potential to become a serious environmental burden in Bangladesh and a promising avenue for disposal of this sludge is by stabilizing it in clay brick products. But for sustainable industrial application of such technique it needs to be ensured first that the engineering properties of bricks as a building material are not diminished by addition of sludge, the process becomes energy efficient compared to alternatives and the use of such bricks do not pose any harmful environmental effects in the long run. In this study, clay bricks were prepared with different proportions of sludge (10%, 20%, 30% and 40% by dry weight) in both laboratory-controlled and field conditions and their suitability as a construction material was assessed based on their strength, water absorption, shrinkage, weight-loss on ignition and bulk density. For the sludge incorporated bricks, the compressive strength ranged from 10.98MPa to 29.61MPa and water absorption ranged from 7.2% to 20.9%, which in most cases met both the Bangladesh and ASTM criteria for bricks as a construction material. Volumetric shrinkage, weight loss and efflorescence properties of sludge-amended bricks were found to be favorable and it was estimated that an energy saving of 15-47% could potentially be achieved during firing with 10-40% tannery sludge-amended bricks. The quality of sludge-amended bricks made in the brick kiln was relatively inferior compared to bricks produced in the laboratory due to operating in a less-controlled environment with respect to maintaining adequate compaction and optimum moisture content. The leaching behavior of several heavy metals (Cr, As, Cu, Ni, Cd, Pb and Zn) from sludge-amended bricks has been found to be insignificant and far below the Dutch regulations and USEPA regulatory limits. Results from this study indicate that tannery sludge can be sustainably stabilized in clay bricks and large-scale application of this

  6. Exterior building details of Building C, east façade: brick quoins, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building C, east façade: brick quoins, brick lintels, brick window sills, decorative metal grilles, scored cement finished brick wall; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  7. 75 FR 4528 - Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks From the People's Republic of China: Alignment of Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks From the People's Republic of China: Alignment... Carbon Bricks (Bricks) from the People's Republic of China (PRC) with the final determinations of the antidumping duty (AD) investigations of Bricks from the PRC and Mexico. DATES: Effective Date: January...

  8. Combination of High Rate, Real-time GNSS and Accelerometer Observations - Preliminary Results Using a Shake Table and Historic Earthquake Events.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Michael; Passmore, Paul; Zimakov, Leonid; Raczka, Jared

    2014-05-01

    One of the fundamental requirements of an Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) system (and other mission critical applications) is to quickly detect and process the information from the strong motion event, i.e. event detection and location, magnitude estimation, and the peak ground motion estimation at the defined targeted site, thus allowing the civil protection authorities to provide pre-programmed emergency response actions: Slow down or stop rapid transit trains and high-speed trains; shutoff of gas pipelines and chemical facilities; stop elevators at the nearest floor; send alarms to hospitals, schools and other civil institutions. An important question associated with the EEW system is: can we measure displacements in real time with sufficient accuracy? Scientific GNSS networks are moving towards a model of real-time data acquisition, storage integrity, and real-time position and displacement calculations. This new paradigm allows the integration of real-time, high-rate GNSS displacement information with acceleration and velocity data to create very high-rate displacement records. The mating of these two instruments allows the creation of a new, very high-rate (200 Hz) displacement observable that has the full-scale displacement characteristics of GNSS and high-precision dynamic motions of seismic technologies. It is envisioned that these new observables can be used for earthquake early warning studies and other mission critical applications, such as volcano monitoring, building, bridge and dam monitoring systems. REF TEK a Division of Trimble has developed the integrated GNSS/Accelerograph system, model 160-09SG, which consists of REF TEK's fourth generation electronics, a 147-01 high-resolution ANSS Class A accelerometer, and Trimble GNSS receiver and antenna capable of real time, on board Precise Point Positioning (PPP) techniques with satellite clock and orbit corrections delivered to the receiver directly via L-band satellite communications. The test we

  9. Active thermal testing of moisture in bricks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bison, Paolo G.; Bressan, Chiara; Grinzato, Ermanno G.; Marinetti, Sergio; Vavilov, Vladimir P.

    1993-04-01

    Measurement by active thermal testing of effusivity on porous moistened material is analyzed. Moistened bricks show that thermal properties of this porous solid depend on water content. Various solutions of the heat transfer problem are taken into account and approximations introduced to simplify the data reduction are discussed. Error analysis is also considered to justify the adoption of relative technique. Errors analysis speaks strongly in favor of reference method which allows to avoid the measurement of incident energy and optical properties of a specimen. This procedure allows to introduce a rather simple expression to extract moisture values from one-side thermal test. Diffusivity measurement trough flash method is proposed to determine the influence of moisture on the variation of thermal conductivity.

  10. Moisture properties of the lightweight brick body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čáchová, Monika; Koňáková, Dana; Vejmelková, Eva; Keppert, Martin; Černý, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Brick have been used for thousands years and during that time they went throw the long development. One of the possibilities how to changed properties of ceramic products is to change material compositions. This article is focused on utilization of lightening additives. Commonly used sawdust is compared with straw. The matter of measurement was to determine its influence on moisture properties. Basic physical properties were measured as well, since mainly open porosity has influence on water transport. Achieved results proved that utilization of straw leads to open porosity decrease. Particularly the amount of small pores (diameter under 1µm) went down. Regarding the moisture properties water vapor transport ability was decreased by adding straw in to the ceramic, while ability of water liquid transport remained unaffected.

  11. Utilization of Savannah Harbor river sediment as the primary raw material in production of fired brick.

    PubMed

    Mezencevova, Andrea; Yeboah, Nortey N; Burns, Susan E; Kahn, Lawrence F; Kurtis, Kimberly E

    2012-12-30

    A laboratory-scale study was conducted to assess the feasibility of the production of fired bricks from sediments dredged from the Savannah Harbor (Savannah, GA, USA). The dredged sediment was used as the sole raw material, or as a 50% replacement for natural brick-making clay. Sediment bricks were prepared using the stiff mud extrusion process from raw mixes consisted of 100% dredged sediment, or 50% dredged sediment and 50% brick clay. The bricks were fired at temperatures between 900 and 1000 °C. Physical and mechanical properties of the dredged sediment brick were found to generally comply with ASTM criteria for building brick. Water absorption of the dredged sediment bricks was in compliance with the criteria for brick graded for severe (SW) or moderate (MW) weathering. Compressive strength of 100% dredged sediment bricks ranged from 8.3 to 11.7 MPa; the bricks sintered at 1000 °C met the requirements for negligible weathering (NW) building brick. Mixing the dredged sediment with natural clay resulted in an increase of the compressive strength. The compressive strength of the sediment-clay bricks fired at 1000 °C was 29.4 MPa, thus meeting the ASTM requirements for the SW grade building brick. Results of this study demonstrate that production of fired bricks is a promising and achievable productive reuse alternative for Savannah Harbor dredged sediments.

  12. IN MY OPINION: Bricks, buildings and brickbats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, Ken

    1999-09-01

    You find that you want to erect a building. Presumably you know why - somewhere to live, somewhere to park a car, a kitchen extension, a shop, a gymnasium - a cathedral even. You explain your needs to an expert - an architect, someone who knows how to convert a (more or less) clearly defined aim into a workable plan. The architect consults with a builder, and together they estimate how many bricks, windows, pieces of wood, wires etc, etc they need to make the plan a reality. They should also give you a reasonably accurate estimate of the cost of the building. At least this is what happened when I had to get a new garage and wanted to extend a kitchen. It was all done professionally and both sides were satisfied. During the summer of 1999 interested parties are looking closely at the government's proposals for the next version of the National Curriculum. New National Curriculums appear much more often than I can afford to alter or extend my kitchen, and there seems to be a major difference in the way an educational system is constructed compared to the way a new building is built. If kitchen extensions were built using the educational method, the user (or customer, as I sometimes like to think of the teacher-pupil symbiosis) would find piles of bricks, window frames, wires and pieces of wood carefully dumped on the front garden. There would also be a rather brief set of instructions, plus some fairly rigid building regulations. We would then be asked to comment on this, and maybe a few extra bricks would be delivered or some taken away. As a nation of Do-it-Yourselfers we would of course cope. My experience of working with a team trying (with some success) to construct a coherent structure of learning based on the National Curriculum at Key Stage 4 was instructive and character-building. Some vital pieces seemed to be missing (but we couldn't put them in because that would have overloaded the content). Some bits couldn't be fitted in anywhere, so we relied on a

  13. 2. FORMER QUARTERS OF THE SPANISH NAVY, BRICK WALL CONSTRUCTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. FORMER QUARTERS OF THE SPANISH NAVY, BRICK WALL CONSTRUCTION DETAIL SHOWING ARCHES OF SOUTH WALL OF WEST WING OF ENTRANCE PORTICO. - El Arsenal, Former Headquarters of the Spanish Navy, Calle Arsenal, San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  14. Brick incinerator structure located adjacent to "motor courts." This example ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Brick incinerator structure located adjacent to "motor courts." This example is located between Buildings 26 and 27. Facing northeast - Harbor Hills Housing Project, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. Detail of arched corbel table at top of brick privy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of arched corbel table at top of brick privy - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Combination Smokestack, Water Tank & Privies, Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  16. 58. LOOKING EAST DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH BRICK SHED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. LOOKING EAST DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH BRICK SHED No. 3 IN FOREGROUND ON RIGHT. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  17. 3. General oblique view of west facade showing brick piers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. General oblique view of west facade showing brick piers and industrial windows; view to southeast. - Champion-International Paper Company, Paper Machine Building, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  18. 4. Detail of west facade showing brick piers and industrial ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Detail of west facade showing brick piers and industrial windows with metal sash and reinforced concrete lintels and sills. - Champion-International Paper Company, Paper Machine Building, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  19. 6. Closer view of ruins of brick engine house; view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Closer view of ruins of brick engine house; view to southeast. - Champion-International Paper Company, Paper Machine Building, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  20. 8. Detail of rebuilt east wall of brick engine house ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail of rebuilt east wall of brick engine house spanning raceway; view to southwest. - Champion-International Paper Company, Paper Machine Building, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  1. BRICK RETAINING WALL AND STEPS AT FRONT YARD OF CROATAN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRICK RETAINING WALL AND STEPS AT FRONT YARD OF CROATAN, VIEW TOWARD GARDEN, FACING NORTHEAST - Overhills, Fort Bragg Military Reservation, Approximately 15 miles NW of Fayetteville, Overhills, Harnett County, NC

  2. 18. Pennsylvania Railroad: Brick Arch Viaduct. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., PA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Pennsylvania Railroad: Brick Arch Viaduct. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., PA. Sec. 1101, MP 87.44. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between Delaware-Pennsylvania & Pennsylvania-New Jersey state lines, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. 19. Pennsylvania Railroad: Brick Arch Viaduct. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., PA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Pennsylvania Railroad: Brick Arch Viaduct. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., PA. Sec. 1101, MP 87.44. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between Delaware-Pennsylvania & Pennsylvania-New Jersey state lines, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. IET. Typical detail during Snaptran reactor experiments. Shielding bricks protect ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET. Typical detail during Snaptran reactor experiments. Shielding bricks protect ion chamber beneath reactor on dolly. Photographer: Page Comiskey. Date: August 11, 1965. INEEL negative no. 65-4039 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. Detail of second floor window with splayed brick header, east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of second floor window with splayed brick header, east elevation; camera facing west. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Rubber Shop, California Avenue, west side across from Dry Dock 1 near Ninth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  6. 2. BRICK END ELEVATION WITH X VENTILATORS, REDPAINTED GABLE WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. BRICK END ELEVATION WITH X VENTILATORS, RED-PAINTED GABLE WITH WHITE STARS AND A DOORWAY HOOD. ALSO SHOWS PORTION OF REAR ELEVATION WITH X VENTILATORS - Decorated Red Barn (1852), State Route 100 vicinity, Pottstown, Montgomery County, PA

  7. 4. Detail view of brick arch above doorway on W ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Detail view of brick arch above doorway on W wall of Blacksmith Shop. - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Blacksmith Shop, Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  8. 3. VIEW OF PARK FROM SOUTHWEST SHOWING BRICK WALLS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF PARK FROM SOUTHWEST SHOWING BRICK WALLS OF BUS RAMP, GANNET HOUSE IN REAR LEFT, AUSTIN HALL IN CENTER, LITTAUER HALL TO RIGHT - Flagstaff Park, Massachusetts Avenue & Kirkland Street, Cambridge, Middlesex County, MA

  9. 42. DETAIL OF TRIPLE WINDOW ELEMENT WITH DECORATIVE BRICK SURROUND, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. DETAIL OF TRIPLE WINDOW ELEMENT WITH DECORATIVE BRICK SURROUND, ON EAST SIDE OF 1931 SECTION, TAKEN FROM THE EAST. - James Russell Lowell Elementary School, 4501 Crittenden Drive, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  10. 36. DETAIL OF WINDOW ELEMENT WITH DECORATIVE BRICK PATTERN ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. DETAIL OF WINDOW ELEMENT WITH DECORATIVE BRICK PATTERN ON MAIN FRONT OF 1931 SECTION, TAKEN FROM THE NORTH. - James Russell Lowell Elementary School, 4501 Crittenden Drive, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  11. 41. DETAIL OF DOUBLE WINDOW ELEMENT WITH ARCHED BRICK PATTERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. DETAIL OF DOUBLE WINDOW ELEMENT WITH ARCHED BRICK PATTERN ON EAST SIDE OF 1931 SECTION, TAKEN FROM THE EAST. - James Russell Lowell Elementary School, 4501 Crittenden Drive, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  12. View east of brick railroad viaduct central of Georgia ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View east of brick railroad viaduct - central of Georgia - spannin canal prism (now used as pedestrian walk) - Savannah & Ogeechee Barge Canal, Between Ogeechee & Savannah Rivers, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  13. 1. A BRICK AND CONCRETE FAN HOUSING ADJACENT TO ONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. A BRICK AND CONCRETE FAN HOUSING ADJACENT TO ONE OF THE ADIT OPENINGS (VIEW TO THE NORTH). - Foster Gulch Mine, Fan Housing, Bear Creek 1 mile Southwest of Town of Bear Creek, Red Lodge, Carbon County, MT

  14. 12. VIEW TO SOUTH, BRICK SKINNER SALT ROASTER AND STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW TO SOUTH, BRICK SKINNER SALT ROASTER AND STEEL SKINNER SALT ROASTER. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  15. 13. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, BRICK SKINNER SALT ROASTER AND STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, BRICK SKINNER SALT ROASTER AND STEEL SKINNER SALT ROASTER. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  16. Detail of large, brick columns and bracket inside Electrical Shop ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of large, brick columns and bracket inside Electrical Shop - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Electrical Shop, Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  17. View of original brick wall on the western face of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of original brick wall on the western face of the boiler house (center right) and electrical department (far right). - Johnson Steel Street Rail Company, Electrical Department & Boiler House, 525 Central Avenue, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  18. 20. Detail, crack in southeast end wall showing hollow brick ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Detail, crack in southeast end wall showing hollow brick lining of exterior wall; view to south, 135mm lens plus electronic flash illumination. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  19. 7. July, 1970 DETAIL OF BRICK SIDEWALK AND GRANITE CURB, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. July, 1970 DETAIL OF BRICK SIDEWALK AND GRANITE CURB, LOOKING EAST ON NORTH SIDE OF INDIA STREET FROM DRIVEWAY OF 31 INDIA STREET - India Street Neighborhood Study, 15-45 India Street, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  20. 8. July, 1970 DETAIL OF BRICK SIDEWALK AND GRANITE CURB, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. July, 1970 DETAIL OF BRICK SIDEWALK AND GRANITE CURB, LOOKING EAST ON NORTH SIDE OF INDIA STREET FROM DRIVEWAY OF 31 INDIA STREET - India Street Neighborhood Study, 15-45 India Street, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  1. Application of Carbon Composite Bricks for Blast Furnace Hearth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Haibin; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Jianliang; Zhao, Yongan; Jiao, Kexin

    Traditional refractory materials for blast furnace hearth lining are mainly composed of carbon bricks and the ceramic cup. However, these materials can't meet the demands for long service life design of blast furnaces. In this paper, a new refractory called carbon composite brick (CCB) was introduced, which combined the advantages of carbon bricks and the ceramic cup. In this case, the resistance of the CCB against corrosion was equal to the ceramic cup and the thermal conductivity of the CCB was equal to carbon bricks. From the results of more than 20 blast furnaces, the CCB could be well used in small blast furnaces and large blast furnaces. In the bad condition of low grade burden and high smelting intensity, the CCB gave full play to the role of cooling system, and effectively resisted the erosion of hot metal to improve the service life of blast furnaces.

  2. 16. Detail view southwest showing brick parapet, wood entablature, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Detail view southwest showing brick parapet, wood entablature, and splayed arch window lintel of east elevation of west operator's house. - Yellow Mill Bridge, Spanning Yellow Mill Channel at Stratford Avenue, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

  3. Use of boron waste as an additive in red bricks.

    PubMed

    Uslu, T; Arol, A I

    2004-01-01

    In boron mining and processing operations, large amounts of clay containing tailings have to be discarded. Being rich in boron, the tailings do not only cause economical loss but also pose serious environmental problems. Large areas have to be allocated for waste disposal. In order to alleviate this problem, the possibility of using clayey tailings from a borax concentrator in red brick manufacturing was investigated. Up to 30% by weight tailings addition was found to improve the brick quality.

  4. Use of boron waste as an additive in red bricks

    SciTech Connect

    Uslu, T.; Arol, A.I

    2004-07-01

    In boron mining and processing operations, large amounts of clay containing tailings have to be discarded. Being rich in boron, the tailings do not only cause economical loss but also pose serious environmental problems. Large areas have to be allocated for waste disposal. In order to alleviate this problem, the possibility of using clayey tailings from a borax concentrator in red brick manufacturing was investigated. Up to 30% by weight tailings addition was found to improve the brick quality.

  5. Perspective view. The threestory reinforced concrete building faced with brick ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view. The three-story reinforced concrete building faced with brick has direct frontage onto neighboring railroad line. The facade says: "The Fairmont Creamery Company" in white stone. The facade is divided into bays by large brick piers capped with a square accent piece. A large stone band runs just above the windows and between the second and third floors - The Fairmont Creamery Company, 608 East Milwaukee Avenue, Detroit, MI

  6. Mechanical Properties of Unreinforced Brick Masonry, Section1

    SciTech Connect

    Mosalam, K; Glascoe, L; Bernier, J

    2009-10-02

    Before the advent of concrete and steel, masonry helped build civilizations. From Egypt in Africa, Rome in Europe, Maya in the America to China in Asia, masonry was exploited to construct the most significant, magnificent and long lasting structures on the Earth. Looking at the Egyptian pyramids, Mayan temples, Roman coliseum and Chinese Great Wall, one cannot stop wondering about the significance and popularity that masonry has had through out history. Lourenco et al (1989) summed up the reasons for the popularity of masonry in the following, 'The most important characteristic of masonry construction is its simplicity. Laying pieces of stone or bricks on top of each other, either with or without cohesion via mortar, is a simple, though adequate, technique that has been successful ever since remote ages. Other important characteristics are the aesthetics, solidity, durability, low maintenance, versatility, sound absorption and fire protection' Despite these advantages, masonry is no longer preferred structural material in many parts of the developed world, especially in seismically active parts of the world. Partly, masonry and especially unreinforced masonry (URM) has mechanical properties such as strength and ductility inferior to those of reinforced concrete and steel. Moreover, masonry structures were traditionally built based on rules of thumb acquired over many years of practice and/or empirical data from testing. Accordingly, we do not have a rigorous and uniform method of analysis and design for masonry. Nevertheless, the world still possesses numerous historic and ordinary masonry structures, which require maintenance and strengthening to combat the assault of time and nature. Hence, it is important to study fundamental properties of masonry so that new masonry structures can be effectively designed and built, and the cost for servicing old structures and for building new ones will be less expensive.

  7. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Theodore F. Dillon, Photographer, July, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Theodore F. Dillon, Photographer, July, 1959 EXTERIOR, SOUTH ELEVATION, DETAIL OF CAST TERRA COTTA GABLE END AND TERRA COTTA AND BRICK CHIMNEY. - Mutual Fire Insurance Company Building, Germantown Avenue & School House Lane, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. 46. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer CHIMNEY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer CHIMNEY BASE LOOKING N.E. NOTE ORIGINAL HEWN TIMBER FRAMING THE STAIR, AND BEHIND IT A LATER SAWN TIMBER FOR PRESENT STAIR. BRICK UNDERPINNING OF CELLAR WALL COMPARATIVELY RECENT. - Doe Garrison, Lamprey River & Great Bay, Newmarket, Rockingham County, NH

  9. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Nathaniel R. Ewan, Photographer February ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Nathaniel R. Ewan, Photographer February 27, 1939 EXTERIOR - OUTSIDE ARCH BRICK DETAIL. THIS PICTURE IS OF AN ARCHWAY WHICH WAS ORIGINALLY OPEN AND LED TO A LOADING OR UNLOADING PLATFORM WITHIN THE HOUSE AND WAS ACCESSIBLE TO THE KITCHEN AND ROOT CELLAR. - Hudson Burr Mansion, South Pemberton, Burlington County, NJ

  10. 15. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arnold Moses, Photographer December 1, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arnold Moses, Photographer December 1, 1936, VIEW LOOKING SOUTH FROM THIRD FLOOR OF 29 1/2 CHERRY STREET SHOWING ROOF LINE OF BRICK FILLED TIMBER HOUSE RECENTLY DEMOLISHED. - John Beekman House, 29-29 1/2 Cherry Street, New York County, NY

  11. Monitoring 2009 Forest Disturbance across the Conterminous United States, Based on Near-Real Time and Historical MODIS 250 Meter NDVI Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Gasser, G.; Smoot, J. C.; Kuper, P.

    2009-12-01

    This presentation discusses a study on the use of MODIS NDVI data for viewing regional patterns of forest disturbance across the conterminous United States. This capability is a part of a national forest threat early warning system (EWS) being developed by the USDA Forest Service’s Eastern and Western Environmental Threat Centers with help from NASA Stennis Space Center and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The viewing capability of the EWS was recently demonstrated for 2009, using near-real time (NRT) MODIS NDVI data from the USGS eMODIS Web site and historical NDVI data from standard MOD13 products. For this study, a historical maximum NDVI baseline for CONUS was computed from fused Aqua and Terra MOD13 data for June 10-July 27 of each year during 2000-2006. Comparable 2009 MODIS NDVI imagery was computed from fusion and re-compositing of eMODIS NRT Aqua and Terra 7-day products. For the historical data, time series data processing software was used to remove poor quality data and to mitigate data gaps mainly due to clouds. Although the NRT component was not as rigorously processed to mitigate noise, the processing still yielded largely cloud-free clean, coherent CONUS NDVI imagery initially with only 21-days of compositing. The principal end product of the study was a forest disturbance visualization product based on an NDVI RGB image that combines data from 2 dates (i.e. time frames). For this RGB, the historical maximum NDVI for the observed temporal window was assigned to the red color gun and the 2009 NRT product for the same time frame was assigned to the blue and green guns. The resulting image was masked with a USFS FIA 250-m type map to include only forested areas. The forest disturbance areas on the forest-masked 2-date NDVI RGB are shown in red tones with non-disturbed closed canopy forest generally shown in medium to bright gray tones. This product highlighted several broad-scaled forest canopy disturbances for the observed time in 2009, including

  12. Two American Entrepreneurs: Madame C. J. Walker and J. C. Penney. Teaching with Historic Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koman, Rita

    2000-01-01

    This lesson is based on the National Historic Landmark files, "Madame C. J. Walker Building" and "J. C. Penney Historic District," as well as other relevant sources. The lesson first discusses the Indianapolis (Indiana) site of Madame Walker's cosmetics business. The building is a 4-story brick structure completed in 1927.…

  13. Evaluation and improvement of frost durability of clay bricks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koroth, Surej Raghavan

    In cold regions like Canada, frost action was reported to be the major cause of disintegration of brick veneer. Two approaches to ensure frost durability of clay bricks were studied in this research. One involved the evaluation of durability, while the other studied the improvement of durability through impregnation. In order to carry out these studies, three major objectives were set out for this research. They were: (1) to develop an index to evaluate frost durability, (2) to investigate the feasibility of using nondestructive methods to evaluate durability, and (3) to study the effect of impregnation with different materials on improving durability. It was intended in this research to develop a general durability index for clay bricks, irrespective of the manufacturing process adopted. The performance of the brick was studied using laboratory freeze-thaw test. As the time and facility requirements necessary for the unidirectional freezing test were beyond the constraints which existed in this research, an accelerated omnidirectional freeze-thaw test was used. This fact must be considered while interpreting the results from the freeze-thaw test. The study carried out to compare the performance of existing durability indices showed that they had limitations in reliably assessing durability. Therefore new durability indices were developed based on water absorption properties of bricks. These indices were found to overcome the limitations of existing indices. The feasibility study on nondestructive evaluation of durability was carried out using ultrasonic pulse velocity. New durability provisions were derived based on pulse velocity, using ASTM C216 specifications. At this stage it can be used only along with the ASTM method but it can avoid the time consuming ASTM procedure in many cases. Studies on impregnated bricks showed that there was a general shifting of pore sizes towards lower diameter region. Paraffin impregnated brick showed excellent freeze

  14. Calibration of dimensional change in finite element models using AGR moderator brick measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally, K.; Hall, G.; Tan, E.; Marsden, B. J.; Warren, N.

    2014-08-01

    Physically based models, resolved using the finite element (FE) method, are often used to model changes in geometry and the associated stress fields of graphite moderator bricks within a reactor. These models require inputs that describe the loading conditions (field variables), and coded relationships describing the behaviour of material properties. Historically, behaviour on material properties have been obtained from Materials Test Reactor (MTR) experiments, however data relating to samples trepanned from operating reactors are increasingly being used to improve models. Geometry measurements from operating reactors offer the potential for improving the coded relationship for dimensional change in FE models. A non-linear mixed-effect model is presented for calibrating the parameters of FE models that are sensitive to mid-brick diameter, using channel geometry measurements obtained from inspection campaigns. The work makes use of a novel technique: the development of a Bayesian emulator, which is a surrogate for the FE model. The use of an emulator allows the influence of the inputs to the finite element model to be evaluated, and delivers a substantial reduction in the computational burden of calibration.

  15. Effect of Peat on Physicomechanical Properties of Cemented Brick

    PubMed Central

    Hashim, Roslan; Kurnia, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    The popularity of low cost, lightweight, and environmentally affable masonry unit in building industry carries the need to investigate more flexible and adaptable brick component as well as to retain the requirements confirmed in building standards. In this study, potential use of local materials used as lightweight building materials in solving the economic problems of housing has been investigated. Experimental studies on peat added bricks have been carried out. It demonstrates the physicomechanical properties of bricks and investigates the influence of peat, sand, and cement solid bricks to the role of various types of constructional applications. The achieved compressive strength, spitting strength, flexural strength, unit weight, and ultrasonic pulse velocity are significantly reduced and the water absorption is increased with percentage wise replacement of peat as aggregate in the samples. The maximum 20% of (% mass) peat content meets the requirements of relevant well-known international standards. The experimental values illustrate that, the 44% volumetric replacement with peat did not exhibit any sudden brittle fracture even beyond the ultimate loads and a comparatively smooth surface is found. The application of peat as efficient brick substance shows a potential to be used for wall and a viable solution in the economic buildings design. PMID:24982941

  16. Manganese micro-nodules on ancient brick walls.

    PubMed

    López-Arce, P; García-Guinea, J; Fierro, J L G

    2003-01-20

    Romans, Jews, Arabs and Christians built the ancient city of Toledo (Spain) with bricks as the main construction material. Manganese micro-nodules (circa 2 microm in diameter) have grown under the external bio-film surface of the bricks. Recent anthropogenic activities such as industrial emissions, foundries, or traffic and housing pollution have further altered these old bricks. The energy-dispersive X-ray microanalyses (XPS) of micro-nodules show Al, Si, Ca, K, Fe and Mn, with some carbon species. Manganese atoms are present only as Mn(4+) and iron as Fe(3+) (FeOOH-Fe(2)O(3) mixtures). The large concentration of alga biomass of the River Tagus and the Torcón and Guajaraz reservoirs suggest manganese micro-nodules are formed either from water solutions rich in anthropogenic MnO(4)K in a reduction environment (from Mn(7+) to Mn(4+)) or by oxidation mechanisms from dissolved Mn(2+) (from Mn(2+) to Mn(4+)) linked to algae biofilm onto the ancient brick surfaces. Ancient wall surfaces were also studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Chemical and biological analyses of the waters around Toledo are also analysed for possible sources of manganese. Manganese micro-nodules on ancient brick walls are good indicators of manganese pollution.

  17. Cyclic Behavior of Mortarless Brick Joints with Different Interlocking Shapes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongjun; Liu, Peng; Lin, Kun; Zhao, Sai

    2016-01-01

    The framed structure infilled with a mortarless brick (MB) panel exhibits considerable in-plane energy dissipation because of the relative sliding between bricks and good out-of-plane stability resulting from the use of interlocking mechanisms. The cyclic behaviors of MB are investigated experimentally in this study. Two different types of bricks, namely non-interlocking mortarless brick (N-IMB) and interlocking mortarless brick (IMB), are examined experimentally. The cyclic behavior of all of the joints (N-IMB and IMB) are investigated in consideration of the effects of interlocking shapes, loading compression stress levels and loading cycles. The hysteretic loops of N-IMB and IMB joints are obtained, according to which a mechanical model is developed. The Mohr–Coulomb failure criterion is employed to describe the shear failure modes of all of the investigated joints. A typical frictional behavior is observed for the N-IMB joints, and a significant stiffening effect is observed for the IMB joints during their sliding stage. The friction coefficients of all of the researched joints increase with the augmentation of the compression stress level and improvement of the smoothness of the interlocking surfaces. An increase in the loading cycle results in a decrease in the friction coefficients of all of the joints. The degradation rate (DR) of the friction coefficients increases with the reduction in the smoothness of the interlocking surface. PMID:28773291

  18. Effect of peat on physicomechanical properties of cemented brick.

    PubMed

    Islam, Syed Mofachirul; Hashim, Roslan; Islam, A B M Saiful; Kurnia, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    The popularity of low cost, lightweight, and environmentally affable masonry unit in building industry carries the need to investigate more flexible and adaptable brick component as well as to retain the requirements confirmed in building standards. In this study, potential use of local materials used as lightweight building materials in solving the economic problems of housing has been investigated. Experimental studies on peat added bricks have been carried out. It demonstrates the physicomechanical properties of bricks and investigates the influence of peat, sand, and cement solid bricks to the role of various types of constructional applications. The achieved compressive strength, spitting strength, flexural strength, unit weight, and ultrasonic pulse velocity are significantly reduced and the water absorption is increased with percentage wise replacement of peat as aggregate in the samples. The maximum 20% of (% mass) peat content meets the requirements of relevant well-known international standards. The experimental values illustrate that, the 44% volumetric replacement with peat did not exhibit any sudden brittle fracture even beyond the ultimate loads and a comparatively smooth surface is found. The application of peat as efficient brick substance shows a potential to be used for wall and a viable solution in the economic buildings design.

  19. Recent enhancements to and applications of the SmartBrick structural health monitoring platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunasekaran, A.; Cross, S.; Patel, N.; Sedigh, S.

    2012-04-01

    The SmartBrick network is an autonomous and wireless solution for structural health monitoring of civil infrastructures. The base station is currently in its third generation and has been laboratory- and field-tested in the United States and Italy. The second generation of the sensor nodes has been laboratory-tested as of publication. In this paper, we present recent enhancements made to hardware and software of the SmartBrick platform. Salient improvements described include the development of a new base station with fully-integrated long-range GSM (cellular) and short-range ZigBee communication. The major software improvement described in this paper is migration to the ZigBee PRO stack, which was carried out in the interest of interoperability. To broaden the application of the platform to critical environments that require survivability and fault tolerance, we have striven to achieve compliance with military standards in the areas of hardware, software, and communication. We describe these efforts and present a survey of the military standards investigated. Also described is instrumentation of a three-span experimental bridge in Washington County, Missouri; with the SmartBrick platform. The sensors, whose output is conditioned and multiplexed; include strain gauges, thermocouples, push potentiometers, and three-axis inclinometers. Data collected is stored on site and reported over the cellular network. Real-time alerts are generated if any monitored parameter falls outside its acceptable range. Redundant sensing and communication provide reliability and facilitate corroboration of the data collected. A web interface is used to issue remote configuration commands and to facilitate access to and visualization of the data collected.

  20. Using "click-e-bricks" to make 3D elastomeric structures.

    PubMed

    Morin, Stephen A; Shevchenko, Yanina; Lessing, Joshua; Kwok, Sen Wai; Shepherd, Robert F; Stokes, Adam A; Whitesides, George M

    2014-09-10

    Soft, 3D elastomeric structures and composite structures are easy to fabricate using click-e-bricks, and the internal architecture of these structures together with the capabilities built into the bricks themselves provide mechanical, optical, electrical, and fluidic functions.

  1. Residential metal contamination and potential health risks of exposure in adobe brick houses in Potosí, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Abigail R; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Robins, Nicholas A; Hagan, Nicole A; Halabi, Susan; Barras, Olivo; Richter, Daniel deB; Vandenberg, John J

    2016-08-15

    Potosí, Bolivia, is the site of centuries of historic and present-day mining of the Cerro Rico, a mountain known for its rich polymetallic deposits, and was the site of large-scale Colonial era silver refining operations. In this study, the concentrations of several metal and metalloid elements were quantified in adobe brick, dirt floor, and surface dust samples from 49 houses in Potosí. Median concentrations of total mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and arsenic (As) were significantly greater than concentrations measured in Sucre, Bolivia, a non-mining town, and exceeded US-based soil screening levels. Adobe brick samples were further analyzed for bioaccessible concentrations of trace elements using a simulated gastric fluid (GF) extraction. Median GF extractable concentrations of Hg, As, and Pb were 0.085, 13.9, and 32.2% of the total element concentration, respectively. Total and GF extractable concentrations of Hg, As, and Pb were used to estimate exposure and potential health risks to children following incidental ingestion of adobe brick particles. Risks were assessed using a range of potential ingestion rates (50-1000mg/day). Overall, the results of the risk assessment show that the majority of households sampled contained concentrations of bioaccessible Pb and As, but not Hg, that represent a potential health risk. Even at the lowest ingestion rate considered, the majority of households exceeded the risk threshold for Pb, indicating that the concentrations of this metal are of particular concern. To our knowledge, this is the first study to quantify key trace elements in building materials in adobe brick houses and the results indicate that these houses are a potential source of exposure to metals and metalloids in South American mining communities. Additional studies are needed to fully characterize personal exposure and to understand potential adverse health outcomes within the community.

  2. Experimental analysis to utilize the solid wastes in brick production.

    PubMed

    Varadarajan, Rajagopalan; Govindan, Venkatesan

    2013-07-01

    Utilization of industrial, municipal, agricultural and other waste products in the industry has been the focus of research for economical, environmental, and technical reasons. Two solid wastes, i.e. Sugar-cane bagasse--is a fibrous waste-product of the sugar refining industry and granite processing industry generates a large amount of wastes mainly in the form of powder during sawing and polishing processes, which pollute and damage the environment, have been taken to experimental study. The objective of this study is to utilize the bagasse ash and granite waste for the manufacturing of bricks. Mixtures were prepared with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% wastes of total weight of clay. The produced bricks are tested for mechanical properties, such as water absorption and compressive strength, according to Indian Standard Code. The result showed that 20% of bagasse ash and granite waste is optimum percentage to be used in the manufacturing of conventional bricks.

  3. 78 FR 75543 - Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks From Mexico: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks From Mexico: Rescission of Antidumping Duty... ``Opportunity to Request Administrative Review'' of the antidumping duty order on certain magnesia carbon bricks... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain magnesia carbon bricks from Mexico with respect...

  4. 75 FR 57442 - Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks from the People's Republic of China: Countervailing Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks from the People's Republic of China... order on certain magnesia carbon bricks (MCBs) from the People's Republic of China (PRC). On September 8.... industry with respect to imports of MCBs from the PRC and Mexico. See Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks...

  5. 75 FR 56556 - Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks From China and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... COMMISSION Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks From China and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... from China and Mexico of certain magnesia carbon bricks, provided for in subheadings 6902.10.10, 6902... carbon bricks from China and determine that an industry in the United States is not materially injured...

  6. 75 FR 21346 - Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks From China and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... COMMISSION Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks From China and Mexico AGENCY: United States International Trade... magnesia carbon bricks, provided for in subheadings 6902.10.10, 6902.10.50, 6815.91.00, and 6815.99.00 of...), magnesia carbon bricks with a magnesia component of at least 70 percent magnesia (``MgO'') by...

  7. Use of gold mill tailings in making bricks: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Roy, Surendra; Adhikari, Govind R; Gupta, Rama N

    2007-10-01

    Mill tailings dumps at Kolar Gold Fields, Karnataka, are creating environmental problems. One of the solutions to these problems is to use the mill tailings for some useful purpose. This study examined the possibility of making bricks from the mill tailings with some additives in laboratory experiments. Samples of the mill tailings and the additives were analysed for particle size distribution, Atterberg limits and specific gravity. The plasticity index of the mill tailings being zero, they could not be used directly for making bricks. Therefore some additives that had plasticity or binding properties were mixed with the mill tailings. Ordinary Portland cement, black cotton soils and red soils were selected as additives. Each of the additives was mixed separately with the mill tailings in different proportions by weight and a large number of bricks were prepared using metallic moulds. The bricks were termed as cement-tailings bricks or soil-tailings bricks, depending on the additives used. The cement-tailings bricks were cured for different periods and their corresponding compressive strengths were determined. The bricks with 20% of cement and 14 days of curing were found to be suitable. The soil-tailings bricks were sun-dried and then fired in a furnace at different temperatures. The quality of bricks was assessed in terms of linear shrinkage, water absorption and compressive strength. The cost analysis revealed that cement-tailings bricks would be uneconomical whereas the soil-tailings bricks would be very economical.

  8. Excitonic AND Logic Gates on DNA Brick Nanobreadboards

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A promising application of DNA self-assembly is the fabrication of chromophore-based excitonic devices. DNA brick assembly is a compelling method for creating programmable nanobreadboards on which chromophores may be rapidly and easily repositioned to prototype new excitonic devices, optimize device operation, and induce reversible switching. Using DNA nanobreadboards, we have demonstrated each of these functions through the construction and operation of two different excitonic AND logic gates. The modularity and high chromophore density achievable via this brick-based approach provide a viable path toward developing information processing and storage systems. PMID:25839049

  9. Excitonic AND Logic Gates on DNA Brick Nanobreadboards.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Brittany L; Kellis, Donald L; Davis, Paul H; Lee, Jeunghoon; Kuang, Wan; Hughes, William L; Graugnard, Elton; Yurke, Bernard; Knowlton, William B

    2015-03-18

    A promising application of DNA self-assembly is the fabrication of chromophore-based excitonic devices. DNA brick assembly is a compelling method for creating programmable nanobreadboards on which chromophores may be rapidly and easily repositioned to prototype new excitonic devices, optimize device operation, and induce reversible switching. Using DNA nanobreadboards, we have demonstrated each of these functions through the construction and operation of two different excitonic AND logic gates. The modularity and high chromophore density achievable via this brick-based approach provide a viable path toward developing information processing and storage systems.

  10. Clone-based comparative sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes retrieved from biodeteriorating brick buildings of the former Auschwitz II-Birkenau concentration and extermination camp.

    PubMed

    Otlewska, Anna; Adamiak, Justyna; Gutarowska, Beata

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze the bacterial communities in four samples of historical materials (plaster, brick, and wood) derived from buildings located in the former Auschwitz II-Birkenau concentration and extermination camp in Brzezinka, Poland. For this purpose a molecular strategy based on the construction of 16S rRNA clone libraries was used. In total, 138 partial 16S rRNA gene sequences (∼600bp) were obtained and compared. The clones belonged to phyla Proteobacteria (classes: Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria), Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. The plaster samples predominantly contained clones closely related to Actinobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria, brick samples contained Gammaproteobacteria, while wood samples had Actinobacteria clones. Interestingly, the historic plaster and brick samples contained the following bacteria with known and described biodeterioration potential: chemoorganotrophic Streptomyces sp. and Pseudonocardia sp., halotolerant or halophilic Rubrobacter sp., Salinisphaera sp. and Halomonas sp. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that amongst the bacterial species detected and identified none occurred on all the tested historical materials. The 16S rRNA clone library construction method was successfully used for the detection and diversity determination of bacterial communities inhabiting brick barracks located in the former Auschwitz II-Birkenau concentration and extermination camp in Brzezinka.

  11. Thermoluminescence dating analysis at the site of an ancient brick structure at Pengkalan Bujang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sabtu, Siti Norbaini; Mahat, Rosli Hj; Amin, Yusoff Mohd; Price, David M; Bradley, D A; Maah, Mohd Jamil

    2015-11-01

    Bujang Valley is a well-known historical complex found in the north-west of peninsular Malaysia; more than 50 ancient monuments and hundreds of artefacts have been discovered throughout the area. The discovery of these suggests Bujang Valley to have been an important South East Asian trading centre over the period from the 10th to 14th centuries. Present work concerns thermoluminescence (TL) dating analysis of shards collected from a historic monument located at Pengkalan Bujang in Bujang Valley. All the shards were prepared using the fine grain technique and the additive dose method was applied in determining the paleodose of each shard. The annual dose rate was obtained by measuring the concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides (U, Th and K) in the samples and their surroundings. The TL ages of the shards were found to range between 330±21 years and 920±69 years, indicative of the last firing of the bricks and tiles from which the shards originated, some dating back to the period during which the historical complex remained active.

  12. Monitoring Thermal Performance of Hollow Bricks with Different Cavity Fillers in Difference Climate Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlík, Zbyšek; Jerman, Miloš; Fořt, Jan; Černý, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Hollow brick blocks have found widespread use in the building industry during the last decades. The increasing requirements to the thermal insulation properties of building envelopes given by the national standards in Europe led the brick producers to reduce the production of common solid bricks. Brick blocks with more or less complex systems of internal cavities replaced the traditional bricks and became dominant on the building ceramics market. However, contrary to the solid bricks where the thermal conductivity can easily be measured by standard methods, the complex geometry of hollow brick blocks makes the application of common techniques impossible. In this paper, a steady-state technique utilizing a system of two climatic chambers separated by a connecting tunnel for sample positioning is used for the determination of the thermal conductivity, thermal resistance, and thermal transmittance ( U value) of hollow bricks with the cavities filled by air, two different types of mineral wool, polystyrene balls, and foam polyurethane. The particular brick block is provided with the necessary temperature- and heat-flux sensors and thermally insulated in the tunnel. In the climatic chambers, different temperatures are set. After steady-state conditions are established in the measuring system, the effective thermal properties of the brick block are calculated using the measured data. Experimental results show that the best results are achieved with hydrophilic mineral wool as a cavity filler; the worst performance exhibits the brick block with air-filled cavities.

  13. Preparation and characterization of green bricks using pharmaceutical industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Yamuna Rani, M; Bhagawan, D; Himabindu, V; Venkateswara Reddy, V; Saritha, P

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports on recycling of industrial wastes (three pharmaceutical industrial sludges) into environmental friendly value-added materials. Stabilization/Solidification (S/S or bricks) process was applied to make a safer way for the utilization of pharmaceutical waste. The additives in this study include binders (cement, lime and bentonite) and strengthening material (pulverized fuel ash (PFA), silica fume and quarry dust) was used at different compositions. Bricks were cured for 28 days, and the following analysis-like compressive strength, leachability of heavy metals, mineralogical phase identity by X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal behaviour by thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) had done. All the bricks were observed to achieve the standard compressive strength as required for construction according to BIS standards. Metal concentration in the leachate has reached the dischargeable limits according to Brazilian standards. Results of this study demonstrate that production of bricks is a promising and achievable productive use of pharmaceutical sludge.

  14. 2. South elevation with bases of two massive brick chimneys ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. South elevation with bases of two massive brick chimneys flanking structure at southwest and southeast corners. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Incinerator, Midway along northern boundary of Charlestown Navy Yard, on Little Mystic Channel, near junction of Eighteenth Street & Second Avenue, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  15. 7. Interior detail, north to south, stoking floor, brick incinerator ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Interior detail, north to south, stoking floor, brick incinerator housing reinforced with steel frame. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Incinerator, Midway along northern boundary of Charlestown Navy Yard, on Little Mystic Channel, near junction of Eighteenth Street & Second Avenue, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  16. Brick and Stone Masonry Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course in brick and stone masonry. The tasks required for 15 different duties performed by bricklayers and 13 different duties typically performed by rocklayers are outlined. The following bricklaying duties are covered: estimating materials for and laying out a…

  17. 13. VIEW NORTHEAST OF BRICK CHIMNEY STACK WITH '1876' MARKER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW NORTHEAST OF BRICK CHIMNEY STACK WITH '1876' MARKER EMBEDDED; CHIMNEY REMOVED EXHAUST FROM FORGES IN THE BLACKSMITH SHOP, BUILDING 11, REMNANTS OF WHICH CAN BE SEEN IN THE CENTER FOREGROUND - Scovill Brass Works, 59 Mill Street, Waterbury, New Haven County, CT

  18. 2. Credit GE. Photographic copy of photograph, refractory brick lining ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Credit GE. Photographic copy of photograph, refractory brick lining being laid in Test Stand 'A' flame pit to protect concrete from heat of rocket engine flames. (JPL negative no. 383-764, 8 March 1945) - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand A, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  19. Processes of Fatigue Destruction in Nanopolymer-Hydrophobised Ceramic Bricks

    PubMed Central

    Fic, Stanisław; Szewczak, Andrzej; Barnat-Hunek, Danuta; Łagód, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    The article presents a proposal of a model of fatigue destruction of hydrophobised ceramic brick, i.e., a basic masonry material. The brick surface was hydrophobised with two inorganic polymers: a nanopolymer preparation based on dialkyl siloxanes (series 1–5) and an aqueous silicon solution (series 6–10). Nanosilica was added to the polymers to enhance the stability of the film formed on the brick surface. To achieve an appropriate blend of the polymer liquid phase and the nano silica solid phase, the mixture was disintegrated by sonication. The effect of the addition of nano silica and sonication on changes in the rheological parameters, i.e., viscosity and surface tension, was determined. Material fatigue was induced by cyclic immersion of the samples in water and drying at a temperature of 100 °C, which caused rapid and relatively dynamic movement of water. The moisture and temperature effect was determined by measurement of changes in surface hardness performed with the Vickers method and assessment of sample absorbability. The results provided an approximate picture of fatigue destruction of brick and hydrophobic coatings in relation to changes in their temporal stability. Additionally, SEM images of hydrophobic coatings in are shown. PMID:28772404

  20. Interior of during demolition; the brick structure in the middle ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of during demolition; the brick structure in the middle housed the electric motors that ran the rolling mill (the motor house and rolling mills date from the early twentieth century) - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Rolling Mill, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

  1. 5. General oblique view of brick engine house spanning the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. General oblique view of brick engine house spanning the raceway and attached to north wall of Paper Machine Building; view to southeast. - Champion-International Paper Company, Paper Machine Building, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  2. 24. VIEW INSIDE BRICK ADDITION ON SOUTHWEST END OF ORIGINAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. VIEW INSIDE BRICK ADDITION ON SOUTHWEST END OF ORIGINAL MILL, LOOKING NORTH. NOTE WOOD TRUSSES AND FLUTED COLUMNS (CAST IRON WITH EGYPTIAN REVIVAL CAPITAL). THIS SECTION OF THE MILL WAS PROBABLY PART OF THE WEAVE ROOM ADDITIONS DURING THE 1860s. - Graniteville Mill, Marshall Street, Graniteville, Aiken County, SC

  3. Morning view, contextual view showing the role of the brick ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Morning view, contextual view showing the role of the brick walls along the boundary of the cemetery; interior view taken from midway down the paved west road with the camera facing west to capture the morning light on the west wall. - Beaufort National Cemetery, Wall, 1601 Boundary Street, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

  4. EXTERIOR VIEW, FRONT (NORTH) ELEVATION. THIS THREESTORY BRICK BUILDING WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW, FRONT (NORTH) ELEVATION. THIS THREE-STORY BRICK BUILDING WITH DEEPLY-BRACKETED AND OVERHANGING EAVES INCLUDES MULTIPLE BAYS CONSTRUCTED BEGINNING IN 1913 TO SERVE AS A 'CIVIC CENTER' FOR ACIPCO EMPLOYEES AND THEIR FAMILIES. THE BUILDING CURRENTLY INCLUDES THE TIME OFFICE, CAFETERIA, AND AUDITORIUM. - American Cast Iron Pipe Company, Service Building, 1501 Thirty-first Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  5. 28. VIEW OF THE SOLDERING NICHE FORMED WITH BRICKS. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. VIEW OF THE SOLDERING NICHE FORMED WITH BRICKS. THE BACK OF THE NICHE IS CEMENT FINISHED. THE BOTTOM HAS A 1 INCH THICK ASBESTOS SHELF. THIS PHOTO WAS TAKEN AT THE 3RD FLOOR. - Pacific Telephone & Telegraph Company Building, 1519 Franklin Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  6. View west of the front of the brick vault built ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View west of the front of the brick vault built into the northern slope of Mount Zion Cemetery. - Mount Zion Cemetery/ Female Union Band Cemetery, Bounded by 27th Street right-of-way N.W. (formerly Lyons Mill Road), Q Street N.W., & Mill Road N.W., Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. View north of the brick vault built into the northern ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north of the brick vault built into the northern slope of Mount Zion Cemetery with Rock Creek and Rock Creek Park beyond the trees. - Mount Zion Cemetery/ Female Union Band Cemetery, Bounded by 27th Street right-of-way N.W. (formerly Lyons Mill Road), Q Street N.W., & Mill Road N.W., Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. Do Schools Still Need Brick-and-Mortar Libraries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Doug; Mastrion, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Do all schools need brick-and-mortar libraries? In this article, Johnson and Mastrion share their contradictory thoughts to the question. Johnson says some schools don't need library facilities or programs or librarians. These schools' teachers and administrators: (1) feel no need for a collaborative learning space; (2) feel the ability to process…

  9. Brick and Stone Masonry Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course in brick and stone masonry. The tasks required for 15 different duties performed by bricklayers and 13 different duties typically performed by rocklayers are outlined. The following bricklaying duties are covered: estimating materials for and laying out a…

  10. 11. VIEW TO NORTH, STEELSKINNER SALT ROASTER AND BRICK SKINNER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW TO NORTH, STEEL-SKINNER SALT ROASTER AND BRICK SKINNER SALT ROASTER (FOREGROUND), AND MECHANIC SHED, MILL WAREHOUSE AND DRYERS (BACKGROUND). - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  11. BioBrick assembly standards and techniques and associated software tools.

    PubMed

    Røkke, Gunvor; Korvald, Eirin; Pahr, Jarle; Oyås, Ove; Lale, Rahmi

    2014-01-01

    The BioBrick idea was developed to introduce the engineering principles of abstraction and standardization into synthetic biology. BioBricks are DNA sequences that serve a defined biological function and can be readily assembled with any other BioBrick parts to create new BioBricks with novel properties. In order to achieve this, several assembly standards can be used. Which assembly standards a BioBrick is compatible with, depends on the prefix and suffix sequences surrounding the part. In this chapter, five of the most common assembly standards will be described, as well as some of the most used assembly techniques, cloning procedures, and a presentation of the available software tools that can be used for deciding on the best method for assembling of different BioBricks, and searching for BioBrick parts in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts database.

  12. Effects of waste glass additions on quality of textile sludge-based bricks.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Ari; Urabe, Takeo; Kishimoto, Naoyuki; Mizuhara, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the utilization of textile sludge as a substitute for clay in brick production. The addition of textile sludge to a brick specimen enhanced its pores, thus reducing the quality of the product. However, the addition of waste glass to brick production materials improved the quality of the brick in terms of both compressive strength and water absorption. Maximum compressive strength was observed with the following composition of waste materials: 30% textile sludge, 60% clay and 10% waste glass. The melting of waste glass clogged up pores on the brick, which improved water absorption performance and compressive strength. Moreover, a leaching test on a sludge-based brick to which 10% waste glass did not detect significant heavy metal compounds in leachates, with the product being in conformance with standard regulations. The recycling of textile sludge for brick production, when combined with waste glass additions, may thus be promising in terms of both product quality and environmental aspects.

  13. Antioxidant enzymes status and reproductive health of adult male workers exposed to brick kiln pollutants in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Jahan, Sarwat; Falah, Samreen; Ullah, Hizb; Ullah, Asad; Rauf, Naveed

    2016-07-01

    The present study was designed to study the effect of brick kilns emissions on the reproductive health and biochemical status of brick kiln workers and people living in the area near brick kilns. Body mass index (BMI) was significantly reduced in brick makers, carriers, and bakers compared to the control. Red blood cells count and hematocrit (%) were significantly high in brick bakers while MCH was significantly reduced in brick makers and brick bakers. Heavy metals (lead, cadmium, and chromium) concentration in whole blood of the brick kiln workers were significantly higher as compared to the control. Antioxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD, POD, GSH, and GR) were significantly reduced in brick kiln workers as compared to the control while TBARS level were significantly high in brick bakers as compared to the control. Plasma leutinizing hormone (LH) was significantly high in brick bakers while testosterone concentrations were significantly reduced in brick makers, carriers, and bakers. The present study shows that brick kiln workers and people living in the brick kiln vicinity are exposed to heavy metals and other pollutants that is a serious threat to their health. Alternate technology is needed to be developed and brick kilns should be replaced.

  14. Switching patients from other inhaled corticosteroid devices to the Easyhaler®: historical, matched-cohort study of real-life asthma patients

    PubMed Central

    Price, David; Thomas, Vicky; von Ziegenweidt, Julie; Gould, Shuna; Hutton, Catherine; King, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the clinical and cost effectiveness of switching real-life asthma patients from other types of inhalers to the Easyhaler® (EH) for the administration of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). Patients and methods Historical, matched-cohort study of 1,958 asthma patients (children and adults) treated in UK primary-care practices, using data obtained from the Optimum Patient Care Research Database and Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Other inhalers (OH) included pressurized metered-dose inhalers, breath-actuated inhalers, and dry-powder inhalers, delivering beclomethasone, budesonide, fluticasone, or ciclesonide. Patients remaining on OH unchanged (same drug, dosage, and device; n=979) were matched 1:1 with those switched to the EH (beclomethasone or budesonide) at the same or lower ICS dosage (n=979), based on age, sex, year of index patient review/switch, most recent ICS drug, dosage, and device, and the number of severe exacerbations and average daily short-acting β2 agonist (SABA) dosage in the preceding year. Clinical outcomes and health care costs were compared between groups for 12 months before and after the switch. Co-primary clinical outcomes were: 1) risk domain asthma control (RDAC) – no asthma-related hospitalization, acute oral steroid use, or lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI); 2) exacerbation rate (American Thoracic Society [ATS] definition) – where exacerbation is asthma-related hospitalization or acute oral steroid use; 3) exacerbation rate (clinical definition) – where exacerbation is ATS exacerbation or LRTI; and 4) overall asthma control (OAC) – RDAC plus average salbutamol-equivalent SABA dosage ≤200 μg/day. Non-inferiority (at least equivalence) of EH was tested against OH for the four co-primary outcomes in order (hierarchical approach) by comparing the difference in proportions of patients [EH-OH] achieving asthma control or having no exacerbations in the outcome year, using a limit of 10% difference

  15. Switching patients from other inhaled corticosteroid devices to the Easyhaler(®): historical, matched-cohort study of real-life asthma patients.

    PubMed

    Price, David; Thomas, Vicky; von Ziegenweidt, Julie; Gould, Shuna; Hutton, Catherine; King, Christine

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the clinical and cost effectiveness of switching real-life asthma patients from other types of inhalers to the Easyhaler(®) (EH) for the administration of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). Historical, matched-cohort study of 1,958 asthma patients (children and adults) treated in UK primary-care practices, using data obtained from the Optimum Patient Care Research Database and Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Other inhalers (OH) included pressurized metered-dose inhalers, breath-actuated inhalers, and dry-powder inhalers, delivering beclomethasone, budesonide, fluticasone, or ciclesonide. Patients remaining on OH unchanged (same drug, dosage, and device; n=979) were matched 1:1 with those switched to the EH (beclomethasone or budesonide) at the same or lower ICS dosage (n=979), based on age, sex, year of index patient review/switch, most recent ICS drug, dosage, and device, and the number of severe exacerbations and average daily short-acting β2 agonist (SABA) dosage in the preceding year. Clinical outcomes and health care costs were compared between groups for 12 months before and after the switch. Co-primary clinical outcomes were: 1) risk domain asthma control (RDAC) - no asthma-related hospitalization, acute oral steroid use, or lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI); 2) exacerbation rate (American Thoracic Society [ATS] definition) - where exacerbation is asthma-related hospitalization or acute oral steroid use; 3) exacerbation rate (clinical definition) - where exacerbation is ATS exacerbation or LRTI; and 4) overall asthma control (OAC) - RDAC plus average salbutamol-equivalent SABA dosage ≤200 μg/day. Non-inferiority (at least equivalence) of EH was tested against OH for the four co-primary outcomes in order (hierarchical approach) by comparing the difference in proportions of patients [EH-OH] achieving asthma control or having no exacerbations in the outcome year, using a limit of 10% difference. Non-inferiority was shown for the EH

  16. The Dialectic between Ideal and Real Forms of "Sharing": A Cultural-Historical Study of Story Acting through Imaginary Play at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hao, Yijun

    2017-01-01

    In a time when story-acting practices have gained increasing focus, little is known about the relations between family story acting and a child's interactions with the ideal models represented in stories. Drawing upon a cultural-historical perspective of play and development, this study is aimed at discovering how a child is able to interact with…

  17. The Dialectic between Ideal and Real Forms of "Sharing": A Cultural-Historical Study of Story Acting through Imaginary Play at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hao, Yijun

    2017-01-01

    In a time when story-acting practices have gained increasing focus, little is known about the relations between family story acting and a child's interactions with the ideal models represented in stories. Drawing upon a cultural-historical perspective of play and development, this study is aimed at discovering how a child is able to interact with…

  18. Brick Kiln Emissions Quantified with the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory During the Short Lived Climate Forcing (SLCF) 2013 Campaign in Guanajuato Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortner, E.; Knighton, W. B.; Herndon, S.; Roscioli, J. R.; Zavala, M.; Onasch, T. B.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Kolb, C. E.; Molina, L. T.

    2013-12-01

    Brick kiln emissions are suspected to be a major source of atmospheric black carbon (BC) in developing countries; and black carbon's role as a short lived climate forcing (SLCF) pollutant is widely recognized. The SLCF-Mexico brick kiln study was conducted from 12-17 March 2013 in Mexico's Guanajuato state. Three different types of brick kilns were investigated (MK2, traditional, and traditional three tier) providing data on the effects of different kiln designs on particle and gas phase emissions. The BC and gaseous combustion emissions from these kilns were measured during both the fire stage and the subsequent smoldering stage with real-time instruments deployed on the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory, and quantified utilizing flux tracer gases released adjacent to the brick kiln. This method allows examination of the brick kiln plume's evolution as it transits downwind from the source. Particulate measurements conducted by the mobile laboratory included the multi angle absorption photometer (MAAP) to measure black carbon mass, cavity attenuated phase shift (CAPSext) monitor to measure extinction and soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) measurements of black carbon. The SP-AMS instrument combines the ability to measure black carbon with the ability to determine the chemical composition of the other particulate matter (PM) components associated with black carbon particles. The variance of PM chemical composition will be examined as a function of burning stage and kiln type and compared to other black carbon PM sources. Gas phase exhaust species measured included CO, CO2, NOx, SO2, CH4, C2H6, as well as a variety of VOCs (acetonitrile, benzene etc.) measured with a PTR-MS instrument. All of these measurements will be examined to construct emission ratios evaluating how these vary with different kiln types and different firing conditions. The evolution of particulate matter and gas phase species as they transit away from the source will also be examined.

  19. A practical proposal for solving the world's cigarette butt problem: Recycling in fired clay bricks.

    PubMed

    Mohajerani, Abbas; Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Larobina, Luke

    2016-06-01

    The disposal and littering of cigarette butts (CBs) is a serious environmental problem. Trillions of cigarettes are produced every year worldwide, resulting in millions of tonnes of toxic waste being dumped into the environment in the form of cigarette butts. As CBs have poor biodegradability, it can take many years for them to break down. This paper reviews and presents some of the results of a study on the recycling of CBs into fired clay bricks. Bricks with 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10% CB content by weight were manufactured and tested, and then compared against control clay bricks with 0% CB content. The results showed that the dry density decreased by up to 30% and the compressive strength decreased by 88% in bricks with 10% CBs. The calculated compressive strength of bricks with 1% CBs was determined to be 19.53Mpa. To investigate the effect of mixing time, bricks with 7.5% CB content were manufactured with different mixing times of 5, 10, and 15min. To test the effect of heating time on the properties of CB bricks, the heating rate used during manufacturing was changed to 0.7, 2, 5, and 10°Cmin(-1). Bricks with 0% and 5% CB content were fired with these heating rates. Leachate tests were carried out for bricks with 0%, 2.5%, 5%, and 10% CB content. The emissions released during firing were tested for bricks with 0% and 5% CB content using heating rates of 0.7, 2, 5, and 10°Cmin(-1). The gases tested were carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), chlorine (Cl2), nitrogen oxide (NO), and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Finally, estimations were made for the energy that could be saved by firing bricks incorporating CBs. Calculations showed that up to 58% of the firing energy could potentially be saved. Bricks were shown to be a viable solution for the disposal of CBs. They can reduce contamination caused by cigarette butts and provide a masonry construction material that can be either loadbearing or non-loadbearing, depending on the quantity of CBs incorporated. This

  20. OSL studies of local bricks for retrospective dosimetric application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A. K.; Menon, S. N.; Kadam, S. Y.; Koul, D. K.; Datta, D.

    2016-09-01

    Luminescence properties of quartz extracted from bricks has been reported worldwide for its use in dose estimation in case of nuclear or radiological accident. Accordingly, in this study the feasibility of utilizing the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) emission of quartz extracted from red bricks collected from three different locations in and around Mumbai, India for retrospective dosimetry was explored. Thermoluminescence and OSL characterization of the samples were carried out. The growth curve, thermal stability and equivalent dose plateau of the OSL signal suggested the signals to be well behaving. Subsequently, the dose recovery tests carried for different administered doses, using single aliquot regenerative protocol, demonstrated the feasibility of the OSL emissions of these samples for dose evaluation in retrospective dosimetry.

  1. Final Flame Trench Brick Installation at Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-09

    Construction workers install the final bricks on the north side of the flame trench at Launch Complex 39B at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The walls of the flame trench are being upgraded to withstand the intense heat and fire at launch of NASA's Space Launch System rocket with Orion atop. About 96,000 heat-resistant bricks, in three different sizes, were secured to the walls using bonding mortar in combination with adhesive anchors. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to Pad 39B to support the launch of the SLS and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission-1 and NASA’s journey to Mars.

  2. Low Temperature Regolith Bricks for In-Situ Structural Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, Kevin; Sakthivel, Tamil S.; Mantovani, James; Seal, Sudipta

    2016-01-01

    Current technology for producing in-situ structural materials on future missions to Mars or the moon relies heavily on energy-intensive sintering processes to produce solid bricks from regolith. This process requires heating the material up to temperatures in excess of 1000 C and results in solid regolith pieces with compressive strengths in the range of 14000 to 28000 psi, but are heavily dependent on the porosity of the final material and are brittle. This method is currently preferred over a low temperature cementation process to prevent consumption of precious water and other non-renewable materials. A high strength structural material with low energy requirements is still needed for future colonization of other planets. To fulfill these requirements, a nano-functionalization process has been developed to produce structural bricks from regolith simulant and shows promising mechanical strength results. Functionalization of granular silicate particles into alkoxides using a simple low temperature chemical process produces a high surface area zeolite particles that are held together via inter-particle oxygen bonding. Addition of water in the resulting zeolite particles produces a sol-gel reaction called "inorganic polymerization" which gives a strong solid material after a curing process at 60 C. The aqueous solution by-product of the reaction is currently being investigated for its reusability; an essential component of any ISRU technology. For this study, two batches of regolith bricks are synthesized from JSC-1A; the first batch from fresh solvents and chemicals, the second batch made from the water solution by-product of the first batch. This is done to determine the feasibility of recycling necessary components of the synthesis process, mainly water. Characterization including BET surface area, SEM, and EDS has been done on the regolith bricks as well as the constituent particles,. The specific surface area of 17.53 sq m/g (average) of the granular regolith

  3. A homogenization approach to the ultimate strength of brick masonry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Buhan, Patrick; de Felice, Gianmarco

    1997-07-01

    A continuum model for assessing the ultimate failure of masonry as a homogenized material is presented in this paper. It is shown in particular how a homogenization technique implemented within the framework of the yield design theory, makes it possible to construct a macroscopic strength criterion for masonry described as a regular assemblage of bricks separated by joint interfaces. Making use of the kinematic definition of such a criterion which involves velocity jumps across the joints, the yield strength domain in the space of stresses is explicitly determined in the case of infinitely resistant bricks. It clearly shows the anisotropic characteristics of the equivalent medium, due to the preferential orientations of joints. This formulation is particularly interesting from an engineering point of view, since only a few easy to identify parameters relating to the joint strength characteristics (reduced here to a friction angle and a cohesion), and to the brick geometry are involved. As an illustrative application of the criterion so obtained, the stability of masonry walls subjected to inclined gravity loads is investigated by means of the upper-bound kinematic approach. Even though the theoretical predictions derived from this analysis are in good qualitative agreement with available experimental data, the comparison points to the necessary extension of such an approach for taking "scale effects" into account.

  4. Interior building details of Building D, Room DM2: historic wood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building D, Room D-M2: historic wood trim, full height partition wall with hopper and east brick retaining wall; southeasterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  5. Prevalence of Brick Tea-Type Fluorosis in the Tibet Autonomous Region.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhipeng; Gao, Yanhui; Wang, Wei; Gong, Hongqiang; Guo, Min; Zhao, Shengcheng; Liu, Xuehui; Yu, Bing; Sun, Dianjun

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis is high in Tibet because of the habit of drinking brick tea in this region. Brick tea-type fluorosis has become an urgent public health problem in China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis in all districts of Tibet using a stratified cluster sampling method. Dental fluorosis in children aged 8-12 years and clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were diagnosed according to the national criteria. A total of 423 children and 1320 adults participated in the study. Samples of drinking water, brick tea, brick tea infusion (or buttered tea), and urine were collected and measured for fluoride concentrations by the fluoride ion selective electrode method. The fluoride level in all but one of the brick tea samples was above the national standard. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea in all seven districts in Tibet was much higher than the national standard. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 33.57%, and the prevalence of clinical skeletal fluorosis was 46.06%. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea (r = 0.292, P < 0.05), urine fluoride concentrations in children (r = 0.134, P < 0.05), urine fluoride concentrations in adults (r = 0.162, P < 0.05), and altitude (r = 0.276, P < 0.05) were positively correlated with the prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis. Herdsmen had the highest fluoride exposure and the most severe skeletal fluorosis. Brick tea-type fluorosis in Tibet is more serious than in other parts of China. The altitude and occupational factors are important risk factors for brick tea-type fluorosis.

  6. Prevalence of Brick Tea-Type Fluorosis in the Tibet Autonomous Region

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zhipeng; Gao, Yanhui; Wang, Wei; Gong, Hongqiang; Guo, Min; Zhao, Shengcheng; Liu, Xuehui; Yu, Bing; Sun, Dianjun

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis is high in Tibet because of the habit of drinking brick tea in this region. Brick tea-type fluorosis has become an urgent public health problem in China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis in all districts of Tibet using a stratified cluster sampling method. Dental fluorosis in children aged 8–12 years and clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were diagnosed according to the national criteria. A total of 423 children and 1320 adults participated in the study. Samples of drinking water, brick tea, brick tea infusion (or buttered tea), and urine were collected and measured for fluoride concentrations by the fluoride ion selective electrode method. Results The fluoride level in all but one of the brick tea samples was above the national standard. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea in all seven districts in Tibet was much higher than the national standard. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 33.57%, and the prevalence of clinical skeletal fluorosis was 46.06%. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea (r = 0.292, P < 0.05), urine fluoride concentrations in children (r = 0.134, P < 0.05), urine fluoride concentrations in adults (r = 0.162, P < 0.05), and altitude (r = 0.276, P < 0.05) were positively correlated with the prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis. Herdsmen had the highest fluoride exposure and the most severe skeletal fluorosis. Conclusions Brick tea-type fluorosis in Tibet is more serious than in other parts of China. The altitude and occupational factors are important risk factors for brick tea-type fluorosis. PMID:26499132

  7. A study on sintering of ceramic bricks made from waste coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolboushkin, A. Yu; Ivanov, A. I.; Syromyasov, V. A.; Fomina, O. A.

    2016-10-01

    The results of the study on phase transformations and structure formation during firing of bricks made from wastes of coaly argillite processing. The effect of firing temperature on the processes of mineral formation and changes in the quantitative content of amorphous phase and brick porosity was defined. It was found that at 950-1050 °C the sintering takes place providing a solid brick structure.

  8. [Study on Hollow Brick Wall's Surface Temperature with Infrared Thermal Imaging Method].

    PubMed

    Tang, Ming-fang; Yin, Yi-hua

    2015-05-01

    To address the characteristic of uneven surface temperature of hollow brick wall, the present research adopts soft wares of both ThermaCAM P20 and ThermaCAM Reporter to test the application of infrared thermal image technique in measuring surface temperature of hollow brick wall, and further analyzes the thermal characteristics of hollow brick wall, and building material's impact on surface temperature distribution including hollow brick, masonry mortar, and so on. The research selects the construction site of a three-story-high residential, carries out the heat transfer experiment, and further examines the exterior wall constructed by 3 different hollow bricks including sintering shale hollow brick, masonry mortar and brick masonry. Infrared thermal image maps are collected, including 3 kinds of sintering shale hollow brick walls under indoor heating in winter; and temperature data of wall surface, and uniformity and frequency distribution are also collected for comparative analysis between 2 hollow bricks and 2 kinds of mortar masonry. The results show that improving heat preservation of hollow brick aid masonry mortar can effectively improve inner wall surface temperature and indoor thermal environment; non-uniformity of surface temperature decreases from 0. 6 to 0. 4 °C , and surface temperature frequency distribution changes from the asymmetric distribution into a normal distribution under the condition that energy-saving sintering shale hollow brick wall is constructed by thermal mortar replacing cement mortar masonry; frequency of average temperature increases as uniformity of surface temperature increases. This research provides a certain basis for promotion and optimization of hollow brick wall's thermal function.

  9. Industrial wastes as alternative raw materials to produce eco-friendly fired bricks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Quero, V.; Maza-Ignacio, O. T.; Guerrero-Paz, J.; Campos-Venegas, K.

    2017-01-01

    This work focuses on the incorporation of sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) and silica fume (SF) wastes as an alternative raw material into clay bricks, replacing clay by up to 40 wt.%. Fly ash (FA) was used as reference. The plasticity of the batches was determined by Atterberg’s consistency limits. Bricks were produced by uniaxial pressing and fired a 900 and 1000°C. Physical properties (fired shrinkage, water absorption, apparent porosity and Initial water absorption rate) and mechanical properties (compressive strength and flexural strength) as function of the firing temperature and type waste were investigated. The results showed that wastes into clay body increase its global plasticity. 80%Clay-20%SCBA mixture has the lower linear shrinkage. After firing process, the brick produced with clay-SCBA show the higher water absorption and apparent porosity, regardless of the firing temperature. The brick produced with 60%clay-40%SF show the water absorption and apparent porosity similar to control bricks. The SCBA waste additions tend to decrease the mechanical strength of the clay bricks, therefore amounts of 40% SCBA waste should be avoided because it reduce the mechanical strength of the red fired bricks. The fired bricks with 40% SF, firing a 900°C show mechanical properties similar control bricks.

  10. Dredged sediments as a resource for brick production: Possibilities and barriers from a consumers’ perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Cappuyns, Valérie Deweirt, Valentine; Rousseau, Sandra

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Consumers are suspicious towards bricks produced from dredged sediments. • Technical quality, safety and environmental impacts are considered key characteristics. • Public has insufficient knowledge on bricks produced from dredged sediments. • Sensitization and provision of information to customers are of primary importance. - Abstract: A possible solution for the oversupply of dredged sediments is their use as a raw material in brick production. Despite the fact that several examples (e.g., Agostini et al., 2007; Hamer and Karius, 2002; Xu et al., 2014) show that this application is feasible, some economic, technical and social limitations interfere with the development of a market of dredged materials in brick production in Flanders. While we describe the main characteristics of the supply side, we focus on the limitations and barriers from the demand side in the present study. Based on a consumers survey we analyze consumers’ risk perceptions and attitudes towards bricks produced from dredged sediments. Consumers in Flanders are rather suspicious with respect to bricks produced from dredged sediments and their risk perception is mainly determined by the possibility of a bad bargain (brick of inferior quality) and the connotation with chemical contamination. The willingness to pay for bricks made from dredged sediments is mainly influenced by the age of the respondents, as well environmental awareness, and the respondents’ belief in their ability to influence environmental problems. Sensitization and information of customers seems to be of primary importance to make dredged-sediment-derived bricks a successful product.

  11. Physical and mechanical properties by utilizing empty fruit bunch into fired clay brick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Sarani, Noor Amira; Mokhtar, Siti Zulaikha; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri

    2017-04-01

    Palm oil plantation has become one of the country's success stories in agricultural development which also generates the highest number of waste among the agricultural waste. In this study, the investigation on the possibility to utilize the empty fruit bunch (EFB) waste into the fired clay brick was carried out. The main purpose of this study is to determine the physical and mechanical properties of bricks incorporated with different percentages of EFB. In this study, bricks with four different percentages of EFB (0 %, 1 %, 5 % and 10 %) were manufactured. Manufactured bricks were fired at 1050 °C with heating rate of 1 °C/min. Physical and mechanical properties including shrinkage, density, Initial Rate of Suction (IRS) and compressive strength were reported and discussed. Since shrinkage for each mixing is below than 8 %, then a good brick was manufactured. Bricks become more porous due to the organic content of EFB are burnt away and voids are formed in the specimen, giving it a lighter appearance and were produced lightweight brick which is suitable for non-loading purposes. As a conclusion, the incorporation of EFB into fired clay brick gives some advantages to the brick properties and also provides an alternative solution to disposed EFB waste.

  12. Investigating the Utility of Iron Ore Waste in Preparing Non-fired Bricks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamani, Shreekant R.; Mangalpady, Aruna; Vardhan, Harsha

    2016-10-01

    Iron ore waste is a major problem for mine owners due to the difficulty involved in its storage, handling and other environmental related issues. An alternative solution to this is utilisation of iron ore waste (IOW) as some value added product in construction industry. An attempt has been made in this paper in examining the possibility of making non-fired bricks from iron ore waste with some additives like cement and fly-ash. Each of the additives were mixed with IOW in different ratios and different sets of bricks were prepared. The prepared IOW bricks were cured for 7, 14, 21 and 28 days and their respective compressive strength and percentage of water absorption were determined. The results show that IOW bricks prepared with 9% and above cement and with 28 days of curing are suitable for brick making and meet the IS specifications. It was also observed that the weight of the prepared bricks with 9% cement with 28 days of curing varies between 2.35 and 2.45 kg whereas the weight of compressed fire clay bricks varies from 2.80 to 2.89 kg. Results also show that the cost of bricks prepared with cement ranging from 9 to 20% is comparable to that of commercially available compressed bricks.

  13. Investigating the Utility of Iron Ore Waste in Preparing Non-fired Bricks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamani, Shreekant R.; Mangalpady, Aruna; Vardhan, Harsha

    2017-10-01

    Iron ore waste is a major problem for mine owners due to the difficulty involved in its storage, handling and other environmental related issues. An alternative solution to this is utilisation of iron ore waste (IOW) as some value added product in construction industry. An attempt has been made in this paper in examining the possibility of making non-fired bricks from iron ore waste with some additives like cement and fly-ash. Each of the additives were mixed with IOW in different ratios and different sets of bricks were prepared. The prepared IOW bricks were cured for 7, 14, 21 and 28 days and their respective compressive strength and percentage of water absorption were determined. The results show that IOW bricks prepared with 9% and above cement and with 28 days of curing are suitable for brick making and meet the IS specifications. It was also observed that the weight of the prepared bricks with 9% cement with 28 days of curing varies between 2.35 and 2.45 kg whereas the weight of compressed fire clay bricks varies from 2.80 to 2.89 kg. Results also show that the cost of bricks prepared with cement ranging from 9 to 20% is comparable to that of commercially available compressed bricks.

  14. Race as biology is fiction, racism as a social problem is real: Anthropological and historical perspectives on the social construction of race.

    PubMed

    Smedley, Audrey; Smedley, Brian D

    2005-01-01

    Racialized science seeks to explain human population differences in health, intelligence, education, and wealth as the consequence of immutable, biologically based differences between "racial" groups. Recent advances in the sequencing of the human genome and in an understanding of biological correlates of behavior have fueled racialized science, despite evidence that racial groups are not genetically discrete, reliably measured, or scientifically meaningful. Yet even these counterarguments often fail to take into account the origin and history of the idea of race. This article reviews the origins of the concept of race, placing the contemporary discussion of racial differences in an anthropological and historical context.

  15. Brick-pile To Rubble-pile Impact Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korycansky, Donald; Asphaug, E.

    2010-10-01

    One of the chief lines of evidence that asteroids are "rubble piles", (loose aggregates of rock and/or ice held together by gravity and friction) is the under-density that many of them exhibit compared to the density of solid rock as inferred from surface compositions. Under-densities up to 50% or greater have been found for some objects (Britt and Consolmagno 2002). However, little is known of the internal structure of these bodies. Under-density may be due to "microporosity", i.e. porosity at the level of grains, or "macroporosity" in which void space is provided by the mis-match of large structural blocks that comprise the bulk of the object. We present work that models sub-catastrophic impacts into "brick piles", i.e. close-fitting aggregates with little or no void space. Calculations follow the partial or complete dispersal of an asteroid and its reassembly. After reassembly, the post-impact volume of the object is compared to the pre-impact object to derive a void fraction. Model calculations were carried out with programs based on the Open Dynamics Engine library that has been used by us for a number of studies (Korycansky and Asphaug 2009, Korycansky 2010a,b LPSC). Initial brick-pile objects were constructed by means of quasi-random Voronoi decompositions of an initial volume that is the hull of the pre-impact object. We will present results on the amount and distribution of void space of post-impact rubble piles and compare to the observed distribution of inferred void space, and characterize our results in terms of body and impact parameters, such as numbers and size distribution of pre-impact brick piles and impact velocities and geometry. This work has been supported by NASA Planetary Geology and Geophysics program grant NNX07AQ04G.

  16. The gamma-ray and neutron shielding factors of fly-ash brick materials.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vishwanath P; Badiger, N M

    2014-03-01

    A comprehensive study of gamma-ray exposure build-up factors (EBFs) of fly-ash brick materials has been carried out for photon energies of 0.015-15 MeV up to a penetration depth of 40 mfp (mean free path) by a geometrical progression (GP) fitting method. The EBF values of the fly-ash brick materials were found to be dependent upon the photon energy, penetration depth and chemical composition, and were found to be higher than the values for mud bricks and common bricks. Above a photon energy of 3 MeV for large penetration depths (>10 mfp), the EBF becomes directly proportional to Zeq. EBFs of fly-ashes were found to be less than or equal to those of concrete for low penetration depths (<10 mfp) for intermediate photon energies up to 1.5 MeV. The EBF values of fly-ash materials were found to be almost independent of Si concentration. The fast neutron removal cross sections of the fly-ash brick materials, mud bricks and common bricks were also calculated to understand their shielding effectiveness. The shielding effectiveness of the fly-ash materials against gamma-ray radiation was lower than that of common and mud bricks.

  17. 76 FR 78885 - Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks From Mexico: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks From Mexico: Notice of Rescission of... antidumping duty order on certain magnesia carbon bricks from Mexico for the period of review (POR) of March... notice of initiation of an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain magnesia...

  18. Chemical and engineering properties of fired bricks containing 50 weight percent of class F fly ash

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, I.-Ming; Patel, V.; Laird, C.J.; Ho, K.K.

    2001-01-01

    The generation of fly ash during coal combustion represents a considerable solid waste disposal problem in the state of Illinois and nationwide. In fact, the majority of the three million tons of fly ash produced from burning Illinois bituminous coals is disposed of in landfills. The purpose of this study was to obtain a preliminary assessment of the technical feasibility of mitigating this solid waste problem by making fired bricks with the large volume of fly ash generated from burning Illinois coals. Test bricks were produced by the extrusion method with increasing amounts (20-50% by weight) of fly ash as a replacement for conventional raw materials. The chemical characteristics and engineering properties of the test bricks produced with and without 50 wt% of fly ash substitutions were analyzed and compared. The properties of the test bricks containing fly ash were at least comparable to, if not better than, those of standard test bricks made without fly ash and met the commercial specifications for fired bricks. The positive results of this study suggest that further study on test bricks with fly ash substitutions of greater than 50wt% is warranted. Successful results could have an important impact in reducing the waste disposal problem related to class F fly ash while providing the brick industry with a new low cost raw material. Copyright ?? 2001 Taylor & Francis.

  19. 78 FR 7752 - Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks From the People's Republic of China... Republic of China (PRC) covering the period January 1, 2011, through December 31, 2011.\\1\\ The Department...). \\2\\ See Letter to the Department from Fengchi ``Magnesia Carbon Bricks from China, Case No. C-570-955...

  20. Effects of waste paper usage on thermal and mechanical properties of fired brick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibib, Khalid S.

    2015-05-01

    In this work, a new strategy has been proposed where the waste paper, and their possible emissions are buried into the bricks to induce porosity and reduce the atmospheric pollution. The resulting porous bricks have been proved experimentally to have good durability, low density, low thermal conductivity and acceptable compressive strength comparing with the commonly used bricks. Different mixing percentages of a waste paper weight to wet clay have been tested, and a percentage of 1:10 seems to meet the usual standard for severe weather requirements. Many advantages have been achieved; enchantment the thermal insulation of the brick, increasing number of brick produced per ton of clay, reducing waste and their determinate effects, small reduction in the energy required to produce fired brick and producing homogeneous properties through the brick by properly initial mixing waste paper with wet clay. All these factors result in obtaining good brick characteristics with advantage of reducing waste. The procedures of measuring density, specific heat and thermal conductivity have been verified by obtaining experimental and theoretical values of thermal conductivity of the samples and good agreement has been observed.

  1. Preparation and mechanism of the sintered bricks produced from Yellow River silt and red mud.

    PubMed

    He, Hongtao; Yue, Qinyan; Su, Yuan; Gao, Baoyu; Gao, Yue; Wang, Jingzhou; Yu, Hui

    2012-02-15

    The preparation, characteristics and mechanisms of sintered bricks manufactured by Yellow River silt and red mud were studied. The sintering shrinkage, weight loss on ignition, water absorption and compressive strength were tested to determine the optimum preparation condition. Sintering mechanisms were discussed through linear regression analysis. Crystalline components of raw materials and bricks were analyzed by X-ray diffraction. Leaching toxicity of raw materials and bricks were measured according to sulphuric acid and nitric acid method. Radiation safety of the sintered bricks was characterized by calculating internal exposure index and external exposure index. The results showed that at the chosen best parameters (red mud content of 40%, sintering temperature of 1050°C and sintering time of 2h), the best characteristics of sintered bricks could be obtained. The weight loss on ignition of sintered bricks was principally caused by the removal of absorbed water and crystal water. The sintering shrinkage of sintered bricks mainly depended on sodium compounds and iron compounds of red mud. The sintering process made some components of raw materials transform into other crystals having better thermostability. Besides, the leaching toxicity and radioactivity index of sintered bricks produced under the optimum condition were all below standards. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Natural radioactivity hazards of building bricks fabricated from saline soil of two districts of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Tufail, M; Nasim-Akhtar; Sabiha-Javied; Hamid, Tehsin

    2007-12-01

    Primordial radionuclides in building materials are one of the sources of radiation hazard in dwellings made of those materials. Activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides 40K, 226Ra and 232Th have been measured in house building bricks fabricated from saline soil. Forty samples of the bricks were collected from the brick fabrication sites and brick baking kilns in and around the saline soil areas of the districts of Lahore and Faisalabad in the Punjab province of Pakistan. The technique of gamma-ray spectroscopy using an HPGe detector with a PC-based multi-channel analyser was applied for determination of activity concentrations in the brick samples. The activity mass concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th measured in the brick samples were respectively 567.7 +/- 38.3 (493-631), 28.4 +/- 3.8 (23-35), and 56.0 +/- 4.6 (46-65) Bq kg(-1). The radiological hazards of the bricks were calculated using various models given in the literature. The radium equivalent activity was less than the accepted standard criterion value of 370 Bq kg(-1) and the values of other hazard indices were also below their limit values. The radiological hazard parameters of the bricks under investigation have been compared with those from other locations of Pakistan and also from some other countries in Asia.

  3. 77 FR 61397 - Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks From the People's Republic of China: 2010 Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks From the People's Republic of China: 2010... magnesia carbon bricks (MCBs) from the People's Republic of China (PRC), covering the period of review (POR... available (AFA) to the two mandatory respondents who both failed to cooperate to the best of their...

  4. Letter: Dilatonic Black Hole Entropy Without Brick Walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhao; Sheng-Li, Zhang

    2004-09-01

    The properties of the thermal radiation are discussed by using the new equation of state density motivated by the generalized uncertainty relation in the quantum gravity. There is no burst at the last stage of the emission of dilatonic black hole. When the new equation of state density is utilized to investigate the entropy of a bosonic field and fermionic field outside the horizon of a static dilatonic black hole, the divergence appearing in the brick wall model is removed, without any cutoff. It is derived from the contribution of the vicinity of the horizon that the entropy is proportional to the horizon area.

  5. Spherically symmetric black-hole entropy without brick walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhao; Yue-Qin, Wu; Li-Chun, Zhang

    2003-11-01

    Properties of the thermal radiation of black holes are discussed using a new equation of state density motivated by the generalized uncertainty relation in quantum gravity. There is no burst at the last stage of emission from a spherically symmetric black hole. When the new equation of state density is used to investigate the entropy of a bosonic field and fermionic field outside the horizon of a static spherically symmetric black hole, the divergence that appears in the brick-wall model is removed without any cutoff. The entropy proportional to the horizon area is derived from the contribution from the vicinity of the horizon.

  6. 27. MASCOT BRICK AUGER AND No 1 COMBINATION CUTTING TABLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. MASCOT BRICK AUGER AND No 1 COMBINATION CUTTING TABLE MANUFACTURED BY THE AMERICAN CLAY MACHINERY CO. OF BUCYRUS, OHIO. IT WAS PURCHASED IN 1903. AND USED AT THE FIRST MORAVIAN POTTERY AND TILE WORKS BEFORE BEING MOVED TO ITS PRESENT LOCATION IN 1912. IT IS USED TO SCREEN STONES FROM RAW CLAY AND INCORPORATE WATER TO A PROPER WORKING CONSISTENCY. IT IS NOW POWERED BY AN ELECTRIC MOTOR INSTALLED IN 1990. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  7. Are ceramics and bricks reliable absolute geomagnetic intensity carriers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Juan; Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Aguilar-Reyes, Bertha; Pineda-Duran, Modesto; Camps, Pierre; Carvallo, Claire; Calvo-Rathert, Manuel

    2011-08-01

    A detailed rock-magnetic and archeointensity study was carried out on materials baked by a western Mexican artisan following traditional techniques to produce faithful reproductions of archeological pieces of the Michoacán region (Western Mesoamerica). The field strength at the site (41.0 ± 0.5 μT) was measured with a fluxgate magnetometer and the temperature of the furnace during the baking process was monitored continually by means of a thermocouple placed in the middle of the baking cavity. Rock-magnetic experiments performed on the raw material (clay and paste) and on insitu prepared baked ceramics and bricks included measurement of thermomagnetic curves (susceptibility and strong-field magnetization versus temperature), first-order reversal curves (FORC), anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and anisotropy of thermoremanent magnetization (A-TRM). Magnetite and probably hematite are present in the samples as carriers of the remanence. Hysteresis ratios suggest that the samples fall in the pseudo-single-domain grain size region, which may indicate a mixture of multi-domain and a significant amount of single-domain grains. Ceramic pieces and brick fragments were subjected to the Thellier-Coe archeointensity method and to an alternative paleointensity experiment, with a TRIAXE magnetometer, in order to check whether they are faithful recorders of the local geomagnetic field strength. Mean raw-intensity of sample M1 (pottery) overestimates a 7% the expected site intensity, while those corresponding to the brick samples (LQ1 and LQ2) underestimate it 15%. Brick sample LNQ shows a slightly lower intensity (7%), but agrees with the expected site intensity within the experimental uncertainty. The intensity retrieved from the volcanic fragment also included closely reproduces the expected intensity. After A-TRM and cooling-rate corrections, all mean raw values move closer to the expected intensity. Measurement of temperatures at different parts inside the kiln

  8. 29 CFR 570.64 - Occupations involved in the manufacture of brick, tile, and kindred products (Order 13).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Occupations involved in the manufacture of brick, tile, and... Detrimental to Their Health or Well-Being § 570.64 Occupations involved in the manufacture of brick, tile, and... establishments in which silica brick or other silica refractories are manufactured, except work in offices....

  9. 29 CFR 570.64 - Occupations involved in the manufacture of brick, tile, and kindred products (Order 13).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Occupations involved in the manufacture of brick, tile, and... Detrimental to Their Health or Well-Being § 570.64 Occupations involved in the manufacture of brick, tile, and... establishments in which silica brick or other silica refractories are manufactured, except work in offices....

  10. GPU-based simulations of fracture in idealized brick and mortar composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    William Pro, J.; Kwei Lim, Rone; Petzold, Linda R.; Utz, Marcel; Begley, Matthew R.

    2015-07-01

    Stiff ceramic platelets (or bricks) that are aligned and bonded to a second ductile phase with low volume fraction (mortar) are a promising pathway to produce stiff, high-toughness composites. For certain ranges of constituent properties, including those of some synthetic analogs to nacre, one can demonstrate that the deformation is dominated by relative brick motions. This paper describes simulations of fracture that explicitly track the motions of individual rigid bricks in an idealized microstructure; cohesive tractions acting between the bricks introduce elastic, plastic and rupture behaviors. Results are presented for the stresses and damage near macroscopic cracks with different brick orientations relative to the loading orientation. The anisotropic macroscopic initiation toughness is computed for small-scale yielding conditions and is shown to be independent of specimen geometry and loading configuration. The results are shown to be in agreement with previously published experiments on synthetic nacre.

  11. Spectroscopic investigation on the production of clay bricks with SCBA waste.

    PubMed

    Viruthagiri, G; Sathiya priya, S; Shanmugam, N; Balaji, A; Balamurugan, K; Gopinathan, E

    2015-10-05

    In this paper, the effect of sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) addition to the brick making clay has been analyzed using spectroscopic techniques. For that, mixtures of brick making clay (BMC) with sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) in proportions of 0-20 wt.% were hydraulic uniaxially pressed and sintered at temperatures of 800-1100 °C. The partial replacement of the brick making clay with SCBA was studied with chemical and mineralogical analyzes (XRF and X-ray diffraction). The quantitative estimation of minerals was made by FTIR analysis. The results of FT-IR reveal that kaolinite, quartz, and lignin are predominant, whereas, cellulose and calcite are in moderate levels. In addition, magnetite and hematite are found in trace level. The overall results reveal that the brick making clay substituted with 15 wt.% of SCBA can open up a new path for the fabrication of quality bricks at low cost.

  12. Decay patterns of brick wall in atmospheric environment: a possible analogue to rock weathering?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prikryl, Richard; Weishauptová, Zuzana; Přikrylová, Jiřina; Jablonský, Jakub

    2015-04-01

    This study is focused on the decay of bricks exposed in enclosing wall of the Regional maternal hospital in Prague city centre (Czech Republic). The hospital, listed as a Czech architectural monument, has been constructed from locally produced bricks in neo-Gothic style in the period of 1867-1875. The bricks of the enclosing wall show sequence of decay patterns that resemble weathering forms observable on monuments built of natural stone. This study aims to study the observed decay patterns by means of in situ mapping and by analyses of decayed material (optical microscopy, SEM/EDS, X-ray diffraction, Hg-porosimetry, water soluble salts analysis) and to interpret them based on the phase composition and other properties of bricks. Finally, the decay patterns of studied brick wall are compared to known weathering sequences on porous rocks (both on natural outcrops and on artistic monuments).

  13. Historical and Near Real-Time Physical, Chemical, and Biological Oceanographic Data in Support of the International Polar Year 2007-08

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatusko, R. L.; Allegra, A. J.; Beattie, J. A.; Dwivedi, P. H.; Grimes, D.; Hamilton, M. A.; Levitus, S.; Sun, C. L.; Woods, M. H.

    2004-12-01

    The U.S. NOAA/NESDIS/National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), located in Silver Spring, Maryland, has extensive capabilities in archiving and providing public access to polar oceanographic and coastal data, products, and information. The World Ocean Database (WOD), a scientifically quality-controlled, global, oceanographic database, is the most comprehensive database of historical ocean profile data and plankton measurements in existence. The World Data Center for Oceanography (WDC) in Silver Spring conducts international exchange of oceanographic observations in accordance with the principles set forth by the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU). The WDC is collocated with and operated by the NODC, and it also leads the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) Global Oceanographic Data Archaeology and Rescue (GODAR) project, which attempts to locate and rescue historical data that are at risk of being lost due to media decay or neglect, and the IOC World Ocean Database (WOD) project, which is intended to stimulate international exchange of modern oceanographic data. The WOD will continue to be enhanced as new data is received through the WDC, IOC projects, and data incorporated into the NODC Archive Management and Metadata System (AMS). The Ocean Archive System (OAS) is the public Web interface to the AMS, and it provides access to original sets of ocean data as they were provided to (and archived by) the NODC. The NODC also participates in the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP), which is a cooperative international program designed to develop and maintain a global ocean T-S resource with data that are as up-to-date and of the highest quality as possible. It also operates the long-term archive for Argo data, also known as the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR). The NOAA Central Library, also a division of NODC, maintains the largest meteorological collection in the western hemisphere and supports extensive oceanographic and

  14. Molecular mechanics of DNA bricks: in situ structure, mechanical properties and ionic conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slone, Scott Michael; Li, Chen-Yu; Yoo, Jejoong; Aksimentiev, Aleksei

    2016-05-01

    The DNA bricks method exploits self-assembly of short DNA fragments to produce custom three-dimensional objects with subnanometer precision. In contrast to DNA origami, the DNA brick method permits a variety of different structures to be realized using the same library of DNA strands. As a consequence of their design, however, assembled DNA brick structures have fewer interhelical connections in comparison to equivalent DNA origami structures. Although the overall shape of the DNA brick objects has been characterized and found to conform to the features of the target designs, the microscopic properties of DNA brick objects remain yet to be determined. Here, we use the all-atom molecular dynamics method to directly compare the structure, mechanical properties and ionic conductivity of DNA brick and DNA origami structures different only by internal connectivity of their consistituent DNA strands. In comparison to equivalent DNA origami structures, the DNA brick structures are found to be less rigid and less dense and have a larger cross-section area normal to the DNA helix direction. At the microscopic level, the junction in the DNA brick structures are found to be right-handed, similar to the structure of individual Holliday junctions (HJ) in solution, which contrasts with the left-handed structure of HJ in DNA origami. Subject to external electric field, a DNA brick plate is more leaky to ions than an equivalent DNA origami plate because of its lower density and larger cross-section area. Overall, our results indicate that the structures produced by the DNA brick method are fairly similar in their overall appearance to those created by the DNA origami method but are more compliant when subject to external forces, which likely is a consequence of their single crossover design.

  15. Metamaterial bricks and quantization of meta-surfaces.

    PubMed

    Memoli, Gianluca; Caleap, Mihai; Asakawa, Michihiro; Sahoo, Deepak R; Drinkwater, Bruce W; Subramanian, Sriram

    2017-02-27

    Controlling acoustic fields is crucial in diverse applications such as loudspeaker design, ultrasound imaging and therapy or acoustic particle manipulation. The current approaches use fixed lenses or expensive phased arrays. Here, using a process of analogue-to-digital conversion and wavelet decomposition, we develop the notion of quantal meta-surfaces. The quanta here are small, pre-manufactured three-dimensional units-which we call metamaterial bricks-each encoding a specific phase delay. These bricks can be assembled into meta-surfaces to generate any diffraction-limited acoustic field. We apply this methodology to show experimental examples of acoustic focusing, steering and, after stacking single meta-surfaces into layers, the more complex field of an acoustic tractor beam. We demonstrate experimentally single-sided air-borne acoustic levitation using meta-layers at various bit-rates: from a 4-bit uniform to 3-bit non-uniform quantization in phase. This powerful methodology dramatically simplifies the design of acoustic devices and provides a key-step towards realizing spatial sound modulators.

  16. Evaluation of a stack: A concrete chimney with brick liner

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, J.R.; Amin, J.A.; Porthouse, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    A 200 ft. tall stack, consisting of a concrete chimney with an independent acid proof brick liner built in the 1950`s, serving the Separations facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS), was evaluated for the performance category 3 (PC3) level of Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) effects. The inelastic energy absorption capacity of the concrete chimney was considered in the evaluation of the earthquake resistance, in particular, to compute the F{sub {mu}} factor. The calculated value of F{sub {mu}} exceeded 3.0, while the seismic demand for the PC3 level, using an F{sub {mu}} value of 1.5, was found to be less than the capacity of the concrete chimney. The capacity formulation of ACI 307 was modified to incorporate the effect of an after design opening on the tension side. There are considerable uncertainties in determining the earthquake resistance of the independent brick liner. The critical liner section, located at the bottom of the breeching opening, does not meet the current recommendations. A discussion is provided for the possible acceptable values for the ``Moment Reduction Factor``, R{sub w} or F{sub {mu}} for the liner. Comments are provided on the comparison of stack demands using response spectra (RS) versus time history (TH) analysis, with and without soil structure interaction (SSI) effects.

  17. Metamaterial bricks and quantization of meta-surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Memoli, Gianluca; Caleap, Mihai; Asakawa, Michihiro; Sahoo, Deepak R.; Drinkwater, Bruce W.; Subramanian, Sriram

    2017-02-01

    Controlling acoustic fields is crucial in diverse applications such as loudspeaker design, ultrasound imaging and therapy or acoustic particle manipulation. The current approaches use fixed lenses or expensive phased arrays. Here, using a process of analogue-to-digital conversion and wavelet decomposition, we develop the notion of quantal meta-surfaces. The quanta here are small, pre-manufactured three-dimensional units--which we call metamaterial bricks--each encoding a specific phase delay. These bricks can be assembled into meta-surfaces to generate any diffraction-limited acoustic field. We apply this methodology to show experimental examples of acoustic focusing, steering and, after stacking single meta-surfaces into layers, the more complex field of an acoustic tractor beam. We demonstrate experimentally single-sided air-borne acoustic levitation using meta-layers at various bit-rates: from a 4-bit uniform to 3-bit non-uniform quantization in phase. This powerful methodology dramatically simplifies the design of acoustic devices and provides a key-step towards realizing spatial sound modulators.

  18. Integrated assessment of brick kiln emission impacts on air quality.

    PubMed

    Le, Hoang Anh; Oanh, Nguyen Thi Kim

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents monitoring results of daily brick kiln stack emission and the derived emission factors. Emission of individual air pollutant varied significantly during a firing batch (7 days) and between kilns. Average emission factors per 1,000 bricks were 6.35-12.3 kg of CO, 0.52-5.9 kg of SO(2) and 0.64-1.4 kg of particulate matter (PM). PM emission size distribution in the stack plume was determined using a modified cascade impactor. Obtained emission factors and PM size distribution data were used in simulation study using the Industrial Source Complex Short-Term (ISCST3) dispersion model. The model performance was successfully evaluated for the local conditions using the simultaneous ambient monitoring data in 2006 and 2007. SO(2) was the most critical pollutant, exceeding the hourly National Ambient Air Quality Standards over 63 km(2) out of the 100-km(2) modelled domain in the base case. Impacts of different emission scenarios on the ambient air quality (SO(2), PM, CO, PM dry deposition flux) were assessed.

  19. Stroke bricks - spatial brain regions to assess ischemic stroke localization.

    PubMed

    Ciszek, Bogdan; Jóźwiak, Rafał; Sobieszczuk, Ewa; Przelaskowski, Artur; Skadorwa, Tymon

    2017-03-29

    Computer-aided analysis of non-contrast CT (NCCT) images for rapid diagnosis of ischemic stroke is based on the augmented visualization of evolving ischemic lesions. Computerized support of NCCT often leads to overinterpretation of ischemic areas, thus it is of great interest to provide neurologically verified regions in order to improve accuracy of subsequent radiological assessment. We propose Stroke Bricks (StBr) as an arbitrary spatial division of brain tissue into the regions associated with specific clinical symptoms of ischemic stroke. Neurological stroke deficit is formally translated into respective areas of possible ischemic lesions. StBr were designed according to formalized mapping of neurological symptoms and were attributed to the uniquely defined areas of impaired blood supply. StBr concept may be useful for an integrated radiological CT-based assessment of suspected stroke cases or can be included into computer-aided tools to optimize the evaluation of stroke site and its extent. These data in turn are appropriable for further diagnosis, predicting the therapeutic outcome as well as for patients' qualification for an appropriate form of reperfusion therapy. The usefulness of Stroke Bricks was illustrated in the case studies.

  20. Historical Literacy: Reading History through Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Trenia R.

    2006-01-01

    Using films to teach historical time periods, people, or events is not a new idea. In this article, the author contends that teachers who use film solely to teach historical facts or to test students' ability to stay awake miss an important opportunity to aid in the development of students' real historical understanding. Instead, teachers should…

  1. Historical Literacy: Reading History through Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Trenia R.

    2006-01-01

    Using films to teach historical time periods, people, or events is not a new idea. In this article, the author contends that teachers who use film solely to teach historical facts or to test students' ability to stay awake miss an important opportunity to aid in the development of students' real historical understanding. Instead, teachers should…

  2. Historical Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schick, James B. M.

    1988-01-01

    States that history instruction can be made meaningful and enlightening only by examining historical choices and their results against available options and likely consequences. Presenting examples, the author argues that well-crafted historical simulations focusing on such elements as choice and consequence, strategy and tactics provide a useful…

  3. Hydrogen fluoride damage to vegetation from peri-urban brick kilns in Asia: a growing but unrecognised problem?

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Muhammad Nauman; van den Berg, Leon J L; Shah, Hamid Ullah; Masood, Tariq; Büker, Patrick; Emberson, Lisa; Ashmore, Mike

    2012-03-01

    The rapid urbanisation of many cities in south and south-east Asia has increased the demand for bricks, which are typically supplied from brick kilns in peri-urban areas. We report visible foliar damage to mango, apricot and plum trees in the vicinity of traditional Bull's Trench brick kilns in Peshawar, Pakistan. Visible injury symptoms, hydrogen fluoride concentrations in air, and foliar fluoride concentrations were all greater in the vicinity of brick kilns than at more distant sites, indicating that fluoride emissions from brick kilns were the main cause of damage. Interviews with local farmers established the significant impact of this damage on their livelihoods. Since poorly regulated brick kilns are often found close to important peri-urban agricultural areas, we suggest that this may be a growing but unrecognised environmental problem in regions of Asia where emission control in brick kilns has not been improved. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Field Instrumentation With Bricks: Wireless Networks Built From Tough, Cheap, Reliable Field Computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatland, D. R.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Heavner, M.

    2004-12-01

    We describe tough, cheap, reliable field computers configured as wireless networks for distributed high-volume data acquisition and low-cost data recovery. Running under the GNU/Linux open source model these network nodes ('Bricks') are intended for either autonomous or managed deployment for many months in harsh Arctic conditions. We present here results from Generation-1 Bricks used in 2004 for glacier seismology research in Alaska and Antarctica and describe future generation Bricks in terms of core capabilities and a growing list of field applications. Subsequent generations of Bricks will feature low-power embedded architecture, large data storage capacity (GB), long range telemetry (15 km+ up from 3 km currently), and robust operational software. The list of Brick applications is growing to include Geodetic GPS, Bioacoustics (bats to whales), volcano seismicity, tracking marine fauna, ice sounding via distributed microwave receivers and more. This NASA-supported STTR project capitalizes on advancing computer/wireless technology to get scientists more data per research budget dollar, solving system integration problems and thereby getting researchers out of the hardware lab and into the field. One exemplary scenario: An investigator can install a Brick network in a remote polar environment to collect data for several months and then fly over the site to recover the data via wireless telemetry. In the past year Brick networks have moved beyond proof-of-concept to the full-bore development and testing stage; they will be a mature and powerful tool available for IPY 2007-8.

  5. Processing procedures of brick tea and their influence on fluorine content.

    PubMed

    Jin, C; Yan, Z; Jianwei, L

    2001-09-01

    China is the only country that produces brick tea, and more than 90% of the brick tea is consumed in the western minority nationality regions of China. The high fluorine content of brick tea is possibly associated with the special processing procedures, but no investigation has been conducted in this field. To explore the characteristic features of brick tea manufacturing and the alterations in fluorine content during the processing procedures, we performed a field survey involving two brick tea factories and the nearby tea plantations. For the fluorine contents of the initial, intermediate and final processing products, altogether eight types of specimens were collected and determined by using the ion-selective electrode standard curve technique. It was found that the raw material tea leaf for brick tea processing was old, coarse and not the tender delicate tea leaf used for ordinary green or black tea processing. For the fluorine content of the raw material tea leaf, the intermediate and the final products showed that the fresh raw leaf contained a fluorine content as high as 489.31-512.68 mg/kg. During one fermentation-like processing procedure, the fluorine content rose by 4.67% and 1.88% in the specimens from the two factories, respectively, which revealed no statistical significance (P>0.5). These results suggest that the high fluorine content in brick tea might be due to the high content in the raw material and not related with the processing procedures.

  6. Feasibility study on utilization of palm fibre waste into fired clay brick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadir, A. A.; Sarani, N. A.; Zaman, N. N.; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri

    2017-04-01

    Malaysia is the second largest of palm oil producer after Indonesia, which contribute to 50 % of palm oil production. With this demand, the increasing of palm oil plantation over the years has led to the large production of agricultural waste, for example palm fibre waste. This study investigates different percentages of palm fibre (0 %, 1 %, 5 % and 10 %) to be incorporated into fired clay brick. Manufactured bricks were fired at 1 °C/min heating rate up to 1050 °C. The effects of manufacture bricks on the physical and mechanical properties of manufactured brick were also determined. All brick samples were tested due to the physical and mechanical properties which include dry density, firing shrinkage, initial rate of suction (IRS), water absorption, porosity and compressive strength. Findings show that increasing palm fibre waste affected the properties of brick, which decreased their density, besides increased firing shrinkage, IRS, water absorption, porosity and compressive strength. However, all the manufactured brick still followed the requirement.

  7. Inventorying Toronto's single detached housing stocks to examine the availability of clay brick for urban mining.

    PubMed

    Ergun, Deniz; Gorgolewski, Mark

    2015-11-01

    This study examines the stocks of clay brick in Toronto's single detached housing, to provide parameters for city scale material reuse and recycling. Based on consensus from the literature and statistics on Toronto's single detached housing stocks, city scale reusable and recyclable stocks were estimated to provide an understanding of what volume could be saved from landfill and reintroduced into the urban fabric. On average 2523-4542 m(3) of brick was determined to be available annually for reuse, which would account for 20-36% of the volume of virgin brick consumed in new house construction in 2012. A higher volume, 6187 m(3) of brick, was determined to be available annually for recycling because more of the prevalence of cement-based mortar, which creates challenges for brick reuse in Toronto. The results demonstrated that older housing containing reusable brick were being mostly landfilled and replaced with housing that contained only recyclable brick. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical and toxicological characterization of the bricks produced from clay/sewage sludge mixture.

    PubMed

    Gerić, Marko; Gajski, Goran; Oreščanin, Višnja; Kollar, Robert; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to characterize chemical properties of clay bricks containing 20 % of sewage sludge. After detection of potentially hazardous metals, we simulated precipitation exposure of such material to determine the amount of heavy metals that could leach out of the bricks. Metals, such as copper, zinc, nickel, cobalt, chromium, etc., were detected in leachate in low concentrations. Moreover, human peripheral blood lymphocytes were exposed to brick leachate for 24 h in order to evaluate its possible negative impact on human cells and genome in vitro. Cytotoxicity tests showed no effect on human peripheral blood lymphocytes viability after exposure to brick's leachate. On the contrary, the alkaline comet assay showed slight but significant increase in DNA damage with all three parameters tested. As we might predict, interactions of several heavy metals in low concentrations could be responsible for DNA damaging effect. In that manner, our findings suggest that leachates from sewage sludge-produced bricks may lead to adverse effects on the exposed human population, and that more stabile bricks should be developed to minimize leaching of heavy metals into the environment. Bricks with lower percentage of the sludge may be one of the solutions to reduce the toxic effect of the final product.

  9. Physical and mechanical properties of quarry dust waste incorporated into fired clay brick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadir, A. A.; Hassan, M. I. H.; Sarani, N. A.; Rahim, A. S. Abdul; Ismail, N.

    2017-04-01

    A large amount of quarry dust waste is dispose into landfills every year. This waste was obtained as a by-product during the production of aggregates through the crushing process of rocks in rubble crusher units. The increasing value of waste will have significant impact towards health and environment. Recycling such wastes by incorporating them into building materials is a practical solution for pollution problem. Therefore, this research was to examine the possibility of quarry dust to be incorporated in fired clay bricks. In this research, the composition and concentration of heavy metals were determined by using X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (XRF). The research also consists of physical and mechanical properties of the fired clay bricks by utilizing quarry dust waste. Brick was manufactured by incorporating different percentages of quarry dust waste which are 0%, 10%, 20% and 30%. All bricks sample was tested with physical and mechanical properties which were density, shrinkage, initial rate of suction (IRS) and compressive strength of the fired bricks. Furthermore, the density and shrinkage were also in standard range. All physical and mechanical results were complied with the BS 3921:1985 standard. The comprehensive experimental work described in this research investigated the possibility of incorporating quarry dust into fired clay bricks. These materials could be an alternative low cost material for brick and at the same time provide a new disposal method for the waste.

  10. Aerosol Radiative Forcing Estimates from South Asian Clay Brick Production Based on Direct Emission Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weyant, C.; Athalye, V.; Ragavan, S.; Rajarathnam, U.; Kr, B.; Lalchandani, D.; Maithel, S.; Malhotra, G.; Bhanware, P.; Thoa, V.; Phuong, N.; Baum, E.; Bond, T. C.

    2012-12-01

    About 150-200 billion clay bricks are produced in India every year. Most of these bricks are fired in small-scale traditional kilns that burn coal or biomass without pollution controls. Reddy and Venkataraman (2001) estimated that 8% of fossil fuel related PM2.5 emissions and 23% of black carbon emissions in India are released from brick production. Few direct emissions measurements have been done in this industry and black carbon emissions, in particular, have not been previously measured. In this study, 9 kilns representing five common brick kiln technologies were tested for aerosol properties and gaseous pollutant emissions, including optical scattering and absorption and thermal-optical OC/EC. Simple relationships are then used to estimate the radiative-forcing impact. Kiln design and fuel quality greatly affect the overall emission profiles and relative climate warming. Batch production kilns, such as the Downdraft kiln, produce the most PM2.5 (0.97 gPM2.5/fired brick) with an OC/EC fraction of 0.3. Vertical Shaft Brick kilns using internally mixed fuels produce the least PM (0.09 gPM2.5/kg fired brick) with the least EC (OC/EC = 16.5), but these kilns are expensive to implement and their use throughout Southern Asia is minimal. The most popular kiln in India, the Bull's Trench kiln, had fewer emissions per brick than the Downdraft kiln, but an even higher EC fraction (OC/EC = 0.05). The Zig-zag kiln is similar in structure to the Bull's Trench kiln, but the emission factors are significantly lower: 50% reduction for CO, 17% for PM2.5 and 60% for black carbon. This difference in emissions suggests that converting traditional Bull's Trench kilns into less polluting Zig-zag kilns would result in reduced atmospheric warming from brick production.

  11. Testing the Multispecimen Absolute Paleointensity Method with Archaeological Baked Clays and Bricks: New Data for Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnepp, Elisabeth; Leonhardt, Roman

    2014-05-01

    few or even less than one per cent, although the data points are scattered in some cases. For these sites comparison with the historical field values shows very good agreement. Small deviations could be explained by the higher cooling rates used in the laboratory. These young structures were made of bricks and the unweathered baked clay of the 2003 experimental kiln was like brick, either. The sites provided much material so that tests were done to investigate the MSP-DSC methodology further. For example it was tested, if different NRM deblocking fractions have influence on the paleointensity estimate. It seems that use of fractions lower than 20% of the NRM can lead to an underestimation of PI. Although MSP-DSC experiments carried out on different blocks of the same structure can provide very similar results, the use of several fragments from at least five different units (potshards, bricks, in situ burnt blocks or rocks) of the same structure is recommended in or to obtain a reliable estimate of the experimental errors. Five data points may define already a well constraint straight line, but for a better precision 15 (< 2%) data points may be required. For the young structures the MSP-DSC method provided reliable PI estimates which have been included into the archaeointensity data base

  12. Physico-mechanical characterization of adobe bricks from Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannou, I.; Illampas, R.; Charmpis, D. C.

    2012-04-01

    Adobe bricks have been used in the construction of buildings for thousands of years. In our days, adobe masonry is no longer a prevailing form of construction. However, a great number of earthen buildings still survives in most regions of the world and constitutes an essential part of the international architectural and cultural heritage. Furthermore, efforts are currently being made to reintroduce adobes as an environmentally-friendly building material to contemporary architecture within the context of sustainable development. Despite the long-term use of adobes and their importance for the society, our knowledge of many aspects of this material is still rather limited. As a result, there are many ongoing research initiatives worldwide aiming to investigate the physicochemical and mechanical properties of adobe bricks and related durability problems. In this paper, we present our work (which is funded by the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation Project EΠIXEIPHΣEIΣ/ΠPOION/0609/41, the Republic of Cyprus and the European Regional Development Fund) on the physico-mechanical characterization of adobes from Cyprus. In the absence of standardized procedures for most of the tests carried out, testing methodologies that either refer to other types of masonry materials and/or are encountered in the literature are adopted. The results show that adobes are mostly composed of random quantities of silt and clay. Calcite is also predominant in the X-ray diffraction analyses patterns. The average capillary water absorption coefficient of the test specimens rarely exceeds 1 mm/min1/2 (when measured against a saturated sponge surface), while their thermal conductivity is around 0.55 W/mK. Extensive experimental data on the material's mechanical behaviour show that adobes' response to compression is characterized by intense deformability. The average value of compressive strength depends greatly on the form of specimen examined (cube, cylinder, prism) and the failure criterion

  13. A comparison of microwave versus direct solar heating for lunar brick production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yankee, S. J.; Strenski, D. G.; Pletka, B. J.; Patil, D. S.; Mutsuddy, B. C.

    1990-01-01

    Two processing techniques considered suitable for producing bricks from lunar regolith are examined: direct solar heating and microwave heating. An analysis was performed to compare the two processes in terms of the amount of power and time required to fabricate bricks of various sizes. Microwave heating was shown to be significantly faster than solar heating for rapid production of realistic-size bricks. However, the relative simplicity of the solar collector(s) used for the solar furnace compared to the equipment necessary for microwave generation may present an economic tradeoff.

  14. Mineralogy and technology of bricks used for the construction of the XII century ducal castle on the island of Ostrów Tumski, Wrocław (SW Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartz, W.; Chorowska, M.

    2016-12-01

    The historic bricks from the ducal castle on Ostrów Tumski (Wrocław), one of the first brickwork structures in the Lower Silesia, which dates back to the XII and XIII century, were studied and characterised by a combination of classical petrographic studies (polarising microscopy), scanning microscopy, thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. The combined results of these methods suggest that the firing temperature ranges from 950°C, through the most common temperatures of 850-900°C, to the infrequent temperatures below 750°C. Most of the bricks were fired under oxidising conditions, occasionally over a sequence of oxidising and reducing steps, resulting in a sandwich structure. The results indicate, that low-calcareous raw materials were used, presumably Miocene-Pliocene `flamy clays', exploited a few kilometres away from the castle and tempered with locally obtained sand from the Odra river. Only small differences have been recognized in: 1) clay to aplastic material ratio, 2) amount of accessory minerals, 3) grain-size distribution of aplastic materials, but no significant changes in the brick technology were observed. The observed variability corresponds well to the different constructing phases, identified previously on the basis of archaeological work. Thus, our work proves that a detailed mineralogical and petrological study may help to identify different construction phases in historic monuments.

  15. Real and Virtual Heritage Historical Astronomical Plate Archives in Sonneberg, Bamberg and Hamburg Observatories, the Evolution of Astrophysics and their Influence on Human Knowledge and Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunzmann, Björn

    The rise of astrophysics around 1860 introduced new instruments, methods and research areas. Of course, the increasing number of foundations of new observatories around the world starting at that time was forced by that new scientific discipline, too, but especially by the usage of photographic instruments. At the end of the 19th century the formation and development of photographic methods and techniques had reached a level of sufficient stability for productive usage in astronomy and astrophysics, their new instrumrents, methods and goals. The fundamental meaning of star light analysis for astrophysics by increasing discoveries of Variable Stars and the Systematic search for moving Solar System objects had basically driven the beginning of large photographic sky patrols at that time, using photographic glass plates as detectors and information storages. Sky Patrols, especially systematic long-term monitoring of the whole sky or of well defined selected areas and Sky Surveys were (and still are) an important key method that forced the evolution and progress of astrophysics. Important scientific results by famous astronomers, for example Walter Baade, Cuno Hoffmeister and Harlow Shapley depended on the analysis of photographic plates. Today, there are around 50 photographic plate archives world-wide. Most of them, unfortunately, are in a quite poor condition and not yet digitized. Following Harvard College Observatory with an estimated total of 600,000 plates, Sonneberg observatory harbours the second largest archive world-wide (around 300,000 plates) among other large ones in Germany like Bamberg (40,000 plates) and Hamburg (35,000 plates). These plate archives form an important heritage with a total of roughly two million direct plates and some ten or hundred thousands of spectroscopic plates. A lot of progress has been made by transforming this real heritage to a virtual one by systematic digitisation of the plates, but perhaps only 15% of them have been

  16. Characterization, reproduction and optimization of traditional adobe bricks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannou, Ioannis; Eftychiou, Marina; Costi de Castrillo, Maria; Illampas, Rogiros

    2013-04-01

    Adobe bricks were first introduced 10-12,000 years ago. Extensive use of the material throughout the centuries has led to strong local traditions of building with earth and has established adobe masonry as an important feature of the international architectural heritage. Today, despite no longer being a prevalent building material, adobes are still in use, since a number of earthen structures survive worldwide. Furthermore, the simplicity, low cost and almost negligible embodied energy associated with the production of adobes, as well as their good thermal and acoustic properties, render them an attractive option for use in contemporary sustainable construction. Therefore, several ongoing research projects internationally investigate the physicochemical and mechanical properties of traditional adobe bricks and the design/production of optimized adobes, with improved characteristics, for use in contemporary architecture. Here, we present ongoing research on adobe bricks carried out in the framework of the project E& IXEIPH EI / POION/0609/41, which is co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund and the Republic of Cyprus, through the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation. Our work focuses on the characterization of traditional adobes, their reproduction and optimization in the laboratory to produce materials with improved physicomechanical properties. Results up-to-date show that traditional adobes are mostly composed of random quantities of silt and clay. Calcite is also predominant in relevant X-ray diffraction analyses. The average capillary water absorption coefficient (measured against a saturated sponge surface) of samples collected from market suppliers rarely exceeds 1 mm/min1 -2, while their thermal conductivity is around 0.55 W/mK. The response of traditional adobes to compression is characterized by intense deformability. The average compressive strength recorded depends on the form of test specimen (cube, cylinder, prism). Samples with aspect

  17. Brick and Structural Clay Products: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about the NESHAP regulation for brick and structural clay products by reading the rule summary, rule history, code of federal regulations, and the additional resources like fact sheets and background information documents

  18. [Determination of nine life elements in brick tea by ICP-AES].

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-long; Wang, Li-zhen; Wang, Wu-yi

    2005-08-01

    ICP-AES was used for the direct determination of nine life elements (Ca, Mg, K, Al, P, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn) in brick tea. The RSDs of the method were between 2.11% and 8.68%, and the analytical results of the tea reference samples were consistent with the certified values. The method was simple and accuracy. The analytical results of brick tea were compared with those of the ordinary leaf tea (green tea, scent tea and oolong tea). The Al, Fe, Mn, Ca and Mg contents of brick tea were about 5.78, 3.26, 2.19, 2.11 and 1.64 times higher than those of the ordinary leaf tea respectively. The P, K, Zn and Cu contents of brick tea were 48.70%, 85.68%, 78.19% and 98.78% times lower than those of the ordinary leaf tea respectively.

  19. A view of microstructure with technological behavior of waste incorporated ceramic bricks.

    PubMed

    Nirmala, G; Viruthagiri, G

    2015-01-25

    Production of ceramic bricks from mixtures of ceramic industry wastes (up to 50 wt%) from the area of Vriddhachalam, Cuddalore district, Tamilnadu, India and kaolinitic clay from Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala were investigated. The firing behavior of the ceramic mixtures was studied by determining their changes in mineralogy and basic ceramic properties such as water absorption, porosity, compressive strength and firing shrinkage at temperatures ranging from 900 to 1200 °C in short firing cycles. The effect of the rejects addition gradually up to 50 wt% was analyzed with the variation of temperature on the mechanical properties and microstructure of the bricks. The highest compressive strength and lowest water absorption is observed for the sample with 40% rejects at 1100 °C which is supported by the results of SEM analysis. The resulting ceramic bricks exhibit features that suggest possibilities of using the ceramic rejects in the conventional brick making methods.

  20. Leaching of Heavy Metals Using SPLP Method from Fired Clay Brick Incorporating with Sewage Sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Salim, Nurul Salhana Abdul; Amira Sarani, Noor; Aqma Izurin Rahmat, Nur

    2017-05-01

    Sewage sludge is a by-product generate from wastewater treatment process. The sewage sludge contains significant trace metal such as Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb which are toxic to the environment. Sewage sludge is disposed of by landfilling method. However, this option not suitable because of land restriction and environmental control regulations imposed. Therefore, sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plant was incorporated into fired clay brick to produce good quality of brick as well as reducing heavy metals from sludge itself. Sewage sludge with 0%, 1%, 5%, 10% and 20% of were incorporated into fired clay bricks and fired at 1050°C temperature with heating rates of 1°C/min. The brick sample then crushed and sieved through 9.5 mm sieve for Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP). From the results, incorporation up to 20% of sewage sludge has leached less heavy metals and compliance with USEPA standard.

  1. Strength and durability studies on concrete with partial replacement over burnt brick bat waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanchidurai, S.; Bharani, G.; Saravana Raja Mohan, K.

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents the partial and complete replacement of over burnt brick bat (OBB) 20-30mm as coarse aggregate in the concrete. OBB are formed at extreme heating to a temperature not less than 1600 degree Celsius. The burnt bricks change from red to blue-black ceramics color. The series of tests are conducted to study the effect of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% replacement of coarse aggregate with over burnt bricks. Totally 36numbers of 150mm concrete cube with 5 different percentage replacement mix are cast and tested and three numbers of the flexural beam. In durability aspects, water absorption and sorptivity were tested. Experimental results found 25-50% of overburnt brick bat wastes can be replaced with the normal and mass concrete without quality compromisation.

  2. Effects of recycled glass substitution on the physical and mechanical properties of clay bricks.

    PubMed

    Loryuenyong, Vorrada; Panyachai, Thanapan; Kaewsimork, Kanyarat; Siritai, Chatnarong

    2009-10-01

    In this study, wasted glasses from structural glass walls up to 45 wt.% were added into clay mixtures in brick manufacturing process. Physical and mechanical properties of clay bricks were investigated as functions of the wasted glass content and the firing temperature. The results indicated that with proper amount of wasted glasses and firing temperature, clay bricks with suitable physical and mechanical properties could be obtained. The compressive strength as high as 26-41 MPa and water absorption as low as 2-3% were achieved for bricks containing 15-30 wt.% of glass content and fired at 1100 degrees C. When the glass waste content was 45 wt.%, apparent porosity and water absorption was rapidly increased.

  3. Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site showing brick ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site showing brick and concrete paving of patio, and circular planters. View facing east. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Pearl City Peninsula, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. Contribution of rheological characteristics of pavement structure with addition of brick waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senisna, Zoubida; Bentebba, Med Tahar

    2017-02-01

    The construction and demolition waste at the end of the cycle are often a threat for the environment due to their congestion and biodegradability. The presented research work aims to develop these wastes such as the waste of pavements structure brick. It refers to the behavior of modified asphalt mixture (bituminous grave) by adding the waste of the grinding yellow brick, which is used in the construction of buildings. The objective of this experiment is to evaluate and compare the physical and mechanical performance roadway structure (modified bituminous Gravel (GB 0/20)) by replacing natural sand partly mix (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% or completely by brick waste sand) and determine the optimal composition. Mechanical and rheological performance give the best results. The results show that the use of brick waste sand leads to a reduction of the physical and mechanical properties of GB 0/20.

  5. Recycling of stone cutting sludge in formulations of bricks and terrazzo tiles.

    PubMed

    Al-Zboon, Kamel; Tahat, Montasser; Abu-Hamatteh, Ziad S H; Al-Harahsheh, Mohammad S

    2010-06-01

    This study examines the possibility for enhancing the use of stone cutting sludge waste in the production of building bricks and terrazzo tiles, which would reduce both the environmental impact and the production costs. Stone cutting wastes in the form of sludge is currently generated at several factories in Jordan. At the Samara factory, incorporation of the sludge in the batch formulations of bricks and terrazzo tiles was examined. The physicochemical and mineralogical characteristics of the sludge were analyzed to identify the major components. Results indicated that the sludge generated from stone cutting could be used in producing concrete bricks. Mixtures of aggregates with added amounts of sludge were used successfully to produce non-load bearing bricks. Sludge was also used to produce terrazzo tiles and the results indicate that the transverse strength, water absorption and tile measurements, for all the taken samples, comply with Jordanian standards. The transverse strength decreased while water absorption increased as the sludge ratio increased.

  6. A view of microstructure with technological behavior of waste incorporated ceramic bricks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nirmala, G.; Viruthagiri, G.

    2015-01-01

    Production of ceramic bricks from mixtures of ceramic industry wastes (up to 50 wt%) from the area of Vriddhachalam, Cuddalore district, Tamilnadu, India and kaolinitic clay from Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala were investigated. The firing behavior of the ceramic mixtures was studied by determining their changes in mineralogy and basic ceramic properties such as water absorption, porosity, compressive strength and firing shrinkage at temperatures ranging from 900 to 1200 °C in short firing cycles. The effect of the rejects addition gradually up to 50 wt% was analyzed with the variation of temperature on the mechanical properties and microstructure of the bricks. The highest compressive strength and lowest water absorption is observed for the sample with 40% rejects at 1100 °C which is supported by the results of SEM analysis. The resulting ceramic bricks exhibit features that suggest possibilities of using the ceramic rejects in the conventional brick making methods.

  7. Fungal community associated with fermentation and storage of Fuzhuan brick-tea.

    PubMed

    Xu, Aiqing; Wang, Yuanliang; Wen, Jieyu; Liu, Ping; Liu, Ziyin; Li, Zongjun

    2011-03-15

    Chinese Fuzhuan brick-tea is a unique microbial fermented tea characterized by a period of fungal growth during its manufacturing process. The aim of the present study was to characterize, both physicochemically and microbiologically, traditional industrial production processes of Fuzhuan brick-tea. Fermenting tea samples were collected from the largest manufacturer. Physicochemical analyses showed that the low water content in the tea substrates provided optimal growth conditions for xerophilic fungi. The fungal communities existing in tea materials, fermenting tea, and stored teas were monitored by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) targeting the D1 region of the 26S rRNA genes, followed by sequencing of the amplicons. Results revealed that the microorganisms were from, or closely related to, the genera Eurotium, Debaryomyces, Aspergillus, Verticillium, Pichia, Pestalotiopsis, Rhizomucor and Beauveria. This is the first report of Debaryomyces participating in the processing of Fuzhuan brick-tea. We concluded that the dominant genera Eurotium, Debaryomyces and Aspergillus are beneficial fungi associated with the fermentation of Fuzhuan brick-tea. The genus Beauveria was present in the stored Fuzhuan brick-tea, which may help protect tea products from insect spoilage. The remaining four genera were of minor importance in the manufacturing of Fuzhuan brick-tea. The predominant Eurotium species, a strain named Eurotium sp. FZ, was phenotypically and genotypically identified as Eurotium cristatum. High performance thin layer chromatography analysis of anthraquinones showed that emodin existed in all the dark tea samples, but physcion was only detectable in the tea fermented by E. cristatum. The PCR-DGGE approach was an effective and convenient means for profiling the fungal communities in Fuzhuan brick-tea. These results may help promote the use of microbial consortia as starter cultures to stabilize and improve the quality

  8. PBF Reactor Building (PER620) basement, inside cubicle 13. Lead bricks ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Reactor Building (PER-620) basement, inside cubicle 13. Lead bricks shield the fission product detection system (FPDS). The system detected fission products in pressure loop from in-pile tube. shielding was to prevent other radiation in cubicle from interfering. Assembly of bricks in foreground will slide back to enclose and shield equipment in the three chambers. Date: 1982. INEEL negative no. 82-6376 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. Quality Characterization of Silicon Bricks using Photoluminescence Imaging and Photoconductive Decay: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, S.; Yan, F.; Zaunbrecher, K.; Al-Jassim, M.; Sidelkheir, O.; Ounadjela, K.

    2012-06-01

    Imaging techniques can be applied to multicrystalline silicon solar cells throughout the production process, which includes as early as when the bricks are cut from the cast ingot. Photoluminescence (PL) imaging of the band-to-band radiative recombination is used to characterize silicon quality and defects regions within the brick. PL images of the brick surfaces are compared to minority-carrier lifetimes measured by resonant-coupled photoconductive decay (RCPCD). Photoluminescence images on silicon bricks can be correlated to lifetime measured by photoconductive decay and could be used for high-resolution characterization of material before wafers are cut. The RCPCD technique has shown the longest lifetimes of any of the lifetime measurement techniques we have applied to the bricks. RCPCD benefits from the low-frequency and long-excitation wavelengths used. In addition, RCPCD is a transient technique that directly monitors the decay rate of photoconductivity and does not rely on models or calculations for lifetime. The measured lifetimes over brick surfaces have shown strong correlations to the PL image intensities; therefore, this correlation could then be used to transform the PL image into a high-resolution lifetime map.

  10. Biocalcification using B. pasteurii for strengthening brick masonry civil engineering structures.

    PubMed

    Raut, Supriya H; Sarode, D D; Lele, S S

    2014-01-01

    Microbiologically induced calcite precipitation in bricks by bacterium Bacillus pasteurii (NCIM 2477) using a media especially optimized for urease production (OptU) was demonstrated in this study. Effect of biocalcification activity on compressive strength and water absorption capacity of bricks was investigated. Various other parameters such as pH, growth profile, urease activity, urea breakdown and calcite precipitated were monitored during the 28 days curing period. Efficiency of B. pasteurii to form microbial aided calcite precipitate in OptU media resulted into 83.9% increase in strength of the bricks as compared to only 24.9% with standard media, nutrient broth (NB). In addition to significant increase in the compressive strength, bricks treated with B. pasteurii grown in OptU media resulted in 48.9 % reduction in water absorption capacity as compared to control bricks immersed in tap water. Thus it was successfully demonstrated that microbial calcification in optimized media by Bacillus pasteurii has good potential for commercial application to improve the life span of structures constructed with bricks, particularly structures of heritage importance.

  11. Effect of brick kiln emissions on commonly used vegetables of Kashmir Valley.

    PubMed

    Skinder, Bhat M; Sheikh, Afeefa Q; Pandit, Ashok K; Ganai, Bashir A; Kuchy, Aashiq H

    2015-11-01

    To study the impact of brick kiln emissions on plant growth and productivity, a study was conducted on various biochemical parameters of three main vegetables Brassica oleracea L., Phaseolus vulgaris L., and Solanum melongena L. cultivated in the vicinity of the brick kiln area of the Panzan village of district Budgam (J&K). Plants in the vicinity of brick kilns are direct recipients of emissions and therefore important materials for assessing potential effects of kiln pollutants. The biochemical values of all the three vegetables of the brick kiln site when compared to the control site are significantly (P ≤ 0.05) different. The findings of the present work depict that the brick kilns are the prime reason for the deterioration of important consumable vegetables, which could lead to chaos in the food security of the area in concern besides a threat to local people in terms of health if proper pollution control devices or the replacement of brick kilns are not put in place with new technology.

  12. Recycling waste brick from construction and demolition of buildings as pozzolanic materials.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kae-Long; Wu, Hsiu-Hsien; Shie, Je-Lueng; Hwang, Chao-Lung; An Cheng

    2010-07-01

    This investigation elucidates the pozzolic characteristics of pastes that contain waste brick from building construction and demolition wastes. The TCLP leaching concentrations of waste brick for the target cations or heavy metals were all lower than the current regulatory thresholds of the Taiwan EPA. Waste brick had a pozzolanic strength activity index of 107% after 28 days. It can be regarded as a strong pozzolanic material. The compressive strengths of waste brick blended cement (WBBC) that contain 10% waste brick increased from 71.2 MPa at 28 days to 75.1 MPa at 60 days, an increase of approximately 5% over that period. At 28 days, the pozzolanic reaction began, reducing the amount of Ca(OH)(2) and increasing the densification. The intensity of the peak at 3640 cm(- 1) associated with Ca(OH)(2) is approximately the same for ordinary Portland cement (OPC) pastes. The hydration products of all the samples yield characteristics peaks at 978 cm(-1) associated with C-S-H, and at ~3011 cm(-1) and 1640 cm(-1) associated with water. The samples yield peaks at 1112 cm(-1), revealing the formation of ettringite. In WBBC pastes, the ratio Q(2)/Q(1) increases with curing time. These results demonstrate that increasing the curing time increases the number of linear polysilicate anions in C-S-H. Experimental results reveal that waste brick has potential as a pozzolanic material in the partial replacement of cement.

  13. Production of fired construction brick from high sulfate-containing fly ash with boric acid addition.

    PubMed

    Başpinar, M Serhat; Kahraman, Erhan; Görhan, Gökhan; Demir, Ismail

    2010-01-01

    The increase of power plant capacity has led to the production of an increasing amount of fly ash that causes high environmental impact in Turkey. Some of the fly ash is utilized within the fired brick industry but high sulfate-containing fly ash creates severe problems during sintering of the fired brick. This study attempted to investigate the potential for converting high sulfate-containing fly ash into useful material for the construction industry by the addition of boric acid. The chemical and mineralogical composition of fly ash and clay were investigated. Boric acid (H(3)BO(3)) was added to fly ash-clay mixtures with up to 5 wt.%. Six different series of test samples were produced by uniaxial pressing. The samples were fired at the industrial clay-brick firing temperatures of 800, 900 and 1000 degrees C. The microstructures of the fired samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and some physical and mechanical properties were measured. It was concluded that the firing at conventional brick firing temperature of high sulfate fly ash without any addition of boric acid resulted in very weak strength bricks. The addition of boric acid and clay simultaneously to the high sulfate- containing fly ash brick dramatically increased the compressive strength of the samples at a firing temperature of 1000 degrees C by modifying the sintering behaviour of high sulfate fly ash.

  14. Management of spent shea waste: An instrumental characterization and valorization in clay bricks construction.

    PubMed

    Adazabra, A N; Viruthagiri, G; Shanmugam, N

    2017-06-01

    This work studies the reuse of spent shea waste as an economic construction material in improving fired clay bricks manufacture aside providing a novel approach to ecofriendly managing its excessive generated from the shea agroindustry. For this purpose, the influence of spent shea waste addition on the chemical, mineralogical, molecular bonding and technological properties (i.e. compressive strength and water absorption) of the fired clay bricks were extensively investigated. The results indicated that the chemical, mineralogical, phase transformations, molecular bonding and thermal behavior of the produced bricks were practically unaffected by the addition of spent shea waste. However, spent shea waste addition increased the compressive strengths and water absorptions of the brick products. Potential performance benefits of reusing spent shea waste was improved fluxing agents, energy-contribution reaction, excellent porosifying effect, reduced thermal conductivity and enhanced compressive strengths of the brick products. This research has therefore provided compelling evidence that could create newfound route for the synergistic ecofriendly reuse of spent shea waste to enhance clay brick construction aside being a potential mainstream disposal option. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Historic Houses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Nancy

    1997-01-01

    Reviews some of the efforts of the Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities (SPNEA) to preserve, conserve, and interpret historic houses to the public. Examines the history and some of the specific preservation problems concerning the Beauport Cottage, the Sayward-Wheeler House, and the Gropius House. (MJP)

  16. Historical Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharlach, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a historical overview of four decades of scholarship and changing public policy on family and informal caregiving for older adults. Families are changing at a dizzying pace. Changes in family composition, cultural diversity, geographic mobility, and societal norms, coupled with increasing numbers of older…

  17. Historic Houses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Nancy

    1997-01-01

    Reviews some of the efforts of the Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities (SPNEA) to preserve, conserve, and interpret historic houses to the public. Examines the history and some of the specific preservation problems concerning the Beauport Cottage, the Sayward-Wheeler House, and the Gropius House. (MJP)

  18. Real-time volume rendering of 4D image using 3D texture mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jinwoo; Kim, June-Sic; Kim, Jae Seok; Kim, In Young; Kim, Sun Il

    2001-05-01

    Four dimensional image is 3D volume data that varies with time. It is used to express deforming or moving object in virtual surgery of 4D ultrasound. It is difficult to render 4D image by conventional ray-casting or shear-warp factorization methods because of their time-consuming rendering time or pre-processing stage whenever the volume data are changed. Even 3D texture mapping is used, repeated volume loading is also time-consuming in 4D image rendering. In this study, we propose a method to reduce data loading time using coherence between currently loaded volume and previously loaded volume in order to achieve real time rendering based on 3D texture mapping. Volume data are divided into small bricks and each brick being loaded is tested for similarity to one which was already loaded in memory. If the brick passed the test, it is defined as 3D texture by OpenGL functions. Later, the texture slices of the brick are mapped into polygons and blended by OpenGL blending functions. All bricks undergo this test. Continuously deforming fifty volumes are rendered in interactive time with SGI ONYX. Real-time volume rendering based on 3D texture mapping is currently available on PC.

  19. Elucidating the effects of solar panel waste glass substitution on the physical and mechanical characteristics of clay bricks.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kae-Long; Huang, Long-Sheng; Shie, Je-Lueng; Cheng, Ching-Jung; Lee, Ching-Hwa; Chang, Tien-Chin

    2013-01-01

    This study deals with the effect of solar panel waste glass on fired clay bricks. Brick samples were heated to temperatures which varied from 700-1000 degrees C for 6 h, with a heating rate of 10 degrees C min(-1). The material properties of the resultant material were then determined, including speciation variation, loss on ignition, shrinkage, bulk density, 24-h absorption rate, compressive strength and salt crystallization. The results indicate that increasing the amount of solar panel waste glass resulted in a decrease in the water absorption rate and an increase in the compressive strength of the solar panel waste glass bricks. The 24-h absorption rate and compressive strength of the solar panel waste glass brick made from samples containing 30% solar panel waste glass sintered at 1000 degrees C all met the Chinese National Standard (CNS) building requirements for first-class brick (compressive strengths and water absorption of the bricks were 300 kg cm(-2) and 10% of the brick, respectively). The addition of solar panel waste glass to the mixture reduced the degree of firing shrinkage. The salt crystallization test and wet-dry tests showed that the addition of solar panel waste glass had highly beneficial effects in that it increased the durability of the bricks. This indicates that solar panel waste glass is indeed suitable for the partial replacement of clay in bricks.

  20. Strength Parameters Of Masonry Walls In Modelling Historic Constructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gołębiewski, Michał; Lubowiecka, Izabela; Kujawa, Marcin

    2015-09-01

    The paper presents the determination of the basic material properties of a historic brickwork. Experimental studies were used to identify the basic material properties of bricks. The mechanical properties of the masonry, as an orthotropic homogenized material, were calculated. Then, numerical simulations using the Finite Element Method (FEM) were performed to verify the experimental outcomes. Macromodels with element sizes of 40, 20, 10 and 5 mm, and a micromodel with an element size of 5 mm were applied. The results were compared with experimental data and results available in literature.

  1. 8. Historic view of the building: 'Warren Street from State ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic view of the building: 'Warren Street from State Street' ca. 1890. Courtesy of the Trenton Free Public Library. This shows the building before the True American's renovations of 1893. It is the three-story buildings, flanked by lower ones in the middle of the block. At the time of the photograph, the brick exterior was painted a light color and dark-colored louvered shutters flanked all the upper story windows. - 14 North Warren Street (Commercial Building), True American Building, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  2. ZettaBricks: A Language Compiler and Runtime System for Anyscale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Amarasinghe, Saman

    2015-03-27

    This grant supported the ZettaBricks and OpenTuner projects. ZettaBricks is a new implicitly parallel language and compiler where defining multiple implementations of multiple algorithms to solve a problem is the natural way of programming. ZettaBricks makes algorithmic choice a first class construct of the language. Choices are provided in a way that also allows our compiler to tune at a finer granularity. The ZettaBricks compiler autotunes programs by making both fine-grained as well as algorithmic choices. Choices also include different automatic parallelization techniques, data distributions, algorithmic parameters, transformations, and blocking. Additionally, ZettaBricks introduces novel techniques to autotune algorithms for different convergence criteria. When choosing between various direct and iterative methods, the ZettaBricks compiler is able to tune a program in such a way that delivers near-optimal efficiency for any desired level of accuracy. The compiler has the flexibility of utilizing different convergence criteria for the various components within a single algorithm, providing the user with accuracy choice alongside algorithmic choice. OpenTuner is a generalization of the experience gained in building an autotuner for ZettaBricks. OpenTuner is a new open source framework for building domain-specific multi-objective program autotuners. OpenTuner supports fully-customizable configuration representations, an extensible technique representation to allow for domain-specific techniques, and an easy to use interface for communicating with the program to be autotuned. A key capability inside OpenTuner is the use of ensembles of disparate search techniques simultaneously; techniques that perform well will dynamically be allocated a larger proportion of tests.

  3. Respiratory Abnormalities among Occupationally Exposed, Non-Smoking Brick Kiln Workers from Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Supriya; Gupta, Sharat; Singh, Sharanjeet; Kumar, Avnish

    2017-07-01

    Brick manufacturing industry is one of the oldest and fast-growing industries in India that employs a large section of people. Brick kiln workers are occupationally exposed to air pollutants. Nonetheless, only a few studies have so far been conducted on their respiratory health. To investigate the extent of respiratory impairment in brick kiln workers and to correlate it with the duration of exposure. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Spirometric parameters of 110 non-smoking male brick kiln workers aged 18-35 years in Patiala district, Punjab, India, were compared with an age-matched comparison group of 90 unexposed individuals. Brick kiln workers showed a significant (p<0.05) decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced mid-expiratory flow rate (FEF25-75%) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) compared with those of the comparison group. The extent of deterioration in lung function of brick kiln workers was associated with the duration of exposure. In workers with >8 years of exposure, the mean values of FEV1 (1.92 L), FVC (2.01 L), FEF25-75% (2.19 L/s) and PEFR (4.81 L/s) were significantly (p<0.05) lower than those recorded in workers with <8 years of exposure in whom the values were 2.01 L, 2.68 L, 2.71 L/s, and 5.76 L/s, respectively. There is a significant association between exposure to workplace pollutants and lung function deterioration among brick kiln workers.

  4. Metamaterial bricks and quantization of meta-surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Memoli, Gianluca; Caleap, Mihai; Asakawa, Michihiro; Sahoo, Deepak R.; Drinkwater, Bruce W.; Subramanian, Sriram

    2017-01-01

    Controlling acoustic fields is crucial in diverse applications such as loudspeaker design, ultrasound imaging and therapy or acoustic particle manipulation. The current approaches use fixed lenses or expensive phased arrays. Here, using a process of analogue-to-digital conversion and wavelet decomposition, we develop the notion of quantal meta-surfaces. The quanta here are small, pre-manufactured three-dimensional units—which we call metamaterial bricks—each encoding a specific phase delay. These bricks can be assembled into meta-surfaces to generate any diffraction-limited acoustic field. We apply this methodology to show experimental examples of acoustic focusing, steering and, after stacking single meta-surfaces into layers, the more complex field of an acoustic tractor beam. We demonstrate experimentally single-sided air-borne acoustic levitation using meta-layers at various bit-rates: from a 4-bit uniform to 3-bit non-uniform quantization in phase. This powerful methodology dramatically simplifies the design of acoustic devices and provides a key-step towards realizing spatial sound modulators. PMID:28240283

  5. Use Dose Bricks Concept to Implement Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Treatment Planning

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jia-Ming; Yu, Tsan-Jung; Yeh, Shyh-An; Chao, Pei-Ju; Huang, Chih-Jou

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. A “dose bricks” concept has been used to implement nasopharyngeal carcinoma treatment plan; this method specializes particularly in the case with bell shape nasopharyngeal carcinoma case. Materials and Methods. Five noncoplanar fields were used to accomplish the dose bricks technique treatment plan. These five fields include (a) right superior anterior oblique (RSAO), (b) left superior anterior oblique (LSAO), (c) right anterior oblique (RAO), (d) left anterior oblique (LAO), and (e) superior inferior vertex (SIV). Nondivergence collimator central axis planes were used to create different abutting field edge while normal organs were blocked by multileaf collimators in this technique. Results. The resulting 92% isodose curves encompassed the CTV, while maximum dose was about 115%. Approximately 50% volume of parotid glands obtained 10–15% of total dose and 50% volume of brain obtained less than 20% of total dose. Spinal cord receives only 5% from the scatter dose. Conclusions. Compared with IMRT, the expenditure of planning time and costing, “dose bricks” may after all be accepted as an optional implementation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma conformal treatment plan; furthermore, this method also fits the need of other nonhead and neck lesions if organ sparing and noncoplanar technique can be executed. PMID:24967395

  6. Seismic Vulnerability and Performance Level of confined brick walls

    SciTech Connect

    Ghalehnovi, M.; Rahdar, H. A.

    2008-07-08

    There has been an increase on the interest of Engineers and designers to use designing methods based on displacement and behavior (designing based on performance) Regarding to the importance of resisting structure design against dynamic loads such as earthquake, and inability to design according to prediction of nonlinear behavior element caused by nonlinear properties of constructional material.Economically speaking, easy carrying out and accessibility of masonry material have caused an enormous increase in masonry structures in villages, towns and cities. On the other hand, there is a necessity to study behavior and Seismic Vulnerability in these kinds of structures since Iran is located on the earthquake belt of Alpide.Different reasons such as environmental, economic, social, cultural and accessible constructional material have caused different kinds of constructional structures.In this study, some tied walls have been modeled with software and with relevant accelerator suitable with geology conditions under dynamic analysis to research on the Seismic Vulnerability and performance level of confined brick walls. Results from this analysis seem to be satisfactory after comparison of them with the values in Code ATC40, FEMA and standard 2800 of Iran.

  7. Seismic Vulnerability and Performance Level of confined brick walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghalehnovi, M.; Rahdar, H. A.

    2008-07-01

    There has been an increase on the interest of Engineers and designers to use designing methods based on displacement and behavior (designing based on performance) Regarding to the importance of resisting structure design against dynamic loads such as earthquake, and inability to design according to prediction of nonlinear behavior element caused by nonlinear properties of constructional material. Economically speaking, easy carrying out and accessibility of masonry material have caused an enormous increase in masonry structures in villages, towns and cities. On the other hand, there is a necessity to study behavior and Seismic Vulnerability in these kinds of structures since Iran is located on the earthquake belt of Alpide. Different reasons such as environmental, economic, social, cultural and accessible constructional material have caused different kinds of constructional structures. In this study, some tied walls have been modeled with software and with relevant accelerator suitable with geology conditions under dynamic analysis to research on the Seismic Vulnerability and performance level of confined brick walls. Results from this analysis seem to be satisfactory after comparison of them with the values in Code ATC40, FEMA and standard 2800 of Iran.

  8. Potential Visual Impacts of Utility-Scale Solar Energy Development within Solar Energy Zones on Selected Viewpoints in Death Valley and Joshua Tree National Parks, and El Camino Real De Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Robert G.; Abplanalp, Jennifer M.; Cantwell, Brian L.; Beckman, Kevin J.

    2013-06-01

    In connection with the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM’s) Solar Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Solar PEIS), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) has conducted an extended visual impact analysis for selected key observation points (KOPs) within three National Park Service (NPS) units located within the 25-mi (40-km) viewshed of four solar energy zones (SEZs) identified in the Solar PEIS. The analysis includes only those NPS units that the Solar PEIS identified as potentially subject to moderate or strong visual contrasts associated with solar development within the SEZs. The NPS units included in the analysis are Death Valley and Joshua Tree National Parks and El Camino Real De Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail. The analysis showed that certain KOPs in each of these NPS units could potentially be subject to major visual contrast and impacts from solar development within the SEZs, but many of the KOPs would likely be subject to moderate, minor, or negligible contrasts and impacts, generally because they were relatively distant from the relevant SEZ, had views of the SEZ partially blocked by intervening terrain, and/or had very low vertical angles of view toward the SEZ. For all three NPS units, power tower facilities were found to be major contributors to potential visual contrasts, primarily because of the long-distance visibility of intensely bright reflection of light from the receivers on the central towers, but also because of the height and strong vertical line of the tower structures and the potential for night-sky impacts from FAA-mandated hazard navigation lighting.

  9. Airborne Particulate Matter and Health Condition in Brick Kiln Workers in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Sanjel, S; Khanal, S N; Thygerson, S M; Khanal, K; Pun, Z; Tamang, S; Joshi, S K

    2016-01-01

    Background Air quality monitoring in brick kilns indicates very high concentrations of airborne particulate matter. Air pollution from brick kilns poses an enhanced threat to the environment and to human health. Objective To evaluate airborne particulate matter concentration and health status of brick kiln workers. Method A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted in the Kathmandu valley targeting all brick industries and their workers during January - March 2015 and March - April 2016. A total of 16 brick kilns and 800 participants (400 brick workers as exposed and 400 grocery workers as referent) were selected for study. A direct-reading, Dusttrak model 8533 was used for air sampling. Nepali version questionnaire was applied to obtain epidemiological data. SPSS version 16 was used to perform statistical analysis. Median, mean, range and proportion were calculated and Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test and chi square (c2) test were applied to test significance. Result Mean values of particulate matter concentrations for brickfields were as follows: Total Suspended Particulate Matter (TSPM): 5.179 mg/m3, PM10: 4.958 mg/m3, respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM): 4.140 mg/m3, PM2.5: 3.965 mg/m3, and PM1: 3.954 mg/m3. The mean concentrations for grocery workers were; TSPM: 0.089 mg/ m3, PM10: 0.089 mg/m3, RSPM: 0.085 mg/m3, PM2.5: 0.082 mg/m3 and PM1: 0.082 mg/m3. Among brickfield workers, red and green brick loading zones had results that exceeded the ACGIH Threshold Limit Values for TSPM and RSPM. Workers complaints of injury were 52% and 44.2%, and illnesses were 88.5% and 82.2%, respectively among exposed and referent. The occurrence of injuries/illnesses during work showed significant association between exposed and the referent groups at 0.05 level. Conclusion The high level of airborne particulate matter in the brick fields requires action for the protection of workers. The availability of health services within brick industries needs to

  10. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Bodymill Sludge (BS) Incorporated Into Fired Clay Brick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Rahim, Ahmad Shayuti Abdul; Ikhmal Haqeem Hassan, Mohd; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al

    2016-06-01

    The huge volume of mosaic sludge that has been produced and the effect towards the environment had lead to the investigation of incorporating mosaic sludge into fired clay brick. In this study, the research attempt to reuse bodymill sludge (BS) from mosaic manufacturing process. The mosaic sludge is used to replace the raw material of clay up to 30%. In this investigation, the composition and concentration of heavy metal were determined by using X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (XRF). Physical and mechanical properties test were also conducted such as compressive strength, shrinkage, density and initial rate of suction. Scanning Electron microscope was carried out to determine surface changes of the manufactured sludge brick. From the results, it shows that brick with 5% of BS sludge obtained the highest compressive strength and lower total shrinkage compared to other percentages. Nevertheless, all the other properties for all bricks incorporated with different percentages of mosaic sludge were complied with the standard (BS 3291:1985). Thus, mosaic sludge could be an alternative low cost material for brick and at the same time provide an environmental friendly disposal method for the waste.

  11. Low-Btu coal gasification in the United States: company topical. [Brick producers

    SciTech Connect

    Boesch, L.P.; Hylton, B.G.; Bhatt, C.S.

    1983-07-01

    Hazelton and other brick producers have proved the reliability of the commercial size Wellman-Galusha gasifier. For this energy intensive business, gas cost is the major portion of the product cost. Costs required Webster/Hazelton to go back to the old, reliable alternative energy of low Btu gasification when the natural gas supply started to be curtailed and prices escalated. Although anthracite coal prices have skyrocketed from $34/ton (1979) to over $71.50/ton (1981) because of high demand (local as well as export) and rising labor costs, the delivered natural gas cost, which reached $3.90 to 4.20/million Btu in the Hazelton area during 1981, has allowed the producer gas from the gasifier at Webster Brick to remain competitive. The low Btu gas cost (at the escalated coal price) is estimated to be $4/million Btu. In addition to producing gas that is cost competitive with natural gas at the Webster Brick Hazelton plant, Webster has the security of knowing that its gas supply will be constant. Improvements in brick business and projected deregulation of the natural gas price may yield additional, attractive cost benefits to Webster Brick through the use of low Btu gas from these gasifiers. Also, use of hot raw gas (that requires no tar or sulfur removal) keeps the overall process efficiency high. 25 references, 47 figures, 14 tables.

  12. Gamma-ray shielding effectiveness of novel light-weight clay-flyash bricks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Harjinder Singh; Brar, G. S.; Mudahar, G. S.

    2016-10-01

    The radiation shielding parameters of lightweight clay-flyash bricks produced with different flyash aggregate compositions have been investigated by using 241Am (59.4 keV), 137Cs (661.6 keV), and 60Co (1173.2 keV and 1332.5 keV) radioactive sources. It was observed that the different percentages of flyash in clay lead to significant variations in these parameters. The elemental compositions of the clay-flyash bricks were analyzed using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF). The obtained results were compared to those pertaining to concrete in order to see the effect of flyash content on the radiation shielding properties. The radiation protection efficiency of the tested clay-flyash bricks demonstrated that multilayer exterior walls built from these bricks could effectively attenuate moderate-energy gamma rays. Bricks using residual flyash could be preferentially used for buildings to address the issues of radiation shielding, cost-effective radioactive waste management and disposal of flyash in a useful manner.

  13. Characterization of Bricks Used in the External Casing of Roman Bath Walls "Gadara Jordan".

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Gohary, A. M.; Al Naddaf, M. M.

    The use of sub-soil materials have been used in buildings long time ago, for more than 10,000 years. This study investigates the different characteristics of brick units used in one of the Roman baths in Gadara archaeological site. This is achieved by studying the raw materials and the different technological measurements of brick units: shapes,dimensions and visual description. Moreover, it studies the construction techniques and deterioration problems, by using some scientific techniques and analytical procedures such as EDX for defining the elemental and chemical characteristics of brick samples,Polarizing microscope and XRD for studying the mineralogical components, in addition to the use of SEM that was used for studying the morphological characteristics of the samples. Furthermore, this study determines the different physical, mechanical and thermal properties of the collected samples according to different scientific techniques and standard tools such as digital camera, magnifying glass and mechanical sieves. The results of the study prove that the brick units are divided into two types cubit square and rectangular shapes which are used as external casing layers. They are characterized by homogeneous chemical characteristics and different visual appearances according to the firing degrees and firing conditions (oxidizing or reduction). On the other hand the differences of these physical properties play specific roles in the deterioration cycles,and their mechanisms affect the brick units. Finally, the study provides a definition of the effective methods, materials and preservation measurements for restoring and maintaining the investigated monument.

  14. ePathBrick: a synthetic biology platform for engineering metabolic pathways in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Vansiri, Amerin; Bhan, Namita; Koffas, Mattheos A G

    2012-07-20

    Harnessing cell factories for producing biofuel and pharmaceutical molecules has stimulated efforts to develop novel synthetic biology tools customized for modular pathway engineering and optimization. Here we report the development of a set of vectors compatible with BioBrick standards and its application in metabolic engineering. The engineered ePathBrick vectors comprise four compatible restriction enzyme sites allocated on strategic positions so that different regulatory control signals can be reused and manipulation of expression cassette can be streamlined. Specifically, these vectors allow for fine-tuning gene expression by integrating multiple transcriptional activation or repression signals into the operator region. At the same time, ePathBrick vectors support the modular assembly of pathway components and combinatorial generation of pathway diversities with three distinct configurations. We also demonstrated the functionality of a seven-gene pathway (~9 Kb) assembled on one single ePathBrick vector. The ePathBrick vectors presented here provide a versatile platform for rapid design and optimization of metabolic pathways in E. coli.

  15. Cancer risk evaluation of brick kiln workers exposed to dust bound PAHs in Punjab province (Pakistan).

    PubMed

    Kamal, Atif; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Martellini, Tania; Cincinelli, Alessandra

    2014-09-15

    Principal objective of this study was to evaluate the health risks of brick kiln workers to dust bound PAHs exposure in Punjab province (Pakistan). To this aim, surface dust samples were collected from brick kiln units located in Chung Khurd (Lahore city), Gujranwala city and Sohra village (in the vicinity of Gujranwala). The highest ΣPAH levels were measured in the dust samples collected in Sohdra village (mean 2578 ng g(-1) d.w., range 302-6757 ng g(-1) d.w.) followed by Gujranwala city (mean 957, range 16.1-1963 ng g(-1) d.w.) and Chung Khurd (mean 882, range 692-1007 ng g(-1) d.w.). Source identification using diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis identified coal and wood combustion as the major PAHs sources. The cancer risk model (CR-Model 1) and the Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk model (ILCR-Model 2) were used to evaluate the cancer risk assessment via ingestion, inhalation and dermal contact pathways. Both models suggested that brick kiln workers (including adults and children) were exposed to high-potential carcinogenic risk via both ingestion and dermal contact pathways during the brick making process. This study also emphasizes the need for pollution control in the brick kiln industry of Pakistan. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Infrared analysis of clay bricks incorporated with spent shea waste from the shea butter industry.

    PubMed

    Adazabra, A N; Viruthagiri, G; Shanmugam, N

    2017-04-15

    The peculiar challenge of effective disposing abundant spent shea waste and the excellent compositional variation tolerance of clay material offered an impetus to examine the incorporation of spent shea waste into clay material as an eco-friendly disposal route in making clay bricks. For this purpose, the chemical constituent, mineralogical compositions and thermal behavior of both clay material and spent shea waste were initially characterized from which modelled brick specimens incorporating 5-20 wt% of the waste into the clay material were prepared. The clay material showed high proportions of SiO2 (52.97 wt%) and Al2O3 (27.10 wt%) indicating their rich kaolinitic content: whereas, the inert nature of spent shea waste was exhibited by their low oxide content. The striking similarities in infrared absorption bands of pristine clay material and clay materials incorporated with 15 wt% of spent shea waste showed that the waste incorporation had no impact on bond formation of the clay bricks. Potential performance benefits of developing bricks from clay material incorporated with spent shea waste included improved fluxing agents, economic sintering and making of sustainable bricks. Consequently, the analytical results authenticate the incorporation of spent shea waste into clay materials for various desired benefits aside being an environmental correct route of its disposal.

  17. Stack and fugitive emissions of major air pollutants from typical brick kilns in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuanchen; Du, Wei; Zhuo, Shaojie; Liu, Weijian; Liu, Yuanlong; Shen, Guofeng; Wu, Shuiping; Li, Jianjun; Zhou, Bianhong; Wang, Gehui; Zeng, Eddy Y; Cheng, Hefa; Liu, Wenxin; Tao, Shu

    2017-05-01

    Little information exists on emission factors (EFs, quantities of pollutants emitted per unit of fuel consumed) for brick kilns in China, although brick kilns are important emission sources of many air pollutants, and 45% of the world's bricks are produced in China. In this study, EFs of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matters (PMs), black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for brick kilns were derived based on field measurements of a total of 18 brick kilns of major types in China. This was the first study to quantify EFs of both stack and fugitive sources based on a modified carbon balance method that was developed for this study. The EFs of most pollutants, especially the incomplete combustion products in fugitive emissions, were much higher than those for stack emissions, indicating a substantial underestimation of total emissions when leakage is not taken into consideration. This novel method can be applied to quantify emissions from other similar sources with both stack and fugitive emissions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Physico-mechanical properties of a brick based with sand of dunes stabilized by hydraulic lime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djouhri, Mohamed; Bentebba, Mohamed Taher

    2017-02-01

    Brick establishment is an essential and elementary cell in any construction. In this study, bricks in mortar with sand of dunes (BRSD) were made and submitted to the various trials of characterization. The addition of hydraulic lime according to progressive rates allowed following the influence of the dosage of the latter on the physical characteristics and on the mechanical performances of bricks according to several formulations. The experimental method of formulation is mainly based on the optimization of materials constituting the hydraulic lime and the sand dunes, with the aim of reaching a new composition to enjoy physico-mechanical characteristics wishes. The various realized tries showed that the addition of lime, in a certain interval, possesses an important influence on the physic-mechanical performances of bricks in particular the mechanical resistance and the heat insulation, for a dosage of 30 % of hydraulic lime, the compression resistance of the brick is 8 MPa with a thermal conductivity of 1.7 W/m°C.

  19. 75 FR 11517 - Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks from Mexico: Notice of Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... constitutes a relatively small percentage of the total quantity of bricks shipped to U.S. and Mexican... shipment of bricks in fulfillment of these contracts constitutes a relatively small percentage of the total... different LOT, and the difference affects price comparability, as manifested in a pattern of...

  20. Use of bottom ash from olive pomace combustion in the production of eco-friendly fired clay bricks.

    PubMed

    Eliche-Quesada, D; Leite-Costa, J

    2016-02-01

    Olive pomace bottom ash was used to replace different amounts (10-50wt%) of clay in brick manufacturing. The aim of this study is both studying bricks properties and showing a new way of olive pomace bottom ash recycling. Properties of waste bricks were compared to conventional products following standard procedures in order to determine the maximum waste percentage. The amount of olive pomace bottom ash is limited to 20wt%, obtaining bricks with superior engineering properties when 10wt% of waste is added. Adding higher amount of waste (30-50wt%) resulted in bricks with water absorption and compressive strength values on the edge of meeting those established by standards. Therefore, the addition of 10 and 20wt% of olive pomace bottom ash produced bricks with a bulk density of 1635 and 1527kg/m(3) and a compressive strength of 33.9MPa and 14.2MPa, respectively. Fired bricks fulfil standards requirements for clay masonry units, offering, at the same time, better thermal insulation of buildings due to a reduction in thermal conductivity of 14.4% and 16.8% respectively, compared to control bricks (only clay). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Brick, Block, and Stonemasonry (Program CIP: 46.0101--Mason and Tile Setter). Secondary Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which reflects Mississippi's statutory requirement that instructional programs be based on core curricula and performance-based assessment, contains outlines of the instructional units required in local instructional management plans and daily lesson plans for two secondary-level courses in brick, block, and stonemasonry: brick,…

  2. Reduction effect of surface temperature of baked bricks with different pore shapes during absorption-evaporation test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguchi, Chiaki T.; Shinozuka, Katsumi

    2017-04-01

    To study the effect of decreasing in surface temperature of baked bricks with various pore shapes, the present study performed several experiments such as water absorbance test and heating test. For the preparation of experimental specimens, bricks with artificial spherical pores, artificial linear pores and non-additional artificial pores were made. The bricks were examined their properties of bulk density, Equotip hardness and absorbing properties by putting in the water. Wet bricks were also put in the incubator set at 50 °C, and monitored the increasing of surface temperature of each brick. Brick with linear pores shows higher water absorption rate in a short time than those with spherical pores. They evaporated moisture faster than those with a spherical pores. They kept the temperature by 11.7 °C lower than the setting temperature, whereas the bricks with a spherical pores kept the temperature by 10.5 °C . Bricks with linear pores has about 10% higher effectiveness of decreasing in surface temperature than those with spheroidal pores.

  3. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Brick, Block, and Stonemasonry (Program CIP: 46.0101--Mason and Tile Setter). Secondary Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which reflects Mississippi's statutory requirement that instructional programs be based on core curricula and performance-based assessment, contains outlines of the instructional units required in local instructional management plans and daily lesson plans for two secondary-level courses in brick, block, and stonemasonry: brick,…

  4. Development of eco-friendly porous fired clay bricks using pore-forming agents: a review.

    PubMed

    Bories, Cecile; Borredon, Marie-Elisabeth; Vedrenne, Emeline; Vilarem, Gerard

    2014-10-01

    Today, clay bricks are facing technological challenges and are uncompetitive compared to materials such as concrete. Their performance must be improved if they are to stand up to the competition. Increasing environmental concerns over the accumulation of unmanaged wastes from agricultural or industrial productions have made these good candidates for incorporation into building materials to improve their performance. This process leads to the formation of pores in the bricks, producing lightweight and sustainable building materials. This paper reviews the different pore-forming agents from renewable or mineral resources as described in the literature. It also presents the impact of pore-forming agents on the physical, mechanical and thermal properties of clay bricks.

  5. Encapsulating fly ash and acidic process waste water in brick structure.

    PubMed

    Koseoglu, K; Polat, M; Polat, H

    2010-04-15

    Fly ash contains metals such as cadmium, iron, lead, aluminum and zinc in its structure in appreciable amounts. These metals can leach out into surface and ground waters if fly ash is not properly disposed of. A similar problem also exists for acidic process waste waters discharged by numerous industries. The purpose of this study was to utilize such wastes as additives in the production of construction quality bricks for the purpose of waste elimination. The bricks produced were subjected to flexural strength and water retention capacity tests along with heavy metal leaching experiments in order to determine the applicability of the procedure and the best possible recipes. This paper summarizes the results obtained in these tests along with the possible mechanisms involved in stabilizing the two wastes in the brick structure.

  6. Recycling of sugarcane bagasse ash waste in the production of clay bricks.

    PubMed

    Faria, K C P; Gurgel, R F; Holanda, J N F

    2012-06-30

    This work investigates the recycling of sugarcane bagasse ash waste as a method to provide raw material for clay brick bodies, through replacement of natural clay by up 20 wt.%. Initially, the waste sample was characterized by its chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, particle size, morphology and pollution potential. Clay bricks pieces were prepared, and then tested, so as to determine their technological properties (e.g., linear shrinkage, water absorption, apparent density, and tensile strength). The sintered microstructure was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that the sugarcane bagasse ash waste is mainly composed by crystalline silica particles. The test results indicate that the sugarcane bagasse ash waste could be used as a filler in clay bricks, thus enhancing the possibility of its reuse in a safe and sustainable way.

  7. Study on performance of concrete with over-burnt bricks aggregates and micro-silica admixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praveen, K.; Sathyan, Dhanya; Mini, K. M.

    2016-09-01

    Concrete is made by mixing cement, sand, aggregates and water in required proportion, where aggregates occupy the major volume. Addition of aggregates in concrete improves properties of concrete. With the natural resources depleting rapidly, limiting the use of natural resources and enhancing the use of waste materials is very important for sustainable development. Over-burnt bricks are a waste material which cannot be used in construction directly because of their irregular shape and dark colour. Use of over-burnt bricks helps to preserve natural aggregate source. The present study focuses on the effects of microsilica at various percentages as a partial cement replacement in concrete with over-burnt bricks as coarse aggregates. The mechanical properties of hardened concrete such as splitting tensile strength, flexural strength and compressive strength are studied and analyzed.

  8. Reuse of grits waste for the production of soil--cement bricks.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, F B; Holanda, J N F

    2013-12-15

    This investigation focuses on the reuse of grits waste as a raw material for replacing Portland cement by up to 30 wt.% in soil-cement bricks. The grits waste was obtained from a cellulose factory located in south-eastern Brazil. We initially characterized the waste sample with respect to its chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, fineness index, morphology, pozzolanic activity, and pollution potential. Soil-cement bricks were then prepared using the waste material and were tested to determine their technological properties (e.g., water absorption, apparent density, volumetric shrinkage, and compressive strength). Microstructural evolution was accompanied by confocal microscopy. It was found that the grits waste is mainly composed of calcite (CaCO3) particles. Our results indicate that grits waste can be used economically, safely, and sustainably at weight percentages of up to 20% to partially replace Portland cement in soil-cement bricks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sewage sludge ash characteristics and potential for use in bricks, tiles and glass ceramics.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Ciarán J; Dhir, Ravindra K; Ghataora, Gurmel S

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of sewage sludge ash (SSA) and its use in ceramic applications pertaining to bricks, tiles and glass ceramics have been assessed using the globally published literature in the English medium. It is shown that SSA possesses similar chemical characteristics to established ceramic materials and under heat treatment achieves the targeted densification, strength increases and absorption reductions. In brick and tile applications, technical requirements relating to strength, absorption and durability are achievable, with merely manageable performance reductions with SSA as a partial clay replacement. Fluxing properties of SSA facilitate lower firing temperatures during ceramics production, although reductions in mix plasticity leads to higher forming water requirements. SSA glass ceramics attained strengths in excess of natural materials such as granite and marble and displayed strong durability properties. The thermal treatment and nature of ceramic products also effectively restricted heavy metal leaching to low levels. Case studies, predominantly in bricks applications, reinforce confidence in the material with suitable technical performances achieved in practical conditions.

  10. Keratin film ablation for the fabrication of brick and mortar skin structure using femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haq, Bibi Safia; Khan, Hidayat Ullah; Dou, Yuehua; Alam, Khan; Attaullah, Shehnaz; Zari, Islam

    2015-09-01

    The patterning of thin keratin films has been explored to manufacture model skin surfaces based on the "bricks and mortar" view of the relationship between keratin and lipids. It has been demonstrated that laser light is capable of preparing keratin-based "bricks and mortar" wall structure as in epidermis, the outermost layer of the human skin. "Bricks and mortar" pattern in keratin films has been fabricated using an ArF excimer laser (193 nm wavelength) and femtosecond laser (800 and 400 nm wavelength). Due to the very low ablation threshold of keratin, femtosecond laser systems are practical for laser processing of proteins. These model skin structures are fabricated for the first time that will help to produce potentially effective moisturizing products for the protection of skin from dryness, diseases and wrinkles.

  11. Interface bonding of shotcrete reinforced brick masonry assemblages. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, D. W.; Kahn, L. F.

    1982-09-01

    The first of four appendices contains interviews with local masonry experts. It is reported that when stucco is applied to masonry walls, an increased resistance to lateral and implane forces results. The dangers of a solfate attack on brick masonry are examined, and it is pointed out that exposure to sulfate attack for 50 to 100 years can destroy the physical strength of a cement product. Distinctions are drawn between large core, small core, and double row core brick, and it is noted that the predominate brick used is the large core. The other appendices contain design, construction, and material properties for 46 specimens, a generalized finite element analysis, and plots for four specimens.

  12. Historical seismicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dengler, L.

    1992-01-01

    The North Coast region of California in the vicinity of Cape Mendocino is one of the state's most seismically active areas, accounting for 25 percent of seismic energy release in California during the last 50 years. the region is located in a geologically dynamic are surrounding the Mendocino triple junction where three of the Earth's tectonic plates join together ( see preceding article by Sam Clarke). In the historic past the North Coast has been affected by earthquakes occurring on the San Andreas fault system to the south, the Mendocino fault to the southwest, and intraplate earthquakes within both the Gorda and North American plates. More than sixty of these earthquakes have caused damage since the mid-1800's. Recent studies indicate that California's North Coast is also at risk with respect to very large earthquakes (magnitude >8) originating along the Cascadia subduction zone. Although the subduction zone has not generated great earthquakes in historic time, paleoseismic evidence suggests that such earthquakes have been generated by the subduction zone in the recent prehistoric past. 

  13. Lightweight bricks manufactured from ground soil, textile sludge, and coal ash.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuihan; Wu, Hongjuan

    2017-05-24

    Reuse of textile sludge as construction materials has been proved to an economic and environmental friendly strategy to mitigate its disposal problems. Previous studies have illustrated the successful fabrication of common fired bricks using textile sludge as a partial replacement of clay, but no such a specific work was focused on the feasibility of manufacturing lightweight bricks from textile sludge. In this study, a strategy involving the mixing of ground soil, textile sludge, and coal ash as the raw materials for the successful production of lightweight bricks is presented. Coal ash and ground soil have different combustible contents but similar main chemical composition, which facilitates the separable adjustment of these two factors of the raw material mixture to achieve their suitable values at the same time, and thus results in the successful manufacture of lightweight bricks. To meet the requirement for compressive strength and consume textile sludge as more as possible, an optimal ratio of the raw materials was obtained as textile sludge:coal ash:ground soil = 20:20:60. The brick products manufactured from this ratio show a compressive strength of 13.7 MPa, bulk density of 1.47 g cm(-3), water absorption of 14.6%, and volumetric shrinkage of 13.61% after sintering. The results of toxicity characteristic leaching procedure test show that the heavy metal concentrations in the leachates of the brick products are very low, which also satisfy the regulations. This study provides a feasible and economical technology for the treatment of textile sludge.

  14. A comprehensive study of the energy absorption and exposure buildup factors of different bricks for gamma-rays shielding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayyed, M. I.; AlZaatreh, M. Y.; Dong, M. G.; Zaid, M. H. M.; Matori, K. A.; Tekin, H. O.

    The present investigation has been performed on different bricks for the purpose of gamma-ray shielding. The values of the mass attenuation coefficient (μ/ρ), energy absorption buildup factor (EABF) and exposure buildup factor (EBF) were determined and utilized to assess the shielding effectiveness of the bricks under investigation. The mass attenuation coefficients of the selected bricks were calculated theoretically using WinXcom program and compared with MCNPX code. Good agreement between WinXcom and MCNPX results was observed. Furthermore, the EABF and EBF have been discussed as functions of the incident photon energy and penetration depth. It has been found that the EABF and EBF values are very large in the intermediate energy region. The steel slag showed good shielding properties, consequently, this brick is eco-friendly and feasible compared with other types of bricks used for construction. The results in this work should be useful in the construction of effectual shielding against hazardous gamma-rays.

  15. Application of Effective Media Theory for Determination of Thermal Properties of Hollow Bricks as a Function of Moisture Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlík, Zbyšek; Fiala, Lukáš; Vejmelková, Eva; Černý, Robert

    2013-05-01

    The effective thermal conductivity and effective specific heat capacity of hollow brick blocks are investigated as a function of moisture content. While the effective specific heat capacity as a heat storage parameter is calculated using the linear theory of mixtures, the effective thermal conductivity as a heat transport parameter is analyzed using the effective media theory. At first, the effective thermal conductivity of the dry hollow brick block is calculated using a combination of properties of the brick body and air cavities, and verified using experimental data. Then, the effective thermal conductivity of the brick body is analyzed as a function of moisture content both theoretically and experimentally, and appropriate homogenization formulas are identified. Finally, the effective thermal conductivity of the whole hollow bricks is expressed as a function of moisture content from the dry state to water saturation.

  16. Understanding Historical Thinking at Historic Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the interpretive processes historians engage in when "reading" historic buildings and examines what qualifies as historical thinking about historic buildings and sites. To gather evidence of what historical thinking looks like as it pertains to buildings, 5 practicing historians were recorded as they toured the Old…

  17. Understanding Historical Thinking at Historic Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the interpretive processes historians engage in when "reading" historic buildings and examines what qualifies as historical thinking about historic buildings and sites. To gather evidence of what historical thinking looks like as it pertains to buildings, 5 practicing historians were recorded as they toured the Old…

  18. Techno - economic and leachability effect of Ca2SiO4 interlocking composite brick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namboonruang, Weerapol; Yongam-nuai, Prayoon; Suphadon, Nutthanun

    2017-07-01

    This work studied the possibility to produce the new novel calcium silicate ceramic kiln ash composite brick (CSCACB) which was the combination of the local Ratchaburi soil and calcium silicate kiln ash (CSCA) wasted from the ceramic industry. The chemical and physical properties of the composite brick were investigated. Also, the mechanical properties such as the compressive strength, flexural strength and as well as the leachability property were determined. By summary, this invented materials has enough quality to produce as local commercial products considered by the strength properties, environmental effect, price and appropriated implementation.

  19. Effects of occupational heat exposure on female brick workers in West Bengal, India

    PubMed Central

    Sett, Moumita; Sahu, Subhashis

    2014-01-01

    Background Manual brick-manufacturing units in India engage a large number of female workers on a daily-wage basis for a period of 8 months per year. There are two groups of female workers in the brickfields: the brick molders and the brick carriers. These brickfields are mostly unorganized, and the workers are exposed to extreme conditions such as very high seasonal heat. The present trend of increasing temperatures, as a result of global warming and climate change, will put an additional burden on them. Objective This study aims to evaluate the effect of workplace heat exposure on the well-being, physiological load, and productivity of female brickfield workers in India. Design A questionnaire study (n=120), environmental temperature, and weekly work productivity analyses were evaluated for 8 months in the brickfields. Cardiac strain and walking speed (subset, n=40) were also studied and compared in hotter and colder days amongst the female brickfield workers. Results The subjects experience summer for about 5 months with additional heat stress radiating from the brick kiln. The weekly productivity data show a linear decline in productivity with increased maximum air temperature above 34.9°C. The cardiac parameters (peak heart rate (HRp), net cardiac cost (NCC), relative cardiac cost (RCC), and recovery heart rates) were significantly higher on hotter days (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGTout) index: 26.9°C to 30.74°C) than on cooler days (WBGTout index: 16.12°C to 19.37°C) for the brick molders; however, this is not the case for the brick carriers. As the brick carriers adapt to hotter days by decreasing their walking speed, their productivity decreases. Conclusion We conclude that high heat exposure in brickfields during summer caused physiological strain in both categories of female brickfield workers. A coping strategy employed by the brick carriers was to reduce their walking speed and thus lose part of their earnings. The lost productivity for every

  20. Finite Element Analysis of Crack-Path Selection in a Brick and Mortar Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarrafi-Nour, Reza; Manoharan, Mohan; Johnson, Curtis A.

    Many natural composite materials rely on organized architectures that span several length scales. The structures of natural shells such as nacre (mother-of-pearl) and conch are prominent examples of such organizations where the calcium carbonate platelets, the main constituent of natural shells, are held together in an organized fashion within an organic matrix. At one or multiple length scales, these organized arrangements often resemble a brick-and-mortar structure, with calcium carbonate platelets acting as bricks connected through the organic mortar phase.

  1. Use of ground clay brick as a pozzolanic material to reduce the alkali-silica reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Turanli, L.; Bektas, F.; Monteiro, P.J.M

    2003-10-01

    The objective of this experimental study was to use ground clay brick (GCB) as a pozzolanic material to minimize the alkali-silica reaction expansion. Two different types of clay bricks were finely ground and their activity indices were determined. ASTM accelerated mortar bar tests were performed to investigate the effect of GCB when used to replace cement mass. The microstructure of the mortar was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the GCBs meet the strength activity requirements of ASTM. In addition, the GCBs were found to be effective in suppressing the alkali-silica reaction expansion. The expansion decreased as the amount of GCBs in the mortar increased.

  2. Observing Arctic Sea Ice from Bow to Screen: Introducing Ice Watch, the Data Network of Near Real-Time and Historic Observations from the Arctic Shipborne Sea Ice Standardization Tool (ASSIST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlich, A.; Hutchings, J. K.; Green, T. M.

    2013-12-01

    The Ice Watch Program is an open source forum to access in situ Arctic sea ice conditions. It provides the research community and additional stakeholders a convenient resource to monitor sea ice and its role in understanding the Arctic as a system by implementing a standardized observation protocol and hosting a multi-service data portal. International vessels use the Arctic Shipborne Sea Ice Standardization Tool (ASSIST) software to report near-real time sea ice conditions while underway. Essential observations of total ice concentration, distribution of multi-year ice and other ice types, as well as their respective stage of melt are reported. These current and historic sea ice conditions are visualized on interactive maps and in a variety of statistical analyses, and with all data sets available to download for further investigation. The summer of 2012 was the debut of the ASSIST software and the Ice Watch campaign, with research vessels from six nations reporting from a wide spatio-temporal scale spanning from the Beaufort Sea, across the North Pole and Arctic Basin, the coast of Greenland and into the Kara and Barents Seas during mid-season melt and into the first stages of freeze-up. The 2013 summer field season sustained the observation and data archiving record, with participation from some of the same cruises as well as other geographic and seasonal realms covered by new users. These results are presented to illustrate the evolution of the program, increased participation and critical statistics of ice regime change and record of melt and freeze processes revealed by the data. As an ongoing effort, Ice Watch/ASSIST aims to standardize observations of Arctic-specific sea ice features and conditions while utilizing nomenclature and coding based on the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) standards and the Antarctic Sea Ice and Processes & Climate (ASPeCt) protocol. Instigated by members of the CliC Sea Ice Working Group, the program has evolved with

  3. Construction materials used in the historical Roman era bath in Myra.

    PubMed

    Oguz, Cem; Turker, Fikret; Kockal, Niyazi Ugur

    2014-01-01

    The physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of mortars and bricks used in the historical building that was erected at Myra within the boundaries of Antalya Province during the Roman time were investigated. The sample picked points were marked on the air photographs and plans of the buildings and samples were photographed. Then petrographic evaluation was made by stereo microscope on the polished surfaces of construction materials (mortar, brick) taken from such historical buildings in laboratory condition. Also, microstructural analyses (SEM/EDX, XRD), physical analyses (unit volume, water absorption by mass, water absorption by volume, specific mass, compacity, and porosity), chemical analyses (acid loss and sieve analysis, salt analyses, pH, protein, fat, pozzolanic activity, and conductivity analyses), and mechanical experiments (compressive strength, point loading test, and tensile strength at bending) were applied and the obtained results were evaluated. It was observed that good adherence was provided between the binder and the aggregate in mortars. It was also detected that bricks have preserved their originality against environmental, atmospheric, and physicochemical effects and their mechanical properties showed that they were produced by appropriate techniques.

  4. Construction Materials Used in the Historical Roman Era Bath in Myra

    PubMed Central

    Oguz, Cem; Turker, Fikret

    2014-01-01

    The physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of mortars and bricks used in the historical building that was erected at Myra within the boundaries of Antalya Province during the Roman time were investigated. The sample picked points were marked on the air photographs and plans of the buildings and samples were photographed. Then petrographic evaluation was made by stereo microscope on the polished surfaces of construction materials (mortar, brick) taken from such historical buildings in laboratory condition. Also, microstructural analyses (SEM/EDX, XRD), physical analyses (unit volume, water absorption by mass, water absorption by volume, specific mass, compacity, and porosity), chemical analyses (acid loss and sieve analysis, salt analyses, pH, protein, fat, pozzolanic activity, and conductivity analyses), and mechanical experiments (compressive strength, point loading test, and tensile strength at bending) were applied and the obtained results were evaluated. It was observed that good adherence was provided between the binder and the aggregate in mortars. It was also detected that bricks have preserved their originality against environmental, atmospheric, and physicochemical effects and their mechanical properties showed that they were produced by appropriate techniques. PMID:25089290

  5. 32 CFR 644.317 - Preserving historic landmarks and properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Preserving historic landmarks and properties. 644.317 Section 644.317 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal § 644.317 Preserving historic landmarks and...

  6. Making fired bricks with spent equilibrium catalyst-a technical feasibility study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, M.-L.; Chen, L.-M.; Lai, Y.-C.; Chou, S.-F.

    2009-01-01

    Fluid catalytic cracking in an oil refinery uses a catalyst, such as an alumino-silicate zeolite, in the conversion of heavy hydrocarbons to light hydrocarbons. A small fraction of the catalyst is continually replaced with fresh catalyst to maintain activity. In North America, more than 400 tons of spent alumino-silicate equilibrium catalyst (spent e-cat), and worldwide, more than 1,100 tons, are generated daily, most of which is disposed of in landfills (municipal and on-site facilities). In this study, three spent e-cat samples were tested in a value-added application that would utilize this waste in the manufacturing of fired bricks. The results of this study indicate that spent e-cat is a technically feasible raw material substitute for the clay and shale commonly used in fired brick production. Fired bricks produced with up to 30 wt% of spent e-cat showed good physical appearance and their water absorption properties met the ASTM C 62 specifications for building bricks of either the moderate-or severe-weathering grade.

  7. Brick and Click Libraries: Proceedings of an Academic Library Symposium (Maryville, Missouri, October 22, 2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baudino, Frank, Ed.; Mardis, Lori, Ed.; Park, Sarah G., Ed.; Ury, Connie J., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The Brick & Click Libraries Symposium is a one-day conference that focuses on providing library resources and services for students who are either on-campus learners or off-campus learners. It is sponsored by Northwest Missouri State University in order to offer academic librarians a forum for sharing practical information. The subjects and…

  8. Effect of organic residues addition on the technological properties of clay bricks.

    PubMed

    Demir, Ismail

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the utilization potential of several organic residues in clay bricks. Sawdust, tobacco residues, and grass are widespread by-products of industrial and agricultural processes in Turkey. These residue materials have long cellulose fibres. Sawdust and tobacco residues generally are used as fuel, and the grass is utilized for agricultural purposes. The insulation capacity of brick increases with the increasing porosity of the clay body. Combustible, organic types of pore-forming additives are most frequently used for this purpose. For this reason, increasing amounts of organic residues (0%, 2.5%, 5% and 10% in wt.) were mixed with raw brick-clay. All samples were fired at 900 degrees C. Effects on shaping, plasticity, density, and mechanical properties were investigated. The organic residue additions were found to be effective for pore-forming in the clay body with the clay maintaining acceptable mechanical properties. It was observed that the fibrous nature of the residues did not create extrusion problems. However, higher residue addition required a higher water content to ensure the right plasticity. As a result, sawdust, tobacco residues, and grass can be utilized in an environmentally safe way as organic pore-forming agents in brick-clay.

  9. Summary of Surface Swipe Sampling for Beryllium on Lead Bricks and Shielding

    SciTech Connect

    Paik, S Y; Barron, D A

    2011-08-03

    Approximately 25,000 lbs of lead bricks at Site 300 were assessed by the Site 300 Industrial Hygienis tand Health Physicist for potential contamination of beryllium and radiation for reuse. These lead bricks and shielding had been used as shielding material during explosives tests that included beryllium and depleted uranium. Based on surface swipe sampling that was performed between July 26 and October 11, 2010, specifically for beryllium, the use of a spray encapsulant was found to be an effective means to limit removable surface contamination to levels below the DOE release limit for beryllium, which is 0.2 mcg/100 cm{sup 2}. All the surface swipe sampling data for beryllium and a timeline of when the samples were collected (and a brief description) are presented in this report. On December 15, 2010, the lead bricks and shielding were surveyed with an ion chamber and indicated dose rates less than 0.05 mrem per hour on contact. This represents a dose rate consistent with natural background. An additional suevey was performed on February 8, 2011, using a GM survey instrument to estimate total activity on the lead bricks and shielding, confirming safe levels of radioactivity. The vendor is licensed to possess and work with radioactive material.

  10. A Multibody Formulation for Three Dimensional Brick Finite Element Based Parallel and Scalable Rotor Dynamic Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    ers of bricks. Different element groups can be prescribed different material properties (e.g. spar, skin , and honey - comb). The component merger can...ensures that computations of the same complexity are compared and that the speed-up is not contaminated with the benefits of substructuring itself

  11. Brick & Click Libraries: An Academic Library Conference (14th, Maryville, Missouri, November 7, 2014)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baudino, Frank, Ed.; Johnson, Carolyn, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Eighteen scholarly papers and twelve abstracts comprise the content of the fourteenth annual Brick and Click Libraries Symposium, held annually at Northwest Missouri State University in Maryville, Missouri. The proceedings, authored by academic librarians and presented at the symposium, portray the contemporary and future face of librarianship.…

  12. Chemically-bonded brick production based on burned clay by means of semidry pressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voroshilov, Ivan; Endzhievskaya, Irina; Vasilovskaya, Nina

    2016-01-01

    We presented a study on the possibility of using the burnt rocks of the Krasnoyarsk Territory for production of chemically-bonded materials in the form of bricks which are so widely used in multistory housing and private house construction. The radiographic analysis of the composition of burnt rock was conducted and a modifier to adjust the composition uniformity was identified. The mixing moisture content was identified and optimal amount at 13-15% was determined. The method of semidry pressing has been chosen. The process of obtaining moldings has been theoretically proved; the advantages of chemically-bonded wall materials compared to ceramic brick were shown. The production of efficient artificial stone based on material burnt rocks, which is comparable with conventionally effective ceramic materials or effective with cell tile was proved, the density of the burned clay-based cell tile makes up to 1630-1785 kg m3, with compressive strength of 13.6-20.0 MPa depending on the compression ratio and cement consumption, frost resistance index is F50, and the thermal conductivity in the masonry is λ = 0,459-0,546 W m * °C. The clear geometric dimensions of pressed products allow the use of the chemically-bonded brick based on burnt clay as a facing brick.

  13. Deformations of brick buildings on collapsing soils of the Zaravshan Oasis

    SciTech Connect

    Khasanov, A.Z.; Strigo, G.S.; Mustakimov, V.R.

    1994-05-01

    The reasons for damage to frame and brick buildings in soil conditions of the first and second types with respect to collapsibility are analyzed. Ways of stabilizing the deformations of loess soils are discussed. Recommendations are suggested that make it possible to decrease the probability of damage to buildings from uneven moistening of bases composed of collapsing loess soils.

  14. Towards zero industrial waste: Utilisation of brick dust waste in sustainable construction.

    PubMed

    Kinuthia, J M; Nidzam, R M

    2011-08-01

    Laboratory investigations were carried out to establish the potential utilisation of brick dust (BD) in construction. The dust is a waste material from the cutting of fired clay bricks. Currently, the disposal of the dust is a problem to the brick fabrication company, and hence an environmental pollution concern. The dust was stabilised either used on its own or in combination with Pulverised Fuel Ash (PFA), a by-product material from coal combustion. The traditional stabilisers of lime and/or Portland Cement (PC) were used as controls. The main aim was to use a sustainable stabiliser material, where these stabilisers were partially replaced with Ground Granulated Blastfurnace Slag (GGBS), a by-product material from steel manufacture. Compacted cylinder test specimens were made at typical stabiliser contents and moist cured for up to 56 days prior to testing for compressive and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) strength tests, and to linear expansion during moist curing and subsequent soaking in water. The results obtained showed that partial substitution of the dust with PFA resulted in stronger material compared to using it on its own. The blended stabilisers achieved better performance. These results suggest technological, economic as well as environmental advantages of using the brick dust and similar industrial by-products to achieve sustainable infrastructure development with near zero industrial waste.

  15. Toward Applications for DNA Nanotechnology-More Bricks To Build With.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Hendrik

    2016-06-16

    Another brick in the wall: DNA nanotechnology has come a long way since its initial beginnings. This would not be possible without the continued development of methods for DNA assembly and new uses for DNA as a material. This Special Issue highlights some of the newest building blocks for nanodevices based on DNA.

  16. Fungal community succession and major components change during manufacturing process of Fu brick tea.

    PubMed

    Li, Qin; Huang, Jianan; Li, Yongdi; Zhang, Yiyang; Luo, Yu; Chen, Yuan; Lin, Haiyan; Wang, Kunbo; Liu, Zhonghua

    2017-07-31

    Fu brick tea is a unique post-fermented tea product which is fermented with microorganism during the manufacturing process. Metabolic analysis showed that most metabolites content were decreased during the manufacturing process of Fu brick tea, except GA (gallic acid). Illumina MiSeq sequencing of ITS gene amplicons was applied to analyze the fungal community succession. The genera Aspergillus, Cyberlindnera and Candida were predominant at the early stage of manufacturing process (from "primary dark tea" to "fermentation for 3 days"), but after the stage of "fermentation for 3 days" only Aspergillus was still dominated, and maintain a relatively constant until to the end of manufacturing process. The effects of metabolites on the structure of the fungal community were analyzed by redundancy analysis (RDA) and variation partitioning analysis (VPA). The results indicated that GCG (gallocatechin gallate), EGCG (epigallocatechin gallate) and GA as well as the interactions among them were the most probably ones to influence, or be influenced by the fungal communities during the fermentation process of Fu brick tea. This study revealed fungal succession, metabolite changes and their relationships, provided new insights into the mechanisms for manufacturing process of Fu brick tea.

  17. 6. Signal Tower/Boiler Room brick structure at easternmost border of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Signal Tower/Boiler Room brick structure at eastern-most border of DL&W property to left of Michigan Avenue between Buffalo River and South Park Avenue. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Lackawanna Terminal, Main Street & Buffalo River, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  18. 9. View of two DL&W brick passenger structures and western ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. View of two DL&W brick passenger structures and western portion of two-story train shed at right of photo from across Buffalo River. Skyway is at extreme left. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Lackawanna Terminal, Main Street & Buffalo River, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  19. 2. Facade of two brick passenger terminal buildings of DL&W ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Facade of two brick passenger terminal buildings of DL&W from parking lot at the foot of Main Street across South Park Avenue. Arched portion was elevated rail spur which originally continued westward a few hundred yards. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Lackawanna Terminal, Main Street & Buffalo River, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  20. Blocks, Bricks, and Planks: Relationships between Affordance and Visuo-Spatial Constructive Play Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Daniel; Farenga, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    The authors consider the strengths and weaknesses of three different visuo-spatial constructive play object (VCPO) types--blocks, bricks, and planks--and their impact on the development of creativity in spatial thinking and higher learning during free play. Each VCPO has its own set of attributes, they note, leading to different purposes,…

  1. Postmortem Study of a Magnesia-Chromite Brick from a Lead Recycling Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregurek, D.; Reinharter, K.; Reiter, V.; Wenzl, C.; Spanring, A.

    2015-09-01

    This study provides an example of a detailed postmortem analysis carried out on a used silicate-bonded magnesia-chromite brick out of a lead recycling furnace. The magnesia-chromite brick suffered from a high chemical attack due to the process slag. The high CaO, BaO, and sulfur-bearing silicate slag, as well as a high Na2O supply from soda resulted not only in a deep-reaching infiltration of the brick microstructure but also in a severe corrosion of the brick components. Both the sintered magnesia and chromite were attacked chemically. The FactSage calculations showed the formation of high amounts of liquid phase in the infiltrated microstructure and the formation of various Na-Ca-Al-silicates. A detailed investigation of the wear mechanisms through "postmortem studies" is a crucial prerequisite for every refractory producer to understand the interactions between slag and refractory materials. The obtained information and insights serve as a basis for improving refractory materials (i.e., choice of refractories for individual process and new developments) and consequently furnace operations (i.e., prolonged furnace campaigns).

  2. Technological behaviour and recycling potential of spent foundry sands in clay bricks.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Santurde, R; Andrés, A; Viguri, J R; Raimondo, M; Guarini, G; Zanelli, C; Dondi, M

    2011-03-01

    The feasibility of recycling spent foundry sand in clay bricks was assessed in laboratory, pilot line and industrial trials, using naturally occurring sand as a reference. Raw materials were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution, and leaching and combined to produce bodies containing up to 35% wt. sand. The extrusion, drying and firing behaviour (plasticity, drying sensitivity, mechanical strength, bulk density, water absorption, and shrinkage) were determined. The microstructure, phase composition, durability and leaching (EN 12457, granular materials, end-life step, European Waste Landfill Directive; NEN 7345, monolithic materials, use-life step, Dutch Building Material Decree) were evaluated for bricks manufactured at optimal firing temperature. These results demonstrate that spent foundry sand can be recycled in clay bricks. There are no relevant technological drawbacks, but the feasibility strongly depends on the properties of the raw materials. Spent foundry sand may be introduced into bricks up to 30% wt. Most of the hazardous elements from the spent foundry sand are inertized during firing and the concentrations of hazardous components in the leachates are below the standard threshold for inert waste category landfill excepting for chromium and lead; however, their environmental risk during their use-life step can be considered negligible.

  3. Brick & Click Libraries: An Academic Library Conference Proceedings (16th, Maryville, Missouri, November 4, 2016)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baudino, Frank, Ed.; Johnson, Carolyn, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    Twenty scholarly papers and fifteen abstracts comprise the content of the sixteenth annual Brick and Click Libraries Conference, held annually at Northwest Missouri State University in Maryville, Missouri. The proceedings, authored by academic librarians and presented at the symposium, portray the contemporary and future face of librarianship. The…

  4. 4Bs or Not 4Bs: Bricks, Bytes, Brains, and Bandwidth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treat, Tod

    2011-01-01

    The effective integration of planning to include bricks, bytes, brains, and bandwidth (the 4Bs) represents an opportunity for community colleges to extend their capacity as knowledge-intensive organizations, coupling knowledge, technology, and learning. Integration is important to ensure that the interplay among organizations, agents within them,…

  5. Pulmonary dysfunctions, oxidative stress and DNA damage in brick kiln workers.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, R; Khaliq, F; Subramaneyaan, M; Ahmed, R S

    2012-11-01

    Brick kilns in the suburban areas in developing countries pose a big threat to the environment and hence the health of their workers and people residing around them. The present study was planned to assess the lung functions, oxidative stress parameters and DNA damage in brick kiln workers. A total of 31 male subjects working in brick kiln, and 32 age, sex and socioeconomic status matched controls were included in the study. The lung volumes, capacities and flow rates, namely, forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV(1)), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV(1)/FVC, expiratory reserve volume, inspiratory capacity (IC), maximal expiratory flow when 50% of FVC is remaining to be expired, maximum voluntary ventilation, peak expiratory flow rate and vital capacity were significantly decreased in the brick kiln workers. Increased oxidative stress as evidenced by increased malonedialdehyde levels and reduced glutathione content, glutathione S-transferase activity and ferric reducing ability of plasma were observed in the study group when compared with controls. Our results indicate a significant correlation between oxidative stress parameters and pulmonary dysfunction, which may be due to silica-induced oxidative stress and resulting lung damage.

  6. 78 FR 34036 - Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... for review of Yingkou Bayuquan Refractories Co., Ltd. (``Yingkou Bayuquan'') from Vesuvius USA Corporation (``Vesuvius''), a U.S. importer of magnesia carbon bricks from the PRC.\\2\\ Fengchi Imp. & Exp. Co..., Vesuvius timely withdrew its request for review of Yingkou Bayuquan.\\6\\ \\1\\ See Antidumping...

  7. Physical properties and consumer reaction to use of compressed wood bricks in southeast Alaska

    Treesearch

    Allen M. Brackley; Robert Gorman; Karen. Peterson

    2012-01-01

    In late 2008, a group of business people and entrepreneurs in southeast Alaska became aware of a compressed wood brick product that could be used as an alternative fuel in existing wood-burning stoves and heating equipment. The product differed from many others on the market in that it contained no additive to promote binding and burn characteristics. In 2009, local...

  8. Meshing complex macro-scale objects into self-assembling bricks

    PubMed Central

    Hacohen, Adar; Hanniel, Iddo; Nikulshin, Yasha; Wolfus, Shuki; Abu-Horowitz, Almogit; Bachelet, Ido

    2015-01-01

    Self-assembly provides an information-economical route to the fabrication of objects at virtually all scales. However, there is no known algorithm to program self-assembly in macro-scale, solid, complex 3D objects. Here such an algorithm is described, which is inspired by the molecular assembly of DNA, and based on bricks designed by tetrahedral meshing of arbitrary objects. Assembly rules are encoded by topographic cues imprinted on brick faces while attraction between bricks is provided by embedded magnets. The bricks can then be mixed in a container and agitated, leading to properly assembled objects at high yields and zero errors. The system and its assembly dynamics were characterized by video and audio analysis, enabling the precise time- and space-resolved characterization of its performance and accuracy. Improved designs inspired by our system could lead to successful implementation of self-assembly at the macro-scale, allowing rapid, on-demand fabrication of objects without the need for assembly lines. PMID:26226488

  9. Rapid radiochemical method for determination of actinides in emergency concrete and brick samples.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Sherrod L; Culligan, Brian K; Kelsey-Wall, Angel; Shaw, Patrick J

    2011-09-02

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides in emergency concrete and brick samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used in emergency response situations or for routine analysis. If a radiological dispersive device (RDD), Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) or nuclear accident occurs, there will be a urgent need for rapid analyses of many different environmental matrices, including building materials such as concrete and brick, to support dose mitigation and environmental clean-up. The new method for actinides in concrete and brick method utilizes a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion method, a lanthanum fluoride matrix removal step, and a column separation process with stacked TEVA, TRU and DGA Resin cartridges. Alpha emitters are prepared using rare earth microprecipitation for counting by alpha spectrometry. The method showed high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. The determination of actinides in concrete and brick sample analysis can be performed in less than 8h with excellent quality for emergency samples. The rapid fusion technique is a rugged sample digestion method that ensures that any refractory actinide particles are effectively digested.

  10. Brick and Click Libraries: An Academic Library Symposium (12th, Maryville, Missouri, October 26, 2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baudino, Frank, Ed.; Johnson, Carolyn, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Twenty scholarly papers and fifteen abstracts comprise the content of the twelfth annual Brick and Click Libraries Symposium, held at Northwest Missouri State University in Maryville, Missouri. The peer-reviewed proceedings, authored by academic librarians and presented at the symposium, portray the contemporary and future face of librarianship.…

  11. Brick & Click Libraries: An Academic Library Conference (15th, Maryville, Missouri, November 6, 2015)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baudino, Frank, Ed.; Johnson, Carolyn, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    Nineteen scholarly papers and seventeen abstracts comprise the content of the fifteenth annual Brick and Click Libraries Conference, held annually at Northwest Missouri State University in Maryville, Missouri. The proceedings, authored by academic librarians and presented at the symposium, portray the contemporary and future face of librarianship.…

  12. Chemically-bonded brick production based on burned clay by means of semidry pressing

    SciTech Connect

    Voroshilov, Ivan Endzhievskaya, Irina Vasilovskaya, Nina

    2016-01-15

    We presented a study on the possibility of using the burnt rocks of the Krasnoyarsk Territory for production of chemically-bonded materials in the form of bricks which are so widely used in multistory housing and private house construction. The radiographic analysis of the composition of burnt rock was conducted and a modifier to adjust the composition uniformity was identified. The mixing moisture content was identified and optimal amount at 13-15% was determined. The method of semidry pressing has been chosen. The process of obtaining moldings has been theoretically proved; the advantages of chemically-bonded wall materials compared to ceramic brick were shown. The production of efficient artificial stone based on material burnt rocks, which is comparable with conventionally effective ceramic materials or effective with cell tile was proved, the density of the burned clay-based cell tile makes up to 1630-1785 kg \\ m{sup 3}, with compressive strength of 13.6-20.0 MPa depending on the compression ratio and cement consumption, frost resistance index is F50, and the thermal conductivity in the masonry is λ = 0,459-0,546 W \\ m {sup *} °C. The clear geometric dimensions of pressed products allow the use of the chemically-bonded brick based on burnt clay as a facing brick.

  13. Brick & Click Libraries: An Academic Library Symposium (13th, Maryville, Missouri, November 1, 2013)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baudino, Frank, Ed.; Johnson, Carolyn, Ed.; Park, Sarag G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-six scholarly papers and ten abstracts comprise the content of the thirteenth annual Brick and Click Libraries Symposium, held annually at Northwest Missouri State University in Maryville, Missouri. The proceedings, authored by academic librarians and presented at the symposium, portray the contemporary and future face of librarianship. The…

  14. Producing fired bricks using coal slag from a gasification plant in indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, L.-M.; Chou, I.-Ming; Chou, S.-F.J.; Stucki, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) is a promising power generation technology which increases the efficiency of coal-to-power conversion and enhances carbon dioxide concentration in exhaust emissions for better greenhouse gas capture. Two major byproducts from IGCC plants are bottom slag and sulfur. The sulfur can be processed into commercially viable products, but high value applications need to be developed for the slag material in order to improve economics of the process. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technical feasibility of incorporating coal slag generated by the Wabash River IGCC plant in Indiana as a raw material for the production of fired bricks. Full-size bricks containing up to 20 wt% of the coal slag were successfully produced at a bench-scale facility. These bricks have color and texture similar to those of regular fired bricks and their water absorption properties met the ASTM specifications for a severe weathering grade. Other engineering properties tests, including compressive strength tests, are in progress.

  15. KITCHEN (NORTH WING), BRICK OVEN, WRITING ON DOOR “THE VAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    KITCHEN (NORTH WING), BRICK OVEN, WRITING ON DOOR “THE VAN HOUTEN DOOR, SIZE 12 x 28, March 26, 95 (PAT), MANUFACTURED BY DUTCHESS TOOL CO., BEACON, N.Y - Ormond Hotel, 15 East Granada, Ormond Beach, Volusia County, FL

  16. 4Bs or Not 4Bs: Bricks, Bytes, Brains, and Bandwidth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treat, Tod

    2011-01-01

    The effective integration of planning to include bricks, bytes, brains, and bandwidth (the 4Bs) represents an opportunity for community colleges to extend their capacity as knowledge-intensive organizations, coupling knowledge, technology, and learning. Integration is important to ensure that the interplay among organizations, agents within them,…

  17. Measure Guideline. Installing Rigid Foam Insulation on the Interior of Existing Brick Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Natarajan, Hariharan; Klocke, Steve; Puttagunta, Srikanth

    2012-06-01

    This measure guideline provides information on an effective method to insulate the interior of existing brick masonry walls with extruded polystyrene (XPS) insulation board. The guide outlines step-by-step design and installation procedures while explaining the benefits and tradeoffs where applicable. The authors intend that this document be useful to a varied audience that includes builders,remodelers, contractors and homeowners.

  18. Measure Guideline: Installing Rigid Foam Insulation on the Interior of Existing Brick Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Natarajan, H.; Klocke, S.; Puttagunta, S.

    2012-06-01

    This measure guideline provides information on an effective method to insulate the interior of existing brick masonry walls with extruded polystyrene (XPS) insulation board. The guide outlines step-by-step design and installation procedures while explaining the benefits and tradeoffs where applicable. The authors intend that this document be useful to a varied audience that includes builders, remodelers, contractors and homeowners.

  19. Historical eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, F. R.

    1982-10-01

    A historical overview of solar and lunar eclipses is presented in relation to calculating the change in diameter of the sun and the rate of spin of the earth. A 1979 estimate of change in the sun's diameter, based on daily observations since 1750, is calculated to be a 2 arcsec shrinkage, or about .1% per century. Based on solar eclipse timing in 1715 in England, it is concluded that the sun was 0.2 arcsec smaller in 1715 than it is now. Solar eclipse times, when compared with data on the transits of Mercury, reveal a .008 + or - .007 percentage decrease per century, but an 80 year oscillation period with a .025% amplitude may exist. To determine variations in the earth's rotation, only eclipse data from ancient and medieval times are of value. Perhaps the most reliable eclipse data is from observations of the Babylonian eclipse of 136 B.C. Calculations based on this and several other observations reveal an average rate of day lengthening since ancient times to be 1.78 + or - .11 milliseconds per century. To more accurately analyze eclipse observations, the celestial coordinates of the moon must be more precisely estimated.

  20. Historical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landsberg, H. E.

    It was a pleasure to learn, from a recent (May 4) issue of Eos, of the formation of a permanent Committee on History of Geophysics. There is a dire need for reference material, books, and articles on geophysical history.Let me recommend to them that they take a good look at the Dictionary of the History of Science (W.F. Bynum, E.J. Browne, Roy Porter (Eds.), Princeton University Press, 494 pp., 1981). What follows is not a book review, although it may appear so. It is meant to be a challenge to place geophysics on the map in historical context. In this book, hydrology is dealt with in one sentence under the heading ‘cycle,’ geomagnetism under ‘declination and dip,’ and its history ends with Edward Sabine. Seismology appears under earthquakes. No important seismologist is mentioned. In the biographical index, Wiechert is included only for a contribution to physics. Where are Sir Harold Jeffreys, Galitzin, Gutenberg, Mohorovičić, Lehman, and many others? Meteorology ends with V. Bjerknes and Solberg; Köppen, Richardson, Rossby, and other notables [of] the last century do not seem to exist.

  1. Historical Superbolides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Zamora, S.; Ocaña, F.; Tapia, C.; de Burgos, A.; Herráiz, G.; Petrova, M.

    2015-05-01

    The amount of impacts of 50 m -- 1 cm asteroid with the Earth is a typical issue of controversy. Explosions in upper atmosphere and lunar impacts suggest that could have more impacts than is currently accepted. A ``new'' information source data can be fireballs appeared in historical press. Some of these reports indicate the presence of pressure waves or damage that may help estimate the energy of the event. We analysed more than 50 years of the archive of the New York Times and found a number of abnormally clustered events that can not be explained by a Poisson distribution. We have found at least two big concentrations not associated to any major meteor shower. One around the actual 23rd of July and other on the 14th of February. This second major concentration it is really close to the Chelyabinsk event date, so it is probable that there they are related. The preliminary results were published in Sánchez de Miguel, A., Ocaña, F., Zamora, S., et al. 2014, in Garzón Guerrero J. A., López Sánchez A. R., eds, Libro de Actas del XXI Congreso Estatal de Astronomía. Granada, Spain.

  2. [Determination of life elements in hair and urine with brick-tea fluorosis in Inner Mongolia by ICP-OES].

    PubMed

    Hou, Kun; Ji, Hong-bing; Li, Hai-rong; Wang, Li-zhen; Wang, Wu-yi; Liu, Qing-bin; Wang, Ge; Liu, Xue-hui

    2009-04-01

    In brick-tea fluorosis affected areas XiLinHot city in Inner Mongolia, herdsmen who like drinking a large amount of brick tea in everyday life and Han habitants rarely drinking brick tea as control group were enrolled, and their hair and urine were sampled. The concentrations of Ca, Mg, K, Al, P, Cu, Zn and Fe in hair and urine were detected using ICP-OES. The RSDs of the method were between 2.32% and 8.03%, and the analytical results of the hair reference samples were consistent with the certified values. The results showed that the contents of Al, Mg and K in hair, and contents of Al and Ca in urine of herdsmen who were accustomed to drinking brick tea were obviously higher than those in control group (P<0.05), while the contents of K in urine of herdsmen who were accustomed to drinking brick tea was lower than those in control group (P<0.05), and other elements did not have statistic significance (P>0.05). Chronically drinking brick tea probably brings metabolic disorder of Ca and Al in human body, and the interaction mechanism of life elements in brick-tea fluorosis should be further studied.

  3. Effect of olive mill waste addition on the properties of porous fired clay bricks using Taguchi method.

    PubMed

    Sutcu, Mucahit; Ozturk, Savas; Yalamac, Emre; Gencel, Osman

    2016-10-01

    Production of porous clay bricks lightened by adding olive mill waste as a pore making additive was investigated. Factors influencing the brick manufacturing process were analyzed by an experimental design, Taguchi method, to find out the most favorable conditions for the production of bricks. The optimum process conditions for brick preparation were investigated by studying the effects of mixture ratios (0, 5 and 10 wt%) and firing temperatures (850, 950 and 1050 °C) on the physical, thermal and mechanical properties of the bricks. Apparent density, bulk density, apparent porosity, water absorption, compressive strength, thermal conductivity, microstructure and crystalline phase formations of the fired brick samples were measured. It was found that the use of 10% waste addition reduced the bulk density of the samples up to 1.45 g/cm(3). As the porosities increased from 30.8 to 47.0%, the compressive strengths decreased from 36.9 to 10.26 MPa at firing temperature of 950 °C. The thermal conductivities of samples fired at the same temperature showed a decrease of 31% from 0.638 to 0.436 W/mK, which is hopeful for heat insulation in the buildings. Increasing of the firing temperature also affected their mechanical and physical properties. This study showed that the olive mill waste could be used as a pore maker in brick production.

  4. Synthetic biology platform of CoryneBrick vectors for gene expression in Corynebacterium glutamicum and its application to xylose utilization.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Kyoung; Lee, Jungseok; Um, Youngsoon; Lee, Taek Soon; Bott, Michael; Park, Si Jae; Woo, Han Min

    2014-07-01

    Currently, the majority of tools in synthetic biology have been designed and constructed for model organisms such as Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In order to broaden the spectrum of organisms accessible to such tools, we established a synthetic biological platform, called CoryneBrick, for gene expression in Corynebacterium glutamicum as a set of E. coli-C. glutamicum shuttle vectors whose elements are interchangeable with BglBrick standard parts. C. glutamicum is an established industrial microorganism for the production of amino acids, proteins, and commercially promising chemicals. Using the CoryneBrick vectors, we showed various time-dependent expression profiles of a red fluorescent protein. This CoryneBrick platform was also applicable for two-plasmid expression systems with a conventional C. glutamicum expression vector. In order to demonstrate the practical application of the CoryneBrick vectors, we successfully reconstructed the xylose utilization pathway in the xylose-negative C. glutamicum wild type by fast BglBrick cloning methods using multiple genes encoding for xylose isomerase and xylulose kinase, resulting in a growth rate of 0.11 ± 0.004 h(-1) and a xylose uptake rate of 3.35 mmol/gDW/h when 1 % xylose was used as sole carbon source. Thus, CoryneBrick vectors were shown to be useful engineering tools in order to exploit Corynebacterium as a synthetic platform for the production of chemicals by controllable expression of the genes of interest.

  5. Papercrete brick as an alternate building material to control Environmental Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudarsan, J. S.; Ramesh, S.; Jothilingam, M.; Ramasamy, Vishalatchi; Rajan, Rajitha J.

    2017-07-01

    Utilization of concrete in the construction industry is increasing day by day. The increasing demand for concrete in the future is the major issue, for which an alternate option is to find out at a reduced or no additional cost and to reduce the environmental impact due to increase of cement industries that are important ingredient to economic development. It turns out urgent to find out alternate for the partial replacement of concrete and cement, as natural sources of aggregates are becoming exhausted. As large quantity of paper waste is generated from different countries all over the world which causes serious environmental problems, So in this present study abandoned paper waste was used as a partial replacement material in concrete,. Study indicates that 80% of the construction cost of a building was contributed by building material and still millions of people in developing countries like India are not able to afford the cost of construction of house. This study is based on potential use of light weight composite brick as a building material and potential use of paper waste for producing at low-cost. Experimental investigation was carried out to analyse optimization of mix for papercrete bricks depending upon the water absorption, compressive strength and unit weight. Papercrete bricks were prepared out of waste paper, and quarry dust with partial replacement of cement by another industrial by-product Fly Ash in varying proportions of 25%, 40% and 55%. The properties like mechanical strength, standard quality comparisons with the conventional bricks through standard tests like hardness, soundness, fire resistance and Cost-Benefit Analysis were performed and studied. The specimens of dimension 230mm x 110mm x 80mm were subjected to 7 Days and 28 days air curing and sun drying before tests were performed on them. Based on the study it was found that for non-load bearing walls papercrete bricks are best suited.

  6. Historical somersaults.

    PubMed

    Ryan, R

    1993-01-01

    The author and his youngest sister attended a mass at the Mission San Diego in California where the Monsignor discussed the life of Father Serra who founded the Mission in 1769. A letter to Father Serra from another priest showed the priest's distress over an abortion done to an Indian woman living at the Mission. Recollecting this historical letter was used to express the Monsignor's views on abortion today. He then reminded the congregation of the upcoming presidential election. He claimed that either Indians or people claiming to be Indians are trying to prevent the canonization of Father Serra without explaining why these people objected. He argued that the secular world cannot judge this man by contemporary standards. Yet, he had earlier implored the congregants to make secular political choices based on the absolute standards of the church. The objections to Father Serra by various secular people where he had been a member of the Spanish Inquisition and the missions he established served as forced confinement for the Indians. Supposedly, Father Serra and other priests kept Indian women in the missions to protect them from the brutality of Spanish soldiers. In fact, the pregnant Indian mentioned in the Monsignor's sermon was most likely raped by a Spaniard. Women in the missions were forced to stay in the missions while men could at least go to the fields. Unsanitary conditions were very unhealthy for the women, leading to considerable mortality. The child mortality rate was higher than 20%. Women who tried to control their fertility were harshly punished. The Catholic Church would do better if it canonized Father de las Casas who defended the autonomy and intellectual credibility of Indian culture. The author concludes that it is indeed unfair to judge Father Serra by contemporary standards, just as it is unfair and unreasonable to force Catholic standards on others.

  7. Water extract of the fungi from Fuzhuan brick tea improves the beneficial function on inhibiting fat deposition.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yuxuan; Xiong, Zhe; Li, Juan; Huang, Jian-An; Teng, Cuiqin; Gong, Yushun; Liu, Zhonghua

    2014-08-01

    Fuzhuan brick tea (FBT) is traditionally consumed by the ethnic group in the border region of northwest China. The unique yellow fungal (Eurotium cristatum) growth phase is considered to be the key process point in the manufacture of the brick tea. The fungi from FBT are not only strongly correlated to the quality of brick tea, but also have the potential function of preventing obesity. The water extract of fungi (100 μg/mL) can significantly inhibit fat deposition in 3T3-L1 adipocyte and Caenorhabditis elegans. Furthermore, the inhibition of 3T3-L1 adipocyte formation was not due to the suppression on cell viability.

  8. Parametric Workflow (BIM) for the Repair Construction of Traditional Historic Architecture in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Y.-P.; Hsu, C. C.; Lin, M.-C.; Tsai, Z.-W.; Chen, J.-Y.

    2015-08-01

    In Taiwan, numerous existing traditional buildings are constructed with wooden structures, brick structures, and stone structures. This paper will focus on the Taiwan traditional historic architecture and target the traditional wooden structure buildings as the design proposition and process the BIM workflow for modeling complex wooden combination geometry, integrating with more traditional 2D documents and for visualizing repair construction assumptions within the 3D model representation. The goal of this article is to explore the current problems to overcome in wooden historic building conservation, and introduce the BIM technology in the case of conserving, documenting, managing, and creating full engineering drawings and information for effectively support historic conservation. Although BIM is mostly oriented to current construction praxis, there have been some attempts to investigate its applicability in historic conservation projects. This article also illustrates the importance and advantages of using BIM workflow in repair construction process, when comparing with generic workflow.

  9. Real Earthquakes, Real Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schomburg, Aaron

    2003-01-01

    One teacher took her class on a year long earthquake expedition. The goal was to monitor the occurrences of real earthquakes during the year and mark their locations with push pins on a wall-sized world map in the hallway outside the science room. The purpose of the project was to create a detailed picture of the earthquakes that occurred…

  10. Real Earthquakes, Real Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schomburg, Aaron

    2003-01-01

    One teacher took her class on a year long earthquake expedition. The goal was to monitor the occurrences of real earthquakes during the year and mark their locations with push pins on a wall-sized world map in the hallway outside the science room. The purpose of the project was to create a detailed picture of the earthquakes that occurred…

  11. New constraints on historical dipole field decay: Four centuries of archaeointensity from Cape Town, South Africa.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hare, V. J.; Gallet, Y.; Genevey, A.

    2015-12-01

    Current global geomagnetic field models suffer from strong bias towards Northern Hemisphere data. Absolute intensity measurements from the Southern Hemisphere are key to understanding the evolution of the field over the historical era, especially recent strengthening of non-dipole contributions, and the appearance of the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA). I present the first archaeointensity data for locally-fired historical bricks from several well-dated sites (1660-2009 AD) in Cape Town, South Africa. These data constitute the first archaeomagnetic intensity variation curve for southern Africa for the past few centuries. The ages of the sites are tightly constrained by historical and archaeological considerations. Archaeointensity data obtained by the Thellier and Thellier method (modified by Coe), are corrected for both TRM anisotropy and cooling rate dependence of TRM acquisition. Analysis of magnetic mineralogy was performed to aid selection of fragments. Reliable archaeointensity determinations were obtained for 48 of 80 specimens, and 45 were retained in the final analysis. Intensity results vary from 24.3 ± 0.6 μT (modern brick) to 40.7 ± 0.8 μT (1660 AD), corresponding to Virtual Axial Dipole Moments (VADMs) between 6.1 ± 0.2 and 10.2 ± 0.2 נ1022 Am2. Results are generally not in agreement with current field models, but are coherent with other archaeomagnetic datasets from the Southern Hemisphere. The possible reasons for this are discussed, as well as implications for the historical evolution of the field.

  12. Assessment of firing conditions in old fired-clay bricks: The contribution of X-ray powder diffraction with the Rietveld method and small angle neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Viani, Alberto; Sotiriadis, Konstantinos; Len, Adél; Šašek, Petr; Ševčík, Radek

    2016-06-15

    Full characterization of fired-clay bricks is crucial for the improvement of process variables in manufacturing and, in case of old bricks, for restoration/replacement purposes. To this aim, five bricks produced in a plant in Czech Republic in the past have been investigated with a combination of analytical techniques in order to derive information on the firing process. An additional old brick from another brickyard was also used to study the influence of different raw materials on sample microstructure. The potential of X-ray diffraction with the Rietveld method and small angle neutron scattering technique has been exploited to describe the phase transformations taking place during firing and characterize the brick microstructure. Unit-cell parameter of spinel and amount of hematite are proposed as indicators of the maximum firing temperature, although for the latter, limited to bricks produced from the same raw material. The fractal quality of the surface area of pores obtained from small angle neutron scattering is also suggested as a method to distinguish between bricks produced from different raw clays. - Highlights: • Rietveld method helps in describing microstructure and physical properties of bricks. • XRPD derived cell parameter of spinel is proposed as an indicator of firing temperature. • SANS effectively describes brick micro and nanostructure, including closed porosity. • Fractal quality of pore surface is proposed as ‘fingerprint’ of brick manufacturing.

  13. Residual Mechanical Properties of Concrete Made with Crushed Clay Bricks and Roof Tiles Aggregate after Exposure to High Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Miličević, Ivana; Štirmer, Nina; Banjad Pečur, Ivana

    2016-04-19

    This paper presents the residual mechanical properties of concrete made with crushed bricks and clay roof tile aggregates after exposure to high temperatures. One referent mixture and eight mixtures with different percentages of replacement of natural aggregate by crushed bricks and roof tiles are experimentally tested. The properties of the concrete were measured before and after exposure to 200, 400, 600 and 800 °C. In order to evaluate the basic residual mechanical properties of concrete with crushed bricks and roof tiles after exposure to high temperatures, ultrasonic pulse velocity is used as a non-destructive test method and the results are compared with those of a destructive method for validation. The mixture with the highest percentage of replacement of natural aggregate by crushed brick and roof tile aggregate has the best physical, mechanical, and thermal properties for application of such concrete in precast concrete elements exposed to high temperatures.

  14. Residual Mechanical Properties of Concrete Made with Crushed Clay Bricks and Roof Tiles Aggregate after Exposure to High Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Miličević, Ivana; Štirmer, Nina; Banjad Pečur, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the residual mechanical properties of concrete made with crushed bricks and clay roof tile aggregates after exposure to high temperatures. One referent mixture and eight mixtures with different percentages of replacement of natural aggregate by crushed bricks and roof tiles are experimentally tested. The properties of the concrete were measured before and after exposure to 200, 400, 600 and 800 °C. In order to evaluate the basic residual mechanical properties of concrete with crushed bricks and roof tiles after exposure to high temperatures, ultrasonic pulse velocity is used as a non-destructive test method and the results are compared with those of a destructive method for validation. The mixture with the highest percentage of replacement of natural aggregate by crushed brick and roof tile aggregate has the best physical, mechanical, and thermal properties for application of such concrete in precast concrete elements exposed to high temperatures. PMID:28773420

  15. Real-time volume rendering of four-dimensional images based on three-dimensional texture mapping.

    PubMed

    Hwang, J; Kim, J S; Kim, J S; Kim, I Y; Kim, S I

    2001-06-01

    A four-dimensional (4-D) image consists of three-dimensional (3-D) volume data that varies with time. It is used to express a deforming or moving object in virtual surgery or 4-D ultrasound. It is difficult to obtain 4-D images by conventional ray-casting or shear-warp factorization methods because of their time-consuming rendering process and the pre-processing stage necessary whenever the volume data are changed. Even when 3-D texture mapping is used, repeated volume loading is time-consuming in 4-D image rendering. In this study, we propose a method to reduce data loading time using coherence between currently loaded volume and previously loaded volume in order to achieve real-time rendering based on 3-D texture mapping. Volume data are divided into small bricks and each brick being loaded is tested for similarity to one that was already loaded in memory. If the brick passes the test, it is defined as 3-D texture by OpenGL functions. Later, the texture slices of the brick are mapped into polygons and blended by OpenGL blending functions. All bricks undergo this test. Using continuous deforming, 50 volumes are rendered in interactive time with SGI ONYX. Realtime volume rendering based on 3-D texture mapping is currently available for personal computers.

  16. Stabilization of arsenic and fluoride bearing spent adsorbent in clay bricks: Preparation, characterization and leaching studies.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Vineet Kumar; Mondal, Prasenjit

    2017-09-15

    The presence of arsenic and fluoride in groundwater has been observed throughout the world. Many technologies have been developed by various research groups in order to tackle this problem. Adsorption has emerged as one of the best possible technique for the removal of arsenic, fluoride and many other pollutants from drinking water. Although a considerable amount of work has been published on the adsorptive removal of arsenic and fluoride, the area related to the management of spent adsorbent is not well explored. Present paper deals with the adsorptive removal of arsenic and fluoride from aqueous solution by three different types of adsorbents, namely, thermally treated laterite (TTL), acid-base treated laterite (ABTL) and aluminum oxide/hydroxide nanoparticles (AHNP). Under the experimental conditions in batch operation, the adsorption capacities of TTL, ABLT and AHNP for arsenic are found to be 6.43 μg/g, 9.25 μg/g and 48.5 μg/g respectively, whereas for fluoride, these values are found as 0.21 mg/g, 0.85 mg/g and 4.65 mg/g respectively. After adsorption, the spent adsorbents have been stabilized in the form of clay bricks. The effects of spent adsorbent concentration on the properties of bricks and their leaching properties are investigated. The bricks have been tested for various properties like density, percentage water absorption, shrinkage, compressive strength and efflorescence. The maximum values of density and shrinkage of the bricks formed are found as 2.3 g/cm(3) and 10.2%, whereas the percentage water absorption and compressive strength of the bricks are found between 11 and 14% and 35 to 150 kgf/cm(2) respectively. All the test results are in accordance with the criteria set by Indian Standards. The leaching test of arsenic and fluoride from the bricks reveals that their maximum values in leachate are 510 μg/L and 2.1 mg/L respectively, which are below the permissible limits of USEPA standards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  17. 41 CFR 102-75.455 - May historic monuments be used for revenue-producing activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May historic monuments... PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal Property for Use As Historic Monuments § 102-75.455 May historic monuments be used for revenue-producing activities? The disposal agency...

  18. Corrosion of MgO-MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel refractory bricks by calcium aluminosilicate slag

    SciTech Connect

    Goto, Kiyoshi; Argent, B.B.; Lee, W.E.

    1997-02-01

    Microstructural analysis of MgO-MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} refractory bricks corroded at 1,400--1,500 C by calcium aluminosilicate slag reveals secondary spinel, monticellite, merwinite, and MgO as microscopic corrosion products, generally forming in this sequence as the brick is penetrated. The secondary spinel forms an incomplete layer close to (but not at) the MgO grain. Thermodynamic calculations are used to support a detailed model of the corrosion mechanism.

  19. PAH exposure biomarkers are associated with clinico-chemical changes in the brick kiln workers in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Atif; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Martellini, Tania; Cincinelli, Alessandra

    2014-08-15

    In this study we investigated the clinico-chemical parameters and the level of exposure of brick kiln workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Punjab (Pakistan). The brick kiln workers and a non-occupationally exposed group were recruited for comparative analysis of urinary biomarkers of PAH exposure (i.e. 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHPyr), α-naphthol and β-naphthol) and blood level of superoxide dismutase (SOD), as a biomarker of oxidative stress and other hematologic parameters. Questionnaires were used to document information on socio-demographic characteristics of all the subjects. The analysis of urinary biomarkers showed higher median concentrations of 1-OHPyr, and α- and β-naphthols in brick kiln workers (1.53, 3.65 and 1.53 μmol/mol-Cr, respectively) than non-occupationally exposed group (0.62, 0.64 and 0.66 μmol/mol-Cr, respectively). The 1-OHPyr in brick kiln workers was above the occupational exposure level. Among the clinical parameters of brick kiln workers, hemoglobin (Hb) and red blood cells (RBCs) were very low and closely associate with 1-OHPyr and β-naphthol. Additionally, the white blood cells (WBCs) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were also elevated in brick kiln workers, which suggested inflammatory symptoms and high oxidative stress. The results show that regardless of possibly being affected by the poor nutrition, the anemic state and hematological changes observed in brick kiln workers may be associated with their exposure to smoke present in the environment of brick kilns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The environmental geochemistry of trace elements and naturally radionuclides in a coal gangue brick-making plant.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chuncai; Liu, Guijian; Cheng, Siwei; Fang, Ting; Lam, Paul K S

    2014-08-28

    An investigation focused on the transformation and distribution behaviors of trace elements and natural radionuclides around a coal gangue brick plant was conducted. Simultaneous sampling of coal gangue, brick, fly ash and flue gas were implemented. Soil, soybean and earthworm samples around the brick plant were also collected for comprehensive ecological assessment. During the firing process, trace elements were released and redistributed in the brick, fly ash and the flue gas. Elements can be divided into two groups according to their releasing characteristics, high volatile elements (release ratio higher than 30%) are represented by Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Se and Sn, which emitted mainly in flue gas that would travel and deposit at the northeast and southwest direction around the brick plant. Cadmium, Ni and Pb are bio-accumulated in the soybean grown on the study area, which indicates potential health impacts in case of human consumption. The high activity of natural radionuclides in the atmosphere around the plant as well as in the made-up bricks will increase the health risk of respiratory system.

  1. The Environmental Geochemistry of Trace Elements and Naturally Radionuclides in a Coal Gangue Brick-Making Plant

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chuncai; Liu, Guijian; Cheng, Siwei; Fang, Ting; Lam, Paul K. S.

    2014-01-01

    An investigation focused on the transformation and distribution behaviors of trace elements and natural radionuclides around a coal gangue brick plant was conducted. Simultaneous sampling of coal gangue, brick, fly ash and flue gas were implemented. Soil, soybean and earthworm samples around the brick plant were also collected for comprehensive ecological assessment. During the firing process, trace elements were released and redistributed in the brick, fly ash and the flue gas. Elements can be divided into two groups according to their releasing characteristics, high volatile elements (release ratio higher than 30%) are represented by Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Se and Sn, which emitted mainly in flue gas that would travel and deposit at the northeast and southwest direction around the brick plant. Cadmium, Ni and Pb are bio-accumulated in the soybean grown on the study area, which indicates potential health impacts in case of human consumption. The high activity of natural radionuclides in the atmosphere around the plant as well as in the made-up bricks will increase the health risk of respiratory system. PMID:25164252

  2. Risk assessment and technical feasibility of usage of paper mill sludge biochar-based exhausted adsorbent for geopolymeric brick formation.

    PubMed

    Devi, Parmila; Saroha, Anil K

    2016-11-01

    Risk assessment and technical feasibility of brick formation from exhausted paper mill sludge derived biochar obtained after its use as an adsorbent for the treatment of effluent containing pentachlorophenol was studied. The bricks were prepared by geopolymerization mechanism in presence of sodium hydroxide, and the extent of geopolymerization was determined on the basis of crystal structure, surface functionalities, and surface morphology of the bricks. The preparation parameters (sodium hydroxide dosage, initial water and calcium carbonate content and curing temperature) were optimized and the results were analyzed in terms of compressive strength, water absorption, and abrasion index. Risk assessment of heavy metals was performed to determine the contamination level and overall hazard index of the biochar-based geopolymer bricks. Hazard quotient and hazard index were calculated to assess the overall non-carcinogenic risk posed by selected heavy metals via ingestion and dermal contact. The leaching potential of heavy metal and pentachlorophenol from the biochar-based geopolymer bricks was also determined. The results showed that the biochar-based geopolymer bricks showed good mechanical properties and the concentration of heavy metals in the leachate falls within the permissible limits prescribed by Indian Standards for Industrial and Sewage Effluents Discharge (inland surface water).

  3. The Environmental Geochemistry of Trace Elements and Naturally Radionuclides in a Coal Gangue Brick-Making Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chuncai; Liu, Guijian; Cheng, Siwei; Fang, Ting; Lam, Paul K. S.

    2014-08-01

    An investigation focused on the transformation and distribution behaviors of trace elements and natural radionuclides around a coal gangue brick plant was conducted. Simultaneous sampling of coal gangue, brick, fly ash and flue gas were implemented. Soil, soybean and earthworm samples around the brick plant were also collected for comprehensive ecological assessment. During the firing process, trace elements were released and redistributed in the brick, fly ash and the flue gas. Elements can be divided into two groups according to their releasing characteristics, high volatile elements (release ratio higher than 30%) are represented by Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Se and Sn, which emitted mainly in flue gas that would travel and deposit at the northeast and southwest direction around the brick plant. Cadmium, Ni and Pb are bio-accumulated in the soybean grown on the study area, which indicates potential health impacts in case of human consumption. The high activity of natural radionuclides in the atmosphere around the plant as well as in the made-up bricks will increase the health risk of respiratory system.

  4. Development of a High Temperature Heater using an Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Cored Brick Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, K. W.; Decoursin, D. G.

    1971-01-01

    The Ames pilot heater is a ceramic regenerative heater that provides high temperature air for aerodynamic and combustion experiments. The development of this heater to provide a heat storage bed with temperature capability of about 4600 R is described. A bed was designed and installed having cored brick elements of yttria-stabilized zirconia. The bed dimensions were 14 inches in diameter by 10 feet high. The thermal stress limitations of the bed were studied and maximum air flow rates based upon these limits were established. A combustion reheat system was designed and installed to provide the necessary control over the bed temperature distribution. The revised heater system was successfully operated at a maximum bed temperature of 4600 R. The successful operation demonstrated that yttria-stabilized zirconia cored brick can satisfy the high temperature-long duration requirement for storage heater applications.

  5. Manipulating waves with LEGO bricks: A versatile experimental platform for metamaterial architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celli, Paolo; Gonella, Stefano

    2015-08-01

    In this letter, we discuss a versatile, fully reconfigurable experimental platform for the investigation of phononic phenomena in metamaterial architectures. The approach revolves around the use of 3D laser vibrometry to reconstruct global and local wavefield features in specimens obtained through simple arrangements of LEGO® bricks on a thin baseplate. The agility by which it is possible to reconfigure the brick patterns into a nearly endless spectrum of topologies makes this an effective approach for rapid experimental proof of concept, as well as a powerful didactic tool, in the arena of phononic crystals and metamaterials engineering. We use our platform to provide a compelling visual illustration of important spatial wave manipulation effects (waveguiding and seismic isolation), and to elucidate fundamental dichotomies between Bragg-based and locally resonant bandgap mechanisms.

  6. The prediction of brick wall strengths with artificial neural networks model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, Ali; Kumanlioglu, Ahmet Ali

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to predict with Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) shear strength of brick masonry walls. Shear strength of the walls is determined with diagonal shear tests. It is very difficult to determine strengths of brick masonry walls with experimental procedures. Therefore, an Artificial Neural Networks model is developed with data obtained by investigating many papers from literature and experiments carried out by the authors. Finally, a good degree of coherency is obtained between the experimental and predicted data. The model that is developed makes it possible to easily predict shear strength of the masonry walls. Additionally, this model can be continuously trained with new data and its applicability range can easily be expanded.

  7. The investigation of the matrix structure of ceramic brick made from carbonaceous mudstone tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolboushkin, A.; Fomina, O.; Fomin, A.

    2016-04-01

    The study of the matrix structure of ceramic brick made from carbonaceous mudstone tailings of Korkinsky coal opened pit mine is presented in the current paper. This study includes a thin sections analysis by the polarizing microscope, X-ray, SEM and infrared spectra investigations. It has been discovered that processes of solid- and liquid-phase sintering with the formation of new mineral phases occur inside and on the surfaces of granules during firing. It is shown that a liquid phase is formed in the matrix. It fills inter-grain gaps and connects mineral particles between themselves. It has been found that the advanced physical and mechanical properties of ceramic bricks obtained by creation of the matrix ceramic crock structure, intensive forming of a glass phase on the boundary of the section medium of ceramic composite and temperature reduction of the processes of solid-phase sintering.

  8. Manipulating waves with LEGO{sup ®} bricks: A versatile experimental platform for metamaterial architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Celli, Paolo Gonella, Stefano

    2015-08-24

    In this letter, we discuss a versatile, fully reconfigurable experimental platform for the investigation of phononic phenomena in metamaterial architectures. The approach revolves around the use of 3D laser vibrometry to reconstruct global and local wavefield features in specimens obtained through simple arrangements of LEGO{sup ®} bricks on a thin baseplate. The agility by which it is possible to reconfigure the brick patterns into a nearly endless spectrum of topologies makes this an effective approach for rapid experimental proof of concept, as well as a powerful didactic tool, in the arena of phononic crystals and metamaterials engineering. We use our platform to provide a compelling visual illustration of important spatial wave manipulation effects (waveguiding and seismic isolation), and to elucidate fundamental dichotomies between Bragg-based and locally resonant bandgap mechanisms.

  9. Properties of Roman bricks and mortars used in Serapis temple in the city of Pergamon

    SciTech Connect

    Ozkaya, Ozlem Aslan; Boeke, Hasan

    2009-09-15

    Serapis temple, which was constructed in the Roman period in the city of Pergamon (Bergama/Turkey), is one of the most important monuments of the world heritage. In this study, the characteristics of bricks and mortars used in the temple have been determined in order to define the necessary characteristics of the intervention materials, which will be used in the conservation works of the temple. Several analyses were carried out to determine their basic physical properties, raw material compositions, mineralogical and microstructural properties using X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscope and a Thermo Gravimetric Analyzer. Analysis results indicated that the mortars are stiff, compact and hydraulic due to the use of natural pozzolanic aggregates. The Roman bricks are of low density, high porosity and were produced from raw materials containing calcium poor clays fired at low temperatures.

  10. Elliptic genera of 2d (0,2) gauge theories from brane brick models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Sebastian; Ghim, Dongwook; Lee, Sangmin; Seong, Rak-Kyeong

    2017-06-01

    Auc(bstract) We compute the elliptic genus of abelian 2d (0, 2) gauge theories corresponding to brane brick models. These theories are worldvolume theories on a single D1-brane probing a toric Calabi-Yau 4-fold singularity. We identify a match with the elliptic genus of the non-linear sigma model on the same Calabi-Yau background, which is computed using a new localization formula. The matching implies that the quantum effects do not drastically alter the correspondence between the geometry and the 2d (0, 2) gauge theory. In theories whose matter sector suffers from abelian gauge anomaly, we propose an ansatz for an anomaly cancelling term in the integral formula for the elliptic genus. We provide an example in which two brane brick models related to each other by Gadde-Gukov-Putrov triality give the same elliptic genus.

  11. DNA brick self-assembly with an off-lattice potential.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Aleks; Frenkel, Daan

    2016-07-20

    We report Monte Carlo simulations of a simple off-lattice patchy-particle model for DNA 'bricks'. We relate the parameters that characterise this model with the binding free energy of pairs of single-stranded DNA molecules. We verify that an off-lattice potential parameterised in this way reproduces much of the behaviour seen with a simpler lattice model we introduced previously, although the relaxation of the geometric constraints leads to a more error-prone self-assembly pathway. We investigate the self-assembly process as a function of the strength of the non-specific interactions. We show that our off-lattice model for DNA bricks results in robust self-assembly into a variety of target structures.

  12. The influence of water and salt content on the thermal conductivity coefficient of red clay brick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarska, Dalia; Koniorczyk, Marcin

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents the results of experiments aimed at the determination of hygro-thermal properties of red clay brick containing water or salt. The main objective of the research is the determination of the relation between the apparent thermal conductivity of brick and its water or Na2SO4 in water solution content. The research is conducted using stationary technique for the dry specimens, as well as the ones containing 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% water or sodium sulphate solution. The experimental results confirm the negative influence of water or sodium sulphate solution on thermal properties of material. However we observe that the presence of Na2SO4 in pores slightly weakens this negative impact.

  13. Effect of Cement on Properties of Over-Burnt Brick Bituminous Concrete Mixes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Dipankar; Pal, Manish

    2016-06-01

    The present investigation is carried out to propose the use of cement coated over burnt brick aggregate in the preparation of bituminous concrete mix. The effect of cement on various mechanical properties such as Marshall stability, flow, Marshall quotient (stability to flow ratio), indirect tensile strength, stripping, rutting and fatigue life of bituminous concrete overlay has been evaluated. In this study, different cement percentages such as 2, 3, 4 and 5 % by weight of aggregate have been mixed with Over Burnt Brick Aggregate (OBBA). The laboratory results indicate that bituminous concrete prepared by 4 % cement coated OBBA gives the highest Marshall stability. The bituminous concrete mix with 4 % cement shows considerable improvement in various mechanical properties of the mix compared to the plain OBBA concrete mix.

  14. Using Bonding Enamel-Coated Steel Fixtures to Produce More Durable Brick/Masonry Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    very moist for long periods of times Corroded strap-type wall tie BUILDING STRONG® Ties Join Courses and Lateral Units  Ties hold brick veneer to a...onto the steel fittings  A layer of portland cement is added to the heat softened glass enamel  Finished reinforcement is corrosion resistant and...very corrosion resistant Cement fused to the glass enamel makes strong bond to surrounding mortar Steel is protected from corrosion as long as glass

  15. Rational preparation of waste coal mixture for production of bricks by the method of compression molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolboushkin, A. Yu; Ivanov, A. I.; Temlyantsev, M. V.; Fomina, O. A.

    2016-10-01

    Rational preparation of the mixture containing technogenic raw material - waste coal for the production of wall ceramics is developed. It was established that the technology of high-quality ceramic bricks requires: grinding of raw materials to class 0.3 + 0 mm, its aggregation in the intensive mixers into granules 1-3 mm, compression molding of adobe to plastic deformation of granules, drying and firing.

  16. Water-repellent preservative treatment of brick molding prior to factory priming improves paint service life

    Treesearch

    R. Sam Williams; Alan S. Ross; Peter Sotos; Chuck Cheeks

    2001-01-01

    One end of each piece of brick molding (about 35 mm long) was dipped in a water-repellent preservative (WRP). Following the WRP treatment, the sections were divided into two groups and painted with one of two different primers formulated to be typical of factory-applied primers. Each of the primed groups was further divided into four groups to determine the effect of...

  17. The Application of the Neutron Probe to the Study of Brick Deterioration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingston, Richard Allan

    1990-01-01

    The neutron probe is a non-destructive method for measuring elemental distributions in materials. It measures the characteristic gamma rays emitted by the thermal capture of neutrons in the target material. In this case, it is applied to investigating the deterioration of brick and mortar masonry caused by water or chlorides. The research concerned the standardization of the technique to make it a quantitative analytical method. This consisted of finding the calibration function, and specifying a number of data quality parameters including precision accuracy and minimum level of detection for measurement of H and Cl. The work involved statistical analysis of the range of brick and mortar nuclear properties; mathematical modeling of neutron and gamma ray transport; experimental measurement of data quality parameters on a test wall in the laboratory; and ultimately a field test of the technique on a colonial smokehouse in Colonial Williamsburg. The results of the statistical analysis indicated that the neutron probe is insensitive to local variations of brick physical and chemical properties. The mathematical models showed that the presence of H increased the signal while Cl depressed it. The calibration function is linear when corrected for these effects. The most effective method of correction is normalization to the Si intensity. The precision of the technique is set primarily by the gamma ray counting statistics, and in this case, is better than 10%. The minimum level of detection for water is roughly 2% by weight, and for NaCL, lower than.1%. The conclusion is that this is a practical method for the non-destructive evaluation of brick deterioration.

  18. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among brick kiln workers in rural Southern India.

    PubMed

    Inbaraj, Leeberk Raja; Haebar, Obed John; Saj, Fenn; Dawson, Samantha; Paul, Peter; Prabhakar, Abhilash Kundavaram Paul; Mohan, Venkata Raghava; Alex, Reginald George

    2013-05-01

    A variety of musculoskeletal disorders and discomfort are seen among brick kiln workers, where heavy physical work is associated with awkward working postures and manual handling of materials, leading to significant morbidity. This cross-sectional study was conducted in unorganized brick kiln industries in villages of Vellore district of Tamil Nadu and included 310 brick kiln workers. Modified Nordic Questionnaire was used to survey the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and the intensity of pain was assessed by the body pain discomfort scale. The mean age of the workers was 37 ± 13.2 years with a range of 18-85 years. 62% (n = 192) had normal body mass index, whereas 27% (n = 85) were undernourished. The commonest posture adopted at work was squatting (67%) followed by standing (14%). Majority of workers (87%, n = 269) reported to having symptoms of pain currently of which 51% (n = 158) had pain during work. Chronic low back ache (LBA) (1 year prevalence -59%) and acute LBA (1 week prevalence-33%) were the commonest followed by chronic knee pain. More than 10 years of work was significantly associated (P < 0.05) with acute LBA and acute and chronic knee pain. Severity of the pain was also significantly (t statistic 2.476, P < 0.05) associated with job dissatisfaction. Long-term brick kiln workers, who adopt a specific posture for prolonged periods, have severe musculoskeletal pain that interferes with activities of daily living and reduces job satisfaction. Health education on frequent postural change, implementation and monitoring of laws among unorganized industries are recommended to bring down morbidity due to musculoskeletal disorders (MSD).

  19. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among brick kiln workers in rural Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Inbaraj, Leeberk Raja; Haebar, Obed John; Saj, Fenn; Dawson, Samantha; Paul, Peter; Prabhakar, Abhilash Kundavaram Paul; Mohan, Venkata Raghava; Alex, Reginald George

    2013-01-01

    Background: A variety of musculoskeletal disorders and discomfort are seen among brick kiln workers, where heavy physical work is associated with awkward working postures and manual handling of materials, leading to significant morbidity. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in unorganized brick kiln industries in villages of Vellore district of Tamil Nadu and included 310 brick kiln workers. Modified Nordic Questionnaire was used to survey the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and the intensity of pain was assessed by the body pain discomfort scale. Results: The mean age of the workers was 37 ± 13.2 years with a range of 18-85 years. 62% (n = 192) had normal body mass index, whereas 27% (n = 85) were undernourished. The commonest posture adopted at work was squatting (67%) followed by standing (14%). Majority of workers (87%, n = 269) reported to having symptoms of pain currently of which 51% (n = 158) had pain during work. Chronic low back ache (LBA) (1 year prevalence -59%) and acute LBA (1 week prevalence-33%) were the commonest followed by chronic knee pain. More than 10 years of work was significantly associated (P < 0.05) with acute LBA and acute and chronic knee pain. Severity of the pain was also significantly (t statistic 2.476, P < 0.05) associated with job dissatisfaction. Conclusion: Long-term brick kiln workers, who adopt a specific posture for prolonged periods, have severe musculoskeletal pain that interferes with activities of daily living and reduces job satisfaction. Health education on frequent postural change, implementation and monitoring of laws among unorganized industries are recommended to bring down morbidity due to musculoskeletal disorders (MSD). PMID:24421594

  20. LEGO® Bricks as Building Blocks for Centimeter-Scale Biological Environments: The Case of Plants

    PubMed Central

    Lind, Kara R.; Sizmur, Tom; Benomar, Saida; Miller, Anthony; Cademartiri, Ludovico

    2014-01-01

    LEGO bricks are commercially available interlocking pieces of plastic that are conventionally used as toys. We describe their use to build engineered environments for cm-scale biological systems, in particular plant roots. Specifically, we take advantage of the unique modularity of these building blocks to create inexpensive, transparent, reconfigurable, and highly scalable environments for plant growth in which structural obstacles and chemical gradients can be precisely engineered to mimic soil. PMID:24963716

  1. Black Carbon And Co-Pollutants Emissions And Energy Efficiency From Bricks Production In Guanajuato, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, L. T.; Zavala, M.; Maiz, P.; Monsivais, I.; Chow, J.; Munguia, J.

    2013-12-01

    In many parts of the world, small-scale traditional brick kilns are a notorious informal sector source of urban air pollution. Many are both inefficient and burn highly polluting fuels that emit significant levels of black carbon and other pollutants into local communities and to the atmosphere, resulting in severe health and environmental impacts. It is estimated that there are nearly 20,000 traditional brick kilns in Mexico, in which bricks are still produced as they have been for centuries. They are made by hand, dried in the sun, and generally fired in small, one chamber kilns that use various types of fuels, including plastic refuse, used tires, manure, wood scrap, and used motor oil. Three brick kilns, two traditional kilns and an improved kiln (MK2), were sampled as part of the SLCFs-Mexico campaign in Guanajuato, Mexico during March of 2013. The concept of the MK-2 involves covering the kiln with a dome and channeling the output of an active kiln through a second, identical loaded kiln for its additional filtration of the effluents. The results of energy efficiency and carbon mass balance calculations are presented for comparing the production efficiency and carbon emissions from the sampled kilns. Measurements included PM2.5 mass with quartz filters and temporally-resolved elemental carbon and organic carbon composition obtained using thermo-optical methods. The carbon emissions obtained with the mass balance method are compared with concurrent, high- time resolution, emissions measurements obtained using the Aerodyne mobile laboratory employing the tracer method (see abstract by Fortner et al.)

  2. Limited energy study of facilities in the historic, Red Brick Main Post Area at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-28

    This document has been prepared to provide a pre-final of the progress made on the project to date. It also provides information required to identify projects for programming and preparation of necessary funding documentation. The projects are formed by grouping energy conservation opportunities (ECOs) for the buildings into packages which meet specific funding criteria.

  3. Geology of the Brick Flat massive sulfide body, Iron Mountain cluster, West Shasta district, California ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    The Brick Flat massive sulfide body is one of a group of 8 individual bodies that constitute the Iron Mountain cluster in the S part of the West Shasta district. Before they were separated by postmineral faulting, 5 of the 8 sulfide bodies formed a single large deposit about 1375 m long with a mass of some 23 million metric tons. The pyritic Brick Flat sulfide body is one of the 5 faulted segements of this deposit. The Brick Flat massive sulfide lies within medium phenocryst rhyolite that is characteristic of the ore-bearing middle unit of the Balaklala Rhyolite. It is interpreted to be downfaulted a vertical distance of 75 to 85 m from the Old Mine sulfide-gossan orebody along the N-dipping Camden South fault. It is bounded in turn on its N side by another parallel fault, the Camden North, which drops the orebody down another 75 m to the level of the Richmond orebody. -from Author

  4. Preliminary survey report: control technology for the ceramic industry at Acme Brick Company, Malvern, Arkansas

    SciTech Connect

    Godbey, F.W.

    1983-06-01

    Health-hazard control methods, work processes, and existing control technologies used in the manufacture of brick were surveyed at Acme Brick Company, Malvern, Arkansas in June, 1983. The company employed about 32 workers to produce structural brick from alluvial clay, free clay, shale, and aggregate. A potential hazard existed from silica exposure since the clays contained about 20% quartz. Raw materials were transported in a cab-enclosed front-end loader to feeders that delivered the materials to a crusher. Blended coarsely crushed material was moved by conveyor to a hammer mill for fine crushing. Production-size product was transported by overhead conveyor to storage silos in the production building. The entire material particle-size reduction process was completely automated. The clay-preparation building and raw-material storage area were isolated from the production building, and only two workers performed the crushing and grinding operations. Material transfer points had removable covers, and a water-mist spray was used on one conveyor of each line. The operation was monitored from a totally enclosed air-conditioned control room. Head and eye protection were required. The author does not recommend an in-depth study of control technologies of the company.

  5. Air pollution tolerance index of plants around brick kilns in Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Achakzai, Khanoranga; Khalid, Sofia; Adrees, Muhammad; Bibi, Aasma; Ali, Shafaqat; Nawaz, Rab; Rizwan, Muhammad

    2017-04-01

    In any contaminated environment, the sensitive plant species can serve as bio-indicator of air pollution while tolerant plant species can act as a sink for air pollutants. Air pollution tolerance index (APTI) is an important tool to screen out plants based on their tolerance or sensitivity level to different air pollutants. The present study was aimed to identify the sensitive and tolerant plant species in the vicinity of brick kilns in the Rawalpindi city. To determine the susceptibility level of the selected plant species, four biochemical parameters, ascorbic acid, total chlorophyll content, relative water content and pH of leaf extract, were assessed and APTI was calculated. Plant sampling was carried out with increasing distance of 100, 300 and 500 m around three brick kiln sites and APTI values were calculated by following the standard methods. The results of the study revealed that among nine studied plant species, Calotropis procera (APTI = 20.05) and Althernanthera pungens (APTI = 17.13) were found to be the most tolerant species, whereas Malva neglecta (APTI = 8.83) was found to be the most sensitive species. Inconsistent trend of variations was seen in the APTI values at each site. The present study suggested that the most tolerant species, C. procera and A. pungens, could be grown in the vicinity of such pollution sources as a remedial measure of brick kiln pollution.

  6. Development of a Crush and Mix Machine for Composite Brick Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Sothea, Kruy; Fazli, Nik; Hamdi, M.; Aoyama, Hideki

    2011-01-17

    Currently, people are more and more concerned about the environmental protection. Municipal solid wastes (MSW) have bad effect on the environment and also human health. In addition, the amounts of municipal solid wastes are increasing due to the economic development, density of population, especially in the developing countries and they are recycled in a little percentage. To address this problem, the composite brick forming machine was designed and developed to make brick using combination of MSW and mortar. The machine consists of two independent parts, crusher and mixer part, and molding part. This paper explores the design of crusher and mixer part. The crusher has ability to cut MSW such as wood, paper and plastic into small size. There are two mixers; one is used for making mortar and other use for making slurry. FEA analyses were carried out to address the suitable strength of the critical parts of the crusher which ensures that crusher can run properly with high efficiency. The experimentation of the crusher shows that it has high performance for cutting MSW. The mixers also work very well in high efficiency. The results of composite brick testing have been shown that ability of the machine can performance well. This is the innovation of crush and mix machine which is portable and economic by using MSW in replacement of sand.

  7. Evaluation of Structural Clay Brick Masonry Units by Weibull Analysis and Brazilian Code and Specifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azeredo, N. G.; Alexandre, J.; Azevedo, A. R. G.; Xavier, C. G.; Monteiro, S. N.; Zanelato, E. B.; Oliveira, R. P.

    This work dealt with the evaluation of engineering structural clay brick samples that were sintered at estimated temperatures of 700 and 800°C. They were collected in a red-brick plant in Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, Brazil. From a lot, a sample already sintered in its kiln at 700°C were collected and also a sample from the same lot only dried by the air, which were then sintered at 800°C controlled temperature. The samples were subjected to Brazilian Standard tests (ABNT NBR 15270:2005) to determine their geometric, physical and mechanical properties. In order to be classified as structural clay brick it is required minimum 3.0 MPa for the characteristic compressive strength (fbk) to be suitable for up to five floors structural building applications. We also used the Weibull Probability Plot and Weibull Maximum Likelihood Estimation to evaluate distribution parameters in order to compare the results of compressive strength obtained in the tests.

  8. Tunable Gas Permeability of Polymer-Clay Nano Brick Wall Thin Film Assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamboa, Daniel; Priolo, Morgan; Grunlan, Jaime

    2010-03-01

    Thin films of anionic natural montmorrilonite (MMT) clay and cationic polyethylenimine (PEI) have been produced by alternately dipping a plastic substrate into dilute aqueous mixtures containing each ingredient. After 40 polymer-clay layers have been deposited, the resulting transparent film exhibits an oxygen transmission rate (OTR) below 0.35 cm^3/m^2 . day when the pH of PEI solution is 10. This low permeability is due to a brick wall nanostructure comprised of completely exfoliated clay bricks in polymeric mortar. This brick wall creates an extremely tortuous path at thicknesses below 250 nm and clay concentration above 80 wt%. A 70-bilayer PEI-MMT assembly has an undetectable OTR (< 0.005 cm^3/m^2 . day), which equates to a permeability below SiOx when multiplied by its film thickness of 231 nm. With optical transparency greater than 86% and the ability to be microwaved, these thin film composites are good candidates for flexible electronics packaging and foil replacement for food.

  9. Highly selective defluoridation of brick tea infusion by tea waste supported aluminum oxides.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chuanyi; Xi, Junjun; Chen, Guijie; Feng, Zhihui; Ke, Fei; Ning, Jingming; Li, Daxiang; Ho, Chi-Tang; Cai, Huimei; Wan, Xiaochun

    2017-03-01

    Brick tea usually contains very high fluoride, which may affect human health. Biosorbents have received much attention for selective removal of fluoride because of low cost, environmental friendliness, and relative safeness. In the present study, a highly selective fluoride tea waste based biosorbent, namely, aluminum (Al) oxide decorated tea waste (Tea-Al), was successfully prepared. The Tea-Al biosorbent was characterized by energy-dispersive spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis. The Tea-Al sample exhibited remarkably selective adsorption for fluoride (52.90%), but a weaker adsorption for other major constituents of brick tea infusion, such as catechins, polyphenols and caffeine, under the same conditions. Fluoride adsorption by Tea-Al for different times obeyed the surface reaction and adsorption isotherms fit the Freundlich model. In addition, the fluoride adsorption mechanism appeared to be an ion exchange between hydroxyl and fluoride ions. Results from this study demonstrated that Tea-Al is a promising biosorbent useful for the removal of fluoride in brick tea infusion. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Recycling of ash from biomass incinerator in clay matrix to produce ceramic bricks.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Villarejo, L; Eliche-Quesada, D; Iglesias-Godino, Fco J; Martínez-García, C; Corpas-Iglesias, Fco A

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of incorporation of ash from biomass incinerator as raw material on the production of ceramic bricks for their application in construction. So, for the fabrication of bricks, compositions were prepared with addition of increasing amounts of waste ash (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% in wt.) in the clay body. The mixed samples were sintered using conventional powder processing based on powder compaction at 54.5 MPa and firing them at 950 °C without the addition of additives. Effect on apparent density, water absorption and mechanical properties were investigated. The results showed that water absorption increased and apparent density and compressive strength decreased with higher amounts of ash. Bricks with an ash content up to 20% meet the UNE standards compressive strength. As a result, since interesting performances were observed, the potential use of ashes from biomass incinerator up to 20 wt.% in ceramic formulations of industrial interest was confirmed. In this sense, incorporating ashes into clay body reduces environmental problems and total cost of raw material disposition. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Use of waste brick as a partial replacement of cement in mortar.

    PubMed

    Naceri, Abdelghani; Hamina, Makhloufi Chikouche

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the use of waste brick as a partial replacement for cement in the production of cement mortar. Clinker was replaced by waste brick in different proportions (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%) by weight for cement. The physico-chemical properties of cement at anhydrous state and the hydrated state, thus the mechanical strengths (flexural and compressive strengths after 7, 28 and 90 days) for the mortar were studied. The microstructure of the mortar was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the mineralogical composition (mineral phases) of the artificial pozzolan was investigated by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the particle size distributions was obtained from laser granulometry (LG) of cements powders used in this study. The results obtained show that the addition of artificial pozzolan improves the grinding time and setting times of the cement, thus the mechanical characteristics of mortar. A substitution of cement by 10% of waste brick increased mechanical strengths of mortar. The results of the investigation confirmed the potential use of this waste material to produce pozzolanic cement.

  12. Use of waste brick as a partial replacement of cement in mortar

    SciTech Connect

    Naceri, Abdelghani Hamina, Makhloufi Chikouche

    2009-08-15

    The aim of this study is to investigate the use of waste brick as a partial replacement for cement in the production of cement mortar. Clinker was replaced by waste brick in different proportions (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%) by weight for cement. The physico-chemical properties of cement at anhydrous state and the hydrated state, thus the mechanical strengths (flexural and compressive strengths after 7, 28 and 90 days) for the mortar were studied. The microstructure of the mortar was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the mineralogical composition (mineral phases) of the artificial pozzolan was investigated by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the particle size distributions was obtained from laser granulometry (LG) of cements powders used in this study. The results obtained show that the addition of artificial pozzolan improves the grinding time and setting times of the cement, thus the mechanical characteristics of mortar. A substitution of cement by 10% of waste brick increased mechanical strengths of mortar. The results of the investigation confirmed the potential use of this waste material to produce pozzolanic cement.

  13. Development of a Crush and Mix Machine for Composite Brick Fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sothea, Kruy; Fazli, Nik; Hamdi, M.; Aoyama, Hideki

    2011-01-01

    Currently, people are more and more concerned about the environmental protection. Municipal solid wastes (MSW) have bad effect on the environment and also human health. In addition, the amounts of municipal solid wastes are increasing due to the economic development, density of population, especially in the developing countries and they are recycled in a little percentage. To address this problem, the composite brick forming machine was designed and developed to make brick using combination of MSW and mortar. The machine consists of two independent parts, crusher and mixer part, and molding part. This paper explores the design of crusher and mixer part. The crusher has ability to cut MSW such as wood, paper and plastic into small size. There are two mixers; one is used for making mortar and other use for making slurry. FEA analyses were carried out to address the suitable strength of the critical parts of the crusher which ensures that crusher can run properly with high efficiency. The experimentation of the crusher shows that it has high performance for cutting MSW. The mixers also work very well in high efficiency. The results of composite brick testing have been shown that ability of the machine can performance well. This is the innovation of crush and mix machine which is portable and economic by using MSW in replacement of sand.

  14. Assessment of biological colonization of historic buildings in the former Auschwitz II-Birkenau concentration camp.

    PubMed

    Rajkowska, Katarzyna; Otlewska, Anna; Koziróg, Anna; Piotrowska, Małgorzata; Nowicka-Krawczyk, Paulina; Hachułka, Mariusz; Wolski, Grzegorz J; Kunicka-Styczyńska, Alina; Gutarowska, Beata; Zydzik-Białek, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess biological colonization of wooden and brick buildings in the former Auschwitz II-Birkenau concentration camp, and to identify the organisms colonizing the examined buildings. Microbiological analysis did not reveal increased microbial activity, and the total microbial count of the barrack surfaces did not exceed 10(3) CFU/100 cm(2). However, certain symptoms of biodegradation of the buildings were observed. The predominant microflora consisted of bacteria of the genera Bacillus, Sporosarcina, Pseudomonas, Micrococcus, Streptomyces, and Staphylococcus, as well as fungi of the genera Acremonium, Cladosporium, Alternaria, Humicola, Penicillium, and Chaetomium. The microflora patterns varied both in wooden and brick buildings. The structural elements of wooden and brick barracks, and especially of the floors and lower parts of bathroom walls, were infected by cyanobacteria and algae, with the most numerous being cyanobacteria of the genera Scytonema, Chroococcus, Gloeothece, Leptolyngbya, diatoms of the genus Diadesmis, and chlorophytes of the genera Chlorella and Apatococcus. The outer surfaces of the examined buildings were primarily colonized by lichens and bryophytes, with nearly 30 species identified. The dominant species of lichens belonged to the genera Candelariella, Caloplaca, Lecanora, Lecidea, Lepraria, Physcia, and Protoparmeliopsis, and those of bryophytes to the genera Bryum, Ceratodon, Marchantia, and Tortula. The quantity and species diversity of lichens and mosses were much lower in wooden barracks than in brick ones. The external surfaces of those barracks were only affected by Lecanora conizaeoides, Lecanora symmicta, Lepraria cf. incana, and Strangospora pinicola. The study results revealed vast biodiversity among the species colonizing historic buildings. The presence of these groups of organisms, resulting from their natural expansion in the environment, is undesirable, as their excessive growth and

  15. The Bacillus BioBrick Box: generation and evaluation of essential genetic building blocks for standardized work with Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Standardized and well-characterized genetic building blocks are a prerequisite for the convenient and reproducible assembly of novel genetic modules and devices. While numerous standardized parts exist for Escherichia coli, such tools are still missing for the Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis. The goal of this study was to develop and thoroughly evaluate such a genetic toolbox. Results We developed five BioBrick-compatible integrative B. subtilis vectors by deleting unnecessary parts and removing forbidden restriction sites to allow cloning in BioBrick (RFC10) standard. Three empty backbone vectors with compatible resistance markers and integration sites were generated, allowing the stable chromosomal integration and combination of up to three different devices in one strain. In addition, two integrative reporter vectors, based on the lacZ and luxABCDE cassettes, were BioBrick-adjusted, to enable β-galactosidase and luciferase reporter assays, respectively. Four constitutive and two inducible promoters were thoroughly characterized by quantitative, time-resolved measurements. Together, these promoters cover a range of more than three orders of magnitude in promoter strength, thereby allowing a fine-tuned adjustment of cellular protein amounts. Finally, the Bacillus BioBrick Box also provides five widely used epitope tags (FLAG, His10, cMyc, HA, StrepII), which can be translationally fused N- or C-terminally to any protein of choice. Conclusion Our genetic toolbox contains three compatible empty integration vectors, two reporter vectors and a set of six promoters, two of them inducible. Furthermore, five different epitope tags offer convenient protein handling and detection. All parts adhere to the BioBrick standard and hence enable standardized work with B. subtilis. We believe that our well-documented and carefully evaluated Bacillus BioBrick Box represents a very useful genetic tool kit, not only for the iGEM competition but any other

  16. Cell bricks-enriched platelet-rich plasma gel for injectable cartilage engineering - an in vivo experiment in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jun; Cai, Bolei; Ma, Qin; Chen, Fulin; Wu, Wei

    2013-10-01

    Clinical application of platelet-rich plasma (PRP)-based injectable tissue engineering is limited by weak mechanical properties and a rapid fibrinolytic rate. We proposed a new strategy, a cell bricks-stabilized PRP injectable system, to engineer and regenerate cartilage with stable morphology and structure in vivo. Chondrocytes from the auricular cartilage of rabbits were isolated and cultured to form cell bricks (fragmented cell sheet) or cell expansions. Fifteen nude mice were divided evenly (n = 5) into cells-PRP (C-P), cell bricks-PRP (CB-P) and cell bricks-cells-PRP (CB-C-P) groups. Cells, cell bricks or a cell bricks/cells mixture were suspended in PRP and were injected subcutaneously in animals. After 8 weeks, all the constructs were replaced by white resilient tissue; however, specimens from the CB-P and CB-C-P groups were well maintained in shape, while the C-P group appeared distorted, with a compressed outline. Histologically, all groups presented lacuna-like structures, glycosaminoglycan-enriched matrices and positive immunostaining of collagen type II. Different from the uniform structure presented in CB-C-P samples, CB-P presented interrupted, island-like chondrogenesis and contracted structure; fibrous interruption was shown in the C-P group. The highest percentage of matrix was presented in CB-C-P samples. Collagen and sGAG quantification confirmed that the CB-C-P constructs had statistically higher amounts than the C-P and CB-P groups; statistical differences were also found among the groups in terms of biomechanical properties and gene expression. We concluded that cell bricks-enriched PRP gel sufficiently enhanced the morphological stability of the constructs, maintained chondrocyte phenotypes and favoured chondrogenesis in vivo, which suggests that such an injectable, completely biological system is a suitable cell carrier for cell-based cartilage repair.

  17. GEOTAIL Spacecraft historical data report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boersig, George R.; Kruse, Lawrence F.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this GEOTAIL Historical Report is to document ground processing operations information gathered on the GEOTAIL mission during processing activities at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). It is hoped that this report may aid management analysis, improve integration processing and forecasting of processing trends, and reduce real-time schedule changes. The GEOTAIL payload is the third Delta 2 Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) mission to document historical data. Comparisons of planned versus as-run schedule information are displayed. Information will generally fall into the following categories: (1) payload stay times (payload processing facility/hazardous processing facility/launch complex-17A); (2) payload processing times (planned, actual); (3) schedule delays; (4) integrated test times (experiments/launch vehicle); (5) unique customer support requirements; (6) modifications performed at facilities; (7) other appropriate information (Appendices A & B); and (8) lessons learned (reference Appendix C).

  18. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Wells Fargo Bank Historical Museum ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Wells Fargo Bank Historical Museum 1884 - Hibernia Savings & Loan Society Buildings, Historic View, Montgomery & Post Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  19. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Wells Fargo Bank Historical Museum ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Wells Fargo Bank Historical Museum San Francisco, California - Sacramento Block, Historic View, Sacramento Street & Battery Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  20. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Wells Fargo Bank Historical Museum ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Wells Fargo Bank Historical Museum 1850 BUILT 1850 - DESTROYED 1851 - Niantic Hotel, Historic View, Clay & Sansome Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  1. Historical perspectives on laminitis.

    PubMed

    Wagner, I P; Heymering, H

    1999-08-01

    This article attempts to provide a historical perspective regarding equine laminitis. It is designed to cover, as completely as possible, the historical record of, and the research advances made, in regards to acute and chronic laminitis. With respect to the historical record, the names given to this disease, the postulated etiologies, and the various treatment protocols are discussed. This article demonstrates the historical longevity of this disease and establishes a background for the current understanding of the disease's pathologic mechanisms and treatments.

  2. Building Collections. Historical Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krapp, JoAnn Vergona

    2005-01-01

    At least once a year, teachers generally request a historical fiction assignment. Bare facts make dry reading but historical fiction, set in an actual time period with plausible dialogue and credible characters, is more palatable to youngsters. This column discusses the most widely-requested historical periods of study for intermediate and upper…

  3. Building Collections. Historical Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krapp, JoAnn Vergona

    2005-01-01

    At least once a year, teachers generally request a historical fiction assignment. Bare facts make dry reading but historical fiction, set in an actual time period with plausible dialogue and credible characters, is more palatable to youngsters. This column discusses the most widely-requested historical periods of study for intermediate and upper…

  4. Screening of heavy metal containing waste types for use as raw material in Arctic clay-based bricks.

    PubMed

    Belmonte, Louise Josefine; Ottosen, Lisbeth M; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Vestbø, Andreas Peter

    2016-11-10

    In the vulnerable Arctic environment, the impact of especially hazardous wastes can have severe consequences and the reduction and safe handling of these waste types are therefore an important issue. In this study, two groups of heavy metal containing particulate waste materials, municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly and bottom ashes and mine tailings (i.e., residues from the mineral resource industry) from Greenland were screened in order to determine their suitability as secondary resources in clay-based brick production. Small clay discs, containing 20 or 40% of the different particulate waste materials, were fired and material properties and heavy metal leaching tests were conducted before and after firing. Remediation techniques (washing in distilled water and electrodialytical treatment) applied to the fly ash reduced leaching before firing. The mine tailings and bottom ash brick discs obtained satisfactory densities (1669-2007 kg/m(3)) and open porosities (27.9-39.9%). In contrast, the fly ash brick discs had low densities (1313-1578 kg/m(3)) and high open porosities (42.1-51. %). However, leaching tests on crushed brick discs revealed that heavy metals generally became more available after firing for all the investigated materials and that further optimisation is therefore necessary prior to incorporation in bricks.

  5. Study on Fired Clay Bricks by Replacing Clay with Palm Oil Waste: Effects on Physical and Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadir, A. A.; Sarani, N. A.; Abdullah, M. M. A. B.; Perju, M. C.; Sandu, A. V.

    2017-06-01

    Palm oil is one of the major agricultural industries in Malaysia. Due to the poor management system, the discarded palm oil waste has always been linked to the environment issues. During processing of palm oil, a considerable amount of solid waste by-products in the form of fibres, shells, empty fruit bunches and fly ashes are produce rapidly. Therefore, this study was conducted to incorporate 1%, 5% and 10% of palm oil waste into fired clay brick. Samples of brick were fired at 1050°C temperature with heating rates of 1°C/min. Manufactured bricks were tested with physical and mechanical properties including firing shrinkage, dry density, water absorption and compressive strength. The results demonstrated that the replacement of 1% up to 5% of palm oil waste had improved several properties, although, a decrease of performance in certain aspects has also been observed. As a result, palm oil waste can be utilized in an environmentally safe way into fired clay brick thus providing adequate properties of fired clay brick.

  6. Spatial variability in the coefficient of thermal expansion induces pre-service stresses in computer models of virgin Gilsocarbon bricks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arregui-Mena, José David; Margetts, Lee; Griffiths, D. V.; Lever, Louise; Hall, Graham; Mummery, Paul M.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, the authors test the hypothesis that tiny spatial variations in material properties may lead to significant pre-service stresses in virgin graphite bricks. To do this, they have customised ParaFEM, an open source parallel finite element package, adding support for stochastic thermo-mechanical analysis using the Monte Carlo Simulation method. For an Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor brick, three heating cases have been examined: a uniform temperature change; a uniform temperature gradient applied through the thickness of the brick and a simulated temperature profile from an operating reactor. Results are compared for mean and stochastic properties. These show that, for the proof-of-concept analyses carried out, the pre-service von Mises stress is around twenty times higher when spatial variability of material properties is introduced. The paper demonstrates that thermal gradients coupled with material incompatibilities may be important in the generation of stress in nuclear graphite reactor bricks. Tiny spatial variations in coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and Young's modulus can lead to the presence of thermal stresses in bricks that are free to expand.

  7. Was Adam a Real Person?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamoureux, Denis O.

    2011-01-01

    Belief in the historicity of Adam has been held firmly throughout the history of the church. In the light of modern biblical criticism and the evolutionary sciences, some conservative Christians are now questioning whether or not Adam was a real person. This paper argues that the existence of Adam in the opening chapters of scripture reflects an…

  8. Was Adam a Real Person?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamoureux, Denis O.

    2011-01-01

    Belief in the historicity of Adam has been held firmly throughout the history of the church. In the light of modern biblical criticism and the evolutionary sciences, some conservative Christians are now questioning whether or not Adam was a real person. This paper argues that the existence of Adam in the opening chapters of scripture reflects an…

  9. A method for foF2 short-term (1-24 h) forecast using both historical and real-time foF2 observations over European stations: EUROMAP model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, A. V.; Perrone, L.

    2014-04-01

    A method for foF2 short-term forecast over Europe has been developed and implemented in the EUROMAP model. The input-driving parameters are 3 h ap indices (converted to ap(τ)), effective ionospheric T index, and real-time foF2 observations. The method includes local (for each station) regression storm models to describe strong negative disturbances under ap(τ) > 30 and training models to describe foF2 variations under ap(τ) ≤ 30. The derived model was tested in two regimes: descriptive when observed 3 h ap indices were used and real forecast when predicted daily Ap were used instead of 3 h ap indices—. In the case of strong negative disturbances the EUROMAP model demonstrates on average the improvement over the lnternational Reference Ionosphere STORM-time correction model (IRI(STORM)) model: 40% in winter, 24% in summer, and 39% in equinox. The average improvement over climatology is 41% in winter, 59% in summer, and 55% in equinox. In the majority of cases this difference is statistically significant. In the case of strong positive disturbances, higher-latitude stations also manifest a significant difference between the two models but this difference is insignificant at lower latitude stations. The substitution of 3 h ap input indices for the predicted daily Ap ones decreases the foF2 prediction accuracy in the case of negative disturbances but practically has no effect with positive disturbances. In both cases the proposed method manifests better accuracy than the IRI(STORM) model provides. The obtained results show a real opportunity to provide foF2 forecast with the (1-24 h) lead time on the basis of predicted Ap indices.

  10. Teaching Economics Using Historical Novels: Jonathan Harr's "The Lost Painting"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotti, Chad; Johnson, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Undergraduate students are often interested in and benefit greatly from applications of economic principles. Historical novels drawn from real-world situations can engage students with economic concepts in new ways and provide a useful tool to help enhance instruction. In this article, the authors discuss the use of historical novels generally in…

  11. Teaching Economics Using Historical Novels: Jonathan Harr's "The Lost Painting"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotti, Chad; Johnson, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Undergraduate students are often interested in and benefit greatly from applications of economic principles. Historical novels drawn from real-world situations can engage students with economic concepts in new ways and provide a useful tool to help enhance instruction. In this article, the authors discuss the use of historical novels generally in…

  12. Real Language Meets Real Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muirhead, Muirhead; Schechter, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The Real Business Language Challenge was a collaborative pilot project between Coca-Cola Enterprises (CCE) and Routes into Languages East for Year 9 and 10 pupils. It was based on CCE's award-winning Real Business Challenge, part of its highly acclaimed education programme. The Real Business Language Challenge transformed the project into a…

  13. Abundance of actin filaments in the preprophase band and mitotic spindle of brick1 Zea mays mutant.

    PubMed

    Panteris, Emmanuel; Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis S; Tzioutziou, Nickoleta A

    2009-07-01

    The preprophase band and mitotic spindle of dividing protodermal cells of wild-type Zea mays leaves include few actin filaments. Surprisingly, abundant actin filaments were observed in the above arrays, in dividing protodermal cells in the leaves of the brick1 mutant. The same abundance was observed in the spindle of Taxol-treated brick1 mitotic protodermal cells. Apart from the above difference, the relevant arrays displayed normal microtubule organization in both wild type and mutant cells, as far as can be discerned by immunofluorescence microscopy. Accordingly, the abundance of actin filaments in the preprophase band and spindle of brick1 mitotic cells seems not to influence the structure of the above arrays and might be a non-functional "side-effect" of defective F-actin organization in this mutant.

  14. Preliminary TES design optimization study for a simple periodic brick plant

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, J.B.; Olszewski, M.; Solomon, A.D.

    1989-03-01

    A general optimization method has been developed for maximizing the return on investment for a brick plant re-using waste heat with the capability of storing energy over periods when a kiln is not operating. The duct connections between devices and storage along with the operating schedule of flow rates in these ducts are the independent variables available for control. A combination of combinatorial search algorithms along with a dynamic programming model and the simplex method are layered to provide the optimization technique.

  15. Reissner-Nordström black-hole entropy without brick walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhao; Shuangqi, Hu

    2004-02-01

    The properties of the thermal radiation are discussed by using the new equation of state density motivated by the generalized uncertainty relation in the quantum gravity. There is no burst at the last stage of the emission of the Reissner-Nordström black hole. When the new equation of state density is utilized to investigate the entropy of a bosonic field and a fermionic field outside the horizon of a static Reissner-Nordström black hole, the divergence appearing in the brick wall model is removed, without any cut-off. The entropy proportional to the horizon area is derived from the contribution of the vicinity of the horizon.

  16. Subleading contributions to the black hole entropy in the brick wall approach

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, Sudipta; Shankaranarayanan, S.; Sriramkumar, L.

    2008-07-15

    The brick wall model is a semiclassical approach to understand the microscopic origin of black hole entropy. In this approach, the black hole geometry is assumed to be a fixed classical background on which matter fields propagate, and the entropy of black holes supposedly arises due to the canonical entropy of matter fields outside the black hole event horizon, evaluated at the Hawking temperature. Apart from certain lower dimensional cases, the density of states of the matter fields around black holes cannot be evaluated exactly. As a result, often, in the brick wall model, the density of states and the resulting canonical entropy of the matter fields are evaluated at the leading order (in terms of ({Dirac_h}/2{pi})) in the WKB approximation. The success of the approach is reflected by the fact that the Bekenstein-Hawking area law - viz. that the entropy of black holes is equal to one-quarter the area of their event horizon, say, A{sub H} - has been recovered using this model in a variety of black hole spacetimes. In this work, we compute the canonical entropy of a quantum scalar field around static and spherically symmetric black holes through the brick wall approach at the higher orders (in fact, up to the sixth order in ({Dirac_h}/2{pi})) in the WKB approximation. We explicitly show that the brick wall model generally predicts corrections to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy in all spacetime dimensions. In four dimensions, we find that the corrections to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy are of the form [A{sub H}{sup n}logA{sub H}], while, in six dimensions, the corrections behave as [A{sub H}{sup m}+A{sub H}{sup n}logA{sub H}], where (m,n)<1. We compare our results with the corrections to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy that have been obtained through the other approaches in the literature, and discuss the implications.

  17. The development of a modified composition of ceramic mass for the production of bricks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torosyan, V. F.; Torosyan, E. S.; Yakutova, V. A.; Antyufeev, V. K.

    2016-04-01

    The need to improve the technical level of production of construction materials, their product range, to improve product quality and reduce its cost requires the expansion of the raw material base, the use of resource and energy saving technology and design solutions. To implement all these it is necessary to conduct a more detailed study of the properties of ceramic materials and to investigate the behavior-modifying components of their formulations. This paper presents the development of the composition of ceramic mass for the production of bricks, a modified silicon-waste production of ferrosilicon.

  18. Cosmogenic and primordial radioisotopes in copper bricks shortly exposed to cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coarasa, I.; Amaré, J.; Cebrián, S.; Cuestá, C.; García, E.; Martínez, M.; Oliván, M. A.; Ortigoza, Y.; Ortíz de Solórzano, A.; Puimedón, J.; Sarsa, M. L.; Villar, J. A.; Villar, P.

    2016-05-01

    Cosmogenic activation is the most common source of radioactivity in copper, being 60 Co the most significant because of its long half-life (5.27 y) and saturation activity at sea level of 1 mBq/kg. Copper bricks, which had been exposed to cosmic rays for 41 days after their casting, were used to replace the internal 10 cm of the lead shielding of a HPGe detector placed at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory. We describe the outcome of the new shielding and the cosmogenic and primordial radioisotopes observed.

  19. Measuring the activity of BioBrick promoters using an in vivo reference standard.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Jason R; Rubin, Adam J; Davis, Joseph H; Ajo-Franklin, Caroline M; Cumbers, John; Czar, Michael J; de Mora, Kim; Glieberman, Aaron L; Monie, Dileep D; Endy, Drew

    2009-03-20

    The engineering of many-component, synthetic biological systems is being made easier by the development of collections of reusable, standard biological parts. However, the complexity of biology makes it difficult to predict the extent to which such efforts will succeed. As a first practical example, the Registry of Standard Biological Parts started at MIT now maintains and distributes thousands of BioBrick standard biological parts. However, BioBrick parts are only standardized in terms of how individual parts are physically assembled into multi-component systems, and most parts remain uncharacterized. Standardized tools, techniques, and units of measurement are needed to facilitate the characterization and reuse of parts by independent researchers across many laboratories. We found that the absolute activity of BioBrick promoters varies across experimental conditions and measurement instruments. We choose one promoter (BBa_J23101) to serve as an in vivo reference standard for promoter activity. We demonstrated that, by measuring the activity of promoters relative to BBa_J23101, we could reduce variation in reported promoter activity due to differences in test conditions and measurement instruments by approximately 50%. We defined a Relative Promoter Unit (RPU) in order to report promoter characterization data in compatible units and developed a measurement kit so that researchers might more easily adopt RPU as a standard unit for reporting promoter activity. We distributed a set of test promoters to multiple labs and found good agreement in the reported relative activities of promoters so measured. We also characterized the relative activities of a reference collection of BioBrick promoters in order to further support adoption of RPU-based measurement standards. Relative activity measurements based on an in vivoreference standard enables improved measurement of promoter activity given variation in measurement conditions and instruments. These improvements are

  20. Environmental effects of using clay bricks produced with sewage sludge: leachability and toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Cusidó, Joan A; Cremades, Lázaro V

    2012-06-01

    Use of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants as a raw material for making clay bricks has been analyzed to be an option to dumping sludges into landfills. This alternative has been shown feasible and interesting due to the high rate of use of ceramic materials in the building sector. However, it meets with some environmental issues and some prejudices on the part of users. This work shows some leachability and toxicity tests (outgassing and offgassing) which demonstrate the environmental compatibility of these ceramic products to be used as building materials and even in deconstruction of the building once its useful life is ended.

  1. Respiratory symptoms and illnesses among brick kiln workers: a cross sectional study from rural districts of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Shiraz; Nafees, Asaad Ahmed; Khetpal, Vikash; Jamali, Abid Ali; Arain, Abdul Manan; Yousuf, Akram

    2012-11-20

    Occupational risk factors are one of the major causes of respiratory illnesses and symptoms, and account for 13% of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and 11% of asthma worldwide. Majority of brick kilns in Pakistan use wood and coal for baking the bricks which makes the brick kiln workers susceptible to high exposure of air pollution. This study was designed to describe frequency of chronic respiratory symptoms and illnesses and study the association between these symptoms and different types of work. This was a questionnaire based cross sectional survey conducted among the brick kiln workers in Larkana and Dadu districts, Sindh, Pakistan. A total of 340 adult men were assessed using translated version of the American Thoracic Society Division of Lung Disease (ATS-DLD) questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was done to determine the relationship between various socio-demographic and occupational factors (age, education, type of work, number of years at work, smoking status), and the respiratory symptoms and illnesses (chronic cough, chronic phlegm, wheeze, Chronic Bronchitis and asthma). Results of the study show that 22.4% workers had chronic cough while 21.2% reported chronic phlegm. 13.8% had two or more attacks of shortness of breath with wheezing. 17.1% workers were suffering from Chronic Bronchitis while 8.2% reported physician diagnosed asthma. Amongst the non-smoking workers 8.9% had Chronic Bronchitis. Multivariate analysis found that workers involved in brick baking were more likely to have Chronic Bronchitis (OR= 3.7, 95% CI 1.1-11.6, p=<0.05) and asthma (OR= 3.9, 95% CI 1.01-15.5, p=<0.05) compared to those involved in carriage and placement work. A high frequency of respiratory symptoms and illnesses was observed among brick kiln workers. Age, nature of work and smoking were strong predictors of developing these symptoms and illnesses.

  2. Respiratory symptoms and illnesses among brick kiln workers: a cross sectional study from rural districts of Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Occupational risk factors are one of the major causes of respiratory illnesses and symptoms, and account for 13% of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and 11% of asthma worldwide. Majority of brick kilns in Pakistan use wood and coal for baking the bricks which makes the brick kiln workers susceptible to high exposure of air pollution. This study was designed to describe frequency of chronic respiratory symptoms and illnesses and study the association between these symptoms and different types of work. Methods This was a questionnaire based cross sectional survey conducted among the brick kiln workers in Larkana and Dadu districts, Sindh, Pakistan. A total of 340 adult men were assessed using translated version of the American Thoracic Society Division of Lung Disease (ATS-DLD) questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was done to determine the relationship between various socio-demographic and occupational factors (age, education, type of work, number of years at work, smoking status), and the respiratory symptoms and illnesses (chronic cough, chronic phlegm, wheeze, Chronic Bronchitis and asthma). Results Results of the study show that 22.4% workers had chronic cough while 21.2% reported chronic phlegm. 13.8% had two or more attacks of shortness of breath with wheezing. 17.1% workers were suffering from Chronic Bronchitis while 8.2% reported physician diagnosed asthma. Amongst the non-smoking workers 8.9% had Chronic Bronchitis. Multivariate analysis found that workers involved in brick baking were more likely to have Chronic Bronchitis (OR= 3.7, 95% CI 1.1-11.6, p=<0.05) and asthma (OR= 3.9, 95% CI 1.01-15.5, p=<0.05) compared to those involved in carriage and placement work. Conclusion A high frequency of respiratory symptoms and illnesses was observed among brick kiln workers. Age, nature of work and smoking were strong predictors of developing these symptoms and illnesses. PMID:23164428

  3. Shape and Construction of Brick Vaults. Criteria, Methods and Tools for a Possible Catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumana, R.; Condoleo, P.; Grimoldi, A.; Landi, A. G.

    2017-05-01

    The use of cloister vaults in the construction of noble buildings, as covering elements for square or rectangular rooms, is widespread and well-known. The geometric continuity at the intrados makes generally possible the execution all over the span of frescoes, stucco and decorations. The construction of brick vaults, from the late Middle Age, was sped up by limiting the centering to the wooden planks arches that were instrumental in the profile determination. Nowadays, the availability of several procedures, phases and tools for carrying out a survey allows to draw reliable assumptions about the construction methods and the execution time. It is mandatory to determine the properties of the binders, the shape and dimensions of the bricks, and to carry out a comparison between the geometry of the intrados surface and the evidences emerging at the extrados. The support of the laser scanner technique allows to accurately identify the surface profile and thickness. All these indications, in turn, are useful, in view of an interpretation of the structural behavior, to identify weaknesses, and to highlight contributing factors of instability (if any). The paper focuses on a well-documented case, the Magio Grasselli palace in Cremona in which the cloister vaults of two main rooms show different construction systems, although they were built almost at the same time. The thermographic recordings and laser-scanner surveys highlight the various arrangements used for the cloister vaults.

  4. Thermophysical and mechanical characterization of clay bricks reinforced by alfa or straw fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhamdouni, Y.; Khabbazi, A.; Benayad, C.; Mounir, S.; Dadi, A.

    2017-03-01

    This work is part of the valuation of local materials such as clay (earth), alfa fiber and straw fiber. The goal is to use these materials as bricks in rural construction. These materials are abundant, natural, and renewable. The objective of this work is to study the thermal and mechanical behavior of a new material by mixing clay (chosen as the binder) with different mass percentages of alfa fiber (0.5%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%), and to compare these results with those of materials often used in the construction of individual houses in rural Morocco (clay + straw). The results obtained prove to us that using straw fibers can reduce the thermal conductivity compared to alfa fiber, which allows to have energy savings of 2% to 7%. By against, alfa fibers can improve the mechanical behavior of clay-based materials when compared to the clay + straw material (an increase of 8% to 17% in the tractive resistance by bending and 6% to 18% for compression resistance). These results also specify the optimal usage conditions of these fibers (alfa and straw) in the clay bricks.

  5. Computing the Entropy of Kerr-Newman Black Hole Without Brick Walls Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li-Chun; Wu, Yue-Qin; Li, Huai-Fan; Ren, Zhao

    By using the entanglement entropy method, the statistical entropy of the Bose and Fermi fields in a thin film is calculated and the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of Kerr-Newman black hole is obtained. Here, the Bose and Fermi fields are entangled with the quantum states in Kerr-Newman black hole and are outside of the horizon. The divergence of brick-wall model is avoided without any cutoff by the new equation of state density obtained with the generalized uncertainty principle. The calculation implies that the high density quantum states near the event horizon are strongly correlated with the quantum states in black hole. The black hole entropy is a quantum effect. It is an intrinsic characteristic of space-time. The ultraviolet cutoff in the brick-wall model is unreasonable. The generalized uncertainty principle should be considered in the high energy quantum field near the event horizon. From the calculation, the constant λ introduced in the generalized uncertainty principle is related to polar angle θ in an axisymmetric space-time.

  6. Radon exhalation study of manganese clay residue and usability in brick production.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Tibor; Shahrokhi, Amin; Sas, Zoltán; Vigh, Tamás; Somlai, János

    2017-03-01

    The reuse of by-products and residue streams is an important topic due to environmental and financial aspects. Manganese clay is a residue of manganese ore processing and is generated in huge amounts. This residue may contain some radionuclides with elevated concentrations. In this study, the radon emanation features and the massic exhalation rate of the heat-treated manganese clay were determined with regard to brick production. From the manganese mud depository, 20 samples were collected and after homogenization radon exhalation characteristics were determined as a function of firing temperatures from 100 to 750 °C. The major naturally occurring radionuclides (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th concentrations were 607 ± 34, 52 ± 6 and 40 ± 5 Bq kg(-1), respectively, comparable with normal clay samples. Similar to our previous studies a strong correlation was found between the internal structure and the radon emanation. The radon emanation coefficient decreased by ∼96% from 0.23 at 100 °C to 0.01 at 750 °C. The massic radon exhalation rate of samples fired at 750 °C reduced by 3% compared to samples fired at 100 °C. In light of the results, reusing of manganese clay as a brick additive is possible without any constraints. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of maximum aggregate size on UPV of brick aggregate concrete.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Tarek Uddin; Mahmood, Aziz Hasan

    2016-07-01

    Investigation was carried out to study the effects of maximum aggregate size (MAS) (12.5mm, 19.0mm, 25.0mm, 37.5mm, and 50.0mm) on ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) of concrete. For investigation, first class bricks were collected and broken to make coarse aggregate. The aggregates were tested for specific gravity, absorption capacity, unit weight, and abrasion resistance. Cylindrical concrete specimens were made with different sand to aggregate volume ratio (s/a) (0.40 and 0.45), W/C ratio (0.45, 0.50, and 0.55), and cement content (375kg/m(3) and 400kg/m(3)). The specimens were tested for compressive strength and Young's modulus. UPV through wet specimen was measured using Portable Ultrasonic Non-destructive Digital Indicating Tester (PUNDIT). Results indicate that the pulse velocity through concrete increases with an increase in MAS. Relationships between UPV and compressive strength; and UPV and Young's modulus of concrete are proposed for different maximum sizes of brick aggregate.

  8. A new zirconium inorganic building brick forming metal organic frameworks with exceptional stability.

    PubMed

    Cavka, Jasmina Hafizovic; Jakobsen, Søren; Olsbye, Unni; Guillou, Nathalie; Lamberti, Carlo; Bordiga, Silvia; Lillerud, Karl Petter

    2008-10-22

    Porous crystals are strategic materials with industrial applications within petrochemistry, catalysis, gas storage, and selective separation. Their unique properties are based on the molecular-scale porous character. However, a principal limitation of zeolites and similar oxide-based materials is the relatively small size of the pores, typically in the range of medium-sized molecules, limiting their use in pharmaceutical and fine chemical applications. Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) provided a breakthrough in this respect. New MOFs appear at a high and an increasing pace, but the appearances of new, stable inorganic building bricks are rare. Here we present a new zirconium-based inorganic building brick that allows the synthesis of very high surface area MOFs with unprecedented stability. The high stability is based on the combination of strong Zr-O bonds and the ability of the inner Zr6-cluster to rearrange reversibly upon removal or addition of mu3-OH groups, without any changes in the connecting carboxylates. The weak thermal, chemical, and mechanical stability of most MOFs is probably the most important property that limits their use in large scale industrial applications. The Zr-MOFs presented in this work have the toughness needed for industrial applications; decomposition temperature above 500 degrees C and resistance to most chemicals, and they remain crystalline even after exposure to 10 tons/cm2 of external pressure.

  9. Transparent, Ultrahigh-Gas-Barrier Films with a Brick-Mortar-Sand Structure.

    PubMed

    Dou, Yibo; Pan, Ting; Xu, Simin; Yan, Hong; Han, Jingbin; Wei, Min; Evans, David G; Duan, Xue

    2015-08-10

    Transparent and flexible gas-barrier materials have shown broad applications in electronics, food, and pharmaceutical preservation. Herein, we report ultrahigh-gas-barrier films with a brick-mortar-sand structure fabricated by layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of XAl-layered double hydroxide (LDH, X=Mg, Ni, Zn, Co) nanoplatelets and polyacrylic acid (PAA) followed by CO2 infilling, denoted as (XAl-LDH/PAA)n-CO2. The near-perfectly parallel orientation of the LDH "brick" creates a long diffusion length to hinder the transmission of gas molecules in the PAA "mortar". Most significantly, both the experimental studies and theoretical simulations reveal that the chemically adsorbed CO2 acts like "sand" to fill the free volume at the organic-inorganic interface, which further depresses the diffusion of permeating gas. The strategy presented here provides a new insight into the perception of barrier mechanism, and the (XAl-LDH/PAA)n-CO2 film is among the best gas barrier films ever reported.

  10. A novel method for a multi-level hierarchical composite with brick-and-mortar structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Kristina; Wolff, Michael F. H.; Salikov, Vitalij; Heinrich, Stefan; Schneider, Gerold A.

    2013-07-01

    The fascination for hierarchically structured hard tissues such as enamel or nacre arises from their unique structure-properties-relationship. During the last decades this numerously motivated the synthesis of composites, mimicking the brick-and-mortar structure of nacre. However, there is still a lack in synthetic engineering materials displaying a true hierarchical structure. Here, we present a novel multi-step processing route for anisotropic 2-level hierarchical composites by combining different coating techniques on different length scales. It comprises polymer-encapsulated ceramic particles as building blocks for the first level, followed by spouted bed spray granulation for a second level, and finally directional hot pressing to anisotropically consolidate the composite. The microstructure achieved reveals a brick-and-mortar hierarchical structure with distinct, however not yet optimized mechanical properties on each level. It opens up a completely new processing route for the synthesis of multi-level hierarchically structured composites, giving prospects to multi-functional structure-properties relationships.

  11. A novel method for a multi-level hierarchical composite with brick-and-mortar structure

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Kristina; Wolff, Michael F. H.; Salikov, Vitalij; Heinrich, Stefan; Schneider, Gerold A.

    2013-01-01

    The fascination for hierarchically structured hard tissues such as enamel or nacre arises from their unique structure-properties-relationship. During the last decades this numerously motivated the synthesis of composites, mimicking the brick-and-mortar structure of nacre. However, there is still a lack in synthetic engineering materials displaying a true hierarchical structure. Here, we present a novel multi-step processing route for anisotropic 2-level hierarchical composites by combining different coating techniques on different length scales. It comprises polymer-encapsulated ceramic particles as building blocks for the first level, followed by spouted bed spray granulation for a second level, and finally directional hot pressing to anisotropically consolidate the composite. The microstructure achieved reveals a brick-and-mortar hierarchical structure with distinct, however not yet optimized mechanical properties on each level. It opens up a completely new processing route for the synthesis of multi-level hierarchically structured composites, giving prospects to multi-functional structure-properties relationships. PMID:23900554

  12. Stack emissions tests in a brick manufacturing Hoffmann kiln: firing of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Ubaque, C A García; Hässig, A Gonzales; Mendoza, C Acosta

    2010-07-01

    This article reviews the results obtained from stack emissions analysis during the co-firing process of municipal solid waste (MSW) from the municipality of Tabio, Colombia, in a Hoffmann-type brick kiln. MSW (2 tonne) was incinerated and about 18.5 tonnes of clay were processed into brick using one and four kiln chambers, respectively. During the process, the following emissions were investigated: particulate emissions, emissions of SO(2), SO(3), NO( X), metals (Sb, As, Cd, Co, Sn, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Hg), hydrofluoric and hydrochloric acid, hydrocarbons (such as methane) and emission of polychlorinated dioxins and furans. Also, CO emissions were monitored during each test to evaluate the influence of MSW co-firing on that parameter. The observed emissions concentrations proved to be below the threshold values issued by MAVDT, the environmental authority in Colombia, indicating that the emissions were under control during the proposed process. In addition, statistical analysis showed that the emissions were 10-40% below the regulation limit with a confidence of 95%.

  13. Environmental footprints of brick kiln bottom ashes: Geostatistical approach for assessment of metal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Ananya; Das, Subhasish; Sah, Rajesh Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Pradip; Bhattacharya, Satya Sundar

    2017-12-31

    Coal fired brick kiln factories generate significant of brick kiln bottom ash (BKBA) that contaminate soil and water environments of areas near the dumping sites through leaching of toxic metals (Pb, Cr, Cd, Zn, Mn, and Cu). However, characteristics and environmental effects of BKBAs are yet unknown. We collected BKBA samples from 32 strategic locations of two rapidly developing States (West Bengal and Assam) of India. Scanning electron microscope images indicated spherical and granular structures of BKBAs produced in West Bengal (WBKBA) and Assam (ABKBA) respectively; while energy dispersive spectroscopy and analytical assessments confirmed substantial occurrence of total organic C and nutrient elements (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S) in both the BKBAs. FTIR analysis revealed greater predominance of organic matter in ABKBAs than WBKBAs. Occurrence of toxic metals (Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn, Mn, and Cu) was higher in ABKBAs than in WBKBAs; while organic and residual fractions of metals were highly predominant in most of the BKBAs. Principal component analysis showed that metal contents and pH were the major distinguishing characteristics of the BKBAs generated in the two different environmental locations. Human health risk associated with BKBAs generated in Assam is of significant concern. Finally, geo-statistical tools enabled to predict the spatial distribution patterns of toxic metals contributed by the BKBAs in Assam and West Bengal respectively. Assessment of contamination index, geo-accumulation index, and ecological risk index revealed some BKBAs to be more toxic than others. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Chemical and microbiological stability of waste sludge from paper industry intended for brick production.

    PubMed

    Cernec, Franc; Zule, Janja; Moze, Adolf; Ivanus, Alenka

    2005-04-01

    Due to its chemical composition, waste sludge generated in the paper industry may be used as a raw material for brick production. Brick manufacture is limited to the warmer months of the year whereas sludge is produced continuously by different effluent treatment devices. Therefore, it has to be stored until further processing. For this reason, it is essential that it is not subject to significant chemical and microbiological decomposition during storage. In the experiment, sludge from a tissue paper mill was tested for its stability. It was stored for several weeks during winter and summer periods in a pile, 2 m in height, in an open but covered store. Different leachable organic and inorganic compounds indicating possible ongoing deterioration processes, as well as pH value, redox potential, temperature, humidity and dry matter content were evaluated weekly in water extracts of homogenized sludge samples. According to the test results, the material may be considered to be chemically and microbiologically stable as there was practically no emission of odorous and toxic compounds such as H2S, NH3 and butyric acid despite prolonged storage times and elevated environmental temperatures. All the microbial species identified in the sludge during storage belong to the typical microflora of the environment.

  15. Brick tunnel randomization for unequal allocation to two or more treatment groups.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Olga M; Tymofyeyev, Yevgen

    2011-04-15

    Studies with unequal allocation to two or more treatment groups often require a large block size for permuted block allocation. This could present a problem in small studies, multi-center studies, or adaptive design dose-finding studies. In this paper, an allocation procedure, which generalizes the maximal procedure by Berger, Ivanova, and Knoll to the case of K≥2 treatment groups and any allocation ratio, is offered. Brick tunnel (BT) randomization requires the allocation path drawn in the k-dimensional space to stay close to the allocation ray that corresponds to the targeted allocation ratio. Specifically, it requires the allocation path to be confined to the set of the k-dimensional unitary cubes that are pierced by the allocation ray (the 'brick tunnel'). The important property of the BT randomization is that the transition probabilities at each node within the tunnel are defined in such a way that the unconditional allocation ratio is the same for every allocation step. This property is not necessarily met by other allocation procedures that implement unequal allocation. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Feasibility of manufacturing geopolymer bricks using circulating fluidized bed combustion bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Li, Qin; Shen, Lifeng; Zhai, Jianping

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a study on geopolymer bricks manufactured using bottom ash from circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC). The alkali activators used for synthesis were sodium silicate, sodium hydroxide, and potassium hydroxide and lithium hydroxide solutions. The study included the impact of alkali activator on compressive strength. The reaction products were analysed by XRD, FT-IR and SEM/EDS. The compressive strength of bricks was dependent on the modulus of the sodium silicate activator and the type and concentration of alkali activator. The highest compressive strength could be gained when the modulus was 1.5, and the value could reach 16.1 MPa (7 d after manufacture) and 21.9 MPa (28 d after manufacture). Under pure alkaline systems, the compressive strength was in the order of 10 M KOH > 10 M NaOH > 5 M LiOH > 5 M KOH > 5 M NaOH. Quartz was the only crystalline phase in the original bottom ash, and no new crystalline phase was found after the reaction. The main product of reaction was amorphous alkali aluminosilicate gel and a small amount of crystalline phase was also found by SEM.

  17. Feasibility study of prompt gamma neutron activation for NDT measurement of moisture in stone and brick

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, R. A.; Al-Sheikhly, M.; Grissom, C.; Aloiz, E.; Paul, R.

    2014-02-18

    The conservation of stone and brick architecture or sculpture often involves damage caused by moisture. The feasibility of a NDT method based on prompt gamma neutron activation (PGNA) for measuring the element hydrogen as an indication of water is being evaluated. This includes systematic characterization of the lithology and physical properties of seven building stones and one brick type used in the buildings of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. To determine the required dynamic range of the NDT method, moisture-related properties were measured by standard methods. Cold neutron PGNA was also used to determine chemically bound water (CBW) content. The CBW does not damage porous masonry, but creates an H background that defines the minimum level of detection of damaging moisture. The CBW was on the order of 0.5% for all the stones. This rules out the measurement of hygric processes in all of the stones and hydric processed for the stones with fine scale pore-size distributions The upper bound of moisture content, set by porosity through water immersion, was on the order of 5%. The dynamic range is about 10–20. The H count rates were roughly 1–3 cps. Taking into account differences in neutron energies and fluxes and sample volume between cold PGNA and a portable PGNA instrument, it appears that it is feasible to apply PGNA in the field.

  18. Historical analyses by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusko, B. H.; Schwab, R. N.

    1987-03-01

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) is ideally suited for the elemental analysis of the papers, parchment, and inks of books, manuscripts, and other historical documents. This paper will describe the general kinds of historical and bibliographical issues that can be addressed by PIXE, and it discusses two specific historical applications of the technique: to the Gutenberg Bible and the Calov Bible owned by Johann Sebastian Bach.

  19. Historical Earthquakes and Active Structure for Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsereteli, Nino; Varazanashivli, Otar

    2014-05-01

    Long-term seismic history is an important foundation for reliable assessment of seismic hazard and risk. Therefore, completeness of earthquake catalogues in the longest historical part is very important. Survived historical sources, as well as special researches from the institutes, museums, libraries and archives in Georgia, the Caucasus and the Middle East indicate to high level of seismicity which entailed numerous human casualties and destruction on the territory of Georgia during the historical period. The study and detailed analysis of these original documents and researches have allowed us to create a new catalogue of historical earthquakes of Georgia from 1250 BC to 1900 AD. The method of the study is based on a multidisciplinary approach, i.e. on the joint use of methods of history and paleoseismology, archeoseismology, seismotectonics, geomorphology, etc. We present here a new parametric catalogue of 44 historic earthquakes of Georgia and a full "descriptor" of all the phenomena described in it. Constructed on its basis, the summarized map of the distribution of maximum damage in the historical period (before 1900) on the territory of Georgia clearly shows the main features of the seismic field during this period. In particular, in the axial part and the southern slope of the Greater Caucasus there is a seismic gap, which was filled in 1991 by the strongest earthquake and its aftershocks in Racha. In addition, it is also obvious that very high seismic activity in the central and eastern parts of the Javakheti highland is not described in historical materials and this fact requires further searches of various kinds of sources that contain data about historical earthquakes. We hope that this catalogue will enable to create a new joint (instrumental and historical) parametric earthquake catalogue of Georgia and will serve to assess the real seismic hazard and risk in the country.

  20. 41 CFR 102-75.440 - Who must disposal agencies notify that surplus property is available for historic monument use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... agencies notify that surplus property is available for historic monument use? 102-75.440 Section 102-75.440...) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal Property for Use As Historic Monuments § 102-75.440 Who must disposal agencies notify that surplus property...

  1. 41 CFR 102-75.440 - Who must disposal agencies notify that surplus property is available for historic monument use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... agencies notify that surplus property is available for historic monument use? 102-75.440 Section 102-75.440...) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal Property for Use As Historic Monuments § 102-75.440 Who must disposal agencies notify that surplus property...

  2. 41 CFR 102-75.440 - Who must disposal agencies notify that surplus property is available for historic monument use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... agencies notify that surplus property is available for historic monument use? 102-75.440 Section 102-75.440...) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal Property for Use As Historic Monuments § 102-75.440 Who must disposal agencies notify that surplus property...

  3. 41 CFR 102-75.440 - Who must disposal agencies notify that surplus property is available for historic monument use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... agencies notify that surplus property is available for historic monument use? 102-75.440 Section 102-75.440...) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal Property for Use As Historic Monuments § 102-75.440 Who must disposal agencies notify that surplus property...

  4. Brick and Click Libraries: Proceedings of an Academic Libraries Symposium (8th, Maryville, Missouri, November 7, 2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baudino, Frank, Ed.; Ury, Connie Jo, Ed.; Park, Sarah G., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Eighteen scholarly papers and eighteen abstracts comprise the content of the 8th "Brick and Click Libraries Symposium," held annually at Northwest Missouri State University in Maryville, Missouri. The proceedings, authored by academic librarians and presented at the symposium, portray the contemporary and future face of librarianship. Many of the…

  5. Matrix Metallopeptidase-2 Gene rs2287074 Polymorphism is Associated with Brick Tea Skeletal Fluorosis in Tibetans and Kazaks, China

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Junrui; Li, Bingyun; Liu, Yang; Liu, Xiaona; Li, Mang; Chu, Yanru; Yang, Qing; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Fuxun; Darko, Gottfried M.; Yang, Yanmei; Gao, Yanhui

    2017-01-01

    Brick tea skeletal fluorosis is still a public health issue in the north-western area of China. However its pathogenesis remains unknown. Our previous study reveals that the severity of skeletal fluorosis in Tibetans is more serious than that in Kazaks, although they have similar fluoride exposure, suggesting the onset of brick tea type skeletal fluorosis might be genetically influenced. Here we show that MMP-2 rs2287074 SNP (G/A), but not rs243865, was associated with Brick tea type fluorosis in Tibetans and Kazaks, China. The trend test reveals a decline in probability for skeletal fluorosis with increasing number of A alleles in Tibetans. After controlling potential confounders, AA genotype had about 80 percent lower probability of developing skeletal fluorosis than GG genotype in Tibetans (odds ratio = 0.174, 95% CI: 0.053, 0.575), and approximately 53 percent lower probability in Kazaks (odds ratio = 0.462, 95% CI: 0.214, 0.996). A meta-analysis shows that the AA genotype had approximately 63 percent lower odds (odds ratio = 0.373, 95% CI: 0.202, 0.689) compared with GG genotype within the two ethnicities. A significant correlation was also found between the genotype of MMP2 rs2287074 and skeletal fluorosis severity. Therefore, the A allele of MMP2 rs2287074 could be a protective factor for brick tea skeletal fluorosis. PMID:28079131

  6. Brick and Click Libraries: Proceedings of an Academic Library Symposium (Northwest Missouri State University, Maryville, Missouri, October 14, 2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ury, Connie Jo., Ed.; Baudino, Frank, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    These proceedings document the fifth year of the "Brick and Click Libraries Symposium", held annually at Northwest Missouri State University in Maryville, Missouri. Thirty five peer-reviewed papers and abstracts, written by academic librarians, and presented at the symposium are included in this volume. Many of the entries have…

  7. Brick and Click Libraries: Proceedings of an Academic Library Symposium (6th, Maryville, Missouri, November 3, 2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baudino, Frank, Ed.; Ury, Connie Jo, Ed.; Park, Sarah G., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    These proceedings document the sixth year of the "Brick and Click Libraries Symposium," held annually at Northwest Missouri State University in Maryville, Missouri, on November 3, 2006. Thirty-four peer-reviewed papers and abstracts, written by academic librarians, and presented at the symposium are included in this volume. Many of the…

  8. Brick and Click Libraries: Proceedings of an Academic Libraries Symposium (7th, Maryville, Missouri, November 2, 2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ury, Connie Jo, Ed.; Baudino, Frank, Ed.; Park, Sarah G., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-three scholarly papers and eleven abstracts reflect the content of the seventh "Brick and Click Libraries Symposium," held annually at Northwest Missouri State University in Maryville, Missouri. The proceedings, authored by academic librarians and presented at the symposium, portray the contemporary and future face of…

  9. Brick and Click Libraries: Proceedings of an Academic Library Symposium (9th, Maryville, Missouri, November 6, 2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ury, Connie Jo, Ed.; Baudino, Frank, Ed.; Park, Sarah G., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-one scholarly papers and fourteen abstracts comprise the content of the ninth annual "Brick and Click Libraries Symposium," held annually at Northwest Missouri State University in Maryville, Missouri. The peer-reviewed proceedings, authored by academic librarians and presented at the symposium, portray the contemporary and future…

  10. Investigation into the effect of some additives on the mechanical strength, quality and thermal conductivity of clay bricks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaid, Adnan I. O.; Qandil, A.; Qattous, M. A. A.

    2016-08-01

    It was repeatedly reported that the clay bricks industry in Jordan is facing both weak mechanical strength and poor quality which caused marketing problems where it is expected to serve the increasing demand of housing in the country especially after the political crises in the neighboring countries Iraq and Syria. It is therefore anticipated that improvement of the mechanical strength and quality of the produced clay evaluation of the brick industry in Jordan is worth investigating. In this paper, theoretical and experimental investigation obtained from field visits to the factories producing clay bricks were carried out. Furthermore, the effect of using some additives from locally available materials namely: Battn El-Ghoul Clay, Suweileh sand and Olive extracts on the mechanical strength, thermal conductivity and surface quality of the produced bricks is investigated and discussed. The experimental results indicated that thermal conductivity, color and durability were all enhanced and the ultimate compressive strength was reduced but remained higher than the acceptable value for brickwork.

  11. BRICK v0.2, a simple, accessible, and transparent model framework for climate and regional sea-level projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Tony E.; Bakker, Alexander M. R.; Ruckert, Kelsey; Applegate, Patrick; Slangen, Aimée B. A.; Keller, Klaus

    2017-07-01

    Simple models can play pivotal roles in the quantification and framing of uncertainties surrounding climate change and sea-level rise. They are computationally efficient, transparent, and easy to reproduce. These qualities also make simple models useful for the characterization of risk. Simple model codes are increasingly distributed as open source, as well as actively shared and guided. Alas, computer codes used in the geosciences can often be hard to access, run, modify (e.g., with regards to assumptions and model components), and review. Here, we describe the simple model framework BRICK (Building blocks for Relevant Ice and Climate Knowledge) v0.2 and its underlying design principles. The paper adds detail to an earlier published model setup and discusses the inclusion of a land water storage component. The framework largely builds on existing models and allows for projections of global mean temperature as well as regional sea levels and coastal flood risk. BRICK is written in R and Fortran. BRICK gives special attention to the model values of transparency, accessibility, and flexibility in order to mitigate the above-mentioned issues while maintaining a high degree of computational efficiency. We demonstrate the flexibility of this framework through simple model intercomparison experiments. Furthermore, we demonstrate that BRICK is suitable for risk assessment applications by using a didactic example in local flood risk management.

  12. Matrix Metallopeptidase-2 Gene rs2287074 Polymorphism is Associated with Brick Tea Skeletal Fluorosis in Tibetans and Kazaks, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Junrui; Li, Bingyun; Liu, Yang; Liu, Xiaona; Li, Mang; Chu, Yanru; Yang, Qing; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Fuxun; Darko, Gottfried M.; Yang, Yanmei; Gao, Yanhui

    2017-01-01

    Brick tea skeletal fluorosis is still a public health issue in the north-western area of China. However its pathogenesis remains unknown. Our previous study reveals that the severity of skeletal fluorosis in Tibetans is more serious than that in Kazaks, although they have similar fluoride exposure, suggesting the onset of brick tea type skeletal fluorosis might be genetically influenced. Here we show that MMP-2 rs2287074 SNP (G/A), but not rs243865, was associated with Brick tea type fluorosis in Tibetans and Kazaks, China. The trend test reveals a decline in probability for skeletal fluorosis with increasing number of A alleles in Tibetans. After controlling potential confounders, AA genotype had about 80 percent lower probability of developing skeletal fluorosis than GG genotype in Tibetans (odds ratio = 0.174, 95% CI: 0.053, 0.575), and approximately 53 percent lower probability in Kazaks (odds ratio = 0.462, 95% CI: 0.214, 0.996). A meta-analysis shows that the AA genotype had approximately 63 percent lower odds (odds ratio = 0.373, 95% CI: 0.202, 0.689) compared with GG genotype within the two ethnicities. A significant correlation was also found between the genotype of MMP2 rs2287074 and skeletal fluorosis severity. Therefore, the A allele of MMP2 rs2287074 could be a protective factor for brick tea skeletal fluorosis.

  13. Brick and Click Libraries: Proceedings of an Academic Library Symposium (10th, Maryville, Missouri, November 5, 2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baudino, Frank, Ed.; Ury, Connie Jo, Ed.; Park, Sarah G., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-one scholarly papers and fifteen abstracts comprise the content of the tenth annual Brick and Click Libraries Symposium, held annually at Northwest Missouri State University in Maryville, Missouri. The peer-reviewed proceedings, authored by academic librarians and presented at the symposium, portray the contemporary and future face of…

  14. From Bacon to Bush (Vannevar, Not G. W.): Common Ground between Useful Knowledge and Red Brick Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storella, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    The theory about the power of useful knowledge to improve the human condition was published in Francis Bacon's "Novum organon" and his "New Atlantis" in the seventeenth century. The connection between useful knowledge and red brick institutions from University College in London to Framingham State College and MIT in…

  15. Brick and Click Libraries: Proceedings of an Academic Library Symposium (11th, Maryville, Missouri, November 4, 2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baudino, Frank, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-three scholarly papers and twelve abstracts comprise the content of the eleventh annual Brick and Click Libraries Symposium, held at Northwest Missouri State University in Maryville, Missouri. The peer-reviewed proceedings, authored by academic librarians and presented at the symposium, portray the contemporary and future face of…

  16. Brick and Click Libraries: Changes and Challenges. Proceedings of a Regional Academic Library Symposium (Maryville, Missouri, October 18, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ury, Connie Jo, Ed.; Wainscott, Vicki, Ed.

    This proceedings of the Brick and Click Libraries Symposium contains the following papers: (1) "Electronic Journals: Vendor Solutions to Access Issues" (Nona Barton); (2) "Tips on Funding" (Janice Borey); (3) "Why Are So Many Web Pages Still So Hard To Use?" (Jerry R. Brown); (4) "The Secrets of Full-Text Databases: The Overlap between a Same…

  17. Brick and Click Libraries: Proceedings of a Regional Academic Library Symposium (Missouri State University, Maryville, Missouri, October 10, 2003)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ury, Connie Jo, Ed.; Baudino, Frank, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    The 2003 Brick and Click is a one-day conference that focuses on providing library resources and services for students who are either on-campus learners or off-campus learners. The conference theme was "The Shape of Tomorrow". It is sponsored by the Northwest Missouri State University in order to offer academic librarians a forum for…

  18. 77 FR 27428 - Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import Administration, International...

  19. 75 FR 45097 - Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks from Mexico: Notice of Final Determination of Sales at Less Than...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration... (bricks) from Mexico are being, or are likely to be, sold in the United States at less-than-fair-value... ``Issues and Decision Memorandum for the Final Determination in the Less-Than-Fair- Value Investigation...

  20. DNA-protein crosslinks as a biomarker of exposure to solar radiation: a preliminary study in brick-kiln workers.

    PubMed

    Budhwar, Roli; Bihari, Vipin; Mathur, Neeraj; Srivastava, Ak; Kumar, Sushil

    2003-01-01

    In India, fired clay bricks are produced in small-scale factories. There are 60, 000 active brick kilns, providing employment to nearly 12 million people in different suboccupations. This industry is largely non-mechanized and operates from November to June. Almost all the workers are exposed to direct sunlight for 8-10 h a day. Cellular DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs) are the biologically active nucleoprotein complexes formed between DNA and proteins. Ultraviolet light and gamma-rays, and other suspected carcinogens in humans, induce DPC formation in blood cells. DPCs have therefore been identified as a biomarker for monitoring exposure to these hazardous agents. Here we report steady-state levels of DPCs in human peripheral lymphocytes from 46 brick-kiln workers exposed occupationally for 8-10 h a day to solar radiation in brickfields and 25 unexposed controls. A significant increase (p <0.05) in DPC content and DPC coefficients in peripheral lymphocytes was observed in the brick-kiln workers compared with the controls. The data suggest that the DPC content of lymphocytes could be a possible biomarker of exposure to solar radiation. However, further work is necessary to confirm this.