Science.gov

Sample records for real product alternative

  1. An alternative to real estate ownership.

    PubMed

    Scarborough, Sydney

    2004-05-01

    Partnering with healthcare real estate managers and investors is one way to generate capital, improve cash flow, and minimize the management costs of developing and operating outpatient properties without sacrificing control of strategic locations or facilities. Eight simple steps can help you identify and select viable strategic healthcare real estate partners and negotiate effective monetization (sale of property title) agreements with them.

  2. Alternative Crops and Biofuel Production

    SciTech Connect

    Kenkel, Philip; Holcomb, Rodney B.

    2013-03-01

    In order for the biofuel industry to meet the RFS benchmarks for biofuels, new feedstock sources and production systems will have to be identified and evaluated. The Southern Plains has the potential to produce over a billion gallons of biofuels from regionally produced alternative crops, agricultural residues, and animal fats. While information on biofuel conversion processes is available, it is difficult for entrepreneurs, community planners and other interested individuals to determine the feasibility of biofuel processes or to match production alternatives with feed stock availability and community infrastructure. This project facilitates the development of biofuel production from these regionally available feed stocks. Project activities are concentrated in five major areas. The first component focused on demonstrating the supply of biofuel feedstocks. This involves modeling the yield and cost of production of dedicated energy crops at the county level. In 1991 the DOE selected switchgrass as a renewable source to produce transportation fuel after extensive evaluations of many plant species in multiple location (Caddel et al,. 2010). However, data on the yield and cost of production of switchgrass are limited. This deficiency in demonstrating the supply of biofuel feedstocks was addressed by modeling the potential supply and geographic variability of switchgrass yields based on relationship of available switchgrass yields to the yields of other forage crops. This model made it possible to create a database of projected switchgrass yields for five different soil types at the county level. A major advantage of this methodology is that the supply projections can be easily updated as improved varieties of switchgrass are developed and additional yield data becomes available. The modeling techniques are illustrated using the geographic area of Oklahoma. A summary of the regional supply is then provided.

  3. Survey of alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Summarized will be results obtained from the production of biodiesel from several alternative feedstocks with promising agronomic characteristics. Such feedstocks include camelina (Camelina sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), and meadowfoam (Limnanth...

  4. Alternatives to Trichoderma reesei in biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Gusakov, Alexander V

    2011-09-01

    Mutant strains of Trichoderma reesei are considered indisputable champions in cellulase production among biomass-degrading fungi. So, it is not surprising that most R&D projects on bioethanol production from lignocellulosics have been based on using T. reesei cellulases. The present review focuses on whether any serious alternatives to T. reesei enzymes in cellulose hydrolysis exist. Although not widely accepted, more and more data have been accumulated that demonstrate that fungi belonging to the genera Penicillium, Acremonium and Chrysosporium might represent such alternatives because they are competitive to T. reesei on some important parameters, such as protein production level, cellulase hydrolytic performance per unit of activity or milligram of protein.

  5. A Survey of Alternative Oxygen Production Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lueck, Dale E.; Parrish, Clyde F.; Buttner, William J.; Surma, Jan M.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Utilization of the Martian atmosphere for the production of fuel and oxygen has been extensively studied. The baseline fuel production process is a Sabatier reactor, which produces methane and water from carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The oxygen produced from the electrolysis of the water is only half of that needed for methane-based rocket propellant, and additional oxygen is needed for breathing air, fuel cells and other energy sources. Zirconia electrolysis cells for the direct reduction of CO2 are being developed as an alternative means of producing oxygen, but present many challenges for a large-scale oxygen production system. The very high operating temperatures and fragile nature of the cells coupled with fairly high operating voltages leave room for improvement. This paper will survey alternative oxygen production technologies, present data on operating characteristics, materials of construction, and some preliminary laboratory results on attempts to implement each.

  6. A survey of alternative oxygen production technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lueck, Dale E.; Parrish, Clyde F.; Buttner, William J.; Surma, Jan M.

    2001-02-01

    Utilization of the Martian atmosphere for the production of fuel and oxygen has been extensively studied. The baseline fuel production process is a Sabatier reactor, which produces methane and water from carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The oxygen produced from the electrolysis of the water is only half of that needed for methane-based rocket propellant, and additional oxygen is needed for breathing air, fuel cells and other energy sources. Zirconia electrolysis cells for the direct reduction of CO2 are being developed as an alternative means of producing oxygen, but present many challenges for a large-scale oxygen production system. The very high operating temperatures and fragile nature of the cells coupled with fairly high operating voltages leave room for improvement. This paper will survey alternative oxygen production technologies, present data on operating characteristics, materials of construction, and some preliminary laboratory results on attempts to implement each. .

  7. Available Alternative Fuel School Bus Products--2004

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-04-01

    This 4-page Clean Cities fact sheet provides a list of the currently available (and soon to be available) model year 2004 alternative fuel school bus and school bus engine products. It includes information from Blue Bird Corporation, Collins Bus Corporation, Corbeil Bus, Ford Motor Company, General Motors Corporation, Thomas Built Buses, Inc., Clean Air Partners, Cummins Westport, and Deere & Company.

  8. Alternative indicators for measuring hospital productivity.

    PubMed

    Serway, G D; Strum, D W; Haug, W F

    1987-08-01

    This article explores the premise that the appropriateness and usefulness of typical hospital productivity measures have been affected by three changes in delivery: Organizational restructuring and other definition and data source changes that make full-time equivalent employee (FTE) measurements ambiguous. Transition to prospective payment (diagnosis-related groups). Increase in capitation (prepaid, at risk) programs. The effects of these changes on productivity management indicate the need for alternative productivity indicators. Several productivity measures that complement these changes in internal operations and the external hospital business environment are presented. These are based on an analysis of four hospitals within a multihospital system, and an illustration and interpretation of an array of measures, based on ten months of actual data, is provided. In conclusion, the recommendation is made for hospital management to collect an expanded set of productivity measures and review them in light of changing expense and revenue management schemes inherent in new payment modes.

  9. A Survey of Alternative Oxygen Production Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lueck, Dale E.; Parrish, Clyde F.; Buttner, William J.; Surma, Jan M.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Utilization of the Martian atmosphere for the production of fuel and oxygen has been extensively studied. The baseline fuel production process is a Sabatier reactor, which produces methane and water from carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The oxygen produced from the electrolysis of the water is only half of that needed for methane-based rocket propellant, and additional oxygen is needed for breathing air, fuel cells and other energy sources. Zirconia electrolysis cells for the direct reduction of CO2 arc being developed as an alternative means of producing oxygen, but present many challenges for a large-scale oxygen production system. The very high operating temperatures and fragile nature of the cells coupled with fairly high operating voltages leave room for improvement. This paper will survey alternative oxygen production technologies, present data on operating characteristics, materials of construction, and some preliminary laboratory results on attempts to implement each. Our goal is to significantly improve upon the characteristics of proposed zirconia cells for oxygen production. To achieve that goal we are looking at electrolytic systems that operate at significantly lower temperatures, preferably below 31C to allow the incorporation of liquid CO2 in the electrolyte. Our preliminary results indicate that such a system will have much higher current densities and have simpler cathode construction than a porous gas feed electrode system. Such a system could be achieved based on nonaqueous electrolytes or ionic liquids. We are focusing our research on the anode reaction that will produce oxygen from a product generated at the cathode using CO2 as the feed. Operation at low temperatures also will open up the full range of polymer and metal materials, allowing a more robust system design to withstand the rigors of flight, landing, and long term unattended operation on the surface of Mars.

  10. Real-Time GPS-Alternative Navigation Using Commodity Hardware

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    Hypothesis The thrust of this research was to improve a state-of-the- art image-aided inertial navigation system developed in previous research at AFIT...novel, and even now is state-of-the- art GPS-alternative navigation. The previous system was built to test and demonstrate image-aided inertial...of-the- art . There have been a few attempts to augment CPU-based image processing by using programmable hardware. The objective of this type of

  11. Real-time data flow and product generating for GNSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muellerschoen, Ronald J.; Caissy, Mark

    2004-01-01

    The last IGS workshop with the theme 'Towards Real-Time' resulted in the design of a prototype for real-time data and sharing within the IGS. A prototype real-time network is being established that will serve as a test bed for real-time activities within the IGS. We review the developments of the prototype and discuss some of the existing methods and related products of real-time GNSS systems. Recommendations are made concerning real-time data distribution and product generation.

  12. Alternative Agricultural Enterprises. Production, Management & Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Linda Kirk; And Others

    These nine cooperative extension bulletins provide basic information on various alternative agricultural enterprises. Discussed in the first eight bulletins are the following topics: business ownership (sole proprietorship, partnership, incorporation, cooperatives); business and the family (goals, qualifications, ways of ensuring family support,…

  13. Alternate feedstocks and technologies for biodiesel production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    U.S. biodiesel production is presently estimated at 800 million gallons annually, and this fuel is no longer a research curiosity - it is entering the nation’s fuel infrastructure. Some estimates are that production will reach nearly twice that value in the next 10 to 12 years. This would stress a...

  14. Production of bacterial cellulose from alternate feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    D. N. Thompson; M. A. Hamilton

    2000-05-07

    Production of bacterial cellulose by Acetobacter xylinum ATCC 10821 and 23770 in static cultures was tested from unamended food process effluents. Effluents included low- and high-solids potato effluents (LS and HS), cheese whey permeate (CW), and sugar beet raffinate (CSB). Strain 23770 produced 10% less cellulose from glucose than did 10821, and diverted more glucose to gluconate. Unamended HS, CW, and CSB were unsuitable for cellulose production by either strain, while LS was unsuitable for production by 10821. However, 23770 produced 17% more cellulose from LS than from glucose, indicating unamended LS could serve as a feedstock for bacterial cellulose.

  15. Production of Bacterial Cellulose from Alternate Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, David Neil; Hamilton, Melinda Ann

    2000-05-01

    Production of bacterial cellulose by Acetobacter xylinum ATCC 10821 and 23770 in static cultures was tested from unamended food process effluents. Effluents included low- and high-solids potato effluents (LS & HS), cheese whey permeate (CW), and sugar beet raffinate (CSB). Strain 23770 produced 10% less cellulose from glucose than did 10821, and diverted more glucose to gluconate. Unamended HS, CW, and CSB were unsuitable for cellulose production by either strain, while LS was unsuitable for production by 10821. However, 23770 produced 17% more cellulose from LS than from glucose, indicating unamended LS could serve as a feedstock for bacterial cellulose.

  16. New Alternatives in Seafood Restructured Products.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Helena M; Herranz, Beatriz; Pérez-Mateos, Miriam; Sánchez-Alonso, Isabel; Borderías, Javier A

    2016-01-01

    A general overview, focusing on new trends in the different techniques used in restructured seafood product processing has been described in this work. Heat-induced gelation has been more widely studied in scientific literature than cold gelation technology. This latter technology includes the use of hydrocolloids (alginates and glucomannan) or enzymes (microbial transglutaminase) for making both raw and cooked restructured products. In restructuration processes, fortification processing with some functional ingredients is studied, giving as a result extra value to the products as well as increasing the variety of new seafood products. The process of alleviating heavy metals and organic pollutants from the raw material used has also been reviewed in the present paper.

  17. Alternative Bench Standards: Sample Production Report

    SciTech Connect

    N. R. Mann; T. P. Houghton; M. G. Watrous; J. G. Eisenmenger; R. K. Hague

    2012-09-01

    The INL has prepared four standards representing krypton concentrations of 1.1X, 1.54X, 10X and 100X the reported atmospheric value of 70 dpm 85Kr per cubic centimeter of Kr gas at 25 degrees C (ie. 1.1X is 1.1 x 70, or 77 dpm 85Kr per cubic centimeter of Kr gas at 25 degrees C). A t-zero date and time of January 1, 2012 at 1200 Zulu was used for all standards. The Alternative Bench Standards (ABS) of 1.1X, 1.54X, 10X and 100X, are designated by titles of ABS-A, ABS-B, ABS C and ABS-D, respectively. The concentration of Kr in air is 1.14 ppm.

  18. Real-Life Challenges in Using Augmentative and Alternative Communication by Persons with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Jayanti

    2015-01-01

    Given the linguistic and cognitive demands of communication, adult Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) users with acquired communication disorders may have difficulty using AAC systems consistently and effectively in "real-life" situations. The process of recommending AAC systems and strategies is an area of exploration,…

  19. Medical Countermeasure Product Development - Alternatives Paper

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    Health Departments of Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States. The Consortium seeks to develop MedCM including drugs, vaccines...Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States. The Consortium seeks to develop MedCM including drugs, vaccines and diagnostics to assist...been very little incentive for the biotechnology /medical technology community to focus on MedCM product development. This was because the focus of

  20. Alternative respiration and fumaric acid production of Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Gu, Shuai; Xu, Qing; Huang, He; Li, Shuang

    2014-06-01

    Under the conditions of fumaric acid fermentation, Rhizopus oryzae ME-F14 possessed at least two respiratory systems. The respiration of mycelia was partially inhibited by the cytochrome respiration inhibitor antimycin A or the alternative respiration inhibitor salicylhydroxamic acid and was completely inhibited in the presence of both antimycin A and salicylhydroxamic acid. During fumaric acid fermentation process, the activity of alternative respiration had a great correlation with fumaric acid productivity; both of them reached peak at the same time. The alternative oxidase gene, which encoded the mitochondrial alternative oxidase responsible for alternative respiration in R. oryzae ME-F14, was cloned and characterized in Escherichia coli. The activity of alternative respiration, the alternative oxidase gene transcription level, as well as the fumaric acid titer were measured under different carbon sources and different carbon-nitrogen ratios. The activity of alternative respiration was found to be comparable to the transcription level of the alternative oxidase gene and the fumaric acid titer. These results indicated that the activity of the alternative oxidase was regulated at the transcription stage under the conditions tested for R. oryzae ME-F14.

  1. The Real Problem (Humans) and Some Potentially Effective Alternatives and New Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlon, Edward; Capece, John

    2011-01-07

    The presentation offers a wider perspective, where on the example of Everglades’ restoration efforts, the real problem – humans – is exposed. Some potentially effective alternatives and new tools are offered and discussed. Everglades’s problems are primarily caused to human activity, whether these are related to poor water quality, land use changes or cheap short-sighted fixes. Ground rules need to be set in order to have a real discussion and seek real solutions to such problems. The difference between facts and opinions is explained, so is the difference between interests and positions. These terms are often partly coinciding in human minds, thus causing further misunderstandings in pursuing real solutions. Some confounding factors in the Everglades restoration efforts are listed, with one of the main examples being the assignment of a monetary value to all factors. Some of these factors are priceless, but not being valued easily and properly (such as water). The proposed alternative to monetary value is assigning energy as the unit of measurement. The two main methods for such alternate approach are (1) Embodied energy (Emergy) and (2) Life Cycle Analysis. Agriculturally-based ecosystems services are different from natural ecosystems services. Pursuing agriculturally-based ecosystems services (such as e.g. water storage on farms, reducing nutrients in water, using flood-tolerant crops cultivars, etc.) can develop eco-services into agricultural operations and systems, addressing everyone’s interest and benefiting the society.

  2. GATEWAY Demonstrations: Exploring SSL Product Performance in the Real World

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    Fact sheet that outlines DOE's GATEWAY technology demonstration program, which evaluates high-performance SSL products for general illumination in a variety of real-world exterior and interior applications.

  3. Airports Offer Unrealized Potential for Alternative Energy Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devault, Travis L.; Belant, Jerrold L.; Blackwell, Bradley F.; Martin, James A.; Schmidt, Jason A.; Wes Burger, L.; Patterson, James W.

    2012-03-01

    Scaling up for alternative energy such as solar, wind, and biofuel raises a number of environmental issues, notably changes in land use and adverse effects on wildlife. Airports offer one of the few land uses where reductions in wildlife abundance and habitat quality are necessary and socially acceptable, due to risk of wildlife collisions with aircraft. There are several uncertainties and limitations to establishing alternative energy production at airports, such as ensuring these facilities do not create wildlife attractants or other hazards. However, with careful planning, locating alternative energy projects at airports could help mitigate many of the challenges currently facing policy makers, developers, and conservationists.

  4. Airports offer unrealized potential for alternative energy production.

    PubMed

    DeVault, Travis L; Belant, Jerrold L; Blackwell, Bradley F; Martin, James A; Schmidt, Jason A; Wes Burger, L; Patterson, James W

    2012-03-01

    Scaling up for alternative energy such as solar, wind, and biofuel raises a number of environmental issues, notably changes in land use and adverse effects on wildlife. Airports offer one of the few land uses where reductions in wildlife abundance and habitat quality are necessary and socially acceptable, due to risk of wildlife collisions with aircraft. There are several uncertainties and limitations to establishing alternative energy production at airports, such as ensuring these facilities do not create wildlife attractants or other hazards. However, with careful planning, locating alternative energy projects at airports could help mitigate many of the challenges currently facing policy makers, developers, and conservationists.

  5. MISR Near Real Time Products Available

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-09-04

    ... winds. These are now available to accommodate rapid response applications, especially numerical weather prediction (NWP).   ... product is available within three hours of satellite over flight as one data file per session, where a session consists of a 10 to 50 ...

  6. Validation of an alternative microbiological method for tissue products.

    PubMed

    Suessner, Susanne; Hennerbichler, Simone; Schreiberhuber, Stefanie; Stuebl, Doris; Gabriel, Christian

    2014-06-01

    According to the European Pharmacopoeia sterility testing of products includes an incubation time of 14 days in thioglycollate medium and soya-bean casein medium. In this case a large period of time is needed for product testing. So we designed a study to evaluate an alternative method for sterility testing. The aim of this study was to reduce the incubation time for the routinely produced products in our tissue bank (cornea and amnion grafts) by obtaining the same detection limit, accurateness and recovery rates as the reference method described in the European Pharmacopoeia. The study included two steps of validation. Primary validation compared the reference method with the alternative method. Therefore eight bacterial and two fungi test strains were tested at their preferred milieu. A geometric dilution series from 10 to 0.625 colony forming unit per 10 ml culture media was used. Subsequent to the evaluation the second part of the study started including the validation of the fertility of the culture media and the parallel testing of the two methods by investigating products. For this purpose two product batches were tested in three independent runs. Concerning the validation we could not find any aberration between the alternative and the reference method. In addition, the recovery rate of each microorganism was between 83.33 and 100 %. The alternative method showed non-inferiority regarding accuracy to the reference method. Due to this study we reduced the sterility testing for cornea and amniotic grafts to 9 days.

  7. Wastes and by-products - alternatives for agricultural use

    SciTech Connect

    Boles, J.L.; Craft, D.J.; Parker, B.R.

    1994-10-01

    Top address a growing national problem with generation of wastes and by-products, TVA has been involved for several years with developing and commercializing environmentally responsible practices for eliminating, minimizing, or utilizing various wastes/by-products. In many cases, reducing waste generation is impractical, but the wastes/by-products can be converted into other environmentally sound products. In some instances, conversion of safe, value-added agricultural products in the best or only practical alternative. TVA is currently involved with a diversity of projects converting wastes/by-products into safe, economical, and agriculturally beneficial products. Environmental improvement projects have involved poultry litter, cellulosic wastes, used battery acid, ammonium sulfate fines, lead smelting effluents, deep-welled sulfuric acid/ammonium bisulfate solutions, wood ash, waste magnesium ammonium sulfate slurry from recording tape production, and ammunition plant waste sodium nitrate/ammonium nitrate streams.

  8. Alternative biofuel production in non-natural hosts.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Jordan T; Atsumi, Shota

    2012-10-01

    Global energy and environmental concerns have stimulated increased efforts in synthesizing petroleum-derived products from renewable resources. Biological production of metabolites for fuel is increasingly becoming a feasible, renewable, environmentally sound alternative. However, many of these chemicals are not highly produced in any known native organism. Here we review the current progress of modifying microorganisms with heterogeneous elements for the production of biofuels. This strategy has been extensively employed in a variety of hosts for the development of production of various alcohols, fatty acids, alkenes and alkanes.

  9. Botanical alternatives to antibiotics for use in organic poultry production.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Sanchez, Sandra; D'Souza, Doris; Biswas, Debrabrata; Hanning, Irene

    2015-06-01

    The development of antibiotic resistant pathogens has resulted from the use of sub-therapeutic concentrations of antibiotics delivered in poultry feed. Furthermore, there are a number of consumer concerns regarding the use of antibiotics in food animals including residue contamination of poultry products and antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens. These issues have resulted in recommendations to reduce the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in livestock in the United States. Unlike conventional production, organic systems are not permitted to use antibiotics. Thus, both conventional and organic poultry production need alternative methods to improve growth and performance of poultry. Herbs, spices, and various other plant extracts are being evaluated as alternatives to antibiotics and some do have growth promoting effects, antimicrobial properties, and other health-related benefits. This review aims to provide an overview of herbs, spices, and plant extracts, currently defined as phytobiotics as potential feed additives.

  10. Alternative Bioenergy: Small Scale Pellet Production from Forest Residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, Audra S.

    Forests can readily supply feedstock for alternative bioenergy production. Feedstock removal has the potential to benefit forest health and provide ecosystem services, while also generating profit for landowners, contractors and forest managers. However, many landowners are faced with the challenge of managing forest residuals to meet slash compliances and fire regulations. Currently, most residuals are burned or left on site to decompose. Every year, the north-central Idaho region produces over 16 million dry tons of unutilized forest residues. In a time where alternative energy sources are growing in demand, new approaches to utilize these residuals for bioenergy production are being examined. One approach is a portable, small-scale wood pellet mill that can be taken directly to the logging site. Utilizing forest residues for pellet production reduces residue burning and its potential negative impacts on air quality. This presentation focuses on the quality of wood pellets manufactured by a portable wood pellet mill utilizing various forms of forest residuals.

  11. Biotechnological processes for biodiesel production using alternative oils.

    PubMed

    Azócar, Laura; Ciudad, Gustavo; Heipieper, Hermann J; Navia, Rodrigo

    2010-10-01

    As biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester (FAME)) is mainly produced from edible vegetable oils, crop soils are used for its production, increasing deforestation and producing a fuel more expensive than diesel. The use of waste lipids such as waste frying oils, waste fats, and soapstock has been proposed as low-cost alternative feedstocks. Non-edible oils such as jatropha, pongamia, and rubber seed oil are also economically attractive. In addition, microalgae, bacteria, yeast, and fungi with 20% or higher lipid content are oleaginous microorganisms known as single cell oil and have been proposed as feedstocks for FAME production. Alternative feedstocks are characterized by their elevated acid value due to the high level of free fatty acid (FFA) content, causing undesirable saponification reactions when an alkaline catalyst is used in the transesterification reaction. The production of soap consumes the conventional catalyst, diminishing FAME production yield and simultaneously preventing the effective separation of the produced FAME from the glycerin phase. These problems could be solved using biological catalysts, such as lipases or whole-cell catalysts, avoiding soap production as the FFAs are esterified to FAME. In addition, by-product glycerol can be easily recovered, and the purification of FAME is simplified using biological catalysts.

  12. Real-Time Tropospheric Delay Estimation using IGS Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stürze, Andrea; Liu, Sha; Söhne, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    The Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG) routinely provides zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) parameter for the assimilation in numerical weather models since more than 10 years. Up to now the results flowing into the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN) or E-GVAP (EUMETNET EIG GNSS water vapour programme) analysis are based on batch processing of GPS+GLONASS observations in differential network mode. For the recently started COST Action ES1206 about "Advanced Global Navigation Satellite Systems tropospheric products for monitoring severe weather events and climate" (GNSS4SWEC), however, rapid updates in the analysis of the atmospheric state for nowcasting applications require changing the processing strategy towards real-time. In the RTCM SC104 (Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services, Special Committee 104) a format combining the advantages of Precise Point Positioning (PPP) and Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) is under development. The so-called State Space Representation approach is defining corrections, which will be transferred in real-time to the user e.g. via NTRIP (Network Transport of RTCM via Internet Protocol). Meanwhile messages for precise orbits, satellite clocks and code biases compatible to the basic PPP mode using IGS products are defined. Consequently, the IGS Real-Time Service (RTS) was launched in 2013 in order to extend the well-known precise orbit and clock products by a real-time component. Further messages e.g. with respect to ionosphere or phase biases are foreseen. Depending on the level of refinement, so different accuracies up to the RTK level shall be reachable. In co-operation of BKG and the Technical University of Darmstadt the real-time software GEMon (GREF EUREF Monitoring) is under development. GEMon is able to process GPS and GLONASS observation and RTS product data streams in PPP mode. Furthermore, several state-of-the-art troposphere models, for example based on numerical weather prediction data, are implemented. Hence, it

  13. Fatty acid alkyl esters: perspectives for production of alternative biofuels.

    PubMed

    Röttig, Annika; Wenning, Leonie; Bröker, Daniel; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2010-02-01

    The global economy heads for a severe energy crisis: whereas the energy demand is going to rise, easily accessible sources of crude oil are expected to be depleted in only 10-20 years. Since a serious decline of oil supply and an associated collapse of the economy might be reality very soon, alternative energies and also biofuels that replace fossil fuels must be established. In addition, these alternatives should not further impair the environment and climate. About 90% of the biofuel market is currently captured by bioethanol and biodiesel. Biodiesel is composed of fatty acid alkyl esters (FAAE) and can be synthesized by chemical, enzymatic, or in vivo catalysis mainly from renewable resources. Biodiesel is already established as it is compatible with the existing fuel infrastructure, non-toxic, and has superior combustion characteristics than fossil diesel; and in 2008, the global production was 12.2 million tons. The biotechnological production of FAAE from low cost and abundant feedstocks like biomass will enable an appreciable substitution of petroleum diesel. To overcome high costs for immobilized enzymes, the in vivo synthesis of FAAE using bacteria represents a promising approach. This article points to the potential of different FAAE as alternative biofuels, e.g., by comparing their fuel properties. In addition to conventional production processes, this review presents natural and genetically engineered biological systems capable of in vivo FAAE synthesis.

  14. Lepidopteran cells, an alternative for the production of recombinant antibodies?

    PubMed Central

    Cérutti, Martine; Golay, Josée

    2012-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies are used with great success in many different therapeutic domains. In order to satisfy the growing demand and to lower the production cost of these molecules, many alternative systems have been explored. Among them, the baculovirus/insect cells system is a good candidate. This system is very safe, given that the baculoviruses have a highly restricted host range and they are not pathogenic to vertebrates or plants. But the major asset is the speed with which it is possible to obtain very stable recombinant viruses capable of producing fully active proteins whose glycosylation pattern can be modulated to make it similar to the human one. These features could ultimately make the difference by enabling the production of antibodies with very low costs. However, efforts are still needed, in particular to increase production rates and thus make this system commercially viable for the production of these therapeutic agents. PMID:22531440

  15. High-Intensity Sweeteners in Alternative Tobacco Products

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Shida; Beach, Evan S.; Sommer, Toby J.; Zimmerman, Julie B.

    2016-01-01

    toxicants. This study is the first to quantify high intensity sweeteners in snus and dissolvable products. Snus and dissolvables contain the high intensity sweetener, sucralose, at levels higher than in confectionary products. The high sweetness of alternative tobacco products makes these products attractive to adolescents. Regulation of sweetener content in non-cigarette products is suggested as an efficient means to control product palatability and to reduce initiation in adolescents. PMID:27217475

  16. Energy cane as a multiple-products alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    CANE SUGAR planting as it was formerly known is in serious and essentially irreversible trouble. Diversification of sugarcane to alternative farm crops is indicated in some instances. Yet, for the most part, the more logical alternative is an internal diversification to a multiple-products biomass commodity. Sometimes termed the energy cane approach, its keystones are the management of sugarcane as a quantitative rather than qualitative entity, and the inclusion of certain tropical-grass relatives to assist cane in its year-round supply of biomass to industrial consumers. Managed in this way, absolute tonnages of whole cane are increased materially beyond what is possible from sugar-crop management. Juice quality declines but sugar yields are significant as a function of high biomass tonnages per acre. Usage of the lignocellulose can range from low-quality humid boiler fuel in furnaces designed for refuse incineration, to higher-quality fuels in more efficient boilers, to proprietary fuels and chemical products, and to lignocellulose supply as the feedstock for primary chemicals production. The latter might include, for example, synthesis gas and petrochemicals in tropical regions lacking natural gas, naphtha, or coal as starting materials. Diversification of sugarcane to completely new farm commodities is opposed in favor of internal diversification to a high-growth, multiple-products commodity. Decisive issues here are as much educational as they are technical. The energy cane concept maintains that sugarcane is a future resource of enormous national and international value. It should develop accordingly where decision-taking is by persons who respect the cane plant and who have done their homework on its alternative-use potentials. 35 references, 5 figures, 6 tables.

  17. Inter-esterified palm products as alternatives to hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Idris, Nor Aini; Dian, Noor Lida Habi Mat

    2005-01-01

    Inter-esterification is one of the processes used to modify the physico-chemical characteristics of oils and fats. Inter-esterification is an acyl-rearrangement reaction on the glycerol molecule. On the other hand, hydrogenation involves addition of hydrogen to the double bonds of unsaturated fatty acids. Due to health implications of trans fatty acids, which are formed during hydrogenation, the industry needs to find alternatives to hydrogenated fats. This paper discusses some applications of inter-esterified fats, with particular reference to inter-esterified palm products, as alternatives to hydrogenation. Some physico-chemical properties of inter-esterified fats used in shortenings are discussed. With inter-esterification, more palm stearin can be incorporated in vanaspati. For confectionary fats and infant formulations, enzymatic inter-esterification has been employed.

  18. Economic and market issues on the sustainability of egg production in the United States: analysis of alternative production systems.

    PubMed

    Sumner, D A; Gow, H; Hayes, D; Matthews, W; Norwood, B; Rosen-Molina, J T; Thurman, W

    2011-01-01

    Conventional cage housing for laying hens evolved as a cost-effective egg production system. Complying with mandated hen housing alternatives would raise marginal production costs and require sizable capital investment. California data indicate that shifts from conventional cages to barn housing would likely cause farm-level cost increases of about 40% per dozen. The US data on production costs of such alternatives as furnished cages are not readily available and European data are not applicable to the US industry structure. Economic analysis relies on key facts about production and marketing of conventional and noncage eggs. Even if mandated by government or buyers, shifts to alternative housing would likely occur with lead times of at least 5 yr. Therefore, egg producers and input suppliers would have considerable time to plan new systems and build new facilities. Relatively few US consumers now pay the high retail premiums required for nonconventional eggs from hens housed in alternative systems. However, data from consumer experiments indicate that additional consumers would also be willing to pay some premium. Nonetheless, current data do not allow easy extrapolation to understand the willingness to pay for such eggs by the vast majority of conventional egg consumers. Egg consumption in the United States tends to be relatively unresponsive to price changes, such that sustained farm price increases of 40% would likely reduce consumption by less than 10%. This combination of facts and relationships suggests that, unless low-cost imports grew rapidly, requirements for higher cost hen housing systems would raise US egg prices considerably while reducing egg consumption marginally. Eggs are a low-cost source of animal protein and low-income consumers would be hardest hit. However, because egg expenditures are a very small share of the consumer budget, real income loss for consumers would be small in percentage terms. Finally, the high egg prices imposed by

  19. Species identification in meat products using real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Jonker, K M; Tilburg, J J H C; Hagele, G H; de Boer, E

    2008-05-01

    One of the most convenient methods for the identification of animal species in processed meat products is the examination of DNA sequences. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) techniques are particularly suitable because even small fragments of DNA formed during heat processing of the meat can be amplified and identified. A real-time PCR method has been developed and evaluated for the identification of processed meat products. In test mixtures containing beef, pork, horse, mutton, chicken and turkey, it was possible to identify these species down to a level of 0.05%. By adjusting the number of cycles, it was possible to detect levels as low as 0.01% of these species. Cross-reactivity between these species was not found, except for pure horsemeat (250 ng DNA) in the assay for turkey meat. Cross-reactivity of deer, roe, ostrich, kangaroo, goat, domestic duck, mallard, goose, pigeon, guinea fowl, quail and pheasant was also investigated and it was found that amounts as high as 250 ng DNA of these species in the reaction vial did not result in (false) positive signals except for amounts higher than 125 ng deer DNA and higher than 50 ng pigeon DNA in the determination of chicken and beef, respectively. More than 150 meat samples were examined using DNA hybridization and real-time PCR. A comparison of the results showed a better performance of the real-time procedure compared to DNA hybridization.

  20. [Biosimilars in oncology: a therapeutic alternative to the reference products?

    PubMed

    Ludwig, W D; Dicheva, S

    2016-11-01

    Biosimilar medicinal products (biosimilars) have been available in Europe for 10 years, allowing a wide use particularly in oncology. Biosimilars are being developed and approved by means of scientifically sound principles to assure close similarity with the reference products with regard to quality, efficacy, and safety. The scientific principles for establishing biosimilarity are the same as those for demonstrating comparability after a change in the manufacturing process of an already licensed biological. Nevertheless, many clinicians voiced concerns about biosimilars related to their pharmaceutical quality, efficacy (particularly in extrapolated indications), safety (especially immunogenicity), and interchangeability with the originator product. The availability of biosimilars would strengthen the economic competition on the pharmaceutical market, provide opportunities to improve healthcare access, and contribute to the financial sustainability of European healthcare systems. Biosimilars can be considered therapeutic alternatives to the reference product. To date, no data has been published revealing any disadvantages of the biosimilars' use. This article aims to acquaint clinicians, particularly oncologists and haematologists, with the biosimilar concept as they are going to be confronted with a constantly increasing number of biosimilars due to patent expirations in the near future. Furthermore, it provides information on scientific principles guiding biosimilar development and regulatory requirements. This should minimise unfounded fears and concerns among clinicians. Additionally, we provide information on the interchangeability between originator products and biosimilars to assist clinicians in making evidence-based, appropriate, and cost-effective treatment choices for their patients.

  1. Antibiotics in Canadian poultry productions and anticipated alternatives.

    PubMed

    Diarra, Moussa S; Malouin, François

    2014-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in food-producing animals has significantly increased animal health by lowering mortality and the incidence of diseases. Antibiotics also have largely contributed to increase productivity of farms. However, antibiotic usage in general and relevance of non-therapeutic antibiotics (growth promoters) in feed need to be reevaluated especially because bacterial pathogens of humans and animals have developed and shared a variety of antibiotic resistance mechanisms that can easily be spread within microbial communities. In Canada, poultry production involves more than 2600 regulated chicken producers who have access to several antibiotics approved as feed additives for poultry. Feed recipes and mixtures vary greatly geographically and from one farm to another, making links between use of a specific antibiotic feed additive and production yields or selection of specific antibiotic-resistant bacteria difficult to establish. Many on-farm studies have revealed the widespread presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in broiler chickens. While some reports linked the presence of antibiotic-resistant organisms to the use of feed supplemented with antibiotics, no recent studies could clearly demonstrate the benefit of antimicrobial growth promoters on performance and production yields. With modern biosecurity and hygienic practices, there is a genuine concern that intensive utilization of antibiotics or use of antimicrobial growth promoters in feed might no longer be useful. Public pressure and concerns about food and environmental safety (antibiotic residues, antibiotic-resistant pathogens) have driven researchers to actively look for alternatives to antibiotics. Some of the alternatives include pre- and probiotics, organic acids and essential oils. We will describe here the properties of some bioactive molecules, like those found in cranberry, which have shown interesting polyvalent antibacterial and immuno-stimulatory activities.

  2. MRSA in Conventional and Alternative Retail Pork Products

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Ashley M.; Hanson, Blake M.; Farina, Sarah A.; Wu, James Y.; Simmering, Jacob E.; Wardyn, Shylo E.; Forshey, Brett M.; Kulick, Marie E.; Wallinga, David B.; Smith, Tara C.

    2012-01-01

    In order to examine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus on retail pork, three hundred ninety-five pork samples were collected from a total of 36 stores in Iowa, Minnesota, and New Jersey. S. aureus was isolated from 256 samples (64.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 59.9%–69.5%). S. aureus was isolated from 67.3% (202/300) of conventional pork samples and from 56.8% (54/95) of alternative pork samples (labeled “raised without antibiotics” or “raised without antibiotic growth promotants”). Two hundred and thirty samples (58.2%, 95% CI 53.2%–63.1%) were found to carry methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA). MSSA was isolated from 61.0% (183/300) of conventional samples and from 49.5% (47/95) of alternative samples. Twenty-six pork samples (6.6%, 95% CI 4.3%–9.5%) carried methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). No statistically significant differences were observed for the prevalence of S. aureus in general, or MSSA or MRSA specifically, when comparing pork products from conventionally raised swine and swine raised without antibiotics, a finding that contrasts with a prior study from the Netherlands examining both conventional and “biologic” meat products. In our study spa types associated with “livestock-associated” ST398 (t034, t011) were found in 26.9% of the MRSA isolates, while 46.2% were spa types t002 and t008—common human types of MRSA that also have been found in live swine. The study represents the largest sampling of raw meat products for MRSA contamination to date in the U.S. MRSA prevalence on pork products was higher than in previous U.S.-conducted studies, although similar to that in Canadian studies. PMID:22276147

  3. Antibiotics in Canadian poultry productions and anticipated alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Diarra, Moussa S.; Malouin, François

    2014-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in food-producing animals has significantly increased animal health by lowering mortality and the incidence of diseases. Antibiotics also have largely contributed to increase productivity of farms. However, antibiotic usage in general and relevance of non-therapeutic antibiotics (growth promoters) in feed need to be reevaluated especially because bacterial pathogens of humans and animals have developed and shared a variety of antibiotic resistance mechanisms that can easily be spread within microbial communities. In Canada, poultry production involves more than 2600 regulated chicken producers who have access to several antibiotics approved as feed additives for poultry. Feed recipes and mixtures vary greatly geographically and from one farm to another, making links between use of a specific antibiotic feed additive and production yields or selection of specific antibiotic-resistant bacteria difficult to establish. Many on-farm studies have revealed the widespread presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in broiler chickens. While some reports linked the presence of antibiotic-resistant organisms to the use of feed supplemented with antibiotics, no recent studies could clearly demonstrate the benefit of antimicrobial growth promoters on performance and production yields. With modern biosecurity and hygienic practices, there is a genuine concern that intensive utilization of antibiotics or use of antimicrobial growth promoters in feed might no longer be useful. Public pressure and concerns about food and environmental safety (antibiotic residues, antibiotic-resistant pathogens) have driven researchers to actively look for alternatives to antibiotics. Some of the alternatives include pre- and probiotics, organic acids and essential oils. We will describe here the properties of some bioactive molecules, like those found in cranberry, which have shown interesting polyvalent antibacterial and immuno-stimulatory activities. PMID:24987390

  4. Functionality of alternative protein in gluten-free product development.

    PubMed

    Deora, Navneet Singh; Deswal, Aastha; Mishra, Hari Niwas

    2015-07-01

    Celiac disease is an immune-mediated disease triggered in genetically susceptible individuals by ingested gluten from wheat, rye, barley, and other closely related cereal grains. The current treatment for celiac disease is life-long adherence to a strict gluten-exclusion diet. The replacement of gluten presents a significant technological challenge, as it is an essential structure-building protein, which is necessary for formulating high-quality baked goods. A major limitation in the production of gluten-free products is the lack of protein functionality in non-wheat cereals. Additionally, commercial gluten-free mixes usually contain only carbohydrates, which may significantly limit the amount of protein in the diet. In the recent past, various approaches are attempted to incorporate protein-based ingredients and to modify the functional properties for gluten-free product development. This review aims to the highlight functionality of the alternative protein-based ingredients, which can be utilized for gluten-free product development both functionally as well as nutritionally.

  5. Summary of Plutonium-238 Production Alternatives Analysis Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    James Werner; Wade E. Bickford; David B. Lord; Chadwick D. Barklay

    2013-03-01

    The Team implemented a two-phase evaluation process. During the first phase, a wide variety of past and new candidate facilities and processing methods were assessed against the criteria established by DOE for this assessment. Any system or system element selected for consideration as an alternative within the project to reestablish domestic production of Pu-238 must meet the following minimum criteria: Any required source material must be readily available in the United States, without requiring the development of reprocessing technologies or investments in systems to separate material from identified sources. It must be cost, schedule, and risk competitive with existing baseline technology. Any identified facilities required to support the concept must be available to the program for the entire project life cycle (notionally 35 years, unless the concept is so novel as to require a shorter duration). It must present a solution that can generate at least 1.5 Kg of Pu-238 oxide per year, for at least 35 years. It must present a low-risk, near-term solution to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s urgent mission need. DOE has implemented this requirement by eliminating from project consideration any alternative with key technologies at less than Technology Readiness Level 5. The Team evaluated the options meeting these criteria using a more detailed assessment of the reasonable facility variations and compared them to the preferred option, which consists of target irradiation at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), target fabrication and chemical separations processing at the ORNL Radiochemical Engineering Development Center, and neptunium 237 storage at the Materials and Fuels Complex at INL. This preferred option is consistent with the Records of Decision from the earlier National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation

  6. Real W and Z bosons production at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobe, Takuya

    2014-04-01

    The production of real W and Z bosons has been studied in ep collisions at HERA. A combined analysis is performed with the data taken with the H1 and ZEUS detectors corresponding to 0.98 fb-1 of integrated luminosity to search for events containing an isolated electron or muon and missing transverse momentum, which is dominated by single W production. The total single W boson production cross section is measured as 1.06 ± 0.16(stat.) ± 0.07(sys.) pb, in agreement with the Standard Model (SM) expectation of 1.26 ± 0.19 pb. The production of Z bosons has been studied in the reaction ep → eZp(∗), where p(∗) stands for a proton or a low-mass nucleon resonance, using a data sample collected with the ZEUS detector amounting to 0.5 fb-1. The Z is measured in the hadronic decay mode. The cross section of the reaction ep → eZp(∗) is measured to be 0.13 ± 0.06(stat.) ± 0.01(syst.) pb, in agreement with the SM prediction of 0.16 pb.

  7. Real Time Volcanic Cloud Products and Predictions for Aviation Alerts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Habib, Shahid; da Silva, Arlindo; Hughes, Eric; Yang, Kai; Brentzel, Kelvin; Seftor, Colin; Li, Jason Y.; Schneider, David; Guffanti, Marianne; Hoffman, Robert L.; Myers, Tim; Tamminen, Johanna; Hassinen, Seppo

    2014-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions can inject significant amounts of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and volcanic ash into the atmosphere, posing a substantial risk to aviation safety. Ingesting near-real time and Direct Readout satellite volcanic cloud data is vital for improving reliability of volcanic ash forecasts and mitigating the effects of volcanic eruptions on aviation and the economy. NASA volcanic products from the Ozone Monitoring Insrument (OMI) aboard the Aura satellite have been incorporated into Decision Support Systems of many operational agencies. With the Aura mission approaching its 10th anniversary, there is an urgent need to replace OMI data with those from the next generation operational NASA/NOAA Suomi National Polar Partnership (SNPP) satellite. The data provided from these instruments are being incorporated into forecasting models to provide quantitative ash forecasts for air traffic management. This study demonstrates the feasibility of the volcanic near-real time and Direct Readout data products from the new Ozone Monitoring and Profiling Suite (OMPS) ultraviolet sensor onboard SNPP for monitoring and forecasting volcanic clouds. The transition of NASA data production to our operational partners is outlined. Satellite observations are used to constrain volcanic cloud simulations and improve estimates of eruption parameters, resulting in more accurate forecasts. This is demonstrated for the 2012 eruption of Copahue. Volcanic eruptions are modeled using the Goddard Earth Observing System, Version 5 (GEOS-5) and the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol and Radiation Transport (GOCART) model. A hindcast of the disruptive eruption from Iceland's Eyjafjallajokull is used to estimate aviation re-routing costs using Metron Aviation's ATM Tools.

  8. Monolithic uncooled IR detectors of polycrystalline PbSe: a real alternative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergara, G.; Gómez, L. J.; Villamayor, V.; Álvarez, M.; Torquemada, M. C.; Rodrigo, M. T.; Verdú, M.; Sánchez, F. J.; Almazán, R. M.; Plaza, J.; Rodriguez, P.; Catalán, I.; Gutierrez, R.; Montojo, M. T.; Serra-Graells, F.; Margarit, J. M.; Terés, L.

    2007-04-01

    Paradoxically more than 50 years after being used in WWII, polycrystalline PbSe technology has turned today into an emerging technology. Without any doubt one of the main facts responsible for the PbSe resurgence is a new method for processing detectors based on a Vapour Phase Deposition (VPD) technique developed at CIDA. Using this method, the first low density 2D PbSe Focal Plane Array (FPA), an x-y addressed type device, was processed on silicon. Even though the last advances have been important they are not yet enough to consider this technology as a real alternative to other uncooled technologies. To reach technical relevance and commercial interest it is obligated to integrate monolithically or hybridize the sensors with their corresponding read out electronics (ROIC). Aiming to process monolithic devices, a proper CMOS read out electronics were designed. In parallel, enabled technologies were developed for adapting the material peculiarities to the CMOS substrates. In this work, the first monolithic device of VPD PbSe is presented. Even though it is a modest 16x16 FPA with a pitch of 200 μm, it represents an important milestone, allocating polycrystalline PbSe among the major players in the short list of uncooled IR detectors. Unlike microbolometers and ferroelectrics, it is a photonic detector suitable for being used as a detector in low cost IR imagers sensitive to the MWIR band and with frame rates as high as 1000 fps. The number of applications is therefore huge, some of them specific, unique and highly demanded in the military and security fields such as sensors applied to fast imagers, Active Protection Systems or low cost seekers.

  9. Banana production systems: identification of alternative systems for more sustainable production.

    PubMed

    Bellamy, Angelina Sanderson

    2013-04-01

    Large-scale, monoculture production systems dependent on synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, increase yields, but are costly and have deleterious impacts on human health and the environment. This research investigates variations in banana production practices in Costa Rica, to identify alternative systems that combine high productivity and profitability, with reduced reliance on agrochemicals. Farm workers were observed during daily production activities; 39 banana producers and 8 extension workers/researchers were interviewed; and a review of field experiments conducted by the National Banana Corporation between 1997 and 2002 was made. Correspondence analysis showed that there is no structured variation in large-scale banana producers' practices, but two other banana production systems were identified: a small-scale organic system and a small-scale conventional coffee-banana intercropped system. Field-scale research may reveal ways that these practices can be scaled up to achieve a productive and profitable system producing high-quality export bananas with fewer or no pesticides.

  10. Advanced Electrochemical Technologies for Hydrogen Production by Alternative Thermochemical Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Lvov, Serguei; Chung, Mike; Fedkin, Mark; Lewis, Michele; Balashov, Victor; Chalkova, Elena; Akinfiev, Nikolay; Stork, Carol; Davis, Thomas; Gadala-Maria, Francis; Stanford, Thomas; Weidner, John; Law, Victor; Prindle, John

    2011-01-06

    Hydrogen fuel is a potentially major solution to the problem of climate change, as well as addressing urban air pollution issues. But a key future challenge for hydrogen as a clean energy carrier is a sustainable, low-cost method of producing it in large capacities. Most of the world's hydrogen is currently derived from fossil fuels through some type of reforming processes. Nuclear hydrogen production is an emerging and promising alternative to the reforming processes for carbon-free hydrogen production in the future. This report presents the main results of a research program carried out by a NERI Consortium, which consisted of Penn State University (PSU) (lead), University of South Carolina (USC), Tulane University (TU), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Thermochemical water decomposition is an emerging technology for large-scale production of hydrogen. Typically using two or more intermediate compounds, a sequence of chemical and physical processes split water into hydrogen and oxygen, without releasing any pollutants externally to the atmosphere. These intermediate compounds are recycled internally within a closed loop. While previous studies have identified over 200 possible thermochemical cycles, only a few have progressed beyond theoretical calculations to working experimental demonstrations that establish scientific and practical feasibility of the thermochemical processes. The Cu-Cl cycle has a significant advantage over other cycles due to lower temperature requirements – around 530 °C and below. As a result, it can be eventually linked with the Generation IV thermal power stations. Advantages of the Cu-Cl cycle over others include lower operating temperatures, ability to utilize low-grade waste heat to improve energy efficiency, and potentially lower cost materials. Another significant advantage is a relatively low voltage required for the electrochemical step (thus low electricity input). Other advantages include common chemical agents and

  11. Use of MRF residue as alternative fuel in cement production.

    PubMed

    Fyffe, John R; Breckel, Alex C; Townsend, Aaron K; Webber, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Single-stream recycling has helped divert millions of metric tons of waste from landfills in the U.S., where recycling rates for municipal solid waste are currently over 30%. However, material recovery facilities (MRFs) that sort the municipal recycled streams do not recover 100% of the incoming material. Consequently, they landfill between 5% and 15% of total processed material as residue. This residue is primarily composed of high-energy-content non-recycled plastics and fiber. One possible end-of-life solution for these energy-dense materials is to process the residue into Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF) that can be used as an alternative energy resource capable of replacing or supplementing fuel resources such as coal, natural gas, petroleum coke, or biomass in many industrial and power production processes. This report addresses the energetic and environmental benefits and trade-offs of converting non-recycled post-consumer plastics and fiber derived from MRF residue streams into SRF for use in a cement kiln. An experimental test burn of 118 Mg of SRF in the precalciner portion of the cement kiln was conducted. The SRF was a blend of 60% MRF residue and 40% post-industrial waste products producing an estimated 60% plastic and 40% fibrous material mixture. The SRF was fed into the kiln at 0.9 Mg/h for 24h and then 1.8 Mg/h for the following 48 h. The emissions data recorded in the experimental test burn were used to perform the life-cycle analysis portion of this study. The analysis included the following steps: transportation, landfill, processing and fuel combustion at the cement kiln. The energy use and emissions at each step is tracked for the two cases: (1) The Reference Case, where MRF residue is disposed of in a landfill and the cement kiln uses coal as its fuel source, and (2) The SRF Case, in which MRF residue is processed into SRF and used to offset some portion of coal use at the cement kiln. The experimental test burn and accompanying analysis indicate

  12. Alternative fiducial markers for Vero real-time tumor tracking radiotherapy: A phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Shin-Hyung; Kim, Jae-Chul; Kim, Sung Joon

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of potential fiducial markers consisting of various materials in a Vero real-time tumor-tracking (RTTT) system. In order to determine the applicability of fiducial markers for the Vero RTTT system, we tested various markers consisting of 8 kinds of material (titanium, stainless steel, high-carbon steel, pure steel, copper, silver, tantalum, and gold) with various diameters ranging from 0.3 mm to 1.6 mm and a length of 5 mm. Additionally, a commercial gold coil marker (Visicoil™, IBA dosimetry, Schwarzenbruck, Germany) of diameter 0.5 mm and length 1 cm was included for evaluation. The radiologic visibility on kV fluoroscopy/kV CT scan images of the fiducial markers was evaluated. The detectability on the RTTT system was tested using a two-dimensional moving phantom (Brainlab AG, Feldkirchen, Germany), producing sinusoidal motion. The target center's accuracy was evaluated by calculating the deviation of the position of a metal sphere from the center on the dose profile. Dose profiles were measured using Gafchromic EBT2 films (International Specialty Products, NJ, USA). All markers were visible on kV fluoroscopy/kV CT while markers with atomic number ≥ 25.7 were detectable on the Vero RTTT system. All the detected markers showed excellent geometric accuracy.

  13. MSWT-01, an alternative in combining Production Based Education (PBE) and student CSR program in Polman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananto, Gamawan; Setiawan, Albertus B.; Z, Darman M.

    2014-06-01

    MSWT-01, Mobile Surface Water Treatment, producing 1m3 per hour, is an alternative for providing clean water in flood disaster areas, and was developed at Bandung State Polytechnic for Manufacturing (Polman) as a part of institution research project. The combination of cartridge or membrane technology such as carbon block, MF, UF and filtration media is used for this machine, instead of coagulation-flocculation with chemical addition, due to emergency purposes related with its treatment processing time. The idea is that MSWT could be combined with Production Based Education (PBE) concept in Polman as a vocational education institution and students 'CSR', students social activities. With the number of implementation trials in real flood area condition, MSWT will be developed further based on the technical output result. The manufacturing process for improving or adding necessary features could be implemented as a student's project in PBE system. This might be an ideal combination alternative for such vocational institution that students get the product media for their PBE program and implement their work as a defined social activity. They will learn and experience related technical matters and more social interactions with the people and other disaster stakeholder as well.

  14. Alternative Ways to Index Farm Real Estate Values. Technical Bulletin Number 1724.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Catherine; Barnard, Charles

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) farm real estate value index is currently constructed with a modified Laspeyres weighted average formula, with the acreage weights changed approximately every 10 years. An analysis of acreage weights from 1974, 1978, and 1982 census data revealed, however, that substantial changes in real estate values…

  15. Biodiesel From Alternative Oilseed Feedstocks: Production and Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared and evaluated as potential biodiesel fuels from several alternative oilseed feedstocks, which included camelina (Camelina sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), field mustard (Brassica juncea L.), field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), and meadowfoam (L...

  16. Evaluating GPM Precipitation Products in Real-Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirstetter, P.; Hong, Y.; Gourley, J. J.; Cao, Q.; Zhang, J.; Chen, S.; Petersen, W. A.; Schwaller, M.; Anagnostou, E. N.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation introduces a webpage that will compare GPM precipitation estimates to the NEXRAD-based precipitation estimates derived from NOAA/NSSL's Multi-Radar, Multisensor (MRMS) platform in real-time. The MRMS products, after having been adjusted by rain gauges and passing several quality control and filtering procedures, have been used by a number of NASA investigators to evaluate level II and level III TMPA rainfall algorithms. Statistics from TMPA will thus serve as a benchmark to evaluate forthcoming GPM precipitation estimates. The NEXRAD network has also undergone an upgrade in technology with dual-polarization capabilities. These new polarimetric variables are being incorporated in MRMS to improve quality control of reflectivity data and to correct for partial beam blockages. The same logic employed for precipitation estimation without polarization diversity is being used in the latest MRMS algorithm version, thus the reference precipitation is stable during the transition from the TMPA to GPM era. We will also introduce recent developments in the derivation of probability distributions of rainfall rates instead of single values using a model quantifying the relation between radar reflectivity and the corresponding 'true' rainfall. Ensembles of reflectivity-to-rain rate relationships accounting explicitly for rain typology are derived for ground and space radars. This approach preserves the fine space/time sampling properties of the radar and conditions probabilistic QPE (PQPE) on the rain rate and rainfall type.

  17. 7 CFR 58.149 - Alternate quality control programs for dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alternate quality control programs for dairy products... and Grading Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.149 Alternate quality control programs for dairy products. (a) When a plant has in operation an acceptable quality control program which...

  18. 7 CFR 58.149 - Alternate quality control programs for dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alternate quality control programs for dairy products... and Grading Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.149 Alternate quality control programs for dairy products. (a) When a plant has in operation an acceptable quality control program which...

  19. 7 CFR 58.149 - Alternate quality control programs for dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alternate quality control programs for dairy products... and Grading Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.149 Alternate quality control programs for dairy products. (a) When a plant has in operation an acceptable quality control program which...

  20. 7 CFR 58.149 - Alternate quality control programs for dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alternate quality control programs for dairy products... and Grading Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.149 Alternate quality control programs for dairy products. (a) When a plant has in operation an acceptable quality control program which...

  1. Chemical alternatives to methyl bromide for Florida ornamental production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This project is a cooperative effort among USDA, ARS and University of Florida researchers, Florida in-ground ornamental producers, and fumigant industry representatives. Funding is provided through the USDA-ARS Area-wide Pest Management Program for Alternatives to Methyl Bromide. The ornamental i...

  2. Optimizing Alternative Fumigant Applications for Ornamental Production in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Florida, cut flower and other ornamental crop producers have a very limited number of alternatives to methyl bromide for several reasons including the lack of registered herbicides available for these crops, and the need to control previously planted cultivars volunteering as weeds within the sam...

  3. Alternative substrates in production of trees in 25-gallon containers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pine bark supplies have wavered in availability over the past couple of years due to a shift in-field harvesting where bark is used as a biofuel material. Research in alternative potting substrates has continued across the country in an attempt to identify inexpensive, and logistically available, s...

  4. Alternative Assessment--Can Real-World Skills Be Tested? Policy Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Karen; Gregg, Soleil

    Many educators are shifting their teaching strategies and approaches to include more emphasis on critical thinking skills, the communication of ideas, a variety of approaches to content emphasizing varied student learning styles, and the need to draw explicit connections among topics for retention of learning. Real-world assessment measures, then,…

  5. Alternative majority-voting methods for real-time computing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Kang G.; Dolter, James W.

    1989-01-01

    Two techniques that provide a compromise between the high time overhead in maintaining synchronous voting and the difficulty of combining results in asynchronous voting are proposed. These techniques are specifically suited for real-time applications with a single-source/single-sink structure that need instantaneous error masking. They provide a compromise between a tightly synchronized system in which the synchronization overhead can be quite high, and an asynchronous system which lacks suitable algorithms for combining the output data. Both quorum-majority voting (QMV) and compare-majority voting (CMV) are most applicable to distributed real-time systems with single-source/single-sink tasks. All real-time systems eventually have to resolve their outputs into a single action at some stage. The development of the advanced information processing system (AIPS) and other similar systems serve to emphasize the importance of these techniques. Time bounds suggest that it is possible to reduce the overhead for quorum-majority voting to below that for synchronous voting. All the bounds assume that the computation phase is nonpreemptive and that there is no multitasking.

  6. Determination of alternative fuels combustion products: Phase 1 report

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, K.A.

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the laboratory effort to identify and quantify organic exhaust species generated from alternative-fueled light-duty vehicles operating over the Federal Test Procedure on compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol, ethanol, and reformulated gasoline. The exhaust species from these vehicles were identified and quantified for fuel/air equivalence ratios of 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2, nominally, and were analyzed with and without a vehicle catalyst in place to determine the influence of a catalytic converter on species formation.

  7. PERFORMANCE DEMONSTRATIONS OF ALTERNATIVE SCREEN RECLAMATION PRODUCTS FOR SCREEN PRINTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated environmentally-preferable products for the screen reclamation process In screen printing during month-long demonstrations at 23 printing facilities nationwide. hrough the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Design for the Environment Printing Project, pr...

  8. The Nuclear Alternative: Energy Production within Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liodakis, Emmanouel Georgiou

    2011-06-01

    Over ninety percent of Mongolia's energy load is run through the Central Energy System. This primary grid provides Mongolia's capital, Ulaanbaatar, with the power it uses to function. In the first half of 2010 the Central Energy System managed 1739.45 million kWhs, a 4.6 percent increase from 2009. If this growth rate continues, by 2015 Ulaanbaatar's three power plants will be unable to generate enough heat and electricity to meet the city's needs. Currently, plans have been proposed to rehabilitate the aging coal power plants. However, rising maintenance costs and growing emission levels make the long-term sustainability of this solution uncertain. The following paper analyzes the capital, maintenance, and decommissioning costs associated with the current rehabilitation plans and compares them with a nuclear alternative.

  9. Komagataeibacter rhaeticus as an alternative bacteria for cellulose production.

    PubMed

    Machado, Rachel T A; Gutierrez, Junkal; Tercjak, Agnieszka; Trovatti, Eliane; Uahib, Fernanda G M; Moreno, Gabriela de Padua; Nascimento, Andresa P; Berreta, Andresa A; Ribeiro, Sidney J L; Barud, Hernane S

    2016-11-05

    A strain isolated from Kombucha tea was isolated and used as an alternative bacterium for the biosynthesis of bacterial cellulose (BC). In this study, BC generated by this novel bacterium was compared to Gluconacetobacter xylinus biosynthesized BC. Kinetic studies reveal that Komagataeibacter rhaeticus was a viable bacterium to produce BC according to yield, thickness and water holding capacity data. Physicochemical properties of BC membranes were investigated by UV-vis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies (FTIR), thermogravimetrical analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Additionally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were also used for morphological characterization. Mechanical properties at nano and macroscale were studied employing PeakForce quantitative nanomechanical property mapping (QNM) and dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA), respectively. Results confirmed that BC membrane biosynthesized by Komagataeibacter rhaeticus had similar physicochemical, morphological and mechanical properties than BC membrane produced by Gluconacetobacter xylinus and can be widely used for the same applications.

  10. Alternatives to animal testing in the safety evaluation of products.

    PubMed

    Knight, Derek J; Breheny, Damien

    2002-01-01

    The conventional method for assessing the safety of products, ranging from pharmaceuticals to agrochemicals, biocides and industrial and household chemicals - including cosmetics - involves determining their toxicological properties by using experimental animals. The aim is to identify any possible adverse effects in humans by using these animal models. Providing safe products is undoubtedly of the utmost importance but, over the last decade or so, this aim has come into conflict with strong public opinion, especially in Europe, against animal testing. Industry, academia and the regulators have worked in partnership to find other ways of evaluating the safety of products, by non-animal testing, or at least by reducing the numbers of animals required and the severity of the tests in which they are used. There is a long way to go before products can be evaluated without any animal studies, and it may be that this laudable aim is an impossible dream. Nevertheless, considerable progress has been made by using a combination of in vitro tests and the prediction of properties based on chemical structure. The aim of this review is to describe these important and worthwhile developments in various areas of toxicological testing, with a focus on the European regulatory framework for general industrial and household chemicals.

  11. Creating Shared Instructional Products: An Alternative Approach to Improving Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Anne K.; Hiebert, James

    2011-01-01

    To solve two enduring problems in education--unacceptably large variation in learning opportunities for students across classrooms and little continuing improvement in the quality of instruction--the authors propose a system that centers on the creation of shared instructional products that guide classroom teaching. By examining systems outside…

  12. 7 CFR 58.149 - Alternate quality control programs for dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternate quality control programs for dairy products... FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection... for dairy products. (a) When a plant has in operation an acceptable quality control program which...

  13. Impact of alternative environmental flow prescriptions on hydropower production and fish habitat suitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceola, Serena; Pugliese, Alessio; Castellarin, Attilio; Galeati, Giorgio

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenic activities along streams and rivers are increasingly recognised to be a major concern for fluvial ecosystems. The management of water resources, by means of e.g. flow diversions and dams, for industrial, agricultural, water-supply, hydropower production and flood protection purposes induces significant changes to the natural streamflow regime of a river. Indeed, the river flow regime is known to be a major abiotic factor influencing fluvial ecosystems. An established approach aimed at preserving the behaviour and distribution of fluvial species relies on the definition of minimum streamflow requirements (i.e., environmental flows) downstream of dams and diversion structures. Such environmental flows are normally identified through methodologies that have an empirical nature and may not be representative of local ecological and hydraulic conditions. While the effect of imposing a minimum discharge release is easily predictable in terms of e.g. loss of hydropower production, the advantages in terms of species preferences are often poorly understood and seldom assessed. To analyse the interactions between flow releases and the behaviour and distribution of fluvial species (i.e., from periphyton, to benthic invertebrate and fish), one may use a habitat suitability curve, which is a fundamental tool capable of describing species preferences influenced by any generic environmental variable. The outcomes of a real case study applied to several Italian rivers, located in the Marche administrative district in Central Italy (∽10000km2), in which we quantitatively assess the effects of alternative environmental flow scenarios on the existing hydropower network and on two fish species that are quite abundant in the study area (i.e., Leuciscus cephalus cabeda and Barbus barbus plebejus), will be presented and discussed. The proposed analysis, which can be easily adapted to different riparian habitats and hydrological contexts, is a useful tool to guide the

  14. Impact of Alternative Environmental Flow Prescriptions on Hydropower Production and Fish Habitat Suitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellarin, A.; Ceola, S.; Pugliese, A.; Galeati, G. A.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic activities along streams and rivers are increasingly recognized to be a major concern for fluvial ecosystems. The management of water resources, by means of e.g. flow diversions and dams, for industrial, agricultural, water-supply, hydropower production and flood protection purposes induces significant changes to the natural streamflow regime of a river. Indeed, the river flow regime is known to be a major abiotic factor influencing fluvial ecosystems. An established approach aimed at preserving the behaviour and distribution of fluvial species relies on the definition of minimum streamflow requirements (i.e., environmental flows) downstream of dams and diversion structures. Such environmental flows are normally identified through methodologies that have an empirical nature and may not be representative of local ecological and hydraulic conditions. While the effect of imposing a minimum discharge release is easily predictable in terms of e.g. loss of hydropower production, the advantages in terms of species preferences are often poorly understood and seldom assessed. To analyze the interactions between flow releases and the behaviour and distribution of fluvial species (i.e., from periphyton, to benthic invertebrate and fish), one may use a habitat suitability curve, which is a fundamental tool capable of describing species preferences influenced by any generic environmental variable. The outcomes of a real case study applied to several Italian rivers, located in the Marche administrative district in Central Italy (∽10000km2), in which we quantitatively assess the effects of alternative environmental flow scenarios on the existing hydropower network and on two fish species that are quite abundant in the study area (i.e., Leuciscus cephalus cabeda and Barbus barbus plebejus), will be presented and discussed. The proposed analysis, which can be easily adapted to different riparian habitats and hydrological contexts, is a useful tool to guide the

  15. Products identified at an alternative disinfection pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Lykins, B W; Koffskey, W

    1986-11-01

    Many drinking water utilities have recently changed or are seriously considering changing their disinfection practice from chlorine to some alternative treatment process. However, most of these utilities are changing their disinfectants without evaluating chemical impacts. Therefore, a research cooperative agreement was developed with Jefferson Parish, LA, to evaluate four parallel streams treated with four different disinfectants (chlorine, monochloramine, chlorine dioxide, and ozone.) These streams, along with a fifth parallel stream, which was not treated with a disinfectant (control), were passed through both sand and granular activated carbon (GAC). Ozonation reduced the total organic carbon (TOC) and total organic halide (TOX) concentration by 0.3 mg/L and 10 micrograms/L, respectively. The average concentration of TOC for the other disinfectants was comparable to that associated with the nondisinfected stream (3.3 mg/L). The average instantaneous TOX concentration for chlorine dioxide, chloramine, and chlorine disinfection after 30 min contact time increased by 60, 92, and 238 micrograms/L, respectively, from a nondisinfected concentration of 25 micrograms/L. The volatile organics most affected by disinfection (chlorination) were the trihalomethanes. No significant change in concentration was noted after disinfection for the other volatile organics evaluated, such as 1,2-dichlorethane, dichloromethane, trichloroethylene, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, and carbon tetrachloride. Ozonation produced an average concentration reduction of 11 to 84% for most of the nonvolatiles evaluated. Conversely, a concentration increase of 43 to 100% was noted, after chlorination, for some of the nonvolatile organics.

  16. Products identified at an alternative disinfection pilot plant.

    PubMed Central

    Lykins, B W; Koffskey, W

    1986-01-01

    Many drinking water utilities have recently changed or are seriously considering changing their disinfection practice from chlorine to some alternative treatment process. However, most of these utilities are changing their disinfectants without evaluating chemical impacts. Therefore, a research cooperative agreement was developed with Jefferson Parish, LA, to evaluate four parallel streams treated with four different disinfectants (chlorine, monochloramine, chlorine dioxide, and ozone.) These streams, along with a fifth parallel stream, which was not treated with a disinfectant (control), were passed through both sand and granular activated carbon (GAC). Ozonation reduced the total organic carbon (TOC) and total organic halide (TOX) concentration by 0.3 mg/L and 10 micrograms/L, respectively. The average concentration of TOC for the other disinfectants was comparable to that associated with the nondisinfected stream (3.3 mg/L). The average instantaneous TOX concentration for chlorine dioxide, chloramine, and chlorine disinfection after 30 min contact time increased by 60, 92, and 238 micrograms/L, respectively, from a nondisinfected concentration of 25 micrograms/L. The volatile organics most affected by disinfection (chlorination) were the trihalomethanes. No significant change in concentration was noted after disinfection for the other volatile organics evaluated, such as 1,2-dichlorethane, dichloromethane, trichloroethylene, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, and carbon tetrachloride. Ozonation produced an average concentration reduction of 11 to 84% for most of the nonvolatiles evaluated. Conversely, a concentration increase of 43 to 100% was noted, after chlorination, for some of the nonvolatile organics. PMID:3816717

  17. Products identified at an alternative disinfection pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lykins, B.W. Jr.; Koffskey, W.

    1986-11-01

    Many drinking water utilities have recently changed or are seriously considering changing their disinfection practice from chlorine to some alternative treatment process. However, most of these utilities are changing their disinfectants without evaluating chemical impacts. Therefore, a research cooperative agreement was developed with Jefferson Parish, LA, to evaluate four parallel streams treated with four different disinfectants (chlorine, monochloramine, chlorine dioxide, and ozone.) These streams, along with a fifth parallel stream, which was not treated with a disinfectant (control), were passed through both sand and granular activated carbon (GAC). Ozonation reduced the total organic carbon (TOC) and total organic halide (TOX) concentration by 0.3 mg/L and 10 micrograms/L, respectively. The average concentration of TOC for the other disinfectants was comparable to that associated with the nondisinfected stream (3.3 mg/L). The average instantaneous TOX concentration for chlorine dioxide, chloramine, and chlorine disinfection after 30 min contact time increased by 60, 92, and 238 micrograms/L, respectively, from a nondisinfected concentration of 25 micrograms/L. The volatile organics most affected by disinfection (chlorination) were the trihalomethanes. No significant change in concentration was noted after disinfection for the other volatile organics evaluated, such as 1,2-dichlorethane, dichloromethane, trichloroethylene, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, and carbon tetrachloride. Ozonation produced an average concentration reduction of 11 to 84% for most of the nonvolatiles evaluated. Conversely, a concentration increase of 43 to 100% was noted, after chlorination, for some of the nonvolatile organics.

  18. Determination of alternative fuels combustion products: Phase 3 report

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, K.A.

    1997-12-01

    This report describes the laboratory efforts to characterize particulate and gaseous exhaust emissions from a passenger vehicle operating on alternative fuels. Tests were conducted at room temperature (nominally 72 F) and 20 F utilizing the chassis dynamometer portion of the FTP for light-duty vehicles. Fuels evaluated include Federal RFG, LPG meeting HD-5 specifications, a national average blend of CNG, E85, and M85. Exhaust particulate generated at room temperature was further characterized to determine polynuclear aromatic content, trace element content, and trace organic constituents. For all fuels except M85, the room temperature particulate emission rate from this vehicle was about 2 to 3 mg/mile. On M85, the particulate emission rate was more than 6 mg/mile. In addition, elemental analysis of particulate revealed an order of magnitude more sulfur and calcium from M85 than any other fuel. The sulfur and calcium indicate that these higher emissions might be due to engine lubricating oil in the exhaust. For RFG, particulate emissions at 20 F were more than six times higher than at room temperature. For alcohol fuels, particulate emissions at 20 F were two to three times higher than at room temperature. For CNG and LPG, particulate emissions were virtually the same at 72 F and 20 F. However, PAH emissions from CNG and LPG were higher than expected. Both gaseous fuels had larger amounts of pyrene, 1-nitropyrene, and benzo(g,h,i)perylene in their emissions than the other fuels.

  19. Alternate Tritium Production Methods Using A Liquid Lithium Target

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.

    2015-10-08

    For over 60 years, the Savannah River Site’s primary mission has been the production of tritium. From the beginning, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided the technical foundation to ensure the successful execution of this critical defense mission. SRNL has developed most of the processes used in the tritium mission and provides the research and development necessary to supply this critical component. This project was executed by first developing reactor models that could be used as a neutron source. In parallel to this development calculations were carried out testing the feasibility of accelerator technologies that could also be used for tritium production. Targets were designed with internal moderating material and optimized target was calculated to be capable of 3000 grams using a 1400 MWt sodium fast reactor, 850 grams using a 400 MWt sodium fast reactor, and 100 grams using a 62 MWt reactor, annually.

  20. Analysis of Alternative Extensions of the Existing Production Tax Credit for Wind Generators

    EIA Publications

    2007-01-01

    Requestor: Ms. Janice Mays, Chief Counsel, Committee on Ways & Means, U.S. House of Representatives This is a letter response requesting analysis of alternative extensions of the existing production tax credit (PTC) that would apply to wind generators only.

  1. DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT FORMATION BY ALTERNATIVE DISINFECTANTS AND REMOVAL BY GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of the use of the alternative disinfectants on the formation of halogenated disinfection by–products (DBPs) including total organic halide, trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, haloacetonitriles, haloketones, chloral hydrate, and chloropicrin, were examined along ...

  2. Environmental efficiency of alternative dairy systems: a productive efficiency approach.

    PubMed

    Toma, L; March, M; Stott, A W; Roberts, D J

    2013-01-01

    Agriculture across the globe needs to produce "more with less." Productivity should be increased in a sustainable manner so that the environment is not further degraded, management practices are both socially acceptable and economically favorable, and future generations are not disadvantaged. The objective of this paper was to compare the environmental efficiency of 2 divergent strains of Holstein-Friesian cows across 2 contrasting dairy management systems (grazing and nongrazing) over multiple years and so expose any genetic × environment (G × E) interaction. The models were an extension of the traditional efficiency analysis to account for undesirable outputs (pollutants), and estimate efficiency measures that allow for the asymmetric treatment of desirable outputs (i.e., milk production) and undesirable outputs. Two types of models were estimated, one considering production inputs (land, nitrogen fertilizers, feed, and cows) and the other not, thus allowing the assessment of the effect of inputs by comparing efficiency values and rankings between models. Each model type had 2 versions, one including 2 types of pollutants (greenhouse gas emissions, nitrogen surplus) and the other 3 (greenhouse gas emissions, nitrogen surplus, and phosphorus surplus). Significant differences were found between efficiency scores among the systems. Results indicated no G × E interaction; however, even though the select genetic merit herd consuming a diet with a higher proportion of concentrated feeds was most efficient in the majority of models, cows of the same genetic merit on higher forage diets could be just as efficient. Efficiency scores for the low forage groups were less variable from year to year, which reflected the uniformity of purchased concentrate feeds. The results also indicate that inputs play an important role in the measurement of environmental efficiency of dairy systems and that animal health variables (incidence of udder health disorders and body condition

  3. Real-time sweat analysis via alternating current conductivity of artificial and human sweat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gengchen; Alomari, Mahmoud; Sahin, Bunyamin; Snelgrove, Samuel E.; Edwards, Jeffrey; Mellinger, Axel; Kaya, Tolga

    2015-03-01

    Dehydration is one of the most profound physiological challenges that significantly affects athletes and soldiers if not detected early. Recently, a few groups have focused on dehydration detection using sweat as the main biomarker. Although there are some proposed devices, the electrical and chemical characteristics of sweat have yet to be incorporated into the validations. In this work, we have developed a simple test setup to analyze artificial sweat that is comprised the main components of human sweat. We provide theoretical and experimental details on the electrical and chemical behavior of the artificial sweat for various concentration values within a temperature range of 5 °C to 50 °C. We have also developed an efficient sweat collecting and detection system based on 3D printing. Human studies were conducted and this particular protocol has shown that dehydration starts to take effect as early as 40 min into the physical activity if there is no fluid intake during the exercise. We believe that our device will lead to developing viable real-time sweat analysis systems.

  4. Global Near Real-Time Satellite-based Flood Monitoring and Product Dissemination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M.; Slayback, D. A.; Policelli, F.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Tokay, M.

    2012-12-01

    Flooding is among the most destructive, frequent, and costly natural disasters faced by modern society, with several major events occurring each year. In the past few years, major floods have devastated parts of China, Thailand, Pakistan, Australia, and the Philippines, among others. The toll of these events, in financial costs, displacement of individuals, and deaths, is substantial and continues to rise as climate change generates more extreme weather events. When these events do occur, the disaster management community requires frequently updated and easily accessible information to better understand the extent of flooding and better coordinate response efforts. With funding from NASA's Applied Sciences program, we have developed, and are now operating, a near real-time global flood mapping system to help provide critical flood extent information within 24-48 hours after flooding events. The system applies a water detection algorithm to MODIS imagery received from the LANCE (Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS) system at NASA Goddard. The LANCE system typically processes imagery in less than 3 hours after satellite overpass, and our flood mapping system can output flood products within ½ hour of acquiring the LANCE products. Using imagery from both the Terra (10:30 AM local time overpass) and Aqua (1:30 PM) platforms allows an initial assessment of flooding extent by late afternoon, every day, and more robust assessments after accumulating imagery over a longer period; the MODIS sensors are optical, so cloud cover remains an issue, which is partly overcome by using multiple looks over one or more days. Other issues include the relatively coarse scale of the MODIS imagery (250 meters), the difficulty of detecting flood waters in areas with continuous canopy cover, confusion of shadow (cloud or terrain) with water, and accurately identifying detected water as flood as opposed to normal water extents. We have made progress on some of these issues

  5. Determination of alternative fuels combustion products: Phase 2 final report

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, K.A.

    1997-06-01

    This report describes the laboratory efforts to accomplish four independent tasks: (1) speciation of hydrocarbon exhaust emissions from a light-duty vehicle operated over the chassis dynamometer portion of the light-duty FTP after modifications for operation on butane and butane blends; (2) evaluation of NREL`s Variable Conductance Vacuum Insulated Catalytic Converter Test Article 4 for the reduction of cold-start FTP exhaust emissions after extended soak periods for a Ford FFV Taurus operating on E85; (3) support of UDRI in an attempt to define correlations between engine-out combustion products identified by SwRI during chassis dynamometer testing, and those found during flow tube reactor experiments conducted by UDRI; and (4) characterization of small-diameter particulate matter from a Ford Taurus FFV operating in a simulated fuel-rich failure mode on CNG, LPG, M85, E85, and reformulated gasoline. 22 refs., 18 figs., 17 tabs.

  6. Optimizing convergence rates of alternating minimization reconstruction algorithms for real-time explosive detection applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, Carl; Degirmenci, Soysal; Barlow, Jason; Mesika, Assaf; Politte, David G.; O'Sullivan, Joseph A.

    2016-05-01

    X-ray computed tomography reconstruction for medical, security and industrial applications has evolved through 40 years of experience with rotating gantry scanners using analytic reconstruction techniques such as filtered back projection (FBP). In parallel, research into statistical iterative reconstruction algorithms has evolved to apply to sparse view scanners in nuclear medicine, low data rate scanners in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) [5, 7, 10] and more recently to reduce exposure to ionizing radiation in conventional X-ray CT scanners. Multiple approaches to statistical iterative reconstruction have been developed based primarily on variations of expectation maximization (EM) algorithms. The primary benefit of EM algorithms is the guarantee of convergence that is maintained when iterative corrections are made within the limits of convergent algorithms. The primary disadvantage, however is that strict adherence to correction limits of convergent algorithms extends the number of iterations and ultimate timeline to complete a 3D volumetric reconstruction. Researchers have studied methods to accelerate convergence through more aggressive corrections [1], ordered subsets [1, 3, 4, 9] and spatially variant image updates. In this paper we describe the development of an AM reconstruction algorithm with accelerated convergence for use in a real-time explosive detection application for aviation security. By judiciously applying multiple acceleration techniques and advanced GPU processing architectures, we are able to perform 3D reconstruction of scanned passenger baggage at a rate of 75 slices per second. Analysis of the results on stream of commerce passenger bags demonstrates accelerated convergence by factors of 8 to 15, when comparing images from accelerated and strictly convergent algorithms.

  7. Final environmental assessment: Los Reales 115 kV transmission line alternative routes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    The Central Arizona Project (CAP) was authorized as a part of the Colorado River Basin Project Act (Public Law 90-537) on September 30, 1968. The primary purpose of the CAP is to furnish water for agricultural, municipal, and industrial uses in central and southern Arizona, and western New Mexico. Due to its magnitude, the CAP is divided into several major features serving separate but interrelated functions. The Tucson Aqueduct Phase B pumping plants were designed and constructed to operate on a looped power system. The entire looped power system, including two switching stations and connecting 115-kv transmission lines, was identified in the FEIS and approved for construction in the Secretary of Interior's Record of Decision dated September 24, 1985. The loop begins in the vicinity of the Twin Peaks Pumping Plant -- the northernmost Phase B pumping station, at the Rattlesnake Switching Station. All of the looped power system has been constructed with the exception of the switching station and portion of transmission line proposed to be constructed in this project. Without construction of this final portion of the looped power system, the Phase B pumping plants will not be able to operate normally without negatively affecting nearby power sources. The CAP will also not be able to provide the reliability necessary for municipal water systems dependent upon CAP water. The purpose of this EA is to describe impacts that would result from relocating the Los Reales 115-kV transmission line, and possibly the switching station, originally identified in the FEIS. It should be mentioned the Department of Energy will complete a separate NEPA review.

  8. Feasibility study for alternate fuel production from biomass resources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    The propsed project will be a 50 mm USGPY anhydrous alcohol plant to be located at Walhalla in northeastern North Dakota. The plant will use barley grown in the region as the raw material to produce a Motor Fuel Grade Alcohol through a fermentation and distillation process. North Dakota lignite coal will be used as the primary energy source to produce alcohol from the barley. The site is located on an active branch of the Burlington Northern Railroad, providing efficient and economical access to North Dakota's vast lignite coal fields in western North Dakota and to the established grain and grain by-product markets of Duluth and Minneapolis. The site is also adjacent to paved secondary highways, providing access to state and interstate highway systems. The plant site is adjacent to the City of Walhalla and will be annexed to the city limits and served by community facilities. Electrical energy to operate plant equipment will be partially produced by co-generation within the plant but the total electrical energy cannot be produced internally and additional power will be purchased from Otter Tail Power Co., supplier to the community. A technical review of the plant is provided in this report. The process, plant layout and major equipment procurement and costs are described. A complete economic analysis is provided using the data derived from the technical evaluation and cost estimates and is provided in a separate section. Siting and the environmental and socio-economic considerations are covered separately. A review of the proposed management and personnel structure completes the report.

  9. Global, Daily, Near Real-Time Satellite-based Flood Monitoring and Product Dissemination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slayback, D. A.; Policelli, F. S.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Tokay, M. M.; Smith, M. M.; Kettner, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Flooding is the most destructive, frequent, and costly natural disaster faced by modern society, and is expected to increase in frequency and damage with climate change and population growth. Some of 2013's major floods have impacted the New York City region, the Midwest, Alberta, Australia, various parts of China, Thailand, Pakistan, and central Europe. The toll of these events, in financial costs, displacement of individuals, and deaths, is substantial and continues to rise as climate change generates more extreme weather events. When these events do occur, the disaster management community requires frequently updated and easily accessible information to better understand the extent of flooding and better coordinate response efforts. With funding from NASA's Applied Sciences program, we developed and are now operating a near real-time global flood mapping system to help provide critical flood extent information within 24-48 hours of events. The system applies a water detection algorithm to MODIS imagery received from the LANCE (Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS) system at NASA Goddard within a few hours of satellite overpass. Using imagery from both the Terra (10:30 AM local time overpass) and Aqua (1:30 PM) platforms allows an initial daily assessment of flooding extent by late afternoon, and more robust assessments after accumulating cloud-free imagery over several days. Cloud cover is the primary limitation in detecting surface water from MODIS imagery. Other issues include the relatively coarse scale of the MODIS imagery (250 meters), the difficulty of detecting flood waters in areas with continuous canopy cover, confusion of shadow (cloud or terrain) with water, and accurately identifying detected water as flood as opposed to normal water extents. We have made progress on many of these issues, and are working to develop higher resolution flood detection using alternate sensors, including Landsat and various radar sensors. Although these

  10. The production of an inducible antisense alternative oxidase (Aox1a) plant.

    PubMed

    Potter, F J; Wiskich, J T; Dry, I B

    2001-01-01

    Plant mitochondria contain an alternative oxidase (AOX) acting as a terminal electron acceptor of the alternative pathway in the electron transport chain. Here we describe the production of inducible antisense Aox1a plants of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. and the procedures used to determine the resulting alternative pathway activity. The Arabidopsis Aox1a cDNA sequence was cloned behind a copper-inducible promoter system in the antisense orientation. Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia) plants were transformed by in-planta vacuum infiltration with Agrobacterium containing the antisense construct. Whole-leaf ethanol production was used as a measure to investigate alternative pathway activity in the presence of antimycin A. After 24 h, leaves from the copper-induced, antisense line F1.1 produced up to 8.8 times more ethanol (via aerobic fermentation) than the non-induced and wild-type leaves, indicating effective cytochrome pathway inhibition by antimycin A and a decreased alternative pathway activity in induced F1.1 leaves. Transgene expression studies also revealed no expression in non-induced leaves and up until 24 h post-induction. Copper-induced transgenic leaves were less susceptible to alternative pathway inhibition than non-induced transgenic leaves, as seen via tissue-slice respiratory studies, and mitochondrial respiration, using F1.1 cell cultures, also supported this. These results demonstrate the successful production of a transgenic line of Arabidopsis in which the alternative pathway activity can be genetically manipulated with an inducible antisense system.

  11. The influence of base rates on correlations: An evaluation of proposed alternative effect sizes with real-world data.

    PubMed

    Babchishin, Kelly M; Helmus, Leslie-Maaike

    2016-09-01

    Correlations are the simplest and most commonly understood effect size statistic in psychology. The purpose of the current paper was to use a large sample of real-world data (109 correlations with 60,415 participants) to illustrate the base rate dependence of correlations when applied to dichotomous or ordinal data. Specifically, we examined the influence of the base rate on different effect size metrics. Correlations decreased when the dichotomous variable did not have a 50 % base rate. The higher the deviation from a 50 % base rate, the smaller the observed Pearson's point-biserial and Kendall's tau correlation coefficients. In contrast, the relationship between base rate deviations and the more commonly proposed alternatives (i.e., polychoric correlation coefficients, AUCs, Pearson/Thorndike adjusted correlations, and Cohen's d) were less remarkable, with AUCs being most robust to attenuation due to base rates. In other words, the base rate makes a marked difference in the magnitude of the correlation. As such, when using dichotomous data, the correlation may be more sensitive to base rates than is optimal for the researcher's goals. Given the magnitude of the association between the base rate and point-biserial correlations (r = -.81) and Kendall's tau (r = -.80), we recommend that AUCs, Pearson/Thorndike adjusted correlations, Cohen's d, or polychoric correlations should be considered as alternate effect size statistics in many contexts.

  12. ALTERNATIVE FORMULATIONS TO REDUCE CFC USE IN U.S. EXEMPTED AND EXCLUDED AEROSOL PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report examines products exempted and excluded from those affected by the 1978 ban on the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) as aerosol propellants, the present consumption of CFCs still utilized for these products in the U.S., and alternative formulations which may be used to...

  13. Rapid quantitative detection of, Listeria monocytogenes in salmon products: evaluation of pre-real-time PCR strategies.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Lázaro, David; Jofré, Anna; Aymerich, Teresa; Garriga, Margarita; Pla, Maria

    2005-07-01

    The spread and persistence of Listeria monocytogenes in smoked fish products and seafood processing factories are big concerns. Thus, the corresponding quality assurance programs must include adequate microbiological control measures. We evaluated eight different pre-PCR sample processing strategies to be coupled with a previously developed real-time PCR assay for the quantitative detection of L. monocytogenes in salmon products. The optimal pre-PCR procedure involved filtration and DNA purification with the use of a commercial kit. This strategy could detect 10 CFU of L. monocytogenes per g of smoked salmon and could quantify 1,000 CFU/g with excellent accuracy compared with the standard plate count method. Thus, this method could be a promising alternative for the quantitative detection of L. monocytogenes in smoked fish products and processing factories. This method could also detect the bacterium in raw salmon.

  14. The comparative extinguishment performance and thermal decomposition products of halon alternative agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipczak, Robert A.

    1994-12-01

    Halon 1301, Halon 1211, and eleven alternative fire-fighting agents were compared for extinguishment effectiveness and thermal decomposition product generation, using a laboratory-scale test apparatus having methane as the fuel. Chemical analysis was conducted using a magnetic sector mass spectrometer with simultaneous measurement of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide, water, and acid gas production. Chemical mechanisms are advanced to explain how halogenated hydrocarbons extinguish fires. The major conclusion was that the alternative agents were not as effective at fighting fires as Halons and that greater amounts of acid gases were produced during extinguishment. Hydrogen fluoride was found to be the predominant thermal decomposition product for all agents.

  15. Development and assessment of real-time tropospheric products derived from GNSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaclavovic, Pavel; Dousa, Jan; Eben, K.

    2016-07-01

    The GNSS-meteorology, i.e. monitoring the water vapour content in the troposphere through the analysis of GNSS observations, provides GNSS real-time tropospheric products in support of numerical weather prediction (NWP) and severe weather event monitoring. The real-time ultra-fast and high-resolution GNSS tropospheric products, such as zenith total delay (ZTD) and horizontal gradients describing the first-order anisotropy of the troposphere, has been developed and routinely generated at the Geodetic Observatory Pecny for several years. The poster summarizes results of the evaluation of real-time tropospheric products with respect to the IGS and EUREF final products and introduces a new online system for the monitoring and comparison of the products with other tropospheric solutions.The accuracy of real-time ZTD achieved 5-10 mm, which fulfills the requirements for NWP nowcasting applications defined by the EUMETNET EIG GNSS water vapour programme (E-GVAP). Corresponding tropospheric parameters for GNSS model were also calculated using meteorological data from numerical weather predictions and these are routinely compared with GNSS-based real-time products. The parameters from the NWP represents augmentation tropospheric corrections for a future use in applications, e.g. real-time kinematic positioning and navigation.

  16. Direct coupling: a possible strategy to control fruit production in alternate bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Awadhesh; Sakai, Kenshi; Hoshino, Yoshinobu

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the theoretical possibility of applying phenomenon of synchronization of coupled nonlinear oscillators to control alternate bearing in citrus. The alternate bearing of fruit crops is a phenomenon in which a year of heavy yield is followed by an extremely light one. This phenomenon has been modeled previously by the resource budget model, which describes a typical nonlinear oscillator of the tent map type. We have demonstrated how direct coupling, which could be practically realized through grafting, contributes to the nonlinear dynamics of alternate bearing, especially phase synchronization. Our results show enhancement of out-of-phase synchronization in production, which depends on initial conditions obtained under the given system parameters. Based on these numerical experiments, we propose a new method to control alternate bearing, say in citrus, thereby enabling stable fruit production. The feasibility of validating the current results through field experimentation is also discussed.

  17. Direct coupling: a possible strategy to control fruit production in alternate bearing

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Awadhesh; Sakai, Kenshi; Hoshino, Yoshinobu

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the theoretical possibility of applying phenomenon of synchronization of coupled nonlinear oscillators to control alternate bearing in citrus. The alternate bearing of fruit crops is a phenomenon in which a year of heavy yield is followed by an extremely light one. This phenomenon has been modeled previously by the resource budget model, which describes a typical nonlinear oscillator of the tent map type. We have demonstrated how direct coupling, which could be practically realized through grafting, contributes to the nonlinear dynamics of alternate bearing, especially phase synchronization. Our results show enhancement of out-of-phase synchronization in production, which depends on initial conditions obtained under the given system parameters. Based on these numerical experiments, we propose a new method to control alternate bearing, say in citrus, thereby enabling stable fruit production. The feasibility of validating the current results through field experimentation is also discussed. PMID:28051141

  18. Completion and production results from alternate-path gravel-packed wells

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, D.W.; Jones, L.G.

    1995-09-01

    A successful gravel pack requires two things: perforations packed with gravel-pack sand and a completely packed annulus. Failure to obtain either one can result in low productivity and/or a sand-producing gravel pack. Alternate-path gravel packing ensures that the annulus will be completely packed and that all perforations taking fluid will be packed with gravel-pack sand. Altercate-path gravel packing has provided long and highly productive completions without any sand production. This paper presents completion data and production results from 39 wells completed with the alternate-path gravel-pack technique. The completion data include completion length, net perforations, carrier fluid, sand placement outside casing, workover fluid, and return rate during packaging. Production results include qualitative discussion of all completions with quantitative results, including permeability-thickness product and skin on select completions.

  19. Future enhancements to 3D printing and real time production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landa, Joseph; Jenkins, Jeffery; Wu, Jerry; Szu, Harold

    2014-05-01

    The cost and scope of additive printing machines range from several hundred to hundreds of thousands of dollars. For the extra money, one can get improvements in build size, selection of material properties, resolution, and consistency. However, temperature control during build and fusing predicts outcome and protects the IP by large high cost machines. Support material options determine geometries that can be accomplished which drives cost and complexity of printing heads. Historically, 3D printers have been used for design and prototyping efforts. Recent advances and cost reduction sparked new interest in developing printed products and consumables such as NASA who is printing food, printing consumer parts (e.g. cell phone cases, novelty toys), making tools and fixtures in manufacturing, and recursively print a self-similar printer (c.f. makerbot). There is a near term promise of the capability to print on demand products at the home or office... directly from the printer to use.

  20. The cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass -- A comparison of selected alternative processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Grethlein, H.E.; Dill, T.

    1993-04-30

    The purpose of this report is to compare the cost of selected alternative processes for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. In turn, this information will be used by the ARS/USDA to guide the management of research and development programs in biomass conversion. The report will identify where the cost leverages are for the selected alternatives and what performance parameters need to be achieved to improve the economics. The process alternatives considered here are not exhaustive, but are selected on the basis of having a reasonable potential in improving the economics of producing ethanol from biomass. When other alternatives come under consideration, they should be evaluated by the same methodology used in this report to give fair comparisons of opportunities. A generic plant design is developed for an annual production of 25 million gallons of anhydrous ethanol using corn stover as the model substrate at $30/dry ton. Standard chemical engineering techniques are used to give first order estimates of the capital and operating costs. Following the format of the corn to ethanol plant, there are nine sections to the plant; feed preparation, pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation and dehydration, stillage evaporation, storage and denaturation, utilities, and enzyme production. There are three pretreatment alternatives considered: the AFEX process, the modified AFEX process (which is abbreviated as MAFEX), and the STAKETECH process. These all use enzymatic hydrolysis and so an enzyme production section is included in the plant. The STAKETECH is the only commercially available process among the alternative processes.

  1. Part 2 of a 4-part series Hair Products: Trends and Alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Sharon; Katta, Rajani; Nedorost, Susan; Warshaw, Erin; Zirwas, Matt; Bhinder, Manpreet

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To provide updated data on usage of ingredients that are common potential contact allergens in several categories of hair products. To identify useful alternative products with few or no common contact allergens. Design: In November 2009, the full ingredient lists of 5,416 skin, hair, and cosmetic products marketed by the CVS pharmacy chain was copied from CVS.com into Microsoft Word format for analysis. Computer searches were made in Microsoft Word using search/replace and sorting functions to accurately identify the presence of specific allergens in each website product. Measurements: Percentages of American Contact Dermatitis Society core series allergens (and other common preservatives and sunblocks) were calculated. Results: The usage of American Contact Dermatitis Society core series allergens (and other preservatives and sunblocks) in hair products is reported. Conclusion: Data on allergens and alternatives for hair products is not widely published. This article reviews some of the common potential allergens in hair products, including shampoos, conditioners, and styling products. Suitable available alternative products for patients with contact allergy are listed. PMID:21779419

  2. [Near infrared spectroscopy and multivariate statistical process analysis for real-time monitoring of production process].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Ma, Xiang; Wen, Ya-Dong; Zou, Quan; Wang, Jun; Tu, Jia-Run; Cai, Wen-Sheng; Shao, Xue-Guang

    2013-05-01

    Near infrared diffusive reflectance spectroscopy has been applied in on-site or on-line analysis due to its characteristics of fastness, non-destruction and the feasibility for real complex sample analysis. The present work reported a real-time monitoring method for industrial production by using near infrared spectroscopic technique and multivariate statistical process analysis. In the method, the real-time near infrared spectra of the materials are collected on the production line, and then the evaluation of the production process can be achieved by a statistic Hotelling T2 calculated with the established model. In this work, principal component analysis (PCA) is adopted for building the model, and the statistic is calculated by projecting the real-time spectra onto the PCA model. With an application of the method in a practical production, it was demonstrated that a real-time evaluation of the variations in the production can be realized by investigating the changes in the statistic, and the comparison of the products in different batches can be achieved by further statistics of the statistic. Therefore, the proposed method may provide a practical way for quality insurance of production processes.

  3. Subtask 2.6 - Assessment of Alternative Fuels on CO2 Production

    SciTech Connect

    Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Darren Naasz

    2009-06-16

    Many coal-based electric generating units use alternative fuels, and this effort assessed the impact of alternative fuels on CO{sub 2} production and other emissions and also assessed the potential impact of changes in emission regulations under the Clean Air Act (CAA) for facilities utilizing alternative fuels that may be categorized as wastes. Information was assembled from publicly available U.S. Department of Energy Energy Information Administration databases that included alternative fuel use for 2004 and 2005. Alternative fuel types were categorized along with information on usage by coal-based electric, number of facilities utilizing each fuel type, and the heating value of solid, liquid, and gaseous alternative fuels. The sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and carbon dioxide emissions associated with alternative fuels and primary fuels were also evaluated. Carbon dioxide emissions are also associated with the transport of all fuels. A calculation of carbon dioxide emissions associated with the transport of biomass-based fuels that are typically accessed on a regional basis was made. A review of CAA emission regulations for coal-based electric generating facilities from Section 112 (1) and Section 129 (2) for solid waste incinerators was performed with consideration for a potential regulatory change from Section 112 (1) regulation to Section 129 (2). Increased emission controls would be expected to be required if coal-based electric generating facilities using alternative fuels would be recategorized under CAA Section 129 (2) for solid waste incinerators, and if this change were made, it is anticipated that coal-fired electric generating facilities might reduce the use of alternative fuels. Conclusions included information on the use profile for alternative fuels and the impacts to emissions as well as the impact of potential application of emission regulations for solid waste incinerators to electric generating facilities using alternative fuels.

  4. Selection of process alternatives for lignocellulosic bioethanol production using a MILP approach.

    PubMed

    Scott, Felipe; Venturini, Fabrizio; Aroca, Germán; Conejeros, Raúl

    2013-11-01

    This work proposes a decision-making framework for the selection of processes and unit operations for lignocellulosic bioethanol production. Process alternatives are described by its capital and operating expenditures, its contribution to process yield and technological availability information. A case study in second generation ethanol production using Eucalyptus globulus as raw material is presented to test the developed process synthesis tool. Results indicate that production cost does not necessarily decrease when yield increases. Hence, optimal processes can be found at the inflexion point of total costs and yield. The developed process synthesis tool provides results with an affordable computational cost, existing optimization tools and an easy-to-upgrade description of the process alternatives. These features made this tool suitable for process screening when incomplete information regarding process alternatives is available.

  5. An evaluation of alternate production methods for Pu-238 general purpose heat source pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Borland; Steve Frank

    2009-06-01

    For the past half century, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has used Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) to power deep space satellites. Fabricating heat sources for RTGs, specifically General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHSs), has remained essentially unchanged since their development in the 1970s. Meanwhile, 30 years of technological advancements have been made in the applicable fields of chemistry, manufacturing and control systems. This paper evaluates alternative processes that could be used to produce Pu 238 fueled heat sources. Specifically, this paper discusses the production of the plutonium-oxide granules, which are the input stream to the ceramic pressing and sintering processes. Alternate chemical processes are compared to current methods to determine if alternative fabrication processes could reduce the hazards, especially the production of respirable fines, while producing an equivalent GPHS product.

  6. SRSF10 Plays a Role in Myoblast Differentiation and Glucose Production via Regulation of Alternative Splicing.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ning; Cheng, Yuanming; Wang, Zhijia; Liu, Yuguo; Luo, Chunling; Liu, Lina; Chen, Linlin; Xie, Zhiqin; Lu, Yun; Feng, Ying

    2015-11-24

    Alternative splicing is a major mechanism of controlling gene expression and protein diversity in higher eukaryotes. We report that the splicing factor SRSF10 functions during striated muscle development, myoblast differentiation, and glucose production both in cells and in mice. A combination of RNA-sequencing and molecular analysis allowed us to identify muscle-specific splicing events controlled by SRSF10 that are critically involved in striated muscle development. Inclusion of alternative exons 16 and 17 of Lrrfip1 is a muscle-specific event that is activated by SRSF10 and essential for myoblast differentiation. On the other hand, in mouse primary hepatocytes, PGC1α is a key target of SRSF10 that regulates glucose production by fasting. SRSF10 represses inclusion of PGC1α exon 7a and facilitates the production of functional protein. The results highlight the biological significance of SRSF10 and regulated alternative splicing in vivo.

  7. Alternatives to antibiotics: a symposium on the challenges and solutions for animal production.

    PubMed

    Seal, Bruce S; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Donovan, David M; Gay, Cyril G

    2013-06-01

    Antibiotics are one of the most important medical discoveries of the 20th century and will remain an essential tool for treating animal and human diseases in the 21st century. However, antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens and concerns over their extensive use in food animals has garnered global interest in limiting antibiotic use in animal agriculture. Yet, limiting the availability of medical interventions to prevent and control animal diseases on the farm will directly impact global food security and safety as well as animal and human health. Insufficient attention has been given to the scientific breakthroughs and novel technologies that provide alternatives to antibiotics. The objectives of the symposium 'Alternatives to Antibiotics' were to highlight promising research results and novel technologies that could potentially lead to alternatives to conventional antibiotics, and assess challenges associated with their commercialization, and provide actionable strategies to support development of alternative antimicrobials. The symposium focused on the latest scientific breakthroughs and technologies that could provide new options and alternative strategies for preventing and treating diseases of animals. Some of these new technologies have direct applications as medical interventions for human health, but the focus of the symposium was animal production, animal health and food safety during food-animal production. Five subject areas were explored in detail through scientific presentations and expert panel discussions, including: (1) alternatives to antibiotics, lessons from nature; (2) immune modulation approaches to enhance disease resistance and to treat animal diseases; (3) gut microbiome and immune development, health and diseases; (4) alternatives to antibiotics for animal production; and (5) regulatory pathways to enable the licensure of alternatives to antibiotics.

  8. Real-time Stack Monitoring at the BaTek Medical Isotope Production Facility

    SciTech Connect

    McIntyre, Justin I.; Agusbudiman, A.; Cameron, Ian M.; Dumais, Johannes R.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Gheddou, A.; Khrustalev, Kirill; Marsoem, Pujadi; Miley, Harry S.; Nikkinen, Mika; Prinke, Amanda M.; Ripplinger, Mike D.; Schrom, Brian T.; Sliger, William A.; Stoehlker, Ulrich; Suhariyono, G.; Warren, Glen A.; Widodo, Susilo; Woods, Vincent T.

    2016-04-01

    Radioxenon emissions from radiopharmaceutical production are a major source of background concentrations affecting the radioxenon detection systems of the International Monitoring System (IMS). Collection of real-time emissions data from production facilities makes it possible to screen out some medical isotope signatures from the IMS radioxenon data sets. This paper describes an effort to obtain and analyze real-time stack emissions data with the design, construction and installation of a small stack monitoring system developed by a joint CTBTO-IDC, BATAN, and PNNL team at the BaTek medical isotope production facility near Jakarta, Indonesia.

  9. Part 3 of a 4-part series Lip and Common Dental Care Products: Trends and Alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Sharon; Katta, Rajani; Nedorost, Susan; Warshaw, Erin; Zirwas, Matt; Kruk, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To provide updated data on the use of ingredients that are common potential contact allergens in several categories of lip and oral products. To identify useful alternative products with few or no common contact allergens. Design: In November 2009, the full ingredient lists of 5,416 skin, hair, and cosmetic products marketed by the CVS pharmacy chain was copied from CVS.com into Microsoft Word format for analysis. Computer searches were made in Microsoft Word using search/replace and sorting functions to accurately identify the presence of specific allergens in each website product. Measurements: Percentages of American Contact Dermatitis Society core series allergens (and other common preservatives) were calculated. Results: The use of American Contact Dermatitis Society core series allergens (and other preservatives) in various categories of lip and oral products are reported. Conclusion: Data on allergens and alternatives for lip and oral products is not widely published. This article reviews some of the common potential allergens in lip liners, lipsticks, lip moisturizers, mouthwashes, and toothpastes. Suitable available alternative products for patients with contact allergy are listed. PMID:21938270

  10. Real-time imaging of cotranscriptional splicing reveals a kinetic model that reduces noise: implications for alternative splicing regulation

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Ute; Robert, Marie-Cécile; Yoshida, Minoru; Villemin, Jean-Philippe; Auboeuf, Didier; Aitken, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Splicing is a key process that expands the coding capacity of genomes. Its kinetics remain poorly characterized, and the distribution of splicing time caused by the stochasticity of single splicing events is expected to affect regulation efficiency. We conducted a small-scale survey on 40 introns in human cells and observed that most were spliced cotranscriptionally. Consequently, we constructed a reporter system that splices cotranscriptionally and can be monitored in live cells and in real time through the use of MS2–GFP. All small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) are loaded on nascent pre-mRNAs, and spliceostatin A inhibits splicing but not snRNP recruitment. Intron removal occurs in minutes and is best described by a model where several successive steps are rate limiting. Each pre-mRNA molecule is predicted to require a similar time to splice, reducing kinetic noise and improving the regulation of alternative splicing. This model is relevant to other kinetically controlled processes acting on few molecules. PMID:21624952

  11. NASA-Langley Web-Based Operational Real-time Cloud Retrieval Products from Geostationary Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palikonda, Rabindra; Minnis, Patrick; Spangenberg, Douglas A.; Khaiyer, Mandana M.; Nordeen, Michele L.; Ayers, Jeffrey K.; Nguyen, Louis; Yi, Yuhong; Chan, P. K.; Trepte, Qing Z.; Chang, Fu-Lung; Smith, William L, Jr.

    2006-01-01

    At NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), radiances from multiple satellites are analyzed in near real-time to produce cloud products over many regions on the globe. These data are valuable for many applications such as diagnosing aircraft icing conditions and model validation and assimilation. This paper presents an overview of the multiple products available, summarizes the content of the online database, and details web-based satellite browsers and tools to access satellite imagery and products.

  12. Youth Attitudes and Beliefs toward Alternative Tobacco Products: Cigars, Bidis, and Kreteks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soldz, Stephen; Dorsey, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Youth use of cigars, bidis, and kreteks has spread as youth cigarette use has declined. This study investigates young people's attitudes toward and beliefs about these alternative tobacco products. The study used data from a convenience sample survey of 5,016 7th-through 12th-grade students in Massachusetts. The cigar attitudes receiving the…

  13. Effect of fertilization and irrigation on nursery production of hydrangea using alternative containers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Container production of nursery plants using biodegradable containers has been studied in recent years as a sustainable alternative to traditional plastic containers. Plant growth and photosynthetic performance of Hydrangea macrophylla ‘Merritt’s Supreme’ were investigated in this study when they we...

  14. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum: Its effectiveness as an alternative bedding material for broiler production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) may be a viable low-cost alternative bedding material for broiler production. In order to evaluate FGD gypsum’s viability, three consecutive trials were conducted to determine its influence on live performance (body weight, feed consumption, feed efficiency, an...

  15. Deletion of alternative pathways for reductant recycling in Thermococcus kodakarensis increases hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Santangelo, Thomas J; Cuboňová, L'ubomíra; Reeve, John N

    2011-08-01

    Hydrogen (H₂) production by Thermococcus kodakarensis compares very favourably with the levels reported for the most productive algal, fungal and bacterial systems. T. kodakarensis can also consume H₂ and is predicted to use several alternative pathways to recycle reduced cofactors, some of which may compete with H₂ production for reductant disposal. To explore the reductant flux and possible competition for H₂ production in vivo, T. kodakarensis TS517 was mutated to precisely delete each of the alternative pathways of reductant disposal, H₂ production and consumption. The results obtained establish that H₂ is generated predominantly by the membrane-bound hydrogenase complex (Mbh), confirm the essential role of the SurR (TK1086p) regulator in vivo, delineate the roles of sulfur (S°) regulon proteins and demonstrate that preventing H₂ consumption results in a substantial net increase in H₂ production. Constitutive expression of TK1086 (surR) from a replicative plasmid restored the ability of T. kodakarensis TS1101 (ΔTK1086) to grow in the absence of S° and stimulated H₂ production, revealing a second mechanism to increase H₂ production. Transformation of T. kodakarensis TS1101 with plasmids that express SurR variants constructed to direct the constitutive synthesis of the Mbh complex and prevent expression of the S° regulon was only possible in the absence of S° and, under these conditions, the transformants exhibited wild-type growth and H₂ production. With S° present, they grew slower but synthesized more H₂ per unit biomass than T. kodakarensis TS517.

  16. Real Choices in Indian Resource Development: Alternatives To Leasing. AIO Report-Billings Conference (Billings, Montana, January 30, 31, and February 1, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Americans for Indian Opportunity, Inc., Albuquerque, NM.

    Identifying the purpose of the Conference on Real Choices in Indian Resource Development: Alternatives to Leasing (Billings, Montana, January 1975) as exploring options available to American Indian tribes in the Great Plains re: the development of their own natural resources, this paper presents excerpts from participant speeches and comments…

  17. Real eigenvalues of non-Gaussian random matrices and their products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameed, Sajna; Jain, Kavita; Lakshminarayan, Arul

    2015-09-01

    We study the properties of the eigenvalues of real random matrices and their products. It is known that when the matrix elements are Gaussian-distributed independent random variables, the fraction of real eigenvalues tends to unity as the number of matrices in the product increases. Here we present numerical evidence that this phenomenon is robust with respect to the probability distribution of matrix elements, and is therefore a general property that merits detailed investigation. Since the elements of the product matrix are no longer distributed as those of the single matrix nor they remain independent random variables, we study the role of these two factors in detail. We study numerically the properties of the Hadamard (or Schur) product of matrices and also the product of matrices whose entries are independent but have the same marginal distribution as that of normal products of matrices, and find that under repeated multiplication, the probability of all eigenvalues to be real increases in both cases, but saturates to a constant below unity showing that the correlations amongst the matrix elements are responsible for the approach to one. To investigate the role of the non-normal nature of the probability distributions, we present a thorough analytical treatment of the 2 × 2 single matrix for several standard distributions. Within the class of smooth distributions with zero mean and finite variance, our results indicate that the Gaussian distribution has the maximum probability of real eigenvalues, but the Cauchy distribution characterized by infinite variance is found to have a larger probability of real eigenvalues than the normal. We also find that for the two-dimensional single matrices, the probability of real eigenvalues lies in the range [5/8,7/8].

  18. Real-time product attribute control to manufacture antibodies with defined N-linked glycan levels.

    PubMed

    Zupke, Craig; Brady, Lowell J; Slade, Peter G; Clark, Philip; Caspary, R Guy; Livingston, Brittney; Taylor, Lisa; Bigham, Kyle; Morris, Arvia E; Bailey, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    Pressures for cost-effective new therapies and an increased emphasis on emerging markets require technological advancements and a flexible future manufacturing network for the production of biologic medicines. The safety and efficacy of a product is crucial, and consistent product quality is an essential feature of any therapeutic manufacturing process. The active control of product quality in a typical biologic process is challenging because of measurement lags and nonlinearities present in the system. The current study uses nonlinear model predictive control to maintain a critical product quality attribute at a predetermined value during pilot scale manufacturing operations. This approach to product quality control ensures a more consistent product for patients, enables greater manufacturing efficiency, and eliminates the need for extensive process characterization by providing direct measures of critical product quality attributes for real time release of drug product.

  19. Real-time monitoring of polyurethane production using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dethomas, F A; Hall, J W; Monfre, S L

    1994-03-01

    A process near-infrared (NIR) spectrophotometer was interfaced directly to a reactor by using a fiber optic bundle interactance immersion probe. This remote sensor configuration enables the production of polyurethanes to be monitored in real-time. A Beer's Law model was derived for the quantitative determination of isocyanate in the urethane polymerization reaction. Statistical process control was used to observe trends in the polymerization reaction. The integration of NIR process analytical instrumentation directly into the process provides real-time chemical information that yields improvements in product quality and consistency, while minimizing reaction time.

  20. Water consumption footprint and land requirements of large-scale alternative diesel and jet fuel production.

    PubMed

    Staples, Mark D; Olcay, Hakan; Malina, Robert; Trivedi, Parthsarathi; Pearlson, Matthew N; Strzepek, Kenneth; Paltsev, Sergey V; Wollersheim, Christoph; Barrett, Steven R H

    2013-01-01

    Middle distillate (MD) transportation fuels, including diesel and jet fuel, make up almost 30% of liquid fuel consumption in the United States. Alternative drop-in MD and biodiesel could potentially reduce dependence on crude oil and the greenhouse gas intensity of transportation. However, the water and land resource requirements of these novel fuel production technologies must be better understood. This analysis quantifies the lifecycle green and blue water consumption footprints of producing: MD from conventional crude oil; Fischer-Tropsch MD from natural gas and coal; fermentation and advanced fermentation MD from biomass; and hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids MD and biodiesel from oilseed crops, throughout the contiguous United States. We find that FT MD and alternative MD derived from rainfed biomass have lifecycle blue water consumption footprints of 1.6 to 20.1 Lwater/LMD, comparable to conventional MD, which ranges between 4.1 and 7.4 Lwater/LMD. Alternative MD derived from irrigated biomass has a lifecycle blue water consumption footprint potentially several orders of magnitude larger, between 2.7 and 22 600 Lwater/LMD. Alternative MD derived from biomass has a lifecycle green water consumption footprint between 1.1 and 19 200 Lwater/LMD. Results are disaggregated to characterize the relationship between geo-spatial location and lifecycle water consumption footprint. We also quantify the trade-offs between blue water consumption footprint and areal MD productivity, which ranges from 490 to 4200 LMD/ha, under assumptions of rainfed and irrigated biomass cultivation. Finally, we show that if biomass cultivation for alternative MD is irrigated, the ratio of the increase in areal MD productivity to the increase in blue water consumption footprint is a function of geo-spatial location and feedstock-to-fuel production pathway.

  1. Modeling the Philippines' real gross domestic product: A normal estimation equation for multiple linear regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia, Jackie D.; Tampis, Razzcelle L.; Mercado, Joseph; Baygan, Aaron Vito M.; Baccay, Edcon B.

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this research is to formulate a mathematical model for the Philippines' Real Gross Domestic Product (Real GDP). The following factors are considered: Consumers' Spending (x1), Government's Spending (x2), Capital Formation (x3) and Imports (x4) as the Independent Variables that can actually influence in the Real GDP in the Philippines (y). The researchers used a Normal Estimation Equation using Matrices to create the model for Real GDP and used α = 0.01.The researchers analyzed quarterly data from 1990 to 2013. The data were acquired from the National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB) resulting to a total of 96 observations for each variable. The data have undergone a logarithmic transformation particularly the Dependent Variable (y) to satisfy all the assumptions of the Multiple Linear Regression Analysis. The mathematical model for Real GDP was formulated using Matrices through MATLAB. Based on the results, only three of the Independent Variables are significant to the Dependent Variable namely: Consumers' Spending (x1), Capital Formation (x3) and Imports (x4), hence, can actually predict Real GDP (y). The regression analysis displays that 98.7% (coefficient of determination) of the Independent Variables can actually predict the Dependent Variable. With 97.6% of the result in Paired T-Test, the Predicted Values obtained from the model showed no significant difference from the Actual Values of Real GDP. This research will be essential in appraising the forthcoming changes to aid the Government in implementing policies for the development of the economy.

  2. Inhibition of the alternative oxidase stimulates H2O2 production in plant mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Popov, V N; Simonian, R A; Skulachev, V P; Starkov, A A

    1997-09-22

    The hypothesis that a non-coupled alternative oxidase of plant mitochondria operates as an antioxygen defence mechanism [Purvis, A.C. and Shewfelt, R.L., Physiol. Plant. 88 (1993) 712-718; Skulachev, V.P., Biochemistry (Moscow) 59 (1994) 1433-1434] has been confirmed in experiments on isolated soybean and pea cotyledon mitochondria. It is shown that inhibitors of the alternative oxidase, salicyl hydroxamate and propyl gallate strongly stimulate H2O2 production by these mitochondria oxidizing succinate. Effective concentrations of the inhibitors proved to be the same as those decreasing the cyanide-resistant respiration. The inhibitors proved to be ineffective in stimulating H2O2 formation in rat liver mitochondria lacking the alternative oxidase.

  3. Elimination of glycerol and replacement with alternative products in ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Jain, Vishist K; Divol, Benoit; Prior, Bernard A; Bauer, Florian F

    2011-09-01

    Glycerol is a major by-product of ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and typically 2-3% of the sugar fermented is converted to glycerol. Replacing the NAD(+)-regenerating glycerol pathway in S. cerevisiae with alternative NADH reoxidation pathways may be useful to produce metabolites of biotechnological relevance. Under fermentative conditions yeast reoxidizes excess NADH through glycerol production which involves NADH-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenases (Gpd1p and Gpd2p). Deletion of these two genes limits fermentative activity under anaerobic conditions due to accumulation of NADH. We investigated the possibility of converting this excess NADH to NAD(+) by transforming a double mutant (gpd1∆gpd2∆) with alternative oxidoreductase genes that might restore the redox balance and produce either sorbitol or propane-1,2-diol. All of the modifications improved fermentative ability and/or growth of the double mutant strain in a self-generated anaerobic high sugar medium. However, these strain properties were not restored to the level of the parental wild-type strain. The results indicate an apparent partial NAD(+) regeneration ability and formation of significant amounts of the commodity chemicals like sorbitol or propane-1,2-diol. The ethanol yields were maintained between 46 and 48% of the sugar mixture. Other factors apart from the maintenance of the redox balance appeared to influence the growth and production of the alternative products by the genetically manipulated strains.

  4. Green Alternatives to Nitrates and Nitrites in Meat-based Products-A Review.

    PubMed

    Gassara, Fatma; Kouassi, Anne Patricia; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Belkacemi, Khaled

    2016-10-02

    Several food additives are added in food for their preservation to maintain the freshness of food (antioxidants) or to slow down or stop the growth of microorganisms (preservative agents). Nitrites and nitrates are used as preservative agents in meat. Nitrites give a smoked taste, a pinkish color in the meat and protect the consumers against the risk of bacterial deterioration. Their addition is however very limited as, in high dose, it can have risks on human health and the environment. Nitrites may also combine with secondary or tertiary amines to form N-nitroso derivatives. Certain N-nitroso compounds have been shown to produce cancers in a wide range of laboratory animals. Thus, alternatives of nitrates and nitrites are the object of numerous research studies. Alternatives, such as the addition of vitamins, fruits, chemicals products, natural products containing nitrite or spices, which have similar properties of nitrites, are in evaluation. In fact, spices are considered to have several organoleptic and anti-microbial properties which would be interesting to study. Several spices and combinations of spices are being progressively evaluated. This review discusses the sources of nitrites and nitrates, their use as additives in food products, their physicochemical properties, their negatives effects and the use of alternatives of nitrites and nitrates in preserving meat products.

  5. DISCOVER Near Real-Time Ocean Data Products: Examples of Uses and Limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. K.; Wentz, F. J.; Gentemann, C. L.

    2010-12-01

    Scientists at Remote Sensing Systems produce satellite microwave ocean data products for DISCOVER, a NASA MEaSUREs project. These ocean products include ocean surface winds, sea surface temperatures, atmospheric water vapor, cloud liquid water and rain rates created from passive microwave instrument data including that from SSM/I, TMI, AMSR-E, SSMIS and WindSat. Many users download DISCOVER data products in near real-time and use them within their specific applications. For example, some of the applications include ocean weather assessment for military sortie determination, sea surface temperature front identification for use by fishermen, and whale and turtle habitat monitoring. We will present the processing steps used to create the near real-time DISCOVER data, show several examples of user applications and discuss the benefits and limitations users find in applying our data products to their needs.

  6. Next day Salmonella spp. detection method based on real-time PCR for meat, dairy and vegetable food products.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Lazaro, David; Gonzalez-García, Patricia; Delibato, Elisabetta; De Medici, Dario; García-Gimeno, Rosa Maria; Valero, Antonio; Hernandez, Marta

    2014-08-01

    The microbiological standard for detection of Salmonella relies on several cultural steps and requires more than 5 days for final confirmation, and as consequence there is a need for an alternative rapid methodology for its detection. The aim of this study was to compare different detection strategies based on real-time PCR for a rapid and sensitive detection in an ample range of food products: raw pork and poultry meat, ready to eat lettuce salad and raw sheep milk cured cheese. Three main parameters were evaluated to reduce the time and cost for final results: the initial sample size (25 and 50 g), the incubation times (6, 10 and 18 h) and the bacterial DNA extraction (simple boiling of the culture after washing the bacterial pellet, the use of the Chelex resin, and a commercial silica column). The results obtained demonstrate that a combination of an incubation in buffered peptone water for 18 h of a 25 g-sample coupled to a DNA extraction by boiling and a real-time PCR assay detected down to 2-4 Salmonella spp.CFU per sample in less than 21 h in different types of food products. This RTi-PCR-based method is fully compatible with the ISO standard, providing results more rapidly and cost-effectively. The results were confirmed in a large number of naturally contaminated food samples with at least the same analytical performance as the reference method.

  7. Cheese whey: A cost-effective alternative for hyaluronic acid production by Streptococcus zooepidemicus.

    PubMed

    Amado, Isabel R; Vázquez, José A; Pastrana, Lorenzo; Teixeira, José A

    2016-05-01

    This study focuses on the optimisation of cheese whey formulated media for the production of hyaluronic acid (HA) by Streptococcus zooepidemicus. Culture media containing whey (W; 2.1g/L) or whey hydrolysate (WH; 2.4 g/L) gave the highest HA productions. Both W and WH produced high yields on protein consumed, suggesting cheese whey is a good nitrogen source for S. zooepidemicus production of HA. Polysaccharide concentrations of 4.0 g/L and 3.2g/L were produced in W and WH in a further scale-up to 5L bioreactors, confirming the suitability of the low-cost nitrogen source. Cheese whey culture media provided high molecular weight (>3000 kDa) HA products. This study revealed replacing the commercial peptone by the low-cost alternative could reduce HA production costs by up to a 70% compared to synthetic media.

  8. Effects of Real-Time Cochlear Implant Simulation on Speech Perception and Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casserly, Elizabeth D.

    2013-01-01

    Real-time use of spoken language is a fundamentally interactive process involving speech perception, speech production, linguistic competence, motor control, neurocognitive abilities such as working memory, attention, and executive function, environmental noise, conversational context, and--critically--the communicative interaction between…

  9. Using Distributional Statistics to Acquire Morphophonological Alternations: Evidence from Production and Perception

    PubMed Central

    Buckler, Helen; Fikkert, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Morphophonological alternations, such as the voicing alternation that arises in a morphological paradigm due to final-devoicing in Dutch, are notoriously difficult for children to acquire. This has previously been attributed to their unpredictability. In fact, the presence or absence of a voicing alternation is partly predictable if the phonological context of the word is taken into account, and adults have been shown to use this information (Ernestus and Baayen, 2003). This study investigates whether voicing alternations are predictable from the child’s input, and whether children can make use of this information. A corpus study of child-directed speech establishes that the likelihood of a stem-final obstruent alternating is somewhat predictable on the basis of the phonological properties of the stem. In Experiment 1 Dutch 3-year-olds’ production accuracy in a plural-elicitation task is shown to be sensitive to the distributional statistics. However, distributional properties do not play a role in children’s sensitivity to mispronunciations of voicing in a Preferential Looking Task in Experiment 2. PMID:27199792

  10. Metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum aimed at alternative carbon sources and new products

    PubMed Central

    Zahoor, Ahmed; Lindner, Steffen N.; Wendisch, Volker F.

    2012-01-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is well known as the amino acid-producing workhorse of fermentation industry, being used for multi-million-ton scale production of glutamate and lysine for more than 60 years. However, it is only recently that extensive research has focused on engineering it beyond the scope of amino acids. Meanwhile, a variety of corynebacterial strains allows access to alternative carbon sources and/or allows production of a wide range of industrially relevant compounds. Some of these efforts set new standards in terms of titers and productivities achieved whereas others represent a proof-of-principle. These achievements manifest the position of C. glutamicum as an important industrial microorganism with capabilities far beyond the traditional amino acid production. In this review we focus on the state of the art of metabolic engineering of C. glutamicum for utilization of alternative carbon sources, (e.g. coming from wastes and unprocessed sources), and construction of C. glutamicum strains for production of new products such as diamines, organic acids and alcohols PMID:24688664

  11. Metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum aimed at alternative carbon sources and new products.

    PubMed

    Zahoor, Ahmed; Lindner, Steffen N; Wendisch, Volker F

    2012-01-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is well known as the amino acid-producing workhorse of fermentation industry, being used for multi-million-ton scale production of glutamate and lysine for more than 60 years. However, it is only recently that extensive research has focused on engineering it beyond the scope of amino acids. Meanwhile, a variety of corynebacterial strains allows access to alternative carbon sources and/or allows production of a wide range of industrially relevant compounds. Some of these efforts set new standards in terms of titers and productivities achieved whereas others represent a proof-of-principle. These achievements manifest the position of C. glutamicum as an important industrial microorganism with capabilities far beyond the traditional amino acid production. In this review we focus on the state of the art of metabolic engineering of C. glutamicum for utilization of alternative carbon sources, (e.g. coming from wastes and unprocessed sources), and construction of C. glutamicum strains for production of new products such as diamines, organic acids and alcohols.

  12. Development of a high-throughput real time PCR based on a hot-start alternative for Pfu mediated by quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Fuming; Yang, Yang; Yuan, Lin; Ren, Jicun; Zhang, Zhizhou

    2015-09-01

    Hot start (HS) PCR is an excellent alternative for high-throughput real time PCR due to its ability to prevent nonspecific amplification at low temperature. Development of a cost-effective and simple HS PCR technique to guarantee high-throughput PCR specificity and consistency still remains a great challenge. In this study, we systematically investigated the HS characteristics of QDs triggered in real time PCR with EvaGreen and SYBR Green I dyes by the analysis of amplification curves, standard curves and melting curves. Two different kinds of DNA polymerases, Pfu and Taq, were employed. Here we showed that high specificity and efficiency of real time PCR were obtained in a plasmid DNA and an error-prone two-round PCR assay using QD-based HS PCR, even after an hour preincubation at 50 °C before real time PCR. Moreover, the results obtained by QD-based HS PCR were comparable to a commercial Taq antibody DNA polymerase. However, no obvious HS effect of QDs was found in real time PCR using Taq DNA polymerase. The findings of this study demonstrated that a cost-effective high-throughput real time PCR based on QD triggered HS PCR could be established with high consistency, sensitivity and accuracy.Hot start (HS) PCR is an excellent alternative for high-throughput real time PCR due to its ability to prevent nonspecific amplification at low temperature. Development of a cost-effective and simple HS PCR technique to guarantee high-throughput PCR specificity and consistency still remains a great challenge. In this study, we systematically investigated the HS characteristics of QDs triggered in real time PCR with EvaGreen and SYBR Green I dyes by the analysis of amplification curves, standard curves and melting curves. Two different kinds of DNA polymerases, Pfu and Taq, were employed. Here we showed that high specificity and efficiency of real time PCR were obtained in a plasmid DNA and an error-prone two-round PCR assay using QD-based HS PCR, even after an hour

  13. Perspectives and strategies of alternative methods used in the risk assessment of personal care products.

    PubMed

    Quantin, P; Thélu, A; Catoire, S; Ficheux, H

    2015-11-01

    Risk assessment for personal care products requires the use of alternative methods since animal testing is now totally banned. Some of these methods are effective and have been validated by the "European Union Reference Laboratory for alternatives to animal testing"; but there is still a need for development and implementation of methods for specific endpoints. In this review, we have focused on dermal risk assessment because it is the prime route of absorption and main target organ for personal care products. Within this field, various areas must be assessed: irritation, sensitisation and toxicokinetic. Personal care product behaviour after use by the consumer and potential effects on the environment are also discussed. The purpose of this review is to show evolution and the prospects of alternative methods for safety dermal assessment. Assessment strategies must be adapted to the different chemical classes of substances studied but also to the way in which they are used. Finally, experimental and theoretical technical parameters that may impact on measured effects have been identified and discussed.

  14. An alternative feedstock of corn meal for industrial fuel ethanol production: delignified corncob residue.

    PubMed

    Lei, Cheng; Zhang, Jian; Xiao, Lin; Bao, Jie

    2014-09-01

    Delignified corncob residue is an industrial solid waste from xylose production using corncob as feedstock. In this study, delignified corncob residue was used as the feedstock of ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) and the optimal fermentation performance was investigated under various operation conditions. The ethanol titer and yield reached 75.07 g/L and 89.38%, respectively, using a regular industrial yeast strain at moderate cellulase dosage and high solids loading. A uniform SSF temperature of 37°C at both prehydrolysis and SSF stages was tested. The fermentation performance and cost of delignified corncob residue and corn meal was compared as feedstock of ethanol fermentation. The result shows that the delignified corncob residue is competitive to corn meal as ethanol production feedstock. The study gives a typical case to demonstrate the potential of intensively processed lignocellulose as the alternative feedstock of corn meal for industrial fuel ethanol production.

  15. Portable inference engine: An extended CLIPS for real-time production systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Thach; Homeier, Peter

    1988-01-01

    The present C-Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) architecture has not been optimized to deal with the constraints of real-time production systems. Matching in CLIPS is based on the Rete Net algorithm, whose assumption of working memory stability might fail to be satisfied in a system subject to real-time dataflow. Further, the CLIPS forward-chaining control mechanism with a predefined conflict resultion strategy may not effectively focus the system's attention on situation-dependent current priorties, or appropriately address different kinds of knowledge which might appear in a given application. Portable Inference Engine (PIE) is a production system architecture based on CLIPS which attempts to create a more general tool while addressing the problems of real-time expert systems. Features of the PIE design include a modular knowledge base, a modified Rete Net algorithm, a bi-directional control strategy, and multiple user-defined conflict resolution strategies. Problems associated with real-time applications are analyzed and an explanation is given for how the PIE architecture addresses these problems.

  16. Use of Alternative Tobacco Products in Multiethnic Youth from Jujuy, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Alderete, Ethel; Kaplan, Celia Patricia; Gregorich, Steven E.; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines alternative tobacco use among Latin American youth. A self-administered survey in a random sample of 27 schools was administered in 2004 in Jujuy, Argentina (N = 3218). Prevalence of alternative tobacco product use was 24.1%; 15.3% of youth used hand-rolled cigarettes, 7.8% smoked cigars, 2.3% chewed tobacco leaf and 1.6% smoked pipe. Among youth who never smoked manufactured cigarettes, alternative product use was rare (2.9%), except for chewing tobacco (22%). In multivariate logistic regression boys were more likely than girls to smoke pipe (OR = 3.1; 95% CI 1.1–8.7); indigenous language was associated with smoking hand-rolled cigarettes (OR = 1.4; 95% CI-1.1–1.9) and pipe (OR = 2.2; 95% CI 1.5–3.4). Working in tobacco sales was a risk factor for chewing tobacco (OR = 2.9; 95% CI: 1.7–4.9) and smoking hand-rolled cigarettes (OR = 1.4; 95% CI 1.1–1.8). Having friends who smoked was associated with chewing tobacco (OR = 1.8; 95% CI 1.0–3.2) and with smoking cigars (OR = 2.1; 95% CI 1.5–2.9). Current drinking and thrill-seeking orientation were associated with cigars and pipe smoking. Findings highlight the importance of surveillance of alternative tobacco products use and availability among youth and for addressing identified risk factors. PMID:20300454

  17. Development of a high-throughput real time PCR based on a hot-start alternative for Pfu mediated by quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Sang, Fuming; Yang, Yang; Yuan, Lin; Ren, Jicun; Zhang, Zhizhou

    2015-10-14

    Hot start (HS) PCR is an excellent alternative for high-throughput real time PCR due to its ability to prevent nonspecific amplification at low temperature. Development of a cost-effective and simple HS PCR technique to guarantee high-throughput PCR specificity and consistency still remains a great challenge. In this study, we systematically investigated the HS characteristics of QDs triggered in real time PCR with EvaGreen and SYBR Green I dyes by the analysis of amplification curves, standard curves and melting curves. Two different kinds of DNA polymerases, Pfu and Taq, were employed. Here we showed that high specificity and efficiency of real time PCR were obtained in a plasmid DNA and an error-prone two-round PCR assay using QD-based HS PCR, even after an hour preincubation at 50 °C before real time PCR. Moreover, the results obtained by QD-based HS PCR were comparable to a commercial Taq antibody DNA polymerase. However, no obvious HS effect of QDs was found in real time PCR using Taq DNA polymerase. The findings of this study demonstrated that a cost-effective high-throughput real time PCR based on QD triggered HS PCR could be established with high consistency, sensitivity and accuracy.

  18. Reduction of Biological Sludge Production Applying an Alternating Oxic/anoxic Process in Water Line.

    PubMed

    Eusebi, Anna Laura; Panigutti, Maximiliano; Battistoni, Paolo

    2016-06-01

    Alternating oxic/anoxic process, applied for the main objective of the improvement of nitrogen performances, was studied in terms of secondary effect of biomass reduction. The process was carried out in one real water resource recovery facility and the data were compared with the previous conventional period when a conventional process was adopted. The main mechanism of the process for the sludge minimization is recognized in the metabolic uncoupling. In fact, an increase of the specific oxygen uptake rate in the biological reactor was recorded stimulated by the change of the oxidation reduction potential environment. Moreover, the heterotrophic growth yield was measured equal to 0.385 kgVSS/kgCOD. The global percentage of reduction was tested with the mass balance of solids. The process is able to decrease the observed sludge yield up to 20%. The specific energy consumption was evaluated.

  19. Fermentative production of L-pipecolic acid from glucose and alternative carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Pérez-García, Fernando; Max Risse, Joe; Friehs, Karl; Wendisch, Volker F

    2017-02-07

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is used for the million-ton scale production of amino acids and has recently been engineered for production of the cyclic non-proteinogenic amino acid L-pipecolic acid (L-PA). In this synthetic pathway L-lysine was converted to L-PA by oxidative deamination, dehydration and reduction by L-lysine 6-dehydrogenase (deaminating) from Silicibacter pomeroyi and pyrroline 5-carboxylate reductase from C. glutamicum. However, production of L-PA occurred as by-product of L-lysine production only. Here, the author show that abolishing L-lysine export by the respective gene deletion resulted in production of L-PA as major product without concomitant lysine production while the specific growth rate was reduced due to accumulation of high intracellular lysine concentrations. Increasing expression of the genes encoding L-lysine 6-dehydrogenase and pyrroline 5-carboxylate reductase in C. glutamicum strain PIPE4 increased the L-PA titer to 3.9 g L(-1) , and allowed faster growth and, thus, a higher volumetric productivity of 0.08 ± 0.00 g L(-1) h(-1) respectively. Secondly, expression of heterologous genes for utilization of glycerol, xylose, glucosamine, and starch in strain PIPE4 enabled L-PA production from these alternative carbon sources. Third, in a glucose/sucrose-based fed-batch fermentation with C. glutamicum PIPE4 L-PA was produced to a titer of 14.4 g L(-1) with a volumetric productivity of 0.21 g L(-1) h(-1) and an overall yield of 0.20 g g(-1) .

  20. Water productivity of stacked and alternate-year rotations under conventional and ecological management.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Brett; Lenssen, Andrew; Jabro, Jay; Iversen, Bill; Sainju, Upendra

    2015-04-01

    Dryland cropping system productivity in the North America northern Great Plains (NGP) likely can benefit from diversification of the traditional wheat-summer fallow system through improvements in crop sequence and level of management. A long-term study initiated in 2004 near Culbertson, Montana, U.S.A. compared the impact of rotation type (Stacked vs. Alternate-year) and management level (Conventional vs. Ecological) on canola, flax, and pea grown in rotation with durum. Ecological management included no-till, N fertilizer banded at planting, greater seeding rate, and taller stubble height. Conventional management included single pass tillage with sweeps in spring, fertilizer N broadcast just before planting, standard seeding rate, and standard stubble height. For years 2008-2010, a 13% increase in durum grain and pea seed yield in Ecological than Conventional management was not related to water use or water productivity of grain. Similarly, an 18% increase in pea seed yield in alternate-year rotations (e.g. durum-pea-durum-flax) than stacked rotations (e.g. durum-durum-flax-pea) was not related to water use or water productivity of seed. Water use, water productivity for grain, and water productivity for above ground biomass were similar for management level and rotation type within a given crop. Averaged across management level and rotation type, water use was 326, 351, 372, and 292 mm for canola, durum, flax, and pea. Likewise, water productivity for grain averaged 4.2, 6.5, 2.5, and 7.7 kg/ha/mm for canola, durum, flax, and pea. Water use and water productivity varied significantly among years, underscoring the need to development stable cropping systems that are less susceptible to the highly variable growing environment of the semi-arid NGP. Overall, Ecological management increased durum and pea yield, while Stacked rotations either decreased crop yield (pea) or offered no measurable advantage to Alternate-year rotations. Any differences in yield were not

  1. Bacterial cellulose production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus by employing alternative culture media.

    PubMed

    Jozala, Angela Faustino; Pértile, Renata Aparecida Nedel; dos Santos, Carolina Alves; de Carvalho Santos-Ebinuma, Valéria; Seckler, Marcelo Martins; Gama, Francisco Miguel; Pessoa, Adalberto

    2015-02-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) is used in different fields as a biological material due to its unique properties. Despite there being many BC applications, there still remain many problems associated with bioprocess technology, such as increasing productivity and decreasing production cost. New technologies that use waste from the food industry as raw materials for culture media promote economic advantages because they reduce environmental pollution and stimulate new research for science sustainability. For this reason, BC production requires optimized conditions to increase its application. The main objective of this study was to evaluate BC production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus using industry waste, namely, rotten fruits and milk whey, as culture media. Furthermore, the structure of BC produced at different conditions was also determined. The culture media employed in this study were composed of rotten fruit collected from the disposal of free markets, milk whey from a local industrial disposal, and their combination, and Hestrin and Schramm media was used as standard culture media. Although all culture media studied produced BC, the highest BC yield-60 mg/mL-was achieved with the rotten fruit culture. Thus, the results showed that rotten fruit can be used for BC production. This culture media can be considered as a profitable alternative to generate high-value products. In addition, it combines environmental concern with sustainable processes that can promote also the reduction of production cost.

  2. Identification of pork in meat products using real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lixia; Fu, Shujun; Peng, Xinkai; Li, Le; Song, Taoping; Li, Lin

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a one-step, real-time, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RealAmp) assay was developed, for the highly specific detection of pork DNA. For the assay, the mtDNA of cytochrome b (cytb) gene was amplified at 63 °C using SYBR Green I for 45 min with a Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) System that measured the fluorescent signal at one-minute intervals. As little as 1 pg of template DNA could be detected, without any cross-reactivity with non-target species. Meat mixtures, heat-treated at 100 °C for 15 min, prepared by mixing pork meat with beef at different ratios (0.01%–10%) were tested, and the RealAmp assays allowed the detection of as little as 0.01% pork in the meat mixtures. Thus, this work showed that RealAmp could be used for specific identification and sensitive quantification of meat species, even for heat-treated meat products. PMID:26019573

  3. Identification of pork in meat products using real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lixia; Fu, Shujun; Peng, Xinkai; Li, Le; Song, Taoping; Li, Lin

    2014-09-03

    In this study, a one-step, real-time, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RealAmp) assay was developed, for the highly specific detection of pork DNA. For the assay, the mtDNA of cytochrome b (cytb) gene was amplified at 63 °C using SYBR Green I for 45 min with a Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) System that measured the fluorescent signal at one-minute intervals. As little as 1 pg of template DNA could be detected, without any cross-reactivity with non-target species. Meat mixtures, heat-treated at 100 °C for 15 min, prepared by mixing pork meat with beef at different ratios (0.01%-10%) were tested, and the RealAmp assays allowed the detection of as little as 0.01% pork in the meat mixtures. Thus, this work showed that RealAmp could be used for specific identification and sensitive quantification of meat species, even for heat-treated meat products.

  4. Probiotics production and alternative encapsulation methodologies to improve their viabilities under adverse environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Coghetto, Chaline Caren; Brinques, Graziela Brusch; Ayub, Marco Antônio Záchia

    2016-12-01

    Probiotic products are dietary supplements containing live microorganisms producing beneficial health effects on the host by improving intestinal balance and nutrient absorption. Among probiotic microorganisms, those classified as lactic acid bacteria are of major importance to the food and feed industries. Probiotic cells can be produced using alternative carbon and nitrogen sources, such as agroindustrial residues, at the same time contributing to reduce process costs. On the other hand, the survival of probiotic cells in formulated food products, as well as in the host gut, is an essential nutritional aspect concerning health benefits. Therefore, several cell microencapsulation techniques have been investigated as a way to improve cell viability and survival under adverse environmental conditions, such as the gastrointestinal milieu of hosts. In this review, different aspects of probiotic cells and technologies of their related products are discussed, including formulation of culture media, and aspects of cell microencapsulation techniques required to improve their survival in the host.

  5. Genetically encoded sensors enable real-time observation of metabolite production

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Jameson K.; Church, George M.

    2016-01-01

    Engineering cells to produce valuable metabolic products is hindered by the slow and laborious methods available for evaluating product concentration. Consequently, many designs go unevaluated, and the dynamics of product formation over time go unobserved. In this work, we develop a framework for observing product formation in real time without the need for sample preparation or laborious analytical methods. We use genetically encoded biosensors derived from small-molecule responsive transcription factors to provide a fluorescent readout that is proportional to the intracellular concentration of a target metabolite. Combining an appropriate biosensor with cells designed to produce a metabolic product allows us to track product formation by observing fluorescence. With individual cells exhibiting fluorescent intensities proportional to the amount of metabolite they produce, high-throughput methods can be used to rank the quality of genetic variants or production conditions. We observe production of several renewable plastic precursors with fluorescent readouts and demonstrate that higher fluorescence is indeed an indicator of higher product titer. Using fluorescence as a guide, we identify process parameters that produce 3-hydroxypropionate at 4.2 g/L, 23-fold higher than previously reported. We also report, to our knowledge, the first engineered route from glucose to acrylate, a plastic precursor with global sales of $14 billion. Finally, we monitor the production of glucarate, a replacement for environmentally damaging detergents, and muconate, a renewable precursor to polyethylene terephthalate and nylon with combined markets of $51 billion, in real time, demonstrating that our method is applicable to a wide range of molecules. PMID:26858408

  6. Biohydrogen and biomethane production sustained by untreated matrices and alternative application of compost waste.

    PubMed

    Arizzi, Mariaconcetta; Morra, Simone; Pugliese, Massimo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Gilardi, Gianfranco; Valetti, Francesca

    2016-10-01

    Biohydrogen and biomethane production offers many advantages for environmental protection over the fossil fuels or the existing physical-chemical methods for hydrogen and methane synthesis. The aim of this study is focused on the exploitation of several samples from the composting process: (1) a mixture of waste vegetable materials ("Mix"); (2) an unmatured compost sample (ACV15); and (3) three types of green compost with different properties and soil improver quality (ACV1, ACV2 and ACV3). These samples were tested for biohydrogen and biomethane production, thus obtaining second generation biofuels and resulting in a novel possibility to manage renewable waste biomasses. The ability of these substrates as original feed during dark fermentation was assayed anaerobically in batch, in glass bottles, in order to determine the optimal operating conditions for hydrogen and/or methane production using "Mix" or ACV1, ACV2 or ACV3 green compost and a limited amount of water. Hydrogen could be produced with a fast kinetic in the range 0.02-2.45mLH2g(-1)VS, while methane was produced with a slower kinetic in the range 0.5-8mLCH4g(-1)VS. It was observed that the composition of each sample influenced significantly the gas production. It was also observed that the addition of different water amounts play a crucial role in the development of hydrogen or methane. This parameter can be used to push towards the alternative production of one or another gas. Hydrogen and methane production was detected spontaneously from these matrices, without additional sources of nutrients or any pre-treatment, suggesting that they can be used as an additional inoculum or feed into single or two-stage plants. This might allow the use of compost with low quality as soil improver for alternative and further applications.

  7. Lambda Station: Alternate network path forwarding for production SciDAC applications

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, Maxim; Bobyshev, Andrey; Crawford, Matt; DeMar, Phil; Grigaliunas, Vyto; Moibenko, Alexander; Petravick, Don; Newman, Harvey; Steenberg, Conrad; Thomas, Michael; /Caltech

    2007-09-01

    The LHC era will start very soon, creating immense data volumes capable of demanding allocation of an entire network circuit for task-driven applications. Circuit-based alternate network paths are one solution to meeting the LHC high bandwidth network requirements. The Lambda Station project is aimed at addressing growing requirements for dynamic allocation of alternate network paths. Lambda Station facilitates the rerouting of designated traffic through site LAN infrastructure onto so-called 'high-impact' wide-area networks. The prototype Lambda Station developed with Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) approach in mind will be presented. Lambda Station has been successfully integrated into the production version of the Storage Resource Manager (SRM), and deployed at US CMS Tier1 center at Fermilab, as well as at US-CMS Tier-2 site at Caltech. This paper will discuss experiences using the prototype system with production SciDAC applications for data movement between Fermilab and Caltech. The architecture and design principles of the production version Lambda Station software, currently being implemented as Java based web services, will also be presented in this paper.

  8. New Products for Near Real-Time Enhanced Landslide Identification and Precipitation Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts-Pierel, J.; Ahamed, A.; Fayne, J.; Rumsey, A.

    2015-12-01

    Nepal and the Himalayan region are hotspots for landslide activity due to mountainous topography, complex terrain, and monsoon rains. Current research in landslide modeling and detection generally requires high resolution imagery with software aided classification or manual digitization by analysts. These methods are plagued by low spatial and temporal accuracy. Addressing issues in conventional measurement, this study combined optical data from Landsat 8, a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) generated from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), and precipitation data from the Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (GPM) to create two products. The Sudden Landslide Identification Product (SLIP) uses Landsat 8 and the ASTER DEM to identify landslides in near real-time, and provides damage assessments by mapping landslides triggered by precipitation. Detecting Real-time Increased Precipitation (DRIP) monitors precipitation levels extracted from the GPM-IMERG 30-minute product to create alerts in near real-time when current rainfall levels exceed regional threshold values. After a landslide detection is made by SLIP, historical rainfall data from DRIP is analyzed to estimate a date for the detected landslide. Together, DRIP and SLIP will be used by local and regional organizations in Nepal such as the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), as well as the international scientific community to protect lives, preserve infrastructure, and manage local ecosystems.

  9. TVA/DOE Integrated Onfarm Alcohol Production System Alternate Feedstock Evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, R.J.

    1985-09-01

    The purpose of this Interagency research project is to study the feasibility of small-scale fuel alcohol production from agricultural crops. The project was conducted in three phases. Phase I included an assessment of the potential for fuel alcohol production from agricultural crops and design, construction, and startup operation of a 10-gallon-per-hour evaluation facility. Phase II included validation and optimization of the facility with a corn feedstock, modifications to the base unit to accommodate nongrain feedstocks, initial production and conversion evaluations of nongrain feedstocks, and preparation of a construction and operation manual. Phase III included further evaluations and refinement of processes and equipment for handling nongrain feedstocks, evaluation of stillage by-products as feeds, and development of agricultural systems for integrating alcohol production with other farm enterprises. This report provides: (1) a brief background of Phase I-III activities; (2) results of alternate feedstock choices, cultural trials, and testing results; (3) a description of the process for ethanol production from starch and sugar feedstocks; and (4) conversion procedures, sterilization requirements, and distillation methods for several feedstocks. 23 refs., 8 figs., 25 tabs.

  10. MAG4 Versus Alternative Techniques for Forecasting Active-Region Flare Productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, David A.; Moore, Ronald L.; Barghouty, Abdulnasser F.; Khazanov, Igor

    2014-01-01

    MAG4 is a technique of forecasting an active region's rate of production of major flares in the coming few days from a free-magnetic-energy proxy. We present a statistical method of measuring the difference in performance between MAG4 and comparable alternative techniques that forecast an active region's major-flare productivity from alternative observed aspects of the active region. We demonstrate the method by measuring the difference in performance between the "Present MAG4" technique and each of three alternative techniques, called "McIntosh Active-Region Class," "Total Magnetic Flux," and "Next MAG4." We do this by using (1) the MAG4 database of magnetograms and major-flare histories of sunspot active regions, (2) the NOAA table of the major-flare productivity of each of 60 McIntosh active-region classes of sunspot active regions, and (3) five technique-performance metrics (Heidke Skill Score, True Skill Score, Percent Correct, Probability of Detection, and False Alarm Rate) evaluated from 2000 random two-by-two contingency tables obtained from the databases. We find that (1) Present MAG4 far outperforms both McIntosh Active-Region Class and Total Magnetic Flux, (2) Next MAG4 significantly outperforms Present MAG4, (3) the performance of Next MAG4 is insensitive to the forward and backward temporal windows used, in the range of one to a few days, and (4) forecasting from the free-energy proxy in combination with either any broad category of McIntosh active-region classes or any Mount Wilson active-region class gives no significant performance improvement over forecasting from the free-energy proxy alone (Present MAG4).

  11. Evaluation of the environmental performance of alternatives for polystyrene production in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Adriana Petrella; da Silva, Gil Anderi; Kulay, Luiz

    2015-11-01

    The global demand for polystyrene is supposed to reach an overall baseline of 23.5 million tons by 2020. The market has experienced the effects of such growth, especially regarding the environmental performance of the production processes. In Brazil, renewable assets have been used to overcome the adverse consequences of this expansion. This study evaluates this issue for the production of Brazilian polystyrene resins, general-purpose polystyrene (GPPS) and high-impact polystyrene (HIPS). The effects of replacing fossil ethylene with a biobased alternative are also investigated. Life Cycle Assessment is applied for ten scenarios, with different technological approaches for renewable ethylene production and an alternative for obtaining bioethanol, which considers the export of electricity. The fossil GPPS and HIPS show a better performance than the partially renewable sources in terms of Climate Change (CC), Terrestrial Acidification (TA), Photochemical Oxidant Formation (POF), and Water Depletion (WD). The exception is Fossil Depletion (FD), a somewhat predictable result. The main environmental loads associated with the renewable options are related to the sugarcane production. Polybutadiene fails to provide greater additional impact to HIPS when compared to GPPS. With regard to obtaining ethylene from ethanol, Adiabatic Dehydration (AD) technology consumes less sugarcane than Adiabatic Dehydration at High Pressure (ADHP), which leads to gains in TA and POF. In contrast, ADHP was more eco-friendly for WD because of its lower water losses and in terms of CC because of the advantageous balance of fossil CO2(eq) at the agricultural stage and the lower consumption of natural gas in ethylene production. The electricity export is an auspicious environmental opportunity because it can counterbalance some of the negative impacts associated with the renewable route. According to a "cradle-to-grave" perspective, the partially renewable resins show a more favorable balance of

  12. Global, real-time ionosphere specification for end-user communication and navigation products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W.; Carlson, H. C.; Schunk, R. W.; Thompson, D. C.; Sojka, J. J.; Scherliess, L.; Zhu, L.; Gardner, L. C.

    2010-12-01

    Space weather’s effects upon the near-Earth environment are due to dynamic changes in the energy transfer processes from the Sun’s photons, particles, and fields. Of the space environment domains that are affected by space weather, the ionosphere is the key region that affects communication and navigation systems. The Utah State University (USU) Space Weather Center (SWC) is a developer and producer of commercial space weather applications. A key system-level component for providing timely information about the effects of space weather is the Global Assimilation of Ionospheric Measurements (GAIM) system. GAIM, operated by SWC, improves real-time communication and navigation systems by continuously ingesting up to 10,000 slant TEC measurements every 15-minutes from approximately 500 stations. Using a Kalman filter, the background output from the physics-based Ionosphere Forecast Model (IFM) is adjusted to more accurately represent the actual ionosphere. An improved ionosphere leads to more useful derivative products. For example, SWC runs operational code, using GAIM, to calculate and report the global radio high frequency (HF) signal strengths for 24 world cities. This product is updated every 15 minutes at http://spaceweather.usu.edu and used by amateur radio operators. SWC also developed and provides through Apple iTunes the widely used real-time space weather iPhone app called SpaceWx for public space weather education. SpaceWx displays the real-time solar, heliosphere, magnetosphere, thermosphere, and ionosphere drivers to changes in the total electron content, for example. This smart phone app is tip of the “iceberg” of automated systems that provide space weather data; it permits instant understanding of the environment surrounding Earth as it dynamically changes. SpaceWx depends upon a distributed network that connects satellite and ground-based data streams with algorithms to quickly process the measurements into geophysical data, incorporate those

  13. Advancing alternatives analysis: The role of predictive toxicology in selecting safer chemical products and processes.

    PubMed

    Malloy, Timothy; Zaunbrecher, Virginia; Beryt, Elizabeth; Judson, Richard; Tice, Raymond; Allard, Patrick; Blake, Ann; Cote, Ila; Godwin, Hilary; Heine, Lauren; Kerzic, Patrick; Kostal, Jakub; Marchant, Gary; McPartland, Jennifer; Moran, Kelly; Nel, Andre; Oguseitan, Oladele; Rossi, Mark; Thayer, Kristina; Tickner, Joel; Whittaker, Margaret; Zarker, Ken

    2017-03-01

    Alternatives analysis (AA) is a method used in regulation and product design to identify, assess, and evaluate the safety and viability of potential substitutes for hazardous chemicals. It requires toxicological data for the existing chemical and potential alternatives. Predictive toxicology uses in silico and in vitro approaches, computational models, and other tools to expedite toxicological data generation in more cost-effective manner than traditional approaches. This article briefly reviews the challenges associated with using predictive toxicology in regulatory AA, then presents four recommendations for its advancement. It recommends using case studies to advance the integration of predictive toxicology into AA; adopting a stepwise process to employing predicative toxicology in AA beginning with prioritization of chemicals of concern; leveraging existing resources to advance the integration of predictive toxicology into the practice of AA, and supporting trans-disciplinary efforts. The further incorporation of predictive toxicology into AA would advance the ability of companies and regulators to select alternatives to harmful ingredients, and potentially increase the use of predictive toxicology in regulation more broadly. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Biotechnological production of ethanol from renewable resources by Neurospora crassa: an alternative to conventional yeast fermentations?

    PubMed

    Dogaris, Ioannis; Mamma, Diomi; Kekos, Dimitris

    2013-02-01

    Microbial production of ethanol might be a potential route to replace oil and chemical feedstocks. Bioethanol is by far the most common biofuel in use worldwide. Lignocellulosic biomass is the most promising renewable resource for fuel bioethanol production. Bioconversion of lignocellulosics to ethanol consists of four major unit operations: pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, and product separation/distillation. Conventional bioethanol processes for lignocellulosics apply commercial fungal cellulase enzymes for biomass hydrolysis, followed by yeast fermentation of resulting glucose to ethanol. The fungus Neurospora crassa has been used extensively for genetic, biochemical, and molecular studies as a model organism. However, the strain's potential in biotechnological applications has not been widely investigated and discussed. The fungus N. crassa has the ability to synthesize and secrete all three enzyme types involved in cellulose hydrolysis as well as various enzymes for hemicellulose degradation. In addition, N. crassa has been reported to convert to ethanol hexose and pentose sugars, cellulose polymers, and agro-industrial residues. The combination of these characteristics makes N. crassa a promising alternative candidate for biotechnological production of ethanol from renewable resources. This review consists of an overview of the ethanol process from lignocellulosic biomass, followed by cellulases and hemicellulases production, ethanol fermentations of sugars and lignocellulosics, and industrial application potential of N. crassa.

  15. New Biofuel Alternatives: Integrating Waste Management and Single Cell Oil Production

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Elia Judith; Raghavan, Vijaya; González-Andrés, Fernando; Gómez, Xiomar

    2015-01-01

    Concerns about greenhouse gas emissions have increased research efforts into alternatives in bio-based processes. With regard to transport fuel, bioethanol and biodiesel are still the main biofuels used. It is expected that future production of these biofuels will be based on processes using either non-food competing biomasses, or characterised by low CO2 emissions. Many microorganisms, such as microalgae, yeast, bacteria and fungi, have the ability to accumulate oils under special culture conditions. Microbial oils might become one of the potential feed-stocks for biodiesel production in the near future. The use of these oils is currently under extensive research in order to reduce production costs associated with the fermentation process, which is a crucial factor to increase economic feasibility. An important way to reduce processing costs is the use of wastes as carbon sources. The aim of the present review is to describe the main aspects related to the use of different oleaginous microorganisms for lipid production and their performance when using bio-wastes. The possibilities for combining hydrogen (H2) and lipid production are also explored in an attempt for improving the economic feasibility of the process. PMID:25918941

  16. New biofuel alternatives: integrating waste management and single cell oil production.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Elia Judith; Raghavan, Vijaya; González-Andrés, Fernando; Gómez, Xiomar

    2015-04-24

    Concerns about greenhouse gas emissions have increased research efforts into alternatives in bio-based processes. With regard to transport fuel, bioethanol and biodiesel are still the main biofuels used. It is expected that future production of these biofuels will be based on processes using either non-food competing biomasses, or characterised by low CO₂ emissions. Many microorganisms, such as microalgae, yeast, bacteria and fungi, have the ability to accumulate oils under special culture conditions. Microbial oils might become one of the potential feed-stocks for biodiesel production in the near future. The use of these oils is currently under extensive research in order to reduce production costs associated with the fermentation process, which is a crucial factor to increase economic feasibility. An important way to reduce processing costs is the use of wastes as carbon sources. The aim of the present review is to describe the main aspects related to the use of different oleaginous microorganisms for lipid production and their performance when using bio-wastes. The possibilities for combining hydrogen (H₂) and lipid production are also explored in an attempt for improving the economic feasibility of the process.

  17. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5985 What are... emission limits in § 63.5984. (a) Purchase alternative. Use only cements and solvents that, as purchased... constituent option). (b) Monthly average alternative, without using an add-on control device. Use cements...

  18. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5985 What are... emission limits in § 63.5984. (a) Purchase alternative. Use only cements and solvents that, as purchased... constituent option). (b) Monthly average alternative, without using an add-on control device. Use cements...

  19. 40 CFR 63.5987 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5987 Section 63.5987 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5987 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?...

  20. Occlusion effect on compensatory formant production and voice amplitude in response to real-time perturbation.

    PubMed

    Mitsuya, Takashi; Purcell, David W

    2016-12-01

    The importance of auditory feedback for controlling speech articulation has been substantiated by the use of the real-time auditory perturbation paradigm. With this paradigm, speakers receive their own manipulated voice signal in real-time while they produce a simple speech segment. In response, they spontaneously compensate for the manipulation. In the case of vowel formant control, various studies have reported behavioral and neural mechanisms of how auditory feedback is processed for compensatory behavior. However, due to technical limitations such as avoiding an electromagnetic artifact or metal transducers near a scanner, some studies require foam tip insert earphones. These earphones occlude the ear canal, and may cause more energy of the unmanipulated first formant to reach the cochlea through bone conduction and thus confound the effect of formant manipulation. Moreover, amplification of lower frequencies due to occluded ear canals may influence speakers' voice amplitude. The current study examined whether using circumaural headphones and insert earphones would elicit different compensatory speech production when speakers' first formant was manipulated in real-time. The results of the current study showed that different headphones did not elicit different compensatory formant production. Voice amplitude results were varied across different vowels examined; however, voice amplitude tended to decrease with the introduction of F1 perturbation.

  1. The Prisoner's Dilemma and a Creative Alternative Game: The Effects of Communication Under Conditions of Real Reward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinfatt, Thomas M.

    1973-01-01

    Describes two experiments which a) investigated the effect of communication on cooperative choice during play of a Prisoner's Dilemma game under conditions of real reward and b) examined the effect of communication on a situation that simulated the type of environment that may result in a collusive crime. (JA)

  2. Solving Real World Problems with Alternate Reality Gaming: Student Experiences in the Global Village Playground Capstone Course Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dondlinger, Mary Jo; McLeod, Julie K.

    2015-01-01

    The Global Village Playground (GVP) was a capstone learning experience designed to address institutional assessment needs while providing an integrated and authentic learning experience for students aimed at fostering complex problem solving, as well as critical and creative thinking. In the GVP, students work on simulated and real-world problems…

  3. Quantitative Framework to Evaluate Alternative Dispute Resolution Investments in Architecture Engineering and Construction Projects Using Option and Real Option Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menassa, Carol Chukri

    2009-01-01

    A project-specific dispute resolution ladder (DRL) typically consists of multiple alternative dispute resolution (ADR) techniques that are chosen to assist in mitigating the impact of change orders and claims (CCO) occurring during the project construction phase, and avoid their escalation to protracted disputes that adversely affect a…

  4. Perception of the environmental impacts of current and alternative modes of pig production by stakeholder groups.

    PubMed

    Petit, Jean; van der Werf, Hayo M G

    2003-08-01

    The current industrial pig production model is in crisis, due to its association with environmental pollution, doubtful product quality and lack of animal well-being. In Bretagne (France), a region of intensive pig production, a survey of seven stakeholder groups concerned with pig production was conducted, as part of a research programme dedicated to the assessment of the environmental impact of different modes of pig production. A very large majority of pig producers (93%) and their suppliers (100%) considers pig farms as an asset for the region, whereas a majority of scientists (58%), activists (78%) and consumers (54%) sees it as a handicap. Differences among stakeholder groups are minor with respect to the perceived importance of environmental and social issues. Stakeholders agree on the relative level of responsibility of pig farms with respect to specific problems. For all groups unpleasant odours and water quality come first with respect to responsibility, for most groups soil quality comes second, followed by product safety and air quality. For a future improved mode of pig production, 76% of pig producers and their suppliers prefer to adapt the current model, for all other groups the majority prefers an alternative model. While pig producers and their suppliers prefer a slurry-based housing system, all other groups prefer a straw-based system. Pig producers see the slurry-based system as technically superior and associate the straw-based system with poor working conditions, whereas consumers associate the slurry-based system in the first place with poor water quality and associate the straw-based system with less pollution. These results will be of use in the research programme on the environmental impact of modes of pig production, as they indicate the environmental impacts to be considered and their relative importance. The results will also help in deciding which options should be assessed. It is concluded that the poor image of the current pig

  5. Strain prioritization for natural product discovery by a high-throughput real-time PCR method.

    PubMed

    Hindra; Huang, Tingting; Yang, Dong; Rudolf, Jeffrey D; Xie, Pengfei; Xie, Guangbo; Teng, Qihui; Lohman, Jeremy R; Zhu, Xiangcheng; Huang, Yong; Zhao, Li-Xing; Jiang, Yi; Duan, Yanwen; Shen, Ben

    2014-10-24

    Natural products offer unmatched chemical and structural diversity compared to other small-molecule libraries, but traditional natural product discovery programs are not sustainable, demanding too much time, effort, and resources. Here we report a strain prioritization method for natural product discovery. Central to the method is the application of real-time PCR, targeting genes characteristic to the biosynthetic machinery of natural products with distinct scaffolds in a high-throughput format. The practicality and effectiveness of the method were showcased by prioritizing 1911 actinomycete strains for diterpenoid discovery. A total of 488 potential diterpenoid producers were identified, among which six were confirmed as platensimycin and platencin dual producers and one as a viguiepinol and oxaloterpin producer. While the method as described is most appropriate to prioritize strains for discovering specific natural products, variations of this method should be applicable to the discovery of other classes of natural products. Applications of genome sequencing and genome mining to the high-priority strains could essentially eliminate the chance elements from traditional discovery programs and fundamentally change how natural products are discovered.

  6. Real-tme IR/EO scene simulator (RISS) product improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKee, Douglas C.; Simmons, Onda D.; Makar, Robert J.; Nuwer, Mark E.; Palumbo, Paul W.; Schlossman, Paul G.; Perry, Roderic C.; Chan, Louis

    2003-09-01

    Northrop Grumman Amherst Systems has continued to improve the Real-time IR/EO Scene Simulator (RISS) for hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) testing of infrared sensor systems. Several new and enhanced capabilities have been added to the system for both customer and internal development programs. A new external control capability provides control of either player trajectories or unit-under-test (UUT) orientation. The RISS Scene Rendering Subsystem (SRS) has been enhanced with support for texture transparency and increased texture memory capacity. The RISS Universal Programmable Interface (UPI) graphical user interface (GUI) has been improved to provide added flexibility and control of the real-time sensor modeling capabilities. This paper will further explore these and other product improvements.

  7. Comparison of Exponential Smoothing Methods in Forecasting Palm Oil Real Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siregar, B.; Butar-Butar, I. A.; Rahmat, RF; Andayani, U.; Fahmi, F.

    2017-01-01

    Palm oil has important role for the plantation subsector. Forecasting of the real palm oil production in certain period is needed by plantation companies to maintain their strategic management. This study compared several methods based on exponential smoothing (ES) technique such as single ES, double exponential smoothing holt, triple exponential smoothing, triple exponential smoothing additive and multiplicative to predict the palm oil production. We examined the accuracy of forecasting models of production data and analyzed the characteristics of the models. Programming language R was used with selected constants for double ES (α and β) and triple ES (α, β, and γ) evaluated by the technique of minimizing the root mean squared prediction error (RMSE). Our result showed that triple ES additives had lowest error rate compared to the other models with RMSE of 0.10 with a combination of parameters α = 0.6, β = 0.02, and γ = 0.02.

  8. Name-letter branding under scrutiny: real products, new algorithms, and the probability of buying.

    PubMed

    Stieger, Stefan

    2010-06-01

    People like letters matching their own first and last name initials more than nonname letters. This name-letter effect has also been found for brands, i.e., people like brands resembling their own name letters (initial or first three). This has been termed name-letter branding effect. In the present study of 199 participants, ages 12 to 79 years, this name-letter branding effect was found for a modified design (1) using real products, (2) concentrating on product names rather than brand names, (3) using five different products for each letter of the Roman alphabet, (4) asking for the buying probability, and (5) using recently introduced algorithms, controlling for individual response tendencies (i.e., liking all letters more or less) and general normative popularity of particular letters (i.e., some letters are generally preferred more than other letters).

  9. Wheat straw degradation and production of alternative substrates for nitrogenase of Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    PubMed

    Dziga, Dariusz; Jagiełło-Flasińska, Dominika

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose is a major component of plant biomass and could be applied in the production of biofuels, especially bioethanol. An alternative approach is production of a clean fuel - hydrogen from cellulosic biomass. In this paper an innovatory model of cellulosic waste degradation has been proposed to verify the possibility of utilization of cellulose derivatives by purple non-sulfur bacteria. The concept is based on a two-step process of wheat straw conversion by bacteria in order to obtain an organic acid mixture. In the next stage such products are consumed by Rhodobacter sphaeroides, the known producer of hydrogen. It has been documented that Cellulomonas uda expresses cellulolytic activity in the presence of wheat straw as an only source of carbon. R. sphaeroides applied in this research can effectively consume organic acids released from straw by C. uda and Lactobacillus rhamnosus and is able to grow in the presence of these substrates. Additionally, an increased nitrogenase activity of R. sphaeroides has been indicated when bacteria were cultivated in the presence of cellulose derivatives which suggests that hydrogen production occurs.

  10. Co-production of electricity and alternate fuels from coal. Final report, August 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The Calderon process and its process development unit, PDU, were originally conceived to produce two useful products from a bituminous coal: a desulfurized medium BTU gas containing primarily CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O; and a desulfurized low BTU gas containing these same constituents plus N{sub 2} from the air used to provide heat for the process through the combustion of a portion of the fuel. The process was viewed as a means for providing both a synthesis gas for liquid fuel production (perhaps CH{sub 3}OH, alternatively CH{sub 4} or NH{sub 3}) and a pressurized, low BTU fuel gas, for gas turbine based power generation. The Calderon coal process comprises three principle sections which perform the following functions: coal pyrolysis in a continuous, steady flow unit based on coke oven technology; air blown, slagging, coke gasification in a moving bed unit based on a blast furnace technology; and a novel, lime pebble based, product gas processing in which a variety of functions are accomplished including the cracking of hydrocarbons and the removal of sulfur, H{sub 2}S, and of particulates from both the medium and low BTU gases. The product gas processing unit, based on multiple moving beds, has also been conceived to regenerate the lime pebbles and recover sulfur as elemental S.

  11. Agile science: creating useful products for behavior change in the real world.

    PubMed

    Hekler, Eric B; Klasnja, Predrag; Riley, William T; Buman, Matthew P; Huberty, Jennifer; Rivera, Daniel E; Martin, Cesar A

    2016-06-01

    Evidence-based practice is important for behavioral interventions but there is debate on how best to support real-world behavior change. The purpose of this paper is to define products and a preliminary process for efficiently and adaptively creating and curating a knowledge base for behavior change for real-world implementation. We look to evidence-based practice suggestions and draw parallels to software development. We argue to target three products: (1) the smallest, meaningful, self-contained, and repurposable behavior change modules of an intervention; (2) "computational models" that define the interaction between modules, individuals, and context; and (3) "personalization" algorithms, which are decision rules for intervention adaptation. The "agile science" process includes a generation phase whereby contender operational definitions and constructs of the three products are created and assessed for feasibility and an evaluation phase, whereby effect size estimates/casual inferences are created. The process emphasizes early-and-often sharing. If correct, agile science could enable a more robust knowledge base for behavior change.

  12. The Generation of Near-Real Time Data Products for MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teague, M.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Ilavajhala, S.; Ye, G.; Masuoka, E.; Murphy, K. J.; Michael, K.

    2010-12-01

    The GSFC Terrestrial Information Systems Branch (614.5) operate the Land and Atmospheres Near-real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE-MODIS) system. Other LANCE elements include -AIRS, -MLS, -OMI, and -AMSR-E. LANCE-MODIS incorporates the former Rapid Response system and will, in early 2011, include the Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS). The purpose of LANCE is to provide applications users with a variety of products on a near-real time basis. The LANCE-MODIS data products include Level 1 (L1), L2 fire, snow, sea ice, cloud mask/profiles, aerosols, clouds, land surface reflectance, land surface temperature, and L2G and L3 gridded, daily, land surface reflectance products. Data are available either by ftp access (pull) or by subscription (push) and the L1 and L2 data products are available within an average of 2.5 hours of the observation time. The use of ancillary data products input to the standard science algorithms has been modified in order to obtain these latencies. The resulting products have been approved for applications use by the MODIS Science Team. The http://lance.nasa.gov site provides registration information and extensive information concerning the MODIS data products and imagery including a comparison between the LANCE-MODIS and the standard science-quality products generated by the MODAPS system. The LANCE-MODIS system includes a variety of tools that enable users to manipulate the data products including: parameter, band, and geographic subsetting, re-projection, mosaicing, and generation of data in the GeoTIFF format. In most instances the data resulting from use of these tools has a latency of less than 3 hours. Access to these tools is available through a Web Coverage Service. A Google Earth/Web Mapping Service is available to access image products. LANCE-MODIS supports a wide variety of applications users in civilian, military, and foreign agencies as well as universities and the private sector. Examples of applications are

  13. Applications for Near-Real Time Satellite Cloud and Radiation Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minnis, P.; Palikonda, R.; Chee, T.; Bedka, K. M.; Smith, W.; Ayers, J.; Benjamin, S.; Chang, F.; Jones, T. A.; Nguyen, L.; Norris, P. M.; Reichle, R. H.; Rienecker, M. M.; da Silva, A.; Yost, C. R.

    2012-12-01

    At NASA Langley Research Center, a variety of cloud, clear-sky, and radiation products are being derived at different scales from regional to global using geostationary satellite (GEOSat) and lower Earth-orbiting (LEOSat) imager data. With growing availability, these products are becoming increasingly valuable for weather forecasting and nowcasting. These products include, but are not limited to, cloud-top and base heights, cloud water path and particle size, cloud temperature and phase, surface skin temperature and albedo, and top-of-atmosphere radiation budget. Some of these data products are currently assimilated operationally in a numerical weather prediction model. Others are used unofficially for nowcasting, while testing is underway for other applications. These applications include the use of cloud water path in an NWP model, cloud optical depth for detecting convective initiation in cirrus-filled skies, and aircraft icing condition diagnoses among others. This paper briefly describes a currently operating system that analyzes data from GEOSats around the globe (GOES, Meteosat, MTSAT, FY-2) and LEOSats (AVHRR and MODIS) and makes the products available in near-real time through a variety of media. Current potential future use of these products is discussed.

  14. Modeling of Nitrous Oxide Production from Nitritation Reactors Treating Real Anaerobic Digestion Liquor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qilin; Ni, Bing-Jie; Lemaire, Romain; Hao, Xiaodi; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-04-01

    In this work, a mathematical model including both ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and heterotrophic bacteria (HB) is constructed to predict N2O production from the nitritation systems receiving the real anaerobic digestion liquor. This is for the first time that N2O production from such systems was modeled considering both AOB and HB. The model was calibrated and validated using experimental data from both lab- and pilot-scale nitritation reactors. The model predictions matched the dynamic N2O, ammonium, nitrite and chemical oxygen demand data well, supporting the capability of the model. Modeling results indicated that HB are the dominant contributor to N2O production in the above systems with the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of 0.5–1.0 mg O2/L, accounting for approximately 75% of N2O production. The modeling results also suggested that the contribution of HB to N2O production decreased with the increasing DO concentrations, from 75% at DO = 0.5 mg O2/L to 25% at DO = 7.0 mg O2/L, with a corresponding increase of the AOB contribution (from 25% to 75%). Similar to HB, the total N2O production rate also decreased dramatically from 0.65 to 0.25 mg N/L/h when DO concentration increased from 0.5 to 7.0 mg O2/L.

  15. Applications for Near-Real Time Satellite Cloud and Radiation Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnis, Patrick; Palikonda, Rabindra; Chee, Thad L.; Bedka, Kristopher M.; Smith, W.; Ayers, Jeffrey K.; Benjamin, Stanley; Chang, F.-L.; Nguyen, Louis; Norris, Peter; Rolf, Riechle; Reinecker, Michele; Shan, B.; DaSilva, Arlindo; Yost, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    At NASA Langley Research Center, a variety of cloud, clear-sky, and radiation products are being derived at different scales from regional to global using geostationary satellite (GEOSat) and lower Earth-orbiting (LEOSat) imager data. With growing availability, these products are becoming increasingly valuable for weather forecasting and nowcasting. These products include, but are not limited to, cloud-top and base heights, cloud water path and particle size, cloud temperature and phase, surface skin temperature and albedo, and top-of-atmosphere radiation budget. Some of these data products are currently assimilated operationally in a numerical weather prediction model. Others are used unofficially for nowcasting, while testing is underway for other applications. These applications include the use of cloud water path in an NWP model, cloud optical depth for detecting convective initiation in cirrus-filled skies, and aircraft icing condition diagnoses among others. This paper briefly describes a currently operating system that analyzes data from GEOSats around the globe (GOES, Meteosat, MTSAT, FY-2) and LEOSats (AVHRR and MODIS) and makes the products available in near-real time through a variety of media. Current potential future use of these products is discussed.

  16. Modeling of Nitrous Oxide Production from Nitritation Reactors Treating Real Anaerobic Digestion Liquor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qilin; Ni, Bing-Jie; Lemaire, Romain; Hao, Xiaodi; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a mathematical model including both ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and heterotrophic bacteria (HB) is constructed to predict N2O production from the nitritation systems receiving the real anaerobic digestion liquor. This is for the first time that N2O production from such systems was modeled considering both AOB and HB. The model was calibrated and validated using experimental data from both lab- and pilot-scale nitritation reactors. The model predictions matched the dynamic N2O, ammonium, nitrite and chemical oxygen demand data well, supporting the capability of the model. Modeling results indicated that HB are the dominant contributor to N2O production in the above systems with the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of 0.5–1.0 mg O2/L, accounting for approximately 75% of N2O production. The modeling results also suggested that the contribution of HB to N2O production decreased with the increasing DO concentrations, from 75% at DO = 0.5 mg O2/L to 25% at DO = 7.0 mg O2/L, with a corresponding increase of the AOB contribution (from 25% to 75%). Similar to HB, the total N2O production rate also decreased dramatically from 0.65 to 0.25 mg N/L/h when DO concentration increased from 0.5 to 7.0 mg O2/L. PMID:27125491

  17. MAG4 versus alternative techniques for forecasting active region flare productivity

    PubMed Central

    Falconer, David A; Moore, Ronald L; Barghouty, Abdulnasser F; Khazanov, Igor

    2014-01-01

    MAG4 is a technique of forecasting an active region's rate of production of major flares in the coming few days from a free magnetic energy proxy. We present a statistical method of measuring the difference in performance between MAG4 and comparable alternative techniques that forecast an active region's major-flare productivity from alternative observed aspects of the active region. We demonstrate the method by measuring the difference in performance between the “Present MAG4” technique and each of three alternative techniques, called “McIntosh Active-Region Class,” “Total Magnetic Flux,” and “Next MAG4.” We do this by using (1) the MAG4 database of magnetograms and major flare histories of sunspot active regions, (2) the NOAA table of the major-flare productivity of each of 60 McIntosh active-region classes of sunspot active regions, and (3) five technique performance metrics (Heidke Skill Score, True Skill Score, Percent Correct, Probability of Detection, and False Alarm Rate) evaluated from 2000 random two-by-two contingency tables obtained from the databases. We find that (1) Present MAG4 far outperforms both McIntosh Active-Region Class and Total Magnetic Flux, (2) Next MAG4 significantly outperforms Present MAG4, (3) the performance of Next MAG4 is insensitive to the forward and backward temporal windows used, in the range of one to a few days, and (4) forecasting from the free-energy proxy in combination with either any broad category of McIntosh active-region classes or any Mount Wilson active-region class gives no significant performance improvement over forecasting from the free-energy proxy alone (Present MAG4). Key Points Quantitative comparison of performance of pairs of forecasting techniques Next MAG4 forecasts major flares more accurately than Present MAG4 Present MAG4 forecast outperforms McIntosh AR Class and total magnetic flux PMID:26213517

  18. Near-Real-Time Satellite Cloud Products for Icing Detection and Aviation Weather over the USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnis, Patrick; Smith, William L., Jr.; Nguyen, Louis; Murray, J. J.; Heck, Patrick W.; Khaiyer, Mandana M.

    2003-01-01

    A set of physically based retrieval algorithms has been developed to derive from multispectral satellite imagery a variety of cloud properties that can be used to diagnose icing conditions when upper-level clouds are absent. The algorithms are being applied in near-real time to the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) data over Florida, the Southern Great Plains, and the midwestern USA. The products are available in image and digital formats on the world-wide web. The analysis system is being upgraded to analyze GOES data over the CONUS. Validation, 24-hour processing, and operational issues are discussed.

  19. Evaluation of Alternative Methods for Testing the Bioefficacy of Household Ambient Insecticide Products Against Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Cassini, Rudi; Scremin, Mara; Contiero, Barbara; Drago, Andrea; Vettorato, Christian; Marcer, Federica; di Regalbono, Antonio Frangipane

    2016-06-01

    Ambient insecticides are receiving increasing attention in many developed countries because of their value in reducing mosquito nuisance. As required by the European Union Biocidal Products Regulation 528/2012, these devices require appropriate testing of their efficacy, which is based on estimating the knockdown and mortality rates of free-flying (free) mosquitoes in a test room. However, evaluations using free mosquitoes present many complexities. The performances of 6 alternative methods with mosquitoes held in 2 different cage designs (steel wire and gauze/plastic) with and without an operating fan for air circulation were monitored in a test room through a closed-circuit television system and were compared with the currently recommended method using free mosquitoes. Results for caged mosquitoes without a fan showed a clearly delayed knockdown effect, whereas outcomes for caged mosquitoes with a fan recorded higher mortality at 24 h, compared to free mosquitoes. Among the 6 methods, cages made of gauze and plastic operating with fan wind speed at 2.5-2.8 m/sec was the only method without a significant difference in results for free mosquitoes, and therefore appears as the best alternative to assess knockdown by ambient insecticides accurately.

  20. Membrane technology as a promising alternative in biodiesel production: a review.

    PubMed

    Shuit, Siew Hoong; Ong, Yit Thai; Lee, Keat Teong; Subhash, Bhatia; Tan, Soon Huat

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, environmental problems caused by the use of fossil fuels and the depletion of petroleum reserves have driven the world to adopt biodiesel as an alternative energy source to replace conventional petroleum-derived fuels because of biodiesel's clean and renewable nature. Biodiesel is conventionally produced in homogeneous, heterogeneous, and enzymatic catalysed processes, as well as by supercritical technology. All of these processes have their own limitations, such as wastewater generation and high energy consumption. In this context, the membrane reactor appears to be the perfect candidate to produce biodiesel because of its ability to overcome the limitations encountered by conventional production methods. Thus, the aim of this paper is to review the production of biodiesel with a membrane reactor by examining the fundamental concepts of the membrane reactor, its operating principles and the combination of membrane and catalyst in the catalytic membrane. In addition, the potential of functionalised carbon nanotubes to serve as catalysts while being incorporated into the membrane for transesterification is discussed. Furthermore, this paper will also discuss the effects of process parameters for transesterification in a membrane reactor and the advantages offered by membrane reactors for biodiesel production. This discussion is followed by some limitations faced in membrane technology. Nevertheless, based on the findings presented in this review, it is clear that the membrane reactor has the potential to be a breakthrough technology for the biodiesel industry.

  1. Technological Alternatives or Use of Wood Fuel in Combined Heat and Power Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusanova, Jekaterina; Markova, Darja; Bazbauers, Gatis; Valters, Kārlis

    2013-12-01

    Abstract Latvia aims for 40% share of renewable energy in the total final energy use. Latvia has large resources of biomass and developed district heating systems. Therefore, use of biomass for heat and power production is an economically attractive path for increase of the share of renewable energy. The optimum technological solution for use of biomass and required fuel resources have to be identified for energy planning and policy purposes. The aim of this study was to compare several wood fuel based energy conversion technologies from the technical and economical point of view. Three biomass conversion technologies for combined heat and electricity production (CHP) were analyzed: • CHP with steam turbine technology; • gasification CHP using gas engine; • bio-methane combined cycle CHP. Electricity prices for each alternative are presented. The results show the level of support needed for the analyzed renewable energy technologies and time period needed to reach price parity with the natural gas - fired combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) CHPss. The results also show that bio-methane technology is most competitive when compared with CCGT among the considered technologies regarding fuel consumption and electricity production, but it is necessary to reduce investment costs to reach the electricity price parity with the natural gas CCGT.

  2. Determination of pig sex in meat and meat products using multiplex real time-PCR.

    PubMed

    Abdulmawjood, A; Krischek, C; Wicke, M; Klein, G

    2012-07-01

    For specific production lines, European retail companies demand exclusively female pork meat. To control the quality of their suppliers the identification and a quantitative detection of the animal sex origin of the meat is therefore of importance for meat processors. To enable a fast and reliable detection of male pig meat, a real time-PCR-system was designed in the present study. This was based on the genes AMEL-X and AMEL-Y. The real time-PCR assay allowed the detection of male pig meat at a concentration of 1% yielding a detection probability of 100% while the detection probability investigating meat samples containing 0.1% male pig meat was 44.4%. The analytic sensitivity of this system was assessed to be <5 pg DNA per PCR reaction. The assessment of the accuracy of the real time-PCR assay to correctly identify sex individuals was investigated with 62 pigs including males (n=29) and females (n=33) belonging to different breeds/lines. With the newly designed test all analysed animals were correctly sexed. No amplification was obtained with cow, goat, sheep, turkey and chicken genomic DNA. The presented assay can be used for sex diagnosis, for the detection of male pig meat and for meat quality control.

  3. Fuel cells are a commercially viable alternative for the production of "clean" energy.

    PubMed

    Niakolas, Dimitris K; Daletou, Maria; Neophytides, Stylianos G; Vayenas, Constantinos G

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cells present a highly efficient and environmentally friendly alternative technology for decentralized energy production. The scope of the present study is to provide an overview of the technological and commercialization readiness level of fuel cells. Specifically, there is a brief description of their general advantages and weaknesses in correlation with various technological actions and political strategies, which are adopted towards their proper positioning in the global market. Some of the most important key performance indicators are also discussed, alongside with a few examples of broad commercialization. It is concluded that the increasing number of companies which utilize and invest on this technology, in combination with the supply chain improvements and the concomitant technological maturity and recognition, reinforce the fuel cell industry so as to become well-aligned for global success.

  4. Alternative fuel production by catalytic hydroliquefaction of solid municipal wastes, primary sludges and microalgae.

    PubMed

    Lemoine, F; Maupin, I; Lemée, L; Lavoie, J-M; Lemberton, J-L; Pouilloux, Y; Pinard, L

    2013-08-01

    An alternative fuel production was investigated through catalytic hydroliquefaction of three different carbonaceous sources: solid municipal wastes (MW), primary sludges (PS), and microalgae (MA). The reaction was carried out under hydrogen pressure, at different temperatures (330, 380 and 450°C), with a Raney nickel catalyst and two different hydrogen donor solvents: a "fossil solvent" (tetralin) and a "green solvent" (2-methyl-hydro-furan). The feeds analyses (TDA-TGA, ICP-AES, lipids quantification) showed that MW and PS had similar characteristics and physico-chemical properties, but different from those of MA. The hydroliquefaction of these feeds allowed to obtain high oil yields, with a significant energetic value, similar to that of a bio-petroleum. 2-methyl-hydro-furan was more efficient than tetralin for the treatment of the strongly bio-degraded biomasses MW and PS, while better results were obtained with tetralin in the case of MA.

  5. Near Real Time VIIRS EDR Products Via Direct Broadcast Using the Community Satellite Processing Package (CSPP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cureton, G. P.; Mindock, S.; Martin, G.; Garcia, R.; Strabala, K.; Davies, J.; Bearson, N.; Gumley, L.; Huang, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) has a long history of supporting the Direct Broadcast (DB) community for various sensors, recently with the International MODIS/AIRS Processing Package (IMAPP) for the NASA EOS polar orbiters Terra and Aqua. CIMSS has continued this effort into the NPP/JPSS (previously NPOESS) era with the development of the Community Satellite Processing Package (CSPP), supporting the VIIRS, CrIS and ATMS sensors on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) spacecraft. Within CSPP, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Environmental Data Record (EDR) products are based on the NOAA Operational products as implemented by Raytheon in the Algorithm Development Library (ADL), packaged for use in a Direct Broadcast environment. Examples of near real time usage of various VIIRS EDR products are given, with a focus on products obtained using CSPP (which include the Cloud Mask, Active Fires, Aerosol Optical Thickness, Sea Surface Temperature, Surface Reflectance, Vegetation Index, Surface Type and Land Surface Temperature products).

  6. Detection of Nicotiana DNA in Tobacco Products Using a Novel Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assay.

    PubMed

    Korchinski, Katie L; Land, Adrian D; Craft, David L; Brzezinski, Jennifer L

    2016-07-01

    Establishing that a product contains tobacco is a requirement for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's regulation and/or prosecution of tobacco products. Therefore, a multiplex real-time PCR method was designed to determine if Nicotiana (tobacco) DNA is present in tobacco products. The PCR method simultaneously amplifies a 73 bp fragment of the cytochrome P450 monoxygenase CYP82E4 gene and 66 bp fragment in the nia-1 gene for nitrate reductase, which are detected using dual-labeled TaqMan probes. The assay is capable of detecting approximately 7.8 pg purified tobacco DNA, with a similar sensitivity for either gene target while incorporating an internal positive control (IPC). DNA was extracted from prepared tobacco products-including chewing tobacco, pipe tobacco, and snuff-or from the cut fill (no wrapper) of cigarettes and cigars. Of the 13 products analyzed, 12 were positive for both tobacco-specific markers and the IPC. DNA was also extracted from the fill of five varieties of herbal cigarettes, which were negative for both tobacco-specific gene targets and positive for the IPC. Our method expands on current assays by introducing a multiplex reaction, targeting two sequences in two different genes of interest, incorporating an IPC into the reaction, and lowering the LOD and LOQ while increasing the efficiency of the PCR.

  7. Use of Real Time Satellite Infrared and Ocean Color to Produce Ocean Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roffer, M. A.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Westhaver, D.; Gawlikowski, G.; Upton, M.; Hall, C.

    2014-12-01

    Real-time data products derived from infrared and ocean color satellites are useful for several types of users around the world. Highly relevant applications include recreational and commercial fisheries, commercial towing vessel and other maritime and navigation operations, and other scientific and applied marine research. Uses of the data include developing sampling strategies for research programs, tracking of water masses and ocean fronts, optimizing ship routes, evaluating water quality conditions (coastal, estuarine, oceanic), and developing fisheries and essential fish habitat indices. Important considerations for users are data access and delivery mechanisms, and data formats. At this time, the data are being generated in formats increasingly available on mobile computing platforms, and are delivered through popular interfaces including social media (Facebook, Linkedin, Twitter and others), Google Earth and other online Geographical Information Systems, or are simply distributed via subscription by email. We review 30 years of applications and describe how we develop customized products and delivery mechanisms working directly with users. We review benefits and issues of access to government databases (NOAA, NASA, ESA), standard data products, and the conversion to tailored products for our users. We discuss advantages of different product formats and of the platforms used to display and to manipulate the data.

  8. An approach to real-time magnetic resonance imaging for speech production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Shrikanth; Nayak, Krishna; Lee, Sungbok; Sethy, Abhinav; Byrd, Dani

    2004-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has served as a valuable tool for studying static postures in speech production. Now, recent improvements in temporal resolution are making it possible to examine the dynamics of vocal-tract shaping during fluent speech using MRI. The present study uses spiral k-space acquisitions with a low flip-angle gradient echo pulse sequence on a conventional GE Signa 1.5-T CV/i scanner. This strategy allows for acquisition rates of 8-9 images per second and reconstruction rates of 20-24 images per second, making veridical movies of speech production now possible. Segmental durations, positions, and interarticulator timing can all be quantitatively evaluated. Data show clear real-time movements of the lips, tongue, and velum. Sample movies and data analysis strategies are presented.

  9. What is the real price of hydroelectric production on the Senegal River?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raso, Luciano; Bader, Jean-Claude; Malaterre, Pierre-Olivier

    2014-05-01

    Manantali is an annual reservoir on the Senegal River, located in Mali and serving Senegal and Mauritania. The reservoir is used to regulate the flow for hydroelectric production, in the face of the extremely variable seasonal climate of the region. Manantali has been operative for about 10 years now, exceeding the planned production capacity. The economic benefit comes at a price. Before the dam's construction, the annual flood was the basis of flood recession agriculture, traditionally practiced by the local population. Hydroelectric production requires a more regular flow; therefore flow peaks that used to create the flood are now dumped in the reservoir. Floods are reduced because the current reservoir management privileges hydroelectric production to flood recession agriculture. Moreover, the local water authority is evaluating the construction of 6 more reservoirs, which will enhance even further the controllability of the river flow. This study assesses the externalities of energy production for the agricultural production, quantifying the reduction of flooded surface when energy production is maximized, or alternatively, the loss energy production to maintain a minimum sustainable flood. In addition, we examine the system reliability against extreme events, and how a better use of hydrological information can improve the present reservoir management, in order to find a win-win solution. In this study we employ Stochastic Dual Dynamic Programming (SDDP) methodology. SDDP is a leaner version of Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SDP). SDDP does not suffer of the "curse of dimensionality", and therefore it can be applied to larger systems. In this application we include in the model: i) A semi-distributed hydrological model, ii) the reservoir, iii) the hydraulic routing process within the catchment and from the reservoir to the floodplain.

  10. The Impact of Augmentative and Alternative Communication Intervention on the Speech Production of Individuals with Developmental Disabilities: A Research Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, Diane C.; Light, Janice C.; Schlosser, Ralf W.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This article presents the results of a meta-analysis to determine the effect of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) on the speech production of individuals with developmental disabilities. Method: A comprehensive search of the literature published between 1975 and 2003, which included data on speech production before, during,…

  11. Linking carbon stock change from land-use change to consumption of agricultural products: Alternative perspectives.

    PubMed

    Goh, Chun Sheng; Wicke, Birka; Faaij, André; Bird, David Neil; Schwaiger, Hannes; Junginger, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Agricultural expansion driven by growing demand has been a key driver for carbon stock change as a consequence of land-use change (CSC-LUC). However, its relative role compared to non-agricultural and non-productive drivers, as well as propagating effects were not clearly addressed. This study contributed to this subject by providing alternative perspectives in addressing these missing links. A method was developed to allocate historical CSC-LUC to agricultural expansions by land classes (products), trade, and end use. The analysis for 1995-2010 leads to three key trends: (i) agricultural land degradation and abandonment is found to be a major (albeit indirect) driver for CSC-LUC, (ii) CSC-LUC is spurred by the growth of cross-border trade, (iii) non-food use (excluding liquid biofuels) has emerged as a significant contributor of CSC-LUC in the 2000's. In addition, the study demonstrated that exact values of CSC-LUC at a single spatio-temporal point may change significantly with different methodological settings. For example, CSC-LUC allocated to 'permanent oil crops' changed from 0.53 Pg C (billion tonne C) of carbon stock gain to 0.11 Pg C of carbon stock loss when spatial boundaries were changed from global to regional. Instead of comparing exact values for accounting purpose, key messages for policymaking were drawn from the main trends. Firstly, climate change mitigation efforts pursued through a territorial perspective may ignore indirect effects elsewhere triggered through trade linkages. Policies targeting specific commodities or types of consumption are also unable to quantitatively address indirect CSC-LUC effects because the quantification changes with different arbitrary methodological settings. Instead, it is recommended that mobilising non-productive or under-utilised lands for productive use should be targeted as a key solution to avoid direct and indirect CSC-LUC.

  12. Impacts of biofuels production alternatives on water quantity and quality in the Iowa River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Y.; Liu, S.

    2012-01-01

    Corn stover as well as perennial grasses like switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and miscanthus are being considered as candidates for the second generation biofuel feedstocks. However, the challenges to biofuel development are its effects on the environment, especially water quality. This study evaluates the long-term impacts of biofuel production alternatives (e.g., elevated corn stover removal rates and the potential land cover change) on an ecosystem with a focus on biomass production, soil erosion, water quantity and quality, and soil nitrate nitrogen concentration at the watershed scale. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was modified for setting land cover change scenarios and applied to the Iowa River Basin (a tributary of the Upper Mississippi River Basin). Results show that biomass production can be sustained with an increased stover removal rate as long as the crop demand for nutrients is met with appropriate fertilization. Although a drastic increase (4.7–70.6%) in sediment yield due to erosion and a slight decrease (1.2–3.2%) in water yield were estimated with the stover removal rate ranging between 40% and 100%, the nitrate nitrogen load declined about 6–10.1%. In comparison to growing corn, growing either switchgrass or miscanthus can reduce sediment erosion greatly. However, land cover changes from native grass to switchgrass or miscanthus would lead to a decrease in water yield and an increase in nitrate nitrogen load. In contrast to growing switchgrass, growing miscanthus is more productive in generating biomass, but its higher water demand may reduce water availability in the study area.

  13. Infrared Drying as a Potential Alternative to Convective Drying for Biltong Production

    PubMed Central

    Cherono, Kipchumba; Mwithiga, Gikuru; Schmidt, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Two infrared systems set at an intensity of 4777 W/m2 with peak emission wavelengths of 2.5 and 3.5 µm were used to produce biltong by drying differently pre-treated meat. In addition to meat texture and colour, the microbial quality of the biltong produced was assessed by quantifying viable heterotrophic microorganisms using a most probable number (MPN) method and by verifying the presence of presumptive Escherichia coli in samples produced using infrared and conventional convective drying. The two infrared drying systems reduced the heterotrophic microbial burden from 5.11 log10 MPN/g to 2.89 log10 MPN/g (2.5 µm) and 3.42 log10 MPN/g (3.5 µm), respectively. The infrared systems achieved an up to one log higher MPN/g reduction than the convective system. In biltong samples produced by short wavelength (2.5 µm) infrared drying, E. coli was not detectable. This study demonstrates that the use of short wavelength infrared drying is a potential alternative to conventional convective drying by improving the microbiological quality of biltong products while at the same time delivering products of satisfactory quality. PMID:27853706

  14. Pigment production by filamentous fungi on agro-industrial byproducts: an eco-friendly alternative.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Fernanda Cortez; Tichota, Deise Michele; Pereira, Jamile Queiroz; Segalin, Jéferson; Rios, Alessandro de Oliveira; Brandelli, Adriano

    2013-10-01

    The search for new sources of natural pigments has increased, mainly because of the toxic effects caused by synthetic dyes used in food, pharmaceutical, textile, and cosmetic industries. Fungi provide a readily available alternative source of natural pigments. In this context, the fungi Penicillium chrysogenum IFL1 and IFL2, Fusarium graminearum IFL3, Monascus purpureus NRRL 1992, and Penicillium vasconiae IFL4 were selected as pigments producers. The fungal identification was performed using ITS and part of the β-tubulin gene sequencing. Almost all fungi were able to grow and produce water-soluble pigments on agro-industrial residues, with the exception of P. vasconiae that produced pigments only on potato dextrose broth. The production of yellow pigments was predominant and the two strains of P. chrysogenum were the largest producers. In addition, the production of pigments and mycotoxins were evaluated in potato dextrose agar using TOF-MS and TOF-MS/MS. Metabolites as roquefortine C, chrysogine were found in both extracts of P. chrysogenum, as well fusarenone X, diacetoxyscirpenol, and neosolaniol in F. graminearum extract. In the M. purpureus extract, the pigments monascorubrin, rubropunctatin, and the mycotoxin citrinin were found. The crude filtrates have potential to be used in the textile industry; nevertheless, additional pigment purification is required for food and pharmaceutical applications.

  15. Infrared Drying as a Potential Alternative to Convective Drying for Biltong Production.

    PubMed

    Cherono, Kipchumba; Mwithiga, Gikuru; Schmidt, Stefan

    2016-06-03

    Two infrared systems set at an intensity of 4777 W/m(2) with peak emission wavelengths of 2.5 and 3.5 µm were used to produce biltong by drying differently pre-treated meat. In addition to meat texture and colour, the microbial quality of the biltong produced was assessed by quantifying viable heterotrophic microorganisms using a most probable number (MPN) method and by verifying the presence of presumptive Escherichia coli in samples produced using infrared and conventional convective drying. The two infrared drying systems reduced the heterotrophic microbial burden from 5.11 log10 MPN/g to 2.89 log10 MPN/g (2.5 µm) and 3.42 log10 MPN/g (3.5 µm), respectively. The infrared systems achieved an up to one log higher MPN/g reduction than the convective system. In biltong samples produced by short wavelength (2.5 µm) infrared drying, E. coli was not detectable. This study demonstrates that the use of short wavelength infrared drying is a potential alternative to conventional convective drying by improving the microbiological quality of biltong products while at the same time delivering products of satisfactory quality.

  16. New alternative energy pathway for chemical pulp mills: From traditional fibers to methane production.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Chiang, Lourdes; Vanhatalo, Kari; Llorca, Jordi; Dahl, Olli

    2017-03-25

    Chemical pulp mills have a need to diversify their end-product portfolio due to the current changing bio-economy. In this study, the methane potential of brown, oxygen delignified and bleached pulp were evaluated in order to assess the potential of converting traditional fibers; as well as microcrystalline cellulose and filtrates; to energy. Results showed that high yields (380mL CH4/gVS) were achieved with bleached fibers which correlates with the lower presence of lignin. Filtrates from the hydrolysis process on the other hand, had the lowest yields (253mL CH4/gVS) due to the high amount of acid and lignin compounds that cause inhibition. Overall, substrates had a biodegradability above 50% which demonstrates that they can be subjected to efficient anaerobic digestion. An energy and cost estimation showed that the energy produced can be translated into a significant profit and that methane production can be a promising new alternative option for chemical pulp mills.

  17. Alternative Land-Use Scenarios for Bioenergy Production in the U.S. and Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. E.; Spak, S.; Tsao, C. C.; Mena, M.; Chen, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Agriculture is historically a dominant form of global environmental degradation, and the potential for increased future degradation may be enhanced by growing demand for biofuels. Here, we apply high-resolution cropland inventories and agronomic models to characterize land-use impacts and mitigation scenarios for bioenergy production in the U.S. and Brazil. In the U.S., our gridded historical cropland maps show potential for production in the U.S. on 68 Mha of abandoned croplands in the U.S. which is as much as 70% larger than previous estimates due to a reduction in aggregation effects. In Brazil, a critical land-use impact is associated with non-GHG air pollutants from the management and expansion of sugarcane feedstocks. Our bottom-up estimate for these Brazilian land-use emissions is seven times larger than estimated from remote-sensing data due to the improved spatial resolution of our approach. While current land-use policies in Brazil and the U.S. seek to reduce life-cycle biofuel emissions, these policies may not support the mitigation alternatives identified here.

  18. Hazard assessment of nitrosamine and nitramine by-products of amine-based CCS: alternative approaches.

    PubMed

    Buist, H E; Devito, S; Goldbohm, R A; Stierum, R H; Venhorst, J; Kroese, E D

    2015-04-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies are considered vital and economic elements for achieving global CO2 reduction targets, and is currently introduced worldwide (for more information on CCS, consult for example the websites of the International Energy Agency (http://www.iea.org/topics/ccs/) and the Global CCS Institute (http://www.globalccsinstitute.com/)). One prominent CCS technology, the amine-based post-combustion process, may generate nitrosamines and their related nitramines as by-products, the former well known for their potential mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. In order to efficiently assess the carcinogenic potency of any of these by-products this paper reviews and discusses novel prediction approaches consuming less time, money and animals than the traditionally applied 2-year rodent assay. For this, available animal carcinogenicity studies with N-nitroso compounds and nitramines have been used to derive carcinogenic potency values, that were subsequently used to assess the predictive performance of alternative prediction approaches for these chemicals. Promising cancer prediction models are the QSARs developed by the Helguera group, in vitro transformation assays, and the in vivo initiation-promotion, and transgenic animal assays. All these models, however, have not been adequately explored for this purpose, as the number of N-nitroso compounds investigated is yet too limited, and therefore further testing with relevant N-nitroso compounds is needed.

  19. Development of real-time PCR methods to quantify patulin-producing molds in food products.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Alicia; Luque, M Isabel; Andrade, María J; Rodríguez, Mar; Asensio, Miguel A; Córdoba, Juan J

    2011-09-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by different Penicillium and Aspergillus strains isolated from food products. To improve food safety, the presence of patulin-producing molds in foods should be quantified. In the present work, two real-time (RTi) PCR protocols based on SYBR Green and TaqMan were developed. Thirty four patulin producers and 28 non-producers strains belonging to different species usually reported in food products were used. The patulin production was tested by mycellar electrokinetic capillary electrophoresis (MECE) and high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). A primer pair F-idhtrb/R-idhtrb and the probe IDHprobe were designed from the isoepoxydon dehydrogenase (idh) gene, involved in patulin biosynthesis. The functionality of the developed method was demonstrated by the high linear relationship of the standard curves constructed with the idh gene copy number and Ct values for the different patulin producers tested. The ability to quantify patulin producers of the developed SYBR Green and TaqMan assays in artificially inoculated food samples was successful, with a minimum threshold of 10 conidia g(-1) per reaction. The developed methods quantified with high efficiency fungal load in foods. These RTi-PCR protocols, are proposed to be used to quantify patulin-producing molds in food products and to prevent patulin from entering the food chain.

  20. NASA Langley Atmospheric Science Data Centers Near Real-Time Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davenport, T.; Parker, L.; Rinsland, P. L.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past decade the Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) at NASA Langley Research Center has archived and distributed a variety of satellite mission data sets. NASA's goal in Earth science is to observe, understand, and model the Earth system to discover how it is changing, to better predict change, and to understand the consequences for life on Earth. The ASDC has collaborated with Science Teams to accommodate emerging science users in the climate and modeling communities. The ASDC has expanded its original role to support operational usage by related Earth Science satellites, support land and ocean assimilations, support of field campaigns, outreach programs, and application projects for agriculture and energy industries to bridge the gap between Earth science research results and the adoption of data and prediction capabilities for reliable and sustained use in Decision Support Systems (DSS). For example; these products are being used by the community performing data assimilations to regulate aerosol mass in global transport models to improve model response and forecast accuracy, to assess the performance of components of a global coupled atmospheric-ocean climate model, improve atmospheric motion vector (winds) impact on numerical weather prediction models, and to provide internet-based access to parameters specifically tailored to assist in the design of solar and wind powered renewable energy systems. These more focused applications often require Near Real-Time (NRT) products. Generating NRT products pose their own unique set challenges for the ASDC and the Science Teams. Examples of ASDC NRT products and challenges will be discussed.

  1. Applications of Near Real-Time Image and Fire Products from MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmaltz, J. E.; Ilavajhala, S.; Teague, M.; Ye, G.; Masuoka, E.; Davies, D.; Murphy, K. J.; Michael, K.

    2010-12-01

    NASA’s MODIS Rapid Response Project (http://rapidfire.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/) has been providing MODIS fire detections and imagery in near real-time since 2001. The Rapid Response system is part of the Land and Atmospheres Near-real time Capability for EOS (LANCE-MODIS) system. Current capabilities include providing MODIS imagery in true color and false color band combinations, a vegetation index, and temperature - in both uncorrected swath format and geographically corrected subset regions. The geographically-corrected subsets images cover the world's land areas and adjoining waters, as well as the entire Arctic and Antarctic. These data are available within a few hours of data acquisition. The images are accessed by large number of user communities to obtain a rapid, 250 meter-resolution overview of ground conditions for fire management, crop and famine monitoring and forecasting, disaster response (fires, oil spills, floods, storms), dust and aerosol monitoring, aviation (tracking volcanic ash), monitoring sea ice conditions, environmental monitoring, and more. In addition, the scientific community uses imagery to locate phenomena of interest prior to ordering and processing data and to support the day-to-day planning of field campaigns. The MODIS Rapid Response project has also been providing a near real-time data feed on fire locations and MODIS imagery subsets to the Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) project (http://maps.geog.umd.edu/firms). FIRMS provides timely availability of fire location information, which is essential in preventing and fighting large forest/wild fires. Products are available through a WebGIS for visualizing MODIS hotspots and MCD45 Burned Area images, an email alerting tool to deliver fire data on daily/weekly/near real-time basis, active data downloads in formats such as shape, KML, CSV, WMS, etc., along with MODIS imagery subsets. FIRMS’ user base covers more than 100 countries and territories. A recent user

  2. Alternative scenarios of bioenergy crop production in an agricultural landscape and implications for bird communities.

    PubMed

    Blank, Peter J; Williams, Carol L; Sample, David W; Meehan, Timothy D; Turner, Monica G

    2016-01-01

    Increased demand and government mandates for bioenergy crops in the United States could require a large allocation of agricultural land to bioenergy feedstock production and substantially alter current landscape patterns. Incorporating bioenergy landscape design into land-use decision making could help maximize benefits and minimize trade-offs among alternative land uses. We developed spatially explicit landscape scenarios of increased bioenergy crop production in an 80-km radius agricultural landscape centered on a potential biomass-processing energy facility and evaluated the consequences of each scenario for bird communities. Our scenarios included conversion of existing annual row crops to perennial bioenergy grasslands and conversion of existing grasslands to annual bioenergy row crops. The scenarios explored combinations of four biomass crop types (three potential grassland crops along a gradient of plant diversity and one annual row crop [corn]), three land conversion percentages to bioenergy crops (10%, 20%, or 30% of row crops or grasslands), and three spatial configurations of biomass crop fields (random, clustered near similar field types, or centered on the processing plant), yielding 36 scenarios. For each scenario, we predicted the impact on four bird community metrics: species richness, total bird density, species of greatest conservation need (SGCN) density, and SGCN hotspots (SGCN birds/ha ≥ 2). Bird community metrics consistently increased with conversion of row crops to bioenergy grasslands and consistently decreased with conversion of grasslands to bioenergy row crops. Spatial arrangement of bioenergy fields had strong effects on the bird community and in some cases was more influential than the amount converted to bioenergy crops. Clustering grasslands had a stronger positive influence on the bird community than locating grasslands near the central plant or at random. Expansion of bioenergy grasslands onto marginal agricultural lands will

  3. Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay—A Simple, Fast and Cost-Effective Alternative to Real Time PCR for Specific Detection of Feline Herpesvirus-1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianchang; Liu, Libing; Wang, Jinfeng; Sun, Xiaoxia; Yuan, Wanzhe

    2017-01-01

    Feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1), an enveloped dsDNA virus, is one of the major pathogens of feline upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) and ocular disease. Currently, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) remains the gold standard diagnostic tool for FHV-1 infection but is relatively expensive, requires well-equipped laboratories and is not suitable for field tests. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), an isothermal gene amplification technology, has been explored for the molecular diagnosis of infectious diseases. In this study, an exo-RPA assay for FHV-1 detection was developed and validated. Primers targeting specifically the thymidine kinase (TK) gene of FHV-1 were designed. The RPA reaction was performed successfully at 39°C and the results were obtained within 20 min. Using different copy numbers of recombinant plasmid DNA that contains the TK gene as template, we showed the detection limit of exo-RPA was 102 copies DNA/reaction, the same as that of real time PCR. The exo-RPA assay did not cross-detect feline panleukopenia virus, feline calicivirus, bovine herpesvirus-1, pseudorabies virus or chlamydia psittaci, a panel of pathogens important in feline URTD or other viruses in Alphaherpesvirinae, demonstrating high specificity. The assay was validated by testing 120 nasal and ocular conjunctival swabs of cats, and the results were compared with those obtained with real-time PCR. Both assays provided the same testing results in the clinical samples. Compared with real time PCR, the exo-RPA assay uses less-complex equipment that is portable and the reaction is completed much faster. Additionally, commercial RPA reagents in vacuum-sealed pouches can tolerate temperatures up to room temperature for days without loss of activity, suitable for shipment and storage for field tests. Taken together, the exo-RPA assay is a simple, fast and cost-effective alternative to real time PCR, suitable for use in less advanced laboratories and for field detection of FHV-1

  4. Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay-A Simple, Fast and Cost-Effective Alternative to Real Time PCR for Specific Detection of Feline Herpesvirus-1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianchang; Liu, Libing; Wang, Jinfeng; Sun, Xiaoxia; Yuan, Wanzhe

    2017-01-01

    Feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1), an enveloped dsDNA virus, is one of the major pathogens of feline upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) and ocular disease. Currently, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) remains the gold standard diagnostic tool for FHV-1 infection but is relatively expensive, requires well-equipped laboratories and is not suitable for field tests. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), an isothermal gene amplification technology, has been explored for the molecular diagnosis of infectious diseases. In this study, an exo-RPA assay for FHV-1 detection was developed and validated. Primers targeting specifically the thymidine kinase (TK) gene of FHV-1 were designed. The RPA reaction was performed successfully at 39°C and the results were obtained within 20 min. Using different copy numbers of recombinant plasmid DNA that contains the TK gene as template, we showed the detection limit of exo-RPA was 102 copies DNA/reaction, the same as that of real time PCR. The exo-RPA assay did not cross-detect feline panleukopenia virus, feline calicivirus, bovine herpesvirus-1, pseudorabies virus or chlamydia psittaci, a panel of pathogens important in feline URTD or other viruses in Alphaherpesvirinae, demonstrating high specificity. The assay was validated by testing 120 nasal and ocular conjunctival swabs of cats, and the results were compared with those obtained with real-time PCR. Both assays provided the same testing results in the clinical samples. Compared with real time PCR, the exo-RPA assay uses less-complex equipment that is portable and the reaction is completed much faster. Additionally, commercial RPA reagents in vacuum-sealed pouches can tolerate temperatures up to room temperature for days without loss of activity, suitable for shipment and storage for field tests. Taken together, the exo-RPA assay is a simple, fast and cost-effective alternative to real time PCR, suitable for use in less advanced laboratories and for field detection of FHV-1

  5. Performance of ROB's near real-time ionospheric product during normal and disturbed space weather periods.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeot, Nicolas; Chevalier, Jean-Marie; Bruyninx, Carine

    2015-04-01

    Several agencies are routinely monitoring the vertical Total Electron Content (vTEC) using GNSS data. Derived maps are available with different latencies, area extents, and grid/time resolutions. However, no high-resolution maps are publically available over Europe in near real-time. In this frame, the Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB) developed the ROB-IONO software which takes advantage of the dense EUREF Permanent GNSS Network (EPN) to monitor the ionosphere. The main ROB products consist of ionospheric vTEC maps over Europe and their variability estimated in near real-time every 15 min on 0.5° x 0.5° grids using GPS observations. The maps are available online with a latency of ~3 min in the IONEX format at ftp://gnss.oma.be and as interactive web pages at www.gnss.be. During normal ionospheric activity, the ROB-TEC maps show a good agreement with widely used post-processed global products from IGS, CODE and ESA, with mean differences of 1.3 ± 0.9, 0.6 ± 0.7 and 0.4 ± 1.6 TECu respectively for the period 2012 to mid-2013. For a disturbed period, such as the 2003 Halloween ionospheric storm, the mean differences with IGS, CODE and ESA maps are respectively 0.9 ± 2.2, 0.1 ± 2.0 and 0.6 ± 6.8 TECu, with maximum differences (>38 TECu) occurring during the major phase of the storm. These differences are due to the lower resolution of global products in time and space compared to the ROB-TEC maps. A description of two recent events, on March 17, 2013 and February 27, 2014 highlights the capability of the method adopted to detect in near real-time abnormal ionospheric behaviour over Europe. The potential of the variability maps as an indicator of rapid ionospheric variations during the 15 min of observations is also highlighted. More than 30 ionospheric events associated with Space weather were detected during the period 2012-2014. The ionospheric perturbations are associated with Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs, ~70% of the time), active geomagnetic conditions

  6. Nutrient removal and biofuel production in high rate algal pond using real municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Hyuk; Kang, Zion; Ramanan, Rishiram; Choi, Jong-Eun; Cho, Dae-Hyun; Oh, Hee-Mock; Kim, Hee-Sik

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated the growth and nutrient removal ability of an indigenous algal consortium on real untreated municipal wastewater in a high rate algal pond (HRAP). The HRAP was operated semicontinuously under different hydraulic retention times (HRT: 2, 4, 6, and 8 days). The average removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand, and total nitrogen and phosphate of real municipal wastewater were maintained at 85.44 ± 5.10%, 92.74 ± 5.82%, and 82.85 ± 8.63%, respectively, in 2 day HRT. Algae dominated the consortium and showed high settling efficiency (99%), and biomass and lipid productivity of 0.500 ± 0.03 g/l/day and 0.103 ± 0.0083 g/l/day (2 day HRT), respectively. Fatty acid methyl ester analysis revealed a predominance of palmitate (C16:0), palmitoleate (C16:1), linoleate (C18:2), and linolenate (C18:3). Microalgal diversity analyses determined the presence of Chlorella, Scenedesmus, and Stigeoclonium as the dominant microalgae. The algal consortium provides significant value not only in terms of energy savings and nutrient removal but also because of its bioenergy potential as indicated by the lipid content (20-23%) and FAME profiling.

  7. Soft Expansion of Double-Real-Virtual Corrections to Higgs Production at N$^3$LO

    SciTech Connect

    Anastasiou, Charalampos; Duhr, Claude; Dulat, Falko; Furlan, Elisabetta; Herzog, Franz; Mistlberger, Bernhard

    2015-05-15

    We present methods to compute higher orders in the threshold expansion for the one-loop production of a Higgs boson in association with two partons at hadron colliders. This process contributes to the N3LO Higgs production cross section beyond the soft-virtual approximation. We use reverse unitarity to expand the phase-space integrals in the small kinematic parameters and to reduce the coefficients of the expansion to a small set of master integrals. We describe two methods for the calculation of the master integrals. The first was introduced for the calculation of the soft triple-real radiation relevant to N3LO Higgs production. The second uses a particular factorization of the three body phase-space measure and the knowledge of the scaling properties of the integral itself. Our result is presented as a Laurent expansion in the dimensional regulator, although some of the master integrals are computed to all orders in this parameter.

  8. Soft Expansion of Double-Real-Virtual Corrections to Higgs Production at N$^3$LO

    DOE PAGES

    Anastasiou, Charalampos; Duhr, Claude; Dulat, Falko; ...

    2015-05-15

    We present methods to compute higher orders in the threshold expansion for the one-loop production of a Higgs boson in association with two partons at hadron colliders. This process contributes to the N3LO Higgs production cross section beyond the soft-virtual approximation. We use reverse unitarity to expand the phase-space integrals in the small kinematic parameters and to reduce the coefficients of the expansion to a small set of master integrals. We describe two methods for the calculation of the master integrals. The first was introduced for the calculation of the soft triple-real radiation relevant to N3LO Higgs production. The secondmore » uses a particular factorization of the three body phase-space measure and the knowledge of the scaling properties of the integral itself. Our result is presented as a Laurent expansion in the dimensional regulator, although some of the master integrals are computed to all orders in this parameter.« less

  9. FMEA and consideration of real work situations for safer design of production systems.

    PubMed

    Lux, Aurélien; Mawo De Bikond, Johann; Etienne, Alain; Quillerou-Grivot, Edwige

    2016-12-01

    Production equipment designers must ensure the health and safety of future users; in this regard, they augment requirements for standardizing and controlling operator work. This contrasts with the ergonomic view of the activity, which recommends leaving operators leeway (margins for manoeuvre) in performing their task, while safeguarding their health. Following a brief analysis of design practices in the car industry, we detail how the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) approach is implemented in this sector. We then suggest an adaptation that enables designers to consider real work situations. This new protocol, namely, work situation FMEA, allows experience feedback to be used to defend the health standpoint during designer project reviews, which usually only address quality and performance issues. We subsequently illustrate the advantage of this approach using two examples of work situations at car parts manufacturers: the first from the literature and the second from an in-company industrial project.

  10. Characterization of odor emission from alternating aerobic and anoxic activated sludge systems using real-time total reduced sulfur analyzer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunook; Lee, Hyunjoo; Choi, Eunsun; Choi, Il; Shin, Taesub; Im, Hyungjoon; Ahn, Soobin

    2014-12-01

    Anaerobic biodegradation of sulfur-containing compounds always generates volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) including H2S, methyl mercaptan, and dimethyl sulfide (DMS). VSC emissions from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) result in odor complaints from people living nearby. To control odor-causing compounds in WWTPs, it is important to know the odor emission quantity particularly with continuous monitoring. Since modified activated sludge processes always include anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic conditions for nutrient removal, odor emission from these different environmental settings is expected. In this study, continuous monitoring of VSCs from the headspace of an alternating aerobic and anoxic (AAA) activated sludge process via total reduced sulfur (TRS) analyzer was performed. There is clear pattern of the initial TRS peak immediately after the initiation of the aeration in the AAA system and TRS concentration begins to drop through the remaining air-on cycle. On the other hand, during the air-off period, TRS concentrations increase with time. In particular, a clear inflection point in the TRS profile could be observed after complete removal of nitrate during air-off, meaning more VSCs formation. Since the highest odor emission occurs after the initiation of aeration, the future control of exhausted air should only deal with air collected during the initial aeration period (e.g., 30min), a similar concept for the treatment of first flush in combined sewer overflow. In addition, application of a control scheme to initiate aeration immediately after denitrification is completed during air-off should be beneficial in reducing odor emission.

  11. A New Model for Real-Time Regional Vertical Total Electron Content and Differential Code Bias Estimation Using IGS Real-Time Service (IGS-RTS) Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelazeem, Mohamed; Çelik, Rahmi N.; El-Rabbany, Ahmed

    2016-04-01

    The international global navigation satellite system (GNSS) real-time service (IGS-RTS) products have been used extensively for real-time precise point positioning and ionosphere modeling applications. In this study, we develop a regional model for real-time vertical total electron content (RT-VTEC) and differential code bias (RT-DCB) estimation over Europe using the IGS-RTS satellite orbit and clock products. The developed model has a spatial and temporal resolution of 1°×1° and 15 minutes, respectively. GPS observations from a regional network consisting of 60 IGS and EUREF reference stations are processed in the zero-difference mode using the Bernese-5.2 software package in order to extract the geometry-free linear combination of the smoothed code observations. The spherical harmonic expansion function is used to model the VTEC, the receiver and the satellite DCBs. To validate the proposed model, the RT-VTEC values are computed and compared with the final IGS-global ionospheric map (IGS-GIM) counterparts in three successive days under high solar activity including one of an extreme geomagnetic activity. The real-time satellite DCBs are also estimated and compared with the IGS-GIM counterparts. Moreover, the real-time receiver DCB for six IGS stations are obtained and compared with the IGS-GIM counterparts. The examined stations are located in different latitudes with different receiver types. The findings reveal that the estimated RT-VTEC values show agreement with the IGS-GIM counterparts with root mean-square-errors (RMSEs) values less than 2 TEC units. In addition, RMSEs of both the satellites and receivers DCBs are less than 0.85 ns and 0.65 ns, respectively in comparison with the IGS-GIM.

  12. Latex Allergies: A Review of Recognition, Evaluation, Management, Prevention, Education, and Alternative Product Use

    PubMed Central

    Schroyer, Traci; Catalfano, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To provide information about latex allergies; to determine how to recognize, evaluate, and manage emergencies related to latex allergies; and how to identify those at risk for latex allergies. Additionally, ways to prevent latex exposure, to educate health care workers and athletes about latex allergy, and to provide safe alternatives to latex are investigated. Data Sources: We searched MEDLINE and SPORT Discus for the years 1998–2002 using the key words latex, allergies, rubber, anaphylaxis, gloves, cross-reaction, IgE (immunoglobulin G) proteins, and radioallergosorbent test (RAST). Background: Latex, a sap from the rubber tree, is found in many products used in everyday life. Latex is composed of compounds that may cause an allergic reaction, whose severity can range from irritant dermatitis to type IV dermatitis to type I systemic reaction. Recognition of the signs and symptoms associated with these reactions by the health care professional may help to prevent a more severe reaction from occurring. Reactions can be complicated by contact with other substances, thus causing a cross-reaction. Some individuals are more at risk of latex allergies due to repetitive exposure to latex through their career paths, multiple surgeries, other allergies, or respiratory conditions. Management of an acute reaction involves removal of the irritant, cleansing of the affected area, monitoring vital signs for changes, and seeking additional medical assistance as warranted. Recommendations: Those at risk may be identified through a thorough medical history and allergy testing. Prevention techniques and guidelines are examined, with an emphasis on education at multiple levels. Product information for nonlatex equipment and supplies for the athletic training room is offered, with additional resource information provided. PMID:16558678

  13. Examination of an alternative method for the pyrometallurgical production of copper-chromium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenk, J.; Hassan-Pour, S.; Spiess, P.; Friedrich, B.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper an alternative to the usual route for the production of copper-chromium alloys by Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) followed by Vacuum Arc Remelting (VAR) is investigated. Therefore the HIP is replaced by an aluminothermic reduction. As oxidizing agents for this aluminothermic reduction (ATR) chromium oxide (Cr2O3) and copper oxide (CuO) are used. These oxidants are mixed in a stoichiometric relation with aluminium (Al) to get the following aluminothermic reactions going: As ATRs always are exothermic reductions, it is important to control the heat output of the reaction. A common simplification for the heat calculation in the field of ATR is the “Shemshushny Factor” (Sh-Factor). This factor determines the rate of energy input per reactant mass: To avoid a secondary melt phase after ATR, inline casting is used to directly obtain vacuum arc remeltable electrodes out of the liquid melt of the ATR. The second part of this work deals with the remelting of these electrodes via VAR. The first VAR trials aim at finding process parameters for remelting a copper-chromium ingot. As demixing is to avoid, it is necessary to control process parameters within a small range to obtain a shallow melt pool.

  14. Selection and properties of alternative forming fluids for TRISO fuel kernel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, M. P.; King, J. C.; Gorman, B. P.; Marshall, D. W.

    2013-01-01

    Current Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs incorporate TRi-structural ISOtropic (TRISO) fuel, which consists of a spherical fissile fuel kernel surrounded by layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. An internal sol-gel process forms the fuel kernel using wet chemistry to produce uranium oxyhydroxide gel spheres by dropping a cold precursor solution into a hot column of trichloroethylene (TCE). Over time, gelation byproducts inhibit complete gelation, and the TCE must be purified or discarded. The resulting TCE waste stream contains both radioactive and hazardous materials and is thus considered a mixed hazardous waste. Changing the forming fluid to a non-hazardous alternative could greatly improve the economics of TRISO fuel kernel production. Selection criteria for a replacement forming fluid narrowed a list of ˜10,800 chemicals to yield ten potential replacement forming fluids: 1-bromododecane, 1-bromotetradecane, 1-bromoundecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, 1-chlorotetradecane, 1-iododecane, 1-iodododecane, 1-iodohexadecane, 1-iodooctadecane, and squalane. The density, viscosity, and surface tension for each potential replacement forming fluid were measured as a function of temperature between 25 °C and 80 °C. Calculated settling velocities and heat transfer rates give an overall column height approximation. 1-bromotetradecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, and 1-iodododecane show the greatest promise as replacements, and future tests will verify their ability to form satisfactory fuel kernels.

  15. Selection and properties of alternative forming fluids for TRISO fuel kernel production

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, M. P.; King, J. C.; Gorman, B. P.; Marshall, Doug W.

    2013-01-01

    Current Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs incorporate TRi-structural ISOtropic (TRISO) fuel, which consists of a spherical fissile fuel kernel surrounded by layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. An internal sol-gel process forms the fuel kernel using wet chemistry to produce uranium oxyhydroxide gel spheres by dropping a cold precursor solution into a hot column of trichloroethylene (TCE). Over time, gelation byproducts inhibit complete gelation, and the TCE must be purified or discarded. The resulting TCE waste stream contains both radioactive and hazardous materials and is thus considered a mixed hazardous waste. Changing the forming fluid to a non-hazardous alternative could greatly improve the economics of TRISO fuel kernel production. Selection criteria for a replacement forming fluid narrowed a list of ~10,800 chemicals to yield ten potential replacement forming fluids: 1-bromododecane, 1- bromotetradecane, 1-bromoundecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, 1-chlorotetradecane, 1-iododecane, 1-iodododecane, 1-iodohexadecane, 1-iodooctadecane, and squalane. The density, viscosity, and surface tension for each potential replacement forming fluid were measured as a function of temperature between 25 °C and 80 °C. Calculated settling velocities and heat transfer rates give an overall column height approximation. 1-bromotetradecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, and 1-iodododecane show the greatest promise as replacements, and future tests will verify their ability to form satisfactory fuel kernels.

  16. Review on emu products for use as complementary and alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Jeengar, Manish Kumar; Kumar, P Sravan; Thummuri, Dinesh; Shrivastava, Shweta; Guntuku, Lalita; Sistla, Ramakrishna; Naidu, V G M

    2015-01-01

    Emu (Dromaius novaehallandiae), the flightless bird native to Australia and found in many countries, is receiving much attention for its nutritional benefits as well as its medicinal value. Emu oil contains high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants. It has potent anti-inflammatory actions and thus can be used topically and orally to treat conditions such as mucositis, inflammatory bowel syndrome, and auricular inflammation, and to prevent chemotherapy-induced bone loss. Emu oil also has a hypocholesterolemic effect, transdermal penetration-enhancing activity, cosmetic and insect repellent activity, and so on. However, its mechanism(s) of actions are unclear and have not, to our knowledge, been studied to date. Previous studies suggest that the fatty acids of the ω-9, ω-6, and ω-3 series, which are present in emu oil, may act on cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, and lipoxin pathways to bring about its anti-inflammatory and other beneficial actions. The aim of this review was to provide a brief summary of the current knowledge of research on emu products, mainly emu oil, for the possible use as a complementary and alternative natural medicine for various chronic diseases. In this review we also highlighted the future research scope of emu oil for its possible antidiabetic activity. Thus, emu oil is an attractive pharmacologic agent to further explore for its therapeutic activity to treat various ailments.

  17. Berry Leaves: An Alternative Source of Bioactive Natural Products of Nutritional and Medicinal Value†

    PubMed Central

    Ferlemi, Anastasia-Varvara; Lamari, Fotini N.

    2016-01-01

    Berry fruits are recognized, worldwide, as “superfoods” due to the high content of bioactive natural products and the health benefits deriving from their consumption. Berry leaves are byproducts of berry cultivation; their traditional therapeutic use against several diseases, such as the common cold, inflammation, diabetes, and ocular dysfunction, has been almost forgotten nowadays. Nevertheless, the scientific interest regarding the leaf composition and beneficial properties grows, documenting that berry leaves may be considered an alternative source of bioactives. The main bioactive compounds in berry leaves are similar as in berry fruits, i.e., phenolic acids and esters, flavonols, anthocyanins, and procyanidins. The leaves are one of the richest sources of chlorogenic acid. In various studies, these secondary metabolites have demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of the leaves of the commonest berry species, i.e., blackcurrant, blackberry, raspberry, bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry leaves, and presents their traditional medicinal uses and their biological activities in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27258314

  18. Berry Leaves: An Alternative Source of Bioactive Natural Products of Nutritional and Medicinal Value.

    PubMed

    Ferlemi, Anastasia-Varvara; Lamari, Fotini N

    2016-06-01

    Berry fruits are recognized, worldwide, as "superfoods" due to the high content of bioactive natural products and the health benefits deriving from their consumption. Berry leaves are byproducts of berry cultivation; their traditional therapeutic use against several diseases, such as the common cold, inflammation, diabetes, and ocular dysfunction, has been almost forgotten nowadays. Nevertheless, the scientific interest regarding the leaf composition and beneficial properties grows, documenting that berry leaves may be considered an alternative source of bioactives. The main bioactive compounds in berry leaves are similar as in berry fruits, i.e., phenolic acids and esters, flavonols, anthocyanins, and procyanidins. The leaves are one of the richest sources of chlorogenic acid. In various studies, these secondary metabolites have demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of the leaves of the commonest berry species, i.e., blackcurrant, blackberry, raspberry, bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry leaves, and presents their traditional medicinal uses and their biological activities in vitro and in vivo.

  19. The costs of production of alternative jet fuel: A harmonized stochastic assessment.

    PubMed

    Bann, Seamus J; Malina, Robert; Staples, Mark D; Suresh, Pooja; Pearlson, Matthew; Tyner, Wallace E; Hileman, James I; Barrett, Steven

    2017-03-01

    This study quantifies and compares the costs of production for six alternative jet fuel pathways using consistent financial and technical assumptions. Uncertainty was propagated through the analysis using Monte Carlo simulations. The six processes assessed were HEFA, advanced fermentation, Fischer-Tropsch, aqueous phase processing, hydrothermal liquefaction, and fast pyrolysis. The results indicate that none of the six processes would be profitable in the absence of government incentives, with HEFA using yellow grease, HEFA using tallow, and FT revealing the lowest mean jet fuel prices at $0.91/liter ($0.66/liter-$1.24/liter), $1.06/liter ($0.79/liter-$1.42/liter), and $1.15/liter ($0.95/liter-$1.39/liter), respectively. This study also quantifies plant performance in the United States with a Renewable Fuel Standard policy analysis. Results indicate that some pathways could achieve positive NPV with relatively high likelihood under existing policy supports, with HEFA and FPH revealing the highest probability of positive NPV at 94.9% and 99.7%, respectively, in the best-case scenario.

  20. Speciation of Organic By-Products from the Thermal Decomposition of Alternative Automotive Fuels.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Philip H; Shanbhag, Santosh; Rubey, Wayne A; Dellinger, Barry; Bergin, Michelle

    1999-01-01

    The high-temperature thermal degradation of four alternative automotive fuels (methanol, ethanol, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum (LP) gas) have been examined as a function of fuel-oxygen equivalence ratio and exposure temperature using fused silica flow reactor instrumentation coupled to in-line GC-TCD and GC-MS detection. Organic speciation for methanol, natural gas, and LP gas were consistent with previous measurements. However, several previously undetected organic by-products were observed from ethanol oxidation and pyrolysis. Organic speciation was found to vary significantly between methanol and ethanol and less so between natural gas and LP gas. Non-methane organic gases (NMOG) and specific reactivities of the respective fuels were measured, and trends with respect to proposed reactivity adjustment factors are discussed. A qualitative comparison of NMOG quantified in the flow reactor tests with the results of recent vehicle tests is also reported. The most significant differences in the comparisons were observed for toxic compounds, including the lack of detection of acetalde-hyde, 1,3-butadiene, and benzene from flow reactor experiments of methanol degradation, and the lack of detection of 1,3-butadiene from flow reactor experiments of ethanol combustion. Possible sources for the formation of these compounds in vehicle tests are discussed.

  1. Alternate charging and discharging of capacitor to enhance the electron production of bioelectrochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Liang, Peng; Wu, Wenlong; Wei, Jincheng; Yuan, Lulu; Xia, Xue; Huang, Xia

    2011-08-01

    A bioelectrochemical system (BES) can be operated in both "microbial fuel cell" (MFC) and "microbial electrolysis cell" (MEC) modes, in which power is delivered and invested respectively. To enhance the electric current production, a BES was operated in MFC mode first and a capacitor was used to collect power from the system. Then the charged capacitor discharged electrons to the system itself, switching into MEC mode. This alternate charging and discharging (ACD) mode helped the system produce 22-32% higher average current compared to an intermittent charging (IC) mode, in which the capacitor was first charged from an MFC and then discharged to a resistor, at 21.6 Ω external resistance, 3.3 F capacitance and 300 mV charging voltage. The effects of external resistance, capacitance and charging voltage on average current were studied. The average current reduced as the external resistance and charging voltage increased and was slightly affected by the capacitance. Acquisition of higher average current in the ACD mode was attributed to the shorter discharging time compared to the charging time, as well as a higher anode potential caused by discharging the capacitor. Results from circuit analysis and quantitatively calculation were consistent with the experimental observations.

  2. Near-real-time global biomass burning emissions product from geostationary satellite constellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoyang; Kondragunta, Shobha; Ram, Jessica; Schmidt, Christopher; Huang, Ho-Chun

    2012-07-01

    Near-real-time estimates of biomass burning emissions are crucial for air quality monitoring and forecasting. We present here the first near-real-time global biomass burning emission product from geostationary satellites (GBBEP-Geo) produced from satellite-derived fire radiative power (FRP) for individual fire pixels. Specifically, the FRP is retrieved using WF_ABBA V65 (wildfire automated biomass burning algorithm) from a network of multiple geostationary satellites. The network consists of two Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) which are operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Meteosat second-generation satellites (Meteosat-09) operated by the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites, and the Multifunctional Transport Satellite (MTSAT) operated by the Japan Meteorological Agency. These satellites observe wildfires at an interval of 15-30 min. Because of the impacts from sensor saturation, cloud cover, and background surface, the FRP values are generally not continuously observed. The missing observations are simulated by combining the available instantaneous FRP observations within a day and a set of representative climatological diurnal patterns of FRP for various ecosystems. Finally, the simulated diurnal variation in FRP is applied to quantify biomass combustion and emissions in individual fire pixels with a latency of 1 day. By analyzing global patterns in hourly biomass burning emissions in 2010, we find that peak fire season varied greatly and that annual wildfires burned 1.33 × 1012 kg dry mass, released 1.27 × 1010 kg of PM2.5 (particulate mass for particles with diameter <2.5 μm) and 1.18 × 1011kg of CO globally (excluding most parts of boreal Asia, the Middle East, and India because of no coverage from geostationary satellites). The biomass burning emissions were mostly released from forest and savanna fires in Africa, South America, and North America. Evaluation of

  3. Integrating data mining technique and AHP in market analysis to propose new product development in real estate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunita; Galinium, M.; Lukas

    2017-01-01

    New product development in real estate industry is a challenging process since it is related to long term concept and high cost. A newly proposed product development should meet customer need and their preferences which appropriate with customer buying power and company value. This research use data mining for profiling customer transaction and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method for product selection in new product development. This research utilizes Weka as data mining open source software to profiling data customers. The analysis correlated product preferences and profiling demography such as city, age, gender and occupation. Demography profiles gives description buying power and product preferences. The products proposed are based on customer profiles and rank of the product by AHP method. The product with the highest score will be proposed as new product development. Case studies of this research are real estate projects in Serang, Makassar, and Balikpapan. Makassar and Balikpapan are the project that already gained success and Serang is new project which new products development will be proposed to launch. Based on profiling and product preference of customer in Balikpapan, Makassar, and prospectus of Serang markets, new products development that will be proposed are house type of 120/200 m2 with price around Rp1.300.000.000 and house type of 71/120 m2 with price around Rp800.000.000. The markets of Serang and Balikpapan have similarities in profiles as urban city so the new products development will adopt the succeed story of Balikpapan project.

  4. Combining satellite observations to develop a global soil moisture product for near-real-time applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enenkel, Markus; Reimer, Christoph; Dorigo, Wouter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Pfeil, Isabella; Parinussa, Robert; De Jeu, Richard

    2016-10-01

    The soil moisture dataset that is generated via the Climate Change Initiative (CCI) of the European Space Agency (ESA) (ESA CCI SM) is a popular research product. It is composed of observations from 10 different satellites and aims to exploit the individual strengths of active (radar) and passive (radiometer) sensors, thereby providing surface soil moisture estimates at a spatial resolution of 0.25°. However, the annual updating cycle limits the use of the ESA CCI SM dataset for operational applications. Therefore, this study proposes an adaptation of the ESA CCI product for daily global updates via satellite-derived near-real-time (NRT) soil moisture observations. In order to extend the ESA CCI SM dataset from 1978 to present we use NRT observations from the Advanced Scatterometer on-board the two MetOp satellites and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 on-board GCOM-W. Since these NRT observations do not incorporate the latest algorithmic updates, parameter databases and intercalibration efforts, by nature they offer a lower quality than reprocessed offline datasets. In addition to adaptations of the ESA CCI SM processing chain for NRT datasets, the quality of the NRT datasets is a main source of uncertainty. Our findings indicate that, despite issues in arid regions, the new CCI NRT dataset shows a good correlation with ESA CCI SM. The average global correlation coefficient between CCI NRT and ESA CCI SM (Pearson's R) is 0.80. An initial validation with 40 in situ observations in France, Spain, Senegal and Kenya yields an average R of 0.58 and 0.49 for ESA CCI SM and CCI NRT, respectively. In summary, the CCI NRT product is nearly as accurate as the existing ESA CCI SM product and, therefore, of significant value for operational applications such as drought and flood forecasting, agricultural index insurance or weather forecasting.

  5. A real-time digital bio-imaging system to quantify cellular cytotoxicity as an alternative to the standard chromium-51 release assay.

    PubMed

    Fassy, Julien; Tsalkitzi, Kyriaki; Salavagione, Emie; Hamouda-Tekaya, Nedra; Braud, Véronique M

    2016-12-22

    Reliable measurement of cellular cytotoxicity is essential for the characterization of immune responses and for the monitoring of antibody treatment efficacy. Until now, the standard (51) Cr-release assay has remained the sole sensitive assay that measures cellular cytotoxicity. Alternative non-radioactive assays have been developed but they do not provide accurate measurement of target cell cytotoxicity. The cost and hazard of handling radioactivity are strong incentives to find alternative solutions to (51) Cr. We took advantage of the recent development of cell-imaging multimode readers to develop a novel non-radioactive and real-time cytotoxic assay that demonstrates good reproducibility and sensitivity. The extent of target-cell cytotoxicity is monitored over time by imaging and quantifying live fluorescent target cells in 96-well plates. We have developed classical natural killer cell assays in the presence or absence of blocking antibodies and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. We show that in these assays, cell killing occurs within the first 2 hr with half maximum killing reached after 30 min. This technology has numerous applications such as natural killer and T-cell cytotoxicity assays and can be extended to cell survival and apoptosis measurement assays.

  6. Part 4 of a 4-part series Miscellaneous Products: Trends and Alternatives in Deodorants, Antiperspirants, Sunblocks, Shaving Products, Powders, and Wipes

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Sharon; Katta, Rajani; Nedorost, Susan; Warshaw, Erin; Zirwas, Matt; Selbo, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To provide updated data on the usage of ingredients that are common potential contact allergens in several categories of topical products. To identify useful alternative products with few or no common contact allergens. Design: In November 2009, the full ingredient lists of 5,416 skin, hair, and cosmetic products marketed by the CVS pharmacy chain were copied from CVS.com into Microsoft Word format for analysis. Computer searches were made in Microsoft Word using search/replace and sorting functions to accurately identify the presence of specific allergens in each website product. Measurements: Percentages of American Contact Dermatitis Society core series allergens (and other common preservatives and sunblocks) were calculated. Results: The usage of American Contact Dermatitis Society core series allergens (and other preservatives and sunblocks) in various miscellaneous categories of topical products is reported. Conclusion: Data on allergens and alternatives for ancillary skin care products are not widely published. This article reviews some of the common potential allergens in antiperspirants, deodorants, shaving products, sunblocks, powders, and wipes. Suitable available alternative products for patients with contact allergy are listed. PMID:22010054

  7. Real-time model based process monitoring of enzymatic biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Price, Jason; Nordblad, Mathias; Woodley, John M; Huusom, Jakob K

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution we extend our modelling work on the enzymatic production of biodiesel where we demonstrate the application of a Continuous-Discrete Extended Kalman Filter (a state estimator). The state estimator is used to correct for mismatch between the process data and the process model for Fed-batch production of biodiesel. For the three process runs investigated, using a single tuning parameter, qx  = 2 × 10(-2) which represents the uncertainty in the process model, it was possible over the entire course of the reaction to reduce the overall mean and standard deviation of the error between the model and the process data for all of the five measured components (triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides, fatty acid methyl esters, and free fatty acid). The most significant reduction for the three process runs, were for the monoglyceride and free fatty acid concentration. For those components, there was over a ten-fold decrease in the overall mean error for the state estimator prediction compared with the predictions from the pure model simulations. It is also shown that the state estimator can be used as a tool for detection of outliers in the measurement data. For the enzymatic biodiesel process, given the infrequent and sometimes uncertain measurements obtained we see the use of the Continuous-Discrete Extended Kalman Filter as a viable tool for real time process monitoring.

  8. Do placebo based validation standards mimic real batch products behaviour? Case studies.

    PubMed

    Bouabidi, A; Talbi, M; Bouklouze, A; El Karbane, M; Bourichi, H; El Guezzar, M; Ziemons, E; Hubert, Ph; Rozet, E

    2011-06-01

    Analytical methods validation is a mandatory step to evaluate the ability of developed methods to provide accurate results for their routine application. Validation usually involves validation standards or quality control samples that are prepared in placebo or reconstituted matrix made of a mixture of all the ingredients composing the drug product except the active substance or the analyte under investigation. However, one of the main concerns that can be made with this approach is that it may lack an important source of variability that come from the manufacturing process. The question that remains at the end of the validation step is about the transferability of the quantitative performance from validation standards to real authentic drug product samples. In this work, this topic is investigated through three case studies. Three analytical methods were validated using the commonly spiked placebo validation standards at several concentration levels as well as using samples coming from authentic batch samples (tablets and syrups). The results showed that, depending on the type of response function used as calibration curve, there were various degrees of differences in the results accuracy obtained with the two types of samples. Nonetheless the use of spiked placebo validation standards was showed to mimic relatively well the quantitative behaviour of the analytical methods with authentic batch samples. Adding these authentic batch samples into the validation design may help the analyst to select and confirm the most fit for purpose calibration curve and thus increase the accuracy and reliability of the results generated by the method in routine application.

  9. 75 FR 71155 - Market Test of Experimental Product: “Alternative Postage Payment Method for Greeting Cards”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Market Test of Experimental Product: ``Alternative Postage Payment Method for Greeting Cards'' AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service gives notice of a market test of an...

  10. 21 CFR 610.68 - Exceptions or alternatives to labeling requirements for biological products held by the Strategic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... affect the safety, effectiveness, or availability of such product that is or will be included in the... labeling provision(s) could adversely affect the safety, effectiveness, or availability of the specified... an exception or alternative to the labeling requirements under this section: (1) You need not...

  11. Primary Healthcare Provider Knowledge, Beliefs and Clinic-Based Practices Regarding Alternative Tobacco Products and Marijuana: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bascombe, Ta Misha S.; Scott, Kimberly N.; Ballard, Denise; Smith, Samantha A.; Thompson, Winifred; Berg, Carla J.

    2016-01-01

    Use prevalence of alternative tobacco products and marijuana has increased dramatically. Unfortunately, clinical guidelines have focused on traditional cigarettes with limited attention regarding these emerging public health issues. Thus, it is critical to understand how healthcare professionals view this issue and are responding to it. This…

  12. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources... either of the emission limits in § 63.5984. (a) Purchase alternative. Use only cements and solvents that... device. Use cements and solvents in such a way that the monthly average HAP emissions do not exceed...

  13. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources... either of the emission limits in § 63.5984. (a) Purchase alternative. Use only cements and solvents that... device. Use cements and solvents in such a way that the monthly average HAP emissions do not exceed...

  14. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources... either of the emission limits in § 63.5984. (a) Purchase alternative. Use only cements and solvents that... device. Use cements and solvents in such a way that the monthly average HAP emissions do not exceed...

  15. Effects of Augmentative and Alternative Communication Intervention on Speech Production in Children with Autism: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlosser, Ralf W.; Wendt, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This systematic review aimed to determine the effects of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) intervention on speech production in children with autism or pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified. Method: A systematic review methodology was utilized to limit bias in searching, selecting, coding, and…

  16. MODIS NDVI Change Detection Techniques and Products Used in the Near Real Time ForWarn System for Detecting, Monitoring, and Analyzing Regional Forest Disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William; Gasser, Jerry; Smoot, James; Kuper, Philip D.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation discusses MODIS NDVI change detection methods and products used in the ForWarn Early Warning System (EWS) for near real time (NRT) recognition and tracking of regionally evident forest disturbances throughout the conterminous US (CONUS). The latter has provided NRT forest change products to the forest health protection community since 2010, using temporally processed MODIS Aqua and Terra NDVI time series data to currently compute and post 6 different forest change products for CONUS every 8 days. Multiple change products are required to improve detectability and to more fully assess the nature of apparent disturbances. Each type of forest change product reports per pixel percent change in NDVI for a given 24 day interval, comparing current versus a given historical baseline NDVI. EMODIS 7 day expedited MODIS MOD13 data are used to obtain current and historical NDVIs, respectively. Historical NDVI data is processed with Time Series Product Tool (TSPT); and 2) the Phenological Parameters Estimation Tool (PPET) software. While each change products employ maximum value compositing (MVC) of NDVI, the design of specific products primarily differs in terms of the historical baseline. The three main change products use either 1, 3, or all previous years of MVC NDVI as a baseline. Another product uses an Adaptive Length Compositing (ALC) version of MVC to derive an alternative current NDVI that is the freshest quality NDVI as opposed to merely the MVC NDVI across a 24 day time frame. The ALC approach can improve detection speed by 8 to 16 days. ForWarn also includes 2 change products that improve detectability of forest disturbances in lieu of climatic fluctuations, especially in the spring and fall. One compares current MVC NDVI to the zonal maximum under the curve NDVI per pheno-region cluster class, considering all previous years in the MODIS record. The other compares current maximum NDVI to the mean of maximum NDVI for all previous MODIS years.

  17. Real-time PCR for the detection of Salmonella spp. in food: An alternative approach to a conventional PCR system suggested by the FOOD-PCR project.

    PubMed

    Hein, Ingeborg; Flekna, Gabriele; Krassnig, Martina; Wagner, Martin

    2006-09-01

    A real-time PCR assay using non-patented primers and a TaqMan probe for the detection and quantification of Salmonella spp. is presented. The assay is based on an internationally validated conventional PCR system, which was suggested as a standard method for the detection of Salmonella spp. in the FOOD-PCR project. The assay was sensitive and specific. Consistent detection of 9.5 genome equivalents per PCR reaction was achieved, whereas samples containing an average of 0.95 genome equivalents per reaction were inconsistently positive. The assay performed equally well as a commercially available real-time PCR assay and allowed sensitive detection of Salmonella spp. in artificially contaminated food. After enrichment for 16 h in buffered peptone water (BPW) or universal pre-enrichment broth (UPB) 2.5 CFU/25 g salmon and minced meat, and 5 CFU/25 g chicken meat and 25 ml raw milk were detected. Enrichment in BPW yielded higher numbers of CFU/ml than UPB for all matrices tested. However, the productivity of UPB was sufficient, as all samples were positive with both real-time PCR methods, including those containing less than 300 CFU/ml enrichment broth (enrichment of 5 CFU/25 ml raw milk in UPB).

  18. Real-time measurements of endogenous CO production from vascular cells using an ultrasensitive laser sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morimoto, Y.; Durante, W.; Lancaster, D. G.; Klattenhoff, J.; Tittel, F. K.

    2001-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) has been implicated as a biological messenger molecule analogous to nitric oxide. A compact gas sensor based on a midinfrared laser absorption spectroscopy was developed for direct and real-time measurement of trace levels (in approximate pmol) of CO release by vascular cells. The midinfrared light is generated by difference frequency mixing of two nearinfrared lasers in a nonlinear optical crystal. A strong infrared absorption line of CO (4.61 microm) is chosen for convenient CO detection without interference from other gas species. The generation of CO from cultured vascular smooth muscle cells was detected every 20 s without any chemical modification to the CO. The sensitivity of the sensor reached 6.9 pmol CO. CO synthesis was measured from untreated control cells (0.25 nmol per 10(7) cells/h), sodium nitroprusside-treated cells (0.29 nmol per 10(7) cells/h), and hemin-treated cells (0.49 nmol per 10(7) cells/h). The sensor also detected decreases in CO production after the addition of the heme oxygenase (HO) inhibitor tin protoporphyrin-IX (from 0.49 to 0.02 nmol per 10(7) cells/h) and increases after the administration of the HO substrate hemin (from 0.27 to 0.64 nmol per 10(7) cells/h). These results demonstrate that midinfrared laser absorption spectroscopy is a useful technique for the noninvasive and real-time detection of trace levels of CO from biological tissues.

  19. Real time M2 and beam parameter product measurement using GigE CMOS sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaggs, Michael; Haas, Gil

    2016-03-01

    The ISO 11146-1 standard for measurement of a laser's M-square requires the minimum measurement of five (5) spatial profiles within the first Rayleigh range and an addition five (5) outside the second Rayleigh range. The first five spatial profiles within the first Rayleigh range establish the beam waist and its location; the second five beyond the second Rayleigh range establish the divergence or convergence from the focusing lens for the M-square computation. The majority of methods used to date are all time averaged and as such are incapable of a real time M-square measurement. We present an ISO 11146-1 compliant method for measuring single shot M-square or beam parameter product values or the measurement of continuous wave sources at rates greater than five frames per second utilizing a pair of GigE based CMOS sensors. One GigE CMOS sensor is setup to measure the minimum of five spots within the first Rayleigh range for the establishment of the beam waist and its location. A second GigE CMOS sensor is setup to measure the five spatial profiles beyond the second Rayleigh range for the determination of the beam divergence from the focusing lens. Both GigE cameras utilize optics that passively create multiple spatial time slices of the beam and superimpose these time slices on the CMOS sensor in real time resulting in the ability to make single pulse measurements or continuous wave measurements at speeds of greater than five frames per second with full ISO 11146-1 compliance.

  20. Global Near Real-Time MODIS and Landsat Flood Mapping and Product Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Policelli, F. S.; Slayback, D. A.; Tokay, M. M.; Brakenridge, G. R.

    2014-12-01

    Flooding is the most destructive, frequent, and costly natural disaster faced by modern society, and is increasing in frequency and damage (deaths, displacements, and financial costs) as populations increase and climate change generates more extreme weather events. When major flooding events occur, the disaster management community needs frequently updated and easily accessible information to better understand the extent of flooding and coordinate response efforts. With funding from NASA's Applied Sciences program, we developed and are now operating a near real-time global flood mapping system to help provide flood extent information within 24-48 hours of events. The principal element of the system applies a water detection algorithm to MODIS imagery, which is processed by the LANCE (Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS) system at NASA Goddard within a few hours of satellite overpass. Using imagery from both the Terra (10:30 AM local time overpass) and Aqua (1:30 PM) platforms allows the system to deliver an initial daily assessment of flood extent by late afternoon, and more robust assessments after accumulating cloud-free imagery over several days. Cloud cover is the primary limitation in detecting surface water from MODIS imagery. Other issues include the relatively coarse scale of the MODIS imagery (250 meters) for some events, the difficulty of detecting flood waters in areas with continuous canopy cover, confusion of shadow (cloud or terrain) with water, and accurately identifying detected water as flood as opposed to normal water extent. We are working on improvements to address these limitations. We have also begun delivery of near real time water maps at 30 m resolution from Landsat imagery. Although Landsat is not available daily globally, but only every 8 days if imagery from both operating platforms (Landsat 7 and 8) is accessed, it can provide useful higher resolution data on water extent when a clear acquisition coincides with an active

  1. Intensity Maps Production Using Real-Time Joint Streaming Data Processing From Social and Physical Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kropivnitskaya, Y. Y.; Tiampo, K. F.; Qin, J.; Bauer, M.

    2015-12-01

    Intensity is one of the most useful measures of earthquake hazard, as it quantifies the strength of shaking produced at a given distance from the epicenter. Today, there are several data sources that could be used to determine intensity level which can be divided into two main categories. The first category is represented by social data sources, in which the intensity values are collected by interviewing people who experienced the earthquake-induced shaking. In this case, specially developed questionnaires can be used in addition to personal observations published on social networks such as Twitter. These observations are assigned to the appropriate intensity level by correlating specific details and descriptions to the Modified Mercalli Scale. The second category of data sources is represented by observations from different physical sensors installed with the specific purpose of obtaining an instrumentally-derived intensity level. These are usually based on a regression of recorded peak acceleration and/or velocity amplitudes. This approach relates the recorded ground motions to the expected felt and damage distribution through empirical relationships. The goal of this work is to implement and evaluate streaming data processing separately and jointly from both social and physical sensors in order to produce near real-time intensity maps and compare and analyze their quality and evolution through 10-minute time intervals immediately following an earthquake. Results are shown for the case study of the M6.0 2014 South Napa, CA earthquake that occurred on August 24, 2014. The using of innovative streaming and pipelining computing paradigms through IBM InfoSphere Streams platform made it possible to read input data in real-time for low-latency computing of combined intensity level and production of combined intensity maps in near-real time. The results compare three types of intensity maps created based on physical, social and combined data sources. Here we correlate

  2. Evaluation of corn germ from ethanol production as an alternative fat source in dairy cow diets.

    PubMed

    Abdelqader, M M; Hippen, A R; Kalscheur, K F; Schingoethe, D J; Karges, K; Gibson, M L

    2009-03-01

    . Germ removed from corn grain before ethanol production provides an alternative source of fat for energy in lactating dairy cows when fed at 7 and 14% of diet DM. Our results suggest that fat from corn germ may be relatively protected with no adverse effect on DM intake, milk production, and milk composition when fed up to 14% of diet DM.

  3. Alternate Wetting and Drying as an Effective Management Practice to Reduce Methane in Arkansas Rice Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runkle, B.; Smith, S. F.; Suvocarev, K.; Reba, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    Approximately 15% of the global 308 Tg CH4 emitted by anthropogenic sources is currently attributed to rice cultivation. Arkansas, the leading state in rice cultivation, produces over 42% of the total rice and represents over 43% of total land planted to rice in the US. Although rice production is generally water-intensive, some rice producers have adopted a conservation practice, 'Alternate Wetting and Drying' (AWD), in which the flood is released periodically during the growing season. In addition, implementing AWD can reduce CH4 emissions though the introduction of aerobic conditions. To assess the magnitude of this reduction, conventionally flooded (CONV) and AWD fields were identically instrumented for the 2015 season and fluxes of CH4 were measured with an open path IRGA. Other biophysical variables were monitored to determine the relative dominance of potential drivers. Half-hourly CH4 fluxes from the AWD and CONV fields during their similar initial flood (DOY 138-161) were well correlated (R2 = 0.762), indicating similar mechanisms controlling CH4 emissions in both fields. After the initial drydown event in the AWD field (162 DOY), daily median CH4 fluxes continued to rise to 7.80 mg CH4 m-2 h-1 on 163 DOY before subsiding to a local minimum of 0.162 mg CH4 m-2 h-1 on 171 DOY. Daily median CH4 fluxes between 9.24 and 16.0 mg CH4 m-2 h-1 were observed in the CONV field during this same period. Cumulative emissions from both fields following the drydown event and prior to rewetting demonstrated a reduction in CH4 emissions by the AWD treatment by 82%. The substantial decrease in CH4 emissions by AWD in the early growing season supports and expands upon previous chamber-based research and offers strong evidence for the efficacy of AWD in reducing CH4 emissions in AR rice production. The presentation will also assess the latter portion of the growing season, currently underway, and will provide process-based relationships between biophysical parameters and CH

  4. Primary healthcare provider knowledge, beliefs and clinic-based practices regarding alternative tobacco products and marijuana: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Bascombe, Ta Misha S; Scott, Kimberly N; Ballard, Denise; Smith, Samantha A; Thompson, Winifred; Berg, Carla J

    2016-06-01

    Use prevalence of alternative tobacco products and marijuana has increased dramatically. Unfortunately, clinical guidelines have focused on traditional cigarettes with limited attention regarding these emerging public health issues. Thus, it is critical to understand how healthcare professionals view this issue and are responding to it. This qualitative study explored knowledge, beliefs and clinic-based practices regarding traditional and alternative tobacco products (cigar-like products, smokeless tobacco, hookah, e-cigarettes) and marijuana among rural and urban Georgia primary healthcare providers. The sample comprised 20 healthcare providers in primary care settings located in the Atlanta Metropolitan area and rural southern Georgia who participated in semi-structured interviews. Results indicated a lack of knowledge about these products, with some believing that some products were less harmful than traditional cigarettes or that they may be effective in promoting cessation or harm reduction. Few reported explicitly assessing use of these various products in clinic. In addition, healthcare providers reported a need for empirical evidence to inform their clinical practice. Healthcare providers must systematically assess use of the range of tobacco products and marijuana. Evidence-based recommendations or information sources are needed to inform clinical practice and help providers navigate conversations with patients using or inquiring about these products.

  5. Improving food and agriculture productivity and the environment: Canadian initiatives in methyl bromide alternatives and emission control technologies. Revised edition

    SciTech Connect

    Marcotte, M.; Tibelius, C.

    1998-12-31

    Methyl bromide, a fumigant used in the agricultural sector, was listed as an ozone-depleting substance under the Montreal Protocol and is scheduled for phasing out in Canada. This report begins with a review of the joint industry/government approach being taken to plan and manage this phase-out. It then reviews alternative solutions that have been formulated and tested as replacements for the use of methyl bromide in greenhouse cultivation, soil fumigation, strawberry transplant production, tobacco production, grain production, and food processing facilities. Contact names and addresses are provided for those seeking further information. The final sections describe activities in methyl bromide recovery and recycling and list industry and government organizations that have expertise in methyl bromide alternatives.

  6. Real-time flatness inspection of rolled products based on optical laser triangulation and three-dimensional surface reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molleda, Julio; Usamentiaga, Rubén; García, Daniel F.; Bulnes, Francisco G.

    2010-07-01

    Flatness is a major geometrical feature of rolled products specified by both production and quality needs. Real-time inspection of flatness is the basis of automatic flatness control. Industrial facilities where rolled products are manufactured have adverse environments that affect artificial vision systems. We present a low-cost flatness inspection system based on optical triangulation by means of a laser stripe emitter and a CMOS matrix camera, designed to be part of an online flatness control system. An accurate and robust method to extract a laser stripe in adverse conditions over rough surfaces is proposed and designed to be applied in real time. Laser extraction relies on a local and a global search. The global search is based on an adjustment of curve segments based on a split-and-merge technique. A real-time recording method of the input data of the flatness inspection system is proposed. It stores information about manufacturing conditions for an offline tuning of the laser stripe extraction method using real data. Flatness measurements carried out over steel strips are evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively. Moreover, the real-time performance of the proposed system is analyzed.

  7. An approach to real-time magnetic resonance imaging for speech production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Shrikanth; Nayak, Krishna; Byrd, Dani; Lee, Sungbok

    2003-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging has served as a valuable tool for studying primarily static postures in speech production. Now, recent improvements in imaging techniques, particularly in temporal resolution, are making it possible to examine the dynamics of vocal tract shaping during speech. Examples include Mady et al. (2001, 2002) (8 images/second, T1 fast gradient echo) and Demolin et al. (2000) (4-5 images/second, ultra fast turbo spin echo sequence). The present study uses a non 2D-FFT acquisition strategy (spiral k-space trajectory) on a GE Signa 1.5T CV/i scanner with a low-flip angle spiral gradient echo originally developed for cardiac imaging [Kerr et al. (1997), Nayak et al. (2001)] with reconstruction rates of 8-10 images/second. The experimental stimuli included English sentences varying the syllable position of /n, r, l/ (spoken by 2 subjects) and Tamil sentences varying among five liquids (spoken by one subject). The imaging parameters were the following: 15 deg flip angle, 20-interleaves, 6.7 ms TR, 1.88 mm resolution over a 20 cm FOV, 5 mm slice thickness, and 2.4 ms spiral readouts. Data show clear real-time movements of the lips, tongue and velum. Sample movies and data analysis strategies will be presented. Segmental durations, positions, and inter-articulator timing can all be quantitatively evaluated. [Work supported by NIH.

  8. Efficient DMFT impurity solver using real-time dynamics with matrix product states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganahl, Martin; Aichhorn, Markus; Evertz, Hans Gerd; Thunström, Patrik; Held, Karsten; Verstraete, Frank

    2015-10-01

    We propose to calculate spectral functions of quantum impurity models using the time evolving block decimation (TEBD) for matrix product states. The resolution of the spectral function is improved by a so-called linear prediction approach. We apply the method as an impurity solver within the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT) for the single- and two-band Hubbard model on the Bethe lattice. For the single-band model, we observe sharp features at the inner edges of the Hubbard bands. A finite-size scaling shows that they remain present in the thermodynamic limit. We analyze the real time-dependence of the double occupation after adding a single electron and observe oscillations at the same energy as the sharp feature in the Hubbard band, indicating a long-lived coherent superposition of states that correspond to the Kondo peak and the side peaks. For a two-band Hubbard model, we observe an even richer structure in the Hubbard bands, which cannot be related to a multiplet structure of the impurity, in addition to sharp excitations at the band edges of a type similar to the single-band case.

  9. Real-Time PCR Methods for Detection of Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens in Meat and Meat Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Marta; Hansen, Flemming; Cook, Nigel; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David

    As a consequence of the potential hazards posed by the presence of microbial pathogens, microbiological quality control programmes are being increasingly applied throughout the meat production chain in order to minimize the risk of infection for the consumer. Classical microbiological methods to detect the presence of microorganisms, involving enrichment and isolation of presumptive colonies of bacteria on solid media, and final confirmation by biochemical and/or serological identification, although remaining the approach of choice in routine analytical laboratories, can be laborious and time consuming. The adoption of molecular techniques in microbial diagnostics has become a promising alternative approach, as they possess inherent advantages such as shorter time to results, excellent detection limits, specificity and potential for automation. Several molecular detection techniques have been devised in the last two decades, such as nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) (Cook, 2003; Rodriguez-Lazaro, Hernandez, D’Agostino, & Cook, 2006) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (Notomi et al., 2000), but the one which has undergone the most extensive development as a practical food analytical tool is the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (Hoorfar & Cook, 2003; Malorny, Tassios, et al., 2003).

  10. Production of J /ψ +χc and J /ψ +J /ψ with real gluon emission at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likhoded, A. K.; Luchinsky, A. V.; Poslavsky, S. V.

    2016-09-01

    In the present work we study production of J /ψ +χc and J /ψ +J /ψ at the LHC. The first process is forbidden at the leading order in gluon fusion due to the C -parity conservation, and the first nonvanishing contribution is given by the process with the additional emission of a real gluon. Considering the direct production of J /ψ +J /ψ , where the leading order is allowed, we have found that the contribution from the higher order process with real gluon emission is comparable and even more significant than the leading order. Moreover, account of this higher order effect dramatically changes kinematical distributions. Through the present paper we study in detail different channels of paired J /ψ +J /ψ production: direct J /ψ +J /ψ production, feed-down from the J /ψ +χc channel, and double parton scattering. We also try to find kinematical distributions that are most suitable to separate these different channels.

  11. Grammatical Planning Units during Real-Time Sentence Production in Speakers with Agrammatic Aphasia and Healthy Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jiyeon; Yoshida, Masaya; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Grammatical encoding (GE) is impaired in agrammatic aphasia; however, the nature of such deficits remains unclear. We examined grammatical planning units during real-time sentence production in speakers with agrammatic aphasia and control speakers, testing two competing models of GE. We queried whether speakers with agrammatic aphasia…

  12. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction is an alternative method for the detection of HER-2 amplification in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded breast cancer samples.

    PubMed

    Pu, Tianjie; Guo, Peng; Qiu, Yan; Chen, Shinan; Yang, Libo; Sun, Linyong; Ye, Feng; Bu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) are the most common methods that are used to quantify HER-2 gene and protein levels, respectively, in human breast cancer. However, due to bad sample quality, some samples are unable to be subjected to a FISH assay. We evaluated 71 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) breast carcinoma specimens by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), IHC, and FISH. We also performed qPCR and FISH assays on delayed formalin-fixed (DDF) samples. The qPCR results were in complete concordance with the results of IHC and FISH. In regards to the DDF samples, the HER-2 fluorescent signal seemed decayed compared with that of the DDF samples after 1 h. However, the qPCR method still works well up to 12 hours. Our results indicated that qPCR was obviously superior to FISH in cases that were not fixed in a reasonable amount of time. However, qPCR can be an alternative method by which to perform HER2 amplification assays in breast cancer.

  13. Direct Detection of Alternative Open Reading Frames Translation Products in Human Significantly Expands the Proteome

    PubMed Central

    Vanderperre, Benoît; Lucier, Jean-François; Bissonnette, Cyntia; Motard, Julie; Tremblay, Guillaume; Vanderperre, Solène; Wisztorski, Maxence; Salzet, Michel; Boisvert, François-Michel; Roucou, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    A fully mature mRNA is usually associated to a reference open reading frame encoding a single protein. Yet, mature mRNAs contain unconventional alternative open reading frames (AltORFs) located in untranslated regions (UTRs) or overlapping the reference ORFs (RefORFs) in non-canonical +2 and +3 reading frames. Although recent ribosome profiling and footprinting approaches have suggested the significant use of unconventional translation initiation sites in mammals, direct evidence of large-scale alternative protein expression at the proteome level is still lacking. To determine the contribution of alternative proteins to the human proteome, we generated a database of predicted human AltORFs revealing a new proteome mainly composed of small proteins with a median length of 57 amino acids, compared to 344 amino acids for the reference proteome. We experimentally detected a total of 1,259 alternative proteins by mass spectrometry analyses of human cell lines, tissues and fluids. In plasma and serum, alternative proteins represent up to 55% of the proteome and may be a potential unsuspected new source for biomarkers. We observed constitutive co-expression of RefORFs and AltORFs from endogenous genes and from transfected cDNAs, including tumor suppressor p53, and provide evidence that out-of-frame clones representing AltORFs are mistakenly rejected as false positive in cDNAs screening assays. Functional importance of alternative proteins is strongly supported by significant evolutionary conservation in vertebrates, invertebrates, and yeast. Our results imply that coding of multiple proteins in a single gene by the use of AltORFs may be a common feature in eukaryotes, and confirm that translation of unconventional ORFs generates an as yet unexplored proteome. PMID:23950983

  14. Ecology of Fungus Gnats (Bradysia spp.) in Greenhouse Production Systems Associated with Disease-Interactions and Alternative Management Strategies.

    PubMed

    Cloyd, Raymond A

    2015-04-09

    Fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.) are major insect pests of greenhouse-grown horticultural crops mainly due to the direct feeding damage caused by the larvae, and the ability of larvae to transmit certain soil-borne plant pathogens. Currently, insecticides and biological control agents are being used successively to deal with fungus gnat populations in greenhouse production systems. However, these strategies may only be effective as long as greenhouse producers also implement alternative management strategies such as cultural, physical, and sanitation. This includes elimination of algae, and plant and growing medium debris; placing physical barriers onto the growing medium surface; and using materials that repel fungus gnat adults. This article describes the disease-interactions associated with fungus gnats and foliar and soil-borne diseases, and the alternative management strategies that should be considered by greenhouse producers in order to alleviate problems with fungus gnats in greenhouse production systems.

  15. Ecology of Fungus Gnats (Bradysia spp.) in Greenhouse Production Systems Associated with Disease-Interactions and Alternative Management Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Cloyd, Raymond A.

    2015-01-01

    Fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.) are major insect pests of greenhouse-grown horticultural crops mainly due to the direct feeding damage caused by the larvae, and the ability of larvae to transmit certain soil-borne plant pathogens. Currently, insecticides and biological control agents are being used successively to deal with fungus gnat populations in greenhouse production systems. However, these strategies may only be effective as long as greenhouse producers also implement alternative management strategies such as cultural, physical, and sanitation. This includes elimination of algae, and plant and growing medium debris; placing physical barriers onto the growing medium surface; and using materials that repel fungus gnat adults. This article describes the disease-interactions associated with fungus gnats and foliar and soil-borne diseases, and the alternative management strategies that should be considered by greenhouse producers in order to alleviate problems with fungus gnats in greenhouse production systems. PMID:26463188

  16. A Changing Number of Alternative States in the Boreal Biome: Reproducibility Risks of Replacing Remote Sensing Products

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chi; Holmgren, Milena; Van Nes, Egbert H.; Hirota, Marina; Chapin, F. Stuart; Scheffer, Marten

    2015-01-01

    Publicly available remote sensing products have boosted science in many ways. The openness of these data sources suggests high reproducibility. However, as we show here, results may be specific to versions of the data products that can become unavailable as new versions are posted. We focus on remotely-sensed tree cover. Recent studies have used this public resource to detect multi-modality in tree cover in the tropical and boreal biomes. Such patterns suggest alternative stable states separated by critical tipping points. This has important implications for the potential response of these ecosystems to global climate change. For the boreal region, four distinct ecosystem states (i.e., treeless, sparse and dense woodland, and boreal forest) were previously identified by using the Collection 3 data of MODIS Vegetation Continuous Fields (VCF). Since then, the MODIS VCF product has been updated to Collection 5; and a Landsat VCF product of global tree cover at a fine spatial resolution of 30 meters has been developed. Here we compare these different remote-sensing products of tree cover to show that identification of alternative stable states in the boreal biome partly depends on the data source used. The updated MODIS data and the newer Landsat data consistently demonstrate three distinct modes around similar tree-cover values. Our analysis suggests that the boreal region has three modes: one sparsely vegetated state (treeless), one distinct ‘savanna-like’ state and one forest state, which could be alternative stable states. Our analysis illustrates that qualitative outcomes of studies may change fundamentally as new versions of remote sensing products are used. Scientific reproducibility thus requires that old versions remain publicly available. PMID:26571014

  17. A Changing Number of Alternative States in the Boreal Biome: Reproducibility Risks of Replacing Remote Sensing Products.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chi; Holmgren, Milena; Van Nes, Egbert H; Hirota, Marina; Chapin, F Stuart; Scheffer, Marten

    2015-01-01

    Publicly available remote sensing products have boosted science in many ways. The openness of these data sources suggests high reproducibility. However, as we show here, results may be specific to versions of the data products that can become unavailable as new versions are posted. We focus on remotely-sensed tree cover. Recent studies have used this public resource to detect multi-modality in tree cover in the tropical and boreal biomes. Such patterns suggest alternative stable states separated by critical tipping points. This has important implications for the potential response of these ecosystems to global climate change. For the boreal region, four distinct ecosystem states (i.e., treeless, sparse and dense woodland, and boreal forest) were previously identified by using the Collection 3 data of MODIS Vegetation Continuous Fields (VCF). Since then, the MODIS VCF product has been updated to Collection 5; and a Landsat VCF product of global tree cover at a fine spatial resolution of 30 meters has been developed. Here we compare these different remote-sensing products of tree cover to show that identification of alternative stable states in the boreal biome partly depends on the data source used. The updated MODIS data and the newer Landsat data consistently demonstrate three distinct modes around similar tree-cover values. Our analysis suggests that the boreal region has three modes: one sparsely vegetated state (treeless), one distinct 'savanna-like' state and one forest state, which could be alternative stable states. Our analysis illustrates that qualitative outcomes of studies may change fundamentally as new versions of remote sensing products are used. Scientific reproducibility thus requires that old versions remain publicly available.

  18. eMODIS Expedited: Overview of a Near Real Time MODIS Production System for Operational Vegetation Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkerson, C.; Meyer, D. J.; Werpy, J.; Evenson, K.; Merritt, M.

    2010-12-01

    The expedited MODIS, or eMODIS production system derives near-real time Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) surface reflectance provided by the Land and Atmosphere Near-real time Capability for EOS (LANCE). There are currently three regions covered by this U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) capability, including the continental U.S., Africa, and the Central America/Caribbean regions. Each of the eMODIS production streams is configured to output its data in map projections, compositing intervals, spatial resolutions, and file formats specific to its region and user community. The challenges of processing 1,000-meter, 500-m, and especially 250-m products by midnight on the last day of a product interval have been met with increasingly effective software and system architecture. An anonymous file transfer protocol (FTP) distribution site (ftp://emodisftp.cr.usgs.gov/eMODIS) allows users direct access to eMODIS NDVI products for operational (near-real time) monitoring of vegetation conditions like drought, crop failure, insect infestation, and other threats, thus supporting subsequent early warning of famine and the targeting of vulnerable populations for insecure food situations.

  19. Alternatives to antibiotics as growth promoters for use in swine production: a review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In the past two decades, an intensive amount of research has been focused on the development of alternatives to antibiotics to maintain swine health and performance. The most widely researched alternatives include probiotics, prebiotics, acidifiers, plant extracts and neutraceuticals such as copper and zinc. Since these additives have been more than adequately covered in previous reviews, the focus of this review will be on less traditional alternatives. The potential of antimicrobial peptides, clay minerals, egg yolk antibodies, essential oils, eucalyptus oil-medium chain fatty acids, rare earth elements and recombinant enzymes are discussed. Based on a thorough review of the literature, it is evident that a long and growing list of compounds exist which have been tested for their ability to replace antibiotics as feed additives in diets fed to swine. Unfortunately, the vast majority of these compounds produce inconsistent results and rarely equal antibiotics in their effectiveness. Therefore, it would appear that research is still needed in this area and that the perfect alternative to antibiotics does not yet exist. PMID:24034214

  20. EVALUATION OF CURRENTLY AVAILABLE ALTERNATIVES TO METHYL BROMIDE FOR ORNAMENTAL CROP PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were designed to test the efficacy of the chemical alternatives, Midas™ (iodomethane:chloropicrin (pic) 50:50 [MI 50:50] and 98:2 [MI 98:2], Arysta LifeScience Corp., Cary, NC) and dimethyl disulfide:pic (Paladin™ 79:21 [DMDS], United Phosphorous, Inc., King of Prussia, PA) compared with met...

  1. Methyl Bromide alternatives for vegetable production in Georgia: On-farm trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three fumigant alternatives, methyl iodide plus chloropicirn (MIDAS), dimethyl disulfide plus chloropicrin (DMDS), and Telone II plus chloropicrin plus Vapam (3-Way) have exhibited promising results in small plot trials for the control of pests (weeds, pathogens, nematodes) in plasticulture producti...

  2. Production and Reception Formats: An Alternative Participation Framework for Analysis of Classroom Discourse?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crichton, Hazel

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to offer an alternative to traditional participation frameworks used to analyse teacher/pupil talk in the classroom. Within curricular areas where learners are encouraged to articulate their own meaning and be creative in their use of language, a traditional participation framework, such as Initiation, Response, Follow-up, may…

  3. Simple automatic device for real time sampling of gas production by a reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Frattolillo, A.

    2006-06-15

    An innovative automatic device, allowing periodically drawing samples of the gases produced by a generic reactor, is presented. The gases evolving during the reaction are collected in a storage manifold, equipped with a variable volume consisting of a stainless steel bellow, whose expansion or contraction is driven by a linear step motor. A capacitive gauge monitors the pressure inside the storage manifold, while a feedback control loop reacts to any pressure change adjusting the variable volume (by means of the step motor) in such a way to keep the pressure at a desired set point P{sub 0}. As long as the reaction proceeds, the gas production results in a progressive expansion of the variable volume, whose instantaneous value is constantly monitored by means of a slide potentiometer, whose lever is rigidly connected to the bellow's moving extremity. Once the bellow's expansion has reached a predetermined volume increment {delta}V, which means that an amount of gas P{sub 0}{delta}V has been produced and collected in the storage circuit, a quantity P{sub 0}V{sub S}{<=}P{sub 0}{delta}V of gas is released to the analysis system. A set of electropneumatic valves, automatically operated by the control system, allows for gas delivery to the analysis equipment and retrieval of the set point pressure, by compression of the variable volume, with no influence on the reaction. All relevant parameters are monitored and logged on a personal computer. The control and data acquisition software, made out using National Instrument LABVIEW trade mark sign , also provides control of the analysis equipment. The ability of the proposed setup to not affect the ongoing process allows real time monitoring (by drawing samples at regular time intervals during the reaction) of the gas production. Moreover, since the amount of gas P{sub 0}V{sub S} drawn at each sampling is always the same, it is possible to establish at a glance whether or not there are changes in the concentration of any

  4. 77 FR 5696 - Exceptions or Alternatives to Labeling Requirements for Products Held by the Strategic National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... products in addition to medical products in the SNS that are approved, licensed, or cleared for marketing... ultimately approved for marketing, the products would have been returned to the manufacturer or sent to... that any statements concerning preemption can be justified under legal principles governing...

  5. Economic potential of compost amendment as an alternative to irrigation in Maine potato production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato productivity in the northeastern U.S. has been relatively constant for over fifty years, raising questions about what factors are limiting productivity. Research was initiated in 2004 to identify key constraints to potato productivity by evaluating Status Quo, Soil Conserving, and Soil Improv...

  6. A comparative human health risk assessment of p-dichlorobenzene-based toilet rimblock products versus fragrance/surfactant-based alternatives.

    PubMed

    Aronson, Dallas B; Bosch, Stephen; Gray, D Anthony; Howard, Philip H; Guiney, Patrick D

    2007-10-01

    A comparison of the human health risk to consumers using one of two types of toilet rimblock products, either a p-dichlorobenzene-based rimblock or two newer fragrance/surfactant-based alternatives, was conducted. Rimblock products are designed for global use by consumers worldwide and function by releasing volatile compounds into indoor air with subsequent exposure presumed to be mainly by inhalation of indoor air. Using the THERdbASE exposure model and experimentally determined emission data, indoor air concentrations and daily intake values were determined for both types of rimblock products. Modeled exposure concentrations from a representative p-dichlorobenzene rimblock product are an order of magnitude higher than those from the alternative rimblock products due to its nearly pure composition and high sublimation rate. Lifetime exposure to p-dichlorobenzene or the subset of fragrance components with available RfD values is not expected to lead to non-cancer-based adverse health effects based on the exposure concentrations estimated using the THERdbASE model. A similar comparison of cancer-based effects was not possible as insufficient data were available for the fragrance components.

  7. Assessment of energy crops alternative to maize for biogas production in the Greater Region.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Frédéric; Gerin, Patrick A; Noo, Anaïs; Lemaigre, Sébastien; Stilmant, Didier; Schmit, Thomas; Leclech, Nathael; Ruelle, Luc; Gennen, Jerome; von Francken-Welz, Herbert; Foucart, Guy; Flammang, Jos; Weyland, Marc; Delfosse, Philippe

    2014-08-01

    The biomethane yield of various energy crops, selected among potential alternatives to maize in the Greater Region, was assessed. The biomass yield, the volatile solids (VS) content and the biochemical methane potential (BMP) were measured to calculate the biomethane yield per hectare of all plant species. For all species, the dry matter biomass yield and the VS content were the main factors that influence, respectively, the biomethane yield and the BMP. Both values were predicted with good accuracy by linear regressions using the biomass yield and the VS as independent variable. The perennial crop miscanthus appeared to be the most promising alternative to maize when harvested as green matter in autumn and ensiled. Miscanthus reached a biomethane yield of 5.5 ± 1 × 10(3)m(3)ha(-1) during the second year after the establishment, as compared to 5.3 ± 1 × 10(3)m(3)ha(-1) for maize under similar crop conditions.

  8. An Analysis of Alternative Shore Activity Personnel Execution to Improve Productive Work

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Naval History and Heritage Command n.d.) 1 The Navy is also moving to align with civilian workforces, both in pay schedules and work life balance...similar to many attempts to increase job satisfaction in the civilian job marketplace. This alternative may provide all the benefits included with both...in Hotel Work.” Applied Ergonomics 42: 225–232. Moore, Carol S., and Anita U. Hattiangadi. 2002. Inside the Black Box: Assessing the Navy’s

  9. A Note on a Family of Alternating Sums of Products of Binomial Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, N.

    2013-01-01

    We study the following family of integral-valued alternating sums, where -infinity equal to or less than m equal to or less than infinity and n equal to or greater than 0 are integers [equation omitted]. We first consider h[subscript m](n) for m and n non-negative integers and show that it is of the form 2[superscript n + 2m] - P[subscript m](n),…

  10. Optimization of a biotechnological multiproduct batch plant design for the manufacture of four different products: A real case scenario.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Gabriela; Espinoza, Daniel; Figueroa, Nicolas; Asenjo, Juan A

    2017-02-01

    In this work a biotechnological multiproduct batch plant that manufactures four different recombinant proteins for human application is described in some detail. This batch plant design is then optimized with regards to the size of equipment using a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) formulation recently developed by us in order to find a hypothetical new biotechnological batch plant based on the information of real known processes for the production of the four recombinant protein products. The real plant was divided for practical purposes into two sub-processes or facilities: a fermentation facility and a purification facility. Knowing the specific steps conforming the downstream processing of each product, size, and time factors were computed and used as parameters to solve the aforementioned MILP reformulation. New constraints were included to permit the selection of some equipment-such as centrifuges and membrane filters-in a discrete set of sizes. For equipment that can be built according to customer needs-such as reactors-the original formulation was retained. Computational results show the ability of this optimization methodology to deal with real data giving reliable solutions for a multi-product batch plant composed of 44 unit operations in a relatively small amount of time showing that in the case studied it is possible to save up to a 66% of the capital investment in equipment given the cost data used. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;9999: 1-12.

  11. Alternatively spliced products lacking exon 12 dominate the expression of fragile X mental retardation 1 gene in human tissues.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xianguo; Zheng, Dezhu; Liao, Juan; Li, Qingqin; Lin, Yuxiang; Zhang, Duo; Yan, Aizhen; Lan, Fenghua

    2015-08-01

    Fragile X mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1) expression is associated with fragile X syndrome (FXS) and exhibits several splicing products. However, the proportion of spliced isoforms that are expressed in different tissues remains unclear. In the present study, long-chain reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction with a T cloning-sequencing method was conducted in order to analyze the entire coding region of the FMR1 gene in human tissues. In particular, FXS-associated tissues were analyzed, including the brain and testis. Twenty alternatively spliced isoforms were observed among 271 recombinants, including six novel ones. The isoform that consisted of the entire FMR1 coding region (ISO1) accounted for a small proportion of all isoforms. Isoforms lacking exon 12 were the most abundant. In particular, spliced isoforms ISO7 and ISO17 were the most abundant. However, their relative abundance varied between the peripheral blood cells, and the testis and brain tissues. Bioinformatic analyses suggested that exon 12 may be the sole exon undergoing positive selection. The results of the present study suggested that the mechanisms underlying alternative splicing (AS) of the FMR1 gene may be more complex. Furthermore, the functions of alternatively spliced products lacking exon 12 require further investigation. The results of the present study provide novel insights into the association between AS and the structure and function of the FMR1 gene.

  12. The Real-Valued Sparse Direction of Arrival (DOA) Estimation Based on the Khatri-Rao Product.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Wu, Huanxin; Zhao, Zhongkai

    2016-05-14

    There is a problem that complex operation which leads to a heavy calculation burden is required when the direction of arrival (DOA) of a sparse signal is estimated by using the array covariance matrix. The solution of the multiple measurement vectors (MMV) model is difficult. In this paper, a real-valued sparse DOA estimation algorithm based on the Khatri-Rao (KR) product called the L₁-RVSKR is proposed. The proposed algorithm is based on the sparse representation of the array covariance matrix. The array covariance matrix is transformed to a real-valued matrix via a unitary transformation so that a real-valued sparse model is achieved. The real-valued sparse model is vectorized for transforming to a single measurement vector (SMV) model, and a new virtual overcomplete dictionary is constructed according to the KR product's property. Finally, the sparse DOA estimation is solved by utilizing the idea of a sparse representation of array covariance vectors (SRACV). The simulation results demonstrate the superior performance and the low computational complexity of the proposed algorithm.

  13. 26 CFR 1.1033(g)-1 - Condemnation of real property held for productive use in trade or business or for investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... productive use in trade or business or for investment. 1.1033(g)-1 Section 1.1033(g)-1 Internal Revenue... Nontaxable Exchanges § 1.1033(g)-1 Condemnation of real property held for productive use in trade or business... advertising displays as real property—(1) In general. Under section 1033(g)(3) of the Code, a taxpayer...

  14. An Alternate Look at Educational Psychologist's Productivity from 1991 to 2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Pei-Hsuan; Acee, Taylor; Chung, Wen-Hung; Hsieh, Ya-Ping; Kim, Hyunjin; Thomas, Greg D.; You, Ji-in; Robinson, Daniel H.

    2004-01-01

    Previous investigations of the productivity of educational psychologists (Smith et al., 1998 and Smith et al., 2003) have used a points system that defines high productivity as having few co-authors and high authorship placement. Due to the increasingly collaborative nature of educational psychology research (Robinson, McKay, Katayama, & Fan,…

  15. Networking Resources, Owning Productivity: A Post-Development Alternative in Mindanao?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Lindsey K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the practices of one small non-governmental organisation (NGO) in Mindanao working innovatively to challenge power and interests by linking resources to local communities who control their productivity. While this may seem like social capital, I suggest that the agency over production, and the deeply political and ideological…

  16. Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Appendix C: Alternate product facility designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The study of the production of methane, methanol, gasoline, and hydrogen by an add-on facility to a Koppers-Totzek based MBG plant is presented. Applications to a Texaco facility are inferred by evaluation of delta effects from the K-T cases. The production of methane from an add-on facility to a Lurgi based MBG plant and the co-production of methane and methanol from a Lurgi based system is studied. Studies are included of the production of methane from up to 50 percent of the MBG produced in an integrated K-T based plant and the production of methane from up to 50 percent of the MBG produced from an integrated plant in which module 1 is based on K-T technology and modules 2, 3, and 4 are based on Texaco technology.

  17. Granulocyte transfusion experience in pediatric neutropenic fever: Splitted product can be an alternative?

    PubMed

    Oymak, Yesim; Ayhan, Yüce; Karapinar, Tuba Hilkay; Devrim, Ilker; Ay, Yilmaz; Sarihan, Hafize; Vergin, Canan

    2015-12-01

    The granulocyte transfusion (GTX) has been used for a long time due to uncontrolled neutropenic fever with antimicrobial agents. In some cases, the product needs to be splitted for using in the next 12 hours. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of splitted product and clinical response to GTX. In this study, 15 patients with malignancy with 19 neutropenic fever, who had received 56 GTX, were included. Seventeen of 56 GTX were splitted and used in maximum 12 hours during infections which did not respond to antibacterial and antifungal therapy in 7 days. The patients were divided in to response groups as a complete, partial and progressive. The predictive factors for response group were evaluated. GTX were well tolerated in all patients. The median granulocyte dose was 1.26 (0.38-5.22) × 10(9)/kg. Total response rate was 89.5%. The infection-related mortality rate was 10.5%. Although the granulocyte doses are the same in both of the product groups, an hour later ANC increment of primer product was higher than that of splitted product (p = 0.001). Among the products, 48.7% of primer product and 17.6% of splitted product had induced ≥ 1000/mm(3) ANC increment after an hour (p = 0.039). Granulocyte transfusion is safe and effective in controlling the febrile neutropenia attack. GTX should be applied in a short time to provide effective ANC increment. For now, main granulocyte product instead of splitted product should be preferred in case of uncontrolled neutropenic fever with antibacterial/antifungal agents.

  18. MODIS NDVI Change Detection Techniques and Products Used in the Near Real Time Forwarn System for Detecting, Monitoring, and Analyzing Regional Forest Disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Gasser, J.; Smoot, J.; Kuper, P.

    2014-12-01

    This presentation discusses MODIS NDVI change detection methods and products used in the ForWarn Early Warning System (EWS) for near real time (NRT) recognition and tracking of regionally evident forest disturbances throughout the conterminous US (CONUS). This EWS has provided NRT forest change products to the forest health protection community since 2010, using temporally processed MODIS Aqua and Terra NDVI time series data to currently compute and post 6 different forest change products for CONUS every 8 days. Multiple change products are required to improve detectability and to more fully assess the nature of apparent disturbances. Each type of forest change product reports per pixel percent change in NDVI for a given 24 day interval, comparing current versus a given historical baseline NDVI. EMODIS 7 day expedited and MODIS MOD13 data are used to obtain current and historical NDVIs, respectively. Historical NDVI data is processed with the Time Series Product Tool (TSPT) and the Phenological Parameters Estimation Tool (PPET) software. While each change product employs maximum value compositing (MVC) of NDVI, the design of specific products primarily differs in terms of the historical baseline. The three main change products use either 1, 3, or all previous years of MVC NDVI as a baseline. Another product uses an Adaptive Length Compositing (ALC) version of MVC to derive an alternative current NDVI that is the freshest quality NDVI as opposed to merely the MVC NDVI across a 24 day time frame. The ALC approach can improve detection speed by 8 to 16 days. ForWarn also includes 2 change products that improve detectability of forest disturbances in lieu of climatic fluctuations, especially in the spring and fall. One compares current MVC NDVI to the zonal maximum under the curve NDVI per pheno-region cluster class, considering all previous years in the MODIS record. The other compares current maximum NDVI to the mean of maximum NDVI for all previous MODIS years. The

  19. Validation of a fast real-time PCR method to detect fraud and mislabeling in milk and dairy products.

    PubMed

    Di Domenico, M; Di Giuseppe, M; Wicochea Rodríguez, J D; Cammà, C

    2017-01-01

    Fast real-time PCR TaqMan assays were developed and validated for species identification in dairy products. Based on the amplification of 12S rRNA and cytB partial genes of mitochondrial DNA, the methods were demonstrated to be sensitive, fast, and species-specific for Bos taurus, Ovis aries, Bubalus bubalis, and Capra hircus. The limit of detection calculated was lower than 1%, and the efficiency was reported to be higher than 96% in every assay. An internal amplification control was used to detect possible false negatives. The method was validated by means of laboratory-prepared samples mixing different species. Moreover, 18 commercial dairy samples were analyzed by both real-time PCR and isoelectric focusing, the official European Union reference method. The 4 TaqMan assays were confirmed to be a useful tool for milk and dairy product authentication.

  20. Submerged culture conditions for the production of alternative natural colorants by a new isolated Penicillium purpurogenum DPUA 1275.

    PubMed

    Santos-Ebinuma, Valéria Carvalho; Teixeira, Maria Francisca Simas; Pessoa, Adalberto

    2013-06-28

    This work aims at investigating the production of yellow, orange, and red natural colorants in a submerged culture of Penicillium purpurogenum DPUA 1275. For this purpose, different experimental conditions evaluating the effect of incubation time, type and size of inoculum, and different carbon and nitrogen sources were performed. Furthermore, the growth kinetics were obtained in the conditions of 10(8) spores/ml and 5 mycelia agar discs during 360 h. These experiments showed that 5 mycelia agar discs and 336 h promoted the highest yellow (3.08 UA400nm), orange (1.44 UA470nm), and red (2.27 UA490nm) colorants production. Moreover, sucrose and yeast extract were the most suitable carbon and nitrogen sources for natural colorants production. Thus, the present study shows a new source of natural colorants, which can be used as an alternative to others available in the market after toxicological studies.

  1. Marginally trapped submanifolds in Lorentzian space forms and in the Lorentzian product of a space form by the real line

    SciTech Connect

    Anciaux, Henri; Godoy, Yamile

    2015-02-15

    We give local, explicit representation formulas for n-dimensional spacelike submanifolds which are marginally trapped in the Minkowski space ℝ{sub 1}{sup n+2}, the de Sitter space dS{sup n+2}, the anti-de Sitter space AdS{sup n+2} and the Lorentzian products S{sup n+1} × ℝ and ℍ{sup n+1} × ℝ of the sphere and the hyperbolic space by the real line.

  2. Interactive Visualization of Near Real Time and Production Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Data Online Using CesiumJS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lammers, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Advancements in the capabilities of JavaScript frameworks and web browsing technology make online visualization of large geospatial datasets viable. Commonly this is done using static image overlays, prerendered animations, or cumbersome geoservers. These methods can limit interactivity andor place a large burden on server-side post-processing and storage of data. Geospatial data, and satellite data specifically, benefit from being visualized both on and above a three-dimensional surface. The open-source JavaScript framework CesiumJS, developed by Analytical Graphics, Inc., leverages the WebGL protocol to do just that. It has entered the void left by the abandonment of the Google Earth Web API, and it serves as a capable and well-maintained platform upon which data can be displayed. This paper will describe the technology behind the two primary products developed as part of the NASA Precipitation Processing System STORM website: GPM Near Real Time Viewer (GPMNRTView) and STORM Virtual Globe (STORM VG). GPMNRTView reads small post-processed CZML files derived from various Level 1 through 3 near real-time products. For swath-based products, several brightness temperature channels or precipitation-related variables are available for animating in virtual real-time as the satellite-observed them on and above the Earths surface. With grid-based products, only precipitation rates are available, but the grid points are visualized in such a way that they can be interactively examined to explore raw values. STORM VG reads values directly off the HDF5 files, converting the information into JSON on the fly. All data points both on and above the surface can be examined here as well. Both the raw values and, if relevant, elevations are displayed. Surface and above-ground precipitation rates from select Level 2 and 3 products are shown. Examples from both products will be shown, including visuals from high impact events observed by GPM constellation satellites.

  3. Alternative methods of processing bio-feedstocks in formulated consumer product design

    PubMed Central

    Peremezhney, Nicolai; Jacob, Philipp-Maximilian; Lapkin, Alexei

    2014-01-01

    In this work new methods of processing bio-feedstocks in the formulated consumer products industry are discussed. Our current approach to formulated products design is based on heuristic knowledge of formulators that allows selecting individual compounds from a library of available materials with known properties. We speculate that most of the compounds (or functions) that make up the product to be designed can potentially be obtained from a few bio-sources. In this case, it may be possible to design a sequence of transformations required to convert feedstocks into products with desired properties, analogous to a metabolic pathway of a complex organism. We conceptualize some novel approaches to processing bio-feedstocks with the aim of bypassing the step of a fixed library of ingredients. Two approaches are brought forward: one making use of knowledge-based expert systems and the other making use of applications of metabolic engineering and dynamic combinatorial chemistry. PMID:24860803

  4. Alternative methods of processing bio-feedstocks in formulated consumer product design.

    PubMed

    Peremezhney, Nicolai; Jacob, Philipp-Maximilian; Lapkin, Alexei

    2014-01-01

    In this work new methods of processing bio-feedstocks in the formulated consumer products industry are discussed. Our current approach to formulated products design is based on heuristic knowledge of formulators that allows selecting individual compounds from a library of available materials with known properties. We speculate that most of the compounds (or functions) that make up the product to be designed can potentially be obtained from a few bio-sources. In this case, it may be possible to design a sequence of transformations required to convert feedstocks into products with desired properties, analogous to a metabolic pathway of a complex organism. We conceptualize some novel approaches to processing bio-feedstocks with the aim of bypassing the step of a fixed library of ingredients. Two approaches are brought forward: one making use of knowledge-based expert systems and the other making use of applications of metabolic engineering and dynamic combinatorial chemistry.

  5. The multi-year cumulative effects of alternative stocking rate and grazing management practices on pasture productivity and utilization efficiency.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, B; Delaby, L; Pierce, K M; McCarthy, J; Fleming, C; Brennan, A; Horan, B

    2016-05-01

    The production and utilization of increased quantities of high quality pasture is of paramount importance in pasture-based milk production systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cumulative effects of alternative integrated grazing strategies, incorporating alternative stocking rate (SR) and grazing severities, on pasture productivity and grazing efficiency over multiple years within farm systems using perennial ryegrass dominant pastures. Three whole-farm SR treatments were compared over 4 complete grazing seasons (2009 to 2012 inclusive): low (2.51 cows/ha; LSR), medium (2.92 cows/ha; MSR), and high (3.28 cows/ha; HSR). Each system had its own farmlet containing 18 paddocks and remained on the same treatment for the duration of the study. Stocking rate had a significant effect on all grazing variables with the exception of soil fertility status and sward density. Increased SR resulted in increased total annual net pasture accumulation, improved sward nutritive value, and increased grazed pasture utilization. Total annual net pasture accumulation was greatest in HSR [15,410kg of dry matter (DM)/ha], intermediate for MSR (14,992kg of DM/ha), and least for LSR (14,479kg of DM/ha) during the 4-yr study period. A linear effect of SR on net pasture accumulation was detected with an increase in net pasture accumulation of 1,164.4 (SE=432.7) kg of DM/ha for each 1 cow/ha increase in SR. Pregrazing pasture mass and height and postgrazing residual pasture mass and height were greatest for LSR, intermediate for the MSR, and lowest for the HSR. In comparison with the LSR, the imposition of a consistently increased grazing severity coupled with increased whole farm SR in MSR and HSR treatments arrested the decline in sward nutritive value, typically observed during mid-season. Incorporating the individual beneficial effects of SR on pasture accumulation, nutritive value, and utilization efficiency, total proportional energy (unité fourragère lait

  6. Modeling the impacts of alternative fertilization methods on nitrogen loading in rice production in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zheng; Sha, Zhimin; Liu, Yibo; Wu, Shuhang; Zhang, Hanlin; Li, Changsheng; Zhao, Qi; Cao, Linkui

    2016-10-01

    Nitrogen (N) loss from paddy fields is an important source of agricultural non-point source pollution that leads to eutrophication of water bodies and degradation of water quality. The impacts of alternative N fertilizer management practices on N loading (N loss through runoff and leaching) from paddy fields in Shanghai were assessed using a process-based biogeochemical model, DNDC. The results indicated that the current fertilization rate in paddy fields of Shanghai (300kgN/ha) exceeds the actual rice demand and has led to substantial N loading of 1142±276kg. The combined application of urea at 150kgN/ha and organic manure at 100kgN/ha was identified as the best fertilization method for rice cultivation in Shanghai; this application maintained optimal rice yields and significantly reduced N loading to 714±151kg in comparison with the current fertilization rate. A sensitivity test was conducted with various input parameters, and the results indicated that fertilization, precipitation and soil properties were the most sensitive factors that regulate N loss from paddy fields. The variability of soil properties, especially SOC led to high uncertainties in the simulated results. Therefore, the local climate conditions and soil properties should be taken into account in the identification of the best management practice (BMP) for rice cultivation, given the high spatially heterogeneous N loading values across all towns used in the simulation. The DNDC model is an effective approach for simulating and predicting N loading in paddy fields under alternative agricultural management practices.

  7. Crystal structure of A. aeolicus LpxC with bound product suggests alternate deacetylation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew D; Gao, Ning; Ross, Philip L; Olivier, Nelson B

    2015-09-01

    UDP-3-O-acyl-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase (LpxC) is the first committed step to form lipid A, an essential component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. As it is essential for the survival of many pathogens, LpxC is an attractive target for antibacterial therapeutics. Herein, we report the product-bound co-crystal structure of LpxC from the acheal Aquifex aeolicus solved to 1.6 Å resolution. We identified interactions by hydroxyl and hydroxymethyl substituents of the product glucosamine ring that may enable new insights to exploit waters in the active site for structure-based design of LpxC inhibitors with novel scaffolds. By using this product structure, we have performed quantum mechanical modeling on the substrate in the active site. Based on our results and published experimental data, we propose a new mechanism that may lead to a better understanding of LpxC catalysis and inhibition.

  8. Thermoascus aurantiacus CBHI/Cel7A Production in Trichoderma reesei on Alternative Carbon Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benkő, Zsuzsa; Drahos, Eszter; Szengyel, Zsolt; Puranen, Terhi; Vehmaanperä, Jari; Réczey, Kati

    To develop functional enzymes in cellulose hydrolysis at or above 70°C the cellobiohydrolase (CBHI/Cel7A) of Thermoascus aurantiacus was cloned and expressed in Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 under the strong cbh1 promoter. Cellulase production of the parental strain and the novel strain (RF6026) was examined in submerged fermentation experiments using various carbon sources, which were lactose, Solka Floc 200 cellulose powder, and steam pretreated corn stover. An industrially feasible production medium was used containing only distiller's spent grain, KH2PO4, and (NH4)2SO4. Enzyme production was followed by measurements of protein concentration, total cellulase enzyme activity (filter paper activity), β-glucosidase activity, CBHI activity, and endogenase I (EGI) activity. The Thermoascus CBHI/Cel7A activity was taken as an indication of the heterologous gene expression under the cbh1 promoter.

  9. Alternative ocean energy products and hybrid geothermal-OTEC /GEOTEC/ plants

    SciTech Connect

    Dugger, G.L.; Richards, D.

    1981-01-01

    Products other than electricity from OTEC power plants are explored. Noting that the highest temperature gradients with the least seasonal variability are situated in tropical waters, it is suggested that portable products, such as NH3, liquid H2, methanol, and liquid hydrocarbon fuels, in addition to metals refining, are the most attractive applications of OTEC power. Cost estimates are provided for each product based on an average annual temperature change of 23.9 C and a 325 MWe OTEC the eighth plant costs are projected at $1,280/kW. Slowly cruising platforms for OTEC systems will have higher annual average temperature gradients than moored plants, and seasonal variations will relegate the monetary value of some OTEC electricity to fuel avoidance costs, due to lower winter gradient differences. Geothermal OTEC plants' performance is examined and found to exceed the normal OTEC efficiency by 12%.

  10. Fruit production of Attalea colenda (Arecaceae) in coastal Ecuador - an alternative oil resource?

    SciTech Connect

    Feil, J.P.

    1996-07-01

    Attalea colenda is a monoecious palm found in pastures in coastal Ecuador. In dry regions, it is a valuable source of oil in self-sufficiency farming or in combination with cattle in pastures. The palm was studied over a gradient of dry to humid environments during two fruiting seasons. Palm growth, production of leaves, inflorescences, and infructescences, number of fruits per infructescence, and seed weight of five populations were evaluated. The individual of average size is 15 m tall, which corresponds to approximately 30-40 years of age. No difference in fruit production was recorded between wet and dry regions of coastal Ecuador. The average production of one hectare of pasture, with 50 palms, was 0.9 t of oil per year. One population that was part of an agroforestry system produced 50% more fruits than the average of all populations in pasture. 18 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  11. Development of alternative oxygen production source using a zirconia solid electrolyte membrane. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Suitor, J.W.; Clark, D.J.; Losey, R.W.

    1990-08-01

    The objective of this multiyear effort was the development, fabrication and testing of a zirconia oxygen production module capable of delivering approximately 100 liters/minute (LPM) of oxygen. The work discussed in this report consists of development and improvement of the zirconia cell along with manufacture of cell components, preliminary design of the final plant, additional economic analysis and industrial participation. (VC)

  12. Development of alternative oxygen production source using a zirconia solid electrolyte membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Suitor, J.W.; Clark, D.J.; Losey, R.W.

    1990-08-01

    The objective of this multiyear effort was the development, fabrication and testing of a zirconia oxygen production module capable of delivering approximately 100 liters/minute (LPM) of oxygen. The work discussed in this report consists of development and improvement of the zirconia cell along with manufacture of cell components, preliminary design of the final plant, additional economic analysis and industrial participation. (VC)

  13. Productivity, job satisfaction, and health and safety in the coal industry: the participatory alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This is a conference which presents results and ideas on workplace participation in the coal industry. It discusses the theory of the quality circle groups for developing their own production rates and design goals. It presents the results of different coal company participation in this idea and how to implement this option. Individual topics are entered into the Data Base as separate items.

  14. ARS Research Review on "Recent progress in developing alternative strategies to antibiotics in poultry production"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The global animal industry needs to address the increasing regulatory restrictions on the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) in animal production. Many AGPs have already been restricted by animal farms in the European Union and soon other countries are expected to be under increasing scrutin...

  15. Crop Response to Hybrid Poplar Alternative Soilless Substrate Component for Pacific Northwest Ornamental Container Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Douglas fir bark (DFB) is the primary component used in soilless substrate to grow woody ornamental plants in the Pacific Northwest. Bark is a by-product of the timber industry and is used for landscape mulch, a soilless substrate component, or bio-energy. The decline in the housing market and rise ...

  16. Investigating alternative strategies for managing bacterial angular leaf spot in strawberry nursery production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The focus of this article is to discuss some of the approaches we have tested for managing the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas fragariae in infected strawberry nursery stock. X. fragariae causes angular leaf spot (ALS) in strawberry. The pathogen is transmitted to production fields almost exclusively...

  17. Reduced rates and alternatives to methyl bromide for snapdragon production in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field trial was conducted to evaluate soil solarization, Midas™ (iodomethane:chloropicrin 50:50, Arysta LifeScience Corp., Cary, NC) and different rates and formulations of methyl bromide under standard and metalized films for the production of snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) in Martin County, Flor...

  18. Words as Species: An Alternative Approach to Estimating Productive Vocabulary Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meara, Paul M.; Alcoy, Juan Carlos Olmos

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of how we might be able to assess productive vocabulary size in second language learners. It discusses some previous attempts to develop measures of this sort, and argues that a fresh approach is needed in order to overcome some persistent problems that dog research in this area. The paper argues that there might be…

  19. EFFECTS OF BAITS AND BAIT ALTERNATIVES ON SLUG MORTALITY, EGG PRODUCTION, AND SEEDLING SURVIVAL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two non-bait slug control formulations that are not attractive to earthworms including Durham 3.5 and 7.5 (3.5 and 7.5%, metaldehyde, respectively) and SlugFest AWF (all-weather-formula, 25%, metaldehyde), a liquid spray product were investigated for their efficacy in reducing egg fecundity and slu...

  20. Development of alternative oxygen production source using a zirconia solid electrolyte membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suitor, J. W.; Clark, D. J.; Losey, R. W.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this multiyear effort was the development, fabrication and testing of a zirconia oxygen production module capable of delivering approximately 100 liters/minute (LPM) of oxygen. The work discussed in this report consists of development and improvement of the zirconia cell along with manufacture of cell components, preliminary design of the final plant, additional economic analysis and industrial participation.

  1. Methyl Bromide alternatives for vegetable production in Georgia: Small-plot trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Georgia, the loss of MeBr directly impacts the production and profitability of several fruiting vegetables [specifically, pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), eggplant (Solanum melogena L.), and tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill)) and cucurbits (specifically, squash [yellow (Cucurbita pepo L.)], melon...

  2. Design and performance of cooled perches for alternative egg laying production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat stress in both mechanically and naturally ventilated egg production facilities is a problem for the egg industry. Various means of providing supplemental cooling to hens in facilities are available, including tunnel ventilation to increase convective losses and evaporative cooling from either p...

  3. Rational selection of alternative, environmentally compatible surfactants for biotechnological production of pharmaceuticals--a step toward green biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Straub, Jürg Oliver; Shearer, Russel; Studer, Martin

    2014-09-01

    The biotechnological production of pharmaceutical active substances needs ancillary substances. Surfactants are used at the end of the cell culture as a protection against potential viral or bacterial contamination and to lyse the producing cells for isolation and purification of the products. To find a replacement for a surfactant that had raised environmental concern, environmentally relevant data for potential alternatives were searched for in the literature. Significant data gaps were filled with additional tests: biodegradability, algal growth inhibition, acute daphnid immobilization and chronic daphnid reproduction toxicity, acute fish toxicity, and activated sludge respiration inhibition. The results were used to model removal in the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) serving 3 biotechnological production sites in the Roche Group. Predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) were calculated using realistic amounts of surfactants and site-specific wastewater fluxes, modeled removals for the WWTPs and dilution factors by the respective receiving waters. Predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) were derived for WWTPs and for both fresh and marine receiving waters as the treated wastewater of 1 production site is discharged into a coastal water. This resulted in a spreadsheet showing PECs, PNECs, and PEC ÷ PNEC risk characterization ratios for the WWTPs and receiving waters for all investigated surfactants and all 3 sites. This spreadsheet now serves as a selection support for the biotechnological developers. This risk-based prioritization of surfactants is a step toward green biotechnological production.

  4. New approach for natural products screening by real-time monitoring of hemoglobin hydrolysis using quartz crystal microbalance.

    PubMed

    Cornelio, Vivian E; Pedroso, Mariele M; Afonso, André S; Fernandes, João B; da Silva, M Fátima G F; Faria, Ronaldo C; Vieira, Paulo C

    2015-03-03

    The hemoglobin (Hb) released from erythrocytes is a primary nutritive component for many blood-feeding parasites. The aspartic protease cathepsin D is a hemoglobinase that is involved in the Hb degradation process and is considered an interesting target for chemotherapy intervention. However, traditional enzymatic assays for studying Hb degradation utilize spectrophotometric techniques, which do not allow real-time monitoring and can present serious interference problems. Herein, we describe a biosensor using simple approach for the real-time monitoring of Hb hydrolysis as well as an efficient screening method for natural products as enzymatic inhibitors using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) technique. Hemoglobin was anchored on the quartz crystal surface using mixed self-assembled monolayers. The addition of the enzyme caused a mass change (frequency shift) due to Hb hydrolysis, which was monitored in real time. From the frequency change patterns of the Hb-functionalized QCM, we evaluated the enzymatic reaction by determining the kinetic parameters of product formation (k(cat)). The QCM enzymatic assay using immobilized human Hb was shown to be an excellent approach for screening possible inhibitors in complex mixtures, opening up a new avenue for the discovery of novel inhibitors.

  5. The Use of OMPS Near Real Time Products in Volcanic Cloud Risk Mitigation and Smoke/Dust Air Quality Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seftor, C. J.; Krotkov, N. A.; McPeters, R. D.; Li, J. Y.; Durbin, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    Near real time (NRT) SO2 and aerosol index (AI) imagery from Aura's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) has proven invaluable in mitigating the risk posed to air traffic by SO2 and ash clouds from volcanic eruptions. The OMI products, generated as part of NASA's Land, Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) NRT system and available through LANCE and both NOAA's NESDIS and ESA's Support to Aviation Control Service (SACS) portals, are used to monitor the current location of volcanic clouds and to provide input into Volcanic Ash (VA) advisory forecasts. NRT products have recently been developed using data from the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite onboard the Suomi NPP platform; they are currently being made available through the SACS portal and will shortly be incorporated into the LANCE NRT system. We will show examples of the use of OMPS NRT SO2 and AI imagery to monitor recent volcanic eruption events. We will also demonstrate the usefulness of OMPS AI imagery to detect and track dust storms and smoke from fires, and how this information can be used to forecast their impact on air quality in areas far removed from their source. Finally, we will show SO2 and AI imagery generated from our OMPS Direct Broadcast data to highlight the capability of our real time system.

  6. Multi-batch catfish production and economic analysis using alternative low-cost diets with corn gluten feed and traditional diets with meat-and-bone meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We conducted concurrent feeding trials for one growing season with channel catfish in ponds in Mississippi and Arkansas to evaluate the production and economic effects of alternative (low-cost) feeds containing 28 or 32% protein and alternative (corn gluten feed) or traditional (porcine meat, bone a...

  7. Peak oil demand: the role of fuel efficiency and alternative fuels in a global oil production decline.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Adam R; Millard-Ball, Adam; Ganser, Matthew; Gorelick, Steven M

    2013-07-16

    Some argue that peak conventional oil production is imminent due to physical resource scarcity. We examine the alternative possibility of reduced oil use due to improved efficiency and oil substitution. Our model uses historical relationships to project future demand for (a) transport services, (b) all liquid fuels, and (c) substitution with alternative energy carriers, including electricity. Results show great increases in passenger and freight transport activity, but less reliance on oil. Demand for liquids inputs to refineries declines significantly after 2070. By 2100 transport energy demand rises >1000% in Asia, while flattening in North America (+23%) and Europe (-20%). Conventional oil demand declines after 2035, and cumulative oil production is 1900 Gbbl from 2010 to 2100 (close to the U.S. Geological Survey median estimate of remaining oil, which only includes projected discoveries through 2025). These results suggest that effort is better spent to determine and influence the trajectory of oil substitution and efficiency improvement rather than to focus on oil resource scarcity. The results also imply that policy makers should not rely on liquid fossil fuel scarcity to constrain damage from climate change. However, there is an unpredictable range of emissions impacts depending on which mix of substitutes for conventional oil gains dominance-oil sands, electricity, coal-to-liquids, or others.

  8. Forage plants as an alternative feed resource for sustainable pig production in the tropics: a review.

    PubMed

    Kambashi, B; Boudry, C; Picron, P; Bindelle, J

    2014-08-01

    Globally, pressure on concentrate feed resources is increasing, especially in the tropics where many countries are net importers of food. Forage plants are a possible alternative, but their use as feed ingredients for pigs raises several issues related to their higher fibre and plant secondary metabolites contents as well as their lower nutritive value. In this paper, the nutritive value of several forage species and the parameters that influence this nutritive value in relationship to the plant family, the physiological stage, the plant part and the preservation method (fresh, hay and silage) are reviewed. The influence of the breed and the physiological status of the animal on animal voluntary intake of fibre-rich ingredients, digestibility as related to gastrointestinal volume and transit time and growth performances are also discussed. The final section highlights the advantages and drawbacks of forage plants in pig diets and stresses the need for proper economic evaluation to conclude on the benefits of the use of forage plants in pig feed.

  9. The dynamics of the alternatively spliced NOL7 gene products and role in nucleolar architecture

    PubMed Central

    Kinor, Noa

    2011-01-01

    Three alternatively spliced forms of the human NOL7 gene coding for relatively small proteins were identified. The two shorter forms were generated by intron retention events, and each isoform was differently localized within the cell. The NOL7-SP1 long form (29 kD) localized to the nucleolus, SP2 was nucleoplasmic, while SP3 was distributed throughout the whole cell. NOL7-SP1 was confined to the nucleolar granular component, and during cell division disassociated from the nucleolus. Knockdown of NOL7-SP1 levels abrogated nucleolar architecture, in particular the internal regions, and reduced cell proliferation. Analysis of the nucleolar dynamics of the SP1 protein during interphase showed nucleolar high binding affinity. Dissection of protein domains showed that nucleolar targeting was mediated by a unique C-terminal nucleolar localization sequence (NoLS). However, this sequence was not sufficient for conferring high binding affinity, which required additional regions of the protein. Our analysis shows that NOL7 is important for maintaining internal nucleolar structure and cell growth rates, and that while specific protein localization can be obtained by specific short localization motifs, nucleolar residency through binding must be mediated by a synergistic combination of protein modules. PMID:21818416

  10. Alternative synthesis of cobalt monophosphide@C core-shell nanocables for electrochemical hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunde; Jiang, Jun; Zhou, Xiaoli; Wang, Wenliang; Zuo, Jian; Yang, Qing

    2015-07-01

    Cobalt monophosphide@C (CoP@C) core-shell nanocables are successfully synthesized via a one-step fast reaction of cobalt(II) acetylacetonate [Co(acac)2] and triphenyl phosphine (PPh3) in a sealed tube at 400 °C for 1 h. The electrocatalytic property of the CoP@C nanocables towards the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER, for the production of molecular hydrogen from water) has been investigated in the current work and it is found that the CoP@C nanocables exhibit a high electrochemical performance and excellent cycling stability. Moreover, investigations show that the carbon coating ensures a fast electron transport and effective restriction of corrosion during the catalytic process. We believe that the CoP@C nanocables would be promising candidates for electrochemical hydrogen production catalyst.

  11. Sulfide Production and Corrosion in Seawater During Exposure to FAME Alternative Fuel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 08-01-2012 REPORT TYPE Abstracts and Oral Presentations 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Abstracts and... Oral Presentations of: 16th Int. Congress of Marine Corrosion & Fouling (ICMCF) June 24-28, 2012 in Seattle, WA 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...after FAME diesel exposure, sulfide levels and corrosion increased markedly due to microbial sulfide production. The original microflora of the two

  12. An analysis of alternative technologies for the removal of ethylene from the CELSS biomass production chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakow, Allen L.

    1995-01-01

    A variety of technologies were analyzed for their potential to remove ethylene from the CELSS Biomass Production Chamber (BPC). During crop production (e.g., lettuce, wheat, soybean, potato) in the BPC ethylene can accumulate in the airspace and subsequently affect plant viability. The chief source of ethylene is the plants themselves which reside in plastic trays containing nutrient solution. The main sink for ethylene is chamber leakage. The removal technology can be employed when deleterious levels (e.g., 50 ppb for potato) of ethylene are exceeded in the BPC and perhaps to optimize the plant growth process once a better understanding is developed of the relationship between exogenous ethylene concentration and plant growth. The technologies examined were catalytic oxidation, molecular sieve, cryotrapping, permanganate absorption, and UV degradation. Upon analysis, permanganate was chosen as the most suitable method. Experimental data for ethylene removal by permanganate during potato production was analyzed in order to design a system for installation in the BPC air duct. In addition, an analysis of the impact on ethylene concentration in the BPC of integrating the Breadboard Scale Aerobic Bioreactor (BSAB) with the BPC was performed. The result indicates that this unit has no significant effect on the ethylene material balance as a source or sink.

  13. Potential of fructooligosaccharide prebiotics in alternative and nonconventional poultry production systems.

    PubMed

    Ricke, S C

    2015-06-01

    Fructooligosaccharide and inulin prebiotics are carbohydrate-based polymers derived from natural sources that can be utilized by certain gastrointestinal tract bacteria but not by the host animal. They are attractive as feed additives for nonconventional poultry production systems because they select for beneficial microorganisms that are thought to promote nutritional benefits to the bird and potentially limit foodborne pathogen establishment. There have been numerous studies conducted with prebiotic supplements to assess their impact in humans, animals, and conventionally raised poultry but only limited research has been conducted with birds grown under nonconventional production conditions. Much remains unknown about the specific mechanism(s) associated with their impact on the host as well as the gastrointestinal tract microflora. Utilization of several recently developed approaches such as microbiome and metabolomic analyses should offer more insight on how dietary prebiotic additives influence the development of the gastrointestinal tract microbiota and these subsequent changes correspond with alterations in a bird's physiology as it matures. As more detailed and precise studies are done with nonconventional poultry, it is likely that structurally distinct prebiotics will influence not only the gastrointestinal tract microbiota differently, but potentially interact directly and/or indirectly with the bird host in distinguishable patterns as well. These functions will be important to delineate if further applications are to be developed for specific prebiotics in nonconventional poultry production systems.

  14. Detection of adulterated murine components in meat products by TaqMan© real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xin; Zhang, Chi

    2016-02-01

    Using murine meat to substitute mutton has been identified as a new type of meat fraud in China, yet no detection method for murine species has been reported. Here, three kinds of rodent were used as target species to establish a murine-specific real-time PCR method of detection. The mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (cytb) of each target was sequenced and a TaqMan probe was designed based on the cytb. Simultaneously, an internal positive control (IPC) plasmid along with its respective probe were designed to monitor the PCR reaction. As a result, the duplex real-time PCR system was verified to be specific. The limit of detection (LOD) was lower than 1 pg of DNA per reaction and 0.1% murine contamination in meat mixtures. Standard curves were generated for a quantitative analysis. Thus, this study provided a new tool to control the quality of meat products for official and third-party laboratories.

  15. Alternating Authigenic and Carbonate Factory Production within a Cool-water Carbonate Sequence Stratigraphic Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, N. K.; Reid, C.; Bassett, K. N.

    2012-12-01

    Glaucony and phosphate production is characteristic of low sedimentation rates within low energy, oxygen-depleted environments, and is often associated with condensed sections and unconformities. Glaucony- and phosphate-rich rocks are often interpreted to be associated with sea-level highstands and maximum flooding surfaces, especially in siliciclastic systems. In contrast, our research shows that in the cool-water carbonate realm glaucony and, to an extent, phosphate are connected to lowstands and transgressions, requiring a reversal in the way they are interpreted within a sequence stratigraphic context. The Mid-Tertiary rocks of the Waitaki Basin, South Island, New Zealand, contain a cool-water carbonate and greensand succession formed on the eastern passive margin of the Zealandia continental fragment, and include two major sequence boundaries within a broad regional transgression. The palaeobasin contained an eastern outer shelf volcanic-induced high that acted like a platform rim, from where the basin deepened towards the west. The basal sequence contains a bryozoan grainstone facies that formed a shoal on the eastern volcanic seamount. This grades westward to a quartzose impure wackestone containing terrigenous material derived from low-lying islands of Zealandia far to the west. The overlying sequence boundary forms a karst surface associated with the high in the east, and a firmground in the west, and developed as a result of sea-level fall and lowstand conditions. During these lowstand conditions the terrigenous supply of silt and clay material was moved closer to the Waitaki Basin and this was then available for glauconitisation. Calcareous glaucony- and phosphate-rich greensands accumulated during the subsequent transgression, with the glaucony and phosphate content decreasing through this second sequence to form pure packstones during highstand and early regression. The second sequence boundary overlying these packstones shows similar karst and

  16. Reformers for the production of hydrogen from methanol and alternative fuels for fuel cell powered vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K.M.

    1992-08-01

    The objective of this study was (i) to assess the present state of technology of reformers that convert methanol (or other alternative fuels) to a hydrogen-rich gas mixture for use in a fuel cell, and (ii) to identify the R D needs for developing reformers for transportation applications. Steam reforming and partial oxidation are the two basic types of fuel reforming processes. The former is endothermic while the latter is exothermic. Reformers are therefore typically designed as heat exchange systems, and the variety of designs used includes shell-and-tube, packed bed, annular, plate, and cyclic bed types. Catalysts used include noble metals and oxides of Cu, Zn, Cr, Al, Ni, and La. For transportation applications a reformer must be compact, lightweight, and rugged. It must also be capable of rapid start-up and good dynamic performance responsive to fluctuating loads. A partial oxidation reformer is likely to be better than a steam reformer based on these considerations, although its fuel conversion efficiency is expected to be lower than that of a steam reformer. A steam reformer better lends itself to thermal integration with the fuel cell system; however, the thermal independence of the reformer from the fuel cell stack is likely to yield much better dynamic performance of the reformer and the fuel cell propulsion power system. For both steam reforming and partial oxidation reforming, research is needed to develop compact, fast start-up, and dynamically responsive reformers. For transportation applications, steam reformers are likely to prove best for fuel cell/battery hybrid power systems, and partial oxidation reformers are likely to be the choice for stand-alone fuel cell power systems.

  17. Reformers for the production of hydrogen from methanol and alternative fuels for fuel cell powered vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K.M.

    1992-08-01

    The objective of this study was (i) to assess the present state of technology of reformers that convert methanol (or other alternative fuels) to a hydrogen-rich gas mixture for use in a fuel cell, and (ii) to identify the R&D needs for developing reformers for transportation applications. Steam reforming and partial oxidation are the two basic types of fuel reforming processes. The former is endothermic while the latter is exothermic. Reformers are therefore typically designed as heat exchange systems, and the variety of designs used includes shell-and-tube, packed bed, annular, plate, and cyclic bed types. Catalysts used include noble metals and oxides of Cu, Zn, Cr, Al, Ni, and La. For transportation applications a reformer must be compact, lightweight, and rugged. It must also be capable of rapid start-up and good dynamic performance responsive to fluctuating loads. A partial oxidation reformer is likely to be better than a steam reformer based on these considerations, although its fuel conversion efficiency is expected to be lower than that of a steam reformer. A steam reformer better lends itself to thermal integration with the fuel cell system; however, the thermal independence of the reformer from the fuel cell stack is likely to yield much better dynamic performance of the reformer and the fuel cell propulsion power system. For both steam reforming and partial oxidation reforming, research is needed to develop compact, fast start-up, and dynamically responsive reformers. For transportation applications, steam reformers are likely to prove best for fuel cell/battery hybrid power systems, and partial oxidation reformers are likely to be the choice for stand-alone fuel cell power systems.

  18. The no-project alternative analysis: An early product of the Tahoe Decision Support System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halsing, David L.; Hessenflow, Mark L.; Wein, Anne

    2005-01-01

    We report on the development of a No-project alternative analysis (NPAA) or “business as usual” scenario with respect to a 20-year projection of 21 indicators of environmental and socioeconomic conditions in the Lake Tahoe Basin for the Tahoe Regional Planning Agency (TRPA). Our effort was inspired by earlier work that investigated the tradeoffs between an environmental and an economic objective. The NPAA study has implications for a longer term goal of building a Tahoe Decision Support System (TDSS) to assist the TRPA and other Basin agencies in assessing the outcomes of management strategies. The NPAA assumes no major deviations from current management practices or from recent environmental or societal trends and planned Environmental Improvement Program (EIP) projects. Quantitative “scenario generation” tools were constructed to simulate site-specific land uses, various population categories, and associated vehicle miles traveled. Projections of each indicator’s attainment status were made by building visual conceptual models of the relevant natural and social processes, extrapolating trends, and using available models, research, and expert opinion. We present results of the NPAA, projected indicator status, key factors affecting the indicators, indicator functionality, and knowledge gaps. One important result is that current management practices may slow the loss or degradation of environmental qualities but not halt or reverse it. Our analysis also predicts an increase in recreation and commuting into and within the basin, primarily in private vehicles. Private vehicles, which are a critical mechanism by which the Basin population affects the surrounding environment, are a key determinant of air-quality indicators, a source of particulate matter affecting Secchi depth, a source of noise, and a factor in recreational and scenic quality, largely owing to congestion. Key uncertainties in the NPAA include climate change, EIP project effectiveness, and

  19. Fusion of product and process data: Batch-mode and real-time streaming

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent De Sapio; Spike Leonard

    1999-12-01

    In today's DP product realization enterprise it is imperative to reduce the design-to-fabrication cycle time and cost while improving the quality of DP parts (reducing defects). Much of this challenge resides in the inherent gap between the product and process worlds. The lack of seamless, bi-directional flow of information prevents true concurrency in the product realization world. This report addresses a framework for product-process data fusion to help achieve next generation product realization. A fundamental objective is to create an open environment for multichannel observation of process date, and subsequent mapping of that data onto product geometry. In addition to the sensor-based observation of manufacturing processes, model-based process data provides an important complement to empirically acquired data. Two basic groups of manufacturing models are process physics, and machine kinematics and dynamics. Process physics addresses analytical models that describe the physical phenomena of the process itself. Machine kinematic and dynamic models address the mechanical behavior of the processing equipment. As a secondary objective, an attempt has been made in this report to address part of the model-based realm through the development of an open object-oriented library and toolkit for machine kinematics and dynamics. Ultimately, it is desirable to integrate design definition, with all types of process data; both sensor-based and model-based. Collectively, the goal is to allow all disciplines within the product realization enterprise to have a centralized medium for the fusion of product and process data.

  20. Biosolids management strategies: an evaluation of energy production as an alternative to land application.

    PubMed

    Egan, Maureen

    2013-07-01

    Currently, more than half of the biosolids produced within the USA are land applied. Land application of biosolids introduces organic contaminants into the environment. There are potential ecological and human health risks associated with land application of biosolids. Biosolids may be used as a renewable energy source. Nutrients may be recovered from biosolids used for energy generation for use as fertilizer. The by-products of biosolids energy generation may be used beneficially in construction materials. It is recommended that energy generation replace land application as the leading biosolids management strategy.

  1. An alternate approach to the production of radioisotopes for nuclear medicine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Auria, John M.; Keller, Roderich; Ladouceur, Keith; Lapi, Suzanne E.; Ruth, Thomas J.; Schmor, Paul

    2013-03-01

    There is a growing need for the production of radioisotopes for both diagnostic and therapeutic medical applications. Radioisotopes that are produced using the (n,γ) or (γ,n) reactions, however, typically result in samples with low specific activity (radioactivity/gram) due to the high abundance of target material of the same element. One method to effectively remove the isotopic impurity is electro-magnetic mass separation. An Ion Source Test Facility has been constructed at TRIUMF to develop high-intensity, high-efficiency, reliable ion sources for purification of radioactive isotopes, particularly those used in nuclear medicine. In progress studies are presented.

  2. An alternate approach to the production of radioisotopes for nuclear medicine applications.

    PubMed

    D'Auria, John M; Keller, Roderich; Ladouceur, Keith; Lapi, Suzanne E; Ruth, Thomas J; Schmor, Paul

    2013-03-01

    There is a growing need for the production of radioisotopes for both diagnostic and therapeutic medical applications. Radioisotopes that are produced using the (n,γ) or (γ,n) reactions, however, typically result in samples with low specific activity (radioactivity∕gram) due to the high abundance of target material of the same element. One method to effectively remove the isotopic impurity is electro-magnetic mass separation. An Ion Source Test Facility has been constructed at TRIUMF to develop high-intensity, high-efficiency, reliable ion sources for purification of radioactive isotopes, particularly those used in nuclear medicine. In progress studies are presented.

  3. Precipitation Analysis at Fine Time Scales Using Multiple Satellites: Real-time and Research Products and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Robert; Huffman, George; Bolvin, David; Nelkin, Eric; Curtis, Scott; Pierce, Harold

    2004-01-01

    Quasi-global precipitation analyses at fine time scales (3-hr) are described. TRMM observations (radar and passive microwave) are used to calibrate polar-orbit microwave observations from SSM/I (and other satellites instruments, including AMSR and AMSU) and geosynchronous IR observations. The individual data sets are then merged using a priority order based on quality to form the Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (MPA). Raingauge information is used to help constrain the satellite-based estimates over land. The TRMM standard research product (Version 6 3B-42 of the TRMM products) will be available for the entire TRMM period (January 1998-present) in 2004. The real-time version of this merged product has been produced over the past two years and is available on the U.S. TRMM web site (trmm.gsfc.nasa.gov) at 0.25" latitude-longitude resolution over the latitude range from 5O"N-5O0S. Validation of daily totals indicates good results, with limitations noted in mid-latitude winter over land and regions of shallow, orographic precipitation. Various applications of these estimates are described, including: 1) detecting potential floods in near real-time; 2) analyzing Indian Ocean precipitation variations related to the initiation of El Nino; 3) determining characteristics of the African monsoon; and 4) analysis of diurnal variations.

  4. Precipitation Analysis at Fine Time Scales using TRMM and Other Satellites: Real-time and Research Products and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Robert; Huffman, George; Bolvin, David; Nelkin, Eric; Curtis, Scott; Pierce, Harold; Gu, Guo-Jon

    2004-01-01

    Quasi-global precipitation analyses at fine time scales (3-hr) are described. TRMM observations (radar and passive microwave) are used to calibrate polar-orbit microwave observations from SSM/I (and other satellites instruments, including AMSR and AMSU) and geosynchronous IR observations. The individual data sets are then merged using a priority order based on quality to form the TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (MPA). Raingauge information is used to help constrain the satellite-based estimates over land. The TRMM standard research product (Version 6 3B-42 of the TRMM products) will be available for the entire TRMM period (January 1998-present) by the end of 2004. The real-time version of this merged product has been produced over the past two years and is available on the U.S. TRMM web site (trmm.gsfc.nasa.gov) at 0.25" latitude-longitude resolution over the latitude range from 5O0N-50"S. Validation of daily totals indicates good results, with limitations noted in mid-latitude winter over land and regions of shallow, orographic precipitation. Various applications of these estimates are described, includmg: 1) detecting potential floods in near real-time; 2) analyzing Indian Ocean precipitation variations related to the initiation of El Nino; 3) determining characteristics of the African monsoon; and 4) analysis of diurnal variations.

  5. Effects of Interannual Climate Variability on Water Availability and Productivity in Capoeira and Crops Under Traditional and Alternative Shifting Cultivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guild, Liane S.; Sa, Tatiana D. A.; Carvalho, Claudio J. R.; Potter, Christopher S.; Wickel, Albert J.; Brienza, Silvio, Jr.; Kato, Maria doSocorro A.; Kato, Osvaldo; Brass, James (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Regenerating forests play an important role in long-term carbon sequestration and sustainable landuse as they act as potentially important carbon and nutrient sinks during the shifting agriculture fallow period. The long-term functioning of capoeira. is increasingly threatened by a shortening fallow period during shifting cultivation due to demographic pressures and associated increased vulnerability to severe climatic events. Declining productivity and functioning of fallow forests of shifting cultivation combined with progressive loss of nutrients by successive burning and cropping activities has resulted in declining agricultural productivity. In addition to the effects of intense land use practices, droughts associated with El Nino events are becoming more frequent and severe in moist tropical forests and negative effects on capoeira productivity could be considerable. In Igarape-Acu (near Belem, Para), we hypothesize that experimental alternative landuse/clearing practices (mulching and fallow vegetation improvement by planting with fast-growing leguminous tree species) may make capoeira and agriculture more resilient to the effects of agricultural pressures and drought through (1) increased biomass, soil organic matter and associated increase in soil water storage, and nutrient retention and (2) greater rooting depth of trees planted for fallow improvement. This experimental practice (moto mechanized chop-and-mulch with fallow improvement) has resulted increased soil moisture during the cropping phase, reduced loss of nutrients and organic matter, and higher rates of secondary-forest biomass accumulation. We present preliminary data on water relations during the dry season of 2001 in capoeira and crops for both traditional slash-and-burn and alternative chop-and-mulch practices. These data will be used to test IKONOS data for the detection of moisture status differences. The principal goal of the research is to determine the extent to which capoeira and

  6. Nanotechnology in the real world: Redeveloping the nanomaterial consumer products inventory

    PubMed Central

    Kuiken, Todd; Vejerano, Eric P; McGinnis, Sean P; Hochella, Michael F; Rejeski, David; Hull, Matthew S

    2015-01-01

    Summary To document the marketing and distribution of nano-enabled products into the commercial marketplace, the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars and the Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies created the Nanotechnology Consumer Products Inventory (CPI) in 2005. The objective of this present work is to redevelop the CPI by leading a research effort to increase the usefulness and reliability of this inventory. We created eight new descriptors for consumer products, including information pertaining to the nanomaterials contained in each product. The project was motivated by the recognition that a diverse group of stakeholders from academia, industry, and state/federal government had become highly dependent on the inventory as an important resource and bellweather of the pervasiveness of nanotechnology in society. We interviewed 68 nanotechnology experts to assess key information needs. Their answers guided inventory modifications by providing a clear conceptual framework best suited for user expectations. The revised inventory was released in October 2013. It currently lists 1814 consumer products from 622 companies in 32 countries. The Health and Fitness category contains the most products (762, or 42% of the total). Silver is the most frequently used nanomaterial (435 products, or 24%); however, 49% of the products (889) included in the CPI do not provide the composition of the nanomaterial used in them. About 29% of the CPI (528 products) contain nanomaterials suspended in a variety of liquid media and dermal contact is the most likely exposure scenario from their use. The majority (1288 products, or 71%) of the products do not present enough supporting information to corroborate the claim that nanomaterials are used. The modified CPI has enabled crowdsourcing capabilities, which allow users to suggest edits to any entry and permits researchers to upload new findings ranging from human and environmental exposure data to complete life cycle

  7. Nanotechnology in the real world: Redeveloping the nanomaterial consumer products inventory.

    PubMed

    Vance, Marina E; Kuiken, Todd; Vejerano, Eric P; McGinnis, Sean P; Hochella, Michael F; Rejeski, David; Hull, Matthew S

    2015-01-01

    To document the marketing and distribution of nano-enabled products into the commercial marketplace, the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars and the Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies created the Nanotechnology Consumer Products Inventory (CPI) in 2005. The objective of this present work is to redevelop the CPI by leading a research effort to increase the usefulness and reliability of this inventory. We created eight new descriptors for consumer products, including information pertaining to the nanomaterials contained in each product. The project was motivated by the recognition that a diverse group of stakeholders from academia, industry, and state/federal government had become highly dependent on the inventory as an important resource and bellweather of the pervasiveness of nanotechnology in society. We interviewed 68 nanotechnology experts to assess key information needs. Their answers guided inventory modifications by providing a clear conceptual framework best suited for user expectations. The revised inventory was released in October 2013. It currently lists 1814 consumer products from 622 companies in 32 countries. The Health and Fitness category contains the most products (762, or 42% of the total). Silver is the most frequently used nanomaterial (435 products, or 24%); however, 49% of the products (889) included in the CPI do not provide the composition of the nanomaterial used in them. About 29% of the CPI (528 products) contain nanomaterials suspended in a variety of liquid media and dermal contact is the most likely exposure scenario from their use. The majority (1288 products, or 71%) of the products do not present enough supporting information to corroborate the claim that nanomaterials are used. The modified CPI has enabled crowdsourcing capabilities, which allow users to suggest edits to any entry and permits researchers to upload new findings ranging from human and environmental exposure data to complete life cycle assessments. There

  8. [Use of real-time PCR for quantitative assessment of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria in dairy products].

    PubMed

    Zelenaia, L B; Kovalenko, N K; Oblap, R V; Hovak, N B; Golubets, R A

    2012-01-01

    Composition of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria in raw milk and home-made milk products has been analyzed using real-time PCR (quantitative PCR) with genus-specific primers to Enterococcus, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria. Bacteria belonging to these genera have been revealed in all samples analyzed (milk, sour cream, cottage cheese). It has been shown that the representatives of Enterococcus and Lactobacillus genera dominated in the samples analyzed (10(3)-10(7) genome equivalent/ml (mg)). The largest number of these microorganisms (10(7) genome equivalent/mg) has been detected in cottage cheese.

  9. Rice gluten meal as an alternative by-product feed for growing dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rohit; Thakur, Sudarshan Singh; Mahesh, M S

    2016-03-01

    This experiment aimed at studying the nutritional characteristics and feeding value of rice gluten meal (RGM, a wet-milling by-product of rice) in growing dairy calves. RGM contained 464 g/kg of crude protein with 821 and 196 g/kg nitrogen (N) of borate-phosphate insoluble N and acid detergent insoluble N, respectively, which were higher (P < 0.05) than groundnut cake (GNC). In vitro gas production, organic matter digestibility and energy values were comparable between RGM and GNC. For in vivo trial, 18 Karan-Fries calves (6-12 months) were randomly assigned into three groups based on comparable body weight and age. The first group (GP-I) was fed concentrate mixture containing mainly GNC as protein source, whilst it was replaced by RGM up to 50 and 75 % on N basis, in second (GP-II) and third (GP-III) groups, respectively. Thus, RGM constituted 140 and 210 g/kg of concentrate mixture of GP-II and GP-III, respectively. In addition, all animals were offered chopped green maize and wheat straw for the whole experimental period of 90 days. Results revealed that there was no difference in intake and digestibility of nutrients, N balance, average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency among three groups. Nevertheless, RGM-based diets produced cost-effective ADG than GP-I. Furthermore, experimental calves did not differ in haematological variables like glucose, blood urea N, plasma proteins and non-esterified fatty acids. This study demonstrated that RGM could be incorporated successfully in the concentrate mixture, replacing 75 % of GNC without any discernable compromise in the performance of growing calves.

  10. Flood and Landslide Applications of Near Real-time Satellite Rainfall Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Yang; Adler, Robert F.; Negri, Andrew; Huffman, George J.

    2007-01-01

    Floods and associated landslides are one of the most widespread natural hazards on Earth, responsible for tens of thousands of deaths and billions of dollars in property damage every year. During 1993-2002, over 1000 of the more than 2,900 natural disasters reported were due to floods. These floods and associated landslides claimed over 90,000 lives, affected over 1.4 billion people and cost about $210 billion. The impact of these disasters is often felt most acutely in less developed regions. In many countries around the world, satellite-based precipitation estimation may be the best source of rainfall data due to lack of surface observing networks. Satellite observations can be of essential value in improving our understanding of the occurrence of hazardous events and possibly in lessening their impact on local economies and in reducing injuries, if they can be used to create reliable warning systems in cost-effective ways. This article addressed these opportunities and challenges by describing a combination of satellite-based real-time precipitation estimation with land surface characteristics as input, with empirical and numerical models to map potential of landslides and floods. In this article, a framework to detect floods and landslides related to heavy rain events in near-real-time is proposed. Key components of the framework are: a fine resolution precipitation acquisition system; a comprehensive land surface database; a hydrological modeling component; and landslide and debris flow model components. A key precipitation input dataset for the integrated applications is the NASA TRMM-based multi-satellite precipitation estimates. This dataset provides near real-time precipitation at a spatial-temporal resolution of 3 hours and 0.25deg x 0.25deg. By careful integration of remote sensing and in-situ observations, and assimilation of these observations into hydrological and landslide/debris flow models with surface topographic information, prediction of useful

  11. Biogas production in Kentucky: A best management practice alternative for nonpoint source pollution prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Zourarakis, D.P.; Coleman, S.A.; Thom, W.O.

    1996-12-31

    Despite continued conservation efforts on the part of private landowners, citizens groups, universities, and government agencies, the lack of adequate animal waste management systems still poses a significant threat to both water and land quality in Kentucky. Recent surveys indicate that only a fraction of the animal confinement units in the state have waste management systems in good operating condition. Biogas production systems are not presently included as a technological option or {open_quotes}best management practice{close_quotes} (BMP) for recycling animal wastes and are not eligible for Cost Share financial aid programs. Abundant animal manure is produced as a reasonably collectible resource in farm operations where dairy cattle, swine, and poultry are raised. Broiler and layer houses are rapidly proliferating in the western part of the state. This paper assesses the economic viability of using a low-cost, floating cover lagoon technology to collect biogas and generate electricity in several types of animal raising operations. In cases where the biogas energy can be used effectively on the farm and the technology receives partial funding as a BMP, the technology is economically viable.

  12. Focused microwave-assisted Soxhlet extraction: a convincing alternative for total fat isolation from bakery products.

    PubMed

    Priego-Capote, F; Luque de Castro, M D

    2005-01-15

    An approach for automated fast extraction of the fat content in bakery products based on focused microwave-assisted Soxhlet extraction (FMASE) and gravimetric determination is proposed. The main factors affecting the extraction efficiency-namely, power of irradiation, number of cycles and irradiation time-were optimized using experimental design methodology. The proposed method was applied to six samples, which were classified in two groups-namely, snacks and cookies. The results obtained agree with those provided by the AOAC 920.39 reference extraction method. No significant differences in the extraction efficiency of the fat content in bakery samples using FMASE versus the official method were found. Moreover, a drastic reduction in both the extraction time (60 and 35min versus 16 and 8h, respectively, for the two above commented groups) and sample handling are achieved with similar precision (expressed as repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility standard deviation) to that provided by the AOAC 920.39 method. In addition, the proposed method is cleaner than the reference method as 75-80% of the extractant is recycled.

  13. Focused microwave-assisted Soxhlet extraction: a convincing alternative for total fat isolation from bakery products.

    PubMed

    Priego-Capote, F; Luque de Castro, M D

    2005-01-15

    An approach for automated fast extraction of the fat content in bakery products based on focused microwave-assisted Soxhlet extraction (FMASE) and gravimetric determination is proposed. The main factors affecting the extraction efficiency namely; power of irradiation, number of cycles and irradiation time were optimized using experimental design methodology. The proposed method was applied to six samples, which were classified in two groups namely snacks and cookies. The results obtained agree with those provided by the AOAC 920.39 reference extraction method. No significant differences in the extraction efficiency of the fat content in bakery samples using FMASE versus the official method were found. Moreover, a drastic reduction in both the extraction time (60 and 35min versus 16 and 8h, respectively, for the two above commented groups) and sample handling are achieved with similar precision (expressed as repeatability and within laboratory reproducibility standard deviation) to that provided by the AOAC 920.39 method. In addition, the proposed method is cleaner than the reference method as 75-80% of the extractant is recycled.

  14. French Brittany macroalgae screening: composition and methane potential for potential alternative sources of energy and products.

    PubMed

    Jard, G; Marfaing, H; Carrère, H; Delgenes, J P; Steyer, J P; Dumas, C

    2013-09-01

    Macroalgae are biomass resources that represent a valuable feedstock to be used entirely for human consumption or for food additives after some extractions (mainly colloids) and/or for energy production. In order to better develop the algal sector, it is important to determine the capacity of macroalgae to produce these added-values molecules for food and/or for energy industries on the basis of their biochemical characteristics. In this study, ten macroalgae obtained from French Brittany coasts (France) were selected. The global biochemical composition (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, fibers), the presence and characteristics of added-values molecules (alginates, polyphenols) and the biochemical methane potential of these algae were determined. Regarding its biochemical composition, Palmaria palmata is interesting for food (rich in nutrients) and for anaerobic digestion (0.279 LCH4/gVS). Saccharina latissima could be used for alginate extraction (242 g/kgTS, ratio between mannuronic and guluronic acid M/G=1.4) and Sargassum muticum for polyphenol extraction (19.8 g/kgTS).

  15. Redirecting photosynthetic electron flow into light-driven synthesis of alternative products including high-value bioactive natural compounds.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Lærke Münter; Nielsen, Agnieszka Zygadlo; Ziersen, Bibi; Gnanasekaran, Thiyagarajan; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Jensen, Poul Erik

    2014-01-17

    Photosynthesis in plants, green algae, and cyanobacteria converts solar energy into chemical energy in the form of ATP and NADPH, both of which are used in primary metabolism. However, often more reducing power is generated by the photosystems than what is needed for primary metabolism. In this review, we discuss the development in the research field, focusing on how the photosystems can be used as synthetic biology building blocks to channel excess reducing power into light-driven production of alternative products. Plants synthesize a large number of high-value bioactive natural compounds. Some of the key enzymes catalyzing their biosynthesis are the cytochrome P450s situated in the endoplasmic reticulum. However, bioactive compounds are often synthesized in low quantities in the plants and are difficult to produce by chemical synthesis due to their often complex structures. Through a synthetic biology approach, enzymes with a requirement for reducing equivalents as cofactors, such as the cytochrome P450s, can be coupled directly to the photosynthetic energy output to obtain environmentally friendly production of complex chemical compounds. By relocating cytochrome P450s to the chloroplasts, reducing power can be diverted toward the reactions catalyzed by the cytochrome P450s. This provides a sustainable production method for high-value compounds that potentially can solve the problem of NADPH regeneration, which currently limits the biotechnological uses of cytochrome P450s. We describe the approaches that have been taken to couple enzymes to photosynthesis in vivo and to photosystem I in vitro and the challenges associated with this approach to develop new green production platforms.

  16. Efficacy of anticoagulant-free alternative bait products against house mice (Mus musculus) and brown rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    PubMed

    Schmolz, Erik

    2010-03-01

    The attractiveness and efficacy of four anonymous anticoagulant-free alternative rodenticides (active ingredients cellulose or plaster) were tested on wild strain groups of house mice (Mus musculus Linnaeus) and brown rats (Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout) in laboratory choice and no-choice experiments. In no-choice tests, the rodenticide product was offered ad libitum to the animals for 21 days (mice) and 10 days (rats), respectively. In choice tests, the rodenticide product and non-poisoned food were offered for 28 days (mice) and 14 days (rats). Two products with cellulose (C1 and C2) as the active ingredient were tested against both mice and rats. In two no-choice tests with mice, all animals died within 14 days (C1) and 21 days (C2); in a third no-choice test, 11% (2/18) of mice survived (C1: 21 days). In all three tests, numerous incidents of cannibalism were observed. The attractiveness of cellulose baits was tested for one product (C1) in three trials against normal food pellets. In all trials, bait consumption was low and all mice survived (15-34 days). Two no-choice trials with cellulose baits (C1) were conducted on groups of Rattus norvegicus; 11 of 12 rats survived the bait feeding period and no cannibalism or sign of aggression between conspecifics was observed. Two plaster-based (CaSO4 0.5H2O) products (P1 and P2) were tested against both mice and rats; in no-choice tests, only one mouse (n= 20) and no rats (n= 8) were killed, although the baits proved to be attractive for rats and mice in choice tests. The results of these experiments suggest that neither cellulose-based nor plaster-based rodenticides are suitable agents for the control of Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus.

  17. An assessment of potential degradation products in the gas-phase reactions of alternative fluorocarbons in the troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niki, Hiromi

    1990-01-01

    Tropospheric chemical transformations of alternative hydrofluorocarbons (HCF's) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC's) are governed by hydroxyl radical initiated oxidation processes, which are likely to be analogous to those known for alkanes and chloroalkanes. A schematic diagram is used to illustrate plausible reaction mechanisms for their atmospheric degradation, where R, R', and R'' denote the F- and/or Cl-substituted alkyl groups derived from HCF's and HCFC's subsequent th the initial H atom abstraction by HO radicals. At present, virtually no kinetic data exist for the majority of these reactions, particularly for those involving RO. Potential degradation intermediates and final products include a large variety of fluorine- and/or chlorine-containing carbonyls, acids, peroxy acids, alcohols, hydrogen peroxides, nitrates and peroxy nitrates, as summarized in the attached table. Probably atmospheric lifetimes of these compounds were also estimated. For some carbonyl and nitrate products shown in this table, there seem to be no significant gas-phase removal mechanisms. Further chemical kinetics and photochemical data are needed to quantitatively assess the atmospheric fate of HCF's and HCFC's, and of the degradation products postulated in this report.

  18. Ectomycorrhizal fungi as an alternative to the use of chemical fertilisers in nursery production of Pinus pinaster.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Nadine R; Franco, Albina R; Oliveira, Rui S; Castro, Paula M L

    2012-03-01

    Addition of fertilisers is a common practice in nursery production of conifer seedlings. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi can be an alternative to the use of chemical fertilisers in the nursery production of Pinus pinaster. A greenhouse nursery experiment was conducted by inoculating seedlings obtained from seeds of P. pinaster plus trees with a range of compatible ECM fungi: (1) Thelephora terrestris, (2) Rhizopogon vulgaris, (3) a mixture of Pisolithus tinctorius and Scleroderma citrinum, and (4) a mixture of Suillus bovinus, Laccaria laccata and Lactarius deterrimus, using forest soil as substrate. Plant development was assessed at two levels of N-P-K fertiliser (0 or 600 mg/seedling). Inoculation with a mixture of mycelium from S. bovinus, L. laccata and L. deterrimus and with a mixture of spores of P. tinctorius and S. citrinum improved plant growth and nutrition, without the need of fertiliser. Results indicate that selected ECM fungi can be a beneficial biotechnological tool in nursery production of P. pinaster.

  19. Carbon footprint related to cattle production in Brazil, management practices and new alternatives.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Figueiredo, Eduardo; de oliveira, Ricardo; Berchielli, Telma; Reis, Ricardo; La Scala, Newton

    2013-04-01

    Brazil has the World largest commercial beef cattle herd, over 209.5 million heads in 2010 and is the leading exports of cattle meat. It has been argued that this activity has an important impact on GHG emissions, but a variety of options exists for greenhouse gases (GHG) mitigation in agriculture. Among those, the most prominent options are associated to the improvement of crops and grazing land management. Our study is focused on the GHG balance related to the improvement of brachiaria spp. pasture, leading to increases in the animal stocking rate and meat production per area and time. This study is based on the IPCC (2006) methodology and others Brazil specific data and results presented by scientific literature to estimate GHG balance (emissions sources and sinks) for three scenarios proposed for brachiaria pasture: 1) degraded pasture, 2) managed pasture and 3) crop-livestock-forest integration system (CLFIS). The approach takes into account the amounts of supplies per hectare used for each of the simulated scenario projected over a 20 years period. The GHG estimates are presented in kg CO2eq per kg of liveweight, considering the following emission sources and sinks within farm-gate: i) CH4 from enteric fermentation, ii) CH4 from manure deposited on pasture, iii) N2O emissions from urine and dung deposited by cattle on pasture, iv) N2O emissions from N synthetic fertilizer, v) N2O emissions from crop residues as of N-fixing crops and pasture renewal returned to soils, vi) CO2 from potassium use, vii) CO2 from phosphorus use, viii) CO2 from insecticides use, ix) CO2 from herbicides use, x) CO2 emissions due to lime application, xi) emissions due to diesel combustion, xii) eucalyptus biomass sequestration and xiii) soil carbon sequestration. We considered initial body weight of 200 kg for each heifer and a final slaughter weight of 450 kg head-1 for all scenarios; for degraded pasture a stocking rate of 0,5 head ha-1 year-1 and liveweight gain of 83 kg head-1

  20. Contribution of Near Real Time MODIS-Based Forest Disturbance Detection Products to a National Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph; Hargrove, William; Gasser, Gerald; Smoot, James; Kuper, Philip

    2011-01-01

    U.S. forests occupy approx. 751 million acres (approx. 1/3 of total land). These forests are exposed to multiple biotic and abiotic threats that collectively damage extensive acreages each year. Hazardous forest disturbances can threaten human life and property, bio-diversity and water supplies. Timely regional forest monitoring products are needed to aid forest management and decision making by the US Forest Service and its state and private partners. Daily MODIS data products provide a means to monitor regional forest disturbances on a weekly basis. In response, we began work in 2006 to develop a Near Real Time (NRT) forest monitoring capability, based on MODIS NDVI data, as part of a national forest threat early warning system (EWS)

  1. Replacing monocultures with mixed-species stands: Ecosystem service implications of two production forest alternatives in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Felton, Adam; Nilsson, Urban; Sonesson, Johan; Felton, Annika M; Roberge, Jean-Michel; Ranius, Thomas; Ahlström, Martin; Bergh, Johan; Björkman, Christer; Boberg, Johanna; Drössler, Lars; Fahlvik, Nils; Gong, Peichen; Holmström, Emma; Keskitalo, E Carina H; Klapwijk, Maartje J; Laudon, Hjalmar; Lundmark, Tomas; Niklasson, Mats; Nordin, Annika; Pettersson, Maria; Stenlid, Jan; Sténs, Anna; Wallertz, Kristina

    2016-02-01

    Whereas there is evidence that mixed-species approaches to production forestry in general can provide positive outcomes relative to monocultures, it is less clear to what extent multiple benefits can be derived from specific mixed-species alternatives. To provide such insights requires evaluations of an encompassing suite of ecosystem services, biodiversity, and forest management considerations provided by specific mixtures and monocultures within a region. Here, we conduct such an assessment in Sweden by contrasting even-aged Norway spruce (Picea abies)-dominated stands, with mixed-species stands of spruce and birch (Betula pendula or B. pubescens), or spruce and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). By synthesizing the available evidence, we identify positive outcomes from mixtures including increased biodiversity, water quality, esthetic and recreational values, as well as reduced stand vulnerability to pest and pathogen damage. However, some uncertainties and risks were projected to increase, highlighting the importance of conducting comprehensive interdisciplinary evaluations when assessing the pros and cons of mixtures.

  2. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Melaina, W.; Heath, Garvin; Sandor, Debra; Steward, Darlene; Vimmerstedt, Laura; Warner, Ethan; Webster, Karen W.

    2013-04-01

    The petroleum-based transportation fuel system is complex and highly developed, in contrast to the nascent low-petroleum, low-carbon alternative fuel system. This report examines how expansion of the low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure could contribute to deep reductions in petroleum use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions across the U.S. transportation sector. Three low-carbon scenarios, each using a different combination of low-carbon fuels, were developed to explore infrastructure expansion trends consistent with a study goal of reducing transportation sector GHG emissions to 80% less than 2005 levels by 2050.These scenarios were compared to a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario and were evaluated with respect to four criteria: fuel cost estimates, resource availability, fuel production capacity expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion.

  3. Real time analysis of detonation products. [Cyclotrimethylene trinitranamine (RDX), hexanitrostilbene (HNS)

    SciTech Connect

    Blais, N.C.; Greiner, R.; Fernandez, W.

    1987-01-01

    We have determined the mass spectrum and the time evolution of the freely expanding products of highly shocked and detonating substances. So far we have studied pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), hexanitrostilbene (HNS), cyclotrimethylene trinitranamine (RDX) and nitric oxide (NO). For the case of NO, we find that N/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/ are important products of the detonation. Other reaction products are N/sub 2/O and NO/sub 2/, some of which arise from secondary reactions between O/sub 2/ and unreacted NO. The other explosives give rise to a rich spectrum that includes many radicals not found in equilibrium spectra. Comparative spectra for two of these common explosives, RDX and HNS, are presented. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Improving AirNow Air Quality Products with NASA Near-Real-Time Remote Sensing Data (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dye, T.; Pasch, A. N.; DeWinter, J. L.; Haderman, M.; Szykman, J.; White, J. E.; van Donkelaar, A.; Martin, R.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) AirNow program provides the public with real-time and forecasted air quality conditions. Millions of people each day use it to protect their health. The AirNow program (http://www.airnow.gov), reports ground-level ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in a standardized index called the Air Quality Index (AQI). AirNow aggregates information from over 130 state, local, and federal air quality agencies and provides tools for over 2,000 agency staff responsible for monitoring, forecasting, and communicating local air quality. Each hour, AirNow systems generate thousands of maps and products. This presentation will describe how AirNow is benefiting from NASA's remote sensing data. We will describe two applications of NASA near-real-time remote sensing data within AirNow through case studies, focusing specifically on days when large spatial gradients in AQI and wildfire smoke impacts were observed. The first case study will show how AirNow is merging satellite-estimated PM2.5 concentrations into the AQI maps via the AirNow Satellite Data Processor (ASDP). AirNow derives these satellite estimates using NASA/NOAA satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals and GEOS-Chem modeled ratios of surface PM2.5 concentrations to AOD. The second case study will show how NASA's Global Image Browse Services (GIBS) provides a near-real-time satellite product in AirNow-Tech for agency users to quickly identify smoke plumes and access air quality conditions in data-sparse areas during wildland fires.

  5. Development of a fluid bed granulation process control strategy based on real-time process and product measurements.

    PubMed

    Burggraeve, Anneleen; Silva, Ana F T; Van den Kerkhof, Tom; Hellings, Mario; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean Paul; Vander Heyden, Yvan; De Beer, Thomas

    2012-10-15

    This article describes the results of three case studies conducted consecutively, in order to develop a process control strategy for a top-spray fluid bed granulation process. The use of several real-time particle size (i.e., spatial filter velocimetry and focused beam reflectance measurement) and moisture (i.e., near infrared (NIR) and Lighthouse near infrared spectroscopy) analyzers was examined. A feed-forward process control method was developed, where in-line collected granulation information during the process spraying phase was used to determine the optimum drying temperature of the consecutive drying phase. Via real-time monitoring of process (i.e., spraying temperature and spray rate) and product (i.e., granule size distribution and moisture) parameters during the spraying period, the batch bulk density was predicted at the end of the spraying cycle, using a PLS model. When this predicted bulk density was not meeting the desired value, the developed control method allowed the calculation of an adjusted drying temperature leading to the desired batch bulk density at the end of the granulation process. Besides the development of the feed-forward control strategy, a quantitative PLS model for in-line moisture content prediction of the granulated end product was built using the NIR data.

  6. Lubricants based on renewable resources--an environmentally compatible alternative to mineral oil products.

    PubMed

    Willing, A

    2001-04-01

    The development of lubricants like, e.g. engine and hydraulic oils was traditionally based on mineral oil as a base fluid. This fact is related to the good technical properties and the reasonable price of mineral oils. The Report to the Club of Rome (W.W. Behrens III, D.H. Meadows, D.I. Meadows, J. Randers, The limits of growth, A Report to the Club of Rome, 1972) and the two oil crises of 1979 and 1983, however, elucidated that mineral oil is on principle a limited resource. In addition, environmental problems associated with the production and use of chemicals and the limited capacity of nature to tolerate pollution became obvious (G.H. Brundtland, et al., in: Hauff, Volker (Ed.), World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), Report of the Brundtland-Commission, Oxford, UK, 1987), and the critical discussion included besides acid rain, smog, heavy metals, and pesticides also mineral oil (especially oil spills like the case Exxon Valdes). A disadvantage of mineral oil is its poor biodegradability and thus its potential for long-term pollution of the environment. From the early development of lubricants for special applications (e.g. turbojet engine oils) it was known, that fatty acid polyol esters have comparable or even better technical properties than mineral oil. Subsequently, innumerable synthetic esters have been synthesized by systematic variation of the fatty acid and the alcohol components. Whereas the alcohol moiety of the synthetic esters are usually of petrochemical origin, the fatty acids are almost exclusively based on renewable resources. The physico-chemical properties of oleochemical esters can cover the complete spectrum of technical requirements for the development of high-performance industrial oils and lubricants (e.g. excellent lubricating properties, good heat stability, high viscosity index, low volatility and superior shear stability). For a comprehensive review of their technical properties see F. Bongardt, in: Jahrbuchf

  7. Impact of a Real Microgravity on the Productivity of Tomato Plants and Resistance to Viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchenko, L. T.; Dunich, A. A.; Danilova, O. I.

    2013-02-01

    It was detected that space flight factors increased tomato productivity that is important for using such plants as cosmonauts nutrition in long-term space missions. It was revealed that tomato plants, whose seeds were exposed to long space flight conditions, are more resistant to viruses and have higher polyphenols concentration than in the stationary control.

  8. Grammatical Gender in L2: A Production or a Real-Time Processing Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruter, Theres; Lew-Williams, Casey; Fernald, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Mastery of grammatical gender is difficult to achieve in a second language (L2). This study investigates whether persistent difficulty with grammatical gender often observed in the speech of otherwise highly proficient L2 learners is best characterized as a production-specific performance problem, or as difficulty with the retrieval of gender…

  9. OceanNOMADS: Real-time and retrospective access to operational U.S. ocean prediction products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, J. M.; Cross, S. L.; Bub, F.; Ji, M.

    2011-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Operational Model Archive and Distribution System (NOMADS) provides both real-time and archived atmospheric model output from servers at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) respectively (http://nomads.ncep.noaa.gov/txt_descriptions/marRutledge-1.pdf). The NOAA National Ocean Data Center (NODC) with NCEP is developing a complementary capability called OceanNOMADS for operational ocean prediction models. An NCEP ftp server currently provides real-time ocean forecast output (http://www.opc.ncep.noaa.gov/newNCOM/NCOM_currents.shtml) with retrospective access through NODC. A joint effort between the Northern Gulf Institute (NGI; a NOAA Cooperative Institute) and the NOAA National Coastal Data Development Center (NCDDC; a division of NODC) created the developmental version of the retrospective OceanNOMADS capability (http://www.northerngulfinstitute.org/edac/ocean_nomads.php) under the NGI Ecosystem Data Assembly Center (EDAC) project (http://www.northerngulfinstitute.org/edac/). Complementary funding support for the developmental OceanNOMADS from U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) through the Southeastern University Research Association (SURA) Model Testbed (http://testbed.sura.org/) this past year provided NODC the analogue that facilitated the creation of an NCDDC production version of OceanNOMADS (http://www.ncddc.noaa.gov/ocean-nomads/). Access tool development and storage of initial archival data sets occur on the NGI/NCDDC developmental servers with transition to NODC/NCCDC production servers as the model archives mature and operational space and distribution capability grow. Navy operational global ocean forecast subsets for U.S waters comprise the initial ocean prediction fields resident on the NCDDC production server. The NGI/NCDDC developmental server currently includes the Naval Research Laboratory Inter-America Seas

  10. Dynamics of microcystin production and quantification of potentially toxigenic Microcystis sp. using real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Ankita; Choi, Gang-Guk; Ahn, Chi-Yong; Oh, Hee-Mock; Ravi, Alok Kumar; Asthana, Ravi Kumar

    2012-03-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms in eutrophied water body are generally composed of various genotypes with or without microcystin-producing genes (mcy gene cluster). Thus there is a need for quantification of potent toxin producing strains. The present study aimed at identifying microcystin variants and its producer strains in Durgakund pond, Varanasi, India, based on quantification of cpcBA-IGS and mcyA (condensation domain) genes using real-time PCR and LC-MS. Increase in microcystin concentrations was correlated with increase in mcyA copy number and the level of pigments (chlorophyll a, phycocyanin and carotenoids). Also, selected environmental factors (water temperature, light irradiance, rainfall, pH, N and P) and the concentration of microcystin variants (MC-LR, -RR and -YR) were also assessed in samples during May 2010 to April 2011 to establish the possible correlation among these parameters. Nutrients favored cyanobacterial bloom but it could not be correlated with the levels of microcystin variants and seemed to be geographically specific. Microcystis sp. dominant in the pond comprised potentially toxigenic cells. The ratio of potentially toxigenic Microcystis sp. to that of total Microcystis sp. ranged from 0% to 14%. Such studies paved the way to identify and quantify the most potent microcystin producer in the tropical aquatic body.

  11. Paralinguistic mechanisms of production in human “beatboxing”: A real-time magnetic resonance imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Proctor, Michael; Bresch, Erik; Byrd, Dani; Nayak, Krishna; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2013-01-01

    Real-time Magnetic Resonance Imaging (rtMRI) was used to examine mechanisms of sound production by an American male beatbox artist. rtMRI was found to be a useful modality with which to study this form of sound production, providing a global dynamic view of the midsagittal vocal tract at frame rates sufficient to observe the movement and coordination of critical articulators. The subject's repertoire included percussion elements generated using a wide range of articulatory and airstream mechanisms. Many of the same mechanisms observed in human speech production were exploited for musical effect, including patterns of articulation that do not occur in the phonologies of the artist's native languages: ejectives and clicks. The data offer insights into the paralinguistic use of phonetic primitives and the ways in which they are coordinated in this style of musical performance. A unified formalism for describing both musical and phonetic dimensions of human vocal percussion performance is proposed. Audio and video data illustrating production and orchestration of beatboxing sound effects are provided in a companion annotated corpus. PMID:23363120

  12. Real-time, rapidly updating severe weather products for virtual globes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Travis M.; Lakshmanan, Valliappa

    2011-01-01

    It is critical that weather forecasters are able to put severe weather information from a variety of observational and modeling platforms into a geographic context so that warning information can be effectively conveyed to the public, emergency managers, and disaster response teams. The availability of standards for the specification and transport of virtual globe data products has made it possible to generate spatially precise, geo-referenced images and to distribute these centrally created products via a web server to a wide audience. In this paper, we describe the data and methods for enabling severe weather threat analysis information inside a KML framework. The method of creating severe weather diagnosis products that are generated and translating them to KML and image files is described. We illustrate some of the practical applications of these data when they are integrated into a virtual globe display. The availability of standards for interoperable virtual globe clients has not completely alleviated the need for custom solutions. We conclude by pointing out several of the limitations of the general-purpose virtual globe clients currently available.

  13. Alternative Acetate Production Pathways in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii during Dark Anoxia and the Dominant Role of Chloroplasts in Fermentative Acetate Production[W

    PubMed Central

    Catalanotti, Claudia; D’Adamo, Sarah; Wittkopp, Tyler M.; Ingram-Smith, Cheryl J.; Mackinder, Luke; Miller, Tarryn E.; Heuberger, Adam L.; Peers, Graham; Smith, Kerry S.; Jonikas, Martin C.; Grossman, Arthur R.; Posewitz, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii insertion mutants disrupted for genes encoding acetate kinases (EC 2.7.2.1) (ACK1 and ACK2) and a phosphate acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.8) (PAT2, but not PAT1) were isolated to characterize fermentative acetate production. ACK1 and PAT2 were localized to chloroplasts, while ACK2 and PAT1 were shown to be in mitochondria. Characterization of the mutants showed that PAT2 and ACK1 activity in chloroplasts plays a dominant role (relative to ACK2 and PAT1 in mitochondria) in producing acetate under dark, anoxic conditions and, surprisingly, also suggested that Chlamydomonas has other pathways that generate acetate in the absence of ACK activity. We identified a number of proteins associated with alternative pathways for acetate production that are encoded on the Chlamydomonas genome. Furthermore, we observed that only modest alterations in the accumulation of fermentative products occurred in the ack1, ack2, and ack1 ack2 mutants, which contrasts with the substantial metabolite alterations described in strains devoid of other key fermentation enzymes. PMID:25381350

  14. Renewable sugars from oil palm frond juice as an alternative novel fermentation feedstock for value-added products.

    PubMed

    Zahari, Mior Ahmad Khushairi Mohd; Zakaria, Mohd Rafein; Ariffin, Hidayah; Mokhtar, Mohd Noriznan; Salihon, Jailani; Shirai, Yoshihito; Hassan, Mohd Ali

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we report that pressed juice from oil palm frond (OPF) contained renewable sugars such as glucose, sucrose and fructose. By using a simple sugarcane press, 50% (wt/wt) of OPF juice was obtained from fresh OPF. The glucose content in the juice was 53.95±2.86g/l, which accounts for 70% of the total free sugars. We have examined the effect of various OPF juice concentrations on the production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), P(3HB) by Cupriavidus necator CCUG 52238(T). The cell dry mass in shake flask experiment reached 8.42g/l, with 32wt.% of P(3HB) at 30% (v/v) of OPF juice, comparable with using technical grade sugars. The biopolymer had a molecular mass, M(w) of 812kDa, with a low polydispersity index of 1.61. This result indicates that OPF juice can be used as an alternative renewable carbon source for P(3HB) production and has potential as a renewable carbon source.

  15. A sub-minute CZE method to determine nitrate and nitrite in meat products: An alternative for routine analysis.

    PubMed

    Della Betta, Fabiana; Pereira, Lais Morilla; Siqueira, Mariana Araújo; Valese, Andressa Camargo; Daguer, Heitor; Fett, Roseane; Vitali, Luciano; Costa, Ana Carolina Oliveira

    2016-09-01

    A sub-minute capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method was optimized and a simple sample preparation procedure based on the extraction of the analytes with water and sodium tetraborate was developed for the simultaneous determination of nitrate and nitrite levels in meat products. The background electrolyte (BGE) was composed of 20mmolL(-1) perchloric acid and 65mmolL(-1) β-alanine at pH3.83. Thiocyanate was used as the internal standard. The proposed method was validated and the uncertainty estimated according to Eurachem guidelines. The run time was only 30s, allowing analyzing more than 25samples/h, the good analytical performance confirms the suitability of the method for the analysis of meat products. One sample presented residual nitrite levels above the limit established by MERCOSUL legislation (150mgkg(-1)). The use of a fast method in association with a simple sample preparation step means that this procedure represents a possible alternative to fulfill the demand for high throughput in routine laboratory analysis.

  16. Transcriptome of the Alternative Ethanol Production Strain Dekkera bruxellensis CBS 11270 in Sugar Limited, Low Oxygen Cultivation

    PubMed Central

    Tiukova, Ievgeniia A.; Petterson, Mats E.; Tellgren-Roth, Christian; Bunikis, Ignas; Eberhard, Thomas; Pettersson, Olga Vinnere; Passoth, Volkmar

    2013-01-01

    Dekkera bruxellensis can outcompete Saccharomyces cerevisiae in environments with low sugar concentrations. It is usually regarded as a spoilage yeast but has lately been identified as an alternative ethanol production organism. In this study, global gene expression in the industrial isolate D. bruxellensis CBS 11270 under oxygen and glucose limitation was investigated by whole transcriptome sequencing using the AB SOLiD technology. Among other observations, we noted expression of respiratory complex I NADH-ubiquinone reductase although D. bruxellensis is a Crabtree positive yeast. The observed higher expression of NADH-generating enzymes compared to NAD+-generating enzymes might be the reason for the previously observed NADH imbalance and resulting Custer effect in D. bruxellensis. Low expression of genes involved in glycerol production is probably the molecular basis for high efficiency of D. bruxellensis metabolism under nutrient limitation. No D. bruxellensis homologs to the genes involved in the final reactions of glycerol biosynthesis were detected. A high number of expressed sugar transporter genes is consistent with the hypothesis that the competitiveness of D. bruxellensis is due to a higher affinity for the limiting substrate. PMID:23516483

  17. Maintaining Coral Snakes (Micrurus nigrocinctus, Serpentes: Elapidae) for venom production on an alternative fish-based diet.

    PubMed

    Chacón, Danilo; Rodríguez, Santos; Arias, Jazmín; Solano, Gabriela; Bonilla, Fabián; Gómez, Aarón

    2012-09-01

    American Elapid snakes (Coral Snakes) comprise the genera Leptomicrurus, Micruroides and Micrurus, which form a vast taxonomic assembly of 330 species distributed from the South of United States to the southern region of South America. In order to obtain venom for animal immunizations aimed at antivenom production, Coral Snakes must be kept in captivity and submitted periodically to venom extraction procedures. Thus, to maintain a snake colony in good health for this purpose, a complete alternative diet utilizing an easily obtained prey animal is desirable. The development of a diet based on fish is compared to the wild diet based on colubrid snakes, and assessed in terms of gain in body weight rate (g/week), longevity (weeks), venom yield (mg/individual), venom median lethal dose (LD₅₀) and venom chromatographic profiles. The animals fed with the fish-based diet gained more weight, lived longer, and produced similar amount of venom whose biological and biochemical characteristics were similar to those of venom collected from specimens fed with the wild diet. This fish-based diet appears to be suitable (and preferable to the wild diet) to supply the nutritional requirements of a Micrurus nigrocinctus snake collection for the production of antivenom.

  18. The use of complementary and alternative medicine products in preceding two days among Finnish parents - a population survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) has been extensively studied globally among adult and paediatric populations. Parents, as a group, had not been studied to assess their knowledge and attitude to CAM and general medicine use. This study is necessary since parents' attitude to medicine use is known to influence their child's attitude to medicine use later in life. We therefore aim to assess the extent and types of CAM use among Finnish parents, and to determine the factors that promote the CAM use. Also, we aim to determine parents' attitude to general medicine use. Methods Children less than 12 years old, as of spring 2007, were identified from the database of the Finnish Population Register Centre and were selected by random sampling. The parents of these children were identified and a questionnaire was sent to them. Only the parent who regularly takes care of the child's medicine was requested to fill the questionnaire. Cross-tabulations and Chi-square test were used to determine the associations between categorical variables. CAMs were defined as natural products that are not registered as medicines, such as homeopathic preparations, dietary food supplements, and traditional medicinal products. Results The response rate of the survey was 67% (n = 4032). The use of CAM was 31% in the preceding two days. The most commonly used CAM products were vitamins and minerals, followed by fish oils and fatty acids. Prescription and OTC medicines were used concomitantly with CAM by one-third of the parents. CAM was frequently used by parents over 30 years (33%), female parents (32%), highly educated parents (35%), and parents with high monthly net income (3000-3999 euros, 34%). The users of CAM had more negative attitudes towards medicines than non-users of CAM. Conclusions Our findings are in accordance with those of previous studies that women over 30 years of age with a high education and income typically use CAMs. Finnish parents seem to

  19. A Recommender System for an IPTV Service Provider: a Real Large-Scale Production Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bambini, Riccardo; Cremonesi, Paolo; Turrin, Roberto

    In this chapter we describe the integration of a recommender system into the production environment of Fastweb, one of the largest European IP Television (IPTV) providers. The recommender system implements both collaborative and content-based techniques, suitable tailored to the specific requirements of an IPTV architecture, such as the limited screen definition, the reduced navigation capabilities, and the strict time constraints. The algorithms are extensively analyzed by means of off-line and on-line tests, showing the effectiveness of the recommender systems: up to 30% of the recommendations are followed by a purchase, with an estimated lift factor (increase in sales) of 15%.

  20. Multicriteria cost–benefit assessment of tannery production: The need for breakthrough process alternatives beyond conventional technology optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Giannetti, Biagio F.; Agostinho, Feni; Moraes, Luciano C.; Almeida, Cecília M.V.B.; Ulgiati, Sergio

    2015-09-15

    The worldwide use of chromium-based processes in tanneries generates increased concerns about their related environmental burdens. Cleaner production alternatives for leather production are being proposed, based on the optimization of specific aspects or criteria, for instance, reducing demand for specific materials and energy, or reducing local toxicological emissions. While improvement on individual characteristics of the process is certainly to be favored, a more comprehensive evaluation of alternatives is also needed to prevent the risk of shifting the burden to increase global load while addressing one specific critical factor of production. This work aims to discuss the importance of a multicriteria, multiscale approach to address cleaner production strategy costs and benefits. For this, materials balance, an economic approach, and emergy (with an “m”) accounting methods are applied to selected unhairing/liming, pickling/tanning and wastewater treatment steps in a tannery process, which was chosen as a case study. Results show that the assessed recycling cleaner production strategies assessed allow the manufacturer to reduce by one half the amount of water used and the demand for chemicals up to 4% with respect to the business-as-usual process, at the expense of increasing electricity demand by 10%. Economic cost-to-benefit ratio was 25$ benefits per 1$ invested, as well as an emergy-based cost-to-benefit of 33Em$ per 1Em$ invested, of course these improvements were limited to the three investigated process steps. The improvement in cost/benefit ratios indicates that converting scenario #0 into #1 is favorable under economic and emergy views. However, when the two scenarios are investigated from the point of view of the imbalance in local and renewable resource use versus imported and nonrenewable use, the emergy method shows a small overall increase in renewability (from 3.51% to 3.85%), a low, but expected, emergy yield ratio equal to 1, and a high

  1. Local Production of the Alternative Pathway Component Factor B Is Sufficient to Promote Laser-Induced Choroidal Neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Schnabolk, Gloriane; Coughlin, Beth; Joseph, Kusumam; Kunchithapautham, Kannan; Bandyopadhyay, Mausumi; O'Quinn, Elizabeth C.; Nowling, Tamara; Rohrer, Bärbel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Complement factor B (CFB) is a required component of the alternative pathway (AP) of complement, and CFB polymorphisms are associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) risk. Complement factor B is made in the liver, but expression has also been detected in retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)-choroid. We investigated whether production of CFB by the RPE can promote AP activation in mouse choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Methods. Transgenic mice expressing CFB under the RPE65 promoter were generated and crossed onto factor B-deficient (CFB-KO) mice. Biological activity was determined in vitro using RPE monolayers and in vivo using laser-induced CNV. Contribution of systemic CFB was investigated using CFB-KO reconstituted with CFB-sufficient serum. Results. Transgenic mice (CFB-tg) expressed CFB in RPE-choroid; no CFB was detected in serum. Cultured CFB-tg RPE monolayers secreted CFB apically and basally upon exposure to oxidative stress that was biologically active. Choroidal neovascularization sizes were comparable between wild-type and CFB-tg mice, but significantly increased when compared to lesions in CFB-KO mice. Injections of CFB-sufficient serum into CFB-KO mice resulted in partial reconstitution of systemic AP activity and significantly increased CNV size. Conclusions. Mouse RPE cells express and secrete CFB sufficient to promote RPE damage and CNV. This further supports that local complement production may regulate disease processes; however, the reconstitution experiments suggest that additional components may be sequestered from the bloodstream. Understanding the process of ocular complement production and regulation will further our understanding of the AMD disease process and the requirements of a complement-based therapeutic. PMID:25593023

  2. A wavelet-based non-linear autoregressive with exogenous inputs (WNARX) dynamic neural network model for real-time flood forecasting using satellite-based rainfall products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanda, Trushnamayee; Sahoo, Bhabagrahi; Beria, Harsh; Chatterjee, Chandranath

    2016-08-01

    Although flood forecasting and warning system is a very important non-structural measure in flood-prone river basins, poor raingauge network as well as unavailability of rainfall data in real-time could hinder its accuracy at different lead times. Conversely, since the real-time satellite-based rainfall products are now becoming available for the data-scarce regions, their integration with the data-driven models could be effectively used for real-time flood forecasting. To address these issues in operational streamflow forecasting, a new data-driven model, namely, the wavelet-based non-linear autoregressive with exogenous inputs (WNARX) is proposed and evaluated in comparison with four other data-driven models, viz., the linear autoregressive moving average with exogenous inputs (ARMAX), static artificial neural network (ANN), wavelet-based ANN (WANN), and dynamic nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous inputs (NARX) models. First, the quality of input rainfall products of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), viz., TRMM and TRMM-real-time (RT) rainfall products is assessed through statistical evaluation. The results reveal that the satellite rainfall products moderately correlate with the observed rainfall, with the gauge-adjusted TRMM product outperforming the real-time TRMM-RT product. The TRMM rainfall product better captures the ground observations up to 95 percentile range (30.11 mm/day), although the hit rate decreases for high rainfall intensity. The effect of antecedent rainfall (AR) and climate forecast system reanalysis (CFSR) temperature product on the catchment response is tested in all the developed models. The results reveal that, during real-time flow simulation, the satellite-based rainfall products generally perform worse than the gauge-based rainfall. Moreover, as compared to the existing models, the flow forecasting by the WNARX model is way better than the other four models studied herein with the

  3. Enhancing real-time precise point positioning with zenith troposphere delay products and the determination of corresponding tropospheric stochastic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yibin; Peng, Wenjie; Xu, Chaoqian; Cheng, Shuyang

    2017-02-01

    By introducing two types of zenith troposphere delay (ZTD) products in precise point positioning (PPP), we developed the ZTD-corrected PPP and the ZTD-constrained PPP, both of them reduced the PPP convergence time. Both enhanced PPP methods are examined by global empirical ZTD models and regional ZTD corrections. For global ZTD models, we verified that ZTD-corrected PPP will deviate the positioning results, while ZTD-constrained PPP could produce unbiased estimations. Therefore, the latter is utilized to study the performance of global ZTD models (ITG, GPT2w, GZTD and UNB3m). After numerous experiments, we found that the performance of ZTD models was positively related to the real ZTD accuracy, and we proposed a universal tropospheric stochastic model 2SQR(9rms) which denotes double the square of nine times ZTD rms, to constrain ZTD in PPP. The proposed model subsequently was validated by real-time static and kinematic ZTD-constrained PPP on the premise that the ZTD rms on every station was known. Compared with traditional PPP, in static PPP, the number of improved stations is increased by 15.5 per cent (ITG), 14.4 per cent (GPT2w), 11.1 per cent (GZTD) and 8.3 per cent (UNB3m). For kinematic PPP, PPP constrained by ITG model still had the best performance, the number of improved stations is increased by 14.4 per cent, after 30 min of initialization time, 13.4 cm east, 13.4 cm north and 11.7 cm up positioning accuracy was obtained, compared with 15.3 cm east, 15.3 cm north and 14.3 cm up accuracy by traditional PPP. In addition, experiments using regional ZTD corrections to enhance real-time PPP showed that both ZTD-corrected PPP and ZTD-constrained PPP can notably reduce the convergence time on the vertical component (within 15 cm).

  4. Real time pipelined system for forming the sum of products in the processing of video data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A 3-by-3 convolver utilizes 9 binary arithmetic units connected in cascade for multiplying 12-bit binary pixel values P sub i which are positive or two's complement binary numbers by 5-bit magnitide (plus sign) weights W sub i which may be positive or negative. The weights are stored in registers including the sign bits. For a negative weight, the one's complement of the pixel value to be multiplied is formed at each unit by a bank of 17 exclusive or gates G sub i under control of the sign of the corresponding weight W sub i, and a correction is made by adding the sum of the absolute values of all the negative weights for each 3-by-3 kernel. Since this correction value remains constant as long as the weights are constant, it can be precomputed and stored in a register as a value to be added to the product PW of the first arithmetic unit.

  5. Genetic control of conventional labeling through the bovine meat production chain by single nucleotide polymorphisms using real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Capoferri, Rossana; Bongioni, Graziella; Galli, Andrea; Aleandri, Riccardo

    2006-08-01

    Since January 2002, the European Union has adopted precise guidelines aimed at protecting the safety of meat and controlling the production chain. To this purpose, the conventional traceability of livestock and meat represents the main tool, but verification of traceability requires genetic support. At present, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) represent the most innovative molecular markers in genotyping studies. The aim of this study was to verify correct labeling in a bovine meat production chain by a real-time PCR protocol based on SNP analysis. Reference hair samples from 5,000 animals were randomly collected from 22 farms. Twelve hundred meat samples were collected at different steps of the bovine meat production chain. In particular, 1,000 meat samples were collected at the slaughterhouse and 200 samples from the same animals directly at the butcher's shop. The protocol was optimized and validated by testing a set of 16 SNP markers on 95 DNA samples from bovine sires of different breeds. Thereafter, the genotyping of 2,200 samples was conducted with a set of 12 selected SNPs to verify traceability of the meat production chain at three different stages: farm, slaughterhouse, and butcher's shop. Irregularities in conventional traceability were evidenced directly in 1.87% of the samples at the slaughterhouse. This percentage increased to 3.25% when sampling was conducted at the butcher's shop. This study demonstrates that despite the precautions adopted over the meat production chain, some critical points still exist that cause the loss of a correct association between registration numbers and samples.

  6. Pork detection in binary meat mixtures and some commercial food products using conventional and real-time PCR techniques.

    PubMed

    Al-Kahtani, Hassan A; Ismail, Elsayed A; Asif Ahmed, Mohammed

    2017-03-15

    Pork DNA was detected in meat mixtures using both conventional PCR and real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Thirty meat mixtures containing beef, chicken, camel, rabbit, goat and sheep with varying percentage of pork (0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, and 20%) and 75 commercial food products, were analyzed using conventional and RT-PCR to determine the presence of pork DNA. Pork DNA standard curves and cycle threshold (Ct) values were used for quantification. The detection limits for pork DNA in the mixtures were 0.22, 0.047, 0.048, 0.0000037, 0.015ng/μl respectively. Unlike conventional PCR, RT-PCR detected pork DNA in nine processed food samples [chicken sausages (2), chicken luncheon (2), turkey meat loaf, milk chocolate with soft nougat, jelly, cake, and candies] at pork DNA concentrations of 0.0001ng/μl or less.

  7. Improvements to Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer Real-time Tropical Cyclone Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlhorn, E. W.; Klotz, B.

    2012-12-01

    With the installation of C-band stepped frequency microwave radiometers (SFMR) on Air Force Reserve Command WC-130J hurricane reconnaissance aircraft, the SFMR has assumed a prominent role for operational measurement of surface winds, and thus, hurricane intensity estimation. The current SFMR wind retrieval algorithm was developed from GPS dropwindsonde surface wind measurements, and has been successfully implemented across all SFMR-equipped aircraft. The algorithm improvements were specifically targeted at improving surface wind accuracy at hurricane force conditions (> 65 kts, 33 m/s), especially within the eyewall, although the SFMR surface wind vs. emissivity geophysical model function was developed over a broad range of wind speeds (10-140 kts, 5-70 m/s) with the expectation that the hurricane wind field could be readily measured in general. Due to the significant microwave absorption by precipitation, a by-product of the wind retrieval process is an estimate of the path-averaged rain rate (in actuality, the rain water content). An SFMR surface wind speed high bias in strong precipitation has recently been quantified and is particularly evident at weak-to-moderate wind speeds (<65 kts, 33 m/s) and large rain rates (>20 mm/hr), which has important implications for identifying tropical systems at the depression and storm stages, and additionally for observing significant outer wind radii. A major reason for this wind bias is due to an inaccurate rain absorption model that was used to develop the current surface emissivity vs. wind speed geophysical model function. Observations now suggest that the rain-induced absorption is significantly overestimated by the model, resulting in underestimated rain rate values. With the wind speed bias identified, the rain absorption component of the SFMR geophysical model function is addressed to provide an improved rain rate product. This new absorption model is developed by relating SFMR excess brightness temperature

  8. Alternative models of climatic effects on sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) productivity in Bristol Bay, Alaska, and the Fraser River, British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adkison, M.; Peterman, R.; Lapointe, M.; Gillis, D.; Korman, J.

    1996-01-01

    We compare alternative models of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) productivity (returns per spawner) using more than 30 years of catch and escapement data for Bristol Bay, Alaska, and the Fraser River, British Columbia. The models examined include several alternative forms of models that incorporate climatic influences as well as models not based on climate. For most stocks, a stationary stock-recruitment relationship explains very little of the interannual variation in productivity. In Bristol Bay, productivity co-varies among stocks and appears to be strongly related to fluctuations in climate. The best model for Bristol Bay sockeye involved a change in the 1970s in the parameters of the Ricker stock-recruitment curve; the stocks generally became more productive. In contrast, none of the models of Fraser River stocks that we examined explained much of the variability in their productivity.

  9. Communication: Real time observation of unimolecular decay of Criegee intermediates to OH radical products

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Yi; Liu, Fang; Barber, Victoria P.; Klippenstein, Stephen J.; McCoy, Anne B.; Lester, Marsha I.

    2016-02-14

    In the atmosphere, a dominant loss process for carbonyl oxide intermediates produced from alkene ozonolysis is also an important source of hydroxyl radicals. The rate of appearance of OH radicals is revealed through direct time-domain measurements following vibrational activation of prototypical methyl-substituted Criegee intermediates under collision-free conditions. Complementary theoretical calculations predict the unimolecular decay rate for the Criegee intermediates in the vicinity of the barrier for 1,4 hydrogen transfer that leads to OH products. Both experiment and theory yield unimolecular decay rates of ca. 10(8) and 10(7) s(-1) for syn-CH3CHOO and (CH3)(2)COO, respectively, at energies near the barrier. Tunneling through the barrier, computed from high level electronic structure theory and experimentally validated, makes a significant contribution to the decay rate. Extension to thermally averaged unimolecular decay of stabilized Criegee intermediates under atmospheric conditions yields rates that are six orders of magnitude slower than those evaluated directly in the barrier region.

  10. Communication: Real time observation of unimolecular decay of Criegee intermediates to OH radical products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yi; Liu, Fang; Barber, Victoria P.; Klippenstein, Stephen J.; McCoy, Anne B.; Lester, Marsha I.

    2016-02-01

    In the atmosphere, a dominant loss process for carbonyl oxide intermediates produced from alkene ozonolysis is also an important source of hydroxyl radicals. The rate of appearance of OH radicals is revealed through direct time-domain measurements following vibrational activation of prototypical methyl-substituted Criegee intermediates under collision-free conditions. Complementary theoretical calculations predict the unimolecular decay rate for the Criegee intermediates in the vicinity of the barrier for 1,4 hydrogen transfer that leads to OH products. Both experiment and theory yield unimolecular decay rates of ca. 108 and 107 s-1 for syn-CH3CHOO and (CH3)2COO, respectively, at energies near the barrier. Tunneling through the barrier, computed from high level electronic structure theory and experimentally validated, makes a significant contribution to the decay rate. Extension to thermally averaged unimolecular decay of stabilized Criegee intermediates under atmospheric conditions yields rates that are six orders of magnitude slower than those evaluated directly in the barrier region.

  11. Cobalt products from real waste fractions of end of life lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Pagnanelli, Francesca; Moscardini, Emanuela; Altimari, Pietro; Abo Atia, Thomas; Toro, Luigi

    2016-05-01

    An innovative process was optimized to recover Co from portable Lithium Ion Batteries (LIB). Pilot scale physical pretreatment was performed to recover electrodic powder from LIB. Co was extracted from electrodic powder by a hydrometallurgical process including the following main stages: leaching (by acid reducing conditions), primary purification (by precipitation of metal impurities), solvent extraction with D2EPHA (for removal of metal impurities), solvent extraction with Cyanex 272 (for separation of cobalt from nickel), cobalt recovery (by precipitation of cobalt carbonate). Tests were separately performed to identify the optimal operating conditions for precipitation (pH 3.8 or 4.8), solvent extraction with D2EHPA (pH 3.8; Mn/D2EHPA=4; 10% TBP; two sequential extractive steps) and solvent extraction with Cyanex 272 (pH 3.8; Cyanex/Cobalt=4, 10% TBP, one extractive step). The sequence of optimized process stages was finally performed to obtain cobalt carbonate. Products with different degree of purity were obtained depending on the performed purification steps (precipitation with or without solvent extraction). 95% purity was achieved by implementation of the process including the solvent extraction stages with D2EHPA and Cyanex 272 and final washing for sodium removal.

  12. Distinguishing real from fake ivory products by elemental analyses: A Bayesian hybrid classification method.

    PubMed

    Buddhachat, Kittisak; Brown, Janine L; Thitaram, Chatchote; Klinhom, Sarisa; Nganvongpanit, Korakot

    2017-03-01

    As laws tighten to limit commercial ivory trading and protect threatened species like whales and elephants, increased sales of fake ivory products have become widespread. This study describes a method, handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) as a noninvasive technique for elemental analysis, to differentiate quickly between ivory (Asian and African elephant, mammoth) from non-ivory (bones, teeth, antler, horn, wood, synthetic resin, rock) materials. An equation consisting of 20 elements and light elements from a stepwise discriminant analysis was used to classify samples, followed by Bayesian binary regression to determine the probability of a sample being 'ivory', with complementary log log analysis to identify the best fit model for this purpose. This Bayesian hybrid classification model was 93% accurate with 92% precision in discriminating ivory from non-ivory materials. The method was then validated by scanning an additional ivory and non-ivory samples, correctly identifying bone as not ivory with >95% accuracy, except elephant bone, which was 72%. It was less accurate for wood and rock (25-85%); however, a preliminary screening to determine if samples are not Ca-dominant could eliminate inorganic materials. In conclusion, elemental analyses by XRF can be used to identify several forms of fake ivory samples, which could have forensic application.

  13. Sustainable, alternative farming practices as a means to simultaneously secure food production and reduce air pollution in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, A. P. K.; Fung, K. M.; Yong, T.; Liu, X.

    2015-12-01

    Proper agricultural land management is essential for securing food supply and minimizing damage to the environment. Among available farming practices, relay strip intercropping and fertilizer application are commonly used, but to study their wider environmental implications and possible feedbacks we require an Earth system modeling framework. In this study, the effectiveness of a maize-soybean relay strip intercropping system and fertilizer reduction is investigated using a multi-model method. The DNDC (DeNitrification-DeComposition) model is used to simulate agricultural activities and their impacts on the environment through nitrogen emissions and changes in soil chemical composition. Crop yield, soil nutrient content and nitrogen emissions to the atmosphere in major agricultural regions of China are predicted under various cultivation scenarios. The GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model is then used to estimate the effects on downwind particle and ozone air pollution. We show that relay strip intercropping and optimal fertilization not only improve crop productivity, but also retain soil nutrients, reduce ammonia emission and mitigate downwind air pollution. By cutting 25% fertilization inputs but cultivating maize and soybean together in a relay strip intercropping system used with field studies, total crop production was improved slightly by 4.4% compared to monoculture with conventional amount of fertilizers. NH3 volatilization decreases by 29%, equivalent to saving the pollution-induced health damage costs by about US$2.5 billion per year. The possible feedback effects from atmospheric nitrogen deposition onto the croplands are also investigated. We show that careful management and better quantitative understanding of alternative farming practices hold huge potential in simultaneously addressing different global change issues including the food crisis, air pollution and climate change, and calls for greater collaboration between scientists, farmers and

  14. The effect of duty cycle and frequency on muscle torque production using kilohertz frequency range alternating current.

    PubMed

    Ward, Alex R; Robertson, Valma J; Ioannou, Harry

    2004-09-01

    We investigated the frequency and duty cycle dependence of maximal electrically induced torque (MEIT) of the wrist extensors. Fifty hertz burst modulated sinusoidal alternating current (AC) in the frequency range 0.5-20 kHz was used, with duty cycles ranging from a minimum (one cycle) to maximum (continuous AC). MEITs were similar at low frequencies but decreased markedly above 2.5 kHz. MEITs also decreased markedly above a 20% duty cycle. Subjective reports of discomfort were fewest at 4 kHz and at duty cycles in the range 20-25%. Our conclusion is that for maximum torque production, a frequency of 1 kHz and a duty cycle of 20% are indicated. When comfort is a major consideration, a frequency of 2.5 kHz provides an acceptable trade-off between MEIT and comfort. The findings also suggest that low duty cycle, burst modulated AC stimulation may be more effective than stimulation using conventional low-frequency pulsed current.

  15. Biomethane production as an alternative bioenergy source from codigesters treating municipal sludge and organic fraction of municipal solid wastes.

    PubMed

    Ersahin, M Evren; Gomec, Cigdem Yangin; Dereli, R Kaan; Arikan, Osman; Ozturk, Izzet

    2011-01-01

    Energy recovery potential of a mesophilic co-digester treating OFMSW and primary sludge at an integrated biomethanization plant was investigated based on feasibility study results. Since landfilling is still the main solid waste disposal method in Turkey, land scarcity will become one of the most important obstacles. Restrictions for biodegradable waste disposal to sanitary landfills in EU Landfill Directive and uncontrolled long-term contamination with gas emissions and leachate necessitate alternative management strategies due to rapid increase in MSW production. Moreover, since energy contribution from renewable resources will be required more in the future with increasing oil prices and dwindling supplies of conventional energy sources, the significance of biogas as a renewable fuel has been increased in the last decade. Results indicated that almost 93% of annual total cost can be recovered if 100% renewable energy subsidy is implemented. Besides, considering the potential revenue when replacing transport fuels, about 26 heavy good vehicles or 549 cars may be powered per year by the biogas produced from the proposed biomethanization plant (PE = 100,000; X(PS) = 61 g TS/PE·day; X(SS-OFMSW) = 50 g TS/PE·day).

  16. Testing alternative models for sexual isolation in natural populations of Littorina saxatilis: indirect support for by-product ecological speciation?

    PubMed

    Cruz, R; Carballo, M; Conde-Padín, P; Rolán-Alvarez, E

    2004-03-01

    Two ecotypes of the rough periwinkle Littorina saxatilis occur at different shore levels, showing assortative mating for size and partial reproductive isolation when they meet at the mid-shore. This system represents a putative case of incomplete speciation in sympatry. Two processes contribute to the assortative mating: morph-specific microhabitat aggregation and mate choice. The estimation of mate choice coefficients in nature and a simulation of the aggregation effects on sexual isolation were used to disentangle these processes as well as to test alternative mechanisms of mate choice. Mate choice significantly increased the frequency of within-morph pairs and significantly decreased the frequency of between-morph pairs, whereas those pairs including at least one hybrid morph mated randomly. These results allow us to reject a discriminant mate choice and support a model of evolution of sexual isolation as a side-effect of size-assortative mating in a context of divergent natural selection for size in the population. This mechanism is more compatible with a model of incomplete by-product ecological speciation, as suggested by previous evidence.

  17. Production, characterization and biocompatibility of marine collagen matrices from an alternative and sustainable source: the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

    PubMed

    Benedetto, Cristiano Di; Barbaglio, Alice; Martinello, Tiziana; Alongi, Valentina; Fassini, Dario; Cullorà, Emanuele; Patruno, Marco; Bonasoro, Francesco; Barbosa, Mario Adolfo; Carnevali, Maria Daniela Candia; Sugni, Michela

    2014-09-24

    Collagen has become a key-molecule in cell culture studies and in the tissue engineering field. Industrially, the principal sources of collagen are calf skin and bones which, however, could be associated to risks of serious disease transmission. In fact, collagen derived from alternative and riskless sources is required, and marine organisms are among the safest and recently exploited ones. Sea urchins possess a circular area of soft tissue surrounding the mouth, the peristomial membrane (PM), mainly composed by mammalian-like collagen. The PM of the edible sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus therefore represents a potential unexploited collagen source, easily obtainable as a food industry waste product. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to extract native collagen fibrils from the PM and produce suitable substrates for in vitro system. The obtained matrices appear as a homogeneous fibrillar network (mean fibril diameter 30-400 nm and mesh < 2 μm) and display remarkable mechanical properties in term of stiffness (146 ± 48 MPa) and viscosity (60.98 ± 52.07 GPa·s). In vitro tests with horse pbMSC show a good biocompatibility in terms of overall cell growth. The obtained results indicate that the sea urchin P. lividus can be a valuable low-cost collagen source for mechanically resistant biomedical devices.

  18. Production, Characterization and Biocompatibility of Marine Collagen Matrices from an Alternative and Sustainable Source: The Sea Urchin Paracentrotus lividus

    PubMed Central

    Di Benedetto, Cristiano; Barbaglio, Alice; Martinello, Tiziana; Alongi, Valentina; Fassini, Dario; Cullorà, Emanuele; Patruno, Marco; Bonasoro, Francesco; Barbosa, Mario Adolfo; Candia Carnevali, Maria Daniela; Sugni, Michela

    2014-01-01

    Collagen has become a key-molecule in cell culture studies and in the tissue engineering field. Industrially, the principal sources of collagen are calf skin and bones which, however, could be associated to risks of serious disease transmission. In fact, collagen derived from alternative and riskless sources is required, and marine organisms are among the safest and recently exploited ones. Sea urchins possess a circular area of soft tissue surrounding the mouth, the peristomial membrane (PM), mainly composed by mammalian-like collagen. The PM of the edible sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus therefore represents a potential unexploited collagen source, easily obtainable as a food industry waste product. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to extract native collagen fibrils from the PM and produce suitable substrates for in vitro system. The obtained matrices appear as a homogeneous fibrillar network (mean fibril diameter 30–400 nm and mesh < 2 μm) and display remarkable mechanical properties in term of stiffness (146 ± 48 MPa) and viscosity (60.98 ± 52.07 GPa·s). In vitro tests with horse pbMSC show a good biocompatibility in terms of overall cell growth. The obtained results indicate that the sea urchin P. lividus can be a valuable low-cost collagen source for mechanically resistant biomedical devices. PMID:25255130

  19. Reactivity of Ir(III) carbonyl complexes with water: alternative by-product formation pathways in catalytic methanol carbonylation.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Paul I P; Haak, Susanne; Meijer, Anthony J H M; Sunley, Glenn J; Haynes, Anthony

    2013-12-21

    The reactions of water with a number of iridium(III) complexes relevant to the mechanism for catalytic methanol carbonylation are reported. The iridium acetyl, [Ir(CO)2I3(COMe)](-), reacts with water under mild conditions to release CO2 and CH4, rather than the expected acetic acid. Isotopic labeling and kinetic experiments are consistent with a mechanism involving nucleophilic attack by water on a terminal CO ligand of [Ir(CO)2I3(COMe)](-) to give an (undetected) hydroxycarbonyl species. Subsequent decarboxylation and elimination of methane gives [Ir(CO)2I2](-). Similar reactions with water are observed for [Ir(CO)2I3Me](-), [Ir(CO)2(NCMe)I2(COMe)] and [Ir(CO)3I2Me] with the neutral complexes exhibiting markedly higher rates. The results demonstrate that CO2 formation during methanol carbonylation is not restricted to the conventional water gas shift mechanism mediated by [Ir(CO)2I4](-) or [Ir(CO)3I3], but can arise directly from key organo-iridium(III) intermediates in the carbonylation cycle. An alternative pathway for methane formation not involving the intermediacy of H2 is also suggested. A mechanism is proposed for the conversion MeOH + CO → CO2 + CH4, which may account for the similar rates of formation of the two gaseous by-products during iridium-catalysed methanol carbonylation.

  20. Biomethane Production as an Alternative Bioenergy Source from Codigesters Treating Municipal Sludge and Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Wastes

    PubMed Central

    Ersahin, M. Evren; Yangin Gomec, Cigdem; Dereli, R. Kaan; Arikan, Osman; Ozturk, Izzet

    2011-01-01

    Energy recovery potential of a mesophilic co-digester treating OFMSW and primary sludge at an integrated biomethanization plant was investigated based on feasibility study results. Since landfilling is still the main solid waste disposal method in Turkey, land scarcity will become one of the most important obstacles. Restrictions for biodegradable waste disposal to sanitary landfills in EU Landfill Directive and uncontrolled long-term contamination with gas emissions and leachate necessitate alternative management strategies due to rapid increase in MSW production. Moreover, since energy contribution from renewable resources will be required more in the future with increasing oil prices and dwindling supplies of conventional energy sources, the significance of biogas as a renewable fuel has been increased in the last decade. Results indicated that almost 93% of annual total cost can be recovered if 100% renewable energy subsidy is implemented. Besides, considering the potential revenue when replacing transport fuels, about 26 heavy good vehicles or 549 cars may be powered per year by the biogas produced from the proposed biomethanization plant (PE = 100,000; XPS = 61 g TS/PE·day; XSS-OFMSW = 50 g TS/PE·day). PMID:21274432

  1. Contribution of Near Real Time MODIS-Based Forest Disturbance Detection Products to a National Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William; Glasser, Jerry; Kuper, Philip D.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation discusses an effort to compute and post weekly MODIS forest change products for the conterminous US (CONUS), as part of national forest threat early warning system (EWS) known as the U.S. Forest Change Assessment Viewer (FCAV). The US Forest Service, NASA, USGS, and ORNL are working collaboratively to contribute weekly change products to this EWS. Large acreages of the nation's forests are being disturbed by a growing multitude of biotic and abiotic threats that can act either singularly or in combination. When common at regional scales, such disturbances can pose hazards and threats to floral and faunal bio-diversity, ecosystem sustainability, ecosystem services, and human settlements across the conterminous US. Regionally evident forest disturbances range from ephemeral periodic canopy defoliation to stand replacement mortality events due to insects, disease, fire, hurricanes, tornadoes, ice, hail, and drought. Mandated by the Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003, this forest threat EWS has been actively developed since 2006 and on-line since 2010. This FCAV system employs 250-meter MODIS NDVI-based forest change products as a key element of the system, providing regional and CONUS scale products in near real time every 8 days. Each forest change product in FCAV is based on current versus historical 24 day composite NDVI data gridded at 231.66 meter resolution. Current NDVI is derived from USGS eMODIS expedited products. MOD13 NDVI is used for constructing historical baselines. CONUS change products are computed for all forests as % change in the current versus historical NDVI. Change products are computed according to previous year, previous 3 years and previous 8 year historical baselines. The use of multiple baselines enables disturbance anomaly phenology to be more fully assessed. CONUS forest change products are posted each week on the FCAV, a web mapping service maintained by the National Environmental Modeling and Analysis Center. The

  2. An Evaluation of Alternatives to Nitrites and Sulfites to Inhibit the Growth of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes in Meat Products

    PubMed Central

    Lamas, Alexandre; Miranda, José Manuel; Vázquez, Beatriz; Cepeda, Alberto; Franco, Carlos Manuel

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the use of nitrites and sulfites as food preservatives has been a cause for concern due to the health problems that these additives can cause in humans. Natural products have been studied as an alternative, but most of them have hardly been applied in the food industry for technological and economic reasons. In this sense, organic salts such as sodium acetate are a good alternative due to their affordability. Thus, this study evaluated the capacity of sodium nitrite, sodium sulfite, a sodium acetate product (TQI C-6000), and chitosan to inhibit two important foodborne pathogens, Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes. The MIC of each chemical was in vitro evaluated and their antibacterial action was subsequently checked in situ using minced meat as a food model. MIC values of sodium nitrite (10,000 mg/L) and sodium sulfite (50,000 mg/L) for Salmonella enterica were higher than the values allowed by legislation (450 mg/L for sulfites and 150 mg/L for nitrites). Additionally, the sodium acetate product caused the inhibition of Salmonella enterica and Listeria at a relative low quantity. The two foodborne pathogens were inhibited in the food model with 1% of the sodium acetate product. Additionally, there were no significant differences between sodium nitrite, sodium sulfite, and sodium acetate products in the inhibition of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes in the food model. Thus, products based on sodium acetate can be an alternative to traditional preservatives in food products. PMID:28231169

  3. An Evaluation of Alternatives to Nitrites and Sulfites to Inhibit the Growth of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes in Meat Products.

    PubMed

    Lamas, Alexandre; Miranda, José Manuel; Vázquez, Beatriz; Cepeda, Alberto; Franco, Carlos Manuel

    2016-10-31

    In recent years, the use of nitrites and sulfites as food preservatives has been a cause for concern due to the health problems that these additives can cause in humans. Natural products have been studied as an alternative, but most of them have hardly been applied in the food industry for technological and economic reasons. In this sense, organic salts such as sodium acetate are a good alternative due to their affordability. Thus, this study evaluated the capacity of sodium nitrite, sodium sulfite, a sodium acetate product (TQI C-6000), and chitosan to inhibit two important foodborne pathogens, Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes. The MIC of each chemical was in vitro evaluated and their antibacterial action was subsequently checked in situ using minced meat as a food model. MIC values of sodium nitrite (10,000 mg/L) and sodium sulfite (50,000 mg/L) for Salmonella enterica were higher than the values allowed by legislation (450 mg/L for sulfites and 150 mg/L for nitrites). Additionally, the sodium acetate product caused the inhibition of Salmonella enterica and Listeria at a relative low quantity. The two foodborne pathogens were inhibited in the food model with 1% of the sodium acetate product. Additionally, there were no significant differences between sodium nitrite, sodium sulfite, and sodium acetate products in the inhibition of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes in the food model. Thus, products based on sodium acetate can be an alternative to traditional preservatives in food products.

  4. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis survival during fermentation of soured milk products detected by culture and quantitative real time PCR methods.

    PubMed

    Klanicova, B; Slana, I; Roubal, P; Pavlik, I; Kralik, P

    2012-07-02

    Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP), etiological agent of paratuberculosis in ruminants, is able to survive extreme conditions like very low pH (stomach), high temperature (pasteurization) or low temperature (refrigerated storage). Cheese, infant powder milk, cream and other milk and dairy products might thus be considered as possible sources of MAP for humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the survival of two MAP field isolates during fermentation of three different types of soured milk products (SMP; yogurt, acidophilus milk and kefir) under laboratory conditions. Pasteurized MAP-free milk was artificially contaminated with 10(6)MAPcells/mL and survival and absolute numbers of MAP were monitored during fermentation (4 or 16 h) and after six weeks of storage at 4°C by culture and quantitative real time PCR (qPCR). Viability of MAP was determined by culture using Herrold's egg yolk medium and Middlebrook 7H10 with antibiotics, supplemented with Mycobactin J and incubated at 37°C for up to 12 weeks. The absolute numbers of MAP were quantified by previously published qPCR assays targeting F57 and IS900 loci in MAP genome. We herein confirm that MAP can survive pH reduction, however, longer exposure to pH below 4 in SMP seems to be critical because it inhibits growth. Therefore, it is suggested that probiotic cultures that can decrease pH below 4 during fermentation could provide better inactivation of MAP in SMP.

  5. Productive Resources in Students' Ideas about Energy: An Alternative Analysis of Watts' Original Interview Transcripts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrer, Benedikt W.; Flood, Virginia J.; Wittmann, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    For over 30 years, researchers have investigated students' ideas about energy with the intent of reforming instructional practice. In this pursuit, Watts contributed an influential study with his 1983 paper "Some alternative views of energy" ["Phys. Educ." 18, 213 (1983)]. Watts' "alternative frameworks"…

  6. Use of herbal medicines and natural products: an alternative approach to overcoming the apoptotic resistance of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Leung, Po Sing

    2014-08-01

    Pancreatic cancer has a poor prognosis with a 5-year survival rate of <5%. It does not respond well to either chemotherapy or radiotherapy, due partly to apoptotic resistance (AR) of the cancer cells. AR has been attributed to certain genetic abnormalities or defects in apoptotic signaling pathways. In pancreatic cancer, significant mutations of K-ras and p53, constitutive activation of NFκB, over-expression of heat shock proteins (Hsp90, Hsp70), histone deacetylase (HDACs) and the activities of other proteins (COX-2, Nrf2 and bcl-2 family members) are closely linked with resistance to apoptosis and invasion. AR has also been associated with aberrant signaling of MAPK, PI3K-AKT, JAK/STAT, SHH, Notch, and Wnt/β-catenin pathways. Strategies targeting these signaling molecules and pathways provide an alternative for overcoming AR in pancreatic cancer. The use of herbal medicines or natural products (HM/NPs) alone or in combination with conventional anti-cancer agents has been shown to produce beneficial effects through actions upon multiple molecular pathways involved in AR. The current standard first-line chemotherapeutic agents for pancreatic cancer are gemcitabine (Gem) or Gem-containing combinations; however, the efficacy is dissatisfied and this limitation is largely attributed to AR. Meanwhile, emerging data have pointed to a combination of HM/NPs that may augment the sensitivity of pancreatic cancer cells to Gem. Greater understanding of how these compounds affect the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis may propel development of HM/NPs as anti-cancer agents and/or adjuvant therapies forward. In this review, we give a critical appraisal of the use of HM/NPs alone and in combination with anti-cancer drugs. We also discuss the potential regulatory mechanisms whereby AR is involved in these protective pathways.

  7. Mixed grazing systems of goats with cattle in tropical conditions: an alternative to improving animal production in the pasture.

    PubMed

    d'Alexis, S; Periacarpin, F; Jackson, F; Boval, M

    2014-08-01

    Mixed grazing systems combining sheep and cattle have shown better growth performance for one or both species. This observation has been attributed to their complementary feeding behaviour and the reduced host infection by gastrointestinal nematodes. Less attention has been paid to mixed grazing systems combining goats and cattle. Here, continuously grazing goats mixed with cattle (M) were compared with control goats reared alone (C) under tropical conditions. The comparison was conducted with gastrointestinal nematode-infected (I) and non-infected (nI) goats. Thus, the four treatments were cattle with gastrointestinal nematode-infected goats (MI), gastrointestinal nematode-infected goats alone (CI), cattle with non-infected goats (MnI) and non-infected goats (CnI). Average daily gain (ADG, g/day) and grass production were measured for the four groups of animals (six goats and two heifers treated with MI or MnI) grazing for 3 months on 4 subplots. Monthly measurements were performed over 5-day periods. This pattern was replicated in space for a second set of four subplots and in time for six successive cohorts of animals (bands 1 to 6). The ADG of goats in mixed grazing conditions was higher than controls irrespective of the infection status (32.6 v. 18.4 g/day for MI v. CI; 44.2 v. 33.5 g/day for MnI v. CnI). Concomitantly, the average biomass was lower for mixed grazing animals compared with controls (174 v. 170 for MI and MnI; 235 v. 208 for CI and CnI, respectively), suggesting better use of the sward. For daily BW gain (g/kg DM), mixed grazing also yielded better results than the control (1.88 v. 0.52 g BW/kg DM per day for MI v. CI; 2.08 v. 1.47 g BW/kg DM per day for MnI and CnI). Mixed grazing of goats and heifers offers a promising alternative for increasing goat and overall animal production as well as improving the management of pastures.

  8. Quantitative detection of pork in commercial meat products by TaqMan® real-time PCR assay targeting the mitochondrial D-loop region.

    PubMed

    Kim, Miju; Yoo, Insuk; Lee, Shin-Young; Hong, Yeun; Kim, Hae-Yeong

    2016-11-01

    The TaqMan® real-time PCR assay using the mitochondrial D-loop region was developed for the quantitative detection of pork in processed meat products. The newly designed primers and probe specifically amplified pork without any cross-reactivity with non-target animal species. The limit of detection of the real-time PCR assay was 0.1pg of heat-treated pork meat and 0.1% (w/w) pork meat in beef and chicken meat mixtures. The quantitative real-time PCR assay was applied to analyze the pork meat content in 22 commercial processed meat products including jerkies, press hams, sausages, hamburger patties and steaks, grilled short rib patties, and nuggets. The developed real-time PCR method was able to detect pork meat in various types of processed meat products that declared the use of pork meat on their label. All processed meat products that declared no use of pork meat showed a negative result in the assay. The method developed in this study showed sensitivity and specificity in the quantification of pork meat in commercial processed meat products.

  9. Extraction and purification of high added value compounds from by-products of the winemaking chain using alternative/non-conventional processes/technologies.

    PubMed

    Yammine, Sami; Brianceau, Sylène; Manteau, Sébastien; Turk, Mohammad; Ghidossi, Rémy; Vorobiev, Eugène; Mietton-Peuchot, Martine

    2016-12-21

    Grape byproducts are today considered as a cheap source of valuable compounds since existent technologies allow the recovery of target compounds and their recycling. The goal of the current article is to explore the different recovery stages used by both conventional and alternative techniques and processes. Alternative pre-treatments techniques reviewed are: ultrasounds, pulsed electric fields and high voltage discharges. Additionally, non-conventional solvent extraction under high pressure, specifically, supercritical fluid extraction and subcritical water extraction are discussed. Finally alternative purification technologies, for example membrane processing were also examined. The intent is to describe the mechanisms involved by these alternative technologies and to summarize the work done on the improvement of the extraction process of phenolic compounds from winery by-products. With a focus on the developmental stage of each technology, highlighting the research need and challenges to be overcome for an industrial implementation of these unitary operations in the overall extraction process. A critical comparison of conventional and alternative techniques will be reviewed for ethe pre-treatment of raw material, the diffusion of polyphenols and the purification of these high added value compounds. This review intends to give the reader some key answers (costs, advantages, drawbacks) to help in the choice of alternative technologies for extraction purposes.

  10. Age-Sensitive Effects of Enduring Work with Alternating Cognitive and Physical Load. A Study Applying Mobile EEG in a Real Life Working Scenario.

    PubMed

    Wascher, Edmund; Heppner, Holger; Kobald, Sven O; Arnau, Stefan; Getzmann, Stephan; Möckel, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Ergonomic assessment of a workplace requires the evaluation of physical as well as cognitive aspects of a particular working situation. In particular the latter is hardly possible without interfering in the natural setting. Mobile acquisition of neurophysiological measures (such as parameters of the EEG) may close this gap. At a simulated workplace we tracked older and younger participants with mobile EEG during a 4-5 h work shift. They had to perform either a monotonous cognitive task, a self-paced cognitive task or a self-paced physical task in a predefined order. Self assessment, behavioral performance and spectral measures of the EEG (before most alpha power) indicated that younger participants suffered from monotony. Older adults, on the other hand, were overall impaired by inefficient information processing. This was visible in EEG variations time-locked to eye blinks (blink-related synchronizations), a new measure to investigate cognitive processing in real life environments. Thus, we were able to distinguish between active and passive task-related aspects of mental fatigue without impinging on the natural working situation.

  11. Age-Sensitive Effects of Enduring Work with Alternating Cognitive and Physical Load. A Study Applying Mobile EEG in a Real Life Working Scenario

    PubMed Central

    Wascher, Edmund; Heppner, Holger; Kobald, Sven O.; Arnau, Stefan; Getzmann, Stephan; Möckel, Tina

    2016-01-01

    Ergonomic assessment of a workplace requires the evaluation of physical as well as cognitive aspects of a particular working situation. In particular the latter is hardly possible without interfering in the natural setting. Mobile acquisition of neurophysiological measures (such as parameters of the EEG) may close this gap. At a simulated workplace we tracked older and younger participants with mobile EEG during a 4–5 h work shift. They had to perform either a monotonous cognitive task, a self-paced cognitive task or a self-paced physical task in a predefined order. Self assessment, behavioral performance and spectral measures of the EEG (before most alpha power) indicated that younger participants suffered from monotony. Older adults, on the other hand, were overall impaired by inefficient information processing. This was visible in EEG variations time-locked to eye blinks (blink-related synchronizations), a new measure to investigate cognitive processing in real life environments. Thus, we were able to distinguish between active and passive task-related aspects of mental fatigue without impinging on the natural working situation. PMID:26793091

  12. Near-real-time mapping of GNSS products from an area of complex topography for operational meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terradellas, E.; Téllez, B.; Valdés, M.

    2009-04-01

    Triggering of severe convection is often focalized in areas of moisture convergence. On the other hand, the inflow of wet air usually plays an important role in the fog onset, even in typical events of radiation fog. Therefore, knowledge of the spatial distribution of atmospheric humidity is crucial to the operational forecaster, especially in the weather nowcasting at regions of complex topography. Radiosonde measurements are very sparse and present a limited time resolution of 6 or 12 hours. Near-real-time mapping of the vertically-integrated water vapour (IWV) retrieved from ground-based GNSS observations is an alternative way to present information on the horizontal distribution of humidity with a high time resolution. On average, nearly half the total atmospheric water is between sea level and a 1.5-km height. Therefore, the horizontal distribution of water vapour is strongly modulated by the topography. In the Iberian Peninsula, an area of complex topography, the penetration of shallow air masses of maritime origin through passes underneath mountain ranges is a common mechanism of moistening the air of inland regions. This fact makes difficult to build a realistic map of IWV without a high-resolution network of GNSS receivers. A method to smooth the dependence on height of the magnitude to be interpolated is presented here. The method is based on the decomposition of any IWV value into a constant statistical average and a variable part. The mean geographical distribution of IWV is computed from the dataset of daily averages at the different stations. Since this dataset usually presents some gaps, the estimation of the mean values and covariance matrix is performed together with the imputation of the missing values using an iterative method based on a regularized maximization-expectation algorithm. A linear regression yields a model accounting for the statistical dependence of the mean values on latitude, longitude and altitude. The model residuals are then

  13. Alternative security

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, B.H. )

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview.

  14. LEMming: A Linear Error Model to Normalize Parallel Quantitative Real-Time PCR (qPCR) Data as an Alternative to Reference Gene Based Methods

    PubMed Central

    Feuer, Ronny; Vlaic, Sebastian; Arlt, Janine; Sawodny, Oliver; Dahmen, Uta; Zanger, Ulrich M.; Thomas, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background Gene expression analysis is an essential part of biological and medical investigations. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is characterized with excellent sensitivity, dynamic range, reproducibility and is still regarded to be the gold standard for quantifying transcripts abundance. Parallelization of qPCR such as by microfluidic Taqman Fluidigm Biomark Platform enables evaluation of multiple transcripts in samples treated under various conditions. Despite advanced technologies, correct evaluation of the measurements remains challenging. Most widely used methods for evaluating or calculating gene expression data include geNorm and ΔΔCt, respectively. They rely on one or several stable reference genes (RGs) for normalization, thus potentially causing biased results. We therefore applied multivariable regression with a tailored error model to overcome the necessity of stable RGs. Results We developed a RG independent data normalization approach based on a tailored linear error model for parallel qPCR data, called LEMming. It uses the assumption that the mean Ct values within samples of similarly treated groups are equal. Performance of LEMming was evaluated in three data sets with different stability patterns of RGs and compared to the results of geNorm normalization. Data set 1 showed that both methods gave similar results if stable RGs are available. Data set 2 included RGs which are stable according to geNorm criteria, but became differentially expressed in normalized data evaluated by a t-test. geNorm-normalized data showed an effect of a shifted mean per gene per condition whereas LEMming-normalized data did not. Comparing the decrease of standard deviation from raw data to geNorm and to LEMming, the latter was superior. In data set 3 according to geNorm calculated average expression stability and pairwise variation, stable RGs were available, but t-tests of raw data contradicted this. Normalization with RGs resulted in distorted data contradicting

  15. Evaluation of Alternatives to Carbamate and Organophosphate Insecticides Against Thrips and Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus in Peanut Production.

    PubMed

    Marasigan, K; Toews, M; Kemerait, R; Abney, M R; Culbreath, A; Srinivasan, R

    2016-04-01

    Thrips are important pests of peanut. They cause severe feeding injuries on peanut foliage in the early season. They also transmit Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), which causes spotted wilt disease. At-plant insecticides and cultivars that exhibit field resistance to TSWV are often used to manage thrips and spotted wilt disease. Historically, peanut growers used the broad-spectrum insecticides aldicarb (IRAC class 1A; Temik) and phorate (IRAC class 1B; Thimet) for managing thrips and thereby reducing TSWV transmission. Aldicarb has not been produced since 2011 and its usage in peanut will be legally phased out in 2018; therefore, identification of alternative chemistries is critical for thrips and spotted wilt management. Here, eight alternative insecticides, with known thrips activity, were evaluated in field trials conducted from 2011 through 2013. In addition, different application methods of alternatives were also evaluated. Imidacloprid (Admire Pro), thiamethoxam (Actara), spinetoram (Radiant), and cyantraniliprole (Exirel) were as effective as aldicarb and phorate in suppressing thrips, but none of the insecticides significantly suppressed spotted wilt incidence. Nevertheless, greenhouse assays demonstrated that the same alternative insecticides were effective in suppressing thrips feeding and reducing TSWV transmission. Spotted wilt incidence in the greenhouse was more severe (∼80%) than in the field (5–25%). In general, field resistance to TSWV in cultivars only marginally influenced spotted wilt incidence. Results suggest that effective management of thrips using alternative insecticides and subsequent feeding reduction could improve yields under low to moderate virus pressure.

  16. Domain Specific Effects of Herstatin, an Alternative HER-2 (ErbB-2) Product, on ErbB Positive Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    AD Award Number: W81XWH-04-1-0412 TITLE: Domain Specific Effects of Herstatin, an Alternative HER-2 (ErbB-2) Product, on ErbB Positive Breast Cancer ...Positive Breast Cancer 5b. GRANTNUMBER W81XWH-04-1-0412 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Lara Shamieh 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK...11 INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND The role of erbB receptors in breast cancer . The

  17. Development of Productive Skills. Report of a Sub-Regional APEID Workshop on Non-Formal and Alternative Structures in Education with Emphasis on Development of Productive Skills (Philippines, May 28-June 16, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    Delegates from six countries (Bangladesh, Korea, India, Indonesia, Thailand, and the Philippines) met in the Philippines in May-June 1979 at a UNESCO-sponsored conference to discuss development of productive skills through nonformal and alternative structures in education. The main part of the meeting was a series of reports of the nonformal…

  18. A clean start to productive orchards and vineyards: recent research on methyl bromide alternatives for perennial crop nurseries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methyl bromide (MB) is an important pest management tool in open field perennial crop nurseries in California for control of many soil borne pests including plant parasitic nematodes, pathogens, and weeds. Because MB is being phased out under the provisions of the Montreal Protocol, alternatives are...

  19. Educational Alternatives in Food Production, Knowledge and Consumption: The Public Pedagogies of "Growing Power" and "Tsyunhehkw"[superscript caret

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines how two sites of adult learning in the food movement create educational alternatives to the dominant U.S. food system. It further examines how these pedagogies challenge racialised, classed and gendered ideologies and practices in their aims, curricular content, and publically documented educational processes. The first case is…

  20. Teaching Educational Assistants to Facilitate the Multisymbol Message Productions of Young Students Who Require Augmentative and Alternative Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binger, Cathy; Kent-Walsh, Jennifer; Ewing, Cai; Taylor, Stacy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Many classroom educational assistants (EAs) have a significant amount of responsibility in carrying out educational plans for children who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), but they receive little instruction on how to do so (Kent-Walsh & Light, 2003). This study investigates the impact of using a communication partner…

  1. Domain Specific Effects of Herstatin, an Alternative HER-2 (erbB-2) Product, on erbB Positive Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    an Alternative HER-2 (erbB-2) Product, on erbB Positive Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Lara S. Shamieh...HER-2 (erbB-2) Product, on erbB Positive Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-04-1-0412 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...modulate the action of these receptors and may be critical in controlling the progression ofErbB positive breast cancer . 15. SUBJECT TERMS No

  2. 21 CFR 201.26 - Exceptions or alternatives to labeling requirements for human drug products held by the Strategic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements for human drug products held by the Strategic National Stockpile. 201.26 Section 201.26 Food and... drug products held by the Strategic National Stockpile. (a) The appropriate FDA Center Director may... lots, batches, or other units of a human drug product that are or will be held in the...

  3. Aerosols and contact insecticides as alternatives to methyl bromide in flour mills, food production facilities, and food warehouses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fumigant methyl bromide (MB) is being phased out of production and usage to control stored product insects in flour and rice mills, as well as feed and food production plants, in the United States (US) and other developed countries throughout the world. A phase-out schedule has also been establi...

  4. Views and Preferences for Nicotine Products as an Alternative to Smoking: A Focus Group Study of People Living with Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Meurk, Carla; Ford, Pauline; Sharma, Ratika; Fitzgerald, Lisa; Gartner, Coral

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Background: People living with mental disorders experience a disproportionately higher burden of tobacco-related disease than the general population. Long-term substitution with less harmful nicotine products could reduce the tobacco-related harm among this population. This study investigated the views and preferences of people with mental health disorders about different nicotine products and their use as long-term substitutes for cigarettes. Methods: Semi-structured focus group discussion followed by a brief questionnaire. The discussion transcripts were analysed for content and themes and quantitative data summarised with descriptive statistics. Results: Twenty-nine participants took part in four focus groups. Vaping devices were the most acceptable nicotine products discussed; however preferences for nicotine products were individual and varied along aesthetic, pragmatic, sensory and symbolic dimensions. The concept of tobacco harm reduction was unfamiliar to participants, however they generally agreed with the logic of replacing cigarettes with less harmful nicotine products. Barriers to activating tobacco harm reduction included the symbolism of smoking and quitting; the importance placed on health; the consumer appeal of alternatives; and cost implications. Discussion and Conclusions: Engaging this population in tobacco harm reduction options will require communication that challenges black and white thinking (a conceptual framework in which smoking cigarettes or quitting all nicotine are the only legitimate options) as in practice this serves to support the continuance of smoking. Consumers should be encouraged to trial a range of nicotine products to find the most acceptable alternative to smoking that reduces health harms. Providing incentives to switch to nicotine products could help overcome barriers to using less harmful nicotine products among mental health consumers. PMID:27886046

  5. Views and Preferences for Nicotine Products as an Alternative to Smoking: A Focus Group Study of People Living with Mental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Meurk, Carla; Ford, Pauline; Sharma, Ratika; Fitzgerald, Lisa; Gartner, Coral

    2016-11-23

    Aims and Background: People living with mental disorders experience a disproportionately higher burden of tobacco-related disease than the general population. Long-term substitution with less harmful nicotine products could reduce the tobacco-related harm among this population. This study investigated the views and preferences of people with mental health disorders about different nicotine products and their use as long-term substitutes for cigarettes. Methods: Semi-structured focus group discussion followed by a brief questionnaire. The discussion transcripts were analysed for content and themes and quantitative data summarised with descriptive statistics. Results: Twenty-nine participants took part in four focus groups. Vaping devices were the most acceptable nicotine products discussed; however preferences for nicotine products were individual and varied along aesthetic, pragmatic, sensory and symbolic dimensions. The concept of tobacco harm reduction was unfamiliar to participants, however they generally agreed with the logic of replacing cigarettes with less harmful nicotine products. Barriers to activating tobacco harm reduction included the symbolism of smoking and quitting; the importance placed on health; the consumer appeal of alternatives; and cost implications. Discussion and Conclusions: Engaging this population in tobacco harm reduction options will require communication that challenges black and white thinking (a conceptual framework in which smoking cigarettes or quitting all nicotine are the only legitimate options) as in practice this serves to support the continuance of smoking. Consumers should be encouraged to trial a range of nicotine products to find the most acceptable alternative to smoking that reduces health harms. Providing incentives to switch to nicotine products could help overcome barriers to using less harmful nicotine products among mental health consumers.

  6. Alternative energy production pathways in Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in vitro exposed to a benzimidazole derivative (RCB20).

    PubMed

    Fraga, Carolina Miguel; Da Costa, Tatiane Luiza; De Castro, Ana Maria; Reynoso-Ducoing, Olivia; Ambrosio, Javier; Hernández-Campos, Alicia; Castillo, Rafael; Vinaud, Marina Clare

    2016-04-01

    Biochemical studies of benzimidazole derivatives are important to determine their mode of action and activity against parasites. The lack of antihelminthic alternatives to treat parasitic infections and albendazole resistance cases make the search for new antiparasitary drugs of utmost importance. The 6-chloro-5-(1-naphthyloxy)-2-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-benzimidazole (RCB20) is a benzimidazole derivative with promising effect. This study evaluated the effect of different concentrations of RCB20 in the alternative energetic pathway of in vitro Taenia crassiceps cysticerci. The parasites were in vitro exposed to 6.5 and 13 µM of RCB20 and albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO). The quantification of acetate, acetoacetate, β-hydroxybutyrate, fumarate and propionate was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The quantification of urea, creatinine and total proteins was performed by spectrophotometry. The increase in β-hydroxybutyrate reflects the enhancement of the fatty acid oxidation in the treated groups. Volatile fatty acids secretion, acetate and propionate, was increased in the treated groups. The secretion mechanisms of the treated parasites were impaired due to organic acids increased concentrations in the cysticerci. It is possible to conclude that the metabolic effect on alternative energetic pathways is slightly increased in the parasites treated with RCB20 than the ones treated with ABZSO.

  7. Real Earthquakes, Real Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schomburg, Aaron

    2003-01-01

    One teacher took her class on a year long earthquake expedition. The goal was to monitor the occurrences of real earthquakes during the year and mark their locations with push pins on a wall-sized world map in the hallway outside the science room. The purpose of the project was to create a detailed picture of the earthquakes that occurred…

  8. Monitoring Regional Forest Disturbances across the US with Near Real Time MODIS NDVI Products included in the ForWarn Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph; Hargrove, William W.; Gasser, Gerald; Norman, Steve

    2013-01-01

    U.S. forests occupy approx.1/3 of total land area (approx. 304 million ha). Since 2000, a growing number of regionally evident forest disturbances have occurred due to abiotic and biotic agents. Regional forest disturbances can threaten human life and property, bio-diversity and water supplies. Timely regional forest disturbance monitoring products are needed to aid forest health management work. Near Real Time (NRT) twice daily MODIS NDVI data provide a means to monitor U.S. regional forest disturbances every 8 days. Since 2010, these NRT forest change products have been produced and posted on the US Forest Service ForWarn Early Warning System for Forest Threats.

  9. Near Real Time SLA and SST products during 2-years of MFS pilot project: processing, analysis of the variability and of the coupled patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buongiorno Nardelli, B.; Larnicol, G.; D'Acunzo, E.; Santoleri, R.; Marullo, S.; Le Traon, P. Y.

    2003-01-01

    The Near Real Time (NRT) operational products developed from satellite data (AVHRR, Topex/Poseidon, Ers-2) in the framework of the Mediterranean Forecasting System Pilot Project (MFSPP, autumn 1998-autumn 2000) are described and compared to delayed time products over the Mediterranean sea. MFSPP SLA and SST data are then discussed in the general context of the Mediterranean circulation, showing the interannual variability of the fields and identifying recurrent or anomalous features at mesoscale/sub-basin scales. Finally, MFSPP data are used to test, on a regional (Mediterranean) context, a multivariate method to identify coupled modes of variability, consisting in the SVD of the covariance between SST and SLA.

  10. High-throughput process development of an alternative platform for the production of virus-like particles in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ladd Effio, Christopher; Baumann, Pascal; Weigel, Claudia; Vormittag, Philipp; Middelberg, Anton; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2016-02-10

    The production of safe vaccines against untreatable or new diseases has pushed the research in the field of virus-like particles (VLPs). Currently, a large number of commercial VLP-based human vaccines and vaccine candidates are available or under development. A promising VLP production route is the controlled in vitro assembly of virus proteins into capsids. In the study reported here, a high-throughput screening (HTS) procedure was implemented for the upstream process development of a VLP platform in bacterial cell systems. Miniaturized cultivations were carried out in 48-well format in the BioLector system (m2p-Labs, Germany) using an Escherichia coli strain with a tac promoter producing the murine polyomavirus capsid protein (VP1). The screening procedure incorporated micro-scale cultivations, HTS cell disruption by sonication and HTS-compatible analytics by capillary gel electrophoresis. Cultivation temperatures, shaking speeds, induction and medium conditions were varied to optimize the product expression in E. coli. The most efficient system was selected based on an evaluation of soluble and insoluble product concentrations as well as on the percentage of product in the total soluble protein fraction. The optimized system was scaled up to cultivation 2.5L shaker flask scale and purified using an anion exchange chromatography membrane adsorber, followed by a size exclusion chromatography polishing procedure. For proof of concept, purified VP1 capsomeres were assembled under defined buffer conditions into empty capsids and characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The presented HTS procedure allowed for a fast development of an efficient production process of VLPs in E. coli. Under optimized cultivation conditions, the VP1 product totalled up to 43% of the total soluble protein fraction, yielding 1.63 mg VP1 per mL of applied cultivation medium. The developed production process strongly promotes the murine polyoma-VLP platform, moving towards

  11. Development of real-time line-scan hyperspectral imaging system for online agricultural and food product inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Seung Chul; Park, Bosoon; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Windham, William R.; Heitschmidt, Gerald W.

    2010-04-01

    This paper reports a recent development of a line-scan hyperspectral imaging system for real-time multispectral imaging applications in agricultural and food industries. The hyperspectral imaging system consisted of a spectrograph, an EMCCD camera, and application software. The real-time multispectral imaging with the developed system was possible due to (1) data binning, especially a unique feature of the EMCCD sensor allowing the access to non-contiguous multispectral bands, (2) an image processing algorithm designed for real-time multispectral imaging, and (3) the design and implementation of the real-time application software. The imaging system was developed as a poultry inspection instrument determining the presence of surface feces on poultry carcasses moving at commercial poultry processing line speeds up to 180 birds per minute. The imaging system can be easily modifiable to solve other real-time inspection/sorting problems. Three wavelengths at 517 nm, 565 nm and 802 nm were selected for real-time fecal detection imaging. The fecal detection algorithm was based on dual band ratios of 565nm/517nm and 802nm/517nm followed by thresholding. The software architecture was based on a ping pong memory and a circular buffer for the multitasking of image grabbing and processing. The software was written in Microsoft Visual C++. An image-based internal triggering (i.e. polling) algorithm was developed to determine the start and end positions of birds. Twelve chickens were used for testing the imaging system at two different speeds (140 birds per minute and 180 bird per minute) in a pilot-scale processing line. Four types of fecal materials (duodenum, ceca, colon and ingesta) were used for the evaluation of the detection algorithm. The software grabbed and processed multispectral images of the dimension 118 (line scans) x 512 (height) x 3 (bands) pixels obtained from chicken carcasses moving at the speed up to 180 birds per minute (a frame rate 286 Hz). Intensity

  12. Mandarin-Speaking Three-Year-Olds' Demonstration of Productive Knowledge of Syntax: Evidence from Syntactic Productivity and Structural Priming with the SVO-"ba" Alternation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Dong Bo

    2014-01-01

    Two studies investigated syntactic productivity in three-year-old Mandarin speakers' use of verbs in the SVO and S"ba"OV constructions. In Study 1, children were taught novel verbs in one construction and assessed for their production in the other construction. Children produced verbs taught in the "ba" constructions in…

  13. Growth performance of fast growing broilers reared under different types of production systems with outdoor access: Implications for organic and alternative production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Outdoor access is an important part of organic and free range poultry production, yet there is limited information on the impact of various housing and production systems on growth performance and colonization of foodborne pathogens. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the ...

  14. Alternative Fuels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Alternative fuels include gaseous fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas, and propane; alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, and butanol; vegetable and waste-derived oils; and electricity. Overview of alternative fuels is here.

  15. Alternative Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Late Effects of Poliomyelitis for Physicians and Survivors © Alternative Therapies Alternative therapies, also called complementary, can support ... of motion, pain, and fatigue are often reported. Energy work includes acupuncture and acupressure, traditional Chinese medicine ...

  16. Promotion of atomic hydrogen recombination as an alternative to electron trapping for the role of metals in the photocatalytic production of H2.

    PubMed

    Joo, Ji Bong; Dillon, Robert; Lee, Ilkeun; Yin, Yadong; Bardeen, Christopher J; Zaera, Francisco

    2014-06-03

    The production of hydrogen from water with semiconductor photocatalysts can be promoted by adding small amounts of metals to their surfaces. The resulting enhancement in photocatalytic activity is commonly attributed to a fast transfer of the excited electrons generated by photon absorption from the semiconductor to the metal, a step that prevents deexcitation back to the ground electronic state. Here we provide experimental evidence that suggests an alternative pathway that does not involve electron transfer to the metal but requires it to act as a catalyst for the recombination of the hydrogen atoms made via the reduction of protons on the surface of the semiconductor instead.

  17. [Exon 5 alternative splicing of the cytochrome P450 aromatase could be a regulatory mechanism for estrogen production in humans].

    PubMed

    Pepe, Carolina M; Saraco, Nora I; Baquedano, María Sonia; Guercio, Gabriela; Vaiani, Elisa; Berensztein, Esperanza; Rivarola, Marco A; Belgorosky, Alicia

    2007-01-01

    P450 aromatase (P450Aro), involved in androgen to estrogen conversion, is encoded by the CYP19 gene. P450Aro c655G>A mutation described in heterozygous form in a girl and in homozygous form in an adult male with P450Aro deficiency results in an aberrant splicing due to disruption of a donor splice site. A truncated inactive protein would be expected if intron5 is retained. Surprisingly, the girl described with this mutation showed spontaneous breast development and pubertal estradiol (E2) levels suggesting residual P450Aro activity (AA). Formerly, we postulate the in frame E5 skipping as a consequence of this mutation generating a protein with some degree of activity. When P450Aro mRNA expression was analysed from patient's lymphocytes, an aberrant spliced mRNA lacking E5 (-E5mRNA) was detected, suggesting an association between E5 skipping and the presence of the mutation. Splicing assays in Y1 cells confirmed this association. -Ex5 cDNA expression in Y1 cells resulted in an inactive protein that could not explain patient's phenotype. Exon 5 might be predicted as a poorly defined exon suggesting a susceptibility to splicing mutations and physiological alternative splicing (AS) events. Therefore, -Ex5mRNA was assessed as a natural occurring alternative transcript in normal human steroidogenic tissues. As P450Aro -E5mRNA expression was detected in human term placenta, prepubertal testis and prepubertal adrenal, we might speculate that AS of P450Aro coding region would occur in humans and would be involved in the complex AA regulation. Furthermore, tissue specific regulation of AS might suggest low expression of +E5mRNA from the c655G>A allele explaining residual AA evidenced in the affected girl.

  18. Alternative method of inoculum and spawn production for the cultivation of the edible brazilian mushroom Pleurotus ostreatoroseus SING.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Fábio Rogério; Kemmelmeier, Carlos; Da Costa, Sandra Maria Gomes

    2002-01-01

    Efficiency of solid and liquid inocula and their use for spawn production were compared so that improved cultivation conditions for the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatoroseus could be tested. Solid and liquid inocula were prepared respectively with Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) and Liquid Potato Dextrose (LPD). Wheat grains and cotton residues were used as substrates for spawn preparation. Inoculum types did not affect the development of P. ostreatoroseus, and LPD spawns were cheaper, more homogenous, less contaminated. Decomposition activity of mushroom growth, as a percentage of organic matter loss (OML), was higher in the wheat grain spawn and was not influenced by the inoculum type. Advantages in the use of cotton residue for spawn production were longer storage time, lower contamination and reduced costs. The cotton residue substrate may be also used for the production of mushroom fruiting bodies.

  19. Oil palm empty fruit bunch as alternative substrate for acetone-butanol-ethanol production by Clostridium butyricum EB6.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohamad Faizal; Abd-Aziz, Suraini; Razak, Mohamad Nafis Abdul; Phang, Lai Yee; Hassan, Mohd Ali

    2012-04-01

    Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production from renewable resources has been widely reported. In this study, Clostridium butyricum EB6 was employed for ABE fermentation using fermentable sugar derived from treated oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB). A higher amount of ABE (2.61 g/l) was produced in a fermentation using treated OPEFB as the substrate when compared to a glucose based medium that produced 0.24 g/l at pH 5.5. ABE production was increased to 3.47 g/l with a yield of 0.24 g/g at pH 6.0. The fermentation using limited nitrogen concentration of 3 g/l improved the ABE yield by 64%. The study showed that OPEFB has the potential to be applied for renewable ABE production by C. butyricum EB6.

  20. Marking: A Critical Alternative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Charles

    1984-01-01

    Having pupils critique their own work is an alternative to marking that is worthy of consideration. Pupil critique fosters in students a willingness to take responsibility for the quality of their work products. (RM)

  1. An Alternative to Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunathan, Arni; Guenther, John

    1970-01-01

    Two faculty members from the University of Missouri propose film making as an alternative to writing as a means of self expression for today's students and offer suggestions for preparing and operating a film production program. (LS)

  2. Alternative disinfectant water treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative disinfestant water treatments are disinfestants not as commonly used by the horticultural industry. Chlorine products that produce hypochlorous acid are the main disinfestants used for treating irrigation water. Chlorine dioxide will be the primary disinfestant discussed as an alternativ...

  3. Evaluation of real-time PCR detection methods for detecting rice products contaminated by rice genetically modified with a CpTI-KDEL-T-nos transgenic construct.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kosuke; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Kawano, Noriaki; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi; Ohmori, Kiyomi; Noguchi, Akio; Kondo, Kazunari; Teshima, Reiko

    2013-12-01

    Genetically modified (GM) rice (Oryza sativa) lines, such as insecticidal Kefeng and Kemingdao, have been developed and found unauthorised in processed rice products in many countries. Therefore, qualitative detection methods for the GM rice are required for the GM food regulation. A transgenic construct for expressing cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) trypsin inhibitor (CpTI) was detected in some imported processed rice products contaminated with Kemingdao. The 3' terminal sequence of the identified transgenic construct for expression of CpTI included an endoplasmic reticulum retention signal coding sequence (KDEL) and nopaline synthase terminator (T-nos). The sequence was identical to that in a report on Kefeng. A novel construct-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection method for detecting the junction region sequence between the CpTI-KDEL and T-nos was developed. The imported processed rice products were evaluated for the contamination of the GM rice using the developed construct-specific real-time PCR methods, and detection frequency was compared with five event-specific detection methods. The construct-specific detection methods detected the GM rice at higher frequency than the event-specific detection methods. Therefore, we propose that the construct-specific detection method is a beneficial tool for screening the contamination of GM rice lines, such as Kefeng, in processed rice products for the GM food regulation.

  4. Calculation of greenhouse gas emissions of jatropha oil and jatropha biodiesel as alternative fuels for electricity production in Côte d'Ivoire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atta, Pascal Atta; N'guessan, Yao; Morin, Celine; Voirol, Anne Jaecker; Descombes, Georges

    2017-02-01

    The electricity in Côte d'Ivoire is mainly produced from fossil energy sources. This causes damages on environment due to greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). The aim of this paper is to calculate the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of jatropha oil and jatropha biodiesel as alternative fuels for electricity production in Côte d'Ivoire by using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. The functional unit in this LCA is defined as 1 kWh of electricity produced by the combustion of jatropha oil or jatropha biodiesel in the engine of a generator. Two scenarios, called short chain and long chain, were examined in this LCA. The results show that 0.132 kg CO2 equivalent is emitted for the scenario 1 with jatropha oil as an alternative fuel against 0.6376 kg CO2 equivalent for the scenario 2 with jatropha biodiesel as an alternative fuel. An 87 % reduction of kg CO2 equivalent is observed in scenario 1 and a 37 % reduction of kg CO2 equivalent is observed in the scenario 2, when compared with a Diesel fuel.

  5. The Mississippi University Research Consortium for the Utilization of Biomass: Production of Alternative Fuels from Waste Biomass Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Drs. Mark E. Zapp; Todd French; Lewis Brown; Clifford George; Rafael Hernandez; Marvin Salin; Drs. Huey-Min Hwang, Ken Lee, Yi Zhang; Maria Begonia; Drs. Clint Williford; Al Mikell; Drs. Robert Moore; Roger Hester .

    2009-03-31

    The Mississippi Consortium for the Utilization of Biomass was formed via funding from the US Department of Energy's EPSCoR Program, which is administered by the Office of Basic Science. Funding was approved in July of 1999 and received by participating Mississippi institutions by 2000. The project was funded via two 3-year phases of operation (the second phase was awarded based on the high merits observed from the first 3-year phase), with funding ending in 2007. The mission of the Consortium was to promote the utilization of biomass, both cultured and waste derived, for the production of commodity and specialty chemicals. These scientific efforts, although generally basic in nature, are key to the development of future industries within the Southeastern United States. In this proposal, the majority of the efforts performed under the DOE EPSCoR funding were focused primarily toward the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks and biogas from waste products. However, some of the individual projects within this program investigated the production of other products from biomass feeds (i.e. acetic acid and biogas) along with materials to facilitate the more efficient production of chemicals from biomass. Mississippi is a leading state in terms of raw biomass production. Its top industries are timber, poultry production, and row crop agriculture. However, for all of its vast amounts of biomass produced on an annual basis, only a small percentage of the biomass is actually industrially produced into products, with the bulk of the biomass being wasted. This situation is actually quite representative of many Southeastern US states. The research and development efforts performed attempted to further develop promising chemical production techniques that use Mississippi biomass feedstocks. The three processes that were the primary areas of interest for ethanol production were syngas fermentation, acid hydrolysis followed by hydrolyzate fermentation, and enzymatic

  6. Sensitive and specific detection of pine nut (Pinus spp.) by real-time PCR in complex food products.

    PubMed

    Garino, Cristiano; De Paolis, Angelo; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Bianchi, Daniela Manila; Decastelli, Lucia; Arlorio, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Pine nuts are a known source of food allergens and several cases of adverse immunological reaction after ingestion have been reported. To protect allergic consumers, methods to unequivocally detect the presence of pine nuts in complex matrices must be developed. A Taqman-based real time PCR method for the detection of Pinus spp. was set up. A homemade pesto spiked at known concentration of pine nut powder was used as model food. Moreover, DNA was purified from commercial foods declaring or not the presence of pine nuts. The method displayed a very high efficiency and specificity for the genus Pinus. The intrinsic LOD was 1pg of DNA, while the practical LOD evaluated on model foods was 0.1ppm of pine nuts powder, the lowest ever registered for the detection of food allergens via real-time PCR. Finally, the declared presence/absence of pine nut in commercial foods was confirmed.

  7. Intercropping of oat and field pea in Alaska: an alternative approach to quality forage production and weed control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intercropping of legumes with non-legumes is an ancient crop production method used to improve quality and dry matter (DM) yields of forage and grain, and to control weeds. However, there is little information regarding intercropping at high latitudes. The objectives of this field study were to eval...

  8. Energy balances in the production and end use of alcohols derived from biomass. A fuels-specific comparative analysis of alternate ethanol production cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    Considerable public interest and debate have been focused on the so-called energy balance issue involved in the conversion of biomass materials into ethanol for fuel use. This report addresses questions of net gains in premium fuels that can be derived from the production and use of ethanol from biomass, and shows that for the US alcohol fuel program, energy balance need not be a concern. Three categories of fuel gain are discussed in the report: (1) Net petroleum gain; (2) Net premium fuel gain (petroleum and natural gas); and (3) Net energy gain (for all fuels). In this study the investment of energy (in the form of premium fuels) in alcohol production includes all investment from cultivating, harvesting, or gathering the feedstock and raw materials, through conversion of the feedstock to alcohol, to the delivery to the end-user. To determine the fuel gains in ethanol production, six cases, encompassing three feedstocks, five process fuels, and three process variations, have been examined. For each case, two end-uses (automotive fuel use and replacement of petrochemical feedstocks) were scrutinized. The end-uses were further divided into three variations in fuel economy and two different routes for production of ethanol from petrochemicals. Energy requirements calculated for the six process cycles accounted for fuels used directly and indirectly in all stages of alcohol production, from agriculture through distribution of product to the end-user. Energy credits were computed for byproducts according to the most appropriate current use.

  9. Determination of alternative preservatives in cosmetic products by chromophoric derivatization followed by vortex-assisted liquid-liquid semimicroextraction and liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Miralles, Pablo; Vrouvaki, Ilianna; Chisvert, Alberto; Salvador, Amparo

    2016-07-01

    An analytical method for the simultaneous determination of phenethyl alcohol, methylpropanediol, phenylpropanol, caprylyl glycol, and ethylhexylglycerin, which are used as alternative preservatives in cosmetic products, has been developed. The method is based on liquid chromatography with UV spectrophotometric detection after chromophoric derivatization with benzoyl chloride and vortex-assisted liquid-liquid semimicroextraction. Different chromatographic parameters, derivatization conditions, and sample preparation variables were studied. Under optimized conditions, the limits of detection values for the analytes ranged from 0.02 to 0.06µgmL(-1). The method was validated with good recovery values (84-118%) and precision values (3.9-9.5%). It was successfully applied to 10 commercially available cosmetic samples. The good analytical features of the proposed method besides of its environmentally-friendly characteristics, make it useful to carry out the quality control of cosmetic products containing the target compounds as preservative agents.

  10. Comparative evaluation of pumice stone as an alternative immobilization material for 1,3-propanediol production from waste glycerol by immobilized Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Gonen, Cagdas; Gungormusler, Mine; Azbar, Nuri

    2012-12-01

    In this study, pumice stone (PS), which is a vastly available material in Turkey, was evaluated as an alternative immobilization material in comparison to other commercially available immobilization materials such as glass beads and polyurethane foam. All immobilized bioreactors resulted in much better 1,3-propanediol production from waste glycerol in comparison to the suspended cell culture bioreactor. It was also demonstrated that the locally available PS material is as good as the commercially available immobilization material. The maximum volumetric productivity (8.5 g L(-1) h(-1)) was obtained by the PS material, which is 220 % higher than the suspended cell system. Furthermore, the immobilized bioreactor system was much more robust against cell washout even at very low hydraulic retention time values.

  11. Validation and application of a quantitative real-time PCR assay to detect common wheat adulteration of durum wheat for pasta production.

    PubMed

    Carloni, Elisa; Amagliani, Giulia; Omiccioli, Enrica; Ceppetelli, Veronica; Del Mastro, Michele; Rotundo, Luca; Brandi, Giorgio; Magnani, Mauro

    2017-06-01

    Pasta is the Italian product par excellence and it is now popular worldwide. Pasta of a superior quality is made with pure durum wheat. In Italy, addition of Triticum aestivum (common wheat) during manufacturing is not allowed and, without adequate labeling, its presence is considered an adulteration. PCR-related techniques can be employed for the detection of common wheat contaminations. In this work, we demonstrated that a previously published method for the detection of T. aestivum, based on the gliadin gene, is inadequate. Moreover, a new molecular method, based on DNA extraction from semolina and real-time PCR determination of T. aestivum in Triticum spp., was validated. This multiplex real-time PCR, based on the dual-labeled probe strategy, guarantees target detection specificity and sensitivity in a short period of time. Moreover, the molecular analysis of common wheat contamination in commercial wheat and flours is described for the first time.

  12. Production of an alternative fuel by the co-pyrolysis of landfill recovered plastic wastes and used lubrication oils.

    PubMed

    Breyer, Sacha; Mekhitarian, Loucine; Rimez, Bart; Haut, B

    2017-02-01

    This work is a preliminary study for the development of a co-pyrolysis process of plastic wastes excavated from a landfill and used lubrication oils, with the aim to produce an alternative liquid fuel for industrial use. First, thermogravimetric experiments were carried out with pure plastics (HDPE, LDPE, PP and PS) and oils (a motor oil and a mixture of used lubrication oils) in order to highlight the interactions occurring between a plastic and an oil during their co-pyrolysis. It appears that the main decomposition event of each component takes place at higher temperatures when the components are mixed than when they are alone, possibly because the two components stabilize each other during their co-pyrolysis. These interactions depend on the nature of the plastic and the oil. In addition, co-pyrolysis experiments were led in a lab-scale reactor using a mixture of excavated plastic wastes and used lubrication oils. On the one hand, the influence of some key operating parameters on the outcome of the process was analyzed. It was possible to produce an alternative fuel for industrial use whose viscosity is lower than 1Pas at 90°C, from a plastic/oil mixture with an initial plastic mass fraction between 40% and 60%, by proceeding at a maximum temperature included in the range 350-400°C. On the other hand, the amount of energy required to successfully co-pyrolyze, in lab conditions, 1kg of plastic/oil mixture with an initial plastic mass fraction of 60% was estimated at about 8MJ. That amount of energy is largely used for the thermal cracking of the molecules. It is also shown that, per kg of mixture introduced in the lab reactor, 29MJ can be recovered from the combustion of the liquid resulting from the co-pyrolysis. Hence, this co-pyrolysis process could be economically viable, provided heat losses are addressed carefully when designing an industrial reactor.

  13. Analysis of the proposed EU regulation concerning biocide products and its opportunities for alternative approaches and a toxicology for the 21st century (t4 report).

    PubMed

    Ferrario, Daniele; Rabbit, Richard R

    2012-01-01

    On June 12, 2009, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a Regulation concerning the placement on the market and use of biocidal products, which, when it enters into force on January 1, 2013, will repeal and replace Directive 98/8/EC. The main reason for the revision of the current Directive was to promote best practices for environmental and human health protection, along with implementation of current developments in safety testing in order to create safer biocides. Moreover, the proposed Regulation aims to take into consideration the newest legislation on chemicals. This article evaluates the proposed Regulation in comparison to Directive 98/8/EC. Although the new proposal requires the sharing of vertebrate animal test data, both for product authorization and for newly developed active substances, it misses - in contrast to REACH - the opportunity to recognize the accelerating development of alternative approaches to animal testing, most recently with new momentum provided by "Toxicity Testing for the 21st Century", and to support the evolution of toxicology towards a new approach to testing. The new methods promise not only to decrease animal pain and suffering, but also to provide faster results and better prediction for human risk assessment compared to traditional methods. Unfortunately, methods mandated for human risk assessment in the proposal are still mainly based on traditional animal study extrapolation. We put forward and discuss possible alternative strategies, such as in vitro testing, integrated testing strategies, toxicokinetics, "omics", systems biology, bioinformatics, and computational modeling, all of which could be more encouraged by the proposal. Current opportunities to improve our tools for biocide risk assessment are discussed, delineating advantages, limitations, and development needs. It is suggested to open the proposed Regulation to alternative approaches that are based on human biology more than on extrapolation from animals

  14. Alternatives to the use of antimicrobial agents in pig production: A multi-country expert-ranking of perceived effectiveness, feasibility and return on investment.

    PubMed

    Postma, Merel; Stärk, Katharina D C; Sjölund, Marie; Backhans, Annette; Beilage, Elisabeth Grosse; Lösken, Svenja; Belloc, Catherine; Collineau, Lucie; Iten, Denise; Visschers, Vivianne; Nielsen, Elisabeth O; Dewulf, Jeroen

    2015-03-01

    Nineteen alternatives to antimicrobial agents were ranked on perceived effectiveness, feasibility and return on investment (ROI) from 0 (not effective, not feasible, no ROI) to 10 (fully effective, completely feasible, maximum ROI) by 111 pig health experts from Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Sweden and Switzerland. The top 5 measures in terms of perceived effectiveness were (1) improved internal biosecurity, (2) improved external biosecurity, (3) improved climate/environmental conditions, (4) high health/Specific Pathogen Free/disease eradication and (5) increased vaccination. The top 5 measures in terms of perceived feasibility were (1) increased vaccination, (2) increased use of anti-inflammatory products, (3) improved water quality, (4) feed quality/optimization and (5) use of zinc/metals. The top 5 measures in terms of perceived ROI were (1) improved internal biosecurity, (2) zinc/metals, (3) diagnostics/action plan, (4) feed quality/optimization and (5) climate/environmental improvements. Univariate linear regression showed that veterinary practitioners rank internal biosecurity, vaccination, use of zinc/metals, feed quality optimization and climate/environmental on average highest, while researchers and professors focused more on increased use of diagnostics and action plans. Financial incentives/penalties ranked low in all countries. Belgian respondents ranked feed quality significantly lower compared to the German respondents while reduction of stocking density was ranked higher in Belgium compared to Denmark. Categorical Principal Component Analysis applied to the average ranking supported the finding that veterinary practitioners had a preference for more practical, common and already known alternatives. The results showed that improvements in biosecurity, increased use of vaccination, use of zinc/metals, feed quality improvement and regular diagnostic testing combined with a clear action plan were perceived to be the most promising alternatives to

  15. Characterization of an Sf-rhabdovirus-negative Spodoptera frugiperda cell line as an alternative host for recombinant protein production in the baculovirus-insect cell system.

    PubMed

    Maghodia, Ajay B; Geisler, Christoph; Jarvis, Donald L

    2016-06-01

    Cell lines derived from the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf), are widely used as hosts for recombinant protein production in the baculovirus-insect cell system (BICS). However, it was recently discovered that these cell lines are contaminated with a virus, now known as Sf-rhabdovirus [1]. The detection of this adventitious agent raised a potential safety issue that could adversely impact the BICS as a commercial recombinant protein production platform. Thus, we examined the properties of Sf-RVN, an Sf-rhabdovirus-negative Sf cell line, as a potential alternative host. Nested RT-PCR assays showed Sf-RVN cells had no detectable Sf-rhabdovirus over the course of 60 passages in continuous culture. The general properties of Sf-RVN cells, including their average growth rates, diameters, morphologies, and viabilities after baculovirus infection, were virtually identical to those of Sf9 cells. Baculovirus-infected Sf-RVN and Sf9 cells produced equivalent levels of three recombinant proteins, including an intracellular prokaryotic protein and two secreted eukaryotic glycoproteins, and provided similar N-glycosylation patterns. In fact, except for the absence of Sf-rhabdovirus, the only difference between Sf-RVN and Sf9 cells was SF-RVN produced higher levels of infectious baculovirus progeny. These results show Sf-RVN cells can be used as improved, alternative hosts to circumvent the potential safety hazard associated with the use of Sf-rhabdovirus-contaminated Sf cells for recombinant protein manufacturing with the BICS.

  16. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are an alternative to the application of chemical fertilizer in the production of the medicinal and aromatic plant Coriandrum sativum L.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Rui S; Ma, Ying; Rocha, Inês; Carvalho, Maria F; Vosátka, Miroslav; Freitas, Helena

    2016-01-01

    The widespread use of agrochemicals is detrimental to the environment and may exert harmful effects on human health. The consumer demand for organic food plants has been increasing. There is thus a rising need for alternatives to agrochemicals that can foster sustainable plant production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential use of an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus as an alternative to application of chemical fertilizer for improving growth performance of the medicinal and aromatic plant Coriandrum sativum. Plants were inoculated with the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis BEG163 and/or supplemented with a commercial chemical fertilizer (Plant Marvel, Nutriculture Bent Special) in agricultural soil. Plant growth, nutrition, and development of AM fungus were assessed. Plants inoculated with R. irregularis and those supplemented with chemical fertilizer displayed significantly improved growth performances when compared with controls. There were no significant differences in total fresh weight between plants inoculated with R. irregularis or those supplemented with chemical fertilizer. Leaf chlorophyll a + b (82%), shoot nitrogen (44%), phosphorus (254%), and potassium (27%) concentrations increased in plants inoculated with R. irregularis compared to controls. Application of chemical fertilizer inhibited root mycorrhizal colonization and the length of the extraradical mycelium of R. irregularis. Inoculation with R. irregularis was equally or more efficient than application of chemical fertilizer in promoting growth and nutrition of C. sativum. AM fungi may thus contribute to improve biologically based production of food plants and reduce the dependence on agrochemicals in agriculture.

  17. Sustainable Ammonia Synthesis – Exploring the scientific challenges associated with discovering alternative, sustainable processes for ammonia production

    SciTech Connect

    Nørskov, Jens; Chen, Jingguang; Miranda, Raul; Fitzsimmons, Tim; Stack, Robert

    2016-02-18

    Ammonia (NH3) is essential to all life on our planet. Until about 100 years ago, NH3 produced by reduction of dinitrogen (N2) in air came almost exclusively from bacteria containing the enzyme nitrogenase.. DOE convened a roundtable of experts on February 18, 2016. Participants in the Roundtable discussions concluded that the scientific basis for sustainable processes for ammonia synthesis is currently lacking, and it needs to be enhanced substantially before it can form the foundation for alternative processes. The Roundtable Panel identified an overarching grand challenge and several additional scientific grand challenges and research opportunities: -Discovery of active, selective, scalable, long-lived catalysts for sustainable ammonia synthesis. -Development of relatively low pressure (<10 atm) and relatively low temperature (<200 C) thermal processes. -Integration of knowledge from nature (enzyme catalysis), molecular/homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. -Development of electrochemical and photochemical routes for N2 reduction based on proton and electron transfer -Development of biochemical routes to N2 reduction -Development of chemical looping (solar thermochemical) approaches -Identification of descriptors of catalytic activity using a combination of theory and experiments -Characterization of surface adsorbates and catalyst structures (chemical, physical and electronic) under conditions relevant to ammonia synthesis.

  18. The alternative splicing program of differentiated smooth muscle cells involves concerted non-productive splicing of post-transcriptional regulators

    PubMed Central

    Llorian, Miriam; Gooding, Clare; Bellora, Nicolas; Hallegger, Martina; Buckroyd, Adrian; Wang, Xiao; Rajgor, Dipen; Kayikci, Melis; Feltham, Jack; Ule, Jernej; Eyras, Eduardo; Smith, Christopher W.J.

    2016-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is a key component of gene expression programs that drive cellular differentiation. Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are important in the function of a number of physiological systems; however, investigation of SMC AS has been restricted to a handful of events. We profiled transcriptome changes in mouse de-differentiating SMCs and observed changes in hundreds of AS events. Exons included in differentiated cells were characterized by particularly weak splice sites and by upstream binding sites for Polypyrimidine Tract Binding protein (PTBP1). Consistent with this, knockdown experiments showed that that PTBP1 represses many smooth muscle specific exons. We also observed coordinated splicing changes predicted to downregulate the expression of core components of U1 and U2 snRNPs, splicing regulators and other post-transcriptional factors in differentiated cells. The levels of cognate proteins were lower or similar in differentiated compared to undifferentiated cells. However, levels of snRNAs did not follow the expression of splicing proteins, and in the case of U1 snRNP we saw reciprocal changes in the levels of U1 snRNA and U1 snRNP proteins. Our results suggest that the AS program in differentiated SMCs is orchestrated by the combined influence of auxiliary RNA binding proteins, such as PTBP1, along with altered activity and stoichiometry of the core splicing machinery. PMID:27317697

  19. Photothermal conversion of CO₂ into CH₄ with H₂ over Group VIII nanocatalysts: an alternative approach for solar fuel production.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xianguang; Wang, Tao; Liu, Lequan; Ouyang, Shuxin; Li, Peng; Hu, Huilin; Kako, Tetsuya; Iwai, Hideo; Tanaka, Akihiro; Ye, Jinhua

    2014-10-20

    The photothermal conversion of CO2 provides a straightforward and effective method for the highly efficient production of solar fuels with high solar-light utilization efficiency. This is due to several crucial features of the Group VIII nanocatalysts, including effective energy utilization over the whole range of the solar spectrum, excellent photothermal performance, and unique activation abilities. Photothermal CO2 reaction rates (mol h(-1) g(-1)) that are several orders of magnitude larger than those obtained with photocatalytic methods (μmol h(-1) g(-1)) were thus achieved. It is proposed that the overall water-based CO2 conversion process can be achieved by combining light-driven H2 production from water and photothermal CO2 conversion with H2. More generally, this work suggests that traditional catalysts that are characterized by intense photoabsorption will find new applications in photo-induced green-chemistry processes.

  20. Production of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates by Pseudomonas aeruginosa with fatty acids and alternative carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Chan, Pui-Ling; Yu, Vincent; Wai, Lam; Yu, Hoi-Fu

    2006-01-01

    In this study, medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHAs) were produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa using different carbon sources. Decanoic acid induced the highest (9.71% [+/- 0.7]) mcl-PHAs accumulation in bacterial cells at 47 h. The cells preferred to accumulate and degrade the polyhydroxyoctanoate than polyhydroxydecanoate (PHD) during early stage and final stage of the growth, respectively. The production cost of mcl-PHAs can be reduced by using edible oils as the carbon source. The bacteria accumulated 6% (+/- 0.7) of mcl-PHAs in the presence of olive oil. Besides, reused oil was another potential carbon source for the reduction of the production cost of mcl-PHAs. Overall, PHD was the major constituent in the accumulated mcl-PHAs.

  1. Alternative Parameterization of the 3-PG Model for Loblolly Pine: A Regional Validation and Climate Change Assessment on Stand Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Gonzalez-Benecke, C. A.; Teskey, R. O.; Martin, T.; Jokela, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) is one of the fastest growing pine species. It has been planted on more than 10 million ha in the southeastern U.S., and also been introduced into many countries. Using data from the literature and long-term productivity studies, we re-parameterized the 3-PG model for loblolly pine stands. We developed new functions for estimating NPP allocation dynamics, canopy cover and needlefall dynamics, effects of frost on production, density-independent and density-dependent tree mortality, biomass pools at variable starting ages, and the fertility rating. New functions to estimate merchantable volume partitioning were also included, allowing for economic analyses. The fertility rating was determined as a function of site index (mean height of dominant trees at age=25 years). We used the largest and most geographically extensive validation dataset for this species ever used (91 pots in 12 states in U.S. and 10 plots in Uruguay). Comparison of modeled to measured data showed robust agreement across the natural range in the U.S., as well as in Uruguay, where the species is grown as an exotic. Using the new set of functions and parameters with downscaled projections from twenty different climate models, the model was applied to assess the impact of future climate change scenarios on stand productivity in the southeastern U.S.

  2. An update on UNAVCO/COCONet High Frequency Real-Time Products: Towards a next generation multi-hazard network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mencin, D.; Mattioli, G. S.; Feaux, K.; Looney, S.; Sievers, C.; Meertens, C. M.

    2013-05-01

    COCONet is designed to be a near real-time multi-hazard GPS-Met observatory operating across the Caribbean basin. This NSF funded initiative was funded in 2010 by NSF to design, build, and initially maintain a network of 50 new cGPS/Met sites and incorporate another 50 existing sites in the Caribbean region. Data from all COCONet sites flow into the UNAVCO archive and are processed by the PBO analysis centers. The current siting plan calls for 46 new stations, 21 refurbished stations, and 77 existing stations across 26 nations in the Caribbean region. The proposal also called for real-time operation of as many stations as practical. Recent advances in GPS technology and data processing are providing position estimates with centimeter-level precision at high-rate (1-5 Hz) and low latency (<1 s). This along with near real-time met data has generated broad community interest in these data. These data will have the potential to improve our understanding in diverse areas of geophysics including properties of seismic, volcanic, magmatic and tsunami deformation sources, and moreover profoundly transforming rapid event characterization, early warning, as well as hazard mitigation and response. Other scientific and operational applications include tropospheric modeling and better constraints on the dynamics of the Caribbean weather cycle. While design goals are constrained by realities of both the complex logistics of the region and funding, it is hoped the COCONet will serve the diverse and growing needs in the region for the foreseeable future.

  3. A Review of the Toxicity of HIV Medications II: Interactions with Drugs and Complementary and Alternative Medicine Products.

    PubMed

    Stolbach, Andrew; Paziana, Karolina; Heverling, Harry; Pham, Paul

    2015-09-01

    For many patients today, HIV has become a chronic disease. For those patients who have access to and adhere to lifelong antiretroviral (ARV) therapy, the potential for drug-drug interactions has become a real and life-threatening concern. It is known that most ARV drug interactions occur through the cytochrome P450 (CYP) pathway. Medications for comorbid medical conditions, holistic supplements, and illicit drugs can be affected by CYP inhibitors and inducers and have the potential to cause harm and toxicity. Protease inhibitors (PIs) tend to inhibit CYP3A4, while most non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) tend to induce the enzyme. As such, failure to adjust the dose of co-administered medications, such as statins and steroids, may lead to serious complications including rhabdomyolysis and hypercortisolism, respectively. Similarly, gastric acid blockers can decrease several ARV absorption, and warfarin doses may need to be adjusted to maintain therapeutic concentrations. Illicit drugs such as methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") in combination with PIs lead to increased toxicity, while the concomitant administration of sedative drugs such as midazolam and alprazolam in patients taking PIs can result in prolonged sedation, delayed recovery, and increased length of stay. Even supplements like St. John's Wort can alter PI concentrations. In theory, any drug that is metabolized by CYP has potential for a pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction with all PIs, cobicistat, and most NNRTIs. When adding a new medication to an ARV regimen, use of a drug-drug interaction software and/or consultation with a clinical pharmacist/pharmacologist or HIV specialist is recommended.

  4. A simple novel approach for real-time monitoring of sodium gluconate production by on-line physiological parameters in batch fermentation by Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Lu, Fei; Wang, Zejian; Zhao, Wei; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, approach for real-time monitoring of sodium gluconate (SG) fermentation was established for the first time by the equations which can calculate real-time key-parameters by on-line physiological data. Based on this approach, limiting factors were found out in initial fermentation F1 and then step-wise agitation increase and improved medium recipe were proposed in fermentation F2 and F3, respectively. The highest average SG production rate (16.58±0.91 g L(-1) h(-1)) was achieved in fermentation F3, which was 104.2% and 48.0% higher than those in fermentation F1 and F2, respectively. Meanwhile, due to shorter fermentation period (decreased from 34 h to 18.7 h), lower biomass (about 1.5 g L(-1)) and less by-product accumulation, the overall yield of 0.943±0.012 (mol mol(-1)) in fermentation F3 increased more than 16.0% compared to fermentation F1. This approach had been successfully applied to industrial fermentation and greatly improved SG production.

  5. SYBR green real time-polymerase chain reaction as a rapid and alternative assay for the efficient identification of all existing Escherichia coli biotypes approved directly in wastewater samples.

    PubMed

    Chetta, Massimiliano; Bafunno, Valeria; Grillo, Rosalba; Mele, Antonio; Lo Perfido, Pietro; Notarnicola, Michele; Cellini, Francesco; Cifarelli, Rosa Anna

    2012-07-01

    Escherichia coli has been recognized as the principal indicator of fecal contamination of water. Indeed, E. coli is the only species in the coliform group found in relationship with gastrointestinal tract of human and warm-blooded animals and subsequently excreted in large numbers in the human feces. To obtain a complete picture of water quality and therefore, a better protection of public health, different techniques for water analysis have been proposed. In this article, we describe an alternative method that uses SYBR green real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technology to identify and quantify all E. coli biotypes in a group of wastewater samples collected from a wastewater depurator located in South of Italy. This new RT-PCR protocol is accurate in measuring the concentration of chromosomal E. coli DNA using the amplification of three new specific fragments of the following bacteria genes: CadC, HNS, and Allan whose sequence is specific for E. coli family and conserved in all E. coli subtypes. This method allowed us to detect the presence of all E. coli biotypes directly in wastewater samples and estimated the correspondence between colony forming units and bacterial DNA concentrations. The availability of a rapid and sensitive method may be useful to monitor the persistence of E. coli in water, to evaluate the efficiency of wastewater purification treatments and the possible recycle for agricultural use. Furthermore, the development of a simple and routine method to monitor water quality with RT-PCR analysis can encourage the testing of a higher number of samples.

  6. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Melaina, M. W.; Heath, G.; Sandor, D.; Steward, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Warner, E.; Webster, K. W.

    2013-04-01

    Achieving the Department of Energy target of an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 depends on transportation-related strategies combining technology innovation, market adoption, and changes in consumer behavior. This study examines expanding low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure to achieve deep GHG emissions reductions, with an emphasis on fuel production facilities and retail components serving light-duty vehicles. Three distinct low-carbon fuel supply scenarios are examined: Portfolio: Successful deployment of a range of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies; Combustion: Market dominance by hybridized internal combustion engine vehicles fueled by advanced biofuels and natural gas; Electrification: Market dominance by electric drive vehicles in the LDV sector, including battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, that are fueled by low-carbon electricity and hydrogen. A range of possible low-carbon fuel demand outcomes are explored in terms of the scale and scope of infrastructure expansion requirements and evaluated based on fuel costs, energy resource utilization, fuel production infrastructure expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion for LDVs. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored transportation-related strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence.

  7. Comparison of precipitation estimates between Version 7 3-hourly TRMM Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) near-real-time and research products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhong

    2015-02-01

    Over the years, blended methods that use multi-satellites and multi-sensors have been developed for estimating global precipitation and resulting products are widely used in applications. An example is the 3-hourly TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) that consists of two products: near-real-time (3B42RT) and research-grade (3B42). The former provides quick, less accurate estimates suitable for monitoring activities; the latter provides more accurate estimates more suitable for research. Both products have been widely used in research and applications. Nonetheless, to improve near-real-time applications, it is important to understand their difference. In this study, seasonal mean difference (MD), mean absolute difference (MAD), root mean square difference (RMSD), and their inter-annual variations in boreal (June, July and August or JJA) and austral (December, January and February or DJF) summers and in different rain regimes over two surface types are investigated on a large scale (50°N-50°S) from 2000 and 2012. Over land, positive MD values (3B42RT > 3B42) dominate, especially in western China, western United States, northwest Asia and over some oceanic regions of light rain in both JJA and DJF. Over ocean, negative MD values (3B42RT < 3B42) prevail, except over regions of light rain. In general, relative (to 3B42) MD values increase with rain rate. Variation of the individual differences between the two products is small (large) over regions of heavy (light) rain. There is no significant inter-annual variation in the seasonal mean statistics. The difference between the two products is likely due to the algorithms and further investigations are needed.

  8. Modeling the influence of alternative forest management scenarios on wood production and carbon storage: A case study in the Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Bottalico, Francesca; Pesola, Lucia; Vizzarri, Matteo; Antonello, Leonardo; Barbati, Anna; Chirici, Gherardo; Corona, Piermaria; Cullotta, Sebastiano; Garfì, Vittorio; Giannico, Vincenzo; Lafortezza, Raffaele; Lombardi, Fabio; Marchetti, Marco; Nocentini, Susanna; Riccioli, Francesco; Travaglini, Davide; Sallustio, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Forest ecosystems are fundamental for the terrestrial biosphere as they deliver multiple essential ecosystem services (ES). In environmental management, understanding ES distribution and interactions and assessing the economic value of forest ES represent future challenges. In this study, we developed a spatially explicit method based on a multi-scale approach (MiMoSe-Multiscale Mapping of ecoSystem services) to assess the current and future potential of a given forest area to provide ES. To do this we modified and improved the InVEST model in order to adapt input data and simulations to the context of Mediterranean forest ecosystems. Specifically, we integrated a GIS-based model, scenario model, and economic valuation to investigate two ES (wood production and carbon sequestration) and their trade-offs in a test area located in Molise region (Central Italy). Spatial information and trade-off analyses were used to assess the influence of alternative forest management scenarios on investigated services. Scenario A was designed to describe the current Business as Usual approach. Two alternative scenarios were designed to describe management approaches oriented towards nature protection (scenario B) or wood production (scenario C) and compared to scenario A. Management scenarios were simulated at the scale of forest management units over a 20-year time period. Our results show that forest management influenced ES provision and associated benefits at the regional scale. In the test area, the Total Ecosystem Services Value of the investigated ES increases 85% in scenario B and decreases 82% in scenario C, when compared to scenario A. Our study contributes to the ongoing debate about trade-offs and synergies between carbon sequestration and wood production benefits associated with socio-ecological systems. The MiMoSe approach can be replicated in other contexts with similar characteristics, thus providing a useful basis for the projection of benefits from forest

  9. Alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of a review, of the experiences of Brazil, Canada, and New Zealand, which have implemented programs to encourage the use of alternative motor fuels. It will also discuss the results of a separate completed review of the Department of Energy's (DOE) progress in implementing the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988. The act calls for, among other things, the federal government to use alternative-fueled vehicles in its fleet. The Persian Gulf War, environmental concerns, and the administration's National Energy Strategy have greatly heightened interest in the use of alternative fuels in this country.

  10. Bacterial acyltransferases as an alternative for lipase-catalyzed acylation for the production of oleochemicals and fuels.

    PubMed

    Stöveken, Tim; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial acyltransferases are a new class of enzymes, and the first member was identified as WS/DGAT in Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1. Their unspecificity have been used in several biotechnological applications for lipid modification, a field that has been dominated by the use of lipases. Examples are the biosynthesis of jojoba-like wax esters and fatty-acid ethyl esters. In addition, these enzymes are also capable of synthesizing acylthioesters. Acyloxoesters and acylthioesters can thus be produced in vivo by whole-cell fermentations rather than in vitro in an enzyme reactor. In this Minireview, we focus on the biotechnological utilization of acyltransferases for the production of modified lipids from renewable resources.

  11. Real-life setting in data collection. The role of nutrition knowledge whilst selecting food products for weight management purposes in a supermarket environment.

    PubMed

    Saarela, Anna-Maria; Lapveteläinen, Anja T; Mykkänen, Hannu M; Kantanen, Teuvo T; Rissanen, Riitta L

    2013-12-01

    The aim was to explore the role of consumers' nutrition knowledge while selecting foods for weight management and the predominating food selection factors by combining quantitative and qualitative methodology in a real-life setting during two consecutive shopping tasks given in a supermarket. Thirty-six consumers were given a list of 11 products and asked to think-aloud while selecting (i) a product they usually buy and (ii) a product they use for weight management. After the consecutive shopping tasks, the subjects were interviewed and asked to answer a nutrition knowledge questionnaire. The subjects were categorized by the difference in the energy contents of their selections and the food selection criteria. The energy contents of the selections for weight management were reduced by 10-46%. Ten subjects with the greatest difference between the energy contents of their selections had higher level in nutrition knowledge and mentioned less nutritional issues during the selections than ten subjects with the smallest such differences. Taste was an important product selection criterion by the former group, while the latter focused primarily on price. Nutrition knowledge is interrelated with personal factors and selection goals. It is not necessarily utilized consistently when selecting food products.

  12. The Impact of Using Alternative Forages on the Nutrient Value within Slurry and Its Implications for Forage Productivity in Agricultural Systems

    PubMed Central

    Crotty, Felicity V.; Fychan, Rhun; Theobald, Vince J.; Sanderson, Ruth; Chadwick, David R.; Marley, Christina L.

    2014-01-01

    Alternative forages can be used to provide valuable home-grown feed for ruminant livestock. Utilising these different forages could affect the manure value and the implications of incorporating these forages into farming systems, needs to be better understood. An experiment tested the hypothesis that applying slurries from ruminants, fed ensiled red clover (Trifolium pratense), lucerne (Medicago sativa) or kale (Brassica oleracea) would improve the yield of hybrid ryegrass (Lolium hybridicum), compared with applying slurries from ruminants fed ensiled hybrid ryegrass, or applying inorganic N alone. Slurries from sheep offered one of four silages were applied to ryegrass plots (at 35 t ha−1) with 100 kg N ha−1 inorganic fertiliser; dry matter (DM) yield was compared to plots only receiving ammonium nitrate at rates of 0, 100 and 250 kg N ha−1 year−1. The DM yield of plots treated with 250 kg N, lucerne or red clover slurry was significantly higher than other treatments (P<0.001). The estimated relative fertiliser N equivalence (FNE) (fertiliser-N needed to produce same yield as slurry N), was greatest for lucerne (114 kg) >red clover (81 kg) >kale (44 kg) >ryegrass (26 kg ha−1 yr−1). These FNE values represent relative efficiencies of 22% (ryegrass), 52% (kale), 47% (red clover) and 60% for lucerne slurry, with the ryegrass slurry efficiency being lowest (P = 0.005). Soil magnesium levels in plots treated with legume slurry were higher than other treatments (P<0.001). Overall, slurries from ruminants fed alternative ensiled forages increased soil nutrient status, forage productivity and better N efficiency than slurries from ruminants fed ryegrass silage. The efficiency of fertiliser use is one of the major factors influencing the sustainability of farming systems, these findings highlight the cascade in benefits from feeding ruminants alternative forages, and the need to ensure their value is effectively captured to reduce environmental risks. PMID

  13. Finding alternatives to antibiotics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens requires new treatments. The availability of new antibiotics has severely declined, and so alternatives to antibiotics need to be considered in both animal agriculture and human medicine. Products for disease prevention are different than products for d...

  14. Novel TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for verifying the authenticity of meat and commercial meat products from game birds.

    PubMed

    Rojas, María; González, Isabel; Pavón, Miguel Angel; Pegels, Nicolette; Lago, Adriana; Hernández, Pablo E; García, Teresa; Martín, Rosario

    2010-06-01

    Species-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays using TaqMan probes have been developed for verifying the labeling of meat and commercial meat products from game birds, including quail, pheasant, partridge, guinea fowl, pigeon, Eurasian woodcock and song thrush. The method combines the use of species-specific primers and TaqMan probes that amplify small fragments (amplicons <150 base pairs) of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene, and an endogenous control primer pair that amplifies a 141-bp fragment of the nuclear 18S rRNA gene from eukaryotic DNA. Analysis of experimental raw and heat-treated binary mixtures as well as of commercial meat products from the target species demonstrated the suitability of the assay for the detection of the target DNAs.

  15. [Accuracy of a real-time polymerase-chain-reaction assay for a quantitative estimation of genetically modified sources in food products].

    PubMed

    Abramov, D D; Trofimov, D Iu; Rebrikov, D V

    2006-01-01

    The accuracy of a real-time polymerase-chain-reaction assay for genetically modified sources in food products was determined using two official test systems (kits) of primers and samples. These kits were recommended by the Federal Center of State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance (Russian Ministry of Health) and the European Commission. We used the following three models of thermocyclers: iCycler iQ (BioRad, United States), Rotor-Gene 3000 (Corbett Research, Australia), and DT-322 (DNA-Technology, Russia). Studies of samples that contained 1% genetically modified sources showed that the error of a quantitative assay for genetically modified sources in food products corresponds to 20-30% and does not depend on the kit type and the thermocycler model used.

  16. Pleasant Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unks, Gerald

    1981-01-01

    The author feels that the current wave of political conservatism may prove beneficial to education if the national mood of decentralization and decontrol leads to a resurgence of community involvement and locally-developed alternatives. He cites several examples of successful urban alternative schools. (SJL)

  17. Alternative Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annett, Larry D.

    A model is presented for the categorizing of alternative schools, then the nature of the free school, which represents the essence of the alternative school movement, is examined. Strengths and weaknesses of court, legislative, and administrative approaches to resolve governance issues are set forth. This is followed by an analysis of three…

  18. Alternative Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefonek, Tom; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This special double issue focuses on the issue of alternative assessment and its place in educational reform. "Alternative Assessment: A National Perspective" (T. Stefonek) emphasizes that the fundamental purposes of new assessment methods are grounded in educational goals, meaningful outcomes, and curricular and instructional programs…

  19. Centrifugal Spinning: An Alternative for Large Scale Production of Silicon-Carbon Composite Nanofibers for Lithium Ion Battery Anodes.

    PubMed

    Nava, Rocío; Cremar, Lee; Agubra, Victor; Sánchez, Jennifer; Alcoutlabi, Mataz; Lozano, Karen

    2016-11-02

    Composites made of silicon nanostructures in carbon matrixes are promising materials for anodes in Li ion batteries given the synergistic storage capacity of silicon combined with the chemical stability and electrical conductivity of carbonaceous materials. This work presents the development of Si/C composite fine fiber mats produced by carbonization of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/Si composites. PVA has a high carbon content (ca. 54.5%) and, being water-soluble, it promotes the development of environmentally friendly materials. Si nanoparticles were dispersed in PVA solutions and transformed into fine fibers using a centrifugal spinning technique given its potential for large scale production. The Si/PVA fibers mats were then subjected to dehydration by exposing them to sulfuric acid vapor. The dehydration improved the thermal and chemical stability of the PVA matrix, allowing further carbonization at 800 °C. The resulting Si/C composite fibers produced binder-free anodes for lithium ion batteries that delivered specific discharge and charge capacities of 952 mA h g(-1) and 862 mA g(-1), respectively, with a Columbic efficiency of 99% after 50 cycles.

  20. Milk production, water consumption, and somatic cell count responses of cows subject to one to two volts of alternating current.

    PubMed

    Southwick, L H; Wilson, D J; Sears, P M

    1992-08-01

    A dairy farm located in central New York was visited because of complaints of electrical shock in the farmhouse shower and the milk house sink. As much as 2 volts AC of potential difference was measured between the waterline and the cow platform (cow-contact voltage). Voltage was coming from the primary neutral wire. The farm's electrical service was modified so that the farmstead could be connected or disconnected from the primary neutral wire at 2-week intervals for 12 weeks. When connected to the primary neutral wire, voltage between waterline and floor ranged between 0 and 1.8 volts, producing estimated current flow through cows of 3.6 to 4.9 mA; when disconnected from primary neutral wire, voltage between waterline and floor was less than 0.1 volt. There was no difference in mean milk production, bulk tank milk somatic cell count, or water consumption among periods when cows were exposed or unexposed to voltage. Despite statistical nonsignificance, the values for somatic cell count were lower and water consumption was higher when cows were exposed to voltage than when they were not.

  1. Biodiesel: an alternative fuel.

    PubMed

    Manzanera, Maximino; Molina-Muñoz, Maria L; González-López, Jesús

    2008-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative energy source and could be a substitute for petroleum-based diesel fuel. To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain, have environmental benefits, be economically competitive, and be producible in large quantities without reducing food supplies. Most of the sources, methods and apparatus to produce biodiesel are reviewed here. Some of the patents propose the use of oils and fats of animal or vegetal origin and other kind of sources. Many others focus on the methods for the production or oxidation stability of the biofuel in order to make its production economically competitive. Several apparatus comprising reactors and refineries are also presented. This review article summarizes recent and important patents relating to the production of biodiesel to make its production a viable alternative.

  2. Characterizing 13 Years of Surface Water Variability from MODIS-based Near Real-Time Flood Mapping Products in the Indus River, Tonle Sap Lake, and Lake Chad.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slayback, D. A.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Policelli, F. S.

    2015-12-01

    Driven by an increase in extreme weather events in a warming world, flooding appears to be increasing in many regions. Since 2012, we have been using the twice-daily near-global observations of the two MODIS instruments to operate a near real-time flood mapping capability. Primarily intended to support disaster response efforts, our system generates daily near-global maps of flood water extent, at 250 m resolution. Although cloud cover is a challenge, the twice-daily coverage from the Terra and Aqua satellites helps to capture most major events. We use the MOD44W product (the "MODIS 250-m land-water mask") to differentiate "normal" water from flood water. Products from the system are freely available, and used by disaster response agencies and academic and industry researchers. An open question, however, is: how "normal" are recently observed floods? Destructive and — as reported by the press — record floods seem to be occurring more and more frequently. With the MODIS archive going back to 1999 (Terra satellite) and 2002 (Aqua satellite), we now have more than a decade of twice-daily near-global observations to begin answering this question. Although the 13 years of available twice-daily data (2002-2015) are not sufficient to fully characterize surface water normals (e.g., 100-year floods), we can start examining recent trends in surface water extent and flood frequency. To do so, we have back-processed our surface water product through mid-2002 (Aqua launch) for a few regions, and have used this to evaluate the variability in surface water extent and flood frequency. These results will eventually feed back into an improved characterization of flood water in our near real-time flood product. Here we will present results on trends in surface water extent and flood frequency for a few regions, including the Indus in Pakistan, the Tonle Sap lake in Cambodia, and lake Chad in Africa.

  3. Process characterization and influence of alternative carbon sources and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio on organic acid production by Aspergillus oryzae DSM1863.

    PubMed

    Ochsenreither, Katrin; Fischer, Christian; Neumann, Anke; Syldatk, Christoph

    2014-06-01

    L-Malic acid and fumaric acid are C4 dicarboxylic organic acids and considered as promising chemical building blocks. They can be applied as food preservatives and acidulants in rust removal and as polymerization starter units. Molds of the genus Aspergillus are able to produce malic acid in large quantities from glucose and other carbon sources. In order to enhance the production potential of Aspergillus oryzae DSM 1863, production and consumption rates in an established bioreactor batch-process based on glucose were determined. At 35 °C, up to 42 g/L malic acid was produced in a 168-h batch process with fumaric acid as a by-product. In prolonged shaking flask experiments (353 h), the suitability of the alternative carbon sources xylose and glycerol at a carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio of 200:1 and the influence of different C/N ratios in glucose cultivations were tested. When using glucose, 58.2 g/L malic acid and 4.2 g/L fumaric acid were produced. When applying xylose or glycerol, both organic acids are produced but the formation of malic acid decreased to 45.4 and 39.4 g/L, respectively. Whereas the fumaric acid concentration was not significantly altered when cultivating with xylose (4.5 g/L), it is clearly enhanced by using glycerol (9.3 g/L). When using glucose as a carbon source, an increase or decrease of the C/N ratio did not influence malic acid production but had an enormous influence on fumaric acid production. The highest fumaric acid concentrations were determined at the highest C/N ratio (300:1, 8.44 g/L) and lowest at the lowest C/N ratio (100:1, 0.7 g/L).

  4. Expression of two nonallelic type II procollagen genes during Xenopus laevis embryogenesis is characterized by stage-specific production of alternatively spliced transcripts.

    PubMed

    Su, M W; Suzuki, H R; Bieker, J J; Solursh, M; Ramirez, F

    1991-10-01

    The pattern of type II collagen expression during Xenopus laevis embryogenesis has been established after isolating specific cDNA and genomic clones. Evidence is presented suggesting that in X. laevis there are two transcriptionally active copies of the type II procollagen gene. Both genes are activated at the beginning of neurula stage and steady-state mRNA levels progressively increase thereafter. Initially, the transcripts are localized to notochord, somites, and the dorsal region of the lateral plate mesoderm. At later stages of development and parallel to increased mRNA accumulation, collagen expression becomes progressively more confined to chondrogenic regions of the tadpole. During the early period of mRNA accumulation, there is also a transient pattern of expression in localized sites that will later not undergo chondrogenesis, such as the floor plate in the ventral neural tube. At later times and coincident with the appearance of chondrogenic tissues in the developing embryo, expression of the procollagen genes is characterized by the production of an additional, alternatively spliced transcript. The alternatively spliced sequences encode the cysteine-rich globular domain in the NH2-propeptide of the type II procollagen chain. Immunohistochemical analyses with a type II collagen monoclonal antibody documented the deposition of the protein in the extracellular matrix of the developing embryo. Type II collagen expression is therefore temporally regulated by tissue-specific transcription and splicing factors directing the synthesis of distinct molecular forms of the precursor protein in the developing Xenopus embryo.

  5. Real architecture For 3D Tissue (RAFT™) culture system improves viability and maintains insulin and glucagon production of mouse pancreatic islet cells.

    PubMed

    Szebeni, Gabor J; Tancos, Zsuzsanna; Feher, Liliana Z; Alfoldi, Robert; Kobolak, Julianna; Dinnyes, Andras; Puskas, Laszlo G

    2017-04-01

    There is an unmet medical need for the improvement of pancreatic islet maintenance in culture. Due to restricted donor availability it is essential to ameliorate islet viability and graft engraftment. The aim of this study was to compare the standard tissue culture techniques with the advanced Real Architecture For 3D Tissue (RAFT™) culture system in terms of viability and hormone production. Here, we first report that islets embedded in RAFT™ collagen type I advanced tissue culture system maintain their tissue integrity better than in monolayer and suspension cultures. The Calcein violet assay and Annexin V/propidium-iodide staining show higher cell viability in the RAFT™ culture system. Quantitative real-time PCR data showed that RAFT™ increases insulin expression after 18 days in culture compared to traditional methods. Enhanced insulin and glucagon production was further verified by immunofluorescent staining in a time-course manner. These results indicate that RAFT™ tissue culture platform can be a promising tool to maintain pancreatic islet spheroid integrity and culture islets for downstream high throughput pharmacological studies ex vivo.

  6. Duplex real-time PCR method for the detection of sesame (Sesamum indicum) and flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) DNA in processed food products.

    PubMed

    López-Calleja, Inés María; de la Cruz, Silvia; Martín, Rosario; González, Isabel; García, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The development of a duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method allowing the simultaneous detection of sesame and flaxseed DNA in commercial food products is described. This duplex real-time PCR technique is based in the design of sesame- and flaxseed-specific primers based on the ITS1 region and two TaqMan fluorescent probes. The method was positive for sesame and flaxseed, and showed no cross-reactivity for all other heterologous plant and animal species tested. Sesame and flaxseed could be detected in a series of model samples with defined raw and heat-treated sesame in flaxseed, and flaxseed in sesame, respectively, with detection limits of 1.3 mg kg(-1) for sesame and 1.4 mg kg(-1) for flaxseed. The applicability of the assay for determining sesame and flaxseed in different food matrices was investigated by analysing a total of 238 commercial foodstuffs. This PCR method is useful for highly selective and sensitive detection of traces of sesame and flaxseed in commercial food products.

  7. Stimuli-Responsive/Rheoreversible Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids as a Greener Alternative to Support Geothermal and Fossil Energy Production

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Hun Bok; Carroll, KC; Kabilan, Senthil; Heldebrant, David J.; Hoyt, David W.; Zhong, Lirong; Varga, Tamas; Stephens, Sean A.; Adams, Lexor; Bonneville, Alain; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Fernandez, Carlos A.

    2015-01-01

    Cost-effective yet safe creation of high-permeability reservoirs within deep bedrock is the primary challenge for the viability of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) and unconventional oil/gas recovery. Although fracturing fluids are commonly used for oil/gas, standard fracturing methods are not developed or proven for EGS temperatures and pressures. Furthermore, the environmental impacts of currently used fracturing methods are only recently being determined. Widespread concerns about the environmental contamination have resulted in a number of regulations for fracturing fluids advocating for greener fracturing processes. To enable EGS feasibility and lessen environmental impact of reservoir stimulation, an environmentally benign, CO2-activated, rheoreversible fracturing fluid that enhances permeability through fracturing (at significantly lower effective stress than standard fracturing fluids) due to in situ volume expansion and gel formation is investigated herein. The chemical mechanism, stability, phase-change behavior, and rheology for a novel polyallylamine (PAA)-CO2 fracturing fluid was characterized at EGS temperatures and pressures. Hydrogel is formed upon reaction with CO2 and this process is reversible (via CO2 depressurization or solubilizing with a mild acid) allowing removal from the formation and recycling, decreasing environmental impact. Rock obtained from the Coso geothermal field was fractured in laboratory experiments under various EGS temperatures and pressures with comparison to standard fracturing fluids, and the fractures were characterized with imaging, permeability measurement, and flow modeling. This novel fracturing fluid and process may vastly reduce water usage and the environmental impact of fracturing practices and effectively make EGS production and unconventional oil/gas exploitation cost-effective and cleaner.

  8. Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery - Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Baroni, M.

    1995-09-01

    Phase I results of a C0{sub 2}-assisted oil recovery demonstration project in selected Cypress Sandstone reservoirs at Mattoon Field, Illinois are reported. The design and scope of this project included C0{sub 2} injectvity testing in the Pinnell and Sawyer units, well stimulaton treatments with C0{sub 2} in the Strong unit and infill well drilling, completion and oil production. The field activities were supported by extensive C0{sub 2}-oil-water coreflood experiments, CO{sub 2} oil-phase interaction experiments, and integrated geologic modeling and reservoir simulations. The progress of the project was made public through presentations at an industry meeting and a DOEs contractors` symposium, through quarterly reports and one-to-one consultations with interested operators. Phase II of this project was not implemented. It would have been a water-alternating-gas (WAG) project of longer duration.

  9. Direct enzymatic extraction of starch from corn as an energy saving alternative to production of high fructose syrup. Final executive report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    The purpose of this project was to study, test, and demonstrate a process of producing high-fructose corn syrup and protein byproducts from dry milled corn as an energy conserving alternative of the current industrial corn wet-milling process. This final report is divided into 5 sections. Section 1 deals with the process which is the main and, indeed, the final product of the energy conservation study. Section 2 deals with protein Extraction which conditions the dry-milled corn before hydrolysis. Section 3 deals with the analytical technique of GPC developed with the alpha-amylase hydrolysis of starch. Section 4 deals with immobilized glucoamylase hydrolysis. Section 5 deals with the recovery of soluble protein by ion-exchange resins. Each section has been abstracted separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  10. An Alternative Futures Analysis of Ecosystem Service Trade-offs in Agricultural Production, Water Quality and Water Yield from the Soyang Lake Watershed in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenhunen, J. D.; Kang, S.; Huwe, B.; Kim, B.; Koellner, T.; Ok, Y.; Nguyen, T.

    2009-12-01

    The international consortium project TERRECO (Complex Terrain and Ecological Heterogeneity) applies a transdisciplinary modelling approach to examine current and potential future natural resource use within the largest reservoir system of South Korea, Soyang Lake Watershed. Due to intensive fertilization, small catchments within the watershed export some of the world’s highest levels for N and P, while steep terrain and monsoon rains result in extremely high material transport. To consider alternative future management, integrated modelling approaches are required for land surface processes and production, for hydrological phenomena and transport, for economic evaluation of ecosystem services, and for management and decision-making. These in turn are supported by ground-based studies of ecosystem physiology and agricultural yield, of soil properties and erosion, of runoff and stream transport and flows, of groundwater exchange, of farm economic balances, of county and provincial statistical data bases, and of individual preferences in decision-making within a particular regulatory and economic framework. Experimental design and intial results from these project components are reported. A required partnership with agencies that currently have the mission to carry out land use planning and to advise in policy making is described. A common interest among project participants and agency planners exists, since scenarios should quantify the effects of land use decisions that are in tune with stakeholder demands. Additional evaluations go beyond stakeholder desires to consider land use contributing to sustainable ecosystem services. Progress is reported in addressing the scaling issues critical to transdisciplinary integration, which over the long-term will allow assessments of alternative futures in resource use and in ecosystem services. Information flows and bridging undertaken and planned within the TERRECO project which examines trade-offs in agricultural

  11. The chimeric EWS-WT1 gene product in the desmoplastic small round cell tumor: Molecular detection and alternative transcripts

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald, W.; Alava, E. de; Ladanyi, M.

    1994-09-01

    The desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a recently recognized aggressive type of primitive sarcoma occurring mainly in young males. Previous cytogenetic reports have identified a recurrent translocation in DSRCT, t(11;22)(p13;q12). We have recently shown that this translocation represents a rearrangement between the EWS and WT1 genes, normally located at 22q12 and 11p13, respectively, generating a fusion gene which encodes a chimeric RNA resulting from an in-frame junction of EWS exon 7 to WT1 exon 8. Thus, this chimeric RNA encodes a putative protein in which the RNA-binding domain of EWS is replaced by the three C-terminal zinc fingers of the WT1 DNA-binding domain. We have now assessed the molecular detection of this rearrangement in a panel of 7 DSRCTs and 38 other small round cell tumors, and we have examined the WT1 portion of the chimeric RNA for the presence of the previously reported splice variants of the zinc-finger DNA-binding domain of WT1. Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) revealed a single identical product in 4/5 cases tested, including a case in which a t(11;22)(p13;q12) by karyotyping. By Southern blotting, rearrangement of both EWS and WT1 was detectable in 3/6 cases, EWS alone in 1/6, and neither in 2/6. Histologically, the sole sample negative by both methods contained very scanty viable tumor. EWS-WT1 RT-PCR was negative in 16 Wilms` tumors, 12 rhadomyosarcomas, and 10 Ewing`s sarcomas. RT-PCR with splice site-specific primers showed the chimeric EWS-WT1 transcripts to include both splice variants of the zinc-finger domain of WT1, {open_quotes}+KTS{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}-KTS{close_quotes}. The t(11;22)(p13;q12) of DSRCT is most reliably detected by RT-PCR, and results in a specific and structurally highly consistent EWS-WT1 chimeric transcript which may interact with the normal targets of both splice variants of WT1.

  12. Critical review of real-time methods for solid waste characterisation: Informing material recovery and fuel production.

    PubMed

    Vrancken, C; Longhurst, P J; Wagland, S T

    2017-03-01

    Waste management processes generally represent a significant loss of material, energy and economic resources, so legislation and financial incentives are being implemented to improve the recovery of these valuable resources whilst reducing contamination levels. Material recovery and waste derived fuels are potentially valuable options being pursued by industry, using mechanical and biological processes incorporating sensor and sorting technologies developed and optimised for recycling plants. In its current state, waste management presents similarities to other industries that could improve their efficiencies using process analytical technology tools. Existing sensor technologies could be used to measure critical waste characteristics, providing data required by existing legislation, potentially aiding waste treatment processes and assisting stakeholders in decision making. Optical technologies offer the most flexible solution to gather real-time information applicable to each of the waste mechanical and biological treatment processes used by industry. In particular, combinations of optical sensors in the visible and the near-infrared range from 800nm to 2500nm of the spectrum, and different mathematical techniques, are able to provide material information and fuel properties with typical performance levels between 80% and 90%. These sensors not only could be used to aid waste processes, but to provide most waste quality indicators required by existing legislation, whilst offering better tools to the stakeholders.

  13. High-performance 6-inch EUV mask blanks produced under real production conditions by ion-beam sputter deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Hans W.; Sobel, Frank; Aschke, Lutz; Renno, Markus; Krieger, Juergen; Buttgereit, Ute; Hess, Guenter; Lenzen, Frank; Knapp, Konrad; Yulin, Sergey A.; Feigl, Torsten; Kuhlmann, Thomas; Kaiser, Norbert

    2002-12-01

    EUV mask blanks consist of two thin film systems deposited on low thermal expansion 6 inch substrates (LTEM). First there is the multilayer stack with around 100 alternating layers of elements with different optical properties which are topped by a capping layer. The absorber stack which consists of a buffer and a absorber layer is next. Here a minimum absorption of EUV light of 99 % is required. The stress in both layer systems should be as low as possible. The reduction of defects to an absolute minimum is one of the main challenges. The high-reflective Mo/Si multilayer coatings were designed for normal incidence reflectivity and successfully deposited on 6-inch LTEM substrates by ion-beam sputtering. X-ray scattering, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used for characterization of the multilayer interfaces and the surface morphology. The results are correlated to the measured normal incidence reflectivity using synchrotron radiation at the "Physikalisch- Technischen Bundesanstalt" (PTB) refelctometer at BESSY II, Berlin, Germany. A high resolution laser scanner was used to measure the particle distribution. First multilayer defect results are presented.

  14. Enumeration of salmonellae in table eggs, pasteurized egg products, and egg-containing dishes by using quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Jakociune, Dziuginta; Pasquali, Frédérique; da Silva, Cristiana Soares; Löfström, Charlotta; Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Klein, Günter; Manfreda, Gerardo; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2014-03-01

    Salmonellae are a major cause of food-borne outbreaks in Europe, with eggs and egg products being identified as major sources. Due to the low levels of salmonellae in eggs and egg products, direct quantification is difficult. In the present study, enrichment quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was employed for enumeration of salmonellae in different matrices: table eggs, pasteurized egg products, and egg-containing dishes. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and S. enterica serovar Tennessee were used to artificially contaminate these matrices. The results showed a linear regression between the numbers of salmonellae and the quantification cycle (Cq) values for all matrices used, with the exception of pasteurized egg white. Standard curves were constructed by using both stationary-phase cells and heat-stressed cells, with similar results. Finally, this method was used to evaluate the fate of salmonellae in two egg-containing dishes, long egg and tiramisu, at abused refrigeration temperatures, and results indicated the growth of bacteria over a 1-week period. In conclusion, enrichment qPCR was shown to be reliable for enumeration of salmonellae in different egg products.

  15. Enumeration of Salmonellae in Table Eggs, Pasteurized Egg Products, and Egg-Containing Dishes by Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Jakočiūnė, Džiuginta; Pasquali, Frédérique; da Silva, Cristiana Soares; Löfström, Charlotta; Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Klein, Günter; Manfreda, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Salmonellae are a major cause of food-borne outbreaks in Europe, with eggs and egg products being identified as major sources. Due to the low levels of salmonellae in eggs and egg products, direct quantification is difficult. In the present study, enrichment quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was employed for enumeration of salmonellae in different matrices: table eggs, pasteurized egg products, and egg-containing dishes. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and S. enterica serovar Tennessee were used to artificially contaminate these matrices. The results showed a linear regression between the numbers of salmonellae and the quantification cycle (Cq) values for all matrices used, with the exception of pasteurized egg white. Standard curves were constructed by using both stationary-phase cells and heat-stressed cells, with similar results. Finally, this method was used to evaluate the fate of salmonellae in two egg-containing dishes, long egg and tiramisu, at abused refrigeration temperatures, and results indicated the growth of bacteria over a 1-week period. In conclusion, enrichment qPCR was shown to be reliable for enumeration of salmonellae in different egg products. PMID:24362433

  16. Direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS) for rapid qualitative screening of toxic glycols in glycerin-containing products.

    PubMed

    Self, Randy L

    2013-06-01

    In 2007, the United States Food and Drug Administration released guidance recommending testing of glycerin used in regulated consumer products, such as cough syrup preparations, toothpaste, and other pharmaceutical and food products, for the toxic compounds ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol. Regulatory laboratories routinely test glycerin, and products containing glycerin or related compounds for these toxic glycols, using an official gas chromatographic method, to ensure the safety of these products. The current work describes a companion technique to compliment this GC-FID method utilizing Orbitrap mass spectrometry with direct analysis in real time ionization to rapidly screen these samples qualitatively, with results in as little as five seconds, with no sample preparation required. This allows the more time and resource intensive method to be reserved for those rare cases when these compounds are detected, potentially greatly improving laboratory efficiency. The technique was evaluated for qualitative sensitivity and repeatability, and compared against the GC-FID method. The method appears to perform well against these metrics.

  17. Quantification of viable Escherichia coli O157:H7 in meat products by duplex real-time PCR assays.

    PubMed

    Gordillo, Rubén; Rodríguez, Alicia; Werning, María L; Bermúdez, Elena; Rodríguez, Mar

    2014-02-01

    Rapid and specific detection of viable Escherichia coli O157:H7 cells in ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products, by duplex quantitative PCR (qPCR) procedures with mRNA and SYBR Green and TaqMan methodologies were developed. Specific primers and probes were designed based on the serotype of E. coli O157:H7, fliCh7 and rfbE genes. No cross-reactivity with other microorganisms was observed. The detection limit of the assays was 10(1) or 10(2)CFU/g for artificially contaminated meat products, and after a 4h enrichment period at 37 °C, the detection limit decreased to about 1 CFU/g. Time-to completion of the assay was approximately 8h. Thus, these qPCR methods offer a useful, rapid and efficient tool for screening viable E. coli O157:H7 in RTE meat products. This tool could also be proposed for monitoring these foodborne pathogens in HACCP programs.

  18. Triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry: A real alternative to high resolution magnetic sector instrument for the analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, furans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    García-Bermejo, Ángel; Ábalos, Manuela; Sauló, Jordi; Abad, Esteban; González, María José; Gómara, Belén

    2015-08-19

    This paper reports on the optimisation, characterisation, validation and applicability of gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in its tandem operation mode (GC-QqQ(MS/MS) for the quantification of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs, dioxins) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in environmental and food matrices. MS/MS parameters were selected to achieve the high sensitivity and selectivity required for the analysis of this type of compounds and samples. Good repeatability for areas (RSD = 1-10%, for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs) and for ion transition ratios (RSD = 0.3-10%, for PCDD/Fs, and 0.2-15%, for DL-PCBs) and low instrumental limits of detection, 0.07-0.75 pg μL(-1) (for dioxins) and 0.05-0.63 pg μL(-1) (for DL-PCBs), were obtained. A comparative study of the congener specific determination using both GC-QqQ(MS/MS) and gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) was also performed by analysing several fortified samples and certified reference materials (CRMs) with low (feed and foodstuffs), median (sewage sludge) and high (fly ash) toxic equivalency (TEQ) concentration levels, i.e. 0.60, 1.83, 72.9 and 3609 pg WHO-TEQ(PCDD/Fs) g(-1). The agreement between the results obtained for the total TEQs (dioxins) on GC-QqQ(MS/MS) and GC-HRMS in all the investigated samples were within the range of ±4%, and that of DL-PCBs at concentration levels of 0.84 pg WHO-TEQs (DL-PCBs) g(-1), in the case of feedstuffs, was 0.11%. Both instrumental methods have similar and comparable linearity, precision and accuracy. The GC-QqQ(MS/MS) sensitivity, lower than that of GC-HRMS, is good enough (iLODs in the down to low pg levels) to detect the normal concentrations of these compounds in food and environmental samples. These results make GC-QqQ(MS/MS) suitable for the quantitative analysis of dioxins and DL-PCBs and a real alternative tool to the reference sector HRMS instruments.

  19. A Study of the Use, Knowledge, and Beliefs About Cigarettes and Alternative Tobacco Products Among Students at One U.S. Medical School

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Sherry; Van Devanter, Nancy; Fenstermaker, Michael; Cawkwell, Philip; Sherman, Scott; Weitzman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In the United States, the prevalence of the use of alternative tobacco products (ATPs) (e.g., hookahs, e-cigarettes, cigars/cigarillos) has increased sharply. As future health care providers, medical students will play a critical role in health promotion and disease prevention. This study investigated medical students’ use, knowledge, and beliefs about cigarettes and ATPs. Method In 2014, the authors surveyed all students enrolled at one medical school in New York City. The survey included questions about personal use of tobacco products, perceptions about the harms of ATPs and their role in disease causation, education about ATPs, and cessation training and practices related to ATPs and cigarettes. The authors compared results across medical school classes. Results Of 720 students, 431 (59.9%) completed the survey. Of those, 64 (14.7%) were current users of tobacco or smoking products, including cigarettes (17, 3.9%), ATPs (21, 4.8%), or marijuana (39, 8.9%). Many believed that ATPs contributed less than cigarettes to various diseases. Respondents received less cessation intervention training regarding ATPs than cigarettes (P < .0001). They felt less confident providing ATP cessation counseling than cigarette cessation counseling (P < .0001) and were less likely to report counseling patients on ATP cessation than cigarette cessation (46, 10.7% vs. 280, 64.8%, P < .0001). Conclusions A concerning percentage of surveyed medical students use tobacco products, including ATPs, and lack the knowledge, education, and cessation counseling skills to provide accurate information about them to patients. ATP education should be added to medical school curricula to address this gap. PMID:26308126

  20. A real-time regional adaptive exposure method for saving dose-area product in x-ray fluoroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Burion, Steve; Funk, Tobias; Speidel, Michael A.

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: Reduction of radiation dose in x-ray imaging has been recognized as a high priority in the medical community. Here the authors show that a regional adaptive exposure method can reduce dose-area product (DAP) in x-ray fluoroscopy. The authors' method is particularly geared toward providing dose savings for the pediatric population. Methods: The scanning beam digital x-ray system uses a large-area x-ray source with 8000 focal spots in combination with a small photon-counting detector. An imaging frame is obtained by acquiring and reconstructing up to 8000 detector images, each viewing only a small portion of the patient. Regional adaptive exposure was implemented by varying the exposure of the detector images depending on the local opacity of the object. A family of phantoms ranging in size from infant to obese adult was imaged in anteroposterior view with and without adaptive exposure. The DAP delivered to each phantom was measured in each case, and noise performance was compared by generating noise arrays to represent regional noise in the images. These noise arrays were generated by dividing the image into regions of about 6 mm{sup 2}, calculating the relative noise in each region, and placing the relative noise value of each region in a one-dimensional array (noise array) sorted from highest to lowest. Dose-area product savings were calculated as the difference between the ratio of DAP with adaptive exposure to DAP without adaptive exposure. The authors modified this value by a correction factor that matches the noise arrays where relative noise is the highest to report a final dose-area product savings. Results: The average dose-area product saving across the phantom family was (42 {+-} 8)% with the highest dose-area product saving in the child-sized phantom (50%) and the lowest in the phantom mimicking an obese adult (23%). Conclusions: Phantom measurements indicate that a regional adaptive exposure method can produce large DAP savings without

  1. Alternative Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchett, Stanley; Kimsey, Steve

    2002-01-01

    Describes the design of the DeKalb Alternative School in Atlanta, Georgia, located in a renovated shopping center. Purchasing commercial land and renovating the existing building saved the school system time and money. (EV)

  2. Clear Thinking about Alternative Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... industry, with corporations both large and small vigorously marketing their products. 5 | Clear Thinking about Alternative Therapies ... Once the FDA has cleared the product for marketing, people are protected by disclosure requirements such as ...

  3. Alternative splicing regulates the production of ARD-1 endoribonuclease and NIPP-1, an inhibitor of protein phosphatase-1, as isoforms encoded by the same gene.

    PubMed

    Chang, A C; Sohlberg, B; Trinkle-Mulcahy, L; Claverie-Martin, F; Cohen, P; Cohen, S N

    1999-11-15

    ARD-1 is an endoribonuclease identified initially as the product of a human cDNA that complements mutations in rne, a gene that encodes Escherichia coli ribonuclease E. NIPP-1 was identified in bovine nuclear extracts as an inhibitor of protein phosphatase-1. Earlier work has shown that the protein-coding sequence of ARD-1 is identical to the carboxy-terminal third of NIPP-1. However, whether ARD-1 is present in eukaryotes as a distinct entity has been unclear, as neither ARD-1-specific transcripts nor ARD-1 protein were detected in mammalian cells in earlier studies. Here we show that ARD-1 exists in human cells as a discrete protein, and that the ARD-1 and NIPP-1 peptides are isoforms encoded by a single gene and the same alternatively spliced precursor RNA. A retained intron containing multiple translation stop codons that are configured to terminate translation and initiate nonsense-mediated decay, limits the production of cellular ARD-1 protein. Our results establish the process by which functionally disparate ARD-1 and NIPP-1 peptides are generated from the protein-coding sequence of the same gene in human cells.

  4. Effectiveness of Phytogenic Feed Additive as Alternative to Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate on Hematological Parameters, Intestinal Histomorphology and Microbial Population and Production Performance of Japanese Quails

    PubMed Central

    Manafi, M.; Hedayati, M.; Khalaji, S.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of phytogenic additive and antibiotic growth promoter in laying Japanese quails. One hundred and sixty five quails were divided into three groups of 5 replicates and 11 quails (8 females and 3 males) in each replicate. Treatment 1 was fed control diet, treatment 2 was fed control diet supplemented with 0.05% bacitracin methylene disalicylate as antibiotic growth promoter and treatment 3 was fed control diet supplemented with 0.1% phytogenic feed additive (PFA) for two periods of 3 weeks each from 37 to 42 weeks of age. Results showed that egg production, eggshell strength, eggshell weight, villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio were significantly (p≤0.05) increased and feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, albumen, Haugh unit, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, alanine transaminase, gamma glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, high-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, number of goblet cell, crypt depth and intestinal bacterial population of Coliforms, Salmonella and E. coli were significantly (p≤0.05) decreased in PFA fed group. It is concluded that addition of PFA containing phytomolecules and organic acids as main ingredients could significantly improve the production parameters and the general health of laying quails as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoters. PMID:27189636

  5. Real Language Meets Real Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muirhead, Muirhead; Schechter, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The Real Business Language Challenge was a collaborative pilot project between Coca-Cola Enterprises (CCE) and Routes into Languages East for Year 9 and 10 pupils. It was based on CCE's award-winning Real Business Challenge, part of its highly acclaimed education programme. The Real Business Language Challenge transformed the project into a…

  6. A comparative analysis of well-to-wheel primary energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions for the operation of alternative and conventional vehicles in Switzerland, considering various energy carrier production pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdanie, Mashael; Noembrini, Fabrizio; Dossetto, Lionel; Boulouchos, Konstantinos

    2014-03-01

    This study provides a comprehensive analysis of well-to-wheel (WTW) primary energy demand and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for the operation of conventional and alternative passenger vehicle drivetrains. Results are determined based on a reference vehicle, drivetrain/production process efficiencies, and lifecycle inventory data specific to Switzerland. WTW performance is compared to a gasoline internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV). Both industrialized and novel hydrogen and electricity production pathways are evaluated. A strong case is presented for pluggable electric vehicles (PEVs) due to their high drivetrain efficiency. However, WTW performance strongly depends on the electricity source. A critical electricity mix can be identified which divides optimal drivetrain performance between the EV, ICEV, and plug-in hybrid vehicle. Alternative drivetrain and energy carrier production pathways are also compared by natural resource. Fuel cell vehicle (FCV) performance proves to be on par with PEVs for energy carrier (EC) production via biomass and natural gas resources. However, PEVs outperform FCVs via solar energy EC production pathways. ICE drivetrains using alternative fuels, particularly biogas and CNG, yield remarkable WTW energy and emission reductions as well, indicating that alternative fuels, and not only alternative drivetrains, play an important role in the transition towards low-emission vehicles in Switzerland.

  7. Retracking CryoSat waveforms for near-real-time ocean forecast products, platform attitude, and other applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, W. H.; Scharroo, R.; Lillibridge, J. L.; Leuliette, E. W.

    2011-12-01

    The SIRAL altimeter on CryoSat, launched in 2010, can operate in three modes: the low-rate mode (LRM) behaves as a conventional altimeter; the SAR mode allows more precise range and more focused footprint through use of synthetic aperture radar (SAR), also known as delay-Doppler, processing; the SARIN mode, or interferometric SAR, also affords across-track slope determination from interferometry. We have been working on several CryoSat studies over this year and will present some highlights. For the conventional LRM mode, we have built a retracker that processes near-real-time (FDM: Fast Delivery Mode) and Level 1-B data at 20 Hz to yield wind speed, wave height, and sea surface height anomaly. These data are being fed to NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Prediction. The retracking also estimates the off-nadir mispointing angle of the satellite. After accounting for an effect due to orbit height variations, we find that the off-nadir angle estimates are sufficiently accurate that we have used them to calibrate biases in the pitch and roll of the spacecraft platform reported by the platform attitude control system. These biases account for mis-alignment between the star tracker bench and the antenna boresight. We have Full Bit Rate (FBR) data in SAR mode for some ocean passes, including portions crossing coastlines, both from ocean to land and from land to ocean. FBR data includes all the raw I and Q samples of the raw radar echoes, prior to the range FFT that deramps the chirp, or the azimuth FFT that initiates the delay-Doppler SAR focusing calculation. We are currently working on these data with several applications in mind: (1) We can use these data to trace exactly what happens as the instrument crosses a coastline. (2) We can use these data to derive a LRM (conventional) waveform as well as a SAR waveform, and can compare the performance of these two modes under the same conditions (sea state, propagation, etc.) (3) We can test a conjecture by J R

  8. A Simultaneous Analytical Method for Duplex Identification of Porcine and Horse in the Meat Products by EvaGreen based Real-time PCR

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based assay for the detection of porcine and horse meat in sausages was designed by using EvaGreen fluorescent dye. Primers were selected from mitochondrial 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes which are powerful regions for identification of horse and porcine meat. DNA from reference samples and industrial products was successfully extracted using the GIDAGEN® Multi-Fast DNA Isolation Kit. Genomes were identified based on their specific melting peaks (Mp) which are 82.5℃ and 78℃ for horse and porcine, respectively. The assay used in this study allowed the detection of as little as 0.0001% level of horse meat and 0.001% level of porcine meat in the experimental admixtures. These findings indicate that EvaGreen based duplex real-time PCR is a potentially sensitive, reliable, rapid and accurate assay for the detection of meat species adulterated with porcine and horse meats. PMID:26761852

  9. A Simultaneous Analytical Method for Duplex Identification of Porcine and Horse in the Meat Products by EvaGreen based Real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Sakalar, Ergün; Ergün, Seyma Özçirak; Akar, Emine

    2015-01-01

    A duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based assay for the detection of porcine and horse meat in sausages was designed by using EvaGreen fluorescent dye. Primers were selected from mitochondrial 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes which are powerful regions for identification of horse and porcine meat. DNA from reference samples and industrial products was successfully extracted using the GIDAGEN® Multi-Fast DNA Isolation Kit. Genomes were identified based on their specific melting peaks (Mp) which are 82.5℃ and 78℃ for horse and porcine, respectively. The assay used in this study allowed the detection of as little as 0.0001% level of horse meat and 0.001% level of porcine meat in the experimental admixtures. These findings indicate that EvaGreen based duplex real-time PCR is a potentially sensitive, reliable, rapid and accurate assay for the detection of meat species adulterated with porcine and horse meats.

  10. Modeling microbial ethanol production by E. coli under aerobic/anaerobic conditions: applicability to real postmortem cases and to postmortem blood derived microbial cultures.

    PubMed

    Boumba, Vassiliki A; Kourkoumelis, Nikolaos; Gousia, Panagiota; Economou, Vangelis; Papadopoulou, Chrissanthy; Vougiouklakis, Theodore

    2013-10-10

    The mathematical modeling of the microbial ethanol production under strict anaerobic experimental conditions for some bacterial species has been proposed by our research group as the first approximation to the quantification of the microbial ethanol production in cases where other alcohols were produced simultaneously with ethanol. The present study aims to: (i) study the microbial ethanol production by Escherichia coli under controlled aerobic/anaerobic conditions; (ii) model the correlation between the microbial produced ethanol and the other higher alcohols; and (iii) test their applicability in: (a) real postmortem cases that had positive BACs (>0.10 g/L) and co-detection of higher alcohols and 1-butanol during the original ethanol analysis and (b) postmortem blood derived microbial cultures under aerobic/anaerobic controlled experimental conditions. The statistical evaluation of the results revealed that the formulated models were presumably correlated to 1-propanol and 1-butanol which were recognized as the most significant descriptors of the modeling process. The significance of 1-propanol and 1-butanol as descriptors was so powerful that they could be used as the only independent variables to create a simple and satisfactory model. The current models showed a potential for application to estimate microbial ethanol - within an acceptable standard error - in various tested cases where ethanol and other alcohols have been produced from different microbes.

  11. DNA barcoding, species-specific PCR and real-time PCR techniques for the identification of six Tribolium pests of stored products.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Wang, Yi-Jiao; Guo, Wei; Luo, Dan; Wu, Yi; Kučerová, Zuzana; Stejskal, Václav; Opit, George; Cao, Yang; Li, Fu-Jun; Li, Zhi-Hong

    2016-06-29

    Flour beetles of the genus Tribolium Macleay (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) are important stored product pests in China and worldwide. They are often found or are intercepted in grain depots, flour mills, and entry-exit ports, etc. Traditionally, Tribolium species are identified according to the morphological characteristics of the adult. However, it is almost impossible to rapidly identify adult fragments and non-adult stages based on external morphological characteristics. Molecular techniques for the rapid and accurate identification of Tribolium species are required, particularly for pest monitoring and the quarantine of stored products pests. Here, we establish DNA barcoding, species-specific PCR, and real-time PCR techniques for the identification of six stored-product pest Tribolium species including T. castaneum, T. confusum, T. destructor, T. madens, T. freemani and T. brevicornis. We detected the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) barcodes for Tribolium from 18 geographic populations and 101 individuals, built a Tribolium DNA barcode library, and designed species-specific primers and TaqMan probes for the above six Tribolium species. The three techniques were applied to identify Tribolium collected from stored samples and samples captured from quarantine ports. The results demonstrated that three techniques were all able to identify the six species of Tribolium both rapidly and accurately.

  12. Single-Stage Operation of Hybrid Dark-Photo Fermentation to Enhance Biohydrogen Production through Regulation of System Redox Condition: Evaluation with Real-Field Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Rashmi; Nikhil, G N; Mohan, S Venkata

    2015-04-28

    Harnessing hydrogen competently through wastewater treatment using a particular class of biocatalyst is indeed a challenging issue. Therefore, biohydrogen potential of real-field wastewater was evaluated by hybrid fermentative process in a single-stage process. The cumulative hydrogen production (CHP) was observed to be higher with distillery wastewater (271 mL) than with dairy wastewater (248 mL). Besides H₂ production, the hybrid process was found to be effective in wastewater treatment. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was found higher in distillery wastewater (56%) than in dairy wastewater (45%). Co-culturing photo-bacterial flora assisted in removal of volatile fatty acids (VFA) wherein 63% in distillery wastewater and 68% in case of dairy wastewater. Voltammograms illustrated dominant reduction current and low cathodic Tafel slopes supported H₂ production. Overall, the augmented dark-photo fermentation system (ADPFS) showed better performance than the control dark fermentation system (DFS). This kind of holistic approach is explicitly viable for practical scale-up operation.

  13. Single-Stage Operation of Hybrid Dark-Photo Fermentation to Enhance Biohydrogen Production through Regulation of System Redox Condition: Evaluation with Real-Field Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Rashmi; Nikhil, G. N.; Mohan, S. Venkata

    2015-01-01

    Harnessing hydrogen competently through wastewater treatment using a particular class of biocatalyst is indeed a challenging issue. Therefore, biohydrogen potential of real-field wastewater was evaluated by hybrid fermentative process in a single-stage process. The cumulative hydrogen production (CHP) was observed to be higher with distillery wastewater (271 mL) than with dairy wastewater (248 mL). Besides H2 production, the hybrid process was found to be effective in wastewater treatment. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was found higher in distillery wastewater (56%) than in dairy wastewater (45%). Co-culturing photo-bacterial flora assisted in removal of volatile fatty acids (VFA) wherein 63% in distillery wastewater and 68% in case of dairy wastewater. Voltammograms illustrated dominant reduction current and low cathodic Tafel slopes supported H2 production. Overall, the augmented dark-photo fermentation system (ADPFS) showed better performance than the control dark fermentation system (DFS). This kind of holistic approach is explicitly viable for practical scale-up operation. PMID:25927577

  14. DNA barcoding, species-specific PCR and real-time PCR techniques for the identification of six Tribolium pests of stored products

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Wang, Yi-Jiao; Guo, Wei; Luo, Dan; Wu, Yi; Kučerová, Zuzana; Stejskal, Václav; Opit, George; Cao, Yang; Li, Fu-Jun; Li, Zhi-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Flour beetles of the genus Tribolium Macleay (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) are important stored product pests in China and worldwide. They are often found or are intercepted in grain depots, flour mills, and entry-exit ports, etc. Traditionally, Tribolium species are identified according to the morphological characteristics of the adult. However, it is almost impossible to rapidly identify adult fragments and non-adult stages based on external morphological characteristics. Molecular techniques for the rapid and accurate identification of Tribolium species are required, particularly for pest monitoring and the quarantine of stored products pests. Here, we establish DNA barcoding, species-specific PCR, and real-time PCR techniques for the identification of six stored-product pest Tribolium species including T. castaneum, T. confusum, T. destructor, T. madens, T. freemani and T. brevicornis. We detected the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) barcodes for Tribolium from 18 geographic populations and 101 individuals, built a Tribolium DNA barcode library, and designed species-specific primers and TaqMan probes for the above six Tribolium species. The three techniques were applied to identify Tribolium collected from stored samples and samples captured from quarantine ports. The results demonstrated that three techniques were all able to identify the six species of Tribolium both rapidly and accurately. PMID:27352804

  15. Oil palm waste and synthetic zeolite: an alternative soil-less growth substrate for lettuce production as a waste management practice.

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, Guttila Y; Tokashiki, Yoshihiro; Kitou, Makato; Kinjo, Kazutoshi

    2008-12-01

    A study was conducted to assess the characteristics and the prospective utilization of oil palm waste (OP) and synthetic zeolite (SZ) developed by coal fly ash, as an alternative substrate to peat and commercial perlite for lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) production. The SZ, OP, sphagnum peat (PE), perlite (PL) and two different SZ-OP mixtures (v/v) at the ratio of 1 : 3 and 1 : 10 were utilized as the substrates under this study. The substrates formulated by mixing SZ with OP at the ratio of 1 : 3 and 1 : 10 showed improved substrate physical and chemical properties such as air space, bulk density, particle density, water-holding capacity, pH and electrical conductivity (EC), which were in the ideal substrate range when compared with PL. Furthermore, the water-holding capacity of the substrate having a 1 : 10 mixing ratio of SZ with OP was higher than that of the PL by 28.23%, whereas the bulk density was lower than that of PL by 35%. A greenhouse experiment was carried out to assess the influence of the substrates on the growth and development of lettuce. The shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, root fresh weight, root dry weight and number of leaves per plant of the lettuce grown in the 1 : 10 mixing ratio of SZ and OP were the highest, which showed increased values compared with that of PL by 11.56, 9.77, 3.48, 17.35 and 16.53%, respectively. The shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, root fresh weight, root dry weight and number of leaves per plant of the lettuce grown in the 1 : 10 mixing ratio of SZ and OP showed increased percentages compared with that of PE by 12.12, 11.37, 3.74, 23.66 and 17.50%, respectively. In addition, the growth and yield parameters of lettuce grown in the 1 : 3 mixing ratio and the OP did not show any significant difference with PL and PE but differed from the 1 : 10 mixing ratio. The results of the study suggest that the SZ-OP-based substrates and OP can be successfully utilized as alternatives to the commercial perlite and to

  16. Environmentally conscious alternative energy production

    SciTech Connect

    Kutz, M.

    2007-09-15

    This fourth volume of the series describes and compares the environmental and economic impacts of renewable and conventional power generation technologies. Chapter heading are: Economic comparisons of power generation technologies (Todd Nemec); Solar energy applications (Jan F. Kreider); Fuel cells (Matthew W. Mench); Geothermal resources and technology: an introduction (Peter D. Blair); Wind power generation (Todd Nemec); Cogeneration (Jerald Caton); Hydrogen energy (Elias K. Stefanakos, Yogi Goswami, S.S. Srinivasan, and J.T. Wolan); Clean power generation from coal (Prabir Basu and James Butler); and Using waste heat from power plants (Herbert A. Ingley). The chapter on clean coal power generation from coal has been abstracted separately on the Coal Abstracts database. 2 apps.

  17. Alternative Geothermal Power Production Scenarios

    DOE Data Explorer

    Sullivan, John

    2014-03-14

    The information given in this file pertains to Argonne LCAs of the plant cycle stage for a set of ten new geothermal scenario pairs, each comprised of a reference and improved case. These analyses were conducted to compare environmental performances among the scenarios and cases. The types of plants evaluated are hydrothermal binary and flash and Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) binary and flash plants. Each scenario pair was developed by the LCOE group using GETEM as a way to identify plant operational and resource combinations that could reduce geothermal power plant LCOE values. Based on the specified plant and well field characteristics (plant type, capacity, capacity factor and lifetime, and well numbers and depths) for each case of each pair, Argonne generated a corresponding set of material to power ratios (MPRs) and greenhouse gas and fossil energy ratios.

  18. Opportunities for Alternative Fuels Production

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-05

    biomass, carbon dioxide capture and sequestration must be implemented. The biomass must also be produced in a sustainable manner. If this is achieved...both direct and indirect expenditures on energy, each $10 increase in the price of world oil costs the average U.S. household over $550 per year...All oil consumers are vulnerable to increased payments for oil when oil exporters are able to reduce supplies on the world oil market. Most serious

  19. Detection of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin production genes from patient samples using an automated extraction platform and multiplex real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Chiefari, Amy K; Perry, Michael J; Kelly-Cirino, Cassandra; Egan, Christina T

    2015-12-01

    To minimize specimen volume, handling and testing time, we have developed two TaqMan(®) multiplex real-time PCR (rtPCR) assays to detect staphylococcal enterotoxins A-E and Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin production genes directly from clinical patient stool specimens utilizing a novel lysis extraction process in parallel with the Roche MagNA Pure Compact. These assays are specific, sensitive and reliable for the detection of the staphylococcal enterotoxin encoding genes and the tst1 gene from known toxin producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Specificity was determined by testing a total of 47 microorganism strains, including 8 previously characterized staphylococcal enterotoxin producing strains against each rtPCR target. Sensitivity for these assays range from 1 to 25 cfu per rtPCR reaction for cultured isolates and 8-20 cfu per rtPCR for the clinical stool matrix.

  20. Consequences of the ban of by-products from terrestrial animals in livestock feeding in Germany and the European Union: alternatives, nutrient and energy cycles, plant production, and economic aspects.

    PubMed

    Rodehutscord, M; Abel, H J; Friedt, W; Wenk, C; Flachowsky, G; Ahlgrimm, H J; Johnke, B; Kühl, R; Breves, G

    2002-04-01

    Consequences of the ban of meat and bone meal (MBM) and animal fat with regard to livestock feeding, cropping, ecology and economy where investigated with an inter-disciplinary approach for Germany and the European Union. Calculations were made for different production systems with pigs and poultry on the basis of statistical data for the production and for the feed markets as well as from requirement data for the respective species and production system. (1.) The ban of MBM from feeding caused a need for alternative protein sources. If all the amount of protein from MBM is to be replaced by soybean meal, in Germany and the EU about 0.30 and 2.30 x 10(6) t would be needed each year (supplementary amino acids not considered). Alternatively, doubling the grain legume acreage in Germany to about 420,000 ha would supply a similar amount of protein. A wider application of phase feeding with adjusted dietary amino acid concentrations, however, would allow for saving protein to an extent which is similar to the amount of protein that was contributed by MBM in recent years. Thus, the ban is a minor problem in terms of ensuring amino acid supply. (2.) However, alternative plant ingredients cannot compensate for the gap in P supply that is caused by the ban. An additional demand for inorganic feed phosphates of about 14,000 and 110,000 t per year is given in Germany and the EU, respectively. So far, this gap is filled almost completely by increased mining of rock phosphates. Alternatively, a general application of microbial phytase to all diets would largely fill this gap. Until the ban, MBM contributed to 57% of the supplementation of P that was needed for pigs and poultry. The ban of MBM makes large amounts of P irreversibly disappearing from the food chain. (3.) Energy from slaughter offal and cadavers can be utilized in different technologies, in the course of which the efficiency of energy utilisation depends on the technology applied. It is efficient in the cement work